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Sample records for ag ion implantation

  1. Observations of Ag diffusion in ion implanted SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Leng, Bin; Sridharan, Kumar; Hunter, Jerry L.; Giordani, Andrew J.; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-06-01

    The nature and magnitude of Ag diffusion in SiC has been a topic of interest in connection with the performance of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Ion implantation diffusion couples have been revisited to continue developing a more complete understanding of Ag fission product diffusion in SiC. Ion implantation diffusion couples fabricated from single crystal 4H-SiC and polycrystalline 3C-SiC substrates and exposed to 1500-1625 °C, were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The high dynamic range of SIMS allowed for multiple diffusion régimes to be investigated, including enhanced diffusion by implantation-induced defects and grain boundary (GB) diffusion in undamaged SiC. Estimated diffusion coefficients suggest GB diffusion in bulk SiC does not properly describe the release observed from TRISO fuel.

  2. Observations of Ag diffusion in ion implanted SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Leng, Bin; Sridharan, Kumar; Jerry L. Hunter, Jr.; Giordani, Andrew J.; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-17

    The nature and magnitude of Ag diffusion in SiC has been a topic of interest in connection with the performance of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Ion implantation diffusion couples have been revisited to continue developing a more complete understanding of Ag fission product diffusion in SiC. Ion implantation diffusion couples fabricated from single crystal 4H-SiC and polycrystalline 3C-SiC substrates and exposed to 1500–1625°C, were investigated in this study by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The high dynamic range of SIMS allowed for multiple diffusion régimes to be investigated, including enhanced diffusion by implantation-induced defects and grain boundary (GB) diffusion in undamaged SiC. Lastly, estimated diffusion coefficients suggest GB diffusion in bulk SiC does not properly describe the release observed from TRISO fuel.

  3. The Effect of Ag and Ag+N Ion Implantation on Cell Attachment Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Urkac, Emel Sokullu; Oztarhan, Ahmet; Gurhan, Ismet Deliloglu; Iz, Sultan Gulce; Tihminlioglu, Funda; Oks, Efim; Nikolaev, Alexey; Ila, Daryush

    2009-03-10

    Implanted biomedical prosthetic devices are intended to perform safely, reliably and effectively in the human body thus the materials used for orthopedic devices should have good biocompatibility. Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene (UHMWPE) has been commonly used for total hip joint replacement because of its very good properties. In this work, UHMWPE samples were Ag and Ag+N ion implanted by using the Metal-Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implantation technique. Samples were implanted with a fluency of 1017 ion/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used for surface studies. RBS showed the presence of Ag and N on the surface. Cell attachment properties investigated with model cell lines (L929 mouse fibroblasts) to demonstrate that the effect of Ag and Ag+N ion implantation can favorably influence the surface of UHMWPE for biomedical applications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to demonstrate the cell attachment on the surface. Study has shown that Ag+N ion implantation represents more effective cell attachment properties on the UHMWPE surfaces.

  4. The Effect of Ag and Ag+N Ion Implantation on Cell Attachment Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urkac, Emel Sokullu; Oztarhan, Ahmet; Tihminlioglu, Funda; Gurhan, Ismet Deliloglu; Iz, Sultan Gulce; Oks, Efim; Nikolaev, Alexey; Ila, Daryush

    2009-03-01

    Implanted biomedical prosthetic devices are intended to perform safely, reliably and effectively in the human body thus the materials used for orthopedic devices should have good biocompatibility. Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene (UHMWPE) has been commonly used for total hip joint replacement because of its very good properties. In this work, UHMWPE samples were Ag and Ag+N ion implanted by using the Metal-Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implantation technique. Samples were implanted with a fluency of 1017 ion/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used for surface studies. RBS showed the presence of Ag and N on the surface. Cell attachment properties investigated with model cell lines (L929 mouse fibroblasts) to demonstrate that the effect of Ag and Ag+N ion implantation can favorably influence the surface of UHMWPE for biomedical applications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to demonstrate the cell attachment on the surface. Study has shown that Ag+N ion implantation represents more effective cell attachment properties on the UHMWPE surfaces.

  5. Observations of Ag diffusion in ion implanted SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Leng, Bin; Sridharan, Kumar; Jerry L. Hunter, Jr.; Giordani, Andrew J.; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-17

    The nature and magnitude of Ag diffusion in SiC has been a topic of interest in connection with the performance of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Ion implantation diffusion couples have been revisited to continue developing a more complete understanding of Ag fission product diffusion in SiC. Ion implantation diffusion couples fabricated from single crystal 4H-SiC and polycrystalline 3C-SiC substrates and exposed to 1500–1625°C, were investigated in this study by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The high dynamic range of SIMS allowed for multiple diffusion régimes to be investigated,more » including enhanced diffusion by implantation-induced defects and grain boundary (GB) diffusion in undamaged SiC. Lastly, estimated diffusion coefficients suggest GB diffusion in bulk SiC does not properly describe the release observed from TRISO fuel.« less

  6. Fabrication of highly homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Ag ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenqing; Xiao, Xiangheng; Dai, Zhigao; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Li; Mei, Fei; Zhang, Xingang; Jiang, Changzhong

    2016-06-01

    In recent times, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has attracted attention for its excellent potential application in chemical and biological detection. In this work, we demonstrate that a highly homogeneous SERS substrate can be realized by Ag ion implantation and the subsequent annealing process. Both the implantation and annealing parameters have been optimized for a high sensitivity SERS substrate. The SERS measurement indicates that a sample implanted by 20 kV Ag ions with a dosage of 3  ×  1016 ions cm-2 exhibits the highest SERS activity. In addition, the SERS activity of the Ag-implanted substrates depends highly on the annealing temperature and time. Since none of the fabrication processes contain chemical reactions, our substrate is a clean system without any chemical residues.

  7. Nucleation and Growth of Bubbles in He Ion Implanted V/Ag Multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Q. M.; Wang, Y. Q.; Nastasi, Michael; Misra, A.

    2011-11-18

    Microstructures of He ion-implanted pure Ag, pure V and polycrystalline V/Ag multilayers with individual layer thickness ranging from 1 nm to 50 nm were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bubbles in the Ag layer were faceted and larger than the non-faceted bubbles in the V layer under the same implantation conditions for both pure metals and multilayers. The substantially higher single defects surviving the spike phase and lower mobility of trapped He in bcc than those in fcc could account for this difference. For multilayers, the bubbles nucleate at interfaces but grow preferentially in Ag layers due to high mobility of trapped He in fcc Ag. In addition, the He concentration above which bubbles can be detected in defocused TEM images increases with decreasing layer thickness, from 0 for pure Ag to 4–5 at. % for 1 nm V/1 nm Ag multilayers. In contrast, the bubble size decreases with decreasing layer thickness, from approximately 4 nm in diameter in pure Ag to 1 nm in the 1 nm V/1 nm Ag multilayers. Elongated bubbles confined in the Ag layer by the V–Ag interfaces were observed in 1 nm multilayers. These observations show that bubble nucleation and growth can be suppressed to high He concentrations in nanoscale composites with interfaces that have high He solubility.

  8. Absorption in the visible region of YSZ implanted with Ag ions.

    PubMed

    Saito; Imamura; Kitahara

    2000-12-30

    Ag ions were implanted into YSZ (yttrium-stabilized (cubic) zirconia) single crystals in two different energy regimes: kiloelectron volt and megaelectron volt. Optical absorption spectra were measured in the visible region at each stage in the annealing process of the sample. Depth profiles of Ag for the samples implanted at the energy of 20 keV were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the samples implanted with Ag at the low energy of 20 keV, one large absorption peak appeared in the wavelength ranging from 470 to 536 nm, depending on the dose of Ag ions. As the sample was heated to 1000 degrees C, the intensity of the absorption peak decreased gradually, but a small, broad peak remains even at the temperature of 1000 degrees C. For the samples implanted with 2.8x10(16) Ag ion cm(-2) at the high energy of 3 MeV, one broad absorption peak was observed at around 470 nm. As the sample was heated sequentially to high temperatures, the peak gradually decreased and almost disappeared at 400 degrees C. When the sample was further heated to even higher temperatures, the absorption peak at 514 nm reappeared at 1000 degrees C and grew with heating time.

  9. Synergistic effects of dual Zn/Ag ion implantation in osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability of titanium.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guodong; Qin, Hui; Cao, Huiliang; Qian, Shi; Zhao, Yaochao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2014-09-01

    Zinc (Zn) and silver (Ag) are co-implanted into titanium by plasma immersion ion implantation. A Zn containing film with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) possessing a wide size distribution is formed on the surface and the corrosion resistance is improved due to the micro-galvanic couples formed by the implanted Zn and Ag. Not only are the initial adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs observed from the Zn/Ag implanted Ti in vitro, but also bacteria killing is achieved both in vitro and in vivo. Electrochemical polarization and ion release measurements suggest that the excellent osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability of the Zn/Ag co-implanted titanium are related to the synergistic effect resulting from the long-range interactions of the released Zn ions and short-range interactions of the embedded Ag NPs. The Zn/Ag co-implanted titanium offers both excellent osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability and has large potential in orthopedic and dental implants. PMID:24947228

  10. Synergistic effects of dual Zn/Ag ion implantation in osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability of titanium.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guodong; Qin, Hui; Cao, Huiliang; Qian, Shi; Zhao, Yaochao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2014-09-01

    Zinc (Zn) and silver (Ag) are co-implanted into titanium by plasma immersion ion implantation. A Zn containing film with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) possessing a wide size distribution is formed on the surface and the corrosion resistance is improved due to the micro-galvanic couples formed by the implanted Zn and Ag. Not only are the initial adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs observed from the Zn/Ag implanted Ti in vitro, but also bacteria killing is achieved both in vitro and in vivo. Electrochemical polarization and ion release measurements suggest that the excellent osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability of the Zn/Ag co-implanted titanium are related to the synergistic effect resulting from the long-range interactions of the released Zn ions and short-range interactions of the embedded Ag NPs. The Zn/Ag co-implanted titanium offers both excellent osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability and has large potential in orthopedic and dental implants.

  11. Ferromagnetism in 200-MeV Ag{sup +15}-ion-irradiated Co-implanted ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Angadi, Basavaraj; Jung, Y.S.; Choi, Won-Kook; Kumar, Ravi; Jeong, K.; Shin, S.W.; Lee, J.H.; Song, J.H.; Wasi Khan, M.; Srivastava, J.P.

    2006-04-03

    Structural, electrical resistivity, and magnetization properties of 200-MeV Ag{sup +15}-ion-irradiated Co-implanted ZnO thin films are presented. The structural studies show the presence of Co clusters whose size is found to increase with increase of Co implantation. The implanted films were irradiated with 200-MeV Ag{sup +15} ions to fluence of 1x10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The Co clusters on irradiation dissolve in the ZnO matrix. The electrical resistivity of the irradiated samples is lowered to half. The magnetization hysteresis measurements show ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K, and the coercive field increases with the Co implantation. The ferromagnetism at room temperature is confirmed by magnetic force microscopy measurements. The results are explained on the basis of the close interplay between the electrical and the magnetic properties.

  12. Surface topographical and structural analysis of Ag+-implanted polymethylmethacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Shafaq; Rafique, M. Shahid; Saleemi, Farhat; Naab, Fabian; Toader, Ovidiu; Sagheer, Riffat; Bashir, Shazia; Zia, Rehana; Siraj, Khurram; Iqbal, Saman

    2016-08-01

    Specimens of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were implanted with 400-keV Ag+ ions at different ion fluences ranging from 1 × 1014 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2 using a 400-kV NEC ion implanter. The surface topographical features of the implanted PMMA were investigated by a confocal microscope. Modifications in the structural properties of the implanted specimens were analyzed in comparison with pristine PMMA by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. UV-Visible spectroscopy was applied to determine the effects of ion implantation on optical transmittance of the implanted PMMA. The confocal microscopic images revealed the formation of hillock-like microstructures along the ion track on the implanted PMMA surface. The increase in ion fluence led to more nucleation of hillocks. The XRD pattern confirmed the amorphous nature of pristine and implanted PMMA, while the Raman studies justified the transformation of Ag+-implanted PMMA into amorphous carbon at the ion fluence of ⩾5 × 1014 ions/cm2. Moreover, the decrease in optical transmittance of PMMA is associated with the formation of hillocks and ion-induced structural modifications after implantation.

  13. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-10-08

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes. 6 figs.

  14. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes.

  15. Ion implantation in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintersgill, M. C.

    1984-02-01

    An introductory overview will be given of the effects of ion implantation on polymers, and certain areas will be examined in more detail. Radiation effects in general and ion implantation in particular, in the field of polymers, present a number of contrasts with those in ionic crystals, the most obvious difference being that the chemical effects of both the implanted species and the energy transfer to the host may profoundly change the nature of the target material. Common effects include crosslinking and scission of polymer chains, gas evolution, double bond formation and the formation of additional free radicals. Research has spanned the chemical processes involved, including polymerization reactions achievable only with the use of radiation, to applied research dealing both with the effects of radiation on polymers already in commercial use and the tailoring of new materials to specific applications. Polymers are commonly divided into two groups, in describing their behavior under irradiation. Group I includes materials which form crosslinks between molecules, whereas Group II materials tend to degrade. In basic research, interest has centered on Group I materials and of these polyethylene has been studied most intensively. Applied materials research has investigated a variety of polymers, particularly those used in cable insulation, and those utilized in ion beam lithography of etch masks. Currently there is also great interest in enhancing the conducting properties of polymers, and these uses would tend to involve the doping capabilities of ion implantation, rather than the energy deposition.

  16. Ion implantation in silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, G.W.

    1993-12-01

    This review examines the effects of ion implantation on the physical properties of silicate glasses, the compositional modifications that can be brought about, and the use of metal implants to form colloidal nanosize particles for increasing the nonlinear refractive index.

  17. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at 7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at 6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing `only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around 2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  18. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  19. Ion implantation at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Leaf, G.K.

    1985-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering on the spatial redistribution of implanted solutes during implantation at elevated temperatures. Sample calculations were performed for Al and Si ions implanted into Ni. With the present model, the influence of various implantation parameters on the evolution of implant concentration profiles could be examined in detail.

  20. Ion sources for use in ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Nicholas R.

    1989-02-01

    This paper reviews high current ion sources suitable for commercial use. Although the production of high currents of a variety of ions is a vital consideration, this paper focuses on other aspects of ion source performance. The modern ion implanter is a major item of expensive capital equipment, with the ion source being its least reliable component. So, the most critical issues today are reliability and lifetime, as well as safety, flexibility, and ease of service. The Freeman ion source has clearly dominated the field, yet a number of alternative sources have found commercial acceptance, including microwave sources. Factors affecting the ultimate usefulness of various sources in different implantation applications are discussed.

  1. Annealing behaviour of c-SiO 2 implanted layer distributed with high density Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengxin; Wang, Honghong

    1997-01-01

    High volume density Ag nanoparticles embedded in c-SiO 2 matrix have been prepared by Ag ion implantation at an energy of 200 keV and a current density of about 20 μA/cm 2 to a nominal dose of 6.7 × 10 16ions/cm 2 at RT. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image indicates that Ag nanoparticles show two groups of sizes: the larger diameter is about 25 nm and the smaller is less than 10 nm. RBS spectra show that the distribution of implanted Ag atoms is bimodal which is associated with the two groups of nanoparticles above. Thermal stability of the implanted layer which consists of Ag nanoparticles, dissolved Ag atoms and c-SiO 2 matrix has been investigated by RBS, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. RBS spectra prove that little migration of Ag atoms is found and Ag nanoparticles are considerably stable at 300°C annealing. Though the obvious change in the distribution of Ag is observed at 400°C annealing in RBS spectra, TEM image identifies that both the larger and the smaller Ag nanoparticles still exist at relatively stable state. Following 750°C annealing, Ag atoms drastically move, and furthermore, the bimodal character of the distribution disappears. On the other hand, the amorphized SiO 2 implanted layer recrystal after 300°C, 400°C annealing.

  2. Formation of CuCl and AgCl nanoclusters by sequential implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahiro, Katsumi; Kawatsura, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shinji; Yamamoto, Shunya; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Sasase, Masato; Ito, Yoshifumi

    2003-05-01

    Copper chloride (CuCl) and silver chloride (AgCl) nanoclusters are successfully formed by sequential implantation. Chlorine ions were firstly implanted into Al 2O 3 substrates to doses of the order 10 17/cm 2, and copper or silver ions were implanted subsequently. The energies of Cl + (140 keV), Cu + (240 keV) and Ag + (360 keV) ions were chosen to produce overlapping concentration profiles in the matrix. It was found that CuCl and AgCl crystallites with 7-35 nm in diameter were formed without any thermal treatments subsequent to ion implantation. The optical absorption measurement reveals confinement of excitons in the CuCl nanoclusters.

  3. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shigeki Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  4. Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shichong; Cao, Huiliang; Zhao, Xu; Lo, Hueiwen; Zhuang, Longfei; Gu, Yingxin; Shi, Junyu; Liu, Xuanyong; Lai, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5-25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance

  5. High-intensity laser for Ta and Ag implantation into different substrates for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutroneo, M.; Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Matousek, J.; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, J.

    2015-07-01

    High-intensity lasers generating non-equilibrium plasma, can be employed to accelerate ions in the keV-MeV region, useful for many applications. In the present work, we performed study of ion implantation into different substrates by using a high-intensity laser at the PALS laboratory in Prague. Multi-energy ions generated by plasma from Ta and Ag targets were implanted into polyethylene and metallic substrates (Al, Ti) at energies of tens of keV per charge state. The ion emission was monitored online using time-of-flight detectors and electromagnetic deflection systems. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to characterise the elemental composition in the implanted substrates by ion plasma emission and to provide the implanted ion depth profiling. These last measurements enable offline plasma characterisation and provide information on the useful potentiality of multi-ion species and multi-energy ion implantation into different substrates. XPS analysis gives information on the chemical bonds and their modifications in the first superficial implanted layers. The depth distributions of implanted Ta and Ag ions were compared with the theoretical ones achieved by using the SRIM-2012 simulation code.

  6. Ion implanted dielectric elastomer circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Rosset, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A.; Shea, Herbert R.

    2013-06-01

    Starfish and octopuses control their infinite degree-of-freedom arms with panache—capabilities typical of nature where the distribution of reflex-like intelligence throughout soft muscular networks greatly outperforms anything hard, heavy, and man-made. Dielectric elastomer actuators show great promise for soft artificial muscle networks. One way to make them smart is with piezo-resistive Dielectric Elastomer Switches (DES) that can be combined with artificial muscles to create arbitrary digital logic circuits. Unfortunately there are currently no reliable materials or fabrication process. Thus devices typically fail within a few thousand cycles. As a first step in the search for better materials we present a preliminary exploration of piezo-resistors made with filtered cathodic vacuum arc metal ion implantation. DES were formed on polydimethylsiloxane silicone membranes out of ion implanted gold nano-clusters. We propose that there are four distinct regimes (high dose, above percolation, on percolation, low dose) in which gold ion implanted piezo-resistors can operate and present experimental results on implanted piezo-resistors switching high voltages as well as a simple artificial muscle inverter. While gold ion implanted DES are limited by high hysteresis and low sensitivity, they already show promise for a range of applications including hysteretic oscillators and soft generators. With improvements to implanter process control the promise of artificial muscle circuitry for soft smart actuator networks could become a reality.

  7. The effect of Ni pre-implantation on surface morphology and optical absorption properties of Ag nanoparticles embedded in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanyan; Qi, Ting; Qiao, Yu; Yu, Shengwang; Hei, Hongjun; He, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    The effect of Ni ion fluence on Ag nucleation and particle growth was investigated by sequentially implantation of 60 keV Ni ions at fluences of 1 × 1016, 5 × 1016, 1 × 1017 ions/cm2 and 70 keV Ag ions at a fluence of 5 × 1016 ions/cm2. Due to the modification of the deposition and accumulation process of Ag implants caused by Ni pre-implantation, the surface morphology, structures, and optical absorption properties of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs) depends strongly on the Ni fluences. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy study showed that the introducing of Ni atoms lead to intensity decrease in the Ag SPR band. Remarkable local concentration increase of Ag profiles appeared for the sample pre-implanted by Ni ions of 5.0 × 1016 ions/cm2. In particular, the AgNi alloy NPs with dual absorption peaks centered at 406 nm and 563 nm have been formed after 600 °C annealing in Ar atmosphere. However, at a low fluence of 1.0 × 1016 ions/cm2, only small increase of the local Ag concentration than the Ag ions singly implanted sample can be observed. At a high fluence of 1.0 × 1017 ions/cm2, lots Ag atoms are trapped close to the surface, which result in heavy sputtering loss of Ag atoms and the sublimation of Ag atoms after 600 °C annealing.

  8. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material.

  9. Contamination Control in Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, R.; Doi, D.; Santos, I.; Wriggins, W.

    2011-01-07

    The investigation and elimination or control of metallic contamination in ion implanters has been a leading, continuous effort at implanter OEMs and in fabs/IDMs alike. Much of the efforts have been in the area of control of sputtering through material and geometry changes in apertures, beamline and target chamber components. In this paper, we will focus on an area that has not, heretofore, been fully investigated or controlled. This is the area of lubricants and internal and external support material such as selected cleaning media. Some of these materials are designated for internal use (beamline/vacuum) only while others are for internal and/or external use. Many applications for selected greases, for example, are designated for or are used for platens, implant disks/wheels and for wafer handling components. We will present data from popular lubricants (to be unnamed) used worldwide in ion implanters. This paper will review elements of concern in many lubricants that should be tracked and monitored by all fabs.Proper understanding of the characteristics, risks and the control of these potential contaminants can provide for rapid return to full process capability following major PMs or parts changes. Using VPD-ICPMS, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography (IC) data, we will review the typical cleaning results and correlation to ''on wafer'' contamination by elements of concern--and by some elements that are otherwise barred from the fab.

  10. The biomedical properties of polyethylene terephthalate surface modified by silver ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Jianxin; Shen, Liru; Ling, Ren; Xu, Zejin; Zhao, Ansha; Leng, Yongxiang; Huang, Nan

    2007-04-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film is modified by Ag ion implantation with a fluence 1 × 1016 ions/cm2. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that silver has been successfully implanted into the surface of PET. The PET samples modified by silver ion implantation have significantly bactericidal property. The capacity of the staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) adhered on the Ag+ implanted PET surface is 5.3 × 106 CFU/ml, but the capacity of the SE adhered on the untreated PET film is 2.23 × 107 CFU/ml. The thromboembolic property is evaluated by in vitro platelet adhesion test, and there is not statistically difference between the untreated PET and the Ag+ implanted PET for the number of adhered and activated platelets. The PET implanted by silver ion has not acute toxicity to endothelial cell (EC) which was evaluated by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test.

  11. Synergistic Effects of Iodine and Silver Ions Co-Implanted in 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhudzai, Remeredzai J.; Malherbe, Johan; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Devaraj, Arun; Zhu, Zihua; Nandasiri, Manjula I.

    2015-10-23

    Motivated by the aim of understanding the release of fission products through the SiC coating of fuel kernels in modern high temperature nuclear reactors, a fundamental investigation is conducted to understand the synergistic effects of implanted silver (Ag) and iodine (I) in 6H-SiC. The implantation of the individual species, as well as the co-implantation of 360 keV ions of I and Ag at room temperature in 6H-SiC and their subsequent annealing behavior has been investigated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). SIMS and APT measurements indicated the presence of Ag in the co-implanted samples after annealing at 1500 ºC for 30 hours in sharp contrast to the samples implanted with Ag only. In samples implanted with Ag only, complete loss of the implanted Ag was observed. However, for I only implanted samples, some iodine was retained. APT of annealed co-implanted 6H-SiC showed clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters in SiC, which can be attributed to the observed I assisted retention of Ag after annealing. Such detailed studies will be necessary to identify the fundamental mechanism of fission products migration through SiC coatings.

  12. Synergistic effects of iodine and silver ions co-implanted in 6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhudzai, R. J.; Malherbe, J. B.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Devaraj, A.; Zhu, Z.; Nandasiri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the aim of understanding the release of fission products through the SiC coating of fuel kernels in modern high temperature nuclear reactors, a fundamental investigation is conducted to understand the synergistic effects of implanted silver (Ag) and iodine (I) in 6H-SiC. The implantation of the individual species, as well as the co-implantation of 360 keV ions of I and Ag at room temperature in 6H-SiC and their subsequent annealing behaviour has been investigated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). SIMS and APT measurements indicated the presence of Ag in the co-implanted samples after annealing at 1500 °C for 30 h in sharp contrast to the samples implanted with Ag only. In samples implanted with Ag only, complete loss of the implanted Ag was observed. However, for I only implanted samples, some iodine was retained. APT of annealed co-implanted 6H-SiC showed clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters in SiC, which can be attributed to the observed I assisted retention of Ag after annealing. Such detailed studies will be necessary to identify the fundamental mechanism of fission products migration through SiC coatings.

  13. SEM analysis of ion implanted SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, Johan B.; van der Berg, N. G.; Botha, A. J.; Friedland, E.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Kuhudzai, R. J.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.; Chakraborty, P.; da Silveira, E. F.

    2013-11-01

    SiC is a material used in two future energy production technologies, firstly as a photovoltaic layer to harness the UV spectrum in high efficient power solar cells, and secondly as a diffusion barrier material for radioactive fission products in the fuel elements of the next generation of nuclear power plants. For both applications, there is an interest in the implantation of reactive and non-reactive ions into SiC and their effects on the properties of the SiC. In this study 360 keV Ag+, I+ and Xe+ ions were separately implanted into 6H-SiC and in polycrystalline SiC at various substrate temperatures. The implanted samples were also annealed in vacuum at temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 1600 °C for various times. In recent years, there had been significant advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the introduction of an in-lens detector combined with field emission electron guns. This allows defects in solids, such as radiation damage created by the implanted ions, to be detected with SEM. Cross-sectional SEM images of 6H-SiC wafers implanted with 360 keV Ag+ ions at room temperature and at 600 °C and then vacuum annealed at different temperatures revealed the implanted layers and their thicknesses. A similar result is shown of 360 keV I+ ions implanted at 600 °C into 6H-SiC and annealed at 1600 °C. The 6H-SiC is not amorphized but remained crystalline when implanting at 600 °C. There are differences in the microstructure of 6H-SiC implanted with silver at the two temperatures as well as with reactive iodine ions. Voids (bubbles) are created in the implanted layers into which the precipitation of silver and iodine can occur after annealing of the samples. The crystallinity of the substrate via implantation temperature caused differences in the distribution and size of the voids. Implantation of xenon ions in polycrystalline SiC at 350 °C does not amorphize the substrate as is the case with room temperature heavy ion bombardment. Subsequent

  14. Controlled ion implant damage profile for etching

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., George W.; Ashby, Carol I. H.; Brannon, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for etching a material such as LiNbO.sub.3 by implanting ions having a plurality of different kinetic energies in an area to be etched, and then contacting the ion implanted area with an etchant. The various energies of the ions are selected to produce implant damage substantially uniformly throughout the entire depth of the zone to be etched, thus tailoring the vertical profile of the damaged zone.

  15. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-09-24

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted. 16 figs.

  16. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted.

  17. Ion implantation and laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Three ion implantation and laser annealing projects have been performed by ORNL through the DOE sponsored Seed Money Program. The research has contributed toward improving the characteristics of wear, hardness, and corrosion resistance of some metals and ceramics, as well as the electrical properties of semiconductors. The work has helped to spawn related research, at ORNL and elsewhere, concerning the relationships between microstructure and materials properties. ORNL research has resulted in major advances in extended life and non-corrosive artificial joints (hip and knee), high performance semiconductors, failure resistant ceramics (with potential energy applications), and solar cells. The success of the seed money projects was instrumental in the formation of ORNL's Surface Modification and Characterization Facility (SMAC). More than 60 universities and companies have participated in SMAC programs.

  18. Effect of exposure environment on surface decomposition of SiC-silver ion implantation diffusion couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Zheng, Guiqiu; Field, Kevin G.; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-01-01

    SiC is a promising material for nuclear applications and is a critical component in the construction of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. A primary issue with TRISO fuel operation is the observed release of 110mAg from intact fuel particles. The release of Ag has prompted research efforts to directly measure the transport mechanism of Ag in bulk SiC. Recent experimental efforts have focused primarily on Ag ion implantation designs. The effect of the thermal exposure system on the ion implantation surface has been investigated. Results indicate the utilization of a mated sample geometry and the establishment of a static thermal exposure environment is critical to maintaining an intact surface for diffusion analysis. The nature of the implantation surface and its potential role in Ag diffusion analysis are discussed.

  19. Effect of exposure environment on surface decomposition of SiC-silver ion implantation diffusion couples

    SciTech Connect

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Zheng, Guiqui; Field, Kevin G.; Allen, Todd R.

    2014-10-05

    SiC is a promising material for nuclear applications and is a critical component in the construction of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. A primary issue with TRISO fuel operation is the observed release of 110m Ag from intact fuel particles. The release of Ag has prompted research efforts to directly measure the transport mechanism of Ag in bulk SiC. Recent research efforts have focused primarily on Ag ion implantation designs. The effect of the thermal exposure system on the ion implantation surface has been investigated. Results indicate the utilization of a mated sample geometry and the establishment of a static thermal exposure environment is critical to maintaining an intact surface for diffusion analysis. In conclusion, the nature of the implantation surface and its potential role in Ag diffusion analysis are discussed.

  20. Effect of exposure environment on surface decomposition of SiC-silver ion implantation diffusion couples

    DOE PAGES

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Zheng, Guiqui; Field, Kevin G.; Allen, Todd R.

    2014-10-05

    SiC is a promising material for nuclear applications and is a critical component in the construction of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. A primary issue with TRISO fuel operation is the observed release of 110m Ag from intact fuel particles. The release of Ag has prompted research efforts to directly measure the transport mechanism of Ag in bulk SiC. Recent research efforts have focused primarily on Ag ion implantation designs. The effect of the thermal exposure system on the ion implantation surface has been investigated. Results indicate the utilization of a mated sample geometry and the establishment of a static thermalmore » exposure environment is critical to maintaining an intact surface for diffusion analysis. In conclusion, the nature of the implantation surface and its potential role in Ag diffusion analysis are discussed.« less

  1. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Varga, Tamas; Jung, Hee Joon; Overman, Nicole R.; Zhang, Chonghong; Gou, Jie

    2015-05-16

    MAX phases (M: early transition metal; A: elements in group 13 or 14; X: C or N), such as titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2), have a unique combination of both metallic and ceramic properties, which make them attractive for potential nuclear applications. Ti3SiC2 has been considered as a possible fuel cladding material. This study reports on the diffusivities of fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal Au (with diffusion behavior similar to Ag) in this ternary compound at elevated temperatures, as well as in dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti3SiC2/3C-SiC and polycrystalline CVD 3C-SiC for behavior comparisons. Samples were implanted with Ag, Au or Cs ions and characterized with various methods, including x-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, helium ion microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that in contrast to immobile Ag in 3C-SiC, there is a significant outward diffusion of Ag in Ti3SiC2 within the dual-phase nanocomposite during Ag ion implantation at 873 K. Similar behavior of Au in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 was also observed. Cs out-diffusion and release from Ti3SiC2 occurred during post-implantation thermal annealing at 973 K. This study suggests caution and further studies in consideration of Ti3SiC2 as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures.

  2. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Varga, Tamas; Jung, Hee Joon; Overman, Nicole R.; Zhang, Chonghong; Gou, Jie

    2015-07-01

    MAX phases (M: early transition metal; A: elements in group 13 or 14; X: C or N), such as titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2), have a unique combination of both metallic and ceramic properties, which make them attractive for potential nuclear applications. Ti3SiC2 has been considered as a possible fuel cladding material. This study reports on the diffusivities of fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal Au (with diffusion behavior similar to Ag) in this ternary compound at elevated temperatures, as well as in dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti3SiC2/3C-SiC and polycrystalline CVD 3C-SiC for behavior comparisons. Samples were implanted with Ag, Au or Cs ions and characterized with various methods, including X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, helium ion microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that in contrast to immobile Ag in 3C-SiC, there is a significant outward diffusion of Ag in Ti3SiC2 within the dual-phase nanocomposite during Ag ion implantation at 873 K. Similar behavior of Au in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 was also observed. Cs out-diffusion and release from Ti3SiC2 occurred during post-implantation thermal annealing at 973 K. This study suggests caution and further studies in consideration of Ti3SiC2 as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures.

  3. Ion Implantation with Scanning Probe Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Liddle, J.A.; Schenkel, T.; Bokor, J.; Ivanov, Tzv.; Rangelow, I.W.

    2005-07-12

    We describe a scanning probe instrument which integrates ion beams with the imaging and alignment function of a piezo-resistive scanning probe in high vacuum. The beam passes through several apertures and is finally collimated by a hole in the cantilever of the scanning probe. The ion beam spot size is limited by the size of the last aperture. Highly charged ions are used to show hits of single ions in resist, and we discuss the issues for implantation of single ions.

  4. Damage formation in SiC ion implanted at 625 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, E.; Schöppe, Ph.; Bierschenk, Th.; Milz, St.; Wesch, W.; van der Berg, N. G.; Friedland, E.; Malherbe, J. B.

    2012-09-01

    Damage formation in 4H-SiC during ion implantation at 625 K is studied applying Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in channeling configuration. For comparison two selected samples are analyzed by cross section transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results for dual implantation of the self-ions Si and C are compared with those obtained for Ag ion implantation. It is found that the evolution of damage as a function of the number of displacements per lattice atom proceeds in two steps and is almost independent of the ion species implanted. The second significant increase of the damage concentration starts obviously when the relative volume increase introduced by the implanted ions exceeds a critical value of about 6 × 10-3. The damage produced at high ion fluences consists of point defect clusters, and probably, extended defects.

  5. Optimization of the ion implantation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maczka, D.; Latuszynski, A.; Kuduk, R.; Partyka, J.

    This work is devoted to the optimization of the ion implantation process in the implanter Unimas of the Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin. The results obtained during several years of operation allow us to determine the optimal work parameters of the device [1-3].

  6. Application of ion implantation to electrochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vallet, C.E.; White, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The application of ion implantation to electrochemical studies is illustrated with a study of electrocatalysis of the chlorine evolution reaction at RuO{sub 2}, IrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} mixed oxide anodes in chloride solutions. Electrode/solution interfaces of well defined catalyst composition are generated in a reproducible manner by implantation of Ru (or Ir) into Ti followed by in situ oxidation of the near surface titanium alloys. Ion implantation enables the tailoring on an atomic scale of an electrochemical interface. Analysis by Rutherford backscattering adds the ability of quantitative mechanistic study in terms of actual ion concentration at the interface. In addition, ion implantation, as a processing technique, creates new materials with improved properties which may have future practical use in catalytic materials.

  7. Key issues in plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Faehl, R.J.; Matossian, J.N.

    1996-09-01

    Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is a scaleable, non-line-of-sight method for the surface modification of materials. In this paper, we consider three important issues that should be addressed before wide-scale commercialization of PSII: (1) implant conformality; (2) ion sources; and (3) secondary electron emission. To insure uniform implanted dose over complex shapes, the ion sheath thickness must be kept sufficiently small. This criterion places demands on ion sources and pulsed-power supplies. Another limitation to date is the availability of additional ion species beyond B, C, N, and 0. Possible solutions are the use of metal arc vaporization sources and plasma discharges in high-vapor-pressure organometallic precursors. Finally, secondary electron emission presents a potential efficiency and x-ray hazard issue since for many metallurgic applications, the emission coefficient can be as large as 20. Techniques to suppress secondary electron emission are discussed.

  8. Ion implantations of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojak, S.; Simeg Veternikova, J.; Slugen, V.; Petriska, M.; Stacho, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on a study of radiation damage and thermal stability of high chromium oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA 956 (20% Cr), which belongs to the most perspective structural materials for the newest generation of nuclear reactors - Generation IV. The radiation damage was simulated by the implantation of hydrogen ions up to the depth of about 5 μm, which was performed at a linear accelerator owned by Slovak University of Technology. The ODS steel MA 956 was available for study in as-received state after different thermal treatments as well as in ions implanted state. Energy of the hydrogen ions chosen for the implantation was 800 keV and the implantation fluence of 6.24 × 1017 ions/cm2. The investigated specimens were measured by non-destructive technique Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy in order to study the defect behavior after different thermal treatments in the as-received state and after the hydrogen ions implantation. Although, different resistance to defect production was observed in individual specimens of MA 956 during the irradiation, all implanted specimens contain larger defects than the ones in as-received state.

  9. Silver migration and trapping in ion implanted ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarov, Alexander; Vines, Lasse; Rauwel, Protima; Monakhov, Edouard; Svensson, Bengt G.

    2016-05-01

    Potentially, group-Ib elements (Cu, Ag, and Au) incorporated on Zn sites can be used for p-type doping of ZnO, and in the present paper, we use ion implantation to introduce Ag atoms in wurtzite ZnO single crystals. Monitoring the Li behavior, being a residual impurity in the crystals, as a tracer, we demonstrate that Zn interstitials assist the Ag diffusion and lead to Ag pile-up behind the implanted region after annealing above 800 °C. At even higher temperatures, a pronounced Ag loss from the sample surface occurs and concurrently the Ag atoms exhibit a trap-limited diffusion into the crystal bulk with an activation energy of ˜2.6 eV. The dominant traps are most likely Zn vacancies and substitutional Li atoms, yielding substitutional Ag atoms. In addition, formation of an anomalous multipeak Ag distribution in the implanted near-surface region after annealing can be attributed to local implantation-induced stoichiometry disturbances leading to trapping of the Ag atoms by O and Zn vacancies in the vicinity of the surface and in the end-of-range region, respectively.

  10. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  11. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  12. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    PubMed

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  13. Enhanced patterning by tilted ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Wan; Zheng, Peng; Kato, Kimihiko; Rubin, Leonard; Liu, Tsu-Jae King

    2016-03-01

    Tilted ion implantation (TII) is proposed as a lower-cost alternative to self-aligned double patterning (SADP) for pitch halving. This new approach is based on an enhancement in etch rate of a hard-mask layer by implant-induced damage. Ar+ implantation into a thin layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) is shown to enhance its etch rate in dilute hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution, by up to 9× for an implant dose of 3×1014 cm-2. The formation of sub-lithographic features defined by masked tilted Ar+ implantation into a SiO2 hard-mask layer is experimentally demonstrated. Features with sizes as small as ~21 nm, self-aligned to the lithographically patterned mask, are achieved. As compared with SADP, enhanced patterning by TII requires far fewer and lower-cost process steps and hence is expected to be much more cost-effective.

  14. Ion implantation of boron in germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.S.

    1985-05-01

    Ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into room temperature Ge samples leads to a p-type layer prior to any post implant annealing steps. Variable temperature Hall measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy experiments indicate that room temperature implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into Ge results in 100% of the boron ions being electrically active as shallow acceptor, over the entire dose range (5 x 10/sup 11//cm/sup 2/ to 1 x 10/sup 14//cm/sup 2/) and energy range (25 keV to 100 keV) investigated, without any post implant annealing. The concentration of damage related acceptor centers is only 10% of the boron related, shallow acceptor center concentration for low energy implants (25 keV), but becomes dominant at high energies (100 keV) and low doses (<1 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 2/). Three damage related hole traps are produced by ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/. Two of these hole traps have also been observed in ..gamma..-irradiated Ge and may be oxygen-vacancy related defects, while the third trap may be divacancy related. All three traps anneal out at low temperatures (<300/sup 0/C). Boron, from room temperature implantation of BF/sub 2//sup +/ into Ge, is not substitutionally active prior to a post implant annealing step of 250/sup 0/C for 30 minutes. After annealing additional shallow acceptors are observed in BF/sub 2//sup +/ implanted samples which may be due to fluorine or flourine related complexes which are electrically active.

  15. More-reliable SOS ion implantations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Conducting layer prevents static charges from accumulating during implantation of silicon-on-sapphire MOS structures. Either thick conducting film or thinner film transparent to ions is deposited prior to implantation, and gaps are etched in regions to be doped. Grounding path eliminates charge flow that damages film or cracks sapphire wafer. Prevention of charge buildup by simultaneously exposing structure to opposite charges requires equipment modifications less practical and more expensive than deposition of conducting layer.

  16. Single Ion Implantation and Deterministic Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-06-11

    The presence of single atoms, e.g. dopant atoms, in sub-100 nm scale electronic devices can affect the device characteristics, such as the threshold voltage of transistors, or the sub-threshold currents. Fluctuations of the number of dopant atoms thus poses a complication for transistor scaling. In a complementary view, new opportunities emerge when novel functionality can be implemented in devices deterministically doped with single atoms. The grand price of the latter might be a large scale quantum computer, where quantum bits (qubits) are encoded e.g. in the spin states of electrons and nuclei of single dopant atoms in silicon, or in color centers in diamond. Both the possible detrimental effects of dopant fluctuations and single atom device ideas motivate the development of reliable single atom doping techniques which are the subject of this chapter. Single atom doping can be approached with top down and bottom up techniques. Top down refers to the placement of dopant atoms into a more or less structured matrix environment, like a transistor in silicon. Bottom up refers to approaches to introduce single dopant atoms during the growth of the host matrix e.g. by directed self-assembly and scanning probe assisted lithography. Bottom up approaches are discussed in Chapter XYZ. Since the late 1960's, ion implantation has been a widely used technique to introduce dopant atoms into silicon and other materials in order to modify their electronic properties. It works particularly well in silicon since the damage to the crystal lattice that is induced by ion implantation can be repaired by thermal annealing. In addition, the introduced dopant atoms can be incorporated with high efficiency into lattice position in the silicon host crystal which makes them electrically active. This is not the case for e.g. diamond, which makes ion implantation doping to engineer the electrical properties of diamond, especially for n-type doping much harder then for silicon. Ion

  17. Hybrid quantum circuit with implanted erbium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, S.; Rotzinger, H.; Tkalčec, A.; Kukharchyk, N.; Wieck, A. D.; Wünsch, S.; Siegel, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Bushev, P. A.

    2014-10-20

    We report on hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments with focused ion beam implanted Er{sup 3+} ions in Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} coupled to an array of superconducting lumped element microwave resonators. The Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal is divided into several areas with distinct erbium doping concentrations, each coupled to a separate resonator. The coupling strength is varied from 5 MHz to 18.7 MHz, while the linewidth ranges between 50 MHz and 130 MHz. We confirm the paramagnetic properties of the implanted spin ensemble by evaluating the temperature dependence of the coupling. The efficiency of the implantation process is analyzed and the results are compared to a bulk doped Er:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} sample. We demonstrate the integration of these engineered erbium spin ensembles with superconducting circuits.

  18. Implantation of sodium ions into germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Korol', V. M.; Kudriavtsev, Yu.

    2012-02-15

    The donor properties of Na atoms introduced by ion implantation into p-Ge with the resistivity 20-40 {Omega} cm are established for the first time. Na profiles implanted into Ge (the energies 70 and 77 keV and the doses (0.8, 3, 30) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}) are studied. The doses and annealing temperatures at which the thermoprobe detects n-type conductivity on the sample surface are established. After implantation, the profiles exhibit an extended tail. The depth of the concentration maximum is in good agreement with the calculated mean projected range of Na ions R{sub p}. Annealing for 30 min at temperatures of 250-700 Degree-Sign C brings about a redistribution of Na atoms with the formation of segregation peaks at a depth, which is dependent on the ion dose, and is accompanied by the diffusion of Na atoms to the surface with subsequent evaporation. After annealing at 700 Degree-Sign C less than 7% of the implanted ions remain in the matrix. The shape of the profile tail portions measured after annealing at temperatures 300-400 Degree-Sign C is indicative of the diffusion of a small fraction of Na atoms into the depth of the sample.

  19. Characterization of an RF plasma ion source for ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopalidis, Peter M.; Wan Zhimin

    2012-11-06

    A novel inductively coupled RF plasma ion source has been developed for use in a beamline ion implanter. Ion density data have been taken with an array of four Langmuir probes spaced equally at the source extraction arc slit. These provide ion density uniformity information as a function of source pressure, RF power and gas mixture composition. In addition, total extracted ion beam current data are presented for the same conditions. The comparative advantages of the RF source in terms of higher beam current, reduced maintenance and overall productivity improvement compared to a hot cathode source are discussed.

  20. Influence of biocompatible metal ions (Ag, Fe, Y) on the surface chemistry, corrosion behavior and cytocompatibility of Mg-1Ca alloy treated with MEVVA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Bian, Dong; Wu, Yuanhao; Li, Nan; Qiu, Kejin; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Mg-1Ca samples were implanted with biocompatible alloy ions Ag, Fe and Y respectively with a dose of 2×10(17)ionscm(-2) by metal vapor vacuum arc technique (MEVVA). The surface morphologies and surface chemistry were investigated by SEM, AES and XPS. Surface changes were observed after all three kinds of elemental ion implantation. The results revealed that the modified layer was composed of two sublayers, including an outer oxidized layer with mixture of oxides and an inner implanted layer, after Ag and Fe ion implantation. Y ion implantation induced an Mg/Ca-deficient outer oxidized layer and the distribution of Y along with depth was more homogeneous. Both electrochemical test and immersion test revealed accelerated corrosion rate of Ag-implanted Mg-1Ca and Fe-implanted Mg-1Ca, whereas Y ion implantation showed a short period of protection since enhanced corrosion resistance was obtained by electrochemical test, but accelerated corrosion rate was found by long period immersion test. Indirect cytotoxicity assay indicated good cytocompatibility of Y-implanted Mg-1Ca. Moreover, the corresponding corrosion mechanisms involving implanting ions into magnesium alloys were proposed, which might provide guidance for further application of plasma ion implantation to biodegradable Mg alloys.

  1. Positive-ion emission from a-AgI films

    SciTech Connect

    Pong, W.; Lam, W.; Tong, A.; Brandt, D.

    1981-03-01

    Positive-ion emission from evaporated films of AgI was observed when the films were heated to temperatures above 160 /sup 0/C. A slow sublimation of AgI was also found to occur with the ion emission when the temperature was sufficiently high. The activation energy for positive-ion emission from the surface of a-AgI is estimated to be 1.7 eV.

  2. Activation Mechanisms in Ion-Implanted Gallium -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Neil

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Rapid Thermal Annealing has been used to study the electrical activation of a range of donor and acceptor species in ion-implanted GaAs. By varying the time and temperature of the post implant anneal, it was found that the activation processes for most implants can be characterised in terms of two distinct regions. The first of these occurs at short annealing times, where the electrical activity is seen to follow a time-dependent behaviour. At longer annealing times, however, a time-independent saturation value is reached, this value being dependent on the annealing temperature. By analysing the data from Be, Mg, S and Se implants in GaAs, a comprehensive model has been evolved for the time and temperature dependence of the sheet electrical properties. Application of this model to each of the ions studied suggests that the activation processes may be dominated by the extent to which ions form impurity-vacancy complexes. An analysis of the time-dependent regime also shows that, at short annealing times, the mobile species is more likely to be the substrate atoms (or vacancies) rather than the implanted impurities. In the time-dependent region, the values of diffusion energy were found to be between 2.3 to 3.0 eV for all ions, these values corresponding to a diffusion of Ga or As vacancies (or atoms). In the saturation region, activation energies of 0.3 to 0.4 eV and 1.0 to 1.2 eV were obtained for the activation processes of interstitial or complexed impurities respectively.

  3. Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Hershcovitch, A; Johnson, B M; Batalin, V A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Kulevoy, T V; Kolomiets, A A; Pershin, V I; Petrenko, S V; Rudskoy, I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Gushenets, V I; Litovko, I V; Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu; Masunov, E S; Polozov, S M; Poole, H J; Storozhenko, P A; Svarovski, A Ya

    2008-02-01

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P(2+) [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P(3+) (1.9 pmA), and P(4+) (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb(3+)Sb(4+), Sb(5+), and Sb(6+) respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  4. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    SciTech Connect

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  5. Method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction

    DOEpatents

    Hampikian, Janet M; Hunt, Eden M

    2001-01-01

    A method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction with the steps of ion implantation with an ion/element that will chemically reduce the chosen substrate material, implantation of the ion/element to a sufficient concentration and at a sufficient energy for particle formation, and control of the temperature of the substrate during implantation. A preferred embodiment includes the formation of particles which are nano-dimensional (<100 m-n in size). The phase of the particles may be affected by control of the substrate temperature during and/or after the ion implantation process.

  6. Improved ion implant fluence uniformity in hydrogen enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation into silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.; Li, L. H. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Liu, H. T.; Xu, Y.; Zuo, X. J.; Zhu, P. Z.; Ma, Y. F.; Yu, K. M.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-06-15

    Enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation does not require an external plasma source but ion focusing affects the lateral ion fluence uniformity, thereby hampering its use in high-fluence hydrogen ion implantation for thin film transfer and fabrication of silicon-on-insulator. Insertion of a metal ring between the sample stage and glass chamber improves the ion uniformity and reduces the ion fluence non-uniformity as the cathode voltage is raised. Two-dimensional multiple-grid particle-in-cell simulation confirms that the variation of electric field inside the chamber leads to mitigation of the ion focusing phenomenon and the results are corroborated experimentally by hydrogen forward scattering.

  7. Rhenium ion beam for implantation into semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T. V.; Seleznev, D. N.; Alyoshin, M. E.; Kraevsky, S. V.; Yakushin, P. E.; Khoroshilov, V. V.; Gerasimenko, N. N.; Smirnov, D. I.; Fedorov, P. A.; Temirov, A. A.

    2012-02-15

    At the ion source test bench in Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics the program of ion source development for semiconductor industry is in progress. In framework of the program the Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc ion source for germanium and rhenium ion beam generation was developed and investigated. It was shown that at special conditions of ion beam implantation it is possible to fabricate not only homogenous layers of rhenium silicides solid solutions but also clusters of this compound with properties of quantum dots. At the present moment the compound is very interesting for semiconductor industry, especially for nanoelectronics and nanophotonics, but there is no very developed technology for production of nanostructures (for example quantum sized structures) with required parameters. The results of materials synthesis and exploration are presented.

  8. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, M.D.; Alford, J. M.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2007-05-31

    The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unable to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for

  9. Influence of nickel ion implantation on the inactive braze joining abilities of Al 2O 3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B. R.; Li, G. B.; Gao, P.; Lei, T. Q.; Song, S. C.; Cao, X. J.

    2005-09-01

    Multi-crystalline Al 2O 3 ceramics were implanted with 130 keV Ni + ion beams at 225 °C in a vacuum of 1.33 × 10 -3 Pa. The inactive braze joining abilities of the implanted ceramic to 1Cr18Ni9Ti (AISI 321) stainless steel with Ag 34Cu 16Zn 50 (wt%) brazing material were investigated. The relationships between the joining abilities and the surface compressive stresses produced by the ion implantation were studied for the first time. The results showed that when the fluence was less than 5 × 10 16 ions/cm 2, the surface properties including wetting ability, braze joining ability and produced surface compressive stresses, increased with ion implantation fluence, and reached the maximum value at a point of 5 × 10 16 ions/cm 2. After this point, the properties decreased upon further increasing the ion implantation fluence.

  10. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J.

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  11. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  12. Accelerating degradation rate of pure iron by zinc ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Pure iron has been considered as a promising candidate for biodegradable implant applications. However, a faster degradation rate of pure iron is needed to meet the clinical requirement. In this work, metal vapor vacuum arc technology was adopted to implant zinc ions into the surface of pure iron. Results showed that the implantation depth of zinc ions was about 60 nm. The degradation rate of pure iron was found to be accelerated after zinc ion implantation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the implanted zinc ions brought a slight increase on cytotoxicity of the tested cells. In terms of hemocompatibility, the hemolysis of zinc ion implanted pure iron was lower than 2%. However, zinc ions might induce more adhered and activated platelets on the surface of pure iron. Overall, zinc ion implantation can be a feasible way to accelerate the degradation rate of pure iron for biodegradable applications. PMID:27482462

  13. Accelerating degradation rate of pure iron by zinc ion implantation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Pure iron has been considered as a promising candidate for biodegradable implant applications. However, a faster degradation rate of pure iron is needed to meet the clinical requirement. In this work, metal vapor vacuum arc technology was adopted to implant zinc ions into the surface of pure iron. Results showed that the implantation depth of zinc ions was about 60 nm. The degradation rate of pure iron was found to be accelerated after zinc ion implantation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the implanted zinc ions brought a slight increase on cytotoxicity of the tested cells. In terms of hemocompatibility, the hemolysis of zinc ion implanted pure iron was lower than 2%. However, zinc ions might induce more adhered and activated platelets on the surface of pure iron. Overall, zinc ion implantation can be a feasible way to accelerate the degradation rate of pure iron for biodegradable applications. PMID:27482462

  14. Synthesis of unattainable ion implantation profiles — 'Pseudo-implantation'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I. G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Castro, R. A.; Dickinson, M. R.; MacGill, R. A.; Wang, Z.

    1995-12-01

    Metal implantation provides a powerful tool for the formation of non-equilibrium alloy layers for a wide variety of basic and applied materials applications, but the technique is fundamentally limited in two important ways: (i) the implanted species concentration is limited by sputtering of the modified layer by the incident ion beam itself, and the sputter-limited retained dose is often disappointingly low; (ii) the thickness of the modified layer is limited by the maximum ion energy available, and for practical reasons (implanter voltage) the layer thickness is often just a few hundred ångströms. We describe here a metal-plasma-immersion-based method for synthesizing non-equilibrium alloy layers of arbitrarily high dopant concentration and of arbitrary thickness. By repetitively pulse biasing the substrate to high negative voltage while it is immersed in the metal plasma from a vacuum arc plasma gun, a layer can be synthesized that is atomically mixed into the substrate with an interface width determined by the early-time bias voltage and with a thickness determined by the overall duration of the process. The species is that of the vacuum arc cathode material, which for this purpose can be a mixture of the substrate metal and the wanted dopant metal. We have used the method to form a high concentration Ta layer on the copper rails of an electromagnetic rail gun, with total surface area treated about 3000 cm 2; the Ta depth profile was flat at about 50 at.% Ta in Cu to a depth of about 1000 Å.

  15. Near-surface recrystallization of the amorphous implanted layer of ion implanted 6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhudzai, R. J.; van der Berg, N. G.; Malherbe, J. B.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Theron, C. C.; Buys, A. V.; Botha, A. J.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.

    2014-08-01

    The recrystallization and subsequent crystal growth during annealing of amorphous surface layers on 6H-SiC produced by ion implantation is investigated. Amorphous surface layers were produced by ion implantation of 360 keV ions of iodine, silver, xenon, cesium and strontium into single crystalline 6H-silicon carbide samples. The ion fluence for all the implantations were in the order of 1016 cm-2. Vacuum annealing of the damaged silicon carbide samples was then performed. The microstructure of SiC surfaces before and after annealing was investigated using a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis was complimented by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). SEM images acquired by an in-lens detector using an accelerating voltage of 2 kV show nano-crystallites developed for all implanted samples after annealing. Larger and more faceted crystallites along with elongated thin crystallites were observed for iodine and xenon implanted 6H-SiC. Crystallites formed on surfaces implanted with strontium and cesium were smaller and less faceted. Strontium, silver and cesium implanted samples also exhibited more cavities on the surface. AFM was used to evaluate the effect of annealing on the surface roughness. For all the amorphous surfaces which were essentially featureless, the root mean square (rms) roughness was approximately 1 nm. The roughness increased to approximately 17 nm for the iodine implanted sample after annealing with the surface roughness below this value for all the other samples. AFM also showed that the largest crystals grew to heights of about 17, 20, 45, 50 and 65 nm for Sr, Cs, Ag, Xe and I implanted samples after annealing at 1200 °C for 5 h respectively. SEM images and AFM analysis suggest that iodine is more effective in promoting crystal growth during the annealing of bombardment-induced amorphous SiC layers than the rest of the ions we implanted. In samples of silicon carbide co-implanted with iodine and silver, few

  16. Influence of in situ ultrasound treatment during ion implantation on formation of silver nanoparticles in silica

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyuk, Andriy; Spassov, Vladislav; Melnik, Viktor

    2006-02-01

    We report on the effect of in situ ultrasound treatment on the clustering process of silver atoms in ion-implanted SiO{sub 2}. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows single-crystal Ag spheres with an increased cluster size when prepared using ultrasound vibrations. Time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry demonstrates an enhanced yield of [Ag{sub 2}]{sup 216} complexes in structures treated with acoustic waves. An analysis of the influence of ultrasound on defect reaction kinetics as well as on different stages of the clustering process is performed.

  17. Simulation of ion beam transport through the 400 Kv ion implanter at Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naab, F. U.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S.

    2013-04-01

    The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory houses a 400 kV ion implanter. An application that simulates the ion beam trajectories through the implanter from the ion source to the target was developed using the SIMION® code. The goals were to have a tool to develop an intuitive understanding of abstract physics phenomena and diagnose ion trajectories. Using this application, new implanter users of different fields in science quickly understand how the machine works and quickly learn to operate it. In this article we describe the implanter simulation application and compare the parameters of the implanter components obtained from the simulations with the measured ones. The overall agreement between the simulated and measured values of magnetic fields and electric potentials is ˜10%.

  18. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, W.; Schubert, M.; Held, A.; Pichler, A.; Chill, A.; Kiermaier, S.; Schlösser, K.; Busch, H.; Schenk, K.; Streufert, D.; Lanzl, I.

    2007-04-01

    A biodegradable, β-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the β-emitter 32P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and 32P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (1015 ions/cm2) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable.

  19. Atomic-level observation of Ag-ion hopping motion in AgI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Komatsuda, S.; Mizuuchi, R.; Irioka, N.; Kawata, S.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Applicability of the 111mCd(→111Cd) and 111In(→111Cd) probes to the study of dynamics in polycrystalline silver iodide (AgI) was examined by means of the time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique. It was found that the 111mCd(→111Cd) probe occupies a unique site in γ-AgI and exhibits nuclear relaxation caused by dynamic perturbation arising from Ag + hopping motion in α-AgI; while the residential sites of 111In(→111Cd) vary, suggesting that 111In ions can not settle themselves in a fixed site in the AgI crystal structure. We here demonstrate that 111mCd(→111Cd) can be a potential nucleus to probe the Ag +-ion dynamic motion in α-AgI.

  20. Computational stochastic model of ions implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zmievskaya, Galina I. Bondareva, Anna L.; Levchenko, Tatiana V.; Maino, Giuseppe

    2015-03-10

    Implantation flux ions into crystal leads to phase transition /PT/ 1-st kind. Damaging lattice is associated with processes clustering vacancies and gaseous bubbles as well their brownian motion. System of stochastic differential equations /SDEs/ Ito for evolution stochastic dynamical variables corresponds to the superposition Wiener processes. The kinetic equations in partial derivatives /KE/, Kolmogorov-Feller and Einstein-Smolukhovskii, were formulated for nucleation into lattice of weakly soluble gases. According theory, coefficients of stochastic and kinetic equations uniquely related. Radiation stimulated phase transition are characterized by kinetic distribution functions /DFs/ of implanted clusters versus their sizes and depth of gas penetration into lattice. Macroscopic parameters of kinetics such as the porosity and stress calculated in thin layers metal/dielectric due to Xe{sup ++} irradiation are attracted as example. Predictions of porosity, important for validation accumulation stresses in surfaces, can be applied at restoring of objects the cultural heritage.

  1. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen ion implantation of stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Gavrilov, N.V.; Emlin, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ion implantation experiments of C, N, and O into stainless steel have been performed, with beam-line and plasma source ion implantation methods. Acceleration voltages were varied between 27 and 50 kV, with pulsed ion current densities between 1 and 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Implanted doses ranged from 0.5 to 3 {times} 10{sup 18}cm{sup -2}, while workpiece temperatures were maintained between 25 and 800 C. Implant concentration profiles, microstructure, and surface mechanical properties of the implanted materials are reported.

  2. Aluminum ion implantation under backfilling oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausner, R. M.; Baumann, H.; Bethge, K.

    1996-06-01

    High dose ion implantation ( F ≥ 2 × 10 18 ions/cm 2) of 40 keV Al ions into stainless steel (AISI 321) under increased partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen compounds ( P ≥ 1 × 10 -8 hPa O 2, CO 2, N 2O) leads to the formation of a homogenous Al film on the sample surface due to a reduced self-sputtering yield of Al. The depth distribution of the implanted aluminum and the thickness of the Al film grown up on the sample were measured using the resonant nuclear reaction 27Al(p, γ) 28Si at 992 keV and by the (α, α) elastic backscattering at 3.05 MeV. The concentrations of the low- Z impurity oxygen and carbon were determined with the extremely strong resonances of the (α, α) elastic scattering under backward angles at 7.6 MeV for 16O and at 5.75 MeV for 12C. Furthermore the properties of the formed Al film were investigated by SEM, surface profile and microhardness measurements. The self-sputtering yield of Al was measured under normal vacuum conditions and under increased O 2 partial pressure, and the results were compared with the data obtained from calculations using the computer code T-DYN.

  3. Effect of Implantation Machine Parameters on N+ ion Implantation for Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Jieyu; Yu, Lixiang; Wu, Yuejin; Tang, Canming

    2008-10-01

    Effect of parameters of ion implantation machine, including ion energy, total dose, dose rate, impulse energy and implantation interval on the pollen grains of upland cotton implanted with nitrogen ion beam were studied. The best parameters were screened out. The results also showed that the vacuum condition before the nitrogen ion implantation does not affect the pollen viability.

  4. Effect of implanted species on thermal evolution of ion-induced defects in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Azarov, A. Yu.; Rauwel, P.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G.; Hallén, A.; Du, X. L.

    2014-02-21

    Implanted atoms can affect the evolution of ion-induced defects in radiation hard materials exhibiting a high dynamic annealing and these processes are poorly understood. Here, we study the thermal evolution of structural defects in wurtzite ZnO samples implanted at room temperature with a wide range of ion species (from {sup 11}B to {sup 209}Bi) to ion doses up to 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. The structural disorder was characterized by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy, while secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to monitor the behavior of both the implanted elements and residual impurities, such as Li. The results show that the damage formation and its thermal evolution strongly depend on the ion species. In particular, for F implanted samples, a strong out-diffusion of the implanted ions results in an efficient crystal recovery already at 600 °C, while co-implantation with B (via BF{sub 2}) ions suppresses both the F out-diffusion and the lattice recovery at such low temperatures. The damage produced by heavy ions (such as Cd, Au, and Bi) exhibits a two-stage annealing behavior where efficient removal of point defects and small defect clusters occurs at temperatures ∼500 °C, while the second stage is characterized by a gradual and partial annealing of extended defects. These defects can persist even after treatment at 900 °C. In contrast, the defects produced by light and medium mass ions (O, B, and Zn) exhibit a more gradual annealing with increasing temperature without distinct stages. In addition, effects of the implanted species may lead to a nontrivial defect evolution during the annealing, with N, Ag, and Er as prime examples. In general, the obtained results are interpreted in terms of formation of different dopant-defect complexes and their thermal stability.

  5. Ion implanted GaAs microwave FET's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. S.; Blockley, E. G.; Dawsey, J. R.; Foreman, B. J.; Woodward, J.; Ball, G.; Beard, S. J.; Gaskell, J. M.; Allenson, M. B.

    1988-06-01

    The combination of ion implantation and photolithographic patterning techniques was applied to the fabrication of GaAs microwave FETs to provide a large number of devices having consistently predictable dc and high frequency characteristics. To validate the accuracy and repeatability of the high frequency device parameters, an X-band microwave circuit was designed and realized. The performance of this circuit, a buffered amplifier, is very close to the design specification. The availability of a large number of reproducible, well-characterized transistors enabled work to commence on the development of a large signal model for FETs. Work in this area is also described.

  6. Ion implantation effects in 'cosmic' dust grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.; Meunier, R.; Jouffrey, B.; Jouret, C.

    1974-01-01

    Cosmic dust grains, whatever their origin may be, have probably suffered a complex sequence of events including exposure to high doses of low-energy nuclear particles and cycles of turbulent motions. High-voltage electron microscope observations of micron-sized grains either naturally exposed to space environmental parameters on the lunar surface or artificially subjected to space simulated conditions strongly suggest that such events could drastically modify the mineralogical composition of the grains and considerably ease their aggregation during collisions at low speeds. Furthermore, combined mass spectrometer and ionic analyzer studies show that small carbon compounds can be both synthesized during the implantation of a mixture of low-energy D, C, N ions in various solids and released in space by ion sputtering.

  7. Single phase formation of Co-implanted ZnO thin films by swift heavy ion irradiation: Optical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ravi; Singh, Fouran; Angadi, Basavaraj; Choi, Ji-Won; Choi, Won-Kook; Jeong, Kwangho; Song, Jong-Han; Khan, M. Wasi; Srivastava, J. P.; Kumar, Ajay; Tandon, R. P.

    2006-12-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence and optical absorption studies on 200 MeV Ag{sup +15} ion irradiated Co-implanted ZnO thin films were studied. The Co clusters present in as implanted samples were observed to be dissolved using 200 MeV Ag{sup +15} ion irradiation with a fluence of 1x10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The photoluminescence spectrum of pure ZnO thin film was characterized by the I{sub 4} peak due to the neutral donor bound excitons and the broad green emission. The Co-doped ZnO films show three sharp levels and two shoulders corresponding to 3t{sub 2g} and 2e{sub g} levels of crystal field splitted Co d orbitals, respectively. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy also shows the systematic variation of band gap after 200 MeV Ag{sup +15} ion irradiation.

  8. PLEPS study of ions implanted RAFM steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojak, S.; Slugeň, V.; Egger, W.; Ravelli, L.; Petriska, M.; Veterníková, J.; Stacho, M.; Sabelová, V.

    2014-04-01

    Current nuclear power plants (NPP) require radiation, heat and mechanical resistance of their structural materials with the ability to stay operational during NPP planned lifetime. Radiation damage much higher, than in the current NPP, is expected in new generations of nuclear power plants, such as Generation IV and fusion reactors. Investigation of perspective structural materials for new generations of nuclear power plants is among others focused on study of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels. These steels have good characteristics as reduced activation, good resistance to volume swelling, good radiation, and heat resistance. Our experiments were focused on the study of microstructural changes of binary Fe-Cr alloys with different chromium content after irradiation, experimentally simulated by ion implantations. Fe-Cr alloys were examined, by Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) at FRM II reactor in Garching (Munich), after helium ion implantations at the dose of 0.1 C/cm2. The investigation was focused on the chromium effect and the radiation defects resistivity. In particular, the vacancy type defects (monovacancies, vacancy clusters) have been studied. Based on our previous results achieved by conventional lifetime technique, the decrease of the defects size with increasing content of chromium is expected also for PLEPS measurements.

  9. Ion beam mixing in Ag-Pd alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, J. L.; Averback, R. S.; Peak, David

    1989-09-01

    Ion beam mixing during 750 keV Kr+ irradiation at 80 K was measured on a series of Ag-Pd alloys using Au marker atoms. The mixing in pure Ag was the greatest and it decreased monotonically with increasing Pd content, being a factor of 10 higher in pure Ag than in pure Pd. This large difference in mixing cannot be explained by the difference in cohesion energy between Ag and Pd in the thermodynamic model of ion beam mixing proposed by Johnson et al. [W. L. Johnson, Y. T. Cheng, M. Van Rossum, and M-A. Nicolet, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 7/8, 657 (1985)]. An alternative model based on local melting in the cascade is shown to account for the ion beam mixing results in Ag and Pd.

  10. The formation of silver metal nanoparticles by ion implantation in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vytykacova, S.; Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Spirkova, J.; Mackova, A.; Miksova, R.; Böttger, R.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that glasses containing silver metal nanoparticles are promising photonics materials for the fabrication of all-optical components. The resulting optical properties of the nanocomposite glasses depend on the composition and structure of the glass, as well as on the type of metal ion implanted and the experimental procedures involved. The main aim of this article was to study the influence of the conditions of the ion implantation and the composition of the glass on the formation of metal nanoparticles in such glasses. Four various types of silicate glasses were implanted with Ag+ ions with different energy (330 keV, 1.2 MeV and 1.7 MeV), with the fluence being kept constant (1 × 1016 ions cm-2). The as-implanted samples were annealed at 600 °C for 1 h. The samples were characterised in terms of: the nucleation of metal nanoparticles (linear optical absorption), the migration of silver through the glass matrix during the implantation and post-implantation annealing (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy), and the oxidation state of silver (photoluminescence in the visible region).

  11. Quantifying the origin of released Ag+ ions from nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Meyer, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Panke, Sven; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2012-11-13

    Nanosilver is most attractive for its bactericidal properties in modern textiles, food packaging, and biomedical applications. Concerns, however, about released Ag(+) ions during dispersion of nanosilver in liquids have limited its broad use. Here, nanosilver supported on nanostructured silica is made with closely controlled Ag size both by dry (flame aerosol) and by wet chemistry (impregnation) processes without any surface functionalization that could interfere with its ion release. It is characterized by electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, and its Ag(+) ion release in deionized water is monitored electrochemically. The dispersion method of nanosilver in solutions affects its dissolution rate but not the final Ag(+) ion concentration. By systematically comparing nanosilver size distributions to their equilibrium Ag(+) ion concentrations, it is revealed that the latter correspond precisely to dissolution of one to two surface silver oxide monolayers, depending on particle diameter. When, however, the nanosilver is selectively conditioned by either washing or H(2) reduction, the oxide layers are removed, drastically minimizing Ag(+) ion leaching and its antibacterial activity against E. coli . That way the bactericidal activity of nanosilver is confined to contact with its surface rather than to rampant ions. This leads to silver nanoparticles with antibacterial properties that are essential for medical tools and hospital applications.

  12. Mechanical stresses and amorphization of ion-implanted diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelnitsky, R. A.; Dravin, V. A.; Tal, A. A.; Latushko, M. I.; Khomich, A. A.; Khomich, A. V.; Trushin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Terentiev, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Scanning white light interferometry and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the mechanical stresses and structural changes in ion-implanted natural diamonds with different impurity content. The uniform distribution of radiation defects in implanted area was obtained by the regime of multiple-energy implantation of keV He+ ions. A modification of Bosia's et al. (Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 268 (2010) 2991) method for determining the internal stresses and the density variation in an ion-implanted diamond layer was proposed that suggests measuring, in addition to the surface swelling of a diamond plate, the radius of curvature of the plate. It is shown that, under multiple-energy implantation of He+, mechanical stresses in the implanted layer may be as high as 12 GPa. It is shown that radiation damage reaches saturation for the implantation fluence characteristic of amorphization of diamond but is appreciably lower than the graphitization threshold.

  13. Study of the effects of MeV Ag, Cu, Au, and Sn implantation on the optical properties of LiNbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.K.; Ila, D.; Sarkisov, S.; Curley, M.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.; Borel, C.

    1998-02-01

    The authors present the results of characterization of linear absorption and nonlinear refractive index of Au, Ag, Cu and Sn ion implantation into LiNbO{sub 3}. Ag was implanted at 1.5 MeV to fluences of 2 to 17 {times} 10 {sup 16}/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Au and Cu were implanted to fluences of 5 to 20 {times} 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} at an energy of 2.0 MeV. Sn was implanted to a fluence of 1.6 {times} 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2} at 160 kV. Optical absorption spectrometry indicated an absorption peak for the Au implanted samples after heat treatment at 1,000 C at 620 nm. The Ag implanted samples absorption peaks shifted from 450 nm before heat treatment to 550 nm after 500 C for 1h. Heat treatment at 800 C returned the Ag implanted crystals to a clear state. Cu nanocluster absorption peaks disappears at 500 C. No Sn clusters were observed by optical absorption or XRD. The size of the Ag and Au clusters as a function of heat treatment were determined from the absorption peaks. The Ag clusters did not change appreciably in size with heat treatment. The Au clusters increased from 3 to 9 nm diameter upon heat treatment at 1000 deg C. TEM analysis performed on a Au implanted crystal indicated the formation of Au nanocrystals with facets normal to the c-axis. Measurements of the nonlinear refractive indices were carried out using the Z-scan method with a tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The dye laser had a 4.5 ps pulse duration time and 76 MHz pulse repetition rate (575 nm).

  14. Study of the effects of MeV Ag, Cu, Au, and Sn implantation on the optical properties of LiNbO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, E. K.; Ila, D.; Sarkisov, S.; Curley, M.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.; Borel, C.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present the results of characterization of linear absorption and nonlinear refractive index of Au, Ag, Cu and Sn ion implantation into LiNbO3. Ag was implanted at 1.5 MeV to fluences of 2 to 17 x 17(exp 16)/sq cm at room temperature. Au and Cu were implanted to fluences of 5 to 20 x 10(exp 16)/sq cm at an energy of 2.0 MeV. Sn was implanted to a fluence of 1.6 x 10(exp 17)/sq cm at 160 kV. Optical absorption spectrometry indicated an absorption peak for the Au implanted samples after heat treatment at 1,000 C at approx. 620 nm. The Ag implanted samples absorption peaks shifted from approx. 450 nm before heat treatment to 550 nm after 500 C for 1h. Heat treatment at 800 C returned the Ag implanted crystals to a clear state. Cu nanocluster absorption peaks disappears at 500 C. No Sn clusters were observed by optical absorption or XRD. The size of the Ag and Au clusters as a function of heat treatment were determined from the absorption peaks. The Ag clusters did not change appreciably in size with heat treatment. The Au clusters increased from 3 to 9 nm diameter upon heat treatment at 1000 C. TEM analysis performed on a Au implanted crystal indicated the formation of Au nanocrystals with facets normal to the c-axis. Measurements of the nonlinear refractive indices were carried out using the Z-scan method with a tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The dye laser had a 4.5 ps pulse duration time and 76 MHz pulse repetition rate (575 nm).

  15. Self-organized surface ripple pattern formation by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofsäss, Hans; Zhang, Kun; Bobes, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Ion induced ripple pattern formation on solid surfaces has been extensively studied in the past and the theories describing curvature dependent ion erosion as well as redistribution of recoil atoms have been very successful in explaining many features of the pattern formation. Since most experimental studies use noble gas ion irradiation, the incorporation of the ions into the films is usually neglected. In this work we show that the incorporation or implantation of non-volatile ions also leads to a curvature dependent term in the equation of motion of a surface height profile. The implantation of ions can be interpreted as a negative sputter yield; and therefore, the effect of ion implantation is opposite to the one of ion erosion. For angles up to about 50°, implantation of ions stabilizes the surface, whereas above 50°, ion implantation contributes to the destabilization of the surface. We present simulations of the curvature coefficients using the crater function formalism and we compare the simulation results to the experimental data on the ion induced pattern formation using non-volatile ions. We present several model cases, where the incorporation of ions is a crucial requirement for the pattern formation.

  16. Ultra-sensitive detection of Ag+ ions based on Ag+-assisted isothermal exponential degradation reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Fan, Qi; Zhu, Sha; Duan, Aiping; Yin, Yongmei; Li, Genxi

    2013-01-15

    Ag(+) ions are greatly toxic to a lot of algae, fungi, viruses and bacteria, which can also induce harmful side-effects to environments and human health. Herein we report an ultra-sensitive method for the selective detection of Ag(+) ions with electrochemical technique based on Ag(+)-assisted isothermal exponential degradation reaction. In the presence of Ag(+), mismatched trigger DNA can transiently bind to template DNA immobilized on an electrode surface through the formation of C-Ag(+)-C base pair, which then initiates the isothermal exponential degradation reaction. As a result, the mismatched trigger DNA may melt off the cleaved template DNA to trigger rounds of elongation and cutting. After the cyclic degradation reactions, removal of the template DNA immobilized on the electrode surface can be efficiently monitored by using electrochemical technique to show the status of the electrode surface, which can be then used to determine the presence of Ag(+). Further studies reveal that the proposed method can be ultra-sensitive to detect Ag(+) at a picomolar level. The selectivity of the detection can also be satisfactory, thus the proposed method for the Ag(+) ions detection may be potentially useful in the future. PMID:22921090

  17. Comparative study of metal and non-metal ion implantation in polymers: Optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resta, V.; Quarta, G.; Farella, I.; Maruccio, L.; Cola, A.; Calcagnile, L.

    2014-07-01

    The implantation of 1 MeV metal (63Cu+, 107Ag+, 197Au+) and non-metal (4He+, 12C+) ions in a polycarbonate (PC) matrix has been studied in order to evaluate the role of ion species in the modification of optical and electrical properties of the polymer. When the ion fluence is above ∼1 × 1013 ions cm-2, the threshold for latent tracks overlapping is overcome and π-bonded carbon clusters grow and aggregate forming a network of conjugated Cdbnd C bonds. For fluences around 1 × 1017 ions cm-2, the aggregation phenomena induce the formation of amorphous carbon and/or graphite like structures. At the same time, nucleation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) from implanted species can take place when the supersaturation threshold is overcome. The optical absorption of the samples increases in the visible range and the optical band gap redshifts from 3.40 eV up to 0.70 eV mostly due to the carbonization process and the formation of C0x clusters and cluster aggregates. Specific structures in the extinction spectra are observed when metal ions are selected in contrast to the non-metal ion implanted PC, thus revealing the possible presence of noble metal based NPs interstitial to the C0x cluster network. The corresponding electrical resistance decreases much more when metal ions are implanted with at least a factor of 2 orders of magnitude difference than the non-metal ions based samples. An absolute value of ∼107 Ω/sq has been measured for implantation with metals at doses higher than 5 × 1016 ions cm-2, being 1017 Ω/sq the corresponding sheet resistance for pristine PC.

  18. A commercial plasma source ion implantation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuer, J.T.; Adler, R.A.; Horne, W.G.

    1996-10-01

    Empire Hard Chrome has recently installed commercial plasma source ion implantation (PSU) equipment built by North Star Research Corporation. Los Alamos National Laboratory has assisted in this commercialization effort via two Cooperative Research and Development Agreements to develop the plasma source for the equipment and to identify low-risk commercial PSII applications. The PSII system consists of a 1 m x 1 m cylindrical vacuum chamber with a rf plasma source. The pulse modulator is capable of delivering pulses kV and peak currents of 300 A at maximum repetition rate of 400 Hz. thyratron tube to switch a pulse forming network which is tailored to match the dynamic PSII load. In this paper we discuss the PSII system, process facility, and early commercial applications to production tooling.

  19. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  20. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm(2). The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  1. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm(2). The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research. PMID:26931931

  2. Dopant profile engineering of advanced Si MOSFET's using ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolk, P. A.; Ponomarev, Y. V.; Schmitz, J.; van Brandenburg, A. C. M. C.; Roes, R.; Montree, A. H.; Woerlee, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantation has been used to realize non-uniform, steep retrograde (SR) dopant profiles in the active channel region of advanced Si MOSFET's. After defining the transistor configuration, SR profiles were formed by dopant implantation through the polycrystalline Si gate and the gate oxide (through-the-gate, TG, implantation). The steep nature of the as-implanted profile was retained by applying rapid thermal annealing for dopant activation and implantation damage removal. For NMOS transistors, TG implantation of B yields improved transistor performance through increased carrier mobility, reduced junction capacitances, and reduced susceptibility to short-channel effects. Electrical measurements show that the gate oxide quality is not deteriorated by the ion-induced damage, demonstrating that transistor reliability is preserved. For PMOS transistors, TG implantation of P or As leads to unacceptable source/drain junction broadening as a result of transient enhanced dopant diffusion during thermal activation.

  3. Single ion implantation for solid state quantum computer development

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas; Meijers, Jan; Persaud, Arun; McDonald, Joseph W.; Holder, Joseph P.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-12-18

    Several solid state quantum computer schemes are based on the manipulation of electron and nuclear spins of single donor atoms in a solid matrix. The fabrication of qubit arrays requires the placement of individual atoms with nanometer precision and high efficiency. In this article we describe first results from low dose, low energy implantations and our development of a low energy (<10 keV), single ion implantation scheme for {sup 31}P{sup q+} ions. When {sup 31}P{sup q+} ions impinge on a wafer surface, their potential energy (9.3 keV for P{sup 15+}) is released, and about 20 secondary electrons are emitted. The emission of multiple secondary electrons allows detection of each ion impact with 100% efficiency. The beam spot on target is controlled by beam focusing and collimation. Exactly one ion is implanted into a selected area avoiding a Poissonian distribution of implanted ions.

  4. Temperature-dependant study of phosphorus ion implantation in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, M. A.; Smith, A. J.; Jeynes, C.; Gwilliam, R. M.

    2012-11-01

    We present experimental results on shallow junction formation in germanium by phosphorus ion implantation and standard rapid thermal processing. An attempt is made to improve phosphorus activation by implanting phosphorus at high and low temperature. The focus is on studying the germanium damage and phosphorus activation as a function of implant temperature. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with channelling and Hall Effect measurements are employed for characterisation of germanium damage and phosphorus activation, respectively. High and low temperature implants were found to be better compared to room temperature implant.

  5. Microstructure evolution in carbon-ion implanted sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Orwa, J. O.; McCallum, J. C.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Peng, J. L.; Rubanov, S.

    2010-01-15

    Carbon ions of MeV energy were implanted into sapphire to fluences of 1x10{sup 17} or 2x10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} and thermally annealed in forming gas (4% H in Ar) for 1 h. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy results obtained from the lower dose implant showed retention of implanted carbon and accumulation of H near the end of range in the C implanted and annealed sample. Three distinct regions were identified by transmission electron microscopy of the implanted region in the higher dose implant. First, in the near surface region, was a low damage region (L{sub 1}) composed of crystalline sapphire and a high density of plateletlike defects. Underneath this was a thin, highly damaged and amorphized region (L{sub 2}) near the end of range in which a mixture of i-carbon and nanodiamond phases are present. Finally, there was a pristine, undamaged sapphire region (L{sub 3}) beyond the end of range. In the annealed sample some evidence of the presence of diamond nanoclusters was found deep within the implanted layer near the projected range of the C ions. These results are compared with our previous work on carbon implanted quartz in which nanodiamond phases were formed only a few tens of nanometers from the surface, a considerable distance from the projected range of the ions, suggesting that significant out diffusion of the implanted carbon had occurred.

  6. Ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, Burrell E.; Myers, David R.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    A Planar-Buried-Heterostructure, Graded-Index, Separate-Confinement-Heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an ion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  7. Photosensitivity enhancement of PLZT ceramics by positive ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Peercy, P.S.; Land, C.E.

    1980-06-13

    The photosensitivity of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramic material used in high resolution, high contrast, and non-volatile photoferroelectric image storage and display devices is enhanced significantly by positive ion implantation of the PLZT near its surface. Ions that are implanted include H/sup +/, He/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, and a preferred co-implant of Ar/sup +/ and Ne/sup +/. The positive ion implantation advantageously serves to shift the band gap energy threshold of the PLZT material from near-uv light to visible blue light. As a result, photosensitivity enhancement is such that the positive ion implanted PLZT plate is sensitive even to sunlight and conventional room lighting, such as fluorescent and incandescent light sources. The method disclosed includes exposing the PLZT plate to these positive ions of sufficient density and with sufficient energy to provide an image. The PLZT material may have a lanthanum content ranging from 5 to 10%; a lead zirconate content ranging from 62 to 70 mole %; and a lead titanate content ranging from 38 to 30%. The region of ion implantation is in a range from 0.1 to 2 microns below the surface of the PLZT plate. Density of ions is in the range from 1 x 10/sup 12/ to 1 x 10/sup 17/ ions/cm/sup 2/ and having an energy in the range from 100 to 500 keV.

  8. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braceras, Iñigo; Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana; Muñoz, Roberto; Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia; de Maeztu, Miguel Ángel

    2014-08-01

    Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40-80 keV), fluence (1-2 e17 ion/cm2) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted surfaces, without surface chemistry modification, are in the same range and that such modifications, in certain conditions, do have a statistically significant effect on bone tissue forming cell adhesion.

  9. Development of vertical compact ion implanter for gemstones applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intarasiri, S.; Wijaikhum, A.; Bootkul, D.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-08-01

    Ion implantation technique was applied as an effective non-toxic treatment of the local Thai natural corundum including sapphires and rubies for the enhancement of essential qualities of the gemstones. Energetic oxygen and nitrogen ions in keV range of various fluences were implanted into the precious stones. It has been thoroughly proved that ion implantation can definitely modify the gems to desirable colors together with changing their color distribution, transparency and luster properties. These modifications lead to the improvement in quality of the natural corundum and thus its market value. Possible mechanisms of these modifications have been proposed. The main causes could be the changes in oxidation states of impurities of transition metals, induction of charge transfer from one metal cation to another and the production of color centers. For these purposes, an ion implanter of the kind that is traditionally used in semiconductor wafer fabrication had already been successfully applied for the ion beam bombardment of natural corundum. However, it is not practical for implanting the irregular shape and size of gem samples, and too costly to be economically accepted by the gem and jewelry industry. Accordingly, a specialized ion implanter has been requested by the gem traders. We have succeeded in developing a prototype high-current vertical compact ion implanter only 1.36 m long, from ion source to irradiation chamber, for these purposes. It has been proved to be very effective for corundum, for example, color improvement of blue sapphire, induction of violet sapphire from low value pink sapphire, and amelioration of lead-glass-filled rubies. Details of the implanter and recent implantation results are presented.

  10. Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Peng, N.; Jeynes, C.

    2007-08-01

    Stainless steel disks were implanted with N +, O + and SiF 3+, respectively at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The surface properties of the implanted surfaces were analyzed, including surface chemical composition, surface topography, surface roughness and surface free energy. Bacterial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, which frequently cause medical device-associated infections was evaluated under static condition and laminar flow condition. The effect of contact time, growth media and surface properties of the ion-implanted steels on bacterial adhesion was investigated. The experimental results showed that SiF 3+-implanted stainless steel performed much better than N +-implanted steel, O +-implanted steel and untreated stainless steel control on reducing bacterial attachment under identical experimental conditions.

  11. Software for goniometer control in the Triple Ion Implantation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, W.R.

    1994-02-01

    A computer program is described tat controls the goniometer employed in the ion scattering chamber of the Triple Ion Implantation Facility (TIF) in the Metals and Ceramics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Details of goniometer operation and its incorporation into the ion scattering setup specific to the TIF are also discussed.

  12. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

    DOEpatents

    Appleton, Bill R.; Ashley, Paul R.; Buchal, Christopher J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO.sub.3 crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 350 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000.degree. C. produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality single crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguides properties.

  13. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

    DOEpatents

    Appleton, B.R.; Ashley, P.R.; Buchal, C.J.

    1987-03-24

    A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 360 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000/degree/C produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguiding properties.

  14. Shallow drain extension by angled ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.; Luning, S.; Griffin, P.

    1996-12-31

    In this work, we describe the construction and microstructural characterization of a simple spacerless metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor with a self-aligned shallow drain extension. Transistor structures were fabricated at Stanford University`s Center for Integrated Systems using a single masking step to pattern the gate mask for the self-aligned structures. A 200{angstrom} gate oxide was grown and a 3000{angstrom} polysilicon blanket film was subsequently deposited on the wafer. The polysilicon was patterned into an array of 2.0{mu}m lines and 3.0{mu}m spaces. Arsenic was implanted at 120keV with a nominal dose of 1e15 ions/cm{sup 2} at 20{degrees} from normal incidence and rapid thermal annealed at 1000{degrees}C for 30 seconds. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (TEM, XAFM) samples were prepared using standard metallographic procedures with the doped regions delineated by chemical etching. A one-dimensionally calibrated process simulation was performed using Athena v2.0.13, a commercial derivative of SUPREM IV.

  15. Improving Sustainability of Ion Implant Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor fabs have long been pressured to manage capital costs, reduce energy consumption and increasingly improve efforts to recycle and recover resources. Ion implant tools have been high-profile offenders on all three fronts. They draw such large volumes of air for heat dissipation and risk reduction that historically, they are the largest consumer of cleanroom air of any process tool—and develop energy usage and resource profiles to match. This paper presents a documented approach to reduce their energy consumption and dramatically downsize on-site facilities support for cleanroom air manufacture and abatement. The combination produces significant capital expenditure savings. The case entails applying SAGS Type 1 (sub-atmospheric gas systems) toxic gas packaging to enable engineering adaptations that deliver the energy savings and cost benefits without any reduction in environmental health and safety. The paper also summarizes benefits as they relate to reducing a fabs carbon emission footprint (and longer range advantages relative to potential cap and trade programs) with existing technology.

  16. Emission Characteristics of Ion-Implanted Silicon Emitter Tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Takayuki; Kanemaru, Seigo; Tanoue, Hisao; Itoh, Junji

    1995-12-01

    An ion implantation technique has been applied to control the energy band structure of Si field-emitter tip surface. B+ or P+ ions were implanted after fabrication of a gated emitter structure. No changes in emitter structure were observed after ion implantation and successive annealing at 800° C. Current-voltage ( I-V ) characteristics of n, p, p/n and n/p emitter tips were measured: p/n indicates an n-type tip with B+ ions implanted into the tip surface. It was found from the experimental results that n and p/n tips had I-V characteristics in agreement with the Fowler-Nordheim theory. The p and n/p tips, on the other hand, exhibited a current saturation property in high electric field. The present saturation mechanism is explained by considering the energy band structure of the tip surface.

  17. Industrial applications of ion implantation into metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    The modern materials processing technique, ion implantation, has intriguing and attractive features that stimulate the imaginations of scientists and technologists. Success of the technique for introducing dopants into semiconductors has resulted in a stable and growing infrastructure of capital equipment and skills for use of the technique in the economy. Attention has turned to possible use of ion implantation for modification of nearly all surface related properties of materials - optical, chemical and corrosive, tribological, and several others. This presentation provides an introduction to fundamental aspects of equipment, technique, and materials science of ion implantation. Practical and economic factors pertaining to the technology are discussed. Applications and potential applications are surveyed. There are already available a number of ion-implanted products, including ball-and-roller bearings and races, punches-and-dies, injection screws for plastics molding, etc., of potential interest to the machine tool industry.

  18. Temperature dependence of damage formation in Ag ion irradiated 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, E.; Bierschenk, Th.; Wesch, W.; Friedland, E.; Malherbe, J. B.

    2010-10-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in channelling mode was used to study the defect formation in silver (Ag) ion irradiated silicon carbide (SiC). The 4H-SiC samples were irradiated with 360 keV Ag ions at different temperatures (15, 295, 375, 475, 625 and 875 K) over a wide range of fluences ( 1×1011 to 2×1016 cm, depending on the irradiation temperature). The results can be divided into two groups: (i) for irradiation temperatures between 15 and 475 K amorphisation of the implanted layers is reached for ion fluences between 7×1013 and 3×1014 cm. The over-all cross-section of defect production at very low ion fluences which comprises the formation of point defects and of amorphous clusters, is almost identical for all data sets measured in this temperature range. Differences in the damage evolution which occur at higher ion fluences, suggest that the relative contribution of amorphous clusters within single ion impacts in crystalline material decreases with rising temperature. (ii) For irradiations performed at 625 and 875 K no amorphisation is found for ion fluences as high as 2×1016 cm. With increasing ion fluence the defect concentration exhibits a distinctive plateau due to the balance between formation and recombination of point defects before increasing up to a saturation level well below amorphisation. For this final stage our results indicate a mixture of point defect clusters and extended defects most probably dislocations. A comparison with data from the literature suggests that the damage evolution for implantation at 625 and 875 K is strongly influenced by the mobility of vacancies starting at around 600 K.

  19. Improved wear properties of high energy ion-implanted polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.R.; Lee, E.H. ); Bhattacharya, R.; McCormick, A.W. )

    1995-01-01

    Polycarbonate (Lexan[sup TM]) (PC) was implanted with 2 MeV B[sup +] and O[sup +] ions separately to fluences of 5[times]10[sup 17], 1[times]10[sup 18], and 5[times]10[sup 18] ions/m[sup 2], and characterized for changes in surface hardness and tribological properties. Results of tests showed that hardness values of all implanted specimens increased over those of the unirradiated material, and the O[sup +] implantation was more effective in improving hardness for a given fluence than the B[sup +] implantation. Reciprocating sliding wear tests using a nylon ball counterface yielded significant improvements for all implanted specimens except for the 5[times]10[sup 17] ions/m[sup 2] B[sup +]-implanted PC. Wear tests conducted with a 52100 steel ball yielded significant improvements for the highest fluence of 5[times]10[sup 18] ions/m[sup 2] for both ions, but not for the two lower fluences. The improvements in properties were related to Linear Energy Transfer (LET) mechanisms, where it was shown that the O[sup +] implantation caused greater ionization, thereby greater cross-linking at the surface corresponding to much better improvements in properties. The results were also compared with a previous study on PC using 200 keV B[sup +] ions. The present study indicates that high energy ion irradiation produces thicker, more cross-linked, harder, and more wear-resistant surfaces on polymers and thereby improves properties to a greater extent and more efficiently than lower energy ion implantation.

  20. Physical and Tribological Characteristics of Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Heidger, S.; Korenyi-Both, A. L.; Jayne, D. T.; Herrera-Fierro, P.; Shogrin, B.; Wilbur, P. J.; Wu, R. L. C.; Garscadden, A.; Barnes, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural, polished diamond pin in contact with both as-deposited and carbon-ion-implanted diamond films in ultrahigh vacuum. Diamond films were deposited on silicon, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The as-deposited diamond films were impacted with carbon ions at an accelerating energy of 60 keV and a current density of 50 micron A/cm(exp 2) for approximately 6 min, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions/cm(exp 2). The results indicate that the carbon ion implantation produced a thin surface layer of amorphous, nondiamond carbon. The nondiamond carbon greatly decreased both friction and wear of the diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films were less than 0.1, factors of 20 to 30 lower than those for the as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, coarse-grain diamond films were approximately 0.35, a factor of five lower than those for the as-deposited, coarse-grain diamond films. The wear rates for the carbon-ion-implanted, diamond films were on the order of 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/Nm, factors of 30 to 80 lower than that for the as-deposited diamond films, regardless of grain size. The friction of the carbon-ion-implanted diamond films was greatly reduced because the amorphous, nondiamond carbon, which had a low shear strength, was restricted to the surface layers (less than 0.1 micron thick) and because the underlying diamond materials retained their high hardness. In conclusion, the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films can be used effectively as wear resistant, self-lubricating coatings for ceramics, such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide, in ultrahigh vacuum.

  1. Low erosion behavior of polystyrene films under erbium ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, M.; Sanyal, M.K.; Chini, T.K.; Chakraborty, P.

    2006-02-13

    Erbium ion implantation in polystyrene (PS) thin films has been performed with 40 and 60 keV ions to a dose range between 1x10{sup 14} and 1x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The x-ray reflectivity technique was applied to determine the ion-induced eroded layer thickness and interestingly, the erosion rate is found to decrease with increasing ion doses exhibiting simple power law behavior of the form {approx}(dose){sup -b}. We propose the formation of a carbonaceous network at the top surface, which seems to prevent further erosion of the polymer with increasing the duration of implantation time. These findings may open up a possibility of loading a large amount of erbium in a polymer matrix by the implantation technique to make it suitable for various optoelectronic applications.

  2. Photosensitivity enhancement of PLZT ceramics by positive ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Land, Cecil E.; Peercy, Paul S.

    1983-01-01

    The photosensitivity of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramic material used in high resolution, high contrast, and non-volatile photoferroelectric image storage and display devices is enhanced significantly by positive ion implantation of the PLZT near its surface. Implanted ions include H.sup.+, He.sup.+, Ne.sup.+, Ar.sup.+, as well as chemically reactive ions from Fe, Cr, and Al. The positive ion implantation advantageously serves to shift the absorption characteristics of the PLZT material from near-UV light to visible light. As a result, photosensitivity enhancement is such that the positive ion implanted PLZT plate is sensitive even to sunlight and conventional room lighting, such as fluorescent and incandescent light sources. The method disclosed includes exposing the PLZT plate to the positive ions at sufficient density, from 1.times.10.sup.12 to 1.times.10.sup.17, and with sufficient energy, from 100 to 500 KeV, to provide photosensitivity enhancement. The PLZT material may have a lanthanum content ranging from 5 to 10%, a lead zirconate content of 62 to 70 mole %, and a lead titanate content of 38 to 30%. The ions are implanted at a depth of 0.1 to 2 microns below the surface of the PLZT plate.

  3. Vibrational spectroscopy of Ga+ ion implanted ta-C films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berova, M.; Sandulov, M.; Tsvetkova, T.; Bischoff, L.; Boettger, R.; Abrashev, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, low energy Ga+ ion beam implantation was used for the structural and optical properties modification of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) thin films, using gallium (Ga+) as the ion species. Thin film samples (d∼40nm) of ta-C, deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA), have been implanted with Ga+ at ion energy E = 20 keV and ion doses D=3.1014÷3.1015 cm-2. The Ga+ ion beam induced structural modification of the implanted material results in a considerable change of its optical properties, displayed in a significant shift of the optical absorption edge to lower photon energies as obtained from optical transmission measurements. This shift is accompanied by a considerable increase of the absorption coefficient (photo-darkening effect) in the measured photon energy range (0.5÷3.0 eV). These effects could be attributed both to additional defect introduction and increased graphitisation, as well as to accompanying formation of bonds between the implanted ions and the host atoms of the target, as confirmed by infra-red (IR) and Raman measurements. The optical contrast thus obtained (between implanted and unimplanted film material) could be made use of for information archiving, in the area of high-density optical data storage, while using focused Ga+ ion beams.

  4. Surface Engineering of Nanostructured Titanium Implants with Bioactive Ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-S; Kim, Y-J; Jang, J-H; Park, J-W

    2016-05-01

    Surface nanofeatures and bioactive ion chemical modification are centrally important in current titanium (Ti) oral implants for enhancing osseointegration. However, it is unclear whether the addition of bioactive ions definitively enhances the osteogenic capacity of a nanostructured Ti implant. We systematically investigated the osteogenesis process of human multipotent adipose stem cells triggered by bioactive ions in the nanostructured Ti implant surface. Here, we report that bioactive ion surface modification (calcium [Ca] or strontium [Sr]) and resultant ion release significantly increase osteogenic activity of the nanofeatured Ti surface. We for the first time demonstrate that ion modification actively induces focal adhesion development and expression of critical adhesion–related genes (vinculin, talin, and RHOA) of human multipotent adipose stem cells, resulting in enhanced osteogenic differentiation on the nanofeatured Ti surface. It is also suggested that fibronectin adsorption may have only a weak effect on early cellular events of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at least in the case of the nanostructured Ti implant surface incorporating Sr. Moreover, results indicate that Sr overrides the effect of Ca and other important surface factors (i.e., surface area and wettability) in the osteogenesis function of various MSCs (derived from human adipose, bone marrow, and murine bone marrow). In addition, surface engineering of nanostructured Ti implants using Sr ions is expected to exert additional beneficial effects on implant bone healing through the proper balancing of the allocation of MSCs between adipogenesis and osteogenesis. This work provides insight into the future surface design of Ti dental implants using surface bioactive ion chemistry and nanotopography. PMID:26961491

  5. The Behavior of Ion-Implanted Hydrogen in Gallium Nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Headley, T.J.; Hills, C.R.; Han, J.; Petersen, G.A.; Seager, C.H.; Wampler, W.R.

    1999-01-07

    Hydrogen was ion-implanted into wurtzite-phase GaN, and its transport, bound states, and microstructural effects during annealing up to 980 C were investigated by nuclear-reaction profiling, ion-channeling analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy. At implanted concentrations 1 at.%, faceted H{sub 2} bubbles formed, enabling identification of energetically preferred surfaces, examination of passivating N-H states on these surfaces, and determination of the diffusivity-solubility product of the H. Additionally, the formation and evolution of point and extended defects arising from implantation and bubble formation were characterized. At implanted H concentrations 0.1 at.%, bubble formation was not observed, and ion-channeling analysis indicated a defect-related H site located within the [0001] channel.

  6. Study of the effects of MeV Ag and Au implantation on the optical properties of LiNbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.K.; Ila, D.; Sarkisov, S.; Curley, M.; Cochrane, J.C.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.; Borel, C.

    1997-10-01

    The authors present the results of characterization of linear absorption and nonlinear refractive index of Au and Ag nanoclusters made by MeV ion implantation into LiNbO{sub 3}. Ag was implanted at 1.5 MeV to fluences of 2 to 17 {times} 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Au was implanted to fluences of 5 to 20 {times} 10{sup 16}/c{sup 2}m at an energy of 2.0 MeV. Optical absorption spectrometry indicated an absorption peak at 560 nm for the Au implanted samples after a 30 minute heat treatment at 500 C in air. The peak shifted to {approximately} 620 nm after heat treatment at 1,000 C. The Ag implanted samples had absorption peaks at 445 to 485 nm before heat treatment. After 500 C heat treatment for 1 h the peaks decreased in height and shifted to 545--560 nm. Heat treatment at 800 C was sufficient to return the Ag implanted crystals to a clear state. The size of the clusters was determined from the absorption peaks. The Ag clusters did not change appreciably in size with heat treatment. The Au clusters increased from 1 to 3 nm upon heat treatment at 1,000 C. Measurements of the nonlinear refractive indices were carried out using the Z-scan method with a tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency doubled mode locked Nd:YAG laser. The dye laser had a 4.5 ps pulse duration time and 76 MHz pulse repetition rate (575 nm).

  7. Third Order Optical Nonlinearity of Colloidal Metal Nanoclusters Formed by MeV Ion Implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, S. S.; Williams, E.; Curley, M.; Ila, D.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.

    1997-01-01

    We report the results of characterization of nonlinear refractive index of the composite material produced by MeV Ag ion implantation of LiNbO(sub 3) crystal (z-cut). The material after implantation exhibited a linear optical absorption spectrum with the surface plasmon peak near 430 nm attributed to the colloidal silver nanoclusters. Heat treatment of the material at 500 deg C caused a shift of the absorption peak to 550 nm. The nonlinear refractive index of the sample after heat treatment was measured in the region of the absorption peak with the Z-scan technique using a tunable picosecond laser source (4.5 ps pulse width).The experimental data were compared against the reference sample made of MeV Cu implanted silica with the absorption peak in the same region. The nonlinear index of the Ag implanted LiNbO(sub 3) sample produced at five times less fluence is on average two times greater than that of the reference.

  8. Ion implantation in semiconductors studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langouche, G.

    1989-03-01

    The application of Mössbauer spectroscopy as an extremely sensitive characterization technique for ion-implanted semiconductors, is illustrated. Factors influencing the final landing site of implanted ions are first reviewed, as well as ion beam induced material modifications. Recent applications of Mössbauer spectroscopy in this field are then discussed including the study of supersaturated solutions of Sb and Sn in Si, the formation of epitaxial and buried silicides and the search for the DX-center in GaAs.

  9. Photoreflectance Study of Boron Ion-Implanted (100) Cadmium Telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amirtharaj, P. M.; Odell, M. S.; Bowman, R. C., Jr.; Alt, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Ion implanted (100) cadmium telluride was studied using the contactless technique of photoreflectance. The implantations were performed using 50- to 400-keV boron ions to a maximum dosage of 1.5 x 10(16)/sq cm, and the annealing was accomplished at 500 C under vacuum. The spectral measurements were made at 77 K near the E(0) and E(1) critical points; all the spectra were computer-fitted to Aspnes' theory. The spectral line shapes from the ion damaged, partially recovered and undamaged, or fully recovered regions could be identified, and the respective volume fraction of each phase was estimated.

  10. Method For Silicon Surface Texturing Using Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kadakia, Nirag; Naczas, Sebastian; Bakhru, Hassaram; Huang Mengbing

    2011-06-01

    As the semiconductor industry continues to show more interest in the photovoltaic market, cheaper and readily integrable methods of silicon solar cell production are desired. One of these methods - ion implantation - is well-developed and optimized in all commercial semiconductor fabrication facilities. Here we have developed a silicon surface texturing technique predicated upon the phenomenon of surface blistering of H-implanted silicon, using only ion implantation and thermal annealing. We find that following the H implant with a second, heavier implant markedly enhances the surface blistering, causing large trenches that act as a surface texturing of c-Si. We have found that this method reduces total broadband Si reflectance from 35% to below 5percent;. In addition, we have used Rutherford backscattering/channeling measurements investigate the effect of ion implantation on the crystallinity of the sample. The data suggests that implantation-induced lattice damage is recovered upon annealing, reproducing the original monocrystalline structure in the previously amorphized region, while at the same time retaining the textured surface.

  11. Optimised Charging Performance On Quantum X Ion Implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, David A.; Sakase, Takao; Miura, Ryuichi; Goldberg, Richard D.; Murrell, Adrian J.

    2006-11-01

    A key parameter in the optimisation of CMOS device yield is the minimisation of charging-induced damage and/or breakdown of the gate dielectric material during ion implantation. In typical ion beams used for transistor doping applications, beam potentials can charge up the wafer surface if not controlled, and hence this potential must be neutralised to avoid damage to devices. MOS capacitor TEG (Test Element Group) wafers are an industry standard metric for determining the charging performance of ion implanters. By optimising the performance of the High Density Plasma Flood System (HDPFS) of the Applied Materials Quantum X ion implanter, TEG device yields of >90% at antenna ratios of 1E5:1 for a gate dielectric thickness of 3.5 nm on 300 mm wafers have been demonstrated.

  12. Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner.

  13. Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, J.R.

    1988-08-16

    Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner. 7 figs.

  14. Influence of Oxygen Ion Implantation on the Damage and Annealing Kinetics of Iron-Implanted Sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, J.D.; McHargue, C.J.

    1999-11-14

    The effects of implanted oxygen on the damage accumulation in sapphire which was previously implanted with iron was studied for (0001) sapphire implanted with iron and then with oxygen. The energies were chosen to give similar projected ranges. One series was implanted with a 1:l ratio (4x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} each) and another with a ratio of 2:3 (4x10{sup 16} fe{sup +}/cm{sup 2}; 6x10{sup 16} O{sup +}/cm{sup 2}). Retained damage, X, in the Al-sublattice, was compared to that produced by implantation of iron alone. The observed disorder was less for the dual implantations suggesting that implantation of oxygen enhanced dynamic recovery during implantation. Samples were annealed for one hour at 800 and 1200 C in an oxidizing and in a reducing atmosphere. No difference was found in the kinetics of recovery in the Al-sublattice between the two dual implant conditions. However, the rate of recovery was different for each from samples implanted with iron alone.

  15. [Improve wear resistance of UHMWPE by O+ ion implanted].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dangsheng

    2003-12-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was implanted with 450 keV and 100 keV O+ ions at dosage of 1 x 10(15)/cm2, 5 x 10(15)/cm2, 3 x 10(14)/cm2, respectively. Its wear behaviors were studied under dry friction condition and lubrication by means of distilled water using a pin-on-disk tribometer with a Si3N4 ceramic ball as a counterface. The wear surfaces were examined with SEM. The experimental results showed that the wear rate of implanted UHMWPE is lower than that of un-implanted UHMWPE under both dry and distilled friction conditions, especially for 450 keV energy and 5 x 10(15)/cm2 dose implantation. The friction coefficient of O+ ions implanted UHMWPE is higher than that of un-implanted UHMWPE under both dry and distilled friction conditions. The adhesive, plow and plastic deformation are the wearing mechanism for un-implanted UHMWPE; the fatigue and abrasive wear are that for implanted UHMWPE.

  16. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, H.; Bethge, K.; Bilger, G.; Jones, D.; Symietz, I.

    2002-11-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (α,α) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction 1H( 15N,αγ) 12C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of marrow bone cells on the implanted sample surface with that of titanium.

  17. Nitrogen and boron ion implantation into electrodeposited hard chrome

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.C.; Tesmer, J.R.; Scarborough, W.K.; Woodring, J.S.; Nastasi, M.; Kern, K.T.

    1996-10-01

    Electrodeposited hard chrome was ion implanted with N alone, B alone, and a combination. Separate N and B implantation was done at 75 keV and incident doses of 2, 4, and 8x10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}. Samples with both N/B implants used 75 keV and incident dose levels of 4x10{sup 17} N- and B-at/cm{sup 2}. Beam-line system was used. Retained dose was measured using ion beam analysis, which indicated most of the incident dose was retained. Surface hardness, wear coefficient, and friction coefficient were determined by nanohardness indentation and pin-on-disk wear. At a depth of 50 nm, surface hardness increased from 18{+-}1 GPa (unimplanted) to a max of 23{+-}4 GPa for B implant and 26{+-}1 GPa for N implant. the wear coefficient was reduced by 1.3x to 7.4x, depending on implantation. N implant results in lower wear coefficients than B implant.

  18. High temperature annealing studies of strontium ion implanted glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odutemowo, O. S.; Malherbe, J. B.; Prinsloo, L.; Langa, D. F.; Wendler, E.

    2016-03-01

    Glassy carbon samples were implanted with 200 keV strontium ions to a fluence of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature. Analysis with Raman spectroscopy showed that ion bombardment amorphises the glassy carbon structure. Partial recovery of the glassy carbon structure was achieved after the implanted sample was vacuum annealed at 900 °C for 1 h. Annealing the strontium ion bombarded sample at 2000 °C for 5 h resulted in recovery of the glassy carbon substrate with the intensity of the D peak becoming lower than that of the pristine glassy carbon. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) showed that the implanted strontium diffused towards the surface of the glassy carbon after annealing the sample at 900 °C. This diffusion was also accompanied by loss of the implanted strontium. Comparison between the as-implanted and 900 °C depth profiles showed that less than 30% of the strontium was retained in the glassy carbon after heat treatment at 900 °C. The RBS profile after annealing at 2000 °C indicated that no strontium ions were retained after heat treatment at this temperature.

  19. High concentration of deuterium in palladium from plasma ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M. )

    1991-11-01

    Based on a theoretical calculation, a new scheme to increase deuterium density in palladium over its initial value is presented. This deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of plasma ion implantation. A cylindrical palladium rod (target) preloaded with deuterium atoms, coated with a diffusion-barrier material, is immersed in a deuterium plasma. The palladium rod is connected to a high-power modulator which provides a series of negative-voltage pulses. During these negative pulses, deuterium ions fall into the target, penetrate the diffusion barrier, and are implanted inside the palladium. For reasonable system parameters allowed by present technology, it is found from theoretical calculations that the saturation deuterium density after prolonged ion implantation can be several times the palladium atomic number density. Assuming an initial deuterium density, {ital n}{sub 0}=4{times}10{sup 22} cm{sup {minus}3}, it is also found that the deuterium density in palladium can triple its original value within a few days of the ion implantation for a reasonable target size. Because of the small diffusion coefficient in palladium, the incoming ions do not diffuse quickly inward, thereby accumulating near the target surface at the beginning of the implantation.

  20. Ion/water channels for embryo implantation barrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Mei; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Successful implantation involves three distinct processes, namely the embryo apposition, attachment, and penetration through the luminal epithelium of the endometrium to establish a vascular link to the mother. After penetration, stromal cells underlying the epithelium differentiate and surround the embryo to form the embryo implantation barrier, which blocks the passage of harmful substances to the embryo. Many ion/water channel proteins were found to be involved in the process of embryo implantation. First, ion/water channel proteins play their classical role in establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane. Second, most of ion/water channel proteins are regulated by steroid hormone (estrogen or progesterone), which may have important implications to the embryo implantation. Last but not least, these proteins do not limit themselves as pure channels but also function as an initiator of a series of consequences once activated by their ligand/stimulator. Herein, we discuss these new insights in recent years about the contribution of ion/water channels to the embryo implantation barrier construction during early pregnancy. PMID:24789983

  1. Osteoconductivity of hydrophilic microstructured titanium implants with phosphate ion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Woo; Jang, Je-Hee; Lee, Chong Soo; Hanawa, Takao

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the surface characteristics and bone response of titanium implants produced by hydrothermal treatment using H(3)PO(4), and compared them with those of implants produced by commercial surface treatment methods - machining, acid etching, grit blasting, grit blasting/acid etching or spark anodization. The surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, thin-film X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and stylus profilometry. The osteoconductivity of experimental implants was evaluated by removal torque testing and histomorphometric analysis after 6 weeks of implantation in rabbit tibiae. Hydrothermal treatment with H(3)PO(4) and subsequent heat treatment produced a crystalline phosphate ion-incorporated oxide (titanium oxide phosphate hydrate, Ti(2)O(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2); TiP) surface approximately 5microm in thickness, which had needle-like surface microstructures and superior wettability compared with the control surfaces. Significant increases in removal torque forces and bone-to-implant contact values were observed for TiP implants compared with those of the control implants (p<0.001). After thorough cleaning of the implants removed during the removal torque testing, a considerable quantity of attached bone was observed on the surfaces of the TiP implants. PMID:19332400

  2. Surface modification of Natural Rubber by ion implantation: Evidence for implant doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predeep, P.; Najidha, S.; Sreeja, R.; Saxena, N. S.

    2005-12-01

    Ion implantation is one of the most powerful and well-known technique for surface modification in polymers. Thin films of Natural Rubber were modified by the implantation of 60 keV N + ions to the fluences of 10 11-10 15 cm -2. The electrical conductivity measurements of irradiated sample show 10 orders of magnitude compared to pristine state. Along with conductivity change there was a noticeable change in color to a dense shiny black for the most highly conducting films. The analysis of temperature dependence of dc electrical conductivity data reveals a three-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism. The microstructural evolution of the virgin and ion-beam modified samples was investigated by spectroscopic analysis such as UV/Vis & FTIR. These spectral studies gave evidence for the production of conjugate double bonds, which is a clear cut indication of implant doping. This is an important result since ion implantation usually does not produce doping in polymeric materials and only a few reports about the possibility of implant doping in polymers are available. The significant aspect of this study is that this confirms, the Natural Rubber's potential to be used as a microelectronic device material. Also an attempt has been made to compare the conductivity enhancement in Natural Rubber by chemical and implant doping.

  3. The influence of silver-ion doping using ion implantation on the luminescence properties of Er-Yb silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, S.; Nekvindova, P.; Svecova, B.; Vytykacova, S.; Mika, M.; Oswald, J.; Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Spirkova, J.

    2016-03-01

    A set of zinc-silicate glasses with different ratios of erbium and ytterbium was fabricated. To achieve Ag-rich thin films in a sub-surface layer, ion-implantation technique at an energy of 1.2 MeV and 1.7 MeV with a fluence of 1 × 1016 cm-2 was used. Post-implantation annealing was also applied. Changes in the spectroscopic and lasing properties of erbium ions as a function of implantation fluence of silver were studied with the aim to assess the positive effect of silver as a sensitiser of erbium luminescence. Therefore, absorption spectra in the visible range as well as luminescence spectra in the near-infrared range were measured and partially also the 4I11/2-4I15/2 transition of the erbium ion was studied. The results showed that silver positively influenced luminescence intensity at 1530 nm by increasing it almost three times. The biggest increase was achieved in glass with the highest concentration of erbium. Luminescence lifetime was not significantly influenced by the presence of silver and still remained around 10 ms.

  4. Photoluminescence of ion-implanted GaN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pankove, J. I.; Hutchby, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-five elements were implanted in GaN. Their photoluminescence spectra were measured and compared to those of an unimplanted control sample. Most impurities emit a peak at about 2.15 eV. Mg, Zn, Cd, Ca, As, Hg, and Ag have more characteristic emissions. Zn provides the most efficient recombination center. A set of midgap states is generated during the damage-annealing treatment.

  5. On carbon nitride synthesis at high-dose ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, E. A.; Bespalova, O. V.; Borisov, A. M.; Goryaga, N. G.; Kulikauskas, V. S.; Sukharev, V. G.; Zatekin, V. V.

    1998-04-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was used for the study of high dose 35 keV nitrogen ions implantation into graphites and glassy carbon. Quantitative data on depth profiles and its dependencies on irradiation fluence and ion beam density were obtained. The stationary dome-shaped depth profile with maximum nitrogen concentration 22-27 at.% and half-width more than twice exceeding projected range of ions is reached at fluence Φ ˜10 18 cm -2. The dependence of the maximum concentration in the profile on ion current density was studied. The largest concentration was obtained at reduced ion current density.

  6. Fluorescence switch for silver ion detection utilizing dimerization of DNA-Ag nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Park, Juhee; Hee Lee, Hong; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Hugh I; Kim, Won Jong

    2015-06-15

    A fluorescence switch that consists of DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) triggered by silver ion (Ag(+)) is developed to detect Ag(+). The mechanism of the fluorescence switching of DNA-AgNCs is investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, DNA hybridization assay and mass spectrometry. Ag(+) induces a dimeric structure of Cyt12-AgNCs by forming a bridge between two Cyt12-AgNCs, where Cyt12 is cytosine 12-mer; this dimer formation causes the fluorescence change of Cyt12-AgNCs from red to green. Using this Ag(+)-triggered fluorescence switch, we successfully detected Ag(+) at concentrations as low as 10nM. Furthermore, we quantitatively detected the Ag(+) in the Silmazin(®), which is dermatological burn ointment having silver sulfadiazine. Ag(+) detection using this fluorescence switch has high selectivity and sensitivity, and short response time, and can be used successfully even in the presence of other metal ions.

  7. GaAs Hall devices produced by local ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettenpaul, E.; Huber, J.; Weidlich, H.; Flossmann, W.; von Borcke, U.

    1981-08-01

    GaAs Hall devices were produced by complete planar technology using two selective silicon ion implantation steps. The fundamental characteristics of these devices with respect to reproducible implantation dose and geometry of cross-shaped elements are obtained both by experiment and calculation. The prominent properties of the GaAs Hall elements presented are high sensitivity and linearity, small temperature dependence of sensitivity and resistance, and low residual voltage.

  8. Surface modification of SKD-61 steel by ion implantation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, F. L.; Lo, Y.-L.; Yu, Y.-C.

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how ion implantation affects the surface characteristics and nitrogenizing depth of the thin film by the use of a NEC 9SDH-2 3 MV Pelletron accelerator that implants nitrogen ions into SKD-61 tool steels for surface modification. Nitrogen ions were implanted into the surface layer of materials so that the hardness of modified films could be improved. Also, the nitride film stripping problems of the traditional nitrogenizing treatment could be overcome by a new approach in surface process engineering. As nitrogen ions with high velocity impacted on the surface of the substrate, the ions were absorbed and accumulated on the surface of the substrate. The experiments were performed with two energies (i.e., 1 and 2 MeV) and different doses (i.e., 2.5x10{sup 15}, 7.5x10{sup 15}, and 1.5x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}). Nitrogen ions were incorporated into the interface and then diffused through the metal to form a nitride layer. Analysis tools included the calculation of stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM), the detection of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and nanoindentation testing. Through the depth analysis of SIMS, the effects of the ion-implanted SKD-61 steels after heating at 550 deg. C in a vacuum furnace were examined. The nanoindenting results indicate the variation of hardness of SKD-61 steels with the various ion doses. It reaches two to three times the original hardness of SKD-61 steels.

  9. Method For Silicon Surface Texturing Using Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadakia, Nirag; Naczas, Sebastian; Bakhru, Hassaram; Huang, Mengbing

    2011-06-01

    As the semiconductor industry continues to show more interest in the photovoltaic market, cheaper and readily integrable methods of silicon solar cell production are desired. One of these methods—ion implantation—is well-developed and optimized in all commercial semiconductor fabrication facilities. Here we have developed a silicon surface texturing technique predicated upon the phenomenon of surface blistering of H-implanted silicon, using only ion implantation and thermal annealing. We find that following the H implant with a second, heavier implant markedly enhances the surface blistering, causing large trenches that act as a surface texturing of c-Si. We have found that this method reduces total broadband Si reflectance from 35% to below 5percent;. In addition, we have used Rutherford backscattering/channeling measurements investigate the effect of ion implantation on the crystallinity of the sample. The data suggests that implantation-induced lattice damage is recovered upon annealing, reproducing the original monocrystalline structure in the previously amorphized region, while at the same time retaining the textured surface.

  10. Quantitative photothermal characterization of ion-implanted layers in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salnick, Alex; Opsal, Jon

    2002-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of ion-implanted layers in Si using the damage-based theoretical modeling and experimental results obtained with the photomodulated reflectance (PMR) technique are described. Our theoretical approach combines the conventional quantum mechanics based calculations of the ion-induced damage depth profiles in semiconductors with the corresponding scaling of the thermal and carrier plasma parameters followed by the calculation of the photothermal response from a multilayered sample. The theoretical limit of the photothermal signal sensitivity to the implantation dose in the absence of optical and carrier plasma-wave interference effects is estimated. Simulations of the photothermal amplitude and phase dose dependencies allow us to follow the dynamics of the thermal- and carrier plasma waves in an ion-implanted semiconductor. The validity of the proposed damage-based modeling approach to the problem of quantitative analysis of surface-modified semiconductors is analyzed. It is shown that the results of the photothermal damage-based modeling are in a very good agreement with experimentally observed PMR signal implantation dose behavior for B+-implanted Si across the entire range of practically important implantation doses: 109-1015 cm-2.

  11. Influence of ion implantation on titanium surfaces for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischok, Stefan; Blank, Claudia; Engel, Michael; Gutt, Richard; Ecke, Gernot; Schawohl, Jens; Spieß, Lothar; Schrempel, Frank; Hildebrand, Gerhard; Liefeith, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    The implantation of ions into the near surface layer is a new approach to improve the osseointegration of metallic biomaterials like titanium. Meanwhile it is well known that surface topography and surface physico-chemistry as well as visco-elastic properties influence the cell response after implantation of implants into the human body. To optimize the cell response of titanium, ion implantation techniques have been used to integrate calcium and phosphorus, both elements present in the inorganic bone phase. In this context, the concentration profile of the detected elements and their chemical state have been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling. Ion implantation leads to strong changes of the chemical composition of the near surface region, which are expected to modify the biofunctionality as observed in previous experiments on the cell response. The co-implantation of calcium and phosphorus samples, which showed best results in the performed tests (biological and physical), leads to a strong modification of the chemical surface composition.

  12. Ion implantation for manufacturing bent and periodically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bellucci, Valerio; Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo Mazzolari, Andrea; Paternò, Gianfranco; Lanzoni, Luca

    2015-08-10

    Ion implantation is proposed to produce self-standing bent monocrystals. A Si sample 0.2 mm thick was bent to a radius of curvature of 10.5 m. The sample curvature was characterized by interferometric measurements; the crystalline quality of the bulk was tested by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry through synchrotron light at ESRF (Grenoble, France). Dislocations induced by ion implantation affect only a very superficial layer of the sample, namely, the damaged region is confined in a layer 1 μm thick. Finally, an elective application of a deformed crystal through ion implantation is here proposed, i.e., the realization of a crystalline undulator to produce X-ray beams.

  13. Chromium plating pollution source reduction by plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.; Sridharan, K.; Dodd, R.A.; Conrad, J.R.; Qiu, X.; Hamdi, A.H.; Elmoursi, A.A.; Malaczynski, G.W.; Horne, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    There is growing concern over the environmental toxicity and workers` health issues due to the chemical baths and rinse water used in the hard chromium plating process. In this regard the significant hardening response of chromium to nitrogen ion implantation can be environmentally beneficial from the standpoint of decreasing the thickness and the frequency of application of chromium plating. In this paper the results of a study of nitrogen ion implantation of chrome plated test flats using the non-line-of-sight Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) process, are discussed. Surface characterization was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The surface properties were evaluated using a microhardness tester, a pin-on-disk wear tester, and a corrosion measurement system. Industrial field testing of nitrogen PSII treated chromium plated parts showed an improvement by a factor of two compared to the unimplanted case.

  14. Concepts and designs of ion implantation equipment for semiconductor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Peter H.; Ryding, Geoffrey

    2006-11-01

    Manufacturing ion implantation equipment for doping semiconductors has grown into a two billion dollar business. The accelerators developed for nuclear physics research and isotope separation provided the technology from which ion implanters have been developed but the unique requirements of the semiconductor industry defined the evolution of the architecture of these small accelerators. Key elements will be described including ion generation and beam transport systems as well as the techniques used to achieve uniform doping over large wafers. The wafers are processed one at a time or in batches and are moved in and out of the vacuum by automated handling systems. The productivity of an implanter is of economic importance and there is continuing need to increase the usable beam current especially at low energies.

  15. The history of uniformity mapping in ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarling, C. B.; Keenan, W. A.; Larson, L. A.

    1991-04-01

    In the early days of semiconductor manufacturing, the four-point probe became established as the tool-of-choice for monitoring diffusion processes. The application of the four-point probe to ion implantation in the early 1960s was basically limited to the single-point measurement of dose, since the equipment did not have the necessary precision or repeatability to provide useful uniformity results. As a result, implanter uniformity was determined by either a visual observation of a heavily doped wafer or by a mylar bum. Unfortunately, these techniques were either subject to interpretation by the user or could not provide a parameter that could be statistically tracked or characterized. During the last 30 years, the commercial ion implanter as well as the dose and uniformity characterization equipment used to characterize this production tool have progressed significantly. Indeed, several generations of electrical and optical equipment have been developed to measure both the dose and uniformity of the increasingly advanced and complex ion implanter. This paper will review all of the techniques and equipment used to measure the uniformity of ion implantation. In addition, various graphical techniques developed to present early measurement results will be discussed.

  16. Ion Implanted Passivated Contacts for Interdigitated Back Contacted Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Reedy, Robert; Bateman, Nicholas; Stradins, Pauls

    2015-06-14

    We describe work towards an interdigitated back contacted (IBC) solar cell utilizing ion implanted, passivated contacts. Formation of electron and hole passivated contacts to n-type CZ wafers using tunneling SiO2 and ion implanted amorphous silicon (a-Si) are described. P and B were ion implanted into intrinsic amorphous Si films at several doses and energies. A series of post-implant anneals showed that the passivation quality improved with increasing annealing temperatures up to 900 degrees C. The recombination parameter, Jo, as measured by a Sinton lifetime tester, was Jo ~ 14 fA/cm2 for Si:P, and Jo ~ 56 fA/cm2 for Si:B contacts. The contact resistivity for the passivated contacts, as measured by TLM patterns, was 14 milliohm-cm2 for the n-type contact and 0.6 milliohm-cm2 for the p-type contact. These Jo and pcontact values are encouraging for forming IBC cells using ion implantation to spatially define dopants.

  17. Silver sulphide growth on Ag(111): A medium energy ion scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Window, A. J.; Hentz, A.; Sheppard, D. C.; Parkinson, G. S.; Woodruff, D. P.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Bailey, P.

    2010-08-01

    The interaction of S 2 with Ag(111) under ultra-high vacuum conditions has been investigated by medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). 100 keV He + MEIS measurements provide a direct confirmation of a previous report, based on thermal desorption, that the growth of multilayer films of Ag 2S occurs through a continuous corrosion process. These films show a commensurate (√7 × √7)R19° unit mesh in low energy electron diffraction, consistent with the epitaxial growth of (111) layers of the high-temperature F-cubic phase of Ag 2S. The substantial range of co-existing film thicknesses found indicates that the growth must be in the form of variable-thickness islands. The use of 100 keV H + incident ions leads to a very rapid decrease in the sulphide film thickness with increasing exposure that we attribute to an unusual chemical leaching, with implanted H atoms interacting with S atoms and desorption of H 2S from the surface.

  18. Ion implantation induced modification of a-SiC : H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzenov, N.; Tzolov, M.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Tsvetkova, T.; Angelov, C.; Adriaenssens, G.; Pattyn, H.

    1994-02-01

    Optical transmission measurements have been carried out on thin a-SiC:H alloy films, implanted with ions of group IV elements. High doses of the order of 10 17 cm -2 have been used leading to a considerable shift of the absorption edge to lower photon energies. This shift may be attributed both to additional defect introduction and to accompanying formation of bonds between implanted ions and the atoms of the alloy, as confirmed by IR and Raman measurements. The observed chemical modification results from the high concentration of introduced atoms which is of the order of those for the host elements.

  19. Ultrahigh-current-density metal-ion implantation and diamondlike-hydrocarbon films for tribological applications; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbur, P.J.

    1993-09-01

    The metal-ion-implantation system used to implant metals into substrates are described. The metal vapor required for operation is supplied by drawing sufficient electron current from the plasma discharge to an anode-potential crucible so a solid, pure metal placed in the crucible will be heated to the point of vaporization. The ion-producing, plasma discharge is initiated within a graphite-ion-source body, which operates at high temperature, by using an argon flow that is turned off once the metal vapor is present. Extraction of ion beams several cm in diameter at current densities ranging to several hundred {mu}A/cm{sup 2} on a target 50 cm downstream of the ion source have been demonstrated using Mg, Ag, Cr, Cu, Si, Ti, V, B and Zr. These metals were implanted into over 100 substrates (discs, pins, flats, wires). A model describing thermal stresses induced in materials (e.g. ceramic plates) during high-current-density implantation is presented. Tribological and microstructural characteristics of iron and 304-stainless-steel samples implanted with Ti or B are examined. Diamondlike-hydrocarbon coatings were applied to steel surfaces and found to exhibit good tribological performance.

  20. The Influence of Ion Implantation on cell Attachment to Glassy Polymeric Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.; Ila, D.; Gurhan, I.; Ozdal-Kurt, F.; Sen, B. H.; Rodrigues, M.

    2006-11-13

    In vitro biocompatibility tests have been carried out with model cell lines to demonstrate that near surface implantation of silver in Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) can completely inhibit cell attachment on implanted areas while leaving adjacent areas unaffected. Patterned ion implantation permits precise control of tissue growth on medical applications of GPC. We have shown that silver ion implantation or argon ion assisted surface deposition of silver inhibits cell growth on GPC, a desirable improvement of current cardiac implants.

  1. Ion implantation induced swelling in 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Nipoti, R.; Albertazzi, E.; Bianconi, M.; Lotti, R.; Lulli, G.; Cervera, M.; Carnera, A.

    1997-06-01

    Ion implantation induced surface expansion (swelling) of 6H-SiC was investigated through the measurement of the step height between implanted and unimplanted areas. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with 500 keV Al{sup +} ions in the dose range 1.25{times}10{sup 14}{endash}3{times}10{sup 15}ionscm{sup {minus}2}. Swelling was related to dose and the area density of ion-induced damage measured by Rutherford backscattering channeling technique. The observed trend is consistent with the hypothesis that the volume expansion of the ion damaged crystal is proportional to the area density of displaced atoms, plus an additional relaxation occurring at the onset of the crystalline to amorphous transition. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Simulated plasma immersion ion implantation processing of thin wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lejars, A.; Duday, D.; Wirtz, T.; Manova, D.; Maendl, S.

    2010-09-15

    In plasma immersion ion implantation, the dependencies of sheath expansion and ion flux density on substrate geometry are well established. However, effects of extreme diameter variations have not been investigated explicitly. Using an analytical simulation code assuming an infinite mean free path, the sheath expansion, ion flux density, and resulting substrate temperature are explored down to wire diameters of 150 {mu}m. Comparing the results for planar substrates and cylindrical, thin wires, a reduction in the sheath width up to a factor of 10, a faster establishing of a new equilibrium sheath position, and an increase in the ion fluence by a factor of 100 is encountered. The smaller plasma sheath allows for a denser packing of wires during the treatment than for planar substrates. Additionally, the implantation time is reduced, allowing a fast wire transport through the chamber, further increasing the throughput.

  3. Biologic stability of plasma ion-implanted miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Chae; Cha, Jung-Yul; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Park, Young-Chel; Jung, Han-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To gain basic information regarding the biologic stability of plasma ion-implanted miniscrews and their potential clinical applications. Methods Sixteen plasma ion-implanted and 16 sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) miniscrews were bilaterally inserted in the mandibles of 4 beagles (2 miniscrews of each type per quadrant). Then, 250 - 300 gm of force from Ni-Ti coil springs was applied for 2 different periods: 12 weeks on one side and 3 weeks contralaterally. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and mandibular specimens including the miniscrews were collected. The insertion torque and mobility were compared between the groups. The bone-implant contact and bone volume ratio were calculated within 800 µm of the miniscrews and compared between the loading periods. The number of osteoblasts was also quantified. The measurements were expressed as percentages and analyzed by independent t-tests (p < 0.05). Results No significant differences in any of the analyzed parameters were noted between the groups. Conclusions The preliminary findings indicate that plasma ion-implanted miniscrews have similar biologic characteristics to SLA miniscrews in terms of insertion torque, mobility, bone-implant contact rate, and bone volume rate. PMID:23814706

  4. Ion implantation and annealing studies in III-V nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Pearton, S.J.; Williams, J.S.; Tan, H.H.; Karlicek, R.J. Jr.; Stall, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation doping and isolation is expected to play an enabling role for the realization of advanced III-Nitride based devices. In fact, implantation has already been used to demonstrate n- and p-type doping of GaN with Si and Mg or Ca, respectively, as well as to fabricate the first GaN junction field effect transistor. Although these initial implantation studies demonstrated the feasibility of this technique for the III-Nitride materials, further work is needed to realize its full potential. After reviewing some of the initial studies in this field, the authors present new results for improved annealing sequences and defect studies in GaN. First, sputtered AlN is shown by electrical characterization of Schottky and Ohmic contacts to be an effect encapsulant of GaN during the 1,100 C implant activation anneal. The AlN suppresses N-loss from the GaN surface and the formation of a degenerate n{sup +}-surface region that would prohibit Schottky barrier formation after the implant activation anneal. Second, they examine the nature of the defect generation and annealing sequence following implantation using both Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Hall characterization. They show that for a Si-dose of 1 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}2} 50% electrical donor activation is achieved despite a significant amount of residual implantation-induced damage in the material.

  5. Nanocomposite formed by titanium ion implantation into alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Spirin, R. E.; Salvadori, M. C. Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I. G.

    2014-11-14

    Composites of titanium nanoparticles in alumina were formed by ion implantation of titanium into alumina, and the surface electrical conductivity measured in situ as the implantation proceeded, thus generating curves of sheet conductivity as a function of dose. The implanted titanium self-conglomerates into nanoparticles, and the spatial dimensions of the buried nanocomposite layer can thus be estimated from the implantation depth profile. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was performed to measure the implantation depth profile, and was in good agreement with the calculated profile. Transmission electron microscopy of the titanium-implanted alumina was used for direct visualization of the nanoparticles formed. The measured conductivity of the buried layer is explained by percolation theory. We determine that the saturation dose, φ{sub 0}, the maximum implantation dose for which the nanocomposite material still remains a composite, is φ{sub 0} = 2.2 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}, and the corresponding saturation conductivity is σ{sub 0} = 480 S/m. The percolation dose φ{sub c}, below which the nanocomposite still has basically the conductivity of the alumina matrix, was found to be φ{sub c} = 0.84 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}. The experimental results are discussed and compared with a percolation theory model.

  6. Surface induced reactivity for titanium by ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Pham, M T; Reuther, H; Matz, W; Mueller, R; Steiner, G; Oswald, S; Zyganov, I

    2000-06-01

    Calcium and phosphorus storage in a thin layer of titanium surface was achieved by ion implantation. We study the reactivity of this surface in response to a hydrothermal treatment. The incipient implanted species are observed to convert to Ca(2+) and PO(4)(3-), the precursors for generating calcium phosphate polymorphs. Hydroxyapatite is formed from these precursors by an interface-liquid mediated mineralization preceded by the hydrolysis of oxygen compounds of Ca and P from the solid phase. The morphology and organization of apatite mineral is controlled by the fluid dynamics reflecting the surface remodeling to adapt to the available local environment. Exposed to calcium and phosphate ion containing solution, the hydrothermally treated surface templates hydroxyapatite deposition. Ca and P implanted Ti surface was shown to be chemically and morphologically actively involved in the interfacial reactions.

  7. PARMELA simulations of RF linear accelerators for ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, D. R.; Wan Zhimin; Di Vergilio, W. F.; Saadatmand, K.

    1999-06-10

    RF linear accelerators (LINACs) offer the highest beam energies and currents available to the high-energy segment of the ion-implantation industry. We are using the computer code PARMELA to simulate a variety of beam parameters. The simulations are used to generate beam tunes, optimize LINAC performance, and to design new LINACs.

  8. Magnetic and Transport Properties of Mn-ion implanted Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisler, V.; Ogawa, M.; Han, X.; Wang, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic and transport properties of Mn-ion implanted Si. Both temperature dependent and field dependent measurements of the samples using a SQUID magnometer reveal ferromagnetic properties at room temperature. Magnetotransport measurements show a large positive magnetoresistance up to 4.5 T with no signs of saturation.

  9. Effects of implanted solutes and heavy-ion cascades on the kinetics of radiation-induced segregation in binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobbe, Michael John, III

    Various electron and dual ion irradiations were conducted to investigate the effect of implanted solutes and heavy-ion cascades on the fluxes of freely-migrating defects which drive radiation-induced segregation (RIS) in Ni-9at.%Al and Cu-1at.%Au alloys. To study the effect of solute implantation on RIS, the segregation rate of Al atoms in Ni-9at.%Al following the implantation of Ne, Sc, or Zr was quantified using in-situ measurements of the growth rate of gamma '-Ni3Al precipitate zones produced during 900-keV electron irradiations between 450 and 625°C in a HVEM. It was found that the implantation of 0.06at.%Ne, 0.12at.%Sc, and 0.06at.%Zr resulted in very strong, small, and no RIS suppression in Ni-9at.%Al, respectively. The Ne effect increased with increasing implantation dose at 450°C and with increasing electron irradiation temperature between 550 and 625°C. In-situ Rutherford backscattering (RBS) was used to measure the RIS suppression effect of heavy-ion bombardment, i.e., 300-keV Al+, 800-keV Cu+, and 1.2-MeV Ag+, on 1.5-MeV He+-induced Au transport away from the near-surface region during concurrent He + and heavy-ion irradiation of Cu-1at.%Au at 400°C. Results demonstrated that the suppression of He+-induced RIS in Cu-1at.%Au caused by concurrent heavy-ion irradiation correlated well with the cascade volume produced by Al+, Cu+, or Ag+ per second and was independent of the heavy ion used. Computer simulations of dual beam experiments based on the Johnson-Lam model for RIS kinetics in binary alloys were also performed, and these simulations supported the RBS results.

  10. Versatile, high-sensitivity faraday cup array for ion implanters

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Patterson, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    An improved Faraday cup array for determining the dose of ions delivered to a substrate during ion implantation and for monitoring the uniformity of the dose delivered to the substrate. The improved Faraday cup array incorporates a variable size ion beam aperture by changing only an insertable plate that defines the aperture without changing the position of the Faraday cups which are positioned for the operation of the largest ion beam aperture. The design enables the dose sensitivity range, typically 10.sup.11 -10.sup.18 ions/cm.sup.2 to be extended to below 10.sup.6 ions/cm.sup.2. The insertable plate/aperture arrangement is structurally simple and enables scaling to aperture areas between <1 cm.sup.2 and >750 cm.sup.2, and enables ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications by incorporation of UHV-compatible materials.

  11. The Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles in Bacillus subtilis Are Mediated by Released Ag+ Ions

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Lin, Kuen-Song; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Chiang, Chao-Lung; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2015-01-01

    The superior antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are well-documented, but the exact mechanisms underlying Ag-NP microbial toxicity remain the subject of intense debate. Here, we show that Ag-NP concentrations as low as 10 ppm exert significant toxicity against Bacillus subtilis, a beneficial bacterium ubiquitous in the soil. Growth arrest and chromosomal DNA degradation were observed, and flow cytometric quantification of propidium iodide (PI) staining also revealed that Ag-NP concentrations of 25 ppm and above increased membrane permeability. RedoxSensor content analysis and Phag-GFP expression analysis further indicated that reductase activity and cytosolic protein expression decreased in B. subtilis cells treated with 10–50 ppm of Ag NPs. We conducted X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses to directly clarify the valence and fine structure of Ag atoms in B. subtilis cells placed in contact with Ag NPs. The results confirmed the Ag species in Ag NP-treated B. subtilis cells as Ag2O, indicating that Ag-NP toxicity is likely mediated by released Ag+ ions from Ag NPs, which penetrate bacterial cells and are subsequently oxidized intracellularly to Ag2O. These findings provide conclusive evidence for the role of Ag+ ions in Ag-NP microbial toxicity, and suggest that the impact of inappropriately disposed Ag NPs to soil and water ecosystems may warrant further investigation. PMID:26669836

  12. The Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles in Bacillus subtilis Are Mediated by Released Ag+ Ions.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Lin, Kuen-Song; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Chiang, Chao-Lung; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2015-01-01

    The superior antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are well-documented, but the exact mechanisms underlying Ag-NP microbial toxicity remain the subject of intense debate. Here, we show that Ag-NP concentrations as low as 10 ppm exert significant toxicity against Bacillus subtilis, a beneficial bacterium ubiquitous in the soil. Growth arrest and chromosomal DNA degradation were observed, and flow cytometric quantification of propidium iodide (PI) staining also revealed that Ag-NP concentrations of 25 ppm and above increased membrane permeability. RedoxSensor content analysis and Phag-GFP expression analysis further indicated that reductase activity and cytosolic protein expression decreased in B. subtilis cells treated with 10-50 ppm of Ag NPs. We conducted X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses to directly clarify the valence and fine structure of Ag atoms in B. subtilis cells placed in contact with Ag NPs. The results confirmed the Ag species in Ag NP-treated B. subtilis cells as Ag2O, indicating that Ag-NP toxicity is likely mediated by released Ag+ ions from Ag NPs, which penetrate bacterial cells and are subsequently oxidized intracellularly to Ag2O. These findings provide conclusive evidence for the role of Ag+ ions in Ag-NP microbial toxicity, and suggest that the impact of inappropriately disposed Ag NPs to soil and water ecosystems may warrant further investigation. PMID:26669836

  13. Broad-beam, high current, metal ion implantation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    We have developed a high current metal ion implantation facility with which high current beams of virtually all the solid metals of the Periodic Table can be produced. The facility makes use of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source which is operated in a pulsed mode, with pulse width 0.25 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred keV because of the ion charge state multiplicity; beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line-of-sight from ion source to target. Here we describe the facility and some of the implants that have been carried out using it, including the seeding' of silicon wafers prior to CVD with titanium, palladium or tungsten, the formation of buried iridium silicide layers, and actinide (uranium and thorium) doping of III-V compounds. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Plasma immersion ion implantation for SOI synthesis: SIMOX and ion-cut

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Iyer, S.S.K.; Hu, C.; Cheung, N.W.; Lee, J.; Doyle, B.; Fan, Z.; Chu, P.K.

    1998-09-01

    The authors have demonstrated feasibility to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for both separation by implantation of oxygen and ion-cut. This high throughput technique can substantially lower the high cost of SOI substrates due to the simpler implanter design as well as ease of maintenance. For separation by plasma implantation of oxygen wafers, secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis and cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs show continuous buried oxide formation under a single-crystal silicon overlayer with sharp Si/SiO{sub 2} interfaces after oxygen plasma implantation and high-temperature (1,300 C) annealing. Ion-cut SOI wafer fabrication technique is implemented for the first time using PIII. The hydrogen plasma can be optimized so that only one ion species is dominant in concentration and there are minimal effects by other residual ions on the ion-cut process. The physical mechanism of hydrogen induced silicon surface layer cleavage has been investigated. An ideal gas law model of the microcavity internal pressure combined with a two-dimensional finite element fracture mechanics model is used to approximate the fracture driving force which is sufficient to overcome the silicon fracture resistance.

  15. Resonance ionization of holmium for ion implantation in microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, F.; Chrysalidis, K.; Dorrer, H.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Haas, R.; Kieck, T.; Mokry, C.; Naubereit, P.; Schmidt, S.; Wendt, K.

    2016-06-01

    The determination of the electron neutrino mass by calorimetric measurement of the 163 Ho electron capture spectrum requires ultra-pure samples. Several collaborations, like ECHo or HOLMES, intend to employ microcalorimeters into which 163 Ho is implanted as an ion beam. This makes a selective and additionally very efficient ion source for holmium mandatory. For this purpose, laser resonance ionization of stable holmium 165 Ho was studied, using a three step excitation scheme driven by pulsed Ti:sapphire lasers. Five measurements with sample sizes of 1014 and 1015 atoms were performed for the efficiency investigation. In average, an excellent ionization efficiency of 32(5) % could be shown, demonstrating the suitability for ion beam implantation.

  16. Characterization of carbon ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Kai; Wang, Yibo; Li, Zhuguo; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-08-15

    Austenitic stainless steel 316L is ion implanted by carbon with implantation fluences of 1.2 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}, 2.4 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}, and 4.8 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}. The ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel is investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance is evaluated by potentiodynamic test. It is found that the initial phase is austenite with a small amount of ferrite. After low fluence carbon ion implantation, an amorphous layer and ferrite phase enriched region underneath are formed. Nanophase particles precipitate from the amorphous layer due to energy minimization and irradiation at larger ion implantation fluence. The morphology of the precipitated nanophase particles changes from circular to dumbbell-like with increasing implantation fluence. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is enhanced by the formation of amorphous layer and graphitic solid state carbon after carbon ion implantation. - Highlights: • Carbon implantation leads to phase transformation from austenite to ferrite. • The passive film on SS316L becomes thinner after carbon ion implantation. • An amorphous layer is formed by carbon ion implantation. • Nanophase precipitate from amorphous layer at higher ion implantation fluence. • Corrosion resistance of SS316L is improved by carbon implantation.

  17. Miniaturized EAPs with compliant electrodes fabricated by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, H.

    2011-04-01

    Miniaturizing dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators will lead to highly-integrated mechanical systems on a chip, combining dozens to thousands of actuators and sensors on a few cm2. We present here µm to mm scale electroactive polymer (EAP) devices, batch fabricated on the chip or wafer scale, based on ion-implanted electrodes. Low-energy (2-10 keV) implantation of gold ions into a silicone elastomer leads to compliant stretchable electrodes consisting of a buried 20 nm thick layer of gold nanoparticles in a silicone matrix. These electrodes: 1) conduct at strains up to 175%, 2) are patternable on the µm scale, 3) have stiffness similar to silicone, 4) have good conductivity, and 5) excellent adhesion since implanted in the silicone. The EAP devices consist of 20 to 30 µm thick silicone membranes with µm to mm-scale ion-implanted electrodes on both sides, bonded to a holder. Depending on electrode shape and membrane size, several actuation modes are possible. Characterization of 3mm diameter bi-directional buckling mode actuators, mm-scale tunable lens arrays, 2-axis beam steering mirrors, as well as arrays of 72 cell-size (100x200 µm2) actuators to apply mechanical strain to single cells are reported. Speeds of up to several kHz are observed.

  18. Engineering single photon emitters by ion implantation in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Naydenov, B.; Kolesov, R.; Batalov, A.; Meijer, J.; Pezzagna, S.; Rogalla, D.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2009-01-01

    Diamond provides unique technological platform for quantum technologies including quantum computing and communication. Controlled fabrication of optically active defects is a key element for such quantum toolkit. Here we report the production of single color centers emitting in the blue spectral region by high energy implantation of carbon ions. We demonstrate that single implanted defects show sub-poissonian statistics of the emitted photons and can be explored as single photon source in quantum cryptography. Strong zero phonon line at 470.5 nm allows unambiguous identification of this defect as interstitial-related TR12 color center. PMID:19956415

  19. Engineering single photon emitters by ion implantation in diamond.

    PubMed

    Naydenov, B; Kolesov, R; Batalov, A; Meijer, J; Pezzagna, S; Rogalla, D; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J

    2009-11-01

    Diamond provides unique technological platform for quantum technologies including quantum computing and communication. Controlled fabrication of optically active defects is a key element for such quantum toolkit. Here we report the production of single color centers emitting in the blue spectral region by high energy implantation of carbon ions. We demonstrate that single implanted defects show sub-poissonian statistics of the emitted photons and can be explored as single photon source in quantum cryptography. Strong zero phonon line at 470.5 nm allows unambiguous identification of this defect as interstitial-related TR12 color center. PMID:19956415

  20. Microwave annealing of ion implanted 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.A.; Rao, M.V.; Tian, Y.L.; Holland, O.W.; Kelner, G.; Freitas, J.A. Jr.; Ahmad, I.

    1996-05-01

    Microwave rapid thermal annealing has been utilized to remove the lattice damage caused by nitrogen (N) ion-implantation as well as to activate the dopant in 6H-SiC. Samples were annealed at temperatures as high as 1,400 C, for 10 min. Van der Pauw Hall measurements indicate an implant activation of 36%, which is similar to the value obtained for the conventional furnace annealing at 1,600 C. Good lattice quality restoration was observed in the Rutherford backscattering and photoluminescence spectra.

  1. Engineering single photon emitters by ion implantation in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, B.; Kolesov, R.; Batalov, A.; Meijer, J.; Pezzagna, S.; Rogalla, D.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2009-11-01

    Diamond provides unique technological platform for quantum technologies including quantum computing and communication. Controlled fabrication of optically active defects is a key element for such quantum toolkit. Here we report the production of single color centers emitting in the blue spectral region by high energy implantation of carbon ions. We demonstrate that single implanted defects show sub-poissonian statistics of the emitted photons and can be explored as single photon source in quantum cryptography. Strong zero phonon line at 470.5 nm allows unambiguous identification of this defect as interstitial-related TR12 color center.

  2. Engineering single photon emitters by ion implantation in diamond.

    PubMed

    Naydenov, B; Kolesov, R; Batalov, A; Meijer, J; Pezzagna, S; Rogalla, D; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J

    2009-11-01

    Diamond provides unique technological platform for quantum technologies including quantum computing and communication. Controlled fabrication of optically active defects is a key element for such quantum toolkit. Here we report the production of single color centers emitting in the blue spectral region by high energy implantation of carbon ions. We demonstrate that single implanted defects show sub-poissonian statistics of the emitted photons and can be explored as single photon source in quantum cryptography. Strong zero phonon line at 470.5 nm allows unambiguous identification of this defect as interstitial-related TR12 color center.

  3. Pulse height defect of energetic heavy ions in ion-implanted Si detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, G.; Casini, G.; Bini, M.; Calamai, S.; Olmi, A.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Steckmeyer, J. C.

    1998-02-01

    The pulse height defect in ion-implanted silicon detectors for elastically scattered 93Nb, 100Mo, 116Sn, 120Sn and 129Xe ions, at energies ranging from about 4 to 25 A MeV has been measured. The results are compared with two widely used parametrizations taken from the literature.

  4. Charge neutralization apparatus for ion implantation system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kunkel, Wulf B.; Williams, Malcom D.; McKenna, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for neutralization of a workpiece such as a semiconductor wafer in a system wherein a beam of positive ions is applied to the workpiece. The apparatus includes an electron source for generating an electron beam and a magnetic assembly for generating a magnetic field for guiding the electron beam to the workpiece. The electron beam path preferably includes a first section between the electron source and the ion beam and a second section which is coincident with the ion beam. The magnetic assembly generates an axial component of magnetic field along the electron beam path. The magnetic assembly also generates a transverse component of the magnetic field in an elbow region between the first and second sections of the electron beam path. The electron source preferably includes a large area lanthanum hexaboride cathode and an extraction grid positioned in close proximity to the cathode. The apparatus provides a high current, low energy electron beam for neutralizing charge buildup on the workpiece.

  5. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

  6. Develop techniques for ion implantation of PLZT for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, R. A.; Batishko, C. R.; Brimhall, J. L.; Pawlewicz, W. T.; Stahl, K. A.

    1989-11-01

    Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted research into the preparation and characterization of ion-implanted adaptive optic elements based on lead-lanthanum-zirconate-titanate (PLZT). Over the 4-yr effort beginning FY 1985, the ability to increase the photosensitivity of PLZT and extend it to longer wavelengths was developed. The emphasis during the last two years was to develop a model to provide a basis for choosing implantation species and parameters. Experiments which probe the electronic structure were performed on virgin and implanted PLZT samples. Also performed were experiments designed to connect the developing conceptual model with the experimental results. The emphasis in FY 1988 was to extend the photosensitivity out to diode laser wavelengths. The experiments and modelling effort indicate that manganese will form appropriate intermediate energy states to achieve the longer wavelength photosensitivity. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to deposit thin film PLZT.

  7. Deep Trench Doping by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nizou, S.; Vervisch, V.; Etienne, H.; Torregrosa, F.; Roux, L.; Ziti, M.; Alquier, D.; Roy, M.

    2006-11-13

    The realization of three dimensional (3D) device structures remains a great challenge in microelectronics. One of the main technological breakthroughs for such devices is the ability to control dopant implantation along silicon trench sidewalls. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) has shown its wide efficiency for specific doping processing in semiconductor applications. In this work, we propose to study the capability of PIII method for large scale silicon trench doping. Ultra deep trenches with high aspect ratio were etched on 6'' N type Si wafers. Wafers were then implanted with a PIII Pulsion system using BF3 gas source at various pressures and energies. The obtained results evidence that PIII can be used and are of grateful help to define optimized processing conditions to uniformly dope silicon trench sidewalls through the wafers.

  8. Ion-implantation studies of nuclear-waste forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northrup, C. J. M., Jr.; Arnold, G. W.; Headley, T. J.

    1981-11-01

    The first observations of physical and chemical changes induced by lead implantation damage and leaching are reported for two proposed US nuclear waste forms for commercial wastes. To simulate the effects of recoil nuclei due to alpha decay, the materials were implanted with lead ions at equivalent doses. In the titanate waste form, the zirconolite, perovskite, hollandite, and rutile phases all exhibited a mottled appearance in the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) typical of defect clusters in radiation damaged, crystalline solids. One titanate phase containing uranium was found by TEM to be amorphous after implantation at the highest dose. No enhanced leaching (deionized water, room temperature, 24 hours) of the irradiated titanate waste form, including the amorphous phase, was detected by TEM, but Rutherford backscattering (RBS) suggested a loss of cesium and calcium after 21 hours of leaching.

  9. Diffusion mechanism and the thermal stability of fluorine ions in GaN after ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. J.; Yuan, L.; Chen, K. J.; Xu, F. J.; Shen, B.

    2009-04-15

    The diffusion mechanisms of fluorine ions in GaN are investigated by means of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Instead of incorporating fluorine ions close to the sample surface by fluorine plasma treatment, fluorine ion implantation with an energy of 180 keV is utilized to implant fluorine ions deep into the GaN bulk, preventing the surface effects from affecting the data analysis. It is found that the diffusion of fluorine ions in GaN is a dynamic process featuring an initial out-diffusion followed by in- diffusion and the final stabilization. A vacancy-assisted diffusion model is proposed to account for the experimental observations, which is also consistent with results on molecular dynamic simulation. Fluorine ions tend to occupy Ga vacancies induced by ion implantation and diffuse to vacancy rich regions. The number of continuous vacancy chains can be significantly reduced by a dynamic thermal annealing process. As a result, strong local confinement and stabilization of fluorine ions can be obtained in GaN crystal, suggesting excellent thermal stability of fluorine ions for device applications.

  10. High yield antibiotic producing mutants of Streptomyces erythreus induced by low energy ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chen; Zhixin, Lin; Zuyao, Zou; Feng, Zhang; Duo, Liu; Xianghuai, Liu; Jianzhong, Tang; Weimin, Zhu; Bo, Huang

    1998-05-01

    Conidia of Streptomyces erythreus, an industrial microbe, were implanted by nitrogen ions with energy of 40-60 keV and fluence from 1 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. The logarithm value of survival fraction had good linear relationship with the logarithm value of fluence. Some mutants with a high yield of erythromycin were induced by ion implantation. The yield increment was correlated with the implantation fluence. Compared with the mutation results induced by ultraviolet rays, mutation effects of ion implantation were obvious having higher increasing erythromycin potency and wider mutation spectrum. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were implanted by arsenic ions with energy of 100 keV. The distribution of implanted ions was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and calculated in theory. The mechanism of mutation induced by ion implantation was discussed.

  11. Pitting behavior of aluminum ion implanted with nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, E.; Natishan, P.M.; Hubler, G.K.

    1997-07-01

    Ion implantation of {approx} 2 at% N into aluminum increased the pitting potential in 0.1 M sodium chloride by an average of 0.35 V. Surface analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed implanted nitrogen was present as several species: NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO or NH{sub 3} (as a ligand), AIN, and weakly bound or interstitial nitrogen. With anodic polarization, there was an increase in the total amount of nitrogen in the near-surface region, a decrease in the relative amount of nitride, and an increase in the relative amount of NO or NH{sub 3}. These changes resulted from migration of implanted nitrogen from the substrate into the near-surface region with partial conversion of the AIN species to NO or NH{sub 3}. It was suggested that the effect of implanted nitrogen on pitting behavior of aluminum is similar to that in nitrogen-containing stainless steels, where nitrogen at the metal surface inhibits the dissolution kinetics or aids the repassivation process in the pit by forming NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions that buffer the pit electrolyte.

  12. Surface microanalytical studies of nitrogen ion-implanted steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Charles G.; Meeker, G. P.; Baumann, Scott M.; Norberg, James C.; Legg, Keith O.

    1985-03-01

    Five types of industrial steels, 1018, 52100, M-2, 440C, and 304 were ion implanted with nitrogen and subjected to surface microanalysis by three independent surface techniques: AES, RBS, and SIMS. The results provided understanding for earlier observations of the properties of various types of steel after nitrogen implantation. The steels that retained the most nitrogen and that have been reported to benefit the most in improved tribological properties from ion implantation were ferritic carbon and austenitic stainless steels, such as soft 1018 and 304, respectively. Heat-treated martensitic carbon steels such as 52100 and M-2 tool steel were found to retain the least nitrogen, and they have been reported to benefit less from nitrogen implantation; however, the interaction of transition metal carbides in M-2 with nitrogen has not been clarified. The data showed that 440C steel retained as much nitrogen as 1018 and 304, but treatment benefits may be limited to improvements in properties related to toughness and impact resistance.

  13. The enhanced anticoagulation for graphene induced by COOH(+) ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqi; Cao, Ye; Zhao, Mengli; Deng, Jianhua; Li, Xifei; Li, Dejun

    2015-01-01

    Graphene may have attractive properties for some biomedical applications, but its potential adverse biological effects, in particular, possible modulation when it comes in contact with blood, require further investigation. Little is known about the influence of exposure to COOH(+)-implanted graphene (COOH(+)/graphene) interacting with red blood cells and platelets. In this paper, COOH(+)/graphene was prepared by modified Hummers' method and implanted by COOH(+) ions. The structure and surface chemical and physical properties of COOH(+)/graphene were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle measurement. Systematic evaluation of anticoagulation, including in vitro platelet adhesion assays and hemolytic assays, proved that COOH(+)/graphene has significant anticoagulation. In addition, at the dose of 5 × 10(17) ions/cm(2), COOH(+)/graphene responded best on platelet adhesion, aggregation, and platelet activation.

  14. Ion implantation, a method for fabricating light guides in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, J. R.; Franke, H.; Singh, Amarjit; Lessard, Roger A.; Knystautas, Emile J.

    1988-04-01

    Li+ and N+ ions were implanted into aliphatic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polyvinylalcohol (PVA), and aromatic polyimide (PI) polycarbonate (PC) polymers in the energy range of 100-130 keV. Planar optical waveguides guiding between one and three modes were formed. For low implantation doses (≤ 1014 ions/cm2), total waveguide loss values at λ=633 nm were found to be less than 2 dB/cm. The changes in the refractive index were found to be very large (Δn≥0.05) in the case of PMMA and PVA. We interpret this change in refractive index as being due to the formation of aromatic compounds in the regions of electronic scattering.

  15. FIM/IAP/TEM studies of ion implanted nickel emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, S.D.; Hren, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Accurate depth profiling of implanted hydrogen and its isotopes in metals is extremely important. Field ion microscopy and atom-probe techniques provide the most accurate depth profiling analytical method of any available. In addition, they are extremely sensitive to hydrogen. This paper reports our early work on hydrogen trapping at defects in metals using the Field Ion Microscope/Imaging Atom Probe (FIM/IAP). Our results deal primarily with the control experiments required to overcome instrumental difficulties associated with in situ implantation and the influence of a high electric field. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been used extensively to independently examine the influence of high electric fields on emitters. 11 references, 7 figures.

  16. Control of microelectromechanical systems membrane curvature by silicon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Mavoori, H.; Kim, J.; Aksyuk, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    Thin silicon membranes in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical devices such as beam-steering, movable mirrors may exhibit undesirable curvature when their surface is metallized with light-reflecting metals to enhance optical performance. We have applied Si+ ion implantations at dose levels of 0.4-5×1016/cm2 into the gold metallization layer to successfully reduce the mirror curvature as well as the degree of its temperature-dependent changes. The curvature change as well as the temperature dependence is found to be dependent on the implantation dose. The mechanism of the observed curvature flattening effect is attributed mostly to the induced compressive stress in gold metallization caused by the insertion of foreign implanted atoms of silicon. Such a Si implantation approach can be useful as a means for post-fabrication correction of unwanted curvature in MEMS membranes, as well as a technique to intentionally introduce a desired degree of curvature if needed. A convenient blanket implantation process can be utilized with minimal contamination problems as Si is a common element already present in the MEMS.

  17. Temperature behavior of damage in sapphire implanted with light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, E.; Marques, C.; Sáfrán, G.; McHargue, Carl J.

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we compare and discuss the defect behavior of sapphire single crystals implanted with different fluences (1 × 1016-1 × 1017 cm-2) of carbon and nitrogen with 150 keV. The implantation temperatures were RT, 500 °C and 1000 °C to study the influence of temperature on the defect structures. For all the ions the Rutherford backscattering-channeling (RBS-C) results indicate a surface region with low residual disorder in the Al-sublattice. Near the end of range the channeled spectrum almost reaches the random indicating a high damage level for fluences of 1 × 1017 cm-2. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photographs show a layered contrast feature for the C implanted sample where a buried amorphous region is present. For the N implanted sample the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) elemental mapping give evidence for the presence of a buried damage layer decorated with bubbles. Samples implanted at high temperatures (500 °C and 1000 °C) show a strong contrast fluctuation indicating a defective crystalline structure of sapphire.

  18. Irradiation-induced Ag-colloid formation in ion-exchanged soda-lime glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccavale, F.; De Marchi, G.; Gonella, F.; Mazzoldi, P.; Meneghini, C.; Quaranta, A.; Arnold, G. W.; Battaglin, G.; Mattei, G.

    1995-03-01

    Ion-exchanged glass samples were obtained by immersing soda-lime slides in molten salt baths of molar concentration in the range 1-20% AgNO 3 in NaNO 3, at temperatures varying from 320 to 350°C, and processing times of the order of a few minutes. Irradiations of exchanged samples were subsequently performed by using H +m, He +, N + ions at different energies in order to obtain comparable projected ranges. The fluence was varied between 5 × 10 15 and 2 × 10 17 ions/cm 2. Most of the samples were treated at current densities lower than 2 μA/cm 2, in order to avoid heating effects. Some samples were irradiated with 4 keV electrons, corresponding to a range of 250 nm. The formation of nanoclusters of radii in the range 1-10 nm has been observed after irradiation, depending on the treatment conditions. The precipitation process is governed by the electronic energy deposition of incident particles. The most desirable results are obtained for helium implants. The process was characterized by the use of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and nuclear techniques (Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), Nuclear Reactions (NRA)), in order to determine concentration-depth profiles and by optical absorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements for the silver nanoclusters detection and size evaluation.

  19. Energy loss of ions implanted in MOS dielectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam, Radhey

    Energy loss measurements of ions in the low kinetic energy regime have been made on as-grown SiO2(170-190nm) targets. Singly charged Na + ions with kinetic energies of 2-5 keV and highly charged ions Ar +Q (Q=4, 8 and 11) with a kinetic energy of 1 keV were used. Excitations produced by the ion energy loss in the oxides were captured by encapsulating the irradiated oxide under a top metallic contact. The resulting Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) devices were probed with Capacitance-Voltage (C V) measurements and extracted the flatband voltages from the C-V curves. The C-V results for singly charged ion experiments reveal that the changes in the flatband voltage and slope for implanted devices relative to the pristine devices can be used to delineate effects due to implanted ions only and ion induced damage. The data shows that the flatband voltage shifts and C-V slope changes are energy dependent. The observed changes in flatband voltage which are greater than those predicted by calculations scaled for the ion dose and implantation range (SRIM). These results, however, are consistent with a columnar recombination model, where electron-hole pairs are created due to the energy deposited by the implanted ions within the oxide. The remaining holes left after recombination losses are diffused through the oxide at the room temperature and remain present as trapped charges. Comparison of the data with the total number of the holes generated gives a fractional yield of 0.0124 which is of the same order as prior published high energy irradiation experiments. Additionally, the interface trap density, extracted from high and low frequency C-V measurements is observed to increase by one order of magnitude over our incident beam energy. These results confirm that dose- and kinetic energy -dependent effects can be recorded for singly charged ion irradiation on oxides using this method. Highly charged ion results also confirm that dose as well as and charge-dependent effects can

  20. Elastic properties of sub-stoichiometric nitrogen ion implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmanova, M. F.; Karl, H.; Mändl, S.; Hirsch, D.; Mayr, S. G.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2015-04-01

    Elastic properties of sub-stoichiometric nitrogen implanted silicon were measured with nanometer-resolution using contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM) as function of ion fluence and post-annealing conditions. The determined range of indentation moduli was between 100 and 180 GPa depending on the annealing duration and nitrogen content. The high indentation moduli can be explained by formation of Si-N bonds, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  1. Urinary catheter with polyurethane coating modified by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurina, I.; Nechitailo, G. S.; Svistkov, A. L.; Kondyurin, A.; Bilek, M.

    2015-01-01

    A low friction urinary catheter that could be used without a lubricant is proposed in this work. A polyurethane coating was synthesised on the surface of a metal guide wire catheter. Ion implantation was applied to surface modify the polyurethane coating. FTIR ATR, wetting angle, AFM and friction tests were used for analysis. Low friction was found to be provided by the formation of a hard carbonised layer on the polyurethane surface.

  2. The Development of In-Situ Ion Implant Cleaning Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Steve; Kaim, Robert; Yedave, Sharad; Arnó, Josep; DiMeo, Frank; Wodjenski, Mike

    2006-11-01

    Considerable gains in implanter utilization efficiency can be attained with in-situ cleaning of deposited material, particularly in and around the ion source. Different methods of in-situ cleaning are described, and we discuss the relative merits of several chemical reagents. We introduce XeF2, a new and promising reagent for in-situ cleaning and present some preliminary experiments showing its ability to etch dopant materials. We also show that in some cases etching by XeF2 can be selective with respect to ion source construction materials such as tungsten.

  3. The effect of ion implantation on cellular adhesion.

    PubMed

    Howlett, C R; Evans, M D; Wildish, K L; Kelly, J C; Fisher, L R; Francis, G W; Best, D J

    1993-01-01

    As there are only a finite number of materials suitable for orthopaedic reconstruction, considerable effort has been devoted recently to investigating ways of altering the surface chemistry of prosthetic materials without altering their bulk properties. Ion beam implantation is one such technique which is appropriate for orthopaedic reconstructive materials. This paper investigates the early effect of ion beam modification on cellular attachment of bone derived cells using a prototype device which measures the strength of attachment of individual cells to a silicon substratum. The results point to several conclusions. (1) There is no evidence that ion beam implantation with nitrogen, phosphorus, manganese or magnesium produces increased adhesion of human bone derived cells. (2) Surface etching with hydrofluoric acid, electron bombardment and thermal oxidation increases the strength of attachment between cells and substrata. (3) There is a correlation between wettability and rate of cellular attachment to oxygen implanted substrata during the first 2 h after cellular seeding. However, the increase in cellular attachment cannot be entirely explained by the change in critical surface tension or via increased fibronectin attachment to the substrata.

  4. Defect engineering in the MOSLED structure by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prucnal, S.; Wójtowicz, A.; Pyszniak, K.; Drozdziel, A.; Zuk, J.; Turek, M.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.

    2009-05-01

    When amorphous SiO2 films are bombarded with energetic ions, various types of defects are created as a consequence of ion-solid interaction (peroxy radicals POR, oxygen deficient centres (ODC), non-bridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHC), E‧ centres, etc.). The intensity of the electroluminescence (EL) from oxygen deficiency centres at 2.7 eV, non-bridging oxygen hole centres at 1.9 eV and defect centres with emission at 2.07 eV can be easily modified by the ion implantation of the different elements (H, N, O) into the completely processed MOSLED structure. Nitrogen implanted into the SiO2:Gd layer reduces the concentration of the ODC and NBOHC while the doping of the oxygen increases the EL intensity observed from POR defect and NBOHC. Moreover, after oxygen or hydrogen implantation into the SiO2:Ge structure fourfold or fifth fold increase of the germanium related EL intensity was observed.

  5. Ion implantation for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloys in saline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. M.; Gonzales, A.; Quintana, J.; Lee, I.-S.; Buchanan, R. A.; Burns, F. C.; Culbertson, R. J.; Levy, M.; Treglio, J. R.

    1991-07-01

    The effects of ion implantation treatments on corrosion of 2014 and 1100 aluminum in saline media were investigated. Implanted constituents were N, Si, Ti, and Cr. Techniques included salt spray testing, electrochemical studies, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and profilometry. The principal conclusion was that ion implantation of Cr is of potential practical benefit for corrosion inhibition of 2014 Al in salt environments.

  6. Mechanical properties of ion-beam-textured surgical implant alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    An electron-bombardment Hg ion thruster was used as an ion source to texture surfaces of materials used to make orthopedic and/or dental prostheses or implants. The materials textured include 316 stainless steel, titanium-6% aluminum, 4% vanadium, and cobalt-20% chromium, 15% tungsten. To determine the effect of ion texturing on the ultimate strength and yield strength, stainless steel and Co-Cr-W alloy samples were tensile tested to failure. Three types of samples of both materials were tested. One type was ion-textured (the process also heats each sample to 300 C), another type was simply heated to 300 C in an oven, and the third type was untreated. Stress-strain diagrams, 0.2% offset yield strength data, total elongation data, and area reduction data are presented. Fatigue specimens of ion textured and untextured 316 stainless steel and Ti-6% Al-4% V were tested. Included as an ion textured sample is a Ti-6% Al-4% V sample which was ion machined by means of Ni screen mask so as to produce an array of 140 mu m x 140 mu m x 60 mu m deep pits. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the ion textured surfaces.

  7. Experimental results of a dual-beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. H. Cui, B. Q.; Ma, R. G.; Ma, Y. J.; Tang, B.; Huang, Q. H.; Jiang, W. S.; Zheng, Y. N.

    2014-02-15

    A dual beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter aimed to produce 200 keV H{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} beams simultaneously has been developed. Not suitable to use the analyzing magnet, the purity of beam extracted from the source becomes important to the performance of implanter. The performance of ion source was measured. The results of experiments show that the materials of inlet tube of ion source, the time of arc ionization in ion source, and the amount of gas flow have significant influence on the purity of beam. The measures by using copper as inlet tube material, long time of arc ionization, and increasing the inlet of gas flow could effectively reduce the impurity of beam. And the method using the gas mass flow controller to adjust the proportion of H{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} is feasible.

  8. Titanium and zirconium based alloys modified by intensive plastic deformation and nitrogen ion implantation for biocompatible implants.

    PubMed

    Byeli, A V; Kukareko, V A; Kononov, A G

    2012-02-01

    Titanium and zirconium alloys are considered to be promising materials for orthopaedics because of their biocompatibility with tissues. Their main drawbacks for application as implants have generally been considered to be insufficient levels of mechanical and tribological properties. In this research the influence of equal channel angular pressing and nitrogen ion implantation on the structure and properties of Ti and Zr alloys has been investigated to ensure the optimum combination of the bulk material and surface layer properties. The data obtained showed that equal channel angular pressing and nitrogen ion implantation can be efficiently used to improve bulk and surface properties of Ti and Zr based implants.

  9. Size tuning of Ag-decorated TiO₂ nanotube arrays for improved bactericidal capacity of orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Simchi, A; Bagheri, R

    2014-08-01

    Surface modification of orthopedic implants using titanium dioxide nanotubes and silver nanoparticles (SNs) is a promising approach to prevent bacteria adhesion, biofilm formation, and implant infection. Herein, we utilized a straightforward and all-solution process to prepare silver-decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays with surface density of 10(3) to 10(4) per µm(2). With controlling the synthesis conditions, hexagonal closed-packed nanotubes with opening diameter of 30-100 nm that are decorated with SNs with varying sizes (12-40 nm) were prepared. Various analytical techniques were utilized to characterize the size, morphology, distribution, valance state, surface roughness, and composition of the prepared antibacterial films. The bactericidal capacity of the films were studied on Escherichia coli (E. coli) by drop-test method and correlated with the size and percentage of Ag as well as the surface density of TiO2 nanotube arrays. Synergetic effect of TiO2 nanotubes and SNs on the antibacterial activity of the composite films is shown. The bactericidal capacity is found to depend on the size characteristics of the Ag-TiO2 coating. The highest antibacterial activity is obtained for TiO2 nanotubes with opening diameter of about 100 nm and SNs with an average size of 20 nm. MTT assay using osteoblast MG63 cells was performed to examine the cell viability. We suggest that release rate of the silver ions is an important factor controlling the antibacterial activity. Additionally, the size dependency of the bactericidal capacity implies that electrical coupling between silver and TiO2 nanotubes and improved hydrophobicity of the coating might influence the bacterial behavior of the hybrid nanostructures.

  10. Susceptor Assisted Microwave Annealing Of Ion Implanted Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemuri, Rajitha

    This thesis discusses the use of low temperature microwave anneal as an alternative technique to recrystallize materials damaged or amorphized due to implantation techniques. The work focuses on the annealing of high- Z doped Si wafers that are incapable of attaining high temperatures required for recrystallizing the damaged implanted layers by microwave absorption The increasing necessity for quicker and more efficient processing techniques motivates study of the use of a single frequency applicator microwave cavity along with a Fe2O3 infused SiC-alumina susceptor/applicator as an alternative post implantation process. Arsenic implanted Si samples of different dopant concentrations and implantation energies were studied pre and post microwave annealing. A set of as-implanted Si samples were also used to assess the effect of inactive dopants against presence of electrically active dopants on the recrystallization mechanisms. The extent of damage repair and Si recrystallization of the damage caused by arsenic and Si implantation of Si is determined by cross-section transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Dopant activation is evaluated for the As implanted Si by sheet resistance measurements. For the same, secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis is used to compare the extent of diffusion that results from such microwave annealing with that experienced when using conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Results show that compared to susceptor assisted microwave annealing, RTA caused undesired dopant diffusion. The SiC-alumina susceptor plays a predominant role in supplying heat to the Si substrate, and acts as an assistor that helps a high-Z dopant like arsenic to absorb the microwave energy using a microwave loss mechanism which is a combination of ionic and dipole losses. Comparisons of annealing of the samples were done with and without the use of the susceptor, and confirm the role played by the susceptor, since the samples donot recrystallize

  11. FeN foils by nitrogen ion-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Wang, Jian-Ping; Al Mehedi, Md; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-05-07

    Iron nitride samples in foil shape (free standing, 500 nm in thickness) were prepared by a nitrogen ion-implantation method. To facilitate phase transformation, the samples were bonded on the substrate followed by a post-annealing step. By using two different substrates, single crystal Si and GaAs, structural and magnetic properties of iron nitride foil samples prepared with different nitrogen ion fluences were characterized. α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} phase in iron nitride foil samples was obtained and confirmed by the proposed approach. A hard magnetic property with coercivity up to 780 Oe was achieved for the FeN foil samples bonded on Si substrate. The feasibility of using nitrogen ion implantation techniques to prepare FeN foil samples up to 500 nm thickness with a stable martensitic phase under high ion fluences has been demonstrated. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain this result. This proposed method could potentially be an alternative route to prepare rare-earth-free FeN bulk magnets by stacking and pressing multiple free-standing thick α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} foils together.

  12. Plasma source ion implantation technology for engineering surfaces of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. H.; Lawrence, D. F.; Sridharan, K.; Sandstrom, P. W.

    2001-07-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation* (PSII) is a non-line-of-sight technique for energetic ion surface modification of materials. At the University of Wisconsin there are presently three PSII systems two of which measure about 1 m3 and a third that measures 0.1 m3. Plasma generation is achieved in vacuum through filamentary, RF, DC-pulsed, or glow discharge. High voltage pulsing is achieved using a tetrode modulator that pulses at up to 60kV or by a solid-state pulser that can supply 20kV. Recently, a crossatron modulator capable of 40kV and 1kA peak anode current was built in-house. Surface properties of a wide range of materials have been beneficially modified using PSII in ion implantation, film deposition, energetic ion mixing, and sputtering modes. Industrial field testing of PSII-treated parts has yielded promising results but successful commercialization requires judicious selection of applications which effectively exploit the unique aspects of PSII as a surface modification tool.*J.R. Conrad U.S. Patent#4764394, 1988

  13. Hydrophilic property by contact angle change of ion implanted polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chan Young; Kil, Jae Keun

    2008-02-15

    In this study, ion implantation was performed onto a polymer, polycarbonate (PC), in order to investigate surface hydrophilic property through contact angle measurement. PC was irradiated with N, Ar, and Xe ions at the irradiation energy of 20-50 keV and the dose range of 5x10{sup 15}, 1x10{sup 16}, 7x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The contact angle of water was estimated by means of the sessile drop method and was reduced with increasing fluence and ion mass but increased with increasing implanted energy. The changes of chemical and structural properties are discussed in view of Furier transform infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which shows increasing C-O bonding and C-C bonding. The surface roughness examined by atomic force microscopy measurement changed smoothly from 3.59 to 2.22 A as the fluence increased. It is concluded that the change in wettability may be caused by surface carbonization and oxidation as well as surface roughness.

  14. Evaluation of the ion implantation process for production of solar cells from silicon sheet materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    For the ion implantation tooling was fabricated with which to hold dendritic web samples. This tooling permits the expeditious boron implantation of the back to form the back surface field (BSF). Baseline BSF web cells were fabricated.

  15. Integration of Ion Implantation with Scanning ProbeAlignment

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Rangelow, I.W.; Schenkel, T.

    2005-03-01

    We describe a scanning probe instrument which integrates ion beams with imaging and alignment functions of a piezo resistive scanning probe in high vacuum. Energetic ions (1 to a few hundred keV) are transported through holes in scanning probe tips [1]. Holes and imaging tips are formed by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) drilling and ion beam assisted thin film deposition. Transport of single ions can be monitored through detection of secondary electrons from highly charged dopant ions (e. g., Bi{sup 45+}) enabling single atom device formation. Fig. 1 shows SEM images of a scanning probe tip formed by ion beam assisted Pt deposition in a dual beam FIB. Ion beam collimating apertures are drilled through the silicon cantilever with a thickness of 5 {micro}m. Aspect ratio limitations preclude the direct drilling of holes with diameters well below 1 {micro}m, and smaller hole diameters are achieved through local thin film deposition [2]. The hole in Fig. 1 was reduced from 2 {micro}m to a residual opening of about 300 nm. Fig. 2 shows an in situ scanning probe image of an alignment dot pattern taken with the tip from Fig. 1. Transport of energetic ions through the aperture in the scanning probe tip allows formation of arbitrary implant patterns. In the example shown in Fig. 2 (right), a 30 nm thick PMMA resist layer on silicon was exposed to 7 keV Ar{sup 2+} ions with an equivalent dose of 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} to form the LBL logo. An exciting goal of this approach is the placement of single dopant ions into precise locations for integration of single atom devices, such as donor spin based quantum computers [3, 4]. In Fig. 3, we show a section of a micron size dot area exposed to a low dose (10{sup 11}/cm{sup 2}) of high charge state dopant ions. The Bi{sup 45+} ions (200 keV) were extracted from a low emittance highly charged ions source [5]. The potential energy of B{sup 45+}, i. e., the sum of the binding energies required to remove the electrons, amounts to 36 ke

  16. High- Tc superconductor characteristics control by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, S.; Matsutera, H.; Yoshitake, T.; Fujita, J.; Satoh, T.

    1989-03-01

    Transition temperature ( Tc) control and annealing effects of YBa 2Cu 3O x and Bi 2Sr 1.4 Ca 1.8Cu 2.2O y superconductor thin films implanted by 200 keV Ne + have been investigated. YBa 2Cu 3 O xTc end points for 0, 1 × 10 14, 1 × 10 15 and 1 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 doses are 75, 71, 62 and 16 K, respectively. On the other hand, Bi 2Sr 1.4Ca 1.8Cu 2.2O y, Tc end points for 0, 1 × 10 12 and 1 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 doses are 78, 76 and 54 K, respectively, c lattice constant increases were observed for the implanted films. It is confirmed that the superconducting characteristics for films, are recovered by anneaing in O 2 atomosphere. Moreover, microcrystal growth caused by annealing the implanted YBa 2Cu 3O x film was observed on the surface.

  17. Metal ion implantation for large scale surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1992-10-01

    Intense energetic beams of metal ions can be produced by using a metal vapor vacuum arc as the plasma discharge from which the ion beam is formed. We have developed a number of ion sources of this kind and have built a metal ion implantation facility which can produce repetitively pulsed ion beams with mean ion energy up to several hundred key, pulsed beam current of more than an ampere, and time averaged current of several tens of milliamperes delivered onto a downstream target. We've also done some preliminary work on scaling up this technology to very large size. For example, a 50-cm diameter (2000 cm[sup 2]) set of beam formation electrodes was used to produce a pulsed titanium beam with ion current over 7 amperes at a mean ion energy of 100 key. Separately, a dc embodiment has been used to produce a dc titanium ion beam with current over 600 mA, power supply limited in this work, and up to 6 amperes of dc plasma ion current was maintained for over an hour. In a related program we've developed a plasma immersion method for applying thin metallic and compound films in which the added species is atomically mixed to the substrate. By adding a gas flow to the process, well-bonded compound films can also be formed; metallic films and multilayers as well as oxides and nitrides with mixed transition zones some hundreds of angstroms thick have been synthesized. Here we outline these parallel metal-plasma-based research programs and describe the hardware that we've developed and some of the surface modification research that we've done with it.

  18. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS : RESULTS FROM AGS TO RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.

    2002-06-20

    High-energy collisions of heavy ions provide a means to study QCD in a regime of high parton density, and may provide insight into its phme structure. Results from the four experiments at RHIC (BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR) are presented, and placed in context with the lower energy data from the AGS and SPS accelerators. The focus is on the insights these measurements provide into the time history of the collision process. Taken together, the data point to the creation of a deconfined state of matter that forms quickly, expands rapidly and freezes out suddenly. With the new RHIC data, systematic data now exists for heavy ion collisions as a function of {radical}s over several orders of magnitude and as a function of impact parameter. These data test the interplay between hard and soft processes in a large-volume system where nucleons are struck multiple times. The data is consistent with creating a deconfined state (jet quenching) that forms quickly (saturation models), expands rapidly (radial and elliptic flow) and freezes out suddenly (single freezeout and blast wave fits). There are also intriguing connections with particle production in elementary systems, which point to the role of the energy available for particle production on the features of the final state. Many in this field are optimistic that the careful understanding of this experimental data may lead t o the theoretical breakthroughs that will connect these complex systems to the fundamental lattice predict ions.

  19. Effect of plasma immersion ion implantation in TiNi implants on its interaction with animal subcutaneous tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotkov, Aleksandr I.; Kashin, Oleg A.; Kudryavtseva, Yuliya A.; Shishkova, Darya K.; Krukovskii, Konstantin V.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.

    2016-08-01

    Here we investigated in vivo interaction of Si-modified titanium nickelide (TiNi) samples with adjacent tissues in a rat subcutaneous implant model to assess the impact of the modification on the biocompatibility of the implant. Modification was performed by plasma immersion ion processing, which allows doping of different elements into surface layers of complex-shaped articles. The aim of modification was to reduce the level of toxic Ni ions on the implant surface for increasing biocompatibility. We identified a thin connective tissue capsule, endothelial cells, and capillary-like structures around the Si-modified implants both 30 and 90 days postimplantation. No signs of inflammation were found. In conclusion, modification of TiNi samples with Si ions increases biocompatibility of the implant.

  20. Stoichiometric disturbances in compound semiconductors due to ion implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, R. E.; Fung, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed to calculate the depth distribution of the local stoichiometric disturbance (SD) resulting from ion implantation in binary-compound substrates. The calculation includes first-order recoils considering projected range straggle of projectiles and recoils and lateral straggle of recoils. The method uses tabulated final-range statistics to infer the projectile range distributions at intermediate energies. This approach greatly simplifies the calculation with little compromise on accuracy as compared to existing procedures. As an illustration, the SD profile is calculated for implantation of boron, silicon, and aluminum in silicon carbide. The results for the latter case suggest that the SD may be responsible for otherwise unexplained distortions in the annealed aluminum profile. A comparison with calculations by other investigators using the Boltzmann transport equation shows good agreement.

  1. Xenon doping of glow discharge polymer by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Swanee J.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Orme, Christine A.; Youngblood, Kelly P.; Nikroo, Abbas; Moreno, Kari A.; Chen, Bryan; Hamza, Alex V.

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate controlled doping of a glow discharge polymer by implantation with 500 keV Xe ions at room temperature. The Xe retention exhibits a threshold behavior, with a threshold dose of ˜2 × 1014 cm-2. Doping is accompanied by irradiation-induced changes in the polymer composition, including gradual H loss and a more complex non-monotonic behavior of the O concentration. The matrix composition saturates at C0.77H0.22O0.01 for Xe doses above ˜5 × 1014 cm-2 and up to the maximum dose studied (5 × 1015 cm-2). The retention mechanism is attributed to the modification of the polymer from a chain-like to clustered ring structure. The dopant profile and the elemental composition of the implanted polymer exhibit good stability upon thermal annealing up to 305 °C.

  2. Defect trapping of ion-implanted deuterium in nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Besenbacher, F.; Bottiger, J.; Myers, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Trapping of ion-implanted deuterium by lattice defects in nickel has been studied by ion-beam-analysis techniques in the temperature range between 30 and 380 K. The deuterium-depth profiles were determined by measuring either the ..cap alpha.. particles or the protons from the /sup 3/He-excited nuclear reaction D(/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)p, and the deuterium lattice location was obtained by means of ion channeling. Linear-ramp annealing (1 K/min) following a 10-keV D/sup +/ implantation in nickel produced two annealing stages at 275 and 320 K, respectively. The release-vs-temperature data were analyzed by solving the diffusion equation with appropriate trapping terms, yielding 0.24 and 0.43 eV for the trap-binding enthalpies associated with the two stages, referred to as an untrapped solution site. The 0.24-eV trap corresponds to deuterium close to the octahedral interstitial site where it is believed to be trapped at a vacancy, whereas it is suggested that the defect correlated with the 0.43-eV trap is a multiple-vacancy defect. The previously air-exposed and electropolished nickel surface was essentially permeable; the surface-recombination coefficient was determined to be K> or approx. =10/sup -19/ cm/sup 4//s at 350 K.

  3. Ion implantation: surface treatment for improving the bone integration of titanium and Ti6Al4V dental implants.

    PubMed

    De Maeztu, Miguel A; Alava, J Iñaki; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2003-02-01

    Dental implants subjected to surface treatment have shown better bone integration than implants which have only been turned (machined). Three main types of treatment are presently available: the addition of material or coating, the removal of material, and surface modification. Ion implantation corresponds to the third approach. A histomorphometric study is made following the rabbit tibial bone placement of 88 commercial dental implants of pure titanium and Ti6AI4V subjected to surface treatment in the form of different ion implants (C+, CO+, N+, Ne+). Light microscopic, scanning electron microscopic (SEM), electron microsonde (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies were made. The results indicate improved bone integration (expressed as percentage bone-implant contact) in those specimens subjected to ion implantation versus the non-treated controls, the difference being statistically significant for the groups treated with C+ and CO+. In these groups, XPS showed a Ti-O-C junction (bone-implant interface) involving covalent type bonds, these being stronger and more stable than the ion-type bonds usually established between the titanium oxide and bone.

  4. P-type Gate Electrode Formation Using B18H22 Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, Dietmar; Jakubowski, Frank; Deichler, Josef; Venezia, Vincent C.; Ameen, M. S.; Harris, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated the use of octadecaborane (B18H22) cluster ion implantation to form highly active p-type gate electrodes in a 90 nm CMOS process. As device dimensions scale, the influence of poly-depletion and short channel effect control on device performance continues to become more significant. Increasing gate electrode doping via high dose ion implantation is a standard method for reducing poly-depletion. Poly-silicon gate doping with the molecular ion B18H22 offers throughput advantages over monatomic B ion implantation. For instance each molecular ion introduces 18-B atoms, thereby reducing the implant dose. In addition, each B constituent of the molecular ion is implanted with 1/20th the ion energy, making it possible to achieve low energy dopant distribution while taking advantage of higher beam energy currents. In this work, B18H22 implantation conditions (energy, dose) were matched to those of the standard B+ process of record (POR) used for gate electrode doping. We show that the poly-depletion, threshold voltage, and yield of devices implanted with B18H22 are comparable to those implanted with the POR. We combine this device results with materials data to demonstrate that the high dose implants necessary to form p-type gate electrodes with minimum poly-depletion can be achieved with B18H22 ion implants without impacting the device performance.

  5. Experimental investigation of plasma-immersion ion implantation treatment for biocompatible polyurethane implants production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iziumov, R. I.; Beliaev, A. Y.; Kondyurina, I. V.; Shardakov, I. N.; Kondyurin, A. V.; Bilek, M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Modification of the surface layer of polyurethane with plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) and studying its physical and chemical changes have been discussed in this paper. The goal of the research was to obtain carbonized layer allowing creating biocompatible polyurethane implants. The experiments of PIII treatment in various modes were performed. The investigation of the modified surface characteristics was carried out by observing the kinetics of free surface energy for two weeks after treatment. The regularities between treatment time and the level of free surface energy were detected. The explanation of high energy level was given through the appearance of free radicals in the surface layer of material. The confirmation of the chemical activation of the polyurethane surface after PIII treatment was obtained.

  6. Structure analysis of bimetallic Co-Au nanoparticles formed by sequential ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-jian; Wang, Yu-hua; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Song, Shu-peng; chen, Hong; Zhang, Ke; Xiong, Zu-zhao; Ji, Ling-ling; Dai, Hou-mei; Wang, Deng-jing; Lu, Jian-duo; Wang, Ru-wu; Zheng, Li-rong

    2016-08-01

    Co-Au alloy Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are formed by sequential ion implantation of Co and Au into silica glass at room temperature. The ion ranges of Au ions implantation process have been displayed to show the ion distribution. We have used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to study the local structural information of bimetallic nanoparticles. With the increase of Au ion implantation, the local environments of Co ions are changed enormously. Hence, three oscillations, respectively, Co-O, Co-Co and Co-Au coordination are determined.

  7. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation.

  8. Diffusion of ion implanted aluminum in silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Y.; Kijima, K.; Kingery, W.D.

    1982-09-01

    Diffusion of aluminum in silicon carbide was studied by Al implantation into single crystal SiC and subsequent profile analyses by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The bulk diffusion coefficient of Al at temperatures between 1350 and 1800 /sup 0/C was determined to be D(cm/sup 2//s) = 1.3 x 10/sup -8/ exp (-231 kJ/mol/RT). The results were characterized by a low activation energy and a low pre-exponential constant compared with previously reported results. Dislocation enhanced diffusion was suggested from the appearance of the tails observed in the annealed concentration profiles.

  9. Pulsed-electron-beam annealing of ion-implantation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwald, A. C.; Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Little, R. G.; Minnucci, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Short-duration high-intensity pulsed electron beams have been used to anneal ion-implantation damage in silicon and to electrically activate the dopant species. Lattice regrowth and dopant activation were determined using He(+)-4 backscattering, SEM, TEM, and device performance characteristics as diagnostic techniques. The annealing mechanism is believed to be liquid-phase epitaxial regrowth initiating from the substrate. The high-temperature transient pulse produced by the electron beam causes the dopant to diffuse rapidly in the region where the liquid state is achieved.

  10. Magnetic insulation of secondary electrons in plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Wood, B.P.; Faehl, R.J.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1993-09-01

    The uncontrolled loss of accelerated secondary electrons in plasma source ion implantation (PSII) can significantly reduce system efficiency and poses a potential x-ray hazard. This loss might be reduced by a magnetic field applied near the workpiece. The concept of magnetically-insulated PSII is proposed, in which secondary electrons are trapped to form a virtual cathode layer near the workpiece surface where the local electric field is essentially eliminated. Subsequent electrons that are emitted can then be reabsorbed by the workpiece. Estimates of anomalous electron transport from microinstabilities are made. Insight into the process is gained with multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  11. Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-07

    Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

  12. The ion implantation-induced properties of one-dimensional nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, ion implantation is an extensively used technique for material modification. Using this method, we can tailor the properties of target materials, including morphological, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. All of these modifications impel nanomaterials to be a more useful application to fabricate more high-performance nanomaterial-based devices. Ion implantation is an accurate and controlled doping method for one-dimensional nanomaterials. In this article, we review recent research on ion implantation-induced effects in one-dimensional nanostructure, such as nanowires, nanotubes, and nanobelts. In addition, the optical property of single cadmium sulfide nanobelt implanted by N+ ions has been researched. PMID:23594476

  13. Mass and energy deposition effects of implanted ions on solid sodium formate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangqin; Shao, Chunlin; Yao, Jianming; Yu, Zengliang

    2000-07-01

    Solid sodium formate was implanted by low energy N +, H +, and Ar + ions. Measured with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), it was observed that new CH 2, CH 3 groups and COO - radical ion were produced in the implanted sodium formate. Analyzing with the highly sensitive ninhydrin reaction, it was found that a new NH 2 functional group was formed upon N + ion implantation, and its yield increased along with implantation dose but decreased with the ion's energy.

  14. Research and Technology Transfer Ion Implantation Technology for Specialty Materials: Proceedings of a joint workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeber, Robert R.

    1991-02-01

    The ion implantation research and technology transfer workshop brought together a diverse group of academic, industrial, and government participants. Several key issues highlighted were: (1) a need exists for new technology transfer infrastructures between universities, research labs and industry; (2) ion implantation technology has promise for several Army and industry applications because of environmental concerns and technological benefits; (3) the U.S. ion implantation industry is primarily service oriented; and (4) the cost of ion implantation technology could be significantly reduced if larger scale production equipment was available for on-line processing. A need exists in the U.S. for mechanisms and funds to develop such equipment.

  15. Dose Control System in the Optima XE Single Wafer High Energy Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Shu; Yoon, Jongyoon; David, Jonathan

    2011-01-07

    Photoresist outgassing can significantly compromise accurate dosimetry of high energy implants. High energy implant even at a modest beam current produces high beam powers which create significantly worse outgassing than low and medium energy implants and the outgassing continues throughout the implant due to the low dose in typical high energy implant recipes. In the previous generation of high energy implanters, dose correction by monitoring of process chamber pressure during photoresist outgassing has been used. However, as applications diversify and requirements change, the need arises for a more versatile photoresist correction system to match the versatility of a single wafer high energy ion implanter. We have successfully developed a new dosimetry system for the Optima XE single wafer high energy ion implanter which does not require any form of compensation due to the implant conditions. This paper describes the principles and performance of this new dose system.

  16. Antibacterial polyetheretherketone implants immobilized with silver ions based on chelate-bonding ability of inositol phosphate: processing, material characterization, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, H; Ishii, K; Ishihama, H; Honda, M; Toyama, Y; Matsumoto, M; Aizawa, M

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel antibacterial implant by forming a hydroxyapatite (HAp) film on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate, and then immobilizing silver ions (Ag(+) ) on the HAp film based on the chelate-bonding ability of inositol phosphate (IP6). First, the PEEK surface was modified by immersion into concentrated sulfuric acid for 10 min. HAp film was formed on the acid-treated PEEK via the soft-solution process using simulated body fluid (SBF), urea, and urease. After HAp coating, specimens were immersed into IP6 solution, and followed by immersion into silver nitrite solution at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 5 or 10 mM. Ag(+) ions were immobilized on the resulting HAp film due to the chelate-bonding ability of IP6. On cell-culture tests under indirect conditions by Transwell, MC3T3-E1 cells on the specimens derived from the 0.5 and 1 mM Ag(+) solutions showed high relative growth when compared with controls. Furthermore, on evaluation of antibacterial activity in halo test, elution of Ag(+) ions from Ag(+) -immobilized HAp film inhibited bacterial growth. Therefore, the above-mentioned results demonstrated that specimens had both biocompatibility and strong antibacterial activity. The present coating therefore provides bone bonding ability to the implant surface and prevents the formation of biofilms in the early postoperative period.

  17. Ion beam technology applications study. [ion impact, implantation, and surface finishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Zafran, S.; Komatsu, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Specific perceptions and possible ion beam technology applications were obtained as a result of a literature search and contact interviews with various institutions and individuals which took place over a 5-month period. The use of broad beam electron bombardment ion sources is assessed for materials deposition, removal, and alteration. Special techniques examined include: (1) cleaning, cutting, and texturing for surface treatment; (2) crosslinking of polymers, stress relief in deposited layers, and the creation of defect states in crystalline material by ion impact; and (3) ion implantation during epitaxial growth and the deposition of neutral materials sputtered by the ion beam. The aspects, advantages, and disadvantages of ion beam technology and the competitive role of alternative technologies are discussed.

  18. Metal ion implantation in inert polymers for strain gauge applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, Giovanni; Massaro, Marcello; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Tapfer, Leander

    2010-10-01

    Metal ion implantation in inert polymers may produce ultra-thin conducting films below the polymer surface. These subsurface films are promising structures for strain gauge applications. To this purpose, polycarbonate substrates were irradiated at room temperature with low-energy metal ions (Cu + and Ni +) and with fluences in the range between 1 × 10 16 and 1 × 10 17 ions/cm 2, in order to promote the precipitation of dispersed metal nanoparticles or the formation of a continuous thin film. The nanoparticle morphology and the microstructural properties of polymer nanocomposites were investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. At lower fluences (<5 × 10 16 ions/cm 2) a spontaneous precipitation of spherical-shaped metal nanoparticles occurred below the polymer top-surface (˜50 nm), whereas at higher fluences the aggregation of metal nanoparticles produced the formation of a continuous polycrystalline nanofilm. Furthermore, a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak was observed for nanocomposites produced at lower ion fluences, due to the presence of Cu nanoparticles. A reduced electrical resistance of the near-surface metal-polymer nanocomposite was measured. The variation of electrical conductivity as a function of the applied surface load was measured: we found a linear relationship and a very small hysteresis.

  19. Transient enhanced diffusion in ion-implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S.J.; Culbertson, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    We discuss the transient-enhanced diffusion of Sb, As, P, In, Ga, and B in ion-implanted Si, where the near-surface region has been amorphized by the dopant or by a self-implantation process. With Sb, a large transient diffusion enhancement is observed proportional to dopant concentration. For Sb, As, P, and In, the enhancement follows the relative interstitialcy diffusion coefficient. We believe this behavior is caused by stable implantation-induced point defects present in the amorphous surface layer, which decay during thermal processing to release high concentrations of self-interstitials. This process occurs in competition with the solid phase epitaxial (SPE) growth process, and for high dopant concentrations can occur in the amorphous phase ahead of the crystallization front. We believe this may be the origin of the dopant redistribution which can occur during SPE growth, which sets the upper limit to the dopant concentration which can be incorporated in the lattice by SPE growth. These effects are reduced for Ga and are absent for B, although transient enhanced diffusion of these species can still occur from defects emitted from the damaged crystal underlying the original amorphous/crystalline interface.

  20. Ion-implanted high microwave power indium phosphide transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedenbender, Michael D.; Kapoor, Vik J.; Messick, Louis J.; Nguyen, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Encapsulated rapid thermal annealing (RTA) has been used in the fabrication of InP power MISFETs with ion-implanted source, drain, and active-channel regions. The MISFETs had a gate length of 1.4 microns. Six to ten gate fingers per device, with individual gate finger widths of 100 or 125 microns, were used to make MISFETs with total gate widths of 0.75, 0.8, or 1 mm. The source and drain contact regions and the channel region of the MISFETs were fabricated using Si implants in InP at energies from 60 to 360 keV with doses of (1-560) x 10 to the 12th/sq cm. The implants were activated using RTA at 700 C for 30 sec in N2 or H2 ambients using an Si3N4 encapsulant. The high-power high-efficiency MISFETs were characterized at 9.7 GHz, and the output microwave power density for the RTA conditions used was as high as 2.4 W/mm. For a 1-W input at 9.7 GHz gains up to 3.7 dB were observed, with an associated power-added efficiency of 29 percent and output power density 70 percent greater than that of GaAs MESFETs.

  1. Ion Implant Technology for Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olea, Javier; Pastor, David; Luque, María Toledano; Mártil, Ignacio; Díaz, Germán González

    This chapter describes the creation of an Intermediate Band (IB) on single crystal silicon substrates by means of high-dose Ti implantation and subsequent Pulsed Laser Melting (PLM). The Ti concentration over the Mott limit is confirmed by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) measurements and the recovery of the crystallinity after annealing by means of Glancing Incidence X Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) measurements show that most of the atoms are located interstitially. Analysis of the sheet resistance and mobility measured using the van der Pauw geometry shows a temperature-dependent decoupling between the implanted layer and the substrate. This decoupling and the high laminated conductivity of the implanted layer could not be explained except if we assume that an IB has been formed in the semiconductor. A specific model for the bilayer electrical behaviour has been developed. The fitting of this model and also the simulation of the sheet resistance with the ATLAS code allow to determine that the IB energetic position is located around 0.36-0.38 eV below the conduction band. Carriers at the IB have a density very similar to the Ti concentration and behave as holes with mobilities as low as 0.4 cm2 Vs- 1.

  2. Metallic contamination in hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Paul K.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Zeng, Xuchu; Kwok, Dixon T. K.

    2001-10-01

    In plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), ions bombard all surfaces inside the PIII vacuum chamber, especially the negatively pulsed biased sample stage and to a lesser extent the interior of the vacuum chamber. As a result, contaminants sputtered from these exposed surfaces can be reimplanted into or adsorb on the silicon wafer. Using particle-in-cell theoretical simulation, we determine the relative ion doses incident on the top, side, and bottom surfaces of three typical sample chuck configurations: (i) a bare conducting stage with the entire sample platen and high-voltage feedthrough/supporting rod exposed and under a high voltage, (ii) a stage with only the sample platen exposed to the plasma but the high-voltage feedthrough protected by an insulating quartz shroud, and (iii) a bare stage with a silicon extension or guard ring to reduce the number of ions bombarding the side and bottom of the sample platen. Our simulation results reveal that the ratio of the incident dose impacting the top of the sample platen to that impacting the side and bottom of the sample stage can be improved to 49% using a guard ring. To corroborate our theoretical results, we experimentally determine the amounts of metallic contaminants on 100 mm silicon wafers implanted using a bare chuck and with a 150 mm silicon wafer inserted between the 100 mm wafer and sample stage to imitate the guard ring. We also discuss the effectiveness of a replaceable all-silicon liner inside the vacuum chamber to address the second source of contamination, that from the interior wall of the vacuum chamber. Our results indicate a significant improvement when an all-silicon liner and silicon guard ring are used simultaneously.

  3. Highly quasi-monodisperse ag nanoparticles on titania nanotubes by impregnative aqueous ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Antonio, J A; Cortes-Jácome, M A; Angeles-Chavez, C; López-Salinas, E; Quintana, P

    2009-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles were homogenously dispersed on titania nanotubes (NT), which were prepared by alkali hydrothermal methodology and dried at 373 K. Ag(+) incorporation was done by impregnative ion exchange of aqueous silver nitrate onto NT. First, Ag(+) ions incorporate into the layers of nanotube walls, and then, upon heat treatment under N(2) at 573 and 673 K, they migrate and change into Ag(2)O and Ag(0) nanoparticles, respectively. In both cases, Ag nanoparticles are highly dispersed, decorating the nanotubes in a polka-dot pattern. The Ag particle size distribution is very narrow, being ca. 4 +/- 2 nm without any observable agglomeration. The reduction of Ag(2)O into Ag(0) octahedral nanoparticles occurs spontaneously and topotactically when annealing, without the aid of any reducing agent. The population of Ag(0) nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature. An electron charge transfer from NT support to Ag(0) nanoparticles, because of a strong interaction, is responsible for considerable visible light absorption in Ag(0) nanoparticles supported on NT.

  4. Characterization and control of wafer charging effects during high-current ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Current, M.I.; Lukaszek, W.; Dixon, W.; Vella, M.C.; Messick, C.; Shideler, J.; Reno, S.

    1994-02-01

    EEPROM-based sense and memory devices provide direct measures of the charge flow and potentials occurring on the surface of wafers during ion beam processing. Sensor design and applications for high current ion implantation are discussed.

  5. Influence of the chemical nature of implanted ions on the structure of a silicon layer damaged by implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbachev, K. D. Voronova, M. I.; Bublik, V. T.; Mordkovich, V. N. Pazhin, D. M.; Zinenko, V. I.; Agafonov, Yu. A.

    2013-12-15

    The influence of the implantation of silicon single crystals by fluorine, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon ions on the distribution of strain and the static Debye-Waller factor in the crystal lattice over the implanted-layer depth has been investigated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction. The density depth distribution in the surface layer of native oxide has been measured by X-ray reflectometry. Room-temperature implantation conditions have ensured the equality of the suggested ranges of ions of different masses and the energies transferred by them to the target. It is convincingly shown that the change in the structural parameters of the radiation-damaged silicon layer and the native oxide layer depend on the chemical activity of the implanted ions.

  6. Peripheral nerve regeneration through a silicone chamber implanted with negative carbon ions: Possibility to clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether a tube with its inner surface implanted with negative-charged carbon ions (C- ions) would enable axons to extend over a distance greater than 10 mm. The tube was found to support nerves regenerating across a 15-mm-long inter-stump gap. We also investigated whether a C- ion-implanted tube pretreated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. The C- ion implanted tube accelerated nerve regeneration, and this effect was enhanced by bFGF. Silicone treated with C- ions showed increased hydrophilic properties and cellular affinity, and axon regeneration was promoted with this increased biocompatibility.

  7. Passive mechanisms of surfaces produced by ion-beam mixing and ion implantation. Annual report, October 1988-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Natishan, P.M.; McCafferty, E.; Hubler, G.K.

    1990-05-01

    The corrosion behavior of Mo-Al, Cr-Al and Cr-Mo-Al surface alloys produced by ion implantation and ion beam mixing was examined in deaerated, 0.1M NaC1. The polarization behavior of the ion implanted samples was similar to that of Al and the pitting potentials of the ion implanted samples were 115 to 155 mV higher than that of Al. From the standpoint of the Ph sub pzc model this behavior would be explained by the presence of the implanted cations in the stable oxide lattice. There was incomplete mixing of the coating and substrate for the ion beam mixed samples, and the mixed elements remained almost entirely in the metallic state so that the desired mixed oxide films were not formed. Ion beam mixing did impart additional stability compared to as-deposited samples since themixing process produced more compact coatings.

  8. Annealing of PEEK, PET and PI implanted with Co ions at high fluencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Miksova, R.; Pupikova, H.; Khaibullin, R. I.; Valeev, V. F.; Svorcik, V.; Slepicka, P.

    2013-07-01

    The properties of implanted polymers strongly depend on the implantation ion fluence and on the properties of the implanted atoms. The stability of synthesized nano-structures during further technological steps like annealing is of importance for their possible applications. Polyimide (PI), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) were implanted with 40 keV Co+ ions at room temperature at fluences ranging from 0.2 × 1016 cm-2 to 1.0 × 1017 cm-2 and annealed at a temperature of 200 °C. The implanted depth profiles of as-implanted and annealed samples, determined by the RBS method, were compared with the results of SRIM 2012 simulations. The structural and compositional changes of the implanted and subsequently annealed polymers were characterized by RBS and UV-vis spectroscopy. The surface morphology of as-implanted and annealed samples was examined by the AFM method and their electrical properties by sheet resistance measurement.

  9. Recrystallization and reactivation of dopant atoms in ion-implanted silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Fukata, Naoki; Takiguchi, Ryo; Ishida, Shinya; Yokono, Shigeki; Hishita, Shunichi; Murakami, Kouichi

    2012-04-24

    Recrystallization of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) after ion implantation strongly depends on the ion doses and species. Full amorphization by high-dose implantation induces polycrystal structures in SiNWs even after high-temperature annealing, with this tendency more pronounced for heavy ions. Hot-implantation techniques dramatically suppress polycrystallization in SiNWs, resulting in reversion to the original single-crystal structures and consequently high reactivation rate of dopant atoms. In this study, the chemical bonding states and electrical activities of implanted boron and phosphorus atoms were evaluated by Raman scattering and electron spin resonance, demonstrating the formation of p- and n-type SiNWs.

  10. Estimate of the concentration of implanted ions in solid substrates using a web application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, F. H. Vera; Pérez Gutiérrez, B. R.; Dulce-Moreno, H. J.; Duran-Flórez, F.; Niño, E. D. V.

    2016-08-01

    The three-dimensional ionic implantation technique (3DII) is used to modify the surface of solid metal by electric discharges pulsed of high voltage at low pressures. Knowing the density of ions implanted in the surface of a functional element, in a faster and estimated way, will help to optimize the surface treatment technique. Therefore, a web application was developed which from experimental parameters established in a process 3DII estimates the concentration of ions implanted in solid metal substrates. The results obtained in this research work demonstrate the feasibility of the computational web tool to perfect the experiments of surface modification by ion implantation.

  11. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Oks, E. M.; Oztarhan, A.; Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E. S.; Brown, I. G.

    2014-08-01

    Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal-gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the "inverse" concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  12. Contribution of Eu ions on the precipitation of silver nanoparticles in Ag-Eu co-doped borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Qing; Qiu, Jianbei; Zhou, Dacheng; Xu, Xuhui

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles are precipitated from the borate glasses during the melting process without any further heat treatment. • The reduction of Eu{sup 3+} ions to Eu{sup 2+} ions is presented in this material. • The intensity of Ag{sup +} luminescence. • The introduction of Eu ions accelerated the reaction between Eu{sup 2+} ions and silver ions inducing the silver clusters formation. - Abstract: Ag{sup +} doped sodium borate glasses with different Eu ions concentration were prepared by the melt-quenching method. The absorption at about 410 nm which was caused by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is promoted with increasing of Eu ions concentration. Meanwhile, the luminescent spectra showed that the emission intensity of Ag{sup +} decreased while that of the Ag aggregates increased simultaneously. The results indicated that the Ag ions intend to form the high-polymeric state such as Ag aggregates and nanoparticles with increasing of europium ions. Owing to the self-reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} in our glass system, it revealed that Ag{sup +} has been reduced by the neighboring Eu{sup 2+} which leads to the formation of Ag aggregates and the precipitation of Ag NPs in the matrix. In addition, energy transfer (ET) process from Ag{sup +}/Ag aggregates to the Eu{sup 3+} was investigated for the enhancement of Eu{sup 3+} luminescence.

  13. Thermal Behaviour of W+C Ion Implanted Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Urkac, E. Sokullu; Oztarhan, A.; Tihminlioglu, F.; Ila, D.; Chhay, B.; Muntele, C.; Budak, S.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.

    2009-03-10

    The aim of this work was to examine thermal behavior of the surface modified Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene (UHMWPE ) in order to understand the effect of ion implantation on the properties of this polymer which is widely used especially for biomedical applications. UHMWPE samples were Tungsten and Carbon (W+C) hybrid ion implanted by using Metal Vapour Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implantation technique with a fluence of 10 17 ions/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Untreated and surface-treated samples were investigated by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) Analysis, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectrometry, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). This study has shown that ion implantation represents a powerful tool on modifying thermal properties of UHMWPE surfaces. This combination of properties can make implanted UHMWPE a preferred material for biomedical applications.

  14. Surface stiffening and enhanced photoluminescence of ion implanted cellulose - polyvinyl alcohol - silica composite.

    PubMed

    Shanthini, G M; Sakthivel, N; Menon, Ranjini; Nabhiraj, P Y; Gómez-Tejedor, J A; Meseguer-Dueñas, J M; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Krishna, J B M; Kalkura, S Narayana

    2016-11-20

    Novel Cellulose (Cel) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-Silica (Si) composite which has good stability and in vitro degradation was prepared by lyophilization technique and implanted using N(3+) ions of energy 24keV in the fluences of 1×10(15), 5×10(15) and 1×10(16)ions/cm(2). SEM analysis revealed the formation of microstructures, and improved the surface roughness on ion implantation. In addition to these structural changes, the implantation significantly modified the luminescent, thermal and mechanical properties of the samples. The elastic modulus of the implanted samples has increased by about 50 times compared to the pristine which confirms that the stiffness of the sample surface has increased remarkably on ion implantation. The photoluminescence of the native cellulose has improved greatly due to defect site, dangling bonds and hydrogen passivation. Electric conductivity of the ion implanted samples was improved by about 25%. Hence, low energy ion implantation tunes the mechanical property, surface roughness and further induces the formation of nano structures. MG63 cells seeded onto the scaffolds reveals that with the increase in implantation fluence, the cell attachment, viability and proliferation have improved greatly compared to pristine. The enhancement of cell growth of about 59% was observed in the implanted samples compared to pristine. These properties will enable the scaffolds to be ideal for bone tissue engineering and imaging applications. PMID:27561534

  15. Surface stiffening and enhanced photoluminescence of ion implanted cellulose - polyvinyl alcohol - silica composite.

    PubMed

    Shanthini, G M; Sakthivel, N; Menon, Ranjini; Nabhiraj, P Y; Gómez-Tejedor, J A; Meseguer-Dueñas, J M; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Krishna, J B M; Kalkura, S Narayana

    2016-11-20

    Novel Cellulose (Cel) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-Silica (Si) composite which has good stability and in vitro degradation was prepared by lyophilization technique and implanted using N(3+) ions of energy 24keV in the fluences of 1×10(15), 5×10(15) and 1×10(16)ions/cm(2). SEM analysis revealed the formation of microstructures, and improved the surface roughness on ion implantation. In addition to these structural changes, the implantation significantly modified the luminescent, thermal and mechanical properties of the samples. The elastic modulus of the implanted samples has increased by about 50 times compared to the pristine which confirms that the stiffness of the sample surface has increased remarkably on ion implantation. The photoluminescence of the native cellulose has improved greatly due to defect site, dangling bonds and hydrogen passivation. Electric conductivity of the ion implanted samples was improved by about 25%. Hence, low energy ion implantation tunes the mechanical property, surface roughness and further induces the formation of nano structures. MG63 cells seeded onto the scaffolds reveals that with the increase in implantation fluence, the cell attachment, viability and proliferation have improved greatly compared to pristine. The enhancement of cell growth of about 59% was observed in the implanted samples compared to pristine. These properties will enable the scaffolds to be ideal for bone tissue engineering and imaging applications.

  16. Gas-induced swelling of beryllium implanted with deuterium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernikov, V. N.; Alimov, V. Kh.; Markin, A. V.; Gorodetsky, A. E.; Kanashenko, S. L.; Zakharov, A. P.; Kupriyanov, I. B.

    1996-10-01

    An extensive TEM study of the microstructure of Be TIP-30 irradiated with 3 and 10 keV D ions up to fluences, Φ, in the range from 3 × 10 20 to 8 × 10 21 D/m 2 at temperatures, Tirr = 300, 500 and 700 K has been carried out. Depth distributions of deuterium in a form of separate D atoms and D 2 molecules have been investigated by means of SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) and RGA (residual gas analysis) methods, correspondingly. D ion implantation is accompanied by blistering and gives rise to processes of gas-induced cavitation which are very sensitive to the irradiation temperature. At Tirr = 300 K tiny gas bubbles (about 1 nm in size) pressurized with molecular deuterium are developed with parameters resembling those of helium bubbles in Be. Irradiation at Tirr ≥ 500 K leads to the appearance of coarse deuterium-filled cavities which can form in sub-surface layers different kinds of oblate labyrinth structures. Questions of reemission, thermal desorption and trapping of deuterium in Be have been discussed.

  17. Ion implantation of erbium into polycrystalline cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, V. V. Klevkov, Yu. V.; Dravin, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    The specific features of the ion implantation of polycrystalline cadmium telluride with grains 20–1000 μm in dimensions are studied. The choice of erbium is motivated by the possibility of using rare-earth elements as luminescent “probes” in studies of the defect and impurity composition of materials and modification of the composition by various technological treatments. From the microphotoluminescence data, it is found that, with decreasing crystal-grain dimensions, the degree of radiation stability of the material is increased. Microphotoluminescence topography of the samples shows the efficiency of the rare-earth probe in detecting regions with higher impurity and defect concentrations, including regions of intergrain boundaries.

  18. Intravascular brachytherapy with radioactive stents produced by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombeck, M.-A.; Heise, S.; Schloesser, K.; Schuessler, B.; Schweickert, H.

    2003-05-01

    About 1 million patients are treated for stenosis of coronary arteries by percutaneous balloon angioplasty annually worldwide. In many cases a so called stent is inserted into the vessel to keep it mechanically open. Restenosis is observed in about 20-30% of these cases, which can be treated by irradiating the stented vessel segment. In our approach, we utilized the stent itself as radiation source by ion implanting 32P. Investigations of the surface properties were performed with special emphasis on activity retention. Clinical data of about 400 patients showed radioactive stents can suppress instent restenosis, but a so called edge effect appeared, which can be avoided by the new "drug eluting stents".

  19. Ion beam sputter modification of the surface morphology of biological implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigand, A. J.; Banks, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    The surface chemistry and texture of materials used for biological implants may significantly influence their performance and biocompatibility. Recent interest in the microscopic control of implant surface texture has led to the evaluation of ion beam sputtering as a potentially useful surface roughening technique. Ion sources, similar to electron bombardment ion thrusters designed for propulsive applications, are used to roughen the surfaces of various biocompatible alloys or polymer materials. These materials are typically used for dental implants, orthopedic prostheses, vascular prostheses, and artificial heart components. Masking techniques and resulting surface textures are described along with progress concerning evaluation of the biological response to the ion beam sputtered surfaces.

  20. Ion-beam-sputter modification of the surface morphology of biological implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigand, A. J.; Banks, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    The surface chemistry and texture of materials used for biological implants may significantly influence their performance and biocompatibility. Recent interest in the microscopic control of implant surface texture has led to the evaluation of ion-beam sputtering as a potentially useful surface roughening technique. Ion sources, similar to electron-bombardment ion thrusters designed for propulsive applications, are used to roughen the surfaces of various biocompatible alloys or polymer materials. These materials are typically used for dental implants, orthopedic prostheses, vascular prostheses, and artificial heart components. Masking techniques and resulting surface textures are described along with progress concerning evaluation of the biological response to the ion-beam-sputtered surfaces.

  1. Open questions in electronic sputtering of solids by slow highly charged ions with respect to applications in single ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, T.; Rangelow, I.W.; Keller, R.; Park, S.J.; Nilsson, J.; Persaud, A.; Radmilivitc, V.R.; Liddle, J.A.; Grabiec, P.; Bokor, J.; Schneider, D.H.

    2003-07-16

    In this article we discuss open questions in electronic sputtering of solids by slow, highly charged ions in the context of their application in a single ion implantation scheme. High yields of secondary electrons emitted when highly charged dopant ions impinge on silicon wafers allow for formation of non-Poissonian implant structures such as single atom arrays. Control of high spatial resolution and implant alignment require the use of nanometer scale apertures. We discuss electronic sputtering issues on mask lifetimes, and damage to silicon wafers.

  2. Transport of Iodide Ion in Compacted Bentonite Containing Ag{sub 2}O - 12111

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Sung Paal; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Heui-Joo; Choi, Jong-Won; Lee, Cheo Kyung

    2012-07-01

    Observations of the transport of iodide through compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O as additive and that without additive were made. Compacted bentonite samples with densities of 1.41 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.60 g/cm{sup 3} were used in the experiment. The amount of Ag{sub 2}O added to the compacted bentonite was in the range of 0.0064 ∼ 0.0468 wt/wt%. Two diffusion solutions were used: one in which iodide ion was dissolved in demineralized water (pure iodide solution), and one in which iodide ion was dissolved in 0.1 M NaCl solution (0.1 M NaCl-iodide solution). Experimental results confirmed that iodide ion was transported by the diffusion process in the compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O as well as in the compacted bentonite without Ag{sub 2}O. The time-lag of diffusion of iodide ion in the compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O is larger than that in the compacted bentonite without Ag{sub 2}O. The increase of the time-lag of diffusion was observed in pure iodide ion solution as well as in 0.1 M NaCl-iodide solution. The apparent diffusion coefficient of iodide ion in the compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O was smaller than in the compacted bentonite without Ag{sub 2}O. The effective diffusion coefficient decreased as the amount of Ag{sub 2}O in the compacted bentonite increased. (authors)

  3. Fabrication and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 derived nanotubes with Ag ions doping.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Lai, Shuting; Huang, Peilin; Liu, Yingju; Xu, Yuehua; Fang, Yueping; Zhou, Wuyi

    2012-11-01

    Ag/TiO2 nanotubes with uniform distribution were successfully prepared by a hydrothermal-dipping method. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, TEM and FTIR, respectively. The results exhibited that the morphological structure of the TiO2 nanotubes was improved by the doping of Ag ions. The photocatalytic degradation experiment indicated that the photocatalytic activity of the Ag/TiO2 nanotubes indicated better photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 nanotubes since silver was able to help the electron-hole separation by attracting photoelectrons. The optimal mol ration of TiO2 and AgNO3 was 25:1.

  4. A simple ion implanter for material modifications in agriculture and gemmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singkarat, S.; Wijaikhum, A.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Intarasiri, S.; Bootkul, D.; Phanchaisri, B.; Techarung, J.; Rhodes, M. W.; Suwankosum, R.; Rattanarin, S.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In our efforts in developing ion beam technology for novel applications in biology and gemmology, an economic simple compact ion implanter especially for the purpose was constructed. The designing of the machine was aimed at providing our users with a simple, economic, user friendly, convenient and easily operateable ion implanter for ion implantation of biological living materials and gemstones for biotechnological applications and modification of gemstones, which would eventually contribute to the national agriculture, biomedicine and gem-industry developments. The machine was in a vertical setup so that the samples could be placed horizontally and even without fixing; in a non-mass-analyzing ion implanter style using mixed molecular and atomic nitrogen (N) ions so that material modifications could be more effective; equipped with a focusing/defocusing lens and an X-Y beam scanner so that a broad beam could be possible; and also equipped with a relatively small target chamber so that living biological samples could survive from the vacuum period during ion implantation. To save equipment materials and costs, most of the components of the machine were taken from decommissioned ion beam facilities. The maximum accelerating voltage of the accelerator was 100 kV, ideally necessary for crop mutation induction and gem modification by ion beams from our experience. N-ion implantation of local rice seeds and cut gemstones was carried out. Various phenotype changes of grown rice from the ion-implanted seeds and improvements in gemmological quality of the ion-bombarded gemstones were observed. The success in development of such a low-cost and simple-structured ion implanter provides developing countries with a model of utilizing our limited resources to develop novel accelerator-based technologies and applications.

  5. High Curie temperature drive layer materials for ion-implanted magnetic bubble devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fratello, V. J.; Wolfe, R.; Blank, S. L.; Nelson, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Ion implantation of bubble garnets can lower the Curie temperature by 70 C or more, thus limiting high temperature operation of devices with ion-implanted propagation patterns. Therefore, double-layer materials were made with a conventional 2-micron bubble storage layer capped by an ion-implantable drive layer of high Curie temperature, high magnetostriction material. Contiguous disk test patterns were implanted with varying doses of a typical triple implant. Quality of propagation was judged by quasistatic tests on 8-micron period major and minor loops. Variations of magnetization, uniaxial anisotropy, implant dose, and magnetostriction were investigated to ensure optimum flux matching, good charged wall coupling, and wide operating margins. The most successful drive layer compositions were in the systems (SmDyLuCa)3(FeSi)5O12 and (BiGdTmCa)3(FeSi)5O12 and had Curie temperatures 25-44 C higher than the storage layers.

  6. Swelling or erosion on the surface of patterned GaN damaged by heavy ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yuan; Lan, Chune; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang; Xu, Fujun; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Yanwen

    2010-06-08

    Wurtzite undoped GaN epilayers (0 0 0 1) was implanted with 500 keV Au+ ions at room temperature under different doses, respectively. Ion implantation was performed through photoresist masks on GaN to produce alternating strips. The experimental results showed that the step height of swelling and decomposition in implanted GaN depended on ion dose and annealing temperature, i.e., damage level and its evolution. This damage evolution is contributed to implantation-induced defect production, and defect migration/accumulation occurred at different levels of displacement per atom. The results suggest that the swelling is due to the formation of porous structures in the amorphous region of implanted GaN. The decomposition of implanted area can be attributed to the disorder saturation and the diffusion of surface amorphous layer.

  7. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan; Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nayak, B. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2016-04-01

    Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV-Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 1017 N-ions/cm2 fluence, formation of colour centres (F+, F2, F2+ and F22+) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  8. Study on the Growth and the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Low Energy C+ Ion Implantation on Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuguo; Xu, Lei; Yang, Peiling; Ren, Shumei

    2013-01-01

    Employing the Nonghua 5 peanut as experimental material, the effects of low energy C+ ion implantation on caulis height, root length, dry weight, photosynthetic characteristics and leaf water use efficiency (WUE) of Peanut Ml Generation were studied. Four fluences were observed in the experiment. The results showed that ion implantation harmed the peanut seeds because caulis height, root length and dry weight all were lower in the treatments than in CK, and the harm was aggravated with the increase of ion fluence. Both Pn and Tr show a saddle-shape curve due to midday depression of photosynthesis. Low fluence of low energy C+ ion implantation could increase the diurnal average Pn of peanut. The diurnal variation of Tr did not change as significantly as Pn. The light saturation point (LSP) was restrained by the ions. After low energy C+ ion implantation, WUE was enhanced. When the fluence increased to a certain level, the WUE began to decrease. PMID:23861939

  9. Surface hardness changes induced by O-, Ca- or P-ion implantation into titanium.

    PubMed

    Ikeyama; Nakao; Morikawa; Yokogawa; Wielunski; Clissold; Bell

    2000-12-30

    Titanium or titanium alloys are very attractive biomedical materials. Biocompatible elements of oxygen, calcium and phosphorus were implanted into titanium and changes of surface hardness were measured using an ultra micro indenter (UMIS-2000). A multiple load-partial unload procedure that can reveal a hardness versus depth profile was adopted. Depth profiles of concentration of implanted ions were obtained by SIMS measurement. For O and P implantation, it is observed that the hardness increases with the increases in the dose. O implantation produced the largest increase in hardness, up to 2.2 times higher than the unimplanted titanium. On the other hand, Ca implantation produced only a small increase in the hardness that was independent of the ion dose. The surface oxide layer of a Ca implanted titanium sample was much thicker than the unimplanted samples or those implanted with O and P ions. The depth of maximum hardness increases with increasing energy of implanted ions. The depths of the maximum hardness occur at indentation depths of one-third to one-eighth of the mean ranges of implanted ions.

  10. Estimation of Protein Absorption on Polymer Material by Carbon-Negative Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Hattori, Mitsutaka; Sommani, Piyanuch; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    Selective cell attachment on carbon-negative-ion implanted region of polystyrene was already reported by the authors. However, the selectivity and adhesion strength in the cell pattering were partially insufficient. The adhesive proteins called extracellular matrix (ECM), in general, intervene between cell and substrate surface in the cell attachment on the solid surface. Therefore, we considered to obtain clearer selective cell attachment with tighter binding strength on the implanted region of polystyrene when these adhesive proteins precedently adsorbed on the implanted region of polystyrene. In this paper, we have investigated adsorption properties of three kinds of adhesive proteins (gelatin, fibronectin, laminin) and cell attachment properties on precedent protein adsorbed surface of polystyrene modified by carbon negative-ion implantation. Carbon negative ions were implanted into polystyrene at energy of 10 keV with dose in a range of 1×1014~1×1016 ions/cm2. After implantation, the samples were dipped in the protein solutions for 2 hours. Then, the protein adsorption ratio between implanted and unimplanted regions was evaluated by detecting amount of nitrogen atoms on the surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As a result, the protein-precedently-absorbed sample implanted at dose more than 3×1015 ions/cm2 showed the large gelatin adsorption ratio of more than 2, where the much densely populated cell-attachment was observed more than that on the implanted region of polystyrene without precedent adsorption of protein after cell culture.

  11. Three-layer photocarrier radiometry model of ion-implanted silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bincheng; Shaughnessy, Derrick; Mandelis, Andreas; Batista, Jerias; Garcia, Jose

    2004-06-01

    A three-dimensional three-layer model is presented for the quantitative understanding of the infrared photocarrier radiometry (PCR) response of ion-implanted semiconductors, specifically Si. In addition to the implanted layer and intact substrate normally assumed in all existing two-layer theoretical models to describe the photothermal response of ion-implanted semiconductors, a surface layer is considered in this three-layer model to represent a thin, less severally damaged region close to the surface. The effects on the PCR signal of several structural, transport, and optical properties of ion-implanted silicon wafers affected significantly by the ion implantation process (minority carrier lifetime, diffusion coefficient, optical absorption coefficient, thickness of the implanted layer, and front surface recombination velocity) are discussed. The dependence of the PCR signal on the ion implantation dose is theoretically calculated and compared to experimental results. Good agreement between experimental data and theoretical calculations is obtained. Both theoretical and experimental results show the PCR dependence on dose can be separated into four regions with the transition across each region defined by the implantation-induced electrical and optical degrees of damage, respectively, as the electrical and optical damage occurs at different dose ranges. It is also shown that the PCR amplitude decreases monotonically with increasing implantation dose. This monotonic dependence provides the potential of the PCR technique for industrial applications in semiconductor metrology.

  12. Ion-implanted PLZT ceramics: a new high-sensitivity image storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Peercy, P.S.; Land, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Results were presented of our studies of photoferroelectric (PFE) image storage in H- and He-ion implanted PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) ceramics which demonstrate that the photosensitivity of PLZT can be significantly increased by ion implantation in the ceramic surface to be exposed to image light. More recently, implantations of Ar and Ar + Ne into the PLZT surface have produced much greater photosensitivity enhancement. For example, the photosensitivity after implantation with 1.5 x 10/sup 14/ 350 keV Ar/cm/sup 2/ + 1 x 10/sup 15/ 500 keV Ne/cm/sup 2/ is increased by about four orders of magnitude over that of unimplanted PLZT. Measurements indicate that the photosensitivity enhancement in ion-implanted PLZT is controlled by implantation-produced disorder which results in marked decreases in dielectric constant and dark conductivity and changes in photoconductivity of the implanted layer. The effects of Ar- and Ar + Ne-implantation are presented along with a phenomenological model which describes the enhancement in photosensitivity obtained by ion implantation. This model takes into account both light- and implantation-induced changes in conductivity and gives quantitative agreement with the measured changes in the coercive voltage V/sub c/ as a function of near-uv light intensity for both unimplanted and implanted PLZT. The model, used in conjunction with calculations of the profiles of implantation-produced disorder, has provided the information needed for co-implanting ions of different masses, e.g., Ar and Ne, to improve photosensitivity.

  13. Effect of phosphorus-ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium.

    PubMed

    Krupa, D; Baszkiewicz, J; Kozubowski, J A; Barcz, A; Sobczak, J W; Biliński, A; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M; Rajchel, B

    2002-08-01

    This work presents data on the structure and corrosion resistance of titanium after phosphorus-ion implantation with a dose of 10(17)P/cm2. The ion energy was 25keV. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the implanted layer. The chemical composition of the surface layer was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The corrosion resistance was examined by electrochemical methods in a simulated body fluid at a temperature of 37 C. Biocompatibility tests in vitro were performed in a culture of human derived bone cells in direct contact with the materials tested. Both, the viability of the cells determined by an XTT assay and activity of the cells evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in contact with implanted and non-implanted titanium samples were detected. The morphology of the cells spread on the surface of the materials examined was also observed. The results confirmed the biocompatibility of both phosphorus-ion-implanted and non-implanted titanium under the conditions of the experiment. As shown by transmission electron microscope results, the surface layer formed during phosphorus-ion implantation was amorphous. The results of electrochemical examinations indicate that phosphorus-ion implantation increases the corrosion resistance after short-term as well as long-term exposures.

  14. Swift and heavy ion implanted chalcogenide laser glass waveguides and their different refractive index distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Feng; Narusawa, Tadashi; Zheng Jie

    2011-02-10

    Planar waveguides have been fabricated in Nd- or Ho-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide laser glasses by 60 MeV Ar or 20 MeV N ion implantation. The refractive index profiles were reconstructed based on the results of prism coupling. The Ar implanted waveguides exhibit an approximate steplike distribution, while the N implanted ones show a ''well + barrier'' type. This difference can be attributed to the much lower dose of Ar ions. After annealing, the N implanted waveguides can support two modes at 1539 nm and have low propagation loss, which makes them candidates for novel waveguide lasers.

  15. Deuterium retention after deuterium plasma implantation in tungsten pre-damaged by fast C+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, V. S.; Gasparyan, Yu M.; Pisarev, A. A.; Khripunov, B. I.; Koidan, V. S.; Ryazanov, A. I.; Semenov, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    Thermal desorption of deuterium from W was investigated. Virgin samples and samples damaged by 10 MeV C 3+ ions were implanted from plasma in the LENTA facility at 370 K and 773 K. In comparison with the undamaged sample, deuterium retention in the damaged sample slightly increased in the case of deuterium implantation at RT, but decreased in the case of deuterium implantation at 773 K. At 773 K, deuterium was concluded to diffuse far behind the D ion range in the virgin sample, while C implantation region was concluded to be a barrier for D diffusion in the damaged sample.

  16. MAGNESIUM PRECIPITATION AND DIFUSSION IN Mg+ ION IMPLANTED SILICON CARBIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Jung, Hee Joon; Kovarik, Libor; Wang, Zhaoying; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Zhu, Zihua; Edwards, Danny J.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-03-02

    As a candidate material for fusion reactor applications, silicon carbide (SiC) undergoes transmutation reactions under high-energy neutron irradiation with magnesium as the major metallic transmutant; the others include aluminum, beryllium and phosphorus in addition to helium and hydrogen gaseous species. Calculations by Sawan et al. predict that at a dose of ~100 dpa (displacements per atom), there is ~0.5 at.% Mg generated in SiC. The impact of these transmutants on SiC structural stability is currently unknown. This study uses ion implantation to introduce Mg into SiC. Multiaxial ion-channeling analysis of the as-produced damage state indicates a lower dechanneling yield observed along the <100> axis. The microstructure of the annealed sample was examined using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results show a high concentration of likely non-faulted tetrahedral voids and possible stacking fault tetrahedra near the damage peak. In addition to lattice distortion, dislocations and intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults are also observed. Magnesium in 3C–SiC prefers to substitute for Si and it forms precipitates of cubic Mg2Si and tetragonal MgC2. The diffusion coefficient of Mg in 3C–SiC single crystal at 1573 K has been determined to be 3.8 ± 0.4E-19 m2/s.

  17. Effect of phosphorous ion implantation on the mechanical properties and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Muramatsu, Takehiro; Teranishi, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has ability of bone-like apatite formation, which consists with chemical interaction between the surface of HA and ions included in body fluid. Thus, proper surface modification might enhance the function. In the present study, the effect of phosphorous ion implantation on mechanical properties and bioactivity of HA was investigated. In order to clarify the effect of ion implantation dose, ion dose of 1 × 10(12), 1 × 10(13) and 1 × 10(14) ions/cm(2) were selected. Mechanical properties and bioactivity were evaluated in 4-point bending tests and immersion test in simulated body fluid. Bending strength was reduced due to ion implantation. The amount of decreasing strength was similar regardless of ion implantation dose. Bone-like apatite formation was slightly delayed with ion implantation, however, improvement in interfacial strength between bone-like apatite layer and the base HA was indicated. From the results, the possibility of phosphorous ion implantation for enhancement of bioactivity of HA was proved.

  18. Effective dopant activation via low temperature microwave annealing of ion implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhao; David Theodore, N.; Vemuri, Rajitha N. P.; Das, Sayantan; Lu, Wei; Lau, S. S.; Alford, T. L.

    2013-11-01

    Susceptor-assisted microwave annealing enables effective dopant activation, at low temperatures, in ion-implanted Si. Given similar thermal budgets for microwave annealing and rapid thermal annealing (RTA), sheet resistances of microwave annealed Si, with either B+ or P+ implants, are lower than the values obtained using RTA. The fraction of dopants activated is as high as 18% for B+ implants and 64% for P+ implants. Dopant diffusion is imperceptible after microwave annealing, but significant after RTA, for P+ implanted Si samples with the same dopant activation. Microwave annealing achieves such properties using shorter anneal times and lower peak temperatures compared to RTA.

  19. Surface modification of poly(propylene carbonate) by oxygen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jizhong; Kang, Jiachen; Hu, Ping; Meng, Qingli

    2007-04-01

    Poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) was implanted by oxygen ion with energy of 40 keV. The influence of experimental parameters was investigated by varying ion fluence from 1 × 10 12 to 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. XPS, SEM, surface roughness, wettability, hardness, and modulus were employed to investigate structure and properties of the as-implanted PPC samples. Eight chemical groups, i.e., carbon, C sbnd H, C sbnd O sbnd C, C sbnd O, O sbnd C sbnd O, C dbnd O, ?, and ? groups were observed on surfaces of the as-implanted samples. The species and relative intensities of the chemical groups changed with increasing ion fluence. SEM images displayed that irradiation damage was related strongly with ion fluence. Both surface-recovering and shrunken behavior were observed on surface of the PPC sample implanted with fluence of 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. As increasing ion fluence, the surface roughness of the as-implanted PPC samples increased firstly, reached the maximum value of 159 nm, and finally decreased down the minimum value. The water droplet contact angle of the as-implanted PPC samples changed gradually with fluence, and reached the minimum value of 70° with fluence of 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The hardness and modulus of the as-implanted PPC samples increased with increasing ion fluence, and reached their corresponding maximum values with fluence of 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The experimental results revealed that oxygen ion fluence closely affected surface chemical group, morphology, surface roughness, wettability, and mechanical properties of the as-implanted PPC samples.

  20. Report on the workshop on Ion Implantation and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1992-03-01

    This workshop was organized by the Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD), the major helicopter repair base within AVSCOM. Previous meetings had revealed a strong interest throughout DoD in ion beam technology as a means of extending the service life of military systems by reducing wear, corrosion, fatigue, etc. The workshop opened with an account by Dr. Bruce Sartwell of the successful application of ion implantation to bearings and gears at NRL, and the checkered history of the MANTECH Project at Spire Corporation. Dr. James Hirvonen (AMTL) continued with a summary of successful applications to reduce wear in biomedical components, and he also described the processes of ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) for a variety of protective coatings, including diamond-like carbon (DLC).

  1. Effect of dual ion implantation of calcium and phosphorus on the properties of titanium.

    PubMed

    Krupa, D; Baszkiewicz, J; Kozubowski, J A; Barcz, A; Sobczak, J W; Biliński, A; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M; Rajchel, B

    2005-06-01

    This study is concerned with the effect of dual implantation of calcium and phosphorus upon the structure, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium. The ions were implanted in sequence, first Ca and then P, both at a dose of 10(17) ions/cm2 at a beam energy of 25 keV. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the implanted layer. The chemical composition of the implanted layer was examined by XPS and SIMS. The corrosion resistance was determined by electrochemical methods in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at a temperature of 37 degrees C. The biocompatibility tests were performed in vitro in a culture of human-derived bone cells (HDBC) in contact with the tested materials. The viability of the cells was determined by an XTT assay and their activity by the measurements of the alkaline phosphatase activity in contact with implanted and non-implanted titanium samples. The in vitro examinations confirmed that, under the conditions prevailing during the experiments, the biocompatibility of Ca + P ion-implanted titanium was satisfactory. TEM results show that the surface layer formed by the Ca + P implantation is amorphous. The corrosion resistance of titanium, examined by the electrochemical methods, appeared to be increased after the Ca + P ion implantation.

  2. Influence of Ag thickness on structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayers prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Leng Jian; Yu Zhinong; Xue Wei; Zhang Ting; Jiang Yurong; Zhang Jie; Zhang Dongpu

    2010-10-15

    The structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of zinc sulfide (ZnS)/Ag/ZnS (ZAZ) multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition on k9 glass have been investigated as a function of Ag layer thickness. The characteristics of ZAZ multilayer are significantly improved up insertion of optimal Ag thickness between ZnS layers. The results show that due to bombardment of Ar ion beam, distinct Ag islands evolve into continuous Ag films at a thin Ag thickness of about 4 nm. The thinner Ag film as a thickness of 2 nm leads to high sheet resistance and low transmittance for the interface scattering induced by the Ag islands or noncontinuous films; and when the Ag thickness is over 4 nm, the ZAZ multilayer exhibits a remarkably reduced sheet resistance between 7-80 {Omega}/sq for the increase in carrier concentration and mobility of Ag layer, and a high transmittance over 90% for the interference phenomena of multilayers and low absorption and surface scattering of Ag layer. The ZAZ multilayer with 14 nm Ag film has a figure of merit up to 6.32x10{sup -2} {Omega}{sup -1}, an average transmittance over 92% and a sheet resistance of 7.1 {Omega}/sq. The results suggest that ZAZ film has better optoelectrical properties than conditional indium tin oxide single layer.

  3. Long-range effect of ion implantation of Raex and Hardox steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyński, P.; Kamiński, M.; Droździel, A.; Wiertel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Ion implantation involves introduction of ionized atoms of any element (nitrogen) to metals thanks to the high kinetic energy that they acquired in the electric field. The distribution of nitrogen ions implanted at E = 65 keV energy and D = 1.1017 N+ /cm2 fluence in the steel sample and vacancies produced by them was calculated using the SRIM program. This result was confirmed by RBS measurements. The initial maximum range of the implanted nitrogen ions is ∼⃒0.17 μm. This value is relatively small compared to the influence of nitriding on the thickness surface layer of modified steel piston rings. Measurements of the friction coefficient during the pin-on-disc tribological test were performed under dry friction conditions. The friction coefficient of the implanted sample increased to values characteristic of an unimplanted sample after ca. 1500 measurement cycles. The depth of wear trace is ca. 2.4 μm. This implies that the thickness of the layer modified by the implantation process is ∼⃒2.4 μm and exceeds the initial range of the implanted ions by an order of magnitude. This effect, referred to as a long-range implantation effect, is caused by migration of vacancies and nitrogen atoms into the sample. This phenomenon makes ion implantation a legitimate process of modification of the surface layer in order to enhance the tribological properties of critical components of internal combustion engines such as steel piston rings.

  4. Shallow nitrogen ion implantation: Evolution of chemical state and defect structure in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manojkumar, P. A.; Chirayath, V. A.; Balamurugan, A. K.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Ilango, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Amarendra, G.; Tyagi, A. K.; Raj, Baldev

    2016-09-01

    Evolution of chemical states and defect structure in titanium during low energy nitrogen ion implantation by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) process is studied. The underlying process of chemical state evolution is investigated using secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The implantation induced defect structure evolution as a function of dose is elucidated using variable energy positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (PAS) and the results were corroborated with chemical state. Formation of 3 layers of defect state was modeled to fit PAS results.

  5. Optical characteristics of Cu-nanocluster layers assembled by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Yang, L. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Magruder, R.H. III; Wittig, J.E. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Zuhr, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    We have generated cluster layers in solid insulating substrates by implanting Cu ions into fused silica, creating thin layers ({approximately} 150 nm) of nonoclusters over a diameter of order 2 cm. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the size and size distribution can be controlled by the parameters of the ion implantation. We report measurements of the optical properties and nonlinear index of the refraction on these unusual solid-phase cluster materials as a function of total implanted-ion dose. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Enhanced Ag(+) Ion Release from Aqueous Nanosilver Suspensions by Absorption of Ambient CO2.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kakeru; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2015-05-19

    Nanosilver with closely controlled average particle diameter (7-30 nm) immobilized on nanosilica is prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of Ag2O on the as-prepared nanosilver surface is confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and quantified by thermogravimetric analysis and mass spectrometry. The release of Ag(+) ions in deionized water is monitored electrochemically and traced quantitatively to the dissolution of a preexisting Ag2O monolayer on the nanosilver surface. During this dissolution, the pH of the host solution rapidly increases, suppressing dissolution of the remaining metallic Ag. When, however, a nanosilver suspension is exposed to a CO2-containing atmosphere, like ambient air during its storage or usage, then CO2 is absorbed by the host solution decreasing its pH and contributing to metallic Ag dissolution and further leaching of Ag(+) ions. So the release of Ag(+) ions from the above closely sized nanosilver solutions in the absence and presence of CO2 as well as under synthetic air containing 200-1800 ppm of CO2 is investigated along with the solution pH and related to the antibacterial activity of nanosilver.

  7. Microstructure of Co-doped TiO{sub 2}(110) rutile by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.M.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, S.; Droubay, T.; Chambers, S.A.

    2005-04-01

    Co-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} was synthesized by injecting Co ions into single crystal rutile TiO{sub 2} using high energy ion implantation. Microstructures of the implanted specimens were studied in detail using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron diffraction, and HRTEM image simulations. The spatial distribution and conglomeration behavior of the implanted Co ions, as well as the point defect distributions induced by ion implantation, show strong dependences on implantation conditions. Uniform distribution of Co ions in the rutile TiO{sub 2} lattice was obtained by implanting at 1075 K with a Co ion fluence of 1.25x10{sup 16} Co/cm{sup 2}. Implanting at 875 K leads to the formation of Co metal clusters. The precipitated Co metal clusters and surrounding TiO{sub 2} matrix exhibit the orientation relationships Co<110> parallel TiO{sub 2}[001] and Co{l_brace}111{r_brace} parallel TiO{sub 2}(110). A structural model representing the interface between Co metal clusters and TiO{sub 2} is developed based on HRTEM imaging and image simulations.

  8. Microstructure of Co-doped TiO₂ (110) Rutile by Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chong M.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2005-04-01

    Co-doped rutile TiO₂ was synthesized by injecting Co ions into single crystal rutile TiO₂ using high energy ion implantation. Microstructures of the implanted specimens were studied in detail using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron diffraction, and HRTEM image simulations. The spatial distribution and conglomeration behavior of the implanted Co ions, as well as the point defect distributions induced by ion implantation, show strong dependences on implantation conditions. Uniform distribution of Co ions in the rutile TiO₂ lattice was obtained by implanting at 1075 K with a Co ion fluence of 1.25x10¹⁶ Co/cm². Implanting at 875 K leads to the formation of Co metal clusters. The precipitated Co metal clusters and surrounding TiO₂ matrix exhibit the orientation relationships Co<110>//TiO₂[001] and Co{111}//TiO₂(110). A structural model representing the interface between Co metal clusters and TiO₂ is developed based on HRTEM imaging and image simulations.

  9. Blistering and cracking of LiTaO3 single crystal under helium ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Changdong; Lu, Fei; Ma, Yujie

    2015-03-01

    Blistering and cracking in LiTaO3 surface are investigated after 200-keV helium ion implantation and subsequent post-implantation annealing. Rutherford backscattering/channeling is used to examine the lattice damage caused by ion implantation. Blistering is observed through optical microscopy in a dynamic heating process. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements are used to detect the LiTaO3 surface morphology. Experimental results show that blistering and flaking are dependent on implantation fluence, beam current, and also annealing temperature. We speculate that the surface cracking of He+-implanted LiTaO3 results from the implantation-induced stress and compression.

  10. In situ ion exchange synthesis of strongly coupled Ag@AgCl/g-C₃N₄ porous nanosheets as plasmonic photocatalyst for highly efficient visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouwei; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Xiangke; Huang, Yongshun; Zeng, Meiyi; Xu, Jinzhang

    2014-12-24

    A novel efficient Ag@AgCl/g-C3N4 plasmonic photocatalyst was synthesized by a rational in situ ion exchange approach between exfoliated g-C3N4 nanosheets with porous 2D morphology and AgNO3. The as-prepared Ag@AgCl-9/g-C3N4 plasmonic photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation for rhodamine B degradation with a rate constant of 0.1954 min(-1), which is ∼41.6 and ∼16.8 times higher than those of the g-C3N4 (∼0.0047 min(-1)) and Ag/AgCl (∼0.0116 min(-1)), respectively. The degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, and colorless phenol further confirmed the broad spectrum photocatalytic degradation abilities of Ag@AgCl-9/g-C3N4. These results suggested that an integration of the synergetic effect of suitable size plasmonic Ag@AgCl and strong coupling effect between the Ag@AgCl nanoparticles and the exfoliated porous g-C3N4 nanosheets was superior for visible-light-responsive and fast separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, thus significantly improving the photocatalytic efficiency. This work may provide a novel concept for the rational design of stable and high performance g-C3N4-based plasmonic photocatalysts for unique photochemical reaction.

  11. Directed breeding of an Arthrobacter mutant for high-yield production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate by N + ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, He; Chen, Xiaochun; Cao, Jiaming; Fang, Ting; Bai, Jianxin; Xiong, Jian; Ying, Hanjie

    2010-08-01

    To obtain a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) high-yield production strain, Arthrobacter NG-1 was mutated by N + ion implantation with an energy level of 10 keV and dose of 7×10 15 ions/cm 2. Combined with directed screening methods, a xanthine-defective and 8-azaguanine (8-AG)-resistant mutant Arthrobacter A302 was selected. The concentration of cAMP produced by this mutant was 41.7% higher than that of the original strain and reached 9.78 g/L. Through ten-generation investigation, the capability of cAMP production of A302 was found to be stable. Compared with the original strain, the special activities of key enzymes in A302, which influenced the cAMP biosynthesis, was analyzed. IMP dehydrogenase activity was defective, whereas PRPP amidotransferase, sAMP synthetase and adenylate cyclase activities were increased by 61.5%, 147% and 21.7%, respecitively, which might explain the mutagenesis mechanism by N + ions implantation under the enzymatic level.

  12. Ion Implantation Angle Variation to Device Performance and the Control in Production

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Z.Y.; Hendrix, D.; Wu, L.Y.; Cusson, B.K.

    2003-08-26

    As the device features get smaller and aspect ratios of photoresist openings get steeper, shadowing effect has more impact on the performance of devices. Many of the traditional 7 deg. tilt implants have progressed to 0 deg. implants. But shadowing may still occur if the tilt angle deviates from normal direction. Some implants, such as halo implants, demand even more stringent angle control to reduce device performance variation. The demand for implant angle control and monitoring thus becomes more obvious and important. However, statistical process control (SPC) cannot be done on shadowing effect without special test structures. Channeling, on the other hand, provides good sensitivity in regard to implant angle changes. It is the authors' intention to introduce channeling implant in different channels to monitor the implant angle variation. The incoming <100> silicon wafers have a cut-angle spec of +/- 1.0 deg. This poses a difficulty if one wants to control the implant angle's accuracy within +/- 0.5 deg. Other measures have to be taken to ensure the consistency of test wafers and to have prompt diagnosis feedback when needed. This paper will discuss the effect of implant tilt angle on device parameters and how to control the angle variation in production. Correlations of implant tilt angle variation to ThermaWave, sheet resistance (Rs), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and device parameters will be covered with certain implant conditions.

  13. Ion Implantation Angle Variation to Device Performance and the Control in Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Hendrix, D.; Wu, L. Y.; Cusson, B. K.

    2003-08-01

    As the device features get smaller and aspect ratios of photoresist openings get steeper, shadowing effect has more impact on the performance of devices. Many of the traditional 7° tilt implants have progressed to 0° implants. But shadowing may still occur if the tilt angle deviates from normal direction. Some implants, such as halo implants, demand even more stringent angle control to reduce device performance variation. The demand for implant angle control and monitoring thus becomes more obvious and important. However, statistical process control (SPC) cannot be done on shadowing effect without special test structures. Channeling, on the other hand, provides good sensitivity in regard to implant angle changes. It is the authors' intention to introduce channeling implant in different channels to monitor the implant angle variation. The incoming <100> silicon wafers have a cut-angle spec of +/- 1.0°. This poses a difficulty if one wants to control the implant angle's accuracy within +/- 0.5°. Other measures have to be taken to ensure the consistency of test wafers and to have prompt diagnosis feedback when needed. This paper will discuss the effect of implant tilt angle on device parameters and how to control the angle variation in production. Correlations of implant tilt angle variation to ThermaWave™, sheet resistance (Rs), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and device parameters will be covered with certain implant conditions.

  14. Rapid thermal annealing of Si 1- xGe x layers formed by germanium ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z.; Saarilahti, J.; Ronkainen, H.; Eränen, S.; Suni, I.; Molarius, J.; Kuivalainen, P.; Ristolainen, E.; Tuomi, T.

    1994-05-01

    (100) Si samples, amorphized by implanting with 50, 70 and 100 keV 74Ge + ions at doses of the order of 1 × 10 16cm -2, have been recrystallized by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) with different temperature-time ( T- t) combinations. Monte Carlo calculations using TRIM-91 computer program were performed to estimate the depth of amorphized regions, implanted Ge distributions and recoil-implanted O depth profiles. The RBS channeling measurements show that fully epitaxial regrowth of implanted layers can be reached with proper rapid thermal processing. An empirical guide is presented for regrowing the implanted SiGe layers with RTA. The recoil-implanted oxygen in the implanted layers was measured by 16O(α,α) 16O RBS resonance channeling and SIMS.

  15. Investigation of Mn-implanted n-Si by low-energy ion beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lifeng; Chen, Nuofu; Song, Shulin; Yin, Zhigang; Yang, Fei; Chai, Chunlin; Yang, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhikai

    2005-01-01

    Mn ions were implanted to n-type Si(0 0 1) single crystal by low-energy ion beam deposition technique with an energy of 1000 eV and a dose of 7.5×10 17 cm -2. The samples were held at room temperature and at 300 °C during implantation. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles of samples indicate that the Mn ions reach deeper in the sample implanted at 300 °C than in the sample implanted at room temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the structure of the sample implanted at room temperature is amorphous while that of the sample implanted at 300 °C is crystallized. There are no new phases found except silicon both in the two samples. Atomic force microscopy images of samples indicate that the sample implanted at 300 °C has island-like humps that cover the sample surface while there is no such kind of characteristic in the sample implanted at room temperature. The magnetic properties of samples were investigated by alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM). The sample implanted at 300 °C shows ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  16. Effect of calcium and phosphorus ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium.

    PubMed

    Krupa, D; Baszkiewicz, J; Kozubowski, J A; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M; Barcz, A; Sobczak, J W; Biliński, A; Rajchel, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium after surface modification by the ion implantation of calcium or phosphorus or calcium + phosphorus. Calcium and phosphorus ions were implanted in a dose of 10(17) ions/cm(2). The ion beam energy was 25 keV. The microstructure of the implanted layers was examined by TEM. The chemical composition of the surface layers was determined by XPS and SIMS. The corrosion resistance was examined by electrochemical methods in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at a temperature of 37 degrees C. The biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro. As shown by TEM results, the surface layers formed during calcium, phosphorus and calcium + phosphorus implantation were amorphous. The results of the electrochemical examinations (Stern's method) indicate that the calcium, phosphorus and calcium + phosphorus implantation into the surface of titanium increases its corrosion resistance in stationary conditions after short- and long-term exposures in SBF. Potentiodynamic tests show that the calcium-implanted samples undergo pitting corrosion during anodic polarisation. The breakdown potentials measured are high (2.5 to 3 V). The good biocompatibility of all the investigated materials was confirmed under the specific conditions of the applied examination, although, in the case of calcium implanted titanium it was not as good as that of non-implanted titanium.

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence and nonlinear optical properties of ion-implanted fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.; Yang, L.; Haglund, R.F. Jr. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Magruder, R.H.; Weeks, R.A. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Zuhr, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    We report absorption, fluorescence and nonlinear optical properties of fused silica implanted with Ti, Cu and Bi and doses of 1{center dot}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 6{center dot}10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} when irradiated with 532 nm laser light. The fluorescence spectrum is a broad band around 640 nm shows little variation for all ion species. Absorption as function of implanted dose shows a threshold for Ti between 1{center dot}10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} and 6{center dot}10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The nonlinear optical index is large, n{sub 2} > 10{sup {minus}5} esu. All measured quantities show a strong dependence on the implanted ion dose. The source of the nonlinearity, whether electronic or thermal, remains to be more completely determined. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Temperature Activated Diffusion of Radicals through Ion Implanted Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wakelin, Edgar A; Davies, Michael J; Bilek, Marcela M M; McKenzie, David R

    2015-12-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a promising technique for immobilizing biomolecules on the surface of polymers. Radicals generated in a subsurface layer by PIII treatment diffuse throughout the substrate, forming covalent bonds to molecules when they reach the surface. Understanding and controlling the diffusion of radicals through this layer will enable efficient optimization of this technique. We develop a model based on site to site diffusion according to Fick's second law with temperature activation according to the Arrhenius relation. Using our model, the Arrhenius exponential prefactor (for barrierless diffusion), D0, and activation energy, EA, for a radical to diffuse from one position to another are found to be 3.11 × 10(-17) m(2) s(-1) and 0.31 eV, respectively. The model fits experimental data with a high degree of accuracy and allows for accurate prediction of radical diffusion to the surface. The model makes useful predictions for the lifetime over which the surface is sufficiently active to covalently immobilize biomolecules and it can be used to determine radical fluence during biomolecule incubation for a range of storage and incubation temperatures so facilitating selection of the most appropriate parameters.

  19. Operations manual for the plasma source ion implantation economics program

    SciTech Connect

    Bibeault, M.L.; Thayer, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a surface modification technique for metal. PSIICOSTMODEL95 is an EXCEL-based program that estimates the cost for implementing a PSII system in a manufacturing setting where the number of parts to be processed is over 5,000 parts per day and the shape of each part does not change from day to day. Overall, the manufacturing process must be very well defined and should not change. This document is a self-contained manual for PSIICOSTMODEL95. It assumes the reader has some general knowledge of the technical requirements for PSII. Configuration of the PSII process versus design is used as the methodology in PSIICOSTMODEL95. The reason behind this is twofold. First, the design process cannot be programmed into a computer when the relationships between design variables are not understood. Second, the configuration methodology reduces the number of assumptions that must be programmed into our software. Misuse of results are less likely to occur if the user has fewer assumptions to understand.

  20. Phosphorous ion implantation in C{sub 60} for the photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, K. L.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2001-06-15

    Thin films of C{sub 60} deposited on p-type Si(100) wafer are implanted with low energy phosphorous ions for the photovoltaic applications. An attempt has been made on the device fabrication with phosphorous ion implanted C{sub 60} films grown on the p-type Si wafer. The photovoltaic properties of the solar cell structure are discussed with the dark and illuminated J{endash}V characteristics. The efficiency of the structure in the multiple energy phosphorous ion implanted C{sub 60} film/p-Si heterojunction is found to be 0.01% under air mass 1.5 conditions. The low efficiency is attributed to the ion implantation induced damage effects and subsequent larger series resistance values. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Immobilization of extracellular matrix on polymeric materials by carbon-negative-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sommani, Piyanuch; Muto, Takashi; Utagawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Shun; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2005-08-01

    Effects of ion implantation into polystyrene (PS), silicone rubber (SR) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) have been investigated for immobilization of extracellular matrix. Carbon negative ions were implanted into PS and SR sheets at various energies between 5-30 keV and various doses between 1.0 × 1014-1.0 × 1016 ions/cm2. Contact angles of pure water on C-implanted surfaces of PS and SR were decreased as increase in ion energy and in dose due to formation of functional groups such as OH and C-O. Selective attachment of nerve cells was observed on C-implanted them at 10 keV and 3 × 1015 ions/cm2 after in vitro cell culture of nerve cells of PC-12 h. Neurite outgrowth also extended over the implanted area. After dipping in a serum medium and in a fibronectin solution for 2 h, the detection of N 1s electrons by X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) revealed a significant distinction of protein adhesion on the implanted area. Thus, immobilization of proteins on surface is used for considering the selective cell-attachment. For PLA, the selective attachment of cells and protein depended on the implantation conditions.

  2. Deformation characteristics of the near-surface layers of zirconia ceramics implanted with aluminum ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghyngazov, S. A.; Vasiliev, I. P.; Frangulyan, T. S.; Chernyavski, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion treatment on the phase composition and mechanical properties of the near-surface layers of zirconium ceramic composition 97 ZrO2-3Y2O3 (mol%) was studied. Irradiation of the samples was carried out by accelerated ions of aluminum with using vacuum-arc source Mevva 5-Ru. Ion beam had the following parameters: the energy of the accelerated ions E = 78 keV, the pulse current density Ji = 4mA / cm2, current pulse duration equal τ = 250 mcs, pulse repetition frequency f = 5 Hz. Exposure doses (fluence) were 1016 и 1017 ion/cm2. The depth distribution implanted ions was studied by SIMS method. It is shown that the maximum projected range of the implanted ions is equal to 250 nm. Near-surface layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at fixed glancing incidence angle. It is shown that implantation of aluminum ions into the ceramics does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the near-surface layer. The influence of implanted ions on mechanical properties of ceramic near-surface layers was studied by the method of dynamic nanoindentation using small loads on the indenter P=300 mN. It is shown that in ion- implanted ceramic layer the processes of material recovery in the deformed region in the unloading mode proceeds with higher efficiency as compared with the initial material state. The deformation characteristics of samples before and after ion treatment have been determined from interpretation of the resulting P-h curves within the loading and unloading sections by the technique proposed by Oliver and Pharr. It was found that implantation of aluminum ions in the near-surface layer of zirconia ceramics increases nanohardness and reduces the Young's modulus.

  3. Direction-dependent RBS channelling studies in ion implanted LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, E.; Becker, G.; Rensberg, J.; Schmidt, E.; Wolf, S.; Wesch, W.

    2016-07-01

    Damage formation in ion implanted LiNbO3 was studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) along various directions of the LiNbO3 crystal. From the results obtained it can be unambiguously concluded that Nb atoms being displaced during ion implantation preferably occupy the free octahedron sites of the LiNbO3 lattice structure and most likely also form NbLi antisite defects.

  4. Optical absorption in ion-implanted lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, C. H.; Land, C. E.

    1984-08-01

    Optical absorption measurements have been performed on unmodified and on ion-implanted lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics using the photothermal deflection spectroscopy technique. Bulk absorption coefficients depend on the average grain size of the material while the absorption associated with the ion-damaged layers does not. The damage-induced surface absorptance correlates well with the photosensitivity observed in implanted PLZT devices, supporting earlier models for the enhanced imaging efficiency of the materials.

  5. Neutron activation analysis for reference determination of the implantation dose of cobalt ions

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, R.P.H.; Bubert, H.; Palmetshofer, L.

    1992-05-15

    The authors prepared depth profilling reference materials by cobalt ion implantation at an ion energy of 300 keV into n-type silicon. The implanted Co dose was then determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) giving an analytical dynamic range of almost 5 decades and uncertainty of 1.5%. This form of analysis allows sources of error (beam spreading, misalignment) to be corrected. 70 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for applications in silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, Christian; Feldmann, Frank; Müller, Ralph; Reedy, Robert C.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.

    2015-11-01

    Passivated contacts (poly-Si/SiOx/c-Si) doped by shallow ion implantation are an appealing technology for high efficiency silicon solar cells, especially for interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells where a masked ion implantation facilitates their fabrication. This paper presents a study on tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by low-energy ion implantation into amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers and examines the influence of the ion species (P, B, or BF2), the ion implantation dose (5 × 1014 cm-2 to 1 × 1016 cm-2), and the subsequent high-temperature anneal (800 °C or 900 °C) on the passivation quality and junction characteristics using double-sided contacted silicon solar cells. Excellent passivation quality is achieved for n-type passivated contacts by P implantations into either intrinsic (undoped) or in-situ B-doped a-Si layers with implied open-circuit voltages (iVoc) of 725 and 720 mV, respectively. For p-type passivated contacts, BF2 implantations into intrinsic a-Si yield well passivated contacts and allow for iVoc of 690 mV, whereas implanted B gives poor passivation with iVoc of only 640 mV. While solar cells featuring in-situ B-doped selective hole contacts and selective electron contacts with P implanted into intrinsic a-Si layers achieved Voc of 690 mV and fill factor (FF) of 79.1%, selective hole contacts realized by BF2 implantation into intrinsic a-Si suffer from drastically reduced FF which is caused by a non-Ohmic Schottky contact. Finally, implanting P into in-situ B-doped a-Si layers for the purpose of overcompensation (counterdoping) allowed for solar cells with Voc of 680 mV and FF of 80.4%, providing a simplified and promising fabrication process for IBC solar cells featuring passivated contacts.

  7. The effects of ion implantation on the fatigue behavior of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jih-Jong.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ion implanatation on the fatigue behavior of metals were investigated. High stacking fault energy FCC materials of aluminum and copper, low stacking fault energy FCC material of austenitic stainless steel and HCP material of titanium were ion implanted by boron or nitrogen at energies of 50 KeV to 3 MeV. The doses were from 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. Flexural bending fatigue experiments were conducted on both the implanted and unimplanted specimens. After fatiguing the surface topography was examined by optical microscopy and SEM, and the microstructure of the surface layer was investigated by TEM. At relatively small amplitudes, close to the fatigue limit, the ion-implanted surface layer suppresses the formation of persistent slip bands (PSB's). At higher stress-amplitudes the implanted layer is penetrated by dislocation-channels which develop into the equivalent of PSB's. For constant fatigue testing parameters the density of PSB's decreased with increasing implant dose, but the intensity of slip in the few dislocation-channel PSB's was increased. Cracks nucleated at these slip bands and propagated along them. A composite model is presented to qualitatively analyze the effect of ion implantation on fatigue strength.

  8. Scanning-electron-microscopy observations and mechanical characteristics of ion-beam-sputtered surgical implant alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigand, A. J.; Meyer, M. L.; Ling, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    An electron bombardment ion thruster was used as an ion source to sputter the surfaces of orthopedic prosthetic metals. Scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs were made of each ion beam textured surface. The effect of ion texturing an implant surface on its bond to bone cement was investigated. A Co-Cr-W alloy and surgical stainless steel were used as representative hard tissue implant materials to determine effects of ion texturing on bulk mechanical properties. Work was done to determine the effect of substrate temperature on the development of an ion textured surface microstructure. Results indicate that the ultimate strength of the bulk materials is unchanged by ion texturing and that the microstructure will develop more rapidly if the substrate is heated prior to ion texturing.

  9. Local density of unoccupied states in ion-beam-mixed Pd-Ag alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, K.H.; Jung, S.M.; Lee, Y.S.; Whang, C.N.; Jeon, Y.; Croft, M.; Sills, D.; Ansari, P.H.; Mack, K.

    1996-04-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements have been used to probe the electronic structure of ion-beam-mixed (IBM) Pd-Ag thin films with bulk alloys being studied for comparison. Pd {ital L}{sub 3} and Ag {ital L}{sub 3} absorption edges for pure Pd, Ag, and Pd{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Ag{sub {ital x}} alloys are discussed. Structural information from both x-ray diffraction and the XAS fine structure oscillations are discussed. The observed decrease of the white-line feature strength, at the Pd {ital L}{sub 3} edge, indicates that the local density of unoccupied Pd 4{ital d} states declines upon alloying with Ag in a manner similar to that observed in previous bulk studies. However, while the Pd {ital d}-hole count decreases monotonically for bulk alloys, in the IBM alloys it saturates at higher levels in the Ag-rich materials. This disparity is interpreted on the basis of a modified charge transfer due to structural differences in the IBM alloys. The Ag {ital L}{sub 3} near-edge region is largely unchanged in these alloys, indicating that the charge transferred away from the Ag site is dominantly of {ital non}-{ital d} type. Our experimental results are discussed in the context of recent electronic structure calculations and of previous work on this alloy system. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Ag(nic)2 (nic = nicotinate): a spin-canted quasi-2D antiferromagnet composed of square-planar S = 1/2 Ag(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Manson, Jamie L; Woods, Toby J; Lapidus, Saul H; Stephens, Peter W; Southerland, Heather I; Zapf, Vivien S; Singleton, John; Goddard, Paul A; Lancaster, Tom; Steele, Andrew J; Blundell, Stephen J

    2012-02-20

    Square-planar S = 1/2 Ag(II) ions in polymeric Ag(nic)(2) are linked by bridging nic monoanions to yield 2D corrugated sheets. Long-range magnetic order occurs below T(N) = 11.8(2) K due to interlayer couplings that are estimated to be about 30 times weaker than the intralayer exchange interaction.

  11. Non-mass-analyzed ion implantation from a solid phosphorus source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Bunker, S. N.

    1982-01-01

    A phosphorus ion beam, extracted from a Freeman ion source charged with elemental phosphorus, has been investigated for use in solar cell fabrication. Mass spectroscopy of the beam indicates the absence of both minority-carrier lifetime degrading impurities and hydrogen. The ion beam, without mass analysis, was used for ion implantation of solar cells, and performance for all cells was found to be equivalent to mass-analyzed controls.

  12. Deterioration mechanisms of joint prosthesis materials. Several solutions by ion implantation surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Rieu, J; Pichat, A; Rabbe, L M; Chabrol, C; Robelet, M

    1990-07-01

    Materials for orthopaedic implants can fail for several combined reasons: corrosion, fatigue and wear for metals, wear and creep for polymers, fracture for ceramics. Some typical cases are analysed and it is demonstrated that ion implantation improves metals and polymers used for joint prosthesis. Implantations of nitrogen, oxygen and argon ions modify the structure of a 2-500 nm thick layer in the materials. The results of friction tests on the couple metal-polymer are correlated with the surface properties. PMID:2397260

  13. Precipitation in As-Ion-Implanted and Annealed InAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seon-Ju; Han, Haewook

    2001-11-01

    Low-energy As-ion-implanted InAs was examined using double-crystal X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For uniform defect distribution, multiple implantations were made at 0.05-0.4 MeV with 4 × 1014-5× 1015 ions/cm2. After annealing at 600°C for 20 min, As precipitates were observed, and the implantation-induced strain was significantly reduced, showing the recovery of crystallinity. The density of the As precipitates was 7.4 × 1016 cm-3 and the mean diameter was 55 Å, which corresponds to a volume fraction of 1.1%.

  14. Method of making an ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, Burrell E.; Myers, David R.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1992-01-01

    Planar-buried-heterostructure, graded-index, separate-confinement-heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding lever 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an iion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  15. Effect of MeV nitrogen ion implantation on the resistivity transition in Czochralski silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byeong-Sam; Lee, In-Ji; Park, Jea-Gun

    2012-12-01

    We investigated how MeV nitrogen ion implantation affects the resistivity transition in Czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers. After annealing at 800 °C for 20 h and again at 1000 °C for 10 h, the implanted nitrogen atoms accumulated in the projected range (R P ) for ion doses less than 5 × 1014 cm-2 whereas they accumulated at both R P /2 and R P at ion doses above 3 × 1015 cm-2. These results indicate that no resistivity transition was found at nitrogen ion doses less than 5 × 1013 cm-2 whereas n-/p or n+/p resistivity transition was shown at ion doses higher than 5 × 1014 cm-2. Many fewer than 1% of the implanted nitrogen atoms were ionized after the heat treatment. Thus, the resistivity of nitrogen-doped silicon wafers is more than 100 times higher than that of phosphorous-doped silicon wafers.

  16. Parallel Simulation of Ion Implantation for Multi-Component Targets Using Boltzmann Transport Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shyh-Wei; Guo, Shuang-Fa

    1998-07-01

    A stepwise Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) simulation using non-uniform energy grid momentum matrix and exact nuclear scattering cross-section is successfully parallelized to simulate the ion implantation of multi-component targets. Assuming that the interactions of ion with different target atoms are independent, the scattering of ions with different components can be calculated concurrently by different processors. It is developed on CONVEX SPP-1000 and the software environment of parallel virtual machine (PVM) with a master-slave paradigm. A speedup of 3.3 has been obtained for the simulation of As ions implanted into AZ1350 (C6.2H6O1N0.15S0.06) which is composed of five components. In addition, our new scheme gives better agreement with the experimental results for heavy ion implantation than the conventional method using a uniform energy grid and approximated scattering function.

  17. Measurement of lattice damage caused by ion-implantation doping of semiconductors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsperger, R. G.; Wolf, E. D.; Shifrin, G. A.; Marsh, O. J.; Jamba, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of two new techniques used to measure the lattice damage produced in GaAs by the implantation of 60 keV cadmium ions. In the first method, optical reflection spectra of the ion-implanted samples were measured in the wavelength range from 2000 to 4600 A. The decrease in reflectivity resulting from ion-implantation was used to determine the relative amount of lattice damage as a function of ion dose. The second technique employed the scanning electron microscope. Patterns very similar in appearance to Kikuchi electron diffraction patterns are obtained when the secondary and/or backscattered electron intensity is displayed as a function of the angle of incidence of the electron beam on a single crystal surface. The results of measurements made by both methods are compared with each other and with data obtained by the method of measuring lattice damage by Rutherford scattering of 1 MeV helium ions.

  18. Planar optical waveguides in Nd:BSO crystals fabricated by He and C ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Guo, Sha-Sha; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Guan, Jing; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Planar optical waveguides in Nd:BSO crystals were fabricated by the implantation of 500 keV He ions and 6.0 MeV C ions at two different substrate temperatures. The guiding modes were measured by the prism-coupling method with a He-Ne beam at 633 nm. The intensity calculation method (ICM) and reflectivity calculation method (RCM) were used for reconstructing refractive index profiles. The near-field intensity distribution of the waveguide, formed by He and C ions implanted after annealing at 300 °C, was measured by the end-face coupling setup. It was in reasonable agreement with the intensity of the waveguide mode simulated by the finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM). The absorption spectra of the sample with He ions implanted at fluences of 3 × 1016 ions/cm2 were measured using a spectrophotometer.

  19. Surface engineering of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass with low energy Ar- or Ca-ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Zhu, Chao; Muntele, Claudiu I; Zhang, Tao; Liaw, Peter K; He, Wei

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, low energy ion implantation was employed to engineer the surface of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG), aiming at improving the biocompatibility and imparting bioactivity to the surface. Ca- or Ar-ions were implanted at 10 or 50 keV at a fluence of 8 × 10(15)ions/cm(2) to (Zr0.55Al0.10Ni0.05Cu0.30)99Y1 (at.%) BMG. The effects of ion implantation on material properties and subsequent cellular responses were investigated. Both Ar- and Ca-ion implantations were suggested to induce atom displacements on the surfaces according to the Monte-Carlo simulation. The change of atomic environment of Zr in the surface regions as implied by the alteration in X-ray absorption measurements at Zr K-edge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the ion implantation process has modified the surface chemical compositions and indicated the presence of Ca after Ca-ion implantation. The surface nanohardness has been enhanced by implantation of either ion species, with Ca-ion implantation showing more prominent effect. The BMG surfaces were altered to be more hydrophobic after ion implantation, which can be attributed to the reduced amount of hydroxyl groups on the implanted surfaces. Higher numbers of adherent cells were found on Ar- and Ca-ion implanted samples, while more pronounced cell adhesion was observed on Ca-ion implanted substrates. The low energy ion implantation resulted in concurrent modifications in atomic structure, nanohardness, surface chemistry, hydrophobicity, and cell behavior on the surface of the Zr-based BMG, which were proposed to be mutually correlated with each other. PMID:25492195

  20. Decrease of Staphylococcal adhesion on surgical stainless steel after Si ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braceras, Iñigo; Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A.; Calzado-Martín, Alicia; Multigner, Marta; Vera, Carolina; Broncano, Luis Labajos-; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M.; González-Carrasco, José Luis; Vilaboa, Nuria; González-Martín, M. Luisa

    2014-08-01

    316LVM austenitic stainless steel is often the material of choice on temporal musculoskeletal implants and surgical tools as it combines good mechanical properties and acceptable corrosion resistance to the physiologic media, being additionally relatively inexpensive. This study has aimed at improving the resistance to bacterial colonization of this surgical stainless steel, without compromising its biocompatibility and resistance. To achieve this aim, the effect of Si ion implantation on 316LVM has been studied. First, the effect of the ion implantation parameters (50 keV; fluence: 2.5-5 × 1016 ions/cm2; angle of incidence: 45-90°) has been assessed in terms of depth profiling of chemical composition by XPS and nano-topography evaluation by AFM. The in vitro biocompatibility of the alloy has been evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus on these surfaces has been assessed. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on Si implanted 316LVM is dependent on the implantation conditions as well as the features of the bacterial strains, offering a promising implantable biomaterial in terms of biocompatibility, mechanical properties and resistance to bacterial colonization. The effects of surface composition and nano-topography on bacterial adhesion, directly related to ion implantation conditions, are also discussed.

  1. Modification of titanium and titanium dioxide surfaces by ion implantation: Combined XPS and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhvalov, D. W.; Korotin, D. M.; Efremov, A. V.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Borchers, Ch.; Zhidkov, I. S.; Gunderov, D. V.; Valiev, R. Z.; Gavrilov, N. V.; Cholakh, S. O.

    2015-04-01

    The results of XPS measurements (core levels and valence bands) of P+, Ca+, P+Ca+ and Ca+P+ ion implanted (E=30 keV, D=1x1017 cm-2) commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations demonstrates formation of various structural defects in titanium dioxide films formed on the surface of implanted materials. We have found that for double implantation (Ti:P+,Ca+ and Ti:Ca+,P+) the outermost surface layer formed mainly by Ca and P, respectively, i.e. the implantation sequence is very important. The DFT calculations show that under P+ and Ca+P+ ion implantation the formation energies for both cation (P-Ti) and anion (P-O) substitutions are comparable which can induce the creation of [PO4]3- and Ti-P species. For Ca+ and P+Ca+-ion implantation the calculated formation energies correspond to Ca2+-Ti4+ cation substitution. This conclusion is in agreement with XPS Ca 2p and Ti 2p core levels and valence band measurements and DFT calculations of electronic structure of related compounds. The conversion of implanted ions to Ca2+ and [PO4]3- species provides a good biocompatibility of cp-Ti for further formation of hydroxyapatite.

  2. Sources and transport systems for low energy extreme of ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Batalin, V.A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Gushenets, V.I.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Johnson, B.M.; Kolomiets, A.A.; Kropachev, G.N.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Masunov, E.S.; Oks, E.M.; Pershin, V.I.; Polozov, S.M.; Poole, H.J.; Seleznev, D.N.; Storozhenko, P.A.; Vizir, A.; Svarovski, A.Ya.; Yakushin, P.; Yushkov, G.Yu.

    2010-06-06

    For the past seven years a joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal being to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. However, since the last Fortier is low energy ion implantation, focus of the endeavor has shifted to low energy ion implantation. For boron cluster source development, we started with molecular ions of decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}), octadecaborane (B{sub 18}H{sub 22}), and presently our focus is on carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ions developing methods for mitigating graphite deposition. Simultaneously, we are developing a pure boron ion source (without a working gas) that can form the basis for a novel, more efficient, plasma immersion source. Our Calutron-Berna ion source was converted into a universal source capable of switching between generating molecular phosphorous P{sub 4}{sup +}, high charge state ions, as well as other types of ions. Additionally, we have developed transport systems capable of transporting a very large variety of ion species, and simulations of a novel gasless/plasmaless ion beam deceleration method were also performed.

  3. Suppression of ion-implantation induced porosity in germanium by a silicon dioxide capping layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tuan T.; Alkhaldi, Huda S.; Gandhi, Hemi H.; Pastor, David; Huston, Larissa Q.; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Aziz, Michael J.; Williams, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    Ion implantation with high ion fluences is indispensable for successful use of germanium (Ge) in the next generation of electronic and photonic devices. However, Ge readily becomes porous after a moderate fluence implant ( ˜1 ×1015 ion cm-2 ) at room temperature, and for heavy ion species such as tin (Sn), holding the target at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature suppresses porosity formation only up to a fluence of 2 ×1016 ion cm-2 . We show, using stylus profilometry and electron microscopy, that a nanometer scale capping layer of silicon dioxide significantly suppresses the development of the porous structure in Ge during a S n - implant at a fluence of 4.5 ×1016 ion cm-2 at LN2 temperature. The significant loss of the implanted species through sputtering is also suppressed. The effectiveness of the capping layer in preventing porosity, as well as suppressing sputter removal of Ge, permits the attainment of an implanted Sn concentration in Ge of ˜15 at.% , which is about 2.5 times the maximum value previously attained. The crystallinity of the Ge-Sn layer following pulsed-laser-melting induced solidification is also greatly improved compared with that of uncapped material, thus opening up potential applications of the Ge-Sn alloy as a direct bandgap material fabricated by an ion beam synthesis technique.

  4. Temperature dependent surface modification of T91 steel under 3.25 MeV Fe-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huiping; Wang, Zhiguang; Cui, Minghuan; Li, Bingsheng; Gao, Xing; Sun, Jianrong; Yao, Cunfeng; Wei, Kongfang; Shen, Tielong; Pang, Lilong; Zhu, Yabin; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Ji; Xie, Erqing

    2015-01-01

    Ion implantation is an established technique for modifying the surface properties of a wide range of materials. In this research, temperature dependent surface modification induced by Fe-ion implantation in T91 steel was investigated. The T91 samples were implanted with 3.25 MeV Fe-ions to fluence of 1.7 × 1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature, 300 and 450 °C, respectively. After implantation, the T91 samples were characterized by means of positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (PADBS) and nano-indention technology (NIT). It was found that the concentration of open-volume defects in T91 samples decreased with increasing implantation temperature. From NIT analysis, it was found that all the samples were hardened after implantation and the hardness of the implanted T91 samples increased with increasing implantation temperature.

  5. Formation of nanodots and enhancement of thermoelectric power induced by ion irradiation in PbTe:Ag composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Manju; Meena, Ramcharan; Gupta, Srashti; Pannu, Compesh; Tripathi, Tripurari S.; Varma, Shikha; Tripathi, Surya K.; Asokan, K.; Avasthi, Devesh K.

    2016-07-01

    Present study demonstrates an enhancement in thermoelectric power of 10% Ag doped PbTe (PbTe:Ag) thin films when irradiated with 200 keV Ar ion. X-ray diffraction showed an increase in crystallinity for both PbTe and PbTe:10Ag nano-composite films after Ar ion irradiation due to annealing of defects in the grain boundaries. The preferential sputtering of Pb and Te ions in comparison to Ag ions resulted in the formation of nano-dots. This was further confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Such an enhancement in thermoelectric power of irradiated PbTe:10Ag films in comparison to pristine PbTe:10Ag film is attributed to the decrease in charge carrier concentration that takes part in the transport process via restricting the tunneling of carriers through the wider potential barrier formed at the interface of nano-dots.

  6. Effects of sequential tungsten and helium ion implantation on nano-indentation hardness of tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D. E. J.; Edmondson, P. D.; Roberts, S. G.

    2013-06-24

    To simulate neutron and helium damage in a fusion reactor first wall sequential self-ion implantation up to 13 dpa followed by helium-ion implantation up to 3000 appm was performed to produce damaged layers of {approx}2 {mu}m depth in pure tungsten. The hardness of these layers was measured using nanoindentation and was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Substantial hardness increases were seen in helium implanted regions, with smaller hardness increases in regions which had already been self-ion implanted, thus, containing pre-existing dislocation loops. This suggests that, for the same helium content, helium trapped in distributed vacancies gives stronger hardening than helium trapped in vacancies condensed into dislocation loops.

  7. Voltage dependence of cluster size in carbon films using plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, D. R.; Tarrant, R. N.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Pearce, G.; Marks, N. A.; McCulloch, D. G.; Lim, S. H. N.

    2003-05-01

    Carbon films were prepared using a cathodic arc with plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Using Raman spectroscopy to determine cluster size, a comparison is made between cluster sizes at high voltage and a low duty cycle of pulses with the cluster sizes produced at low voltage and a higher duty cycle. We find that for ion implantation in the range 2-20 kV, the cluster size depends more on implantation energy ( E) than implantation frequency ( f), unlike stress relief, which we have previously shown [M.M.M. Bilek, et al., IEEE Trans. in Plasma Sci., Proceedings 20th ISDEIV 1-5 July 2002, Tours, France, Cat. No. 02CH37331, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, p. 95] to be dependent on the product Ef. These differences are interpreted in terms of a model in which the ion impacts create thermal spikes.

  8. Formation of Wear Resistant Steel Surfaces by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mändl, S.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2003-08-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a versatile and fast method for implanting energetic ions into large and complex shaped three-dimensional objects where the ions are accelerated by applying negative high voltage pulses to a substrate immersed in a plasma. As the line-of-sight restrictions of conventional implanters are circumvented, it results in a fast and cost-effective technology. Implantation of nitrogen at 30 - 40 keV at moderate temperatures of 200 - 400 °C into steel circumvents the diminishing thermal nitrogen activation encountered, e.g., in plasma nitriding in this temperature regime, thus enabling nitriding of additional steel grades. Nitride formation and improvement of the mechanical properties after PIII are presented for several steel grades, including AISI 316Ti (food industry), AISI D2 (used for bending tools) and AISI 1095 (with applications in the textile industry).

  9. Formation of Wear Resistant Steel Surfaces by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Maendl, S.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2003-08-26

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a versatile and fast method for implanting energetic ions into large and complex shaped three-dimensional objects where the ions are accelerated by applying negative high voltage pulses to a substrate immersed in a plasma. As the line-of-sight restrictions of conventional implanters are circumvented, it results in a fast and cost-effective technology. Implantation of nitrogen at 30 - 40 keV at moderate temperatures of 200 - 400 deg. C into steel circumvents the diminishing thermal nitrogen activation encountered, e.g., in plasma nitriding in this temperature regime, thus enabling nitriding of additional steel grades. Nitride formation and improvement of the mechanical properties after PIII are presented for several steel grades, including AISI 316Ti (food industry), AISI D2 (used for bending tools) and AISI 1095 (with applications in the textile industry)

  10. Surface treatment of silicone rubber by carbon negative-ion implantation for nerve regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Izukawa, Masayoshi; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2004-07-01

    Surface treatment of silicone rubber by carbon negative ion-implantation was investigated for nerve regeneration by "tubulation". Silicone rubber had its surface property altered to be more hydrophilic by carbon negative-ion implantation. The extracellular matrices of proteins in culture medium adsorbed on the implanted surface rather than unimplanted ones. These improvements in wettability and adsorption properties of proteins were respected to contribute to the regeneration of a nerve-lacking system. An in vivo regeneration test of rat sciatic nerves with silicone-rubber tubes was performed. Using a tube in which the inner surface was implanted with carbon negative ions, the sciatic nerve was regenerated through the inter-stump gap of 15 mm between the proximal and distal nerve stumps and electrical stimulation was transported through the regenerated nerve. Thus, the nerve system was recovered. However, with the unimplanted tube, the nerve was not regenerated at all.

  11. Synthesis of (SiC){sub 3}N{sub 4} thin films by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, C.; Lee, D.H.; Berta, Y.; Park, B.; Thadhani, N.N.; Poker, D.B.

    1993-12-31

    We have investigated the synthesis of carbon-silicon-nitride compounds by ion implantation. In these experiments, 100 keV nitrogen ions were implanted into polycrystalline {beta}-SiC (cubic phase) at various substrate temperatures and ion doses. These thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction with a position-sensitive detector, transmission electron microscopy with chemical analysis, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The as-implanted samples show a buried amorphous layer at a depth of 170 nm. Peak concentration of nitrogen saturates at approximately 45 at. % with doses above {approximately} 9.0 {times} 10{sup 17} N/cm{sup 2} at 860{degree}C. These results suggest formation of a new phase by nitrogen implantation into {beta}-SiC.

  12. Effect of Grazing Angle Cross-Ion Irradiation on Ag Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish; Jangid, Teena; Panchal, Vandana; Kumar, Praveen; Pathak, Abhishek

    2016-10-01

    Apart from the spherical shape, control over other shapes is a technical challenge in synthesis approaches of nanostructures. Here, we studied the effect of grazing angle cross-irradiation Ag thin films for the nanostructures evolution from a top-down approach. Ag thin films of different thicknesses were deposited on Si (100) and glass substrates by electron beam evaporation system and subsequently irradiated at grazing angle ions by 80 keV Ar+ in two steps (to induce effectively a cross-ion irradiation). Pristine films exhibited dense and uniform distribution of Ag nanoparticles with their characteristic surface plasmon resonance-induced absorption peak around 420 nm. When the film surfaces were treated with cross-grazing angle irradiation of Ar ions with varying effective fluences from 0.5 × 1017 ions/cm2 to 2.0 × 1017 ions/cm2, it was found that fluence values governed the competition of sputtering and sputter re-deposition of Ag. As a result, lower irradiation fluence favoured the formation of cone-like nanostructures, whereas high fluence values demonstrated dominant sputtering. Fluence-dependent modification of surface features was studied through the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Theoretical justifications for the underlying mechanisms are presented to justify the experimental results.

  13. Selective nucleation induced by defect nanostructures: A way to control cobalt disilicide precipitation during ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Fortuna, F.; Nguyen, M.-A.; Ruault, M.-O.; Kirk, M. A.; Borodin, V. A.; Ganchenkova, M. G.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we show a way to control cobalt disilicide precipitation during Co ion implantation at high temperatures (650 Degree-Sign C) by affecting radiation defects involved in precipitate nucleation and growth. We demonstrate that the relative shares of different precipitate types nucleated by implantation are strongly affected by defect microstructures deliberately created in investigated samples prior to cobalt implantation. Especially interesting is the effect of a dense ensemble of extremely small (1-3 nm) cavities, which promotes the formation of a relatively uniform layer of coherent cobalt disilicide precipitates with a narrow size distribution. In order to better understand the mechanism of the microstructural influence on the precipitate nucleation modes during Co implantation, we investigate the disilicide precipitation using different implantation setups and compare the results with those for cavity-free Si specimens implanted in similar conditions.

  14. Resonance ultrasonic vibrations in Cz-Si wafers as a possible diagnostic technique in ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Ostapenko, S.; Anundson, R.; Tvinnereim, M.; Belyaev, A.; Anthony, M.

    2001-07-01

    The semiconductor industry does not have effective metrology for well implants. The ability to measure such deep level implants will become increasingly important as we progress along the technology road map. This work explores the possibility of using the acoustic whistle effect on ion implanted silicon wafers. The technique detects the elastic stress and defects in silicon wafers by measuring the sub-harmonic f/2 resonant vibrations on a wafer induced via backside contact to create standing waves, which are measured by a non-contact ultrasonic probe. Preliminary data demonstrates that it is sensitive to implant damage, and there is a direct correlation between this sub-harmonic acoustic mode and some of the implant and anneal conditions. This work presents the results of a feasibility study to assess and quantify the correspondent whistle effect to implant damage, residual damage after annealing and intrinsic defects.

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of Thin Film Ion Implanted Composite Materials for Integrated Nonlinear Optical Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, S.; Curley, M.; Williams, E. K.; Wilkosz, A.; Ila, D.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.; Smith, C.; Banks, C.; Penn, B.; Clark, R.

    1998-01-01

    Ion implantation has been shown to produce a high density of metal colloids within the layer regions of glasses and crystalline materials. The high-precipitate volume fraction and small size of metal nanoclusters formed leads to values for the third-order susceptibility much greater than those for metal doped solids. This has stimulated interest in use of ion implantation to make nonlinear optical materials. On the other side, LiNbO3 has proved to be a good material for optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation. Light confinement in these waveguides is produced by refractive index step difference between the implanted region and the bulk material. Implantation of LiNbO3 with MeV metal ions can therefore result into nonlinear optical waveguide structures with great potential in a variety of device applications. We describe linear and nonlinear optical properties of a waveguide structure in LiNbO3-based composite material produced by silver ion implantation in connection with mechanisms of its formation.

  16. Quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometric analysis of secondary ion polarity in GaN films implanted with oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, Minako; Sakaguchi, Isao; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative analyses of N and O ions in GaN thin films implanted with oxygen ions (16O+) were conducted by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Positive (CsM+) and negative secondary ions extracted by Cs+ primary ion bombardment were analyzed for oxygen quantitative analysis. The oxygen depth profiles were obtained using two types of primary ion beams: a Gaussian-type beam and a broad spot beam. The oxygen peak concentrations in GaN samples were from 3.2 × 1019 to 7.0 × 1021 atoms/cm3. The depth profiles show equivalent depth resolutions in the two analyses. The intensity of negative oxygen ions was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of positive ions. In contrast, the O/N intensity ratio measured using CsM+ molecular ions was close to the calculated atomic density ratio, indicating that the SIMS depth profiling using CsM+ ions is much more effective for the measurements of O and N ions in heavy O-implanted GaN than that using negative ions.

  17. Effect of carbon ion irradiation on Ag diffusion in SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Bin; Ko, Hyunseok; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Deng, Jie; Giordani, Andrew J.; Hunter, Jerry L.; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela; Sridharan, Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Transport of Ag fission product through the silicon-carbide (SiC) diffusion barrier layer in TRISO fuel particles is of considerable interest given the application of this fuel type in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and other future reactor concepts. The reactor experiments indicate that radiation may play an important role in release of Ag; however so far the isolated effect of radiation on Ag diffusion has not been investigated in controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, we investigate the diffusion couples of Ag and polycrystalline 3C-SiC, as well as Ag and single crystalline 4H-SiC samples before and after irradiation with C2+ ions. The diffusion couple samples were exposed to temperatures of 1500 °C, 1535 °C, and 1569 °C, and the ensuing diffusion profiles were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Diffusion coefficients calculated from these measurements indicate that Ag diffusion was greatly enhanced by carbon irradiation due to a combined effect of radiation damage on diffusion and the presence of grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC samples.

  18. Effect of carbon ion irradiation on Ag diffusion in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Bin; Ko, Hyunseok; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Deng, Jie; Giordani, Andrew J.; Hunter, Jerry L.; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-11-14

    Transport of Ag fission product through the silicon-carbide (SiC) diffusion barrier layer in TRISO fuel particles is of considerable interest given the application of this fuel type in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and other future reactor concepts. The reactor experiments indicate that radiation may play an important role in release of Ag; however so far the isolated effect of radiation on Ag diffusion has not been investigated in controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, we investigate the diffusion couples of Ag and polycrystalline 3C–SiC, as well as Ag and single crystalline 4H–SiC samples before and after irradiation with C2+ ions. The diffusion couple samples were exposed to temperatures of 1500 °C, 1535 °C, and 1569 °C, and the ensuing diffusion profiles were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We found that diffusion coefficients calculated from these measurements indicate that Ag diffusion was greatly enhanced by carbon irradiation due to a combined effect of radiation damage on diffusion and the presence of grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC samples.

  19. Effect of carbon ion irradiation on Ag diffusion in SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Leng, Bin; Ko, Hyunseok; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Deng, Jie; Giordani, Andrew J.; Hunter, Jerry L.; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-11-14

    Transport of Ag fission product through the silicon-carbide (SiC) diffusion barrier layer in TRISO fuel particles is of considerable interest given the application of this fuel type in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and other future reactor concepts. The reactor experiments indicate that radiation may play an important role in release of Ag; however so far the isolated effect of radiation on Ag diffusion has not been investigated in controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, we investigate the diffusion couples of Ag and polycrystalline 3C–SiC, as well as Ag and single crystalline 4H–SiC samples before and after irradiation with C2+more » ions. The diffusion couple samples were exposed to temperatures of 1500 °C, 1535 °C, and 1569 °C, and the ensuing diffusion profiles were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We found that diffusion coefficients calculated from these measurements indicate that Ag diffusion was greatly enhanced by carbon irradiation due to a combined effect of radiation damage on diffusion and the presence of grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC samples.« less

  20. Characterization of the Antiferromagnetism in Ag(pyz)2(S2O8) with a Two-Dimensional Square Lattice of 4d9 Ag2+ Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, J.; Stone, K; Southerland, H; Lancaster, T; Steele, A; Warter, M; Blundell, S; Pratt, F; Baker, P; et al,

    2009-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) consists of 2D square nets of Ag{sup 2+} ions resulting from the corner-sharing of axially elongated AgN{sub 4}O{sub 2} octahedra and exhibits characteristic 2D antiferromagnetism. Nevertheless, {mu}{sup +}SR measurements indicate that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) undergoes 3D magnetic ordering below 7.8(3) K.

  1. Experimental status of the AGS Relativistic Heavy Ion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T.C.

    1994-10-01

    The universal motivation for colliding large nuclei at relativistic energies is the expectation that a small volume of the primordial quark soup, generally referred to as the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), can be created and studied. The QGP is formed via a phase transition caused by either the extreme baryon densities and/or the extreme temperatures achieved in the overlap zone of the two colliding nuclei. Experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) using a beam of Si nuclei at 14.6 GeV per nucleon on various nuclear targets have been completed. These same experiments are now actively searching for signatures of QGP formation using a beam of Au nuclei at 11.7 GeV per nucleon. This paper briefly summarizes some of the key results from the Si beam program and the current status of the experimental Au beam program at the AGS.

  2. Planar optical waveguides fabricated by Ag+/K+-Na+ ion exchange in soda lime glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Gregorius, Seran Daton; Widhianingsih, Ika; Lestari, Siti; Suryawan, Joko

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optical properties of the optical planar waveguides in a soda lime glass fabricated by ion exchange. Planar waveguide fabrication was carried out by immersing the soda lime glass in molten 100 % AgNO3 bath for different duration (ranging from 15 minutes to 735 minutes) and at temperature of 280°C. The results show that the surface refractive index values of the ion exchanged glasses are independent of both the ion exchange duration and temperature. The number of modes and the effective diffusion depth, however, increase with increasing the duration of ion exchange process.

  3. Safe disposal of radioactive iodide ions from solutions by Ag2O grafted sodium niobate nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wanjun; Li, Xingliang; Liu, Guoping; Yu, Qianhong; Xie, Xiang; Wei, Hongyuan; Jian, Yuan

    2016-01-14

    Radioactive iodine isotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials, and have negative effects on organisms living within the ecosystem. Thus, safe disposal of radioactive iodine is necessary and crucial. For this reason, the uptake of iodide ions was investigated in Ag2O nanocrystal grafted sodium niobate nanofibers, which were prepared by forming a well-matched phase coherent interface between them. The resulting composite was applied as an efficient adsorbent for I(-) anions by forming an AgI precipitate, which also remained firmly attached to the substrates. Due to their one-dimensional morphology, the new adsorbents can be easily dispersed in liquids and readily separated after purification. This significantly enhances the adsorption efficiency and reduces the separation costs. The change in structure from the pristine sodium niobate to Ag2O anchored sodium niobate and to the used adsorbent was examined by using various characterization techniques. The effects of Ag(+) concentration, pH, equilibration time, ionic strength and competing ions on the iodide ion removal ability of the composite were studied. The Ag2O nanocrystal grafted sodium niobate adsorbent showed a high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity for I(-) anions in basic solutions. Our results are useful for the further development of improved adsorbents for removing I(-) anions from basic wastewater.

  4. Use of low-energy hydrogen ion implants in high-efficiency crystalline-silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.; Sigh, R.; Mu, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of low-energy hydrogen implants in the fabrication of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells was investigated. Low-energy hydrogen implants result in hydrogen-caused effects in all three regions of a solar cell: emitter, space charge region, and base. In web, Czochralski (Cz), and floating zone (Fz) material, low-energy hydrogen implants reduced surface recombination velocity. In all three, the implants passivated the space charge region recombination centers. It was established that hydrogen implants can alter the diffusion properties of ion-implanted boron in silicon, but not ion-implated arsenic.

  5. Impact of Ion Implantation on Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) Growth and Antioxidant Activity Under Drought Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingnan; Tong, Liping; Shen, Tongwei; Li, Jie; Wu, Lijun; Yu, Zengliang

    2007-06-01

    Low energy ion beams are known to have stimulation effects on plant generation and to improve plants' intrinsic quality. In the present study, the growth and physiological index of licorice implanted with 0, 8, 10, 12 and 14× (2.6×1015) ions/cm2 were investigated under well-watered and drought-stress conditions. The results showed that a proper dose of ion implantation was particularly efficient in stimulating the licorice growth and improving the plant biomass significantly in both the well-watered and drought-stress conditions. The physiological results of licorice measured by leaf water potential, lipid oxidation, soluble protein and antioxidant system showed a significant correlation between ion implantation and water regime except for leaf water potential. Therefore, the study indicated that ion implantation can enhance licorice's drought tolerance by increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability to lower oxidative damage to lipids in plants. Ion beam implantation, therefore, provides an alternative method to enhance licorice drought tolerance.

  6. Optical Properties of p-type ZnO Doped by As Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, T.S.; Youn, C.J.; Han, M.S.; Park, Y. S.; Lee, W.S.

    2005-06-30

    As-doped p-type ZnO has been achieved by ion implantation. The As-related optical properties were analyzed by using secondary ion mass spectrometry, the Raman scattering, and the photoluminescence experiments. From the I-V measurement, the behavior of rectifying on these samples is confirmed.

  7. Investigation of Donor and Acceptor Ion Implantation in AlN

    SciTech Connect

    Osinsky, Andrei

    2015-09-16

    AlGaN alloys with high Al composition and AlN based electronic devices are attractive for high voltage, high temperature applications, including microwave power sources, power switches and communication systems. AlN is of particular interest because of its wide bandgap of ~6.1eV which is ideal for power electronic device applications in extreme environments which requires high dose ion implantation. One of the major challenges that need to be addressed to achieve full utilization of AlN for opto and microelectronic applications is the development of a doping strategy for both donors and acceptors. Ion implantation is a particularly attractive approach since it allows for selected-area doping of semiconductors due to its high spatial and dose control and its high throughput capability. Active layers in the semiconductor are created by implanting a dopant species followed by very high temperature annealing to reduce defects and thereby activate the dopants. Recovery of implant damage in AlN requires excessively high temperature. In this SBIR program we began the investigation by simulation of ion beam implantation profiles for Mg, Ge and Si in AlN over wide dose and energy ranges. Si and Ge are implanted to achieve the n-type doping, Mg is investigated as a p-type doping. The simulation of implantation profiles were performed in collaboration between NRL and Agnitron using a commercial software known as Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). The simulation results were then used as the basis for ion implantation of AlN samples. The implanted samples were annealed by an innovative technique under different conditions and evaluated along the way. Raman spectroscopy and XRD were used to determine the crystal quality of the implanted samples, demonstrating the effectiveness of annealing in removing implant induced damage. Additionally, SIMS was used to verify that a nearly uniform doping profile was achieved near the sample surface. The electrical characteristics

  8. Structural and Thermal Characterization of Ti+O Ion Implanted UltraHigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Oztarhan, A.; Urkac, E. Sokullu; Kaya, N.; Tihminlioglu, F.; Ila, D.; Chhay, B.; Muntele, C.; Budak, S.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.

    2009-03-10

    In this work, Metal-Gas Hybrid Ion Implantation technique was used as a tool for the surface modification of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE). Samples were Ti+O ion implanted by using Metal-Vapour Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implanter to a fluence of 5x10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2} for each species and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Untreated and surface treated samples were investigated by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) Spectrometry, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Results indicate that Ti+O ion implantation can be applied on UHMWPE surfaces successfully. ATR-FTIR spectra indicate that the C-H concentration on the surface decreased after Ti+O implantation. Thermal characterization with TGA and DSC shows that polymeric decomposition temperature is shifted after ion implantation.

  9. Fe-ions implantation to modify TiO2 trilayer films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Pang, Pan; Liao, Bin; Xianying, Wu; Zhang, Xu

    2016-06-01

    A series of Fe-doped TiO2 trilayer films were prepared successfully by using the ion-implantation technique. The aim of the ion implantation was to enhance charge transfer and to reduce charge recombination. A maximum conversion efficiency of 4.86% was achieved in cells using Fe-ion-implanted electrodes with the illumination of 6×1015 atom/cm2. It is 14.1% higher than that of the cells without ion implantations. The significant improvement in conversion efficiency by Fe-ion implantation could be contributed to the enhancement of dye uptake and charge transfer, as indicated from the incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiency and ultraviolet-visible measurements. Furthermore, the implanted Fe-ions introduce impurity levels in the bandgap of TiO2, and this improves the electron injection efficiency from lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of excited N719 into the conduction band of TiO2.

  10. Efficient removal of radioactive iodide ions from water by three-dimensional Ag2O-Ag/TiO2 composites under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuaishuai; Wang, Na; Zhang, Yuchang; Li, Yaru; Han, Zhuo; Na, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional Ag2O and Ag co-loaded TiO2 (3D Ag2O-Ag/TiO2) composites have been synthesized through a facile method, characterized using SEM, EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, UV-vis DRS, BET techniques, and applied to remove radioactive iodide ions (I(-)). The photocatalytic adsorption capacity (207.6 mg/g) of the 3D Ag2O-Ag/TiO2 spheres under visible light is four times higher than that in the dark, which is barely affected by other ions, even in simulated salt lake water where the concentration of Cl(-) is up to 590 times that of I(-). The capability of the composites to remove even trace amounts of I(-) from different types of water, e.g., deionized or salt lake water, is demonstrated. The composites also feature good reusability, as they were separated after photocatalytic adsorption and still performed well after a simple regeneration. Furthermore, a mechanism explaining the highly efficient removal of radioactive I(-) has been proposed according to characterization analyses of the composites after adsorption and subsequently been verified by adsorption and desorption experiments. The proposed cooperative effects mechanism considers the interplay of three different phenomena, namely, the adsorption performance of Ag2O for I(-), the photocatalytic ability of Ag/TiO2 for oxidation of I(-), and the readsorption performance of AgI for I2.

  11. Effects of high-dose hydrogen implantation on defect formation and dopant diffusion in silver implanted ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqoob, Faisal; Huang, Mengbing

    2016-07-01

    This work reports on the effects of a deep high-dose hydrogen ion implant on damage accumulation, defect retention, and silver diffusion in silver implanted ZnO crystals. Single-crystal ZnO samples were implanted with Ag ions in a region ˜150 nm within the surface, and some of these samples were additionally implanted with hydrogen ions to a dose of 2 × 1016 cm-2, close to the depth ˜250 nm. Rutherford backscattering/ion channeling measurements show that crystal damage caused by Ag ion implantation and the amount of defects retained in the near surface region following post-implantation annealing were found to diminish in the case with the H implantation. On the other hand, the additional H ion implantation resulted in a reduction of substitutional Ag atoms upon post-implantation annealing. Furthermore, the presence of H also modified the diffusion properties of Ag atoms in ZnO. We discuss these findings in the context of the effects of nano-cavities on formation and annihilation of point defects as well as on impurity diffusion and trapping in ZnO crystals.

  12. Investigation into Methods to Improve Ion Source Life for Germanium Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Joseph; Sergi, Steven; Tang, Ying; Byl, Oleg; Yedave, Sharad; Kaim, Robert; Bishop, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Germanium tetrafluoride has long been the standard dopant gas of choice for germanium implantation processes. While this material maintains several positive attributes (e.g., it is a nonflammable gas that is easily delivered to an ion source), its use can result in extremely short ion source lifetimes. This is especially the case for the situation when an ion implanter runs solely or predominantly GeF4. Presented here is an examination of various potential solutions to the short source life problem, some of which enable significant improvement.

  13. Biofunctionalization of surfaces by energetic ion implantation: Review of progress on applications in implantable biomedical devices and antibody microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, Marcela M. M.

    2014-08-01

    Despite major research efforts in the field of biomaterials, rejection, severe immune responses, scar tissue and poor integration continue to seriously limit the performance of today's implantable biomedical devices. Implantable biomaterials that interact with their host via an interfacial layer of active biomolecules to direct a desired cellular response to the implant would represent a major and much sought after improvement. Another, perhaps equally revolutionary, development that is on the biomedical horizon is the introduction of cost-effective microarrays for fast, highly multiplexed screening for biomarkers on cell membranes and in a variety of analyte solutions. Both of these advances will rely on effective methods of functionalizing surfaces with bioactive molecules. After a brief introduction to other methods currently available, this review will describe recently developed approaches that use energetic ions extracted from plasma to facilitate simple, one-step covalent surface immobilization of bioactive molecules. A kinetic theory model of the immobilization process by reactions with long-lived, mobile, surface-embedded radicals will be presented. The roles of surface chemistry and microstructure of the ion treated layer will be discussed. Early progress on applications of this technology to create diagnostic microarrays and to engineer bioactive surfaces for implantable biomedical devices will be reviewed.

  14. Ion beam-induced variation in electrical conductivity of Ag nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, R. P.; Gehlawat, Devender; Kaur, Amandeep; Rana, Pallavi

    2013-08-01

    The art of fabricating nanostructures within the pores of template leads to the production of true replica of pore geometry. Thus, nanostructures of desirable shape and dimensions can be synthesized using the ion-based etched-track technology. In the present study, silver nanowires were synthesized by using the track-etched polycarbonate membrane as the template in an aqueous medium containing AgNO3 as the precursor. Free-standing silver nanowires were irradiated with different fluences of Li3+ ion beam and a detailed investigation of I-V characteristics of pristine and irradiated Ag nanowires was made. Variation in electrical conductivity of silver nanowires at different fluences was also observed. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the polycrystalline nature of Ag nanowires with cubic geometry with face-centered lattice.

  15. Estimation of diffusion coefficient by photoemission electron microscopy in ion-implanted nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batabyal, R.; Patra, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, S.; Bischoff, L.; Dev, B. N.

    2009-10-01

    We have fabricated parallel stripes of nanostructures in an n-type Si substrate by implanting 30 keV Ga + ions from a focused ion beam (FIB) source. Two sets of implantation were carried out. In one case, during implantation the substrate was held at room temperature and in the other case at 400 °C. Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) was carried out on these samples. The implanted parallel stripes, each with a nominal dimension of 4000 nm × 100 nm, appear as bright regions in the PEEM image. Line scans of the intensities from the PEEM image were recorded along and across these stripes. The intensity profile at the edges of a line scan is broader for the implantation carried out at 400 °C compared to room temperature. From the analysis of this intensity profile, the lateral diffusion coefficient of Ga in silicon was estimated assuming that the PEEM intensity is proportional to Ga concentration. The diffusion coefficient at 400 °C has been estimated to be ˜1.3 × 10 -15 m 2/s. Across the stripes an asymmetric diffusion profile has been observed, which has been related to the sequence of implantation of these stripes and the associated defect distribution due to lateral straggling of the implanted ions.

  16. Wettability conversion of an aluminum-hydroxide nanostructure by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Kim, Hyungdae; Park, Yong Tae; Choi, Min-Jun; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a method for controlling the wettability of an aluminum-hydroxide (Al(OH)3) nanostructure by using ion implantation. We implant Xe ions into Al(OH)3 nanostructures at dosages between 5 × 1014 to 1 × 1016 ions/cm2. The microscopic surface morphology of the nanostructure after implantation does not change under our dosing conditions. However, a drastic increase in the surface contact angle (CA) from 0° to 100° is observed at a dosage of 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. We attribute this significant change in CA to the composition and chemical bonding states of carbon contained within the Al(OH)3 nanostructure.

  17. Influence of Si ion implantation on structure and morphology of g-C3N4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varalakshmi, B.; Sreenivasulu, K. V.; Asokan, K.; Srikanth, V. V. S. S.

    2016-07-01

    Effect of Si ion implantation on structural and morphological features of graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was investigated. g-C3N4 was prepared by using a simple atmospheric thermal decomposition process. The g-C3N4 pellets were irradiated with a Si ion beam of energy 200 keV with different fluencies. Structural, morphological and elemental, and phase analysis of the implanted samples in comparison with the pristine samples was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques, respectively. The observations revealed that Si ion implantation results in a negligible change in the crystallite size and alteration of the network-like to the sheet-like morphology of g-C3N4 and Si ions in the g-C3N4 network.

  18. Multiple ion implantation effects on hardness and fatigue properties of Fe13Cr15Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. R.; Lee, E. H.; Boatner, L. A.; Chin, B. A.; Mansur, L. K.

    1992-09-01

    Eight complex alloys based on the composition Fe13Cr15Ni2Mo2Mn0.2Ti0.8Si0.06C were implanted simultaneously with 400 keV boron and 550 keV nitrogen, and investigated for microhardness changes and bending fatigue life. The dual implantation was found to decrease the fatigue life of all eight alloys although the implantation increased near-surface hardness of all eight alloys. This result was in contrast to the significant improvements found in the fatigue life of four B, N implanted simple Fe13Cr15Ni alloys. It was determined that the implantation suppressed surface slip band formation, the usual crack initiation site, but in the complex alloys, this suppression promoted a shift to grain boundary cracking. A similar phenomenon was also observed when the simple Fe13Cr15Ni alloys were simultaneously implanted with boron, nitrogen and carbon wherein fatigue life decreased, and gain, grain boundary cracks were observed. To test the hypothesis that ion implantation made the overall surface more fatigue resistant but led to a shift to grain boundary cracking, single crystal specimens of the ternary Fe15Cr15Ni were also implanted with boron and nitrogen ions. The fatigue life decreased for the single crystal specimens also, due to concentration of applied stress along fewer slip bands as compared to the control single crystal specimens were applied stress was relieved by slip band formation over the entire gauge region.

  19. Ion implantation and dynamic recovery of tin-doped indium oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Shigesato, Yuzo; Paine, D.C.; Haynes, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    The effect of O{sup +} on implantation on the electronic (carrier density, mobility), resistivity and microstructural properties of thin film Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) was studied. Both polycrystalline (c-) and amorphous (a-) ITO thin films, 200 nm thick, were implanted at substrate temperatures ranging from {minus}196 to 300{degrees} C with 80 keV O{sup +} at doses ranging from 0 to 4.0{times}10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2}. X-ray diffraction studies show that polycrystalline ITO remains crystalline even after implantation with 80 keV O{sup +} at {minus}196{degrees}C to a dose of 4.0{times}10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} which suggests that dynamic recovery processes are active in ITO at this low temperature. Although the x-ray diffraction pattern of the polycrystalline ITO remains unchanged with implant dose, the electrical properties were seen to degrade when implanted to a dose of 1.0{times}10{sup 15}cm{sup {minus}2} below 200{degrees}C. In contrast, amorphous ITO films remains amorphous upon ion implantation and shows almost no degradation in resistivity when implanted below 16{degrees}C. The recrystallization temperature of amorphous ITO is about 150{degrees}C in the absence of ion implantation.

  20. Nanostructure and Properties of Corrosion Resistance in C+Ti Multi-Ion-Implanted Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong-He; Wu, Yu-Guang; Liu, An-Dong; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xiao-Yan

    2003-09-01

    The corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance of C+Ti dual and C+Ti+C ternary implanted H13 steel were studied by using a multi-sweep cyclic voltammetry and a scanning electron microscope. The effects of phase formation on corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance were explored. The x-ray diffraction analysis shows that the nanometer-sized precipitate phases consist of compounds of Fe2Ti, TiC, Fe2C and Fe3C in dual implanted layer and even in ternary implanted layer. The passivation layer consists of these nanometer phases. It has been found that the corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance of dual and ternary implanted H13 steel are improved extremely. The corrosion resistance of ternary implanted layer is better than that of dual implantations and is enhanced with the increasing ion dose. When the ion dose of Ti is 6×1017/cm2 in the ternary implantation sample, the anodic peak current density is 95 times less than that of the H13 steel. The pitting corrosion potential of dual and ternary implantation samples is in the range from 55 mV to 160 mV which is much higher than that of the H13 steel. The phases against the corrosion and pitting corrosion are nanometer silkiness phases.

  1. Guided ion beam and theoretical studies of the reaction of Ag{sup +} with CS{sub 2}: Gas-phase thermochemistry of AgS{sup +} and AgCS{sup +} and insight into spin-forbidden reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, P. B.; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2010-01-14

    The gas-phase reactivity of the atomic transition metal cation, Ag{sup +}, with CS{sub 2} is investigated using guided-ion beam mass spectrometry. Endothermic reactions forming AgS{sup +} and AgCS{sup +} are observed but are quite inefficient. This observation is largely attributed to the stability of the closed shell Ag{sup +}({sup 1}S,4d{sup 10}) ground state, but is also influenced by the fact that the reactions producing ground state AgS{sup +} and AgCS{sup +} products are both spin forbidden. Analysis of the kinetic energy dependence of the cross sections for formation of these two products yields the 0 K bond energies of D{sub 0}(Ag{sup +}-S)=1.40{+-}0.12 eV and D{sub 0}(Ag{sup +}-CS)=1.98{+-}0.14 eV. Quantum chemical calculations are used to investigate the electronic structure of the two product ions as well as the potential energy surfaces for reaction. The primary mechanism involves oxidative addition of a CS bond to the metal cation followed by simple Ag-S or Ag-CS bond cleavage. Crossing points between the singlet and triplet surfaces are located near the transition states for bond activation. Comparison with analogous work on other late second-row transition metal cations indicates that the location of the crossing points bears directly on the efficiency of these spin-forbidden processes.

  2. FY2014 Parameters for Gold Ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2014-07-30

    The nominal parameters for gold ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC are given for the FY2014 running period. The parameters are worked out using various formulas to derive mass, kinetic parameters, RF parameters, ring parameters, etc.. The ''standard setup'', ''medium-energy'', and ''low-energy'' parameters are summarized in separate sections.

  3. FY2014 Parameters for Helions and Gold Ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2014-08-15

    The nominal parameters for helions (helion is the bound state of two protons and one neutron, the nucleus of a helium-3 atom) and gold ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC are given for the FY2014 running period. The parameters are found using various formulas to derive mass, helion anomalous g-factor, kinetic parameters, RF parameters, ring parameters, etc..

  4. Germanium ion implantation to Improve Crystallinity during Solid Phase Epitaxy and the effect of AMU Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Yoo, D. H.; Son, G. H.; Lee, C. H.; Noh, J. H.; Han, J. J.; Yu, Y. S.; Hyung, Y. W.; Yang, J. K.; Song, D. G.; Lim, T. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, H. D.; Moon, J. T.

    2006-11-01

    Germanium ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPE) using high current implantation equipment. Electron back-scatter diffraction(EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19 percent of <100> signal, which might be due to pre-amorphization effect on silicon layer deposited by LPCVD process with germanium ion implantation. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of NMOS transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers, which implied non-uniform distribution of donor-type impurities into channel area. It was confirmed that arsenic atoms were incorporated into silicon layer during germanium ion implantation. Since the equipment for germanium pre-amorphization implantation(PAI) was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit(AMU) contamination during PAI of germanium with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of arsenic with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use germanium isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination, however it led serious reduction of productivity because of decrease in beam current by 30 percent as known to be difference in isotope abundance. It was effective to use enriched germanium source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity. Spatial distribution of arsenic impurities in wafers was closely related to hardware configuration of ion implantation equipment.

  5. Preparation of phosphorus-containing silica glass microspheres for radiotherapy of cancer by ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, M; Miyaji, F; Kokubo, T; Suzuki, Y; Kajiyama, K

    1999-08-01

    A chemically durable glass microsphere containing a large amount of phosphorus is useful for in situ irradiation of cancers, since they can be activated to be a beta-emitter with a half-life of 14.3 d by neutron bombardment. When the activated microspheres are injected to the tumors, they can irradiate the tumors directly with beta-rays without irradiating neighboring normal tissues. In the present study, P+ ion was implanted into silica glass microspheres of 25 microm in average diameter at 50 keV with nominal doses of 2.5 x 10(16) and 3.35 x 10(1)6 cm(-2). The glass microspheres were put into a stainless container and the container was continuously shaken during the ion implantation so that P+ ion was implanted into them uniformly. The implanted phosphorus was localized in deep regions of the glass microsphere with the maximum concentration at about 50 nm depth without distributing up to the surface even for a nominal dose of 3.35 x 10(16) cm(-2). Both samples released phosphorus and silicon into water at 95 degrees C for 7 d. On the basis of the previous study on P+-implanted silica glass plates, the silica glass microspheres containing more phosphorus which is desired for actual treatment could be obtained, without losing high chemical durability, if P+ ion would be implanted at higher energy than 50 keV to be localized in deeper region.

  6. First order Raman scattering analysis of transition metal ions implanted GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Abdul; Rana, Usman Ali; Shakoor, Abdul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hassan, Najam al; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2016-03-01

    Transition Metal (TM) ions V, Cr, Mn and Co were implanted into GaN/sapphire films at fluences 5×1014, 5×1015 and 5×1016 cm-2. First order Raman Scattering (RS) measurements were carried out to study the effects of ion implantation on the microstructure of the materials, which revealed the appearance of disorder and new phonon modes in the lattice. The variations in characteristic modes 1GaN i.e. E2(high) and A1(LO), observed for different implanted samples is discussed in detail. The intensity of nitrogen vacancy related vibrational modes appearing at 363 and 665 cm-1 was observed for samples having different fluences. A gallium vacancy related mode observed at 277/281 cm-1 for TM ions implanted at 5×1014 cm-2 disappeared for all samples implanted with rest of fluences. The fluence dependent production of implantation induced disorder and substitution of TM ions on cationic sites is discussed, which is expected to provide necessary information for the potential use of these materials as diluted magnetic semiconductors in future spintronic devices.

  7. Ion implantation of silicon in gallium arsenide: Damage and annealing characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribat, D.; Dieumegard, D.; Croset, M.; Cohen, C.; Nipoti, R.; Siejka, J.; Bentini, G. G.; Correra, L.; Servidori, M.

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of this work is twofold: (i) to study the damage induced by ion implantation, with special attention to low implanted doses; (ii) to study the efficiency of annealing techniques — particularly incoherent light annealing — in order to relate the electrical activity of implanted atoms to damage annealing. We have used three methods to study the damage induced by ion implantation: (1) RBS (or nuclear reactions) in random or in channeling geometry (2) RX double crystal diffractometry and (3) electrical measurements (free carrier profiling). Damage induced by silicon implantation at doses >10 14at/cm 2 can be monitored by all three techniques. However, the sensitivity of RBS is poor and hence this technique is not useful for low implantation doses. As device technology requires dopant levels in the range of 5 × 10 12 atoms/cm 2, we are particularly interested to the development of analytical techniques able to detect the damage at this implantation level. The sensitivity of such techniques was checked by studying homogeneously doped (5 × 10 16 e -/cm 3) and semi-insulating GaAs samples implanted with 3 × 10 12 silicon atoms/cm 2 at 150 keV. The substrate temperature during implantation was 200°C. The damage produced in these samples and its subsequent annealing are evidenced by strong changes in X-ray double crystal diffraction spectra. This method hence appears as a good monitoring technique. Annealing of the implanted layers has been performed using incoherent light sources (xenon lamps) either in flash or continuous conditions. Reference samples have also been thermally annealed (850°C, 20 min in capless conditions). The results are compared, and the electrical carrier profiles obtained after continuous incoherent light irradiation indicate that the implanted silicon atoms are almost dully activated. The advantages and disadvantages of incoherent light irradiation are discussed (surface oxidation, surface damage) in comparison with standard

  8. Critical issues in the formation of quantum computer test structures by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, T.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schuh, A.; Persaud, A.; Bokor, J.

    2009-04-06

    The formation of quantum computer test structures in silicon by ion implantation enables the characterization of spin readout mechanisms with ensembles of dopant atoms and the development of single atom devices. We briefly review recent results in the characterization of spin dependent transport and single ion doping and then discuss the diffusion and segregation behaviour of phosphorus, antimony and bismuth ions from low fluence, low energy implantations as characterized through depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Both phosphorus and bismuth are found to segregate to the SiO2/Si interface during activation anneals, while antimony diffusion is found to be minimal. An effect of the ion charge state on the range of antimony ions, 121Sb25+, in SiO2/Si is also discussed.

  9. Critical issues in the formation of quantum computer test structures by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, T.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schuh, A.; Persaud, A.; Bokor, J.

    2009-08-01

    The formation of quantum computer test structures in silicon by ion implantation enables the characterization of spin readout mechanisms with ensembles of dopant atoms and the development of single atom devices. We briefly review recent results in the characterization of spin dependent transport and single ion doping and then discuss the diffusion and segregation behaviour of phosphorus, antimony and bismuth ions from low fluence, low energy implantations as characterized through depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Both phosphorus and bismuth are found to segregate to the SiO 2/Si interface during activation anneals, while antimony diffusion is found to be minimal. An effect of the ion charge state on the range of antimony ions, 121Sb 25+, in SiO 2/Si is also discussed.

  10. Passive Q-switching of diode-pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser with ion-implanted GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhong, Bin; Wang, Desong; Zhang, Qiulin; Feng, Baohua

    2004-01-01

    We reported a passive Q-switched diode laser pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser with an ion-implanted semi-insulating GaAs wafer. The wafer was implanted with 400-keV As^(+) in the concentration of 10^(16) ions/cm^(2). To decrease the non-saturable loss, we annealed the ion-implanted GaAs at 500 oC for 5 minutes and coated both sides of the ion-implanted GaAs with antireflection (AR) and highreflection (HR) films, respectively. Using GaAs wafer as an absorber and an output coupler, we obtained 52-ns pulse duration of single pulse.

  11. Morphologies of fibroblast cells cultured on surfaces of PHB films implanted by hydroxyl ions.

    PubMed

    Hou, T; Zhang, J Z; Kong, L J; Zhang, X E; Hu, P; Zhang, D M; Li, N

    2006-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were implanted with 40 keV hydroxyl ions with fluences ranging from 1 x 10(12) to 1 x 10(15) ions/cm2, respectively. The as-implanted PHB films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and water contact angle measurements. The surface structures and properties of the as-implanted PHB films were closely related with hydroxyl ion fluence. They were further investigated by inoculating 3T6 fibroblasts cells on their surfaces. Morphologies of the 3T6 fibroblast cells cultured on surfaces of the as-implanted PHB films were observed by SEM. Characterization of the cultural 3T6 cells was analyzed qualitatively. The preliminary experimental results reveal that the bioactivity of the PHB films modified by hydroxyl ion implantation was improved at different levels, and the fluence of 1 x 10(13) ions/cm2 is optimal for PHB film. PMID:16909942

  12. Raman scattering probe of ion-implanted and pulse laser annealed GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Prabhat; Jain, K. P.; Abbi, S. C.

    1996-04-01

    We report Raman scattering studies of phosphorus-ion-implanted and subsequently pulse laser annealed (PLA) GaAs. The threshold value of implantation fluence for the disappearance of one-phonon modes in the Raman spectrum of ion-implanted GaAs sample is found to be greater than that for the two-phonon modes by an order of magnitude. The phonon correlation length decreases with increasing disorder. The lattice reconstruction process during PLA creates microcrystallites for incomplete annealing, whose sizes can be given by the phonon correlation lengths, and are found to increase with the annealing power density. The intensity ratio of the Raman spectra corresponding to the allowed longitudinal-optical (LO)-phonon mode to the forbidden transverse-optical (TO)-phonon mode, ILO/ITO, is used as a quantitative measure of crystallinity in the implantation and PLA processes. The threshold annealing power density is estimated to be 20 MW/cm2 for 70 keV phosphorus-ion-implanted GaAs at a fluence of 5×1015 ions/cm2. The localized vibrational mode of phosphorus is observed in PLA samples for fluences above 1×1015 ions/cm2.

  13. Plasma immersion ion implantation for the efficient surface modification of medical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Slabodchikov, Vladimir A. Borisov, Dmitry P. Kuznetsov, Vladimir M.

    2015-10-27

    The paper reports on a new method of plasma immersion ion implantation for the surface modification of medical materials using the example of nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys much used for manufacturing medical implants. The chemical composition and surface properties of NiTi alloys doped with silicon by conventional ion implantation and by the proposed plasma immersion method are compared. It is shown that the new plasma immersion method is more efficient than conventional ion beam treatment and provides Si implantation into NiTi surface layers through a depth of a hundred nanometers at low bias voltages (400 V) and temperatures (≤150°C) of the substrate. The research results suggest that the chemical composition and surface properties of materials required for medicine, e.g., NiTi alloys, can be successfully attained through modification by the proposed method of plasma immersion ion implantation and by other methods based on the proposed vacuum equipment without using any conventional ion beam treatment.

  14. Monitoring of ion implantation in microelectronics production environment using multi-channel reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersbach, Peter; Urbanowicz, Adam M.; Likhachev, Dmitry; Hartig, Carsten

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology techniques such as ellipsometry and reflectometry are very powerful for routine process monitoring and control in the modern semiconductor manufacturing industry. However, both methods rely on optical modeling therefore, the optical properties of all materials in the stack need to be characterized a priori or determined during characterization. Some processes such as ion implantation and subsequent annealing produce slight variations in material properties within wafer, wafer-to-wafer, and lot-to-lot; such variation can degrade the dimensional measurement accuracy for both unpatterned optical measurements as well as patterned (2D and 3D) scatterometry measurements. These variations can be accounted for if the optical model of the structure under investigation allows one to extract not just dimensional but also material information already residing within the optical spectra. This paper focuses on modeling of ion implanted and annealed poly Si stacks typically used in high-k technology. Monitoring of ion implantation is often a blind spot in mass production due to capability issues and other limitations of common methods. Typically, the ion implantation dose can be controlled by research-grade ellipsometers with extended infrared range. We demonstrate that multi-channel spectroscopic reflectometry can also be used for ion implant monitoring in the mass-production environment. Our findings are applicable across all technology nodes.

  15. PROGRESS IN CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITATES AND DEFECT STRUCTURES IN Mg+ ION IMPLANTED CUBIC SILICON CARBIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhu, Zihua; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the progress of our current experimental effort on Mg+ ion implanted 3C-SiC. Following our initial study [ ] that suggests possible formation of Mg2Si and MgC2 precipitates as well as tetrahedral voids in 24Mg+ ion implanted 3C-SiC, we have designed specific experiments to confirm the results and examine the inclusions and defects. Relatively low fluence (5.0×1015 24Mg+/cm2) implantation in 3C-SiC was performed to reduce defect concentrations and isolate individual defect features for characterization. In addition, 25Mg+ isotope was implanted in 3C-SiC to the same previously applied ion fluence (9.6×1016 ions/cm2) for atom probe tomography (APT) study of precipitates. Each set of the samples was annealed at 1573 K for 2, 6 and 12 h, respectively. The depth profiles of the implanted Mg were measured using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) before and after the annealing steps. The samples are currently being analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and APT.

  16. Method and means of directing an ion beam onto an insulating surface for ion implantation or sputtering

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Krauss, Alan R.; Siskind, Barry

    1981-01-01

    A beam of ions is directed under control onto an insulating surface by supplying simultaneously a stream of electrons directed at the same surface in a quantity sufficient to neutralize the overall electric charge of the ion beam and result in a net zero current flow to the insulating surface. The ion beam is adapted particularly both to the implantation of ions in a uniform areal disposition over the insulating surface and to the sputtering of atoms or molecules of the insulator onto a substrate.

  17. RHEED, AES and XPS studies of the passive films formed on ion implanted stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, C.R.; Doss, K.G.K.; Wang, Y.F.; Warren, J.B.; Hubler, G.K.

    1981-12-01

    P-implantation (10/sup 17/ ions cm/sup -2/, 40 KeV) into 304 stainless steel (ss) has been carried out, and an amorphous surface alloy was formed. Polarization studies in deaerated 1N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/+ 2% NaCl showed that P-implantation improved both the general and localized corrosion resistance of 304 ss. A comparative study has been carried out between the implanted and unimplanted steel to determine what influence P-implantation has upon the properties of the passive film formed 1N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The influence of Cl ions on pre-formed passive films was also studied. RHEED, XPS and AES were used to evaluate the nature of the passive films formed in these studies.

  18. The formation of magnetic silicide Fe3Si clusters during ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakirev, N.; Zhikharev, V.; Gumarov, G.

    2014-05-01

    A simple two-dimensional model of the formation of magnetic silicide Fe3Si clusters during high-dose Fe ion implantation into silicon has been proposed and the cluster growth process has been computer simulated. The model takes into account the interaction between the cluster magnetization and magnetic moments of Fe atoms random walking in the implanted layer. If the clusters are formed in the presence of the external magnetic field parallel to the implanted layer, the model predicts the elongation of the growing cluster in the field direction. It has been proposed that the cluster elongation results in the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the plane of the implanted layer, which is observed in iron silicide films ion-beam synthesized in the external magnetic field.

  19. A high-resolution beam profile measuring system for high-current ion implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishita, N.; Noguchi, K.; Sasaki, S.; Yamamoto, H.

    1991-04-01

    A high-resolution beam profile measuring system (BPM) has been developed to analyze the correlation between charging damage and the ion beam profile for high-current ion implanters. With the increase of the ion beam current, insulators such as thin oxide layers of VLSI devices are subject to charging damage during ion implantation. To obtain accurate information on the local current density of the ion beam, 125 Faraday cups are placed in the BPM. This system has two measuring modes. One is a topographic mode that can detect the ion beam current density of 12500 sampling points in 30 s. A high-resolution contour map of the current density distribution is displayed on a CRT. The other is a real-time mode in which the current density distribution (125 sampling points) of the ion beam can be monitored every half second on the CRT. In this mode, fine adjustment of the ion beam profile is easily possible by visual control. The charging damage of insulating layers in the TEG (test element group) to the beam profile was investigated using this newly developed BPM. It has been proven that the damage probability increases rapidly above some threshold level of the beam current density. It is confirmed that for high-current implantation a uniform current density distribution of the ion beam is very effective to prevent charging damage. It is concluded that this measuring system is valuable not only for quick analysis of damage phenomena, but also for evaluating machine performance.

  20. Improved hardness and wear properties of B-ion implanted polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.H.; Rao, G.R.; Mansur, L.K. )

    1992-07-01

    Polycarbonate (Lexan) was implanted with 100 and 200 keV B{sup +} ions to doses of 0.26, 0.78, and 2.6{times}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature ({lt}100 {degree}C). Mechanical characterization of implanted materials was carried out by nanoindentation and sliding wear tests. The results showed that the hardness of implanted polycarbonate increased with increasing ion energy and dose, attaining hardness up to 3.2 GPa at a dose of 2.6{times}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} for 200 keV ions, which is more than 10 times that of the unimplanted polymer. Wear properties were characterized using a reciprocating tribometer with nylon, brass, and SAE 52100 Cr-steel balls with 0.5 and 1 N normal forces for 10 000 cycles. The wear mode varied widely as a function of ion energy, dose, wear ball type, and normal load. For given ion energy, load, and ball type conditions, there was an optimum dose that produced the greatest wear resistance and lowest friction coefficient. For polycarbonate implanted with 0.78{times}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, the nylon ball produced no wear after 10 000 cycles. Moreover, the overall friction coefficient was reduced by over 40% by implantation. The results suggest that the potential of ion-beam technology for improving polycarbonate is significant, and that surface-sensitive mechanical properties can be tailored to meet the requirements for applications demanding hardness, wear, and abrasion resistance.

  1. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Park, Young Min; Choi, Bo-Young; Lee, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3×10(16) ions/cm(2) was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity.

  2. Non-mass-analyzed ion implantation equipment for high volume solar cell production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armini, A. J.; Bunker, S. N.; Spitzer, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    Equipment designed for junction formation in silicon solar cells is described. The equipment, designed for a production level of approximately one megawatt per year, consists of an ion implanter and annealer. Low cost is achieved by foregoing the use of mass analysis during the implantation, and by the use of a belt furnace for annealing. Results of process development, machine design and cost analysis are presented.

  3. Trapping of interstitials during ion implantation in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Culbertson, R.J.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The solid phase epitaxial regrowth of silicon implanted with a group V dopant, such as antimony, results in excellent incorporation of the dopant atoms into silicon lattice sites. However, annealing at higher temperatures or longer times results in transient dopant precipitation with a diffusion coefficient up to five orders of magnitude above that of tracer diffusion and with a reduced activation energy. This precipitation is accompanied by the nucleation of dislocation loops that are interstitial in nature, and the transient ceases as the dislocation loops develop. It is believed that Si interstitials are trapped in a stable defect complex during the implantation process. Although they survive SPE these complexes dissolve at higher temperatures and release a large supply of interstitials which serve to promote dopant migration via an interstitialcy mechanism until they condense to form the observed dislocation loops. By following the Sb implantation with an implantation of B to an equivalent concentration profile the loop formation is efficiently suppressed. For higher B concentrations the Sb precipitation is no longer observed. Results for As implantation are similar to Sb except that As precipitates cannot be directly observed. Calculations of the dopant and interstitial concentration depth distributions were also performed.

  4. Application of Coaxial Ion Gun for Film Generation and Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, Mikio; Asai, Tomohiko; Kurumi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki

    A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) is here utilized for deposition on high-melting-point metals. MCPGs have hitherto been studied mostly in the context of nuclear fusion research, for particle and magnetic helicity injection and spheromak formation. During spheromak formation, the electrode materials are ionized and mixed into the plasmoid. In this study, this ablation process by gun-current sputtering is enhanced for metallic thin-film generation. In the proposed system geometry, only ionized materials are electromagnetically accelerated by the self-Lorentz force, with ionized operating gas as a magnetized thermal plasmoid, contributing to the thin-film deposition. This reduces the impurity and non-uniformity of the deposited thin-film. Furthermore, as the ions are accelerated in a parallel direction to the injection axis, vertical implantation of the ions into the substrate surface is achieved. To test a potential application of the developed system, experiments were conducted involving the formation of a buffer layer on hard ceramics, for use in dental materials.

  5. Radial 32P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, M. A.; Dufresne, V.; Paynter, R.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B.

    2004-12-01

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as 32P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the 32P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the 32P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber.

  6. A Case Study of Ion Implant In-Line Statistical Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Ramczyk, Kenneth; Hall, Darcy; Wang, Linda

    2005-09-01

    Ion implantation is one of the most critical processes in the front-end-of-line for ULSI manufacturing. With more complexity in device layout, the fab cycle time can only be expected to be longer. To ensure yield and consistent device performance it is very beneficial to have a Statistical Process Control (SPC) practice that can detect tool issues to prevent excursions. Also, implanters may abort a process due to run-time issues. It requires human intervention to dispose of the lot. Since device wafers have a fixed flow plan and can only do anneal at certain points in the manufacturing process, it is not practical to use four-point probe to check such implants. Pattern recognition option on some of the metrology tools, such as ThermaWave (TWave), allows user to check an open area on device wafers for implant information. The two cited reasons prompted this work to look into the sensitivity of TWave with different implant processes and the possibility of setting up an SPC practice in a high-volume manufacturing fab. In this work, the authors compare the test wafer result with that of device wafers with variations in implant conditions such as dose, implant angle, energy, etc. The intention of this work is to correlate analytical measurement such as sheet resistance (Rs) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) with device data such as electrical testing and sort yield. For a ± 1.5% TWave control limit with the tested implant processes in this work, this translates to about 0.5° in implant angle control or 2% to 8% dose change, respectively. It is understood that the dose sensitivity is not good since the tested processes are deep layer implants. Based on the statistics calculation, we assess the experimental error bar is within 1% of the measured values.

  7. Radial {sup 32}P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, M.A.; Dufresne, V.; Paynter, R.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B.

    2004-12-01

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as {sup 32}P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the {sup 32}P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the {sup 32}P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber.

  8. Behavior of ion-implanted junction diodes in 3C SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, R. E.; Kopanski, J. J.; Fung, C. D.

    1987-01-01

    p-n junction diodes have been formed by ion implantation of B or Al in 3C SiC and annealing at 1365 C. The current-voltage characteristics of the Al-implanted structures show little rectification. The B-implanted diodes show rectification, with ideality factors of 2.2 and higher, breakdown voltages between 5 and 10 V, and a series resistance of the order of 20 kohm. The current-voltage characteristics were measured between room temperature and 270 C. The extracted ideality factors increase with temperature.

  9. RTV silicone rubber surface modification for cell biocompatibility by negative-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chenlong; Wang, Guangfu; Chu, Yingjie; Xu, Ya; Qiu, Menglin; Xu, Mi

    2016-03-01

    A negative cluster ion implantation system was built on the injector of a GIC4117 tandem accelerator. Next, the system was used to study the surface modification of room temperature vulcanization silicone rubber (RTV SR) for cell biocompatibility. The water contact angle was observed to decrease from 117.6° to 99.3° as the C1- implantation dose was increased to 1 × 1016 ions/cm2, and the effects of C1-, C2- and O1- implantation result in only small differences in the water contact angle at 3 × 1015 ions/cm2. These findings indicate that the hydrophilicity of RTV SR improves as the dose is increased and that the radiation effect has a greater influence than the doping effect on the hydrophilicity. There are two factors influence hydrophilicity of RTV: (1) based on the XPS and ATR-FTIR results, it can be inferred that ion implantation breaks the hydrophobic functional groups (Sisbnd CH3, Sisbnd Osbnd Si, Csbnd H) of RTV SR and generates hydrophilic functional groups (sbnd COOH, sbnd OH, Sisbnd (O)x (x = 3,4)). (2) SEM reveals that the implanted surface of RTV SR appears the micro roughness such as cracks and wrinkles. The hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect (Zhou Rui et al., 2009). These two factors cancel each other out and make the C-implantation sample becomes more hydrophilic in general terms. Finally, cell culture demonstrates that negative ion-implantation is an effective method to improve the cell biocompatibility of RTV SR.

  10. Nitrogen- Doped Graphene Quantum Dots: "Turn-off" Fluorescent Probe for Detection of Ag(+) Ions.

    PubMed

    Tabaraki, Reza; Nateghi, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Highly luminescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were prepared from glucose and ammonia as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The N-GQDs showed a strong emission at 458 nm with excitation at 360 nm. The N-GQDs exhibited analytical potential as sensing probes for silver ions determination. Factors affecting the fluorescence sensing of Ag(+) ions such as pH, N-GQDs concentration and incubation time were studied using Box-Behnken experimental design. The optimum conditions were determined as pH 7, N-GQDs concentration 1 mg/mL and time 60 min. It suggested that N-GQDs exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity toward Ag(+). The linear range of N-GQDs and the limit of detection (LOD) were 0.2-40 μM and 168 nM, respectively. The N-GQDs-based Ag(+) ions sensor was successfully applied to the determination of Ag(+) in tap water and real river water samples.

  11. Status of ion implantation doping and isolation of III-V nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.

    1995-09-01

    Ion implantation doping and isolation has played a critical role in the realization of high performance photonic and electronic devices in all mature semiconductor material systems. This is also expected to be the case for the binary III-V nitrides (InN, GaN, and AlN) and their alloys as the epitaxial material quality improves and more advanced device structures are fabricated. With this in mind, we review the status of implant doping and isolation of GaN and the ternary alloys AlGaN, InGaN, and InAlN. In particular, we reported on the successful n- and p-type doping of GaN by ion implantation of Mg+P and Si, respectively, and subsequent high temperature rapid thermal anneals in excess of 1000{degrees}C. In the area of implant isolation, N-implantation has been shown to compensate both n- and p-type GaN, N and O-implantation effectively compensates InAlN, and InGaN shows limited compensation with either N or F implantation.

  12. Monitoring of Ion Purity in High-energy Implant via RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberl, Arthur W.; Skala, Wayne G.; Bakhru, Hassaram

    The UAlbany Dynamitron is used for high-energy ion implantation as well as for routine materials analysis. Its ion source can be run using any one of fourteen different gases, leading to concerns of contamination during an implantation. The system has the usual well-calibrated mass-separation using a magnetic analyzer. A pre- or post-implant mass spectrum through this analyzer can give a useful understanding of unintended ions within the source beam, but it does not provide direct identification for such ions as CO or diatomic nitrogen-14 when implanting silicon-28. Since these possible components have the same momentum and charge (i.e. +1), the beamline mass separator will transmit them all. Because backscattered ions from the mass-separated beam will have only atomic scattering, this allows for element detection following the breakup of any molecular ion components. The verification system consists of a back-angle particle detector along with a movable temporary target consisting of a very thin film of gold on a carbon or silicon substrate. The backscattered spectrum can then be analyzed for the presence of unwanted elements. While this does not provide for removal of the unwanted components, it does provide for the identification and measurement of the problem. We show the physical layout, software and extra details necessary for successful use of the technique.

  13. Plasma-based fluorine ion implantation into dental materials for inhibition of bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Nurhaerani; Arita, Kenji; Shinonaga, Yukari; Nishino, Mizuho

    2006-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the fluorine depth profiles of pure titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SUS), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) modified by plasma-based fluorine ion implantation and the effects of fluorine ion implantation on contact angle, fluoride ion release, and S. mutans adhesion. Fluorine-based gases used were Ar+F2 and CF4. By means of SIMS, it was found that the peak count of PMMA was the lowest while that of Ti was the highest. Then, up to one minute after Ar sputtering, the presence of fluorine and chromic fluoride could be detected by XPS in the surface and subsurface layer. As for the effects of using CF4 gas for fluorine ion implantation into SUS substrate, the results were: contact angle was significantly increased; no fluoride ion release was detected; antibacterial activity was significantly increased while initial adhesion was decreased. These findings thus indicated that plasma-based fluorine ion implantation into SUS with CF4 gas provided surface antibacterial activity which was useful in inhibiting bacterial adhesion.

  14. Method for Providing Semiconductors Having Self-Aligned Ion Implant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method is disclosed that provides a self-aligned nitrogen-implant particularly suited for a Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) semiconductor device preferably comprised of a silicon carbide (SiC). This self-aligned nitrogen-implant allows for the realization of durable and stable electrical functionality of high temperature transistors such as JFETs. The method implements the self-aligned nitrogen-implant having predetermined dimensions, at a particular step in the fabrication process, so that the SiC junction field effect transistors are capable of being electrically operating continuously at 500.degree. C. for over 10,000 hours in an air ambient with less than a 10% change in operational transistor parameters.

  15. Method for Providing Semiconductors Having Self-Aligned Ion Implant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method is disclosed that provides a self-aligned nitrogen-implant particularly suited for a Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) semiconductor device preferably comprised of a silicon carbide (SiC). This self-aligned nitrogen-implant allows for the realization of durable and stable electrical functionality of high temperature transistors such as JFETs. The method implements the self-aligned nitrogen-implant having predetermined dimensions, at a particular step in the fabrication process, so that the SiC junction field effect transistors are capable of being electrically operating continuously at 500.degree. C. for over 10,000 hours in an air ambient with less than a 10% change in operational transistor parameters.

  16. Effect of citrate ions on laser ablation of Ag foil in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisková, K.; Vlcková, B.; Turpin, P.-Y.; Fayet, C.; Hromádková, J.; Slouf, M.

    2007-04-01

    Promoting effect of citrate in 1 × 10-5-1×10-2 M concentrations on laser ablation (LA) of a Ag foil in aqueous solution performed by ns laser pulses at 1064 nm is reported. Furthermore, adsorption of citrate ions was found to increase markedly the stability of the resulting LA-Ag hydrosol. The results are discussed on the basis of comparison of surface plasmon extinction spectral characteristics, transmission electron microscopy images, nanoparticle size distributions and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral tests of hydrosols resulting from LA in neutral and acidic aqueous citrate solutions and in pure water.

  17. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, F.; Mason, D. R.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-11-03

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying with transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants.

  18. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Hofmann, F.; Mason, D. R.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-11-03

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying withmore » transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants.« less

  19. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, F.; Mason, D. R.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying with transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants. PMID:26527099

  20. Use of low energy hydrogen ion implants in high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.; Singh, R.

    1985-01-01

    This program is a study of the use of low energy hydrogen ion implantation for high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells. The first quarterly report focuses on two tasks of this program: (1) an examination of the effects of low energy hydrogen implants on surface recombination speed; and (2) an examination of the effects of hydrogen on silicon regrowth and diffusion in silicon. The first part of the project focussed on the measurement of surface properties of hydrogen implanted silicon. Low energy hydrogen ions when bombarded on the silicon surface will create structural damage at the surface, deactivate dopants and introduce recombination centers. At the same time the electrically active centers such as dangling bonds will be passivated by these hydrogen ions. Thus hydrogen is expected to alter properties such as the surface recombination velocity, dopant profiles on the emitter, etc. In this report the surface recombination velocity of a hydrogen emplanted emitter was measured.

  1. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, F; Mason, D R; Eliason, J K; Maznev, A A; Nelson, K A; Dudarev, S L

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying with transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants. PMID:26527099

  2. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, F; Mason, D R; Eliason, J K; Maznev, A A; Nelson, K A; Dudarev, S L

    2015-11-03

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying with transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants.

  3. Comparison of surface characteristics of retrieved cobalt-chromium femoral heads with and without ion implantation.

    PubMed

    McGrory, Brian J; Ruterbories, James M; Pawar, Vivek D; Thomas, Reginald K; Salehi, Abraham B

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation of CoCr is reported to produce increased surface hardness and a lower friction surface. Femoral heads with and without ion implantation retrieved from 1997 to 2003 were evaluated for surface roughness (average surface roughness [Ra], mean peak height [Rpm], and maximum distance from peak to valley [Rmax]), nanohardness, and the ion-treated layer thickness. The difference in average Rmax (P = .033) and average Rpm (P = .008) was statistically significant, but there was no correlation between the average or maximum roughness parameters (average surface roughness, Rmax, and Rpm) and time in vivo (P > .05). Overall, nanohardness was greater for the low-friction ion-treated heads (P < .001); and it decreased with increasing time in vivo (P = .01). Ion treatment produces an increased surface hardness, but the advantage of this increased hardness appears to dissipate over time in vivo.

  4. Study of Nickel Ion Release in Simulated Body Fluid from C+-IMPLANTED Nickel Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Muhammad Ahsan; Murtaza, G.; Saadat, Shahzad; Zaheer, Zeeshan; Shahnawaz, Muhammad; Uddin, Muhammad K. H.; Ahmad, Riaz

    2016-05-01

    Nickel ion release from NiTi shape memory alloy is an issue for biomedical applications. This study was planned to study the effect of C+ implantation on nickel ion release and affinity of calcium phosphate precipitation on NiTi alloy. Four annealed samples are chosen for the present study; three samples with oxidation layer and the fourth without oxidation layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveal amorphization with ion implantation. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) result shows insignificant increase in Ni release in simulated body fluid (SBF) and calcium phosphate precipitation up to 8×1013ions/cm2. Then Nickel contents show a sharp increase for greater ion doses. Corrosion potential decreases by increasing the dose but all the samples passivate after the same interval of time and at the same level of VSCE in ringer lactate solution. Hardness of samples initially increases at greater rate (up to 8×1013ions/cm2) and then increases with lesser rate. It is found that 8×1013ions/cm2 (≈1014) is a safer limit of implantation on NiTi alloy, this limit gives us lesser ion release, better hardness and reasonable hydroxyapatite incubation affinity.

  5. Decrease in work function of transparent conducting ZnO tin films by phosphorus ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Heo, Gi-Seok; Hong, Sang-Jin; Park, Jong-Woon; Choi, Bum-Ho; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Dong-Chan

    2008-09-01

    To confirm the possibility of engineering the work function of ZnO thin films, we have implanted phosphorus ions into ZnO thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The fabricated films show n-type characteristics. It is shown that the electrical and optical properties of those thin films vary depending sensitively on the ion dose and rapid thermal annealing time. Compared to as-deposited ZnO films, the work-function of phosphorus ion-implanted ZnO thin films is observed to be lower and decreases with increasing ion doses. It is likely that the zinc or oxygen vacancies are firstly filled with the implanted phosphorus ions. With further increased ions, free electrons are generated as Zn2+ sites are replaced by those ions or interstitial phosphorus ions increase at the lattice sites, the fermi level by which approaches the conduction band and thus the work function decreases. Those films exhibit the optical transmittance higher than 85% within the visible wavelength range (up to 800 nm).

  6. Formation of titanium carbide by high-fluence carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, A.; Hammerl, C.; Königer, A.; Rauschenbach, B.

    1997-08-01

    Titanium carbide has been prepared by high fluence carbon ion implantation in titanium at temperatures between -70°C and 450°C. The carbon ion dose has been varied between 1.2 and 36 × 10 17 C +-ions/cm 2 and the ion energy between 30 and 180 keV. The carbon concentration distribution, the structure, the morphology and the microhardness have been examined with Rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation, respectively. The concentration distribution of carbon is characterized by a symmetric Gaussian profile for doses up to 12×10 17C +-ions/cm 2 and a more and more asymmetrical profile for higher fluences. The evolution of the concentration distribution is discussed on basis of swelling and sputtering. Precipitates of the titanium carbide phase can be observed after implantation at -70°C with doses ⩾3×10 17C +-ions/cm 2. The average diameter of the TiC precipitates is a function of ion dose, temperature and duration of annealing. A significant increase of the hardness in the near surface region of implanted samples can be detected. The measured hardness values depend strongly on ion dose, annealing conditions and the hardness of the unimplanted titanium.

  7. Oxygen ion implantation induced microstructural changes and electrical conductivity in Bakelite RPC detector material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. V. Aneesh; Ranganathaiah, C.; Kumarswamy, G. N.; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2016-05-01

    In order to explore the structural modification induced electrical conductivity, samples of Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector materials were exposed to 100 keV Oxygen ion in the fluences of 1012, 1013, 1014 and 1015 ions/cm2. Ion implantation induced microstructural changes have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Positron lifetime parameters viz., o-Ps lifetime and its intensity shows the deposition of high energy interior track and chain scission leads to the formation of radicals, secondary ions and electrons at lower ion implantation fluences (1012 to1014 ions/cm2) followed by cross-linking at 1015 ions/cm2 fluence due to the radical reactions. The reduction in electrical conductivity of Bakelite detector material is correlated to the conducting pathways and cross-links in the polymer matrix. The appropriate implantation energy and fluence of Oxygen ion on polymer based Bakelite RPC detector material may reduce the leakage current, improves the efficiency, time resolution and thereby rectify the aging crisis of the RPC detectors.

  8. Fe ion-implanted TiO2 thin film for efficient visible-light photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impellizzeri, G.; Scuderi, V.; Romano, L.; Sberna, P. M.; Arcadipane, E.; Sanz, R.; Scuderi, M.; Nicotra, G.; Bayle, M.; Carles, R.; Simone, F.; Privitera, V.

    2014-11-01

    This work shows the application of metal ion-implantation to realize an efficient second-generation TiO2 photocatalyst. High fluence Fe+ ions were implanted into thin TiO2 films and subsequently annealed up to 550 °C. The ion-implantation process modified the TiO2 pure film, locally lowering its band-gap energy from 3.2 eV to 1.6-1.9 eV, making the material sensitive to visible light. The measured optical band-gap of 1.6-1.9 eV was associated with the presence of effective energy levels in the energy band structure of the titanium dioxide, due to implantation-induced defects. An accurate structural characterization was performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The synthesized materials revealed a remarkable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds in water under visible light irradiation, without the help of any thermal treatments. The photocatalytic activity has been correlated with the amount of defects induced by the ion-implantation process, clarifying the operative physical mechanism. These results can be fruitfully applied for environmental applications of TiO2.

  9. Method For Plasma Source Ion Implantation And Deposition For Cylindrical Surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Fetherston, Robert P. , Shamim, Muhammad M. , Conrad, John R.

    1997-12-02

    Uniform ion implantation and deposition onto cylindrical surfaces is achieved by placing a cylindrical electrode in coaxial and conformal relation to the target surface. For implantation and deposition of an inner bore surface the electrode is placed inside the target. For implantation and deposition on an outer cylindrical surface the electrode is placed around the outside of the target. A plasma is generated between the electrode and the target cylindrical surface. Applying a pulse of high voltage to the target causes ions from the plasma to be driven onto the cylindrical target surface. The plasma contained in the space between the target and the electrode is uniform, resulting in a uniform implantation or deposition of the target surface. Since the plasma is largely contained in the space between the target and the electrode, contamination of the vacuum chamber enclosing the target and electrodes by inadvertent ion deposition is reduced. The coaxial alignment of the target and the electrode may be employed for the ion assisted deposition of sputtered metals onto the target, resulting in a uniform coating of the cylindrical target surface by the sputtered material. The independently generated and contained plasmas associated with each cylindrical target/electrode pair allows for effective batch processing of multiple cylindrical targets within a single vacuum chamber, resulting in both uniform implantation or deposition, and reduced contamination of one target by adjacent target/electrode pairs.

  10. Charging and discharging in ion implanted dielectric films used for capacitive radio frequency microelectromechanical systems switch

    SciTech Connect

    Li Gang; Chen Xuyuan; San Haisheng

    2009-06-15

    In this work, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor structure was used to investigate the dielectric charging and discharging in the capacitive radio frequency microelectromechanical switches. The insulator in MIS structure is silicon nitride films (SiN), which were deposited by either low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) processes. Phosphorus or boron ions were implanted into dielectric layer in order to introduce impurity energy levels into the band gap of SiN. The relaxation processes of the injected charges in SiN were changed due to the ion implantation, which led to the change in relaxation time of the trapped charges. In our experiments, the space charges were introduced by stressing the sample electrically with dc biasing. The effects of implantation process on charge accumulation and dissipation in the dielectric are studied by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement qualitatively and quantitatively. The experimental results show that the charging and discharging behavior of the ion implanted silicon nitride films deposited by LPCVD is quite different from the one deposited by PECVD. The charge accumulation in the dielectric film can be reduced by ion implantation with proper dielectric deposition method.

  11. Peculiarities and application perspectives of metal-ion implants in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzoldi, P.; Gonella, F.; Arnold, G.W.; Battaglin, G.; Bertoncello, R.

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation in insulators causes modifications in the refractive-index as a result of radiation damage, phase separation, or compound formation. As a consequence, light waveguides may be formed with interesting applications in the field of optoelectronics. Recently implantation of metals ions (e.g. silver, copper, gold, lead,...) showed the possibility of small radii colloidal particles formation, in a thin surface layer of the glass substrate. These particles exhibit an electron plasmon resonance which depends on the optical constants of the implanted metal and on the refractive-index of the glass host. The non-linear optical properties of such colloids, in particular the enhancement of optical Kerr susceptibility, suggest that the, ion implantation technique may play an important role for the production of all-optical switching devices. In this paper an analysis of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field will be presented in the framework of ion implantation in glass physics and chemistry.

  12. Evaluation of the ion implantation process for production of solar cells from silicon sheet materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this program is the investigation and evaluation of the capabilities of the ion implantation process for the production of photovoltaic cells from a variety of present-day, state-of-the-art, low-cost silicon sheet materials. Task 1 of the program concerns application of ion implantation and furnace annealing to fabrication of cells made from dendritic web silicon. Task 2 comprises the application of ion implantation and pulsed electron beam annealing (PEBA) to cells made from SEMIX, SILSO, heat-exchanger-method (HEM), edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and Czochralski (CZ) silicon. The goals of Task 1 comprise an investigation of implantation and anneal processes applied to dendritic web. A further goal is the evaluation of surface passivation and back surface reflector formation. In this way, processes yielding the very highest efficiency can be evaluated. Task 2 seeks to evaluate the use of PEBA for various sheet materials. A comparison of PEBA to thermal annealing will be made for a variety of ion implantation processes.

  13. High-precision figure correction of x-ray telescope optics using ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalifoux, Brandon; Sung, Edward; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2013-09-01

    Achieving both high resolution and large collection area in the next generation of x-ray telescopes requires highly accurate shaping of thin mirrors, which is not achievable with current technology. Ion implantation offers a promising method of modifying the shape of mirrors by imparting internal stresses in a substrate, which are a function of the ion species and dose. This technique has the potential for highly deterministic substrate shape correction using a rapid, low cost process. Wafers of silicon and glass (D-263 and BK-7) have been implanted with Si+ ions at 150 keV, and the changes in shape have been measured using a Shack-Hartmann metrology system. We show that a uniform dose over the surface repeatably changes the spherical curvature of the substrates, and we show correction of spherical curvature in wafers. Modeling based on experiments with spherical curvature correction shows that ion implantation could be used to eliminate higher-order shape errors, such as astigmatism and coma, by using a spatially-varying implant dose. We will report on progress in modelling and experimental tests to eliminate higher-order shape errors. In addition, the results of experiments to determine the thermal and temporal stability of implanted substrates will be reported.

  14. Deuterium-incorporated gate oxide of MOS devices fabricated by using deuterium ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Sung; Lear, Kevin L.

    2012-04-01

    In the aspect of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device reliability, deuterium-incorporated gate oxide could be utilized to suppress the wear-out that is combined with oxide trap generation. An alternative deuterium process for the passivation of oxide traps or defects in the gate oxide of MOS devices has been suggested in this study. The deuterium ion is delivered to the location where the gate oxide resides by using an implantation process and subsequent N2 annealing process at the back-end of metallization process. A conventional MOS field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with a 3-nm-thick gate oxide and poly-to-ploy capacitor sandwiched with 20-nm-thick SiO2 were fabricated in order to demonstrate the deuterium effect in our process. An optimum condition of ion implantation was necessary to account for the topography of the overlaying layers in the device structure and to minimize the physical damage due to the energy of the implanted ion. Device parameter variations, the gate leakage current, and the dielectric breakdown phenomenon were investigated in the deuterium-ion-implanted devices. We found the isotope effect between hydrogen- and deuterium-implanted devices and an improved electrical reliability in the deuterated gate oxide. This implies that deuterium bonds are generated effectively at the Si/SiO2 interface and in the SiO2 bulk.

  15. Modification of the optical properties of glass by sequential ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Magruder, R.H. III; Osborne, D.H. Jr.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a series of samples formed by the sequential implantation of Ti, O and Au are examined. Energies of implantation for each ion were chosen using TRIM calculations to insure overlap of the ion distributions. The Ti was implanted with nominal doses of 1.2 and 2 {times} 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The samples were implanted with oxygen to the same nominal dose as the Ti. Au was then implanted with a nominal dose of 6 {times} 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The samples were subsequently annealed in oxygen at 900 C for two hours. The Ti and O are incorporated into the host network, while the Au forms nanosize colloids. The presence of the Ti in the substrate causes a shift in the surface plasmon resonance frequency of the Au metal colloids as well as an increase in the nonlinear response of the composites. The results are interpreted in terms of effective medium theory.

  16. Formation of optically-active, metal silicides using ion implantation and/or oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L. J.; Holland, O. W.; Hossain, K.; Smith, E. B.; Golden, T. D.; Duggan, J. L.; McDaniel, F. D.

    2005-12-01

    While Si-based integrated circuits dominate the microelectronics marketplace, they cannot be fabricated with optical functionality since Si is indirect. Alternative materials have been used in such applications but the ability to integrate an optically active material directly onto a silicon substrate to co-opt the advances in Si technology and processing capabilities is the better solution. Many of the transition metals form silicides that are direct band gap semiconductors and, as such, may be integrated with Si to achieve the desired optical properties. Ion implantation of the transition metal into Si was used to form the desired silicide phase by reaction of the metal with the Si substrate. Depending upon the fluence the resulting implanted layer can consist of a two-phase region in which the silicide phase forms as isolated precipitates randomly oriented within a heavily dislocated Si matrix. Rutherford backscattering/ion channeling spectrometry was used to monitor this process as a function of temperature and time. A unique method for orienting the silicide precipitates to align them crystallographically with the Si substrate and eliminate the ion-induced dislocations that form during the initial implant is discussed. This method involves oxidation of the implanted region to segregate the silicide phase at the oxide interface. Initial results of Os- ions implanted into Si(1 0 0) are presented.

  17. Performance improvement of silicon nitride ball bearings by ion implantation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Miner, J.

    1998-03-01

    The present report summarizes technical results of CRADA No. ORNL 92-128 with the Pratt and Whitney Division of United Technologies Corporation. The stated purpose of the program was to assess the 3effect of ion implantation on the rolling contact performance of engineering silicon nitride bearings, to determine by post-test analyses of the bearings the reasons for improved or reduced performance and the mechanisms of failure, if applicable, and to relate the overall results to basic property changes including but not limited to swelling, hardness, modulus, micromechanical properties, and surface morphology. Forty-two control samples were tested to an intended runout period of 60 h. It was possible to supply only six balls for ion implantation, but an extended test period goal of 150 h was used. The balls were implanted with C-ions at 150 keV to a fluence of 1.1 {times} 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}. The collection of samples had pre-existing defects called C-cracks in the surfaces. As a result, seven of the control samples had severe spalls before reaching the goal of 60 h for an unacceptable failure rate of 0.003/sample-h. None of the ion-implanted samples experienced engineering failure in 150 h of testing. Analytical techniques have been used to characterize ion implantation results, to characterize wear tracks, and to characterize microstructure and impurity content. In possible relation to C-cracks. It is encouraging that ion implantation can mitigate the C-crack failure mode. However, the practical implications are compromised by the fact that bearings with C-cracks would, in no case, be acceptable in engineering practice, as this type of defect was not anticipated when the program was designed. The most important reason for the use of ceramic bearings is energy efficiency.

  18. Effects of Implantation Temperature and Ion Flux on Damage Accumulation in Al-Implanted 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.; Jiang, Weilin; Wang, Chong M.; Hallen, Anders; Possnert, Goran

    2003-02-15

    The effects of implantation temperature and ion flux on damage accumulation on both the Si and C sublattices in 4H-SiC are investigated under 1.1 MeV Al irradiation at temperatures from 150 to 450 K. The rate of damage accumulation decreases dramatically and the damage profile sharpens due to significant dynamic recovery at temperatures close to the critical temperature for amorphization. At 450 K, the relative disorder and the density of planar defects increase rapidly with the increasing ion flux, exhibiting saturation at high ion fluxes. Planar defects are generated through the agglomeration of excess Si and C interstitials during irradiation and post-irradiation annealing at 450 K. Termination of (0001) planes is attributed to the accumulation of vacancies. A volume expansion of {approx}8% is observed for the peak damage region.

  19. Basic Aspects of the Formation and Activation of Boron Junctions Using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zschaetzsch, G.; Vandervorst, W.; Hoffmann, T.; Goossens, J.; Everaert, J.-L.; Agua Borniquel, J. I. del; Poon, T.

    2008-11-03

    This study investigates the basic aspects of junction formation using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation using BF{sub 3} and addresses the role of (pre)amorphization, C(F)-co-implantation, plasma parameters (bias, dose) and the thermal anneal cycle (spike versus msec laser anneal). The basic physics are studied using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, sheet resistance and using four point probe and RsL. Profiles with junction depths ranging from 10-12 nm and sheet resistance values below 800 Ohm/sq are readily achievable.

  20. Optical planar waveguide in magnesium aluminate spinel crystal using oxygen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hong-Lian; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Lian; Wang, Tie-Jun; Qiao, Mei; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2015-07-01

    A planar optical waveguide in MgAl2O4 crystal sample was fabricated using 6.0 MeV oxygen ion implantation at a fluence of 1.5 × 1015 ions/cm2 at room temperature. The optical modes were measured at a wavelength of 633 nm using a model 2010 prism coupler. The near-field intensity files in the visible band were measured and simulated with end-face coupling and FD-BPM methods, respectively. The absorption spectra show that the implantation process has almost no effect on the visible and near-infrared band absorption.

  1. Influence of annular magnet on discharge characteristics in enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Li Liuhe; Wang Zhuo; Lu Qiuyuan; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Pang Enjing; Dun Dandan; He Fushun; Li Fen

    2011-01-10

    A permanent annular magnet positioned at the grounded anode alters the discharge characteristics in enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation (EGD-PIII). The nonuniform magnetic field increases the electron path length and confines electron motion due to the magnetic mirror effect and electron-neutral collisions thus occur more frequently. The plasma potential and ion density measured by a Langmuir probe corroborate that ionization is improved near the grounded anode. This hybrid magnetic field EGD-PIII method is suitable for implantation of gases with low ionization rates.

  2. Single-walled carbon nanotube growth from ion implanted Fe catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yongho; Sippel-Oakley, Jennifer; Ural, Ant

    2006-10-09

    The authors present experimental evidence that single-walled carbon nanotubes can be grown by chemical vapor deposition from ion implanted iron catalyst. They systematically characterize the effect of ion implantation dose and energy on the catalyst nanoparticles and nanotubes formed at 900 deg. C. They also fabricate a micromachined silicon grid for direct transmission electron microscopy characterization of the as-grown nanotubes. This work opens up the possibility of controlling the origin of single-walled nanotubes at the nanometer scale and of integrating them into nonplanar three-dimensional device structures with precise dose control.

  3. Optima XE Single Wafer High Energy Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Shu; Ferrara, Joseph; Bell, Edward; Patel, Shital; Sieradzki, Manny

    2008-11-03

    The Optima XE is the first production worthy single wafer high energy implanter. The new system combines a state-of-art single wafer endstation capable of throughputs in excess of 400 wafers/hour with a production-proven RF linear accelerator technology. Axcelis has been evolving and refining RF Linac technology since the introduction of the NV1000 in 1986. The Optima XE provides production worthy beam currents up to energies of 1.2 MeV for P{sup +}, 2.9 MeV for P{sup ++}, and 1.5 MeV for B{sup +}. Energies as low as 10 keV and tilt angles as high as 45 degrees are also available., allowing the implanter to be used for a wide variety of traditional medium current implants to ensure high equipment utilization. The single wafer endstation provides precise implant angle control across wafer and wafer to wafer. In addition, Optima XE's unique dose control system allows compensation of photoresist outgassing effects without relying on traditional pressure-based methods. We describe the specific features, angle control and dosimetry of the Optima XE and their applications in addressing the ever-tightening demands for more precise process controls and higher productivity.

  4. Characterization of the antiferromagnetism in Ag(pyz)2(S2O8) with a two-dimensional square lattice of Ag 2+ ions (Ag=silver, Pyz-pyrdzine, S2O8=sulfate)

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, John; Mc Donald, R; Sengupta, P; Cox, S; Manson, J; Southerland, H; Warter, M; Stone, K; Stephens, P; Lancaster, T; Steele, A; Blundell, S; Baker, P; Pratt, F; Lee, C; Whangbo, M

    2009-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) consists of 2D square nets of Ag{sup 2+} ions resulting from the corner-sharing of axially elongated AgN{sub 4}O{sub 2} octahedra and exhibits characteristic 2D antiferromagnetism. Nevertheless, {mu}{sup +}Sr measurements indicate that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) undergoes 3D magnetic ordering below 7.8(3) K.

  5. Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for applications in silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, Christian; Feldmann, Frank; Müller, Ralph; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.; Reedy, Robert C.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-11-28

    Passivated contacts (poly-Si/SiO{sub x}/c-Si) doped by shallow ion implantation are an appealing technology for high efficiency silicon solar cells, especially for interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells where a masked ion implantation facilitates their fabrication. This paper presents a study on tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by low-energy ion implantation into amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers and examines the influence of the ion species (P, B, or BF{sub 2}), the ion implantation dose (5 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} to 1 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}), and the subsequent high-temperature anneal (800 °C or 900 °C) on the passivation quality and junction characteristics using double-sided contacted silicon solar cells. Excellent passivation quality is achieved for n-type passivated contacts by P implantations into either intrinsic (undoped) or in-situ B-doped a-Si layers with implied open-circuit voltages (iV{sub oc}) of 725 and 720 mV, respectively. For p-type passivated contacts, BF{sub 2} implantations into intrinsic a-Si yield well passivated contacts and allow for iV{sub oc} of 690 mV, whereas implanted B gives poor passivation with iV{sub oc} of only 640 mV. While solar cells featuring in-situ B-doped selective hole contacts and selective electron contacts with P implanted into intrinsic a-Si layers achieved V{sub oc} of 690 mV and fill factor (FF) of 79.1%, selective hole contacts realized by BF{sub 2} implantation into intrinsic a-Si suffer from drastically reduced FF which is caused by a non-Ohmic Schottky contact. Finally, implanting P into in-situ B-doped a-Si layers for the purpose of overcompensation (counterdoping) allowed for solar cells with V{sub oc} of 680 mV and FF of 80.4%, providing a simplified and promising fabrication process for IBC solar cells featuring passivated contacts.

  6. Effect of 120 MeV Ag9+ ion irradiation of YCOB single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Kumar, R.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2012-09-01

    Single crystals of yttrium calcium oxy borate (YCOB) grown from boron-tri-oxide flux were subjected to swift heavy ion irradiation using silver Ag9+ ions from the 15 UD Pelletron facility at Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi. The crystals were irradiated at 1 × 1013, 5 × 1013 and 1 × 1014 ions/cm2 fluences at room temperature and with 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 fluence at liquid nitrogen temperature. The pristine and the irradiated samples were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence studies. From the characterization studies performed on the samples, it is inferred that the crystals irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature had fewer defects compared to the crystals irradiated at room temperature and the defects increased when the ion fluence was increased at room temperature.

  7. A spectroscopic study of the near-surface layers of a glass modified by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Deshkovskaya, A.A.; Komar, V.P.; Skornyakov, I.V.

    1985-07-01

    The mechanism of the complex physiocochemical processes leading to the structural changes in glass under ion implantation is discussed in this paper. Specimens of Pyrex-type silicate glasses manufactured in the form of polished, plane-parallel plates 10 x 10 x 1 mm were studied. As the doping impurities singly charged ions B/sup +/, N/sup +/, O/sup +/, P/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, BF/sub 2//sup +/, As/sup +/, Sb/sup +/, and Pb/sup +/ were used and also the double charged P/sup + +/ ions. The implantation was done at room temperature on a ''Vesuvius-1'' type of equipment with an attachment that makes it possible to obtain high-energy ions beams. When studying the structural damage, the implanted glasses and the mechanism by which it is caused, the authors used infrared spectroscopy of the multiple frustrated total internal reflection (MFTIR) which makes it possible to analyze the deeper surface layers of the material in addition to the use of IR spectroscopy which gives information on the surface of the glass. Of all the possible reasons for the structural damage in a Pyrex glass caused by ion implantation, the dominant role is shown to itself is not so important as its capacity for interaction with its environment.

  8. Towards p-type doping of ZnO by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, V; Tan, H H; Jagadish, C; Kucheyev, S; Phillips, M; Zou, J

    2005-01-18

    Zinc oxide is a very attractive material for a range of optoelectronic devices including blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. Though n-type doping has been successfully achieved, p-type doing of ZnO is still a challenge that must be overcome before p-n junction devices can be realized. Ion implantation is widely used in the microelectronics industry for selective area doping and device isolation. Understanding damage accumulation and recrystallization processes is important for achieving selective area doping. In this study, As (potential p-type dopant) ion implantation and annealing studies were carried out. ZnO samples were implanted with high dose (1.4 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}) 300 keV As ions at room temperature. Furnace annealing of samples in the range of 900 C to 1200 C was employed to achieve recrystallization of amorphous layers and electrical activation of the dopant. Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and cathodolumiescence spectroscopy were used to monitor damage accumulation and annihilation behavior in ZnO. Results of this study have significant implications for p-type doing of ZnO by ion implantation.

  9. Rare earth ion implantation and optical activation in nitride semiconductors for multicolor emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruterana, Pierre; Chauvat, Marie-Pierre; Lorenz, Katharina

    2015-04-01

    In order to understand the behavior of nitride semiconductors when submitted to ion implantation, we have used 300 keV europium at fluences from 1012 to above 1017 ions cm-2. Subsequently, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the evolution of damage. The optical properties were investigated prior to and after annealing. It was found that the behavior of the three compounds (AlN, GaN InN) under ion implantation is rather different: whereas InN breaks down at very low fluences (˜1012 ions cm-2), the damage formation mechanisms are similar in AlN and GaN. In both compounds, extended defects such as stacking faults play a critical role. However, they exhibit different stability, as a consequence, GaN transforms to nanocrystalline state from the surface at a fluence of around 2.5 × 1015 ions cm-2, whereas AlN undergoes a chemical amorphization starting at the projected range (Rp), when implanted to extremely high Eu fluences >1017 ionscm-2. As for the optical activation, the formation of highly stable extended defects in these compounds constitutes a real challenge for the annealing of heavily doped layers, and it was noticed that for a substantial optical activation, the implantation fluences should be kept low (<1015 Eu at cm-2).

  10. Influence of irradiation spectrum and implanted ions on the amorphization of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    Polycrystalline Al2O3, magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4), MgO, Si3N4, and SiC were irradiated with various ions at 200-450 K, and microstructures were examined following irradiation using cross-section TEM. Amorphization was not observed in any of the irradiated oxide ceramics, despsite damage energy densities up to {similar_to}7 keV/atom (70 displacements per atom). On the other hand, SiC readily amorphized after damage levels of {similar_to}0.4 dpa at room temperature (RT). Si3N4 exhibited intermediate behavior; irradiation with Fe{sup 2+} ions at RT produced amorphization in the implanted ion region after damage levels of {similar_to}1 dpa. However, irradiated regions outside the implanted ion region did not amorphize even after damage levels > 5 dpa. The amorphous layer in the Fe-implanted region of Si3N4 did not appear if the specimen was simultaneoulsy irradiated with 1-MeV He{sup +} ions at RT. By comparison with published results, it is concluded that the implantation of certain chemical species has a pronounced effect on the amorphization threshold dose of all five materials. Intense ionizing radiation inhibits amorphization in Si3N4, but does not appear to significantly influence the amorphization of SiC.

  11. Controlled removal of ceramic surfaces with combination of ions implantation and ultrasonic energy

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Rankin, Janet; Thevenard, Paul; Romana, Laurence J.

    1995-01-01

    A method for tailoring or patterning the surface of ceramic articles is provided by implanting ions to predetermined depth into the ceramic material at a selected surface location with the ions being implanted at a fluence and energy adequate to damage the lattice structure of the ceramic material for bi-axially straining near-surface regions of the ceramic material to the predetermined depth. The resulting metastable near-surface regions of the ceramic material are then contacted with energy pulses from collapsing, ultrasonically-generated cavitation bubbles in a liquid medium for removing to a selected depth the ion-damaged near-surface regions containing the bi-axially strained lattice structure from the ceramic body. Additional patterning of the selected surface location on the ceramic body is provided by implanting a high fluence of high-energy, relatively-light ions at selected surface sites for relaxing the bi-axial strain in the near-surface regions defined by these sites and thereby preventing the removal of such ion-implanted sites by the energy pulses from the collapsing ultrasonic cavitation bubbles.

  12. Optical and electrical properties of polycarbonate layers implanted by high energy Cu ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resta, V.; Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.; Maruccio, L.; Cola, A.; Farella, I.; Giancane, G.; Valli, L.

    2013-10-01

    1 MeV copper ions were implanted in polycarbonate (PC) matrices with fluences ranging from 5 × 1013 ions cm-2 to 1 × 1017 ions cm-2 in order to modify the optical and electrical properties of the polymer host. Increasing the ion fluence, an increase of the overall absorption and a redshift of the optical band gap were observed, from the initial value of 3.40 eV for the pristine PC to 0.80 eV measured for 1 × 1017 ions cm-2. For fluences above 5 × 1014 ions cm-2 a broad optical absorption bands at 450-475 nm and 520 nm were observed and, from 1 × 1016 ions cm-2, an additional band appeared at 570 nm. Both bands redshift when the fluence is increased. On the contrary, the optical response of the highest fluence sample is characterized by an overall band at 580 nm. The chemical modifications observed in the polymer ranges from induced -OH stretching, Cdbnd O and -Cdbnd C- double bonds and -Ctbnd C and tbnd CH triple bonds formation, as the ion fluence increases. The implantation process affects the electrical properties of the polymer inducing a strong reduction in sheet resistance when ion fluence exceeds 5 × 1016 ions cm-2. A value of ˜7.1 × 107 Ω/sq has been obtained for the highest fluence, i.e. about 10 order of magnitude lower than the pristine PC.

  13. Magnetization control for bit pattern formation of spinel ferromagnetic oxides by Kr ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Eiji Suzuki, Kazuya Z.; Liu, Yang; Utsumi, Yuji; Morishita, Jumpei; Niizeki, Tomohiko; Yanagihara, Hideto; Oshima, Daiki; Kato, Takeshi; Mibu, Ko

    2014-05-07

    As a first step toward the development of bit-patterned magnetic media made of oxides, we investigated the effectiveness of magnetism control by Kr implantation in a typical spinel ferromagnetic oxide, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We implanted Kr ions accelerated at 30 kV on 13-nm-thick Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films at dosages of (1–40) × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. Magnetization decreased with increase in ion dosages and disappeared when irradiation was greater than 2 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} of Kr ions. These dosages are more than ten times smaller than that used in the N{sub 2} implantation for metallic and oxide ferromagnets. Both the temperature dependence of magnetization and the Mössbauer study suggest that the transition of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic took place sharply due to Kr ion irradiation, which produces two-phase separation—ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic with insufficient dosage of Kr ions.

  14. Plasma immersion ion implantation for sub-22 nm node devices: FD-SOI and Tri-Gate

    SciTech Connect

    Duchaine, J.; Milesi, F.; Coquand, R.; Barraud, S.; Reboh, S.; Gonzatti, F.; Mazen, F.; Torregrosa, Frank

    2012-11-06

    Here, we present and discuss the electrical characteristics of fully depleted MOSFET transistors of planar and tridimensional architecture, doped by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) or Beam Line Ion Implantation (BLII). Both techniques delivered similar and satisfactory results in considering the planar architecture. For tri-dimensional Tri-Gate transistors, the results obtained with PIII are superior.

  15. Optical properties of surface modified polypropylene by plasma immersion ion implantation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Sk. Faruque; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Kim, Chansoo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Jang, Yong-Jun; Han, Seonghee; Choi, Jin-Young; Park, Won-Woong

    2010-08-23

    The optical band gap and activation energy of polypropylene (PP) induced by an Ar plasma immersion ion implantation technique were studied in detail. It was revealed that the structural alternation with an increase in polymer chain cross-linking in the ion beam affected layer enhanced the optical properties of PP. The optical band gap, calculated from the transmittance spectra, decreased from 3.44 to 2.85 eV with the Ar plasma ion energy from 10 to 50 keV. The activation energy, determined from the band tail of the transmittance spectra, decreased while the electrical conductivity increased with the Ar plasma ion energy.

  16. Empirical modeling of the cross section of damage formation in ion implanted III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wendler, E.; Wendler, L.

    2012-05-07

    In this letter, the cross section of damage formation per individual ion is measured for III-V compound semiconductors ion implanted at 15 K, applying Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. An empirical model is proposed that explains the measured cross sections in terms of quantities representing the primary energies deposited in the displacement of lattice atoms and in electronic interactions. The resulting formula allows the prediction of damage formation for low temperatures and low ion fluences in these materials and can be taken as a starting point for further quantitative modeling of damage formation including secondary effects such as temperature and ion flux.

  17. Improving low-energy boron/nitrogen ion implantation in graphene by ion bombardment at oblique angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhitong; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Ion implantation is a widely adopted approach to structurally modify graphene and tune its electrical properties for a variety of applications. Further development of the approach requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern the ion bombardment process as well as establishment of key relationships between the controlling parameters and the dominant physics. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations with adaptive bond order calculations, we demonstrate that boron and nitrogen ion bombardment at oblique angles (particularly at 70°) can improve both the productivity and quality of perfect substitution by over 25%. We accomplished this by systematically analyzing the effects of the incident angle and ion energy in determining the probabilities of six distinct types of physics that may occur in an ion bombardment event, including reflection, absorption, substitution, single vacancy, double vacancy, and transmission. By analyzing the atomic trajectories from 576 000 simulations, we identified three single vacancy creation mechanisms and four double vacancy creation mechanisms, and quantified their probability distributions in the angle-energy space. These findings further open the door for improved control of ion implantation towards a wide range of applications of graphene.Ion implantation is a widely adopted approach to structurally modify graphene and tune its electrical properties for a variety of applications. Further development of the approach requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern the ion bombardment process as well as establishment of key relationships between the controlling parameters and the dominant physics. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations with adaptive bond order calculations, we demonstrate that boron and nitrogen ion bombardment at oblique angles (particularly at 70°) can improve both the productivity and quality of perfect substitution by over 25%. We accomplished this by systematically

  18. Initial operation of a large-scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.P.; Henins, I.; Gribble, R.J.; Reass, W.A.; Faehl, R.J.; Nastasi, M.A.; Rej, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    In Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII), a workpiece to be implanted is immersed in a weakly ionized plasma and pulsed to a high negative voltage. Plasma ions are accelerated toward the workpiece and implanted in its surface. Experimental PSII results reported in the literature have been for small workpieces. A large scale PSII experiment has recently been assembled at Los Alamos, in which stainless steel and aluminum workpieces with surface areas over 4 m{sup 2} have been implanted in a 1.5 m-diameter, 4.6 m-length cylindrical vacuum chamber. Initial implants have been performed at 50 kV with 20 {mu}s pulses of 53 A peak current, repeated at 500 Hz, although the pulse modulator will eventually supply 120 kV pulses of 60 A peak current at 2 kHz. A 1,000 W, 13.56 MHz capacitively-coupled source produces nitrogen plasma densities in the 10{sup 15} m{sup {minus}3} range at neutral pressures as low as 0.02 mtorr. A variety of antenna configurations have been tried, with and without axial magnetic fields of up to 60 gauss. Measurements of sheath expansion, modulator voltage and current, and plasma density fill-in following a pulse are presented. The authors consider secondary electron emission, x-ray production, workpiece arcing, implant conformality, and workpiece and chamber heating.

  19. Electrical and optical properties of nitrile rubber modified by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    S, Najidha; Predeep, P.

    2014-10-15

    Implantation of N{sup +} ion beams are performed on to a non-conjugated elastomer, acrylonirtle butadiene rubber (NBR) with energy 60 keV in the fluence range of 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. A decrease in the resistivity of the sample by about eight orders of magnitude is observed in the implanted samples along with color changes. The ion exposed specimens were characterized by means of UV/Vis spectroscopy which shows a shift in the absorption edge value for the as deposited polymer towards higher wavelengths. The band gap is evaluated from the absorption spectra and is found to decrease with increasing fluence. This study can possibly throw light on ion induced changes in the polymer surface.

  20. Gettering of transition metals by cavities in silicon formed by helium ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.A.; Myers, S.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.

    1996-09-01

    We have recently completed studies which quantitatively characterize the ability of nanometer-size cavities formed by He ion implantation to getter detrimental metal impurities in Si. Cavity microstructures formed in Si by ion implantation of He and subsequent annealing have been found to capture metal impurities by two mechanisms: (1) chemisorption on internal walls at low concentrations and (2) silicide precipitation at concentrations exceeding the solid solubility. Experiments utilizing ion-beam analysis, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry were performed to quantitatively characterize the gettering effects and to determine the free energies associated with the chemisorbed metal atoms as a function of temperature. Mathematical models utilizing these results have been developed to predict gettering behavior.

  1. Influence of Cu ion implantation on the microstructure and cathodoluminescence of ZnS nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, L. Y.; Zhang, D.; Liu, B. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of as-synthesized and Cu ion implanted ZnS nanostructures with branched edges are studied by using high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence measurement. Obvious crystalline deterioration has been observed in Cu-doped ZnS nanostructures due to the invasion of Cu ions into ZnS lattice. It was found that the optical emissions of ZnS nanostructures can be selectively modified through the control of Cu ion dose and subsequent heat treatment. An increase of Cu dopant content will lead to an apparent red-shift of the intrinsic band-gap emission in the UV range and the broadening of defect-related emission in visible range. The influences of Cu ion implantation on the microstructure and related optical properties were discussed.

  2. Photoluminescence in silicon implanted with erbium ions at an elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A. Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T.; Vdovin, V. I.; Parshin, E. O.; Makoviichuk, M. I.

    2011-08-15

    Photoluminescence spectra of n-type silicon upon implantation with erbium ions at 600 Degree-Sign C and oxygen ions at room temperature and subsequent annealings at 1100 Degree-Sign C in a chlorine-containing atmosphere have been studied. Depending on the annealing duration, photoluminescence spectra at 80 K are dominated by lines of the Er{sup 3+} ion or dislocation-related luminescence. The short-wavelength shift of the dislocation-related luminescence line observed at this temperature is due to implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature. At room temperature, lines of erbium and dislocation-related luminescence are observed in the spectra, but lines of near-band-edge luminescence predominate.

  3. Electrical and optical properties of nitrile rubber modified by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Najidha; Predeep, P.

    2014-10-01

    Implantation of N+ ion beams are performed on to a non-conjugated elastomer, acrylonirtle butadiene rubber (NBR) with energy 60 keV in the fluence range of 1014 to 1016 ions/cm2. A decrease in the resistivity of the sample by about eight orders of magnitude is observed in the implanted samples along with color changes. The ion exposed specimens were characterized by means of UV/Vis spectroscopy which shows a shift in the absorption edge value for the as deposited polymer towards higher wavelengths. The band gap is evaluated from the absorption spectra and is found to decrease with increasing fluence. This study can possibly throw light on ion induced changes in the polymer surface.

  4. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanjie; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Qingya; Tang, Canming

    2008-09-01

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar "Sumian 22" pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 × 10-3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 × 1016 to 0.78 × 1016 N+/cm2. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N+ ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  5. Magnetic-ion-doped silicon nanostructures fabricated by ion implantation and electron beam annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Johnson, Peter B.; Kennedy, John; Markwitz, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic-ion-doped Si nanostructures (nanowhiskers) were fabricated by a two-step process on Si (1 0 0) substrates. The substrates were implanted with 7 keV Fe+ to a fluence (F) in the range 1 × 1013-4 × 1015 Fe+ cm-2 prior to electron beam annealing (EBA) for 15 s at a maximum temperature, T, in the range 600-1100 °C. The two-step process was found to produce nanowhiskers at higher surface densities than those produced by applying EBA alone. With increase in Fe+ fluence there is a striking increase in the surface density of the Si nanowhiskers, together with a decrease in the average height. For example, for T = 1000 °C, the density and average height are respectively 12 μm-2 and 8.8 nm for F = 1 × 1013 Fe+ cm-2, and 82 μm-2 and 3.1 nm for F = 4 × 1015 Fe+ cm-2. The results are compared with those from a three-step process in which the nanowhiskers are pre-formed in a prior EBA treatment. The two-step process is found to be superior for producing high densities with height distributions having lower fractional spreads. The mechanism of the nucleation and growth of nanowhiskers in the final EBA step is discussed. Selected results are presented to show the possibility of controlling the density and average height of Si nanowhiskers doped with magnetic ions for spin-dependent enhanced field emission.

  6. Adaptation of the 70 kV INP ion implanter to the IBAD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajchel, B.; Drwiega, M.; Lipińska, E.; Wierba, M.

    1994-05-01

    The ion implanter facility of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow was used during many years in different fields of research and technical application. This laboratory type machine equipped with a mass analyzer gives the possibility to accelerate single charged ions of almost all the elements up to the energy of 70 keV with the beam current reaching (e.g. for N 2+) several mA. Mass resolution of the implanter is about 350, and the typical current density during implantation is in the range of 0.1 {μA}/{cm 2} to 100 {μA}/{cm 2}. Adaptation works at the INP implanter to the Ion Beam Assisted Deposition technique were performed. The present research activity due to the modified implanter includes: investigation of high temperature corrosion resistant surfaces (alloys of the type Al-Mo); investigation of special (e.g. ceramics, composites) thin layers produced on crystal surfaces; production of the surfaces of improved mechanical properties. Targets produced by the IBAD technique are investigated next by the RBS method using a 3 MV Van de Graaff setup at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow.

  7. The structural and optical properties of metal ion-implanted GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Sofer, Z.; Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Veselý, M.; Böttger, R.

    2016-03-01

    The practical development of novel optoelectronic materials with appropriate optical properties is strongly connected to the structural properties of the prepared doped structures. We present GaN layers oriented along the (0 0 0 1) crystallographic direction that have been grown by low-pressure metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on sapphire substrates implanted with 200 keV Co+, Fe+ and Ni+ ions. The structural properties of the ion-implanted layers have been characterised by RBS-channelling and Raman spectroscopy to obtain a comprehensive insight into the structural modification of implanted GaN layers and to study the subsequent influence of annealing on crystalline-matrix recovery. Photoluminescence was measured to control the desired optical properties. The post-implantation annealing induced the structural recovery of the modified GaN layer depending on the introduced disorder level, e.g. depending on the ion implantation fluence, which was followed by structural characterisation and by the study of the surface morphology by AFM.

  8. Embedded Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 synthesized by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, V.; Gerlach, J. W.; Lotnyk, A.; Rauschenbach, B.; Karl, H.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-10-01

    200 nm thick SiO2 layers grown on Si substrates were implanted with 150 keV Ge ions at three different fluences. As-implanted samples were characterized with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to obtain depth profiles and concentration of Ge ions. As-implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C for 30 min. Crystalline quality of pristine, as-implanted, and annealed samples was investigated using Raman scattering measurements and the results were compared. Crystalline structure of as-implanted and annealed samples of embedded Ge into SiO2 matrix was studied using x-ray diffraction. No secondary phase or alloy formation of Ge was detected with x-ray diffraction or Raman measurements. Scanning transmission electron microscope measurements were done to get the nanocrystal size and localized information. The results confirmed that fluence dependent Ge nanocrystals of different sizes are formed in the annealed samples. It is also observed that Ge is slowly diffusing deeper into the substrate with annealing.

  9. Embedded Ge nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} synthesized by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Baranwal, V. Pandey, Avinash C.; Gerlach, J. W.; Lotnyk, A.; Rauschenbach, B.; Karl, H.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2015-10-07

    200 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layers grown on Si substrates were implanted with 150 keV Ge ions at three different fluences. As-implanted samples were characterized with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to obtain depth profiles and concentration of Ge ions. As-implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C for 30 min. Crystalline quality of pristine, as-implanted, and annealed samples was investigated using Raman scattering measurements and the results were compared. Crystalline structure of as-implanted and annealed samples of embedded Ge into SiO{sub 2} matrix was studied using x-ray diffraction. No secondary phase or alloy formation of Ge was detected with x-ray diffraction or Raman measurements. Scanning transmission electron microscope measurements were done to get the nanocrystal size and localized information. The results confirmed that fluence dependent Ge nanocrystals of different sizes are formed in the annealed samples. It is also observed that Ge is slowly diffusing deeper into the substrate with annealing.

  10. Nonlinear effects in defect production by atomic and molecular ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    David, C. Dholakia, Manan; Chandra, Sharat; Nair, K. G. M.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Amirthapandian, S.; Amarendra, G.; Varghese Anto, C.; Santhana Raman, P.; Kennedy, John

    2015-01-07

    This report deals with studies concerning vacancy related defects created in silicon due to implantation of 200 keV per atom aluminium and its molecular ions up to a plurality of 4. The depth profiles of vacancy defects in samples in their as implanted condition are carried out by Doppler broadening spectroscopy using low energy positron beams. In contrast to studies in the literature reporting a progressive increase in damage with plurality, implantation of aluminium atomic and molecular ions up to Al{sub 3}, resulted in production of similar concentration of vacancy defects. However, a drastic increase in vacancy defects is observed due to Al{sub 4} implantation. The observed behavioural trend with respect to plurality has even translated to the number of vacancies locked in vacancy clusters, as determined through gold labelling experiments. The impact of aluminium atomic and molecular ions simulated using MD showed a monotonic increase in production of vacancy defects for cluster sizes up to 4. The trend in damage production with plurality has been explained on the basis of a defect evolution scheme in which for medium defect concentrations, there is a saturation of the as-implanted damage and an increase for higher defect concentrations.

  11. Development of Linear Mode Detection for Top-down Ion Implantation of Low Energy Sb Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Jose; Singh, Meenakshi; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Fabrication of donor spin qubits for quantum computing applications requires deterministic control over the number of implanted donors and the spatial accuracy to within which these can be placed. We present an ion implantation and detection technique that allows us to deterministically implant a single Sb ion (donor) with a resulting volumetric distribution of <10 nm. This donor distribution is accomplished by implanting 30keV Sb into Si which yields a longitudinal straggle of <10 nm and combined with a <50 nm spot size using the Sandia NanoImplanter (nI). The ion beam induced charge signal is collected using a MOS detector that is integrated with a Si quantum dot for transport measurments. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Microstructure and oxidation behavior of high strength steel AISI 410 implanted with nitrogen ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandriyana, Ismoyo, Agus Hadi; Sujitno, Tjipto; Dimyati, A.

    2016-04-01

    Surface treatment by implantation with nitrogen-ion was performed on the commercial feritic high strength steel AISI 410 which is termed for high temperature applications. The aim of this research was focused on the surface modification to improve its high temperature oxidation property in the early stages. Ion implantation was carried out at acceleration energy of 100 KeV and ion current 10 mA for 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The samples were subjected to the high temperature oxidation test by means of thermogravimetry in a magnetic suspension balance (MSB) at 500 °C for 5 hours. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD) and Vickers Hardness measurement were used for sample characterization. The formation of ferro-nitride phase after implantation did not occur, however a thin layer considered to contain nitrogen interstitials was detected. The oxidation of both samples before and after implantation followed parabolic kinetics indicating inward growth of oxide scale characteristically due to diffusion of oxygen anions towards matrix surface. After oxidation test relativelly stable oxide scales were observed. Oxidation rates decreased proportionally with the increasing of implantation time due to the formation of oxide layer which is considered to be effectiv inhibitor for the oxygen diffusion.

  13. Lattice mismatch and crystallographic tilt induced by high-dose ion-implantation into 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2012-05-01

    Lattice parameters of high-dose ion-implanted 4H-SiC were investigated with reciprocal space mapping (RSM). N, P, Al, or (C+Si) ions were implanted into lightly doped epilayers to form a (330-520) nm-deep box profile with concentrations of 1019-1020atoms/cm3. After activation annealing at 1800 °C, RSM measurements were conducted. The RSM images for (0008) reflection revealed that high-dose ion implantation causes c-lattice expansion in implanted layers, irrespective of ion species. In addition, crystallographic tilt was observed after high-dose ion implantation. The tilt direction is the same for all the samples investigated; the c-axis of the implanted layers is inclined toward the ascending direction of the off-cut. The c-lattice mismatch and the tilt angle increased as the implantation dose increases, indicating that the implantation damage is responsible for the lattice parameter change. From these results and transmission electron microscopy observation, the authors conclude that the c-lattice mismatch and the crystallographic tilt are mainly caused by secondary defects formed after the ion-implantation and activation-annealing process.

  14. Radiation damage in KTiOPO 4 by ion implantation of light elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfermann, Thomas; Höche, Thomas; Wesch, Werner

    2000-05-01

    The radiation damage in KTiOPO4 (KTP) single crystals caused by He+, Li+ and B+ ion implantation was investigated by means of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Z-cut flux grown KTP crystals were implanted with ion fluences between 5×1013 and 2×1016 cm-2 at 300 and 100 K using implantation energies between 1 and 3 MeV. For high ion fluences, XTEM investigations of the He+ and Li+ implantations revealed buried amorphous layers in the region where nuclear energy deposition dominates. For samples prepared at room temperature, the critical number of displacements per atom (dpa), which is necessary for amorphisation amounts ∼0.5 dpa for He+ implantation and ∼0.22 dpa for Li+ implantation. At 100 K, the thickness of the amorphous layer is increased and the critical number of dpa for achieving amorphisation is considerably lower (0.27 dpa (He+) and 0.15 dpa (Li+), respectively). For both implantation regimes buried amorphous layers are covered by an almost perfect crystalline KTP layer. Between these two regions, the crystalline structure is gradually decomposing with depth due to the presence of amorphous clusters of increasing size. In the superficial crystalline layer, where the nuclear energy deposition is small in comparison to the region of maximum nuclear energy deposition, no defects were found by means of XTEM. Nevertheless, RBS investigations showed a higher dechanelling in this surface layer compared to the virgin crystal thus indicating the presence of point defects. For He+ and Li+ implantation, the electronic excitation does not seem to be connected with the formation of higher-dimensional defects. However, RBS spectra of a B+-implanted sample show a significant damaging in the depth of dominating electronic excitation even at an ion fluence of 5×1013 cm-2. The results confirm the existence of a threshold value of the electronic energy deposition of about 100 eV per ion and Å (W

  15. Characterization of PEEK, PET and PI implanted with Mn ions and sub-sequently annealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Miksova, R.; Pupikova, H.; Khaibullin, R. I.; Slepicka, P.; Gombitová, A.; Kovacik, L.; Svorcik, V.; Matousek, J.

    2014-04-01

    Polyimide (PI), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foils were implanted with 80 keV Mn+ ions at room temperature at fluencies of 1.0 × 1015-1.0 × 1016 cm-2. Mn depth profiles determined by RBS were compared to SRIM 2012 and TRIDYN simulations. The processes taking place in implanted polymers under the annealing procedure were followed. The measured projected ranges RP differ slightly from the SRIM and TRIDYN simulation and the depth profiles are significantly broader (up to 2.4 times) than those simulated by SRIM, while TRIDYN simulations were in a reasonable agreement up to the fluence 0.5 × 1016 in PEEK. Oxygen and hydrogen escape from the implanted layer was examined using RBS and ERDA techniques. PET, PEEK and PI polymers exhibit oxygen depletion up to about 40% of its content in virgin polymers. The compositional changes induced by implantation to particular ion fluence are similar for all polymers examined. After annealing no significant changes of Mn depth distribution was observed even the further oxygen and hydrogen desorption from modified layers appeared. The surface morphology of implanted polymers was characterized using AFM. The most significant change in the surface roughness was observed on PEEK. Implanted Mn atoms tend to dissipate in the polymer matrix, but the Mn nanoparticles are too small to be observed on TEM micrographs. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the implanted and sub-sequently annealed polymers were investigated by sheet resistance measurement and UV-Vis spectroscopy. With increasing ion fluence, the sheet resistance decreases and UV-Vis absorbance increases simultaneously with the decline of optical band gap Eg. The most pronounced change in the resistance was found on PEEK. XPS spectroscopy shows that Mn appears as a mixture of Mn oxides. Mn metal component is not present. All results were discussed in comparison with implantation experiment using the various ion species (Ni, Co

  16. Dopant effects on the photoluminescence of interstitial-related centers in ion implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Villis, B. J.; Burgess, J. E.; Stavrias, N.; McCallum, J. C.; Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Wong-Leung, J.; Jagadish, C.; Williams, J. S.

    2012-05-01

    The dopant dependence of photoluminescence (PL) from interstitial-related centers formed by ion implantation and a subsequent anneal in the range 175-525 °C is presented. The evolution of these centers is strongly effected by interstitial-dopant clustering even in the low temperature regime. There is a significant decrease in the W line (1018.2 meV) PL intensity with increasing B concentration. However, an enhancement is also observed in a narrow fabrication window in samples implanted with either P or Ga. The anneal temperature at which the W line intensity is optimized is sensitive to the dopant concentration and type. Furthermore, dopants which are implanted but not activated prior to low temperature thermal processing are found to have a more detrimental effect on the resulting PL. Splitting of the X line (1039.8 meV) arising from implantation damage induced strain is also observed.

  17. Material synthesis for silicon integrated-circuit applications using ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiang

    As devices scale down into deep sub-microns, the investment cost and complexity to develop more sophisticated device technologies have increased substantially. There are some alternative potential technologies, such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and SiGe alloys, that can help sustain this staggering IC technology growth at a lower cost. Surface SiGe and SiGeC alloys with germanium peak composition up to 16 atomic percent are formed using high-dose ion implantation and subsequent solid phase epitaxial growth. RBS channeling spectra and cross-sectional TEM studies show that high quality SiGe and SiGeC crystals with 8 atomic percent germanium concentration are formed at the silicon surface. Extended defects are formed in SiGe and SiGeC with 16 atomic percent germanium concentration. X-ray diffraction experiments confirm that carbon reduces the lattice strain in SiGe alloys but without significant crystal quality improvement as detected by RBS channeling spectra and XTEM observations. Separation by plasma implantation of oxygen (SPIMOX) is an economical method for SOI wafer fabrication. This process employs plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for the implantation of oxygen ions. The implantation rate for Pm is considerably higher than that of conventional implantation. The feasibility of SPIMOX has been demonstrated with successful fabrication of SOI structures implementing this process. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) micrographs of the SPIMOX sample show continuous buried oxide under single crystal overlayer with sharp silicon/oxide interfaces. The operational phase space of implantation condition, oxygen dose and annealing requirement has been identified. Physical mechanisms of hydrogen induced silicon surface layer cleavage have been investigated using a combination of microscopy and hydrogen profiling techniques. The evolution of the silicon cleavage phenomenon is recorded by a series

  18. Tubular electrodeposition of chitosan-carbon nanotube implants enriched with calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Nawrotek, Katarzyna; Tylman, Michał; Rudnicka, Karolina; Gatkowska, Justyna; Balcerzak, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    A new approach for obtaining chitosan-carbon nanotube implants enriched with calcium ions in the form of tubular hydrogels is fostered. The intended application of the hydrogels is tissue engineering, especially peripheral nervous tissue regeneration. The fabrication method, based on an electrodeposition phenomenon, shows significant advantages over current solutions as implants can now be obtained rapidly at any required dimensions. Thus, it may open a new avenue to treat patients with peripheral nerve injuries. Either single walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes enhance the mechanical properties of the tubular hydrogels. The controlled presence of calcium ions, sourced from hydroxyapatite, is also expected to augment the regenerative response. Because in vitro cytotoxic assays on mouse cell lines (L929 fibroblasts and mHippoE-18 hippocampal cells) as well as pro-inflammatory tests on THP-1XBlue™ cells show that the manufactured implants are biocompatible, we next intend to evaluate their immune- and nervous-safety on an animal model.

  19. Analysis of Accumulating Ability of Heavy Metals in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Improved by Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Naiyan; Zhang, Fengshou

    2012-05-01

    Heavy metals have seriously contaminated soil and water, and done harm to public health. Academician WANG Naiyan proposed that ion-implantation technique should be exploited for environmental bioremediation by mutating and breeding plants or microbes. By implanting N+ into Taikonglian No.1, we have selected and bred two lotus cultivars, Jingguang No.1 and Jingguang No.2. The present study aims at analyzing the feasibility that irradiation can be used for remediation of soil and water from heavy metals. Compared with parent Taikonglian No.1, the uptaking and accumulating ability of heavy metals in two mutated cultivars was obviously improved. So ion implantation technique can indeed be used in bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water, but it is hard to select and breed a cultivar which can remedy the soil and water from all the heavy metals.

  20. Structured back gates for high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems using oxygen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berl, M.; Tiemann, L.; Dietsche, W.; Karl, H.; Wegscheider, W.

    2016-03-01

    We present a reliable method to obtain patterned back gates compatible with high mobility molecular beam epitaxy via local oxygen ion implantation that suppresses the conductivity of an 80 nm thick silicon doped GaAs epilayer. Our technique was optimized to circumvent several constraints of other gating and implantation methods. The ion-implanted surface remains atomically flat which allows unperturbed epitaxial overgrowth. We demonstrate the practical application of this gating technique by using magneto-transport spectroscopy on a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) with a mobility exceeding 20 × 106 cm2/V s. The back gate was spatially separated from the Ohmic contacts of the 2DES, thus minimizing the probability for electrical shorts or leakage and permitting simple contacting schemes.

  1. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in silica by ion implantation followed by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliente, M. A.; Massaro, M.; Bello, V.; Pellegrini, G.; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.

    2009-11-15

    Nanoparticles of tin dioxide embedded in silica matrix were synthesized by ion implanting a Sn{sup +} ion beam in a silica slide and by annealing in oxidizing atmosphere at 800 deg. C. A detailed structural and optical characterization was performed by using glancing incidence x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Metallic tetragonal beta-tin crystalline nanoparticles were formed in the as-implanted sample. The annealing in oxidizing atmosphere promotes the total oxidation of the tin nanoparticles with a preferential migration of the nanoparticles toward the surface of the matrix. A broad blue-violet emission band peaked at 388 nm was observed in the photoluminescence spectra of both the as-implanted and annealed samples, which was attributed to the Sn-related oxygen deficiency center defects and the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles, respectively.

  2. n{sup +}/p diodes by ion implantation: Dopant, extended defects, and impurity concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, M.; Venables, D.; Christensen, K.N.; Maher, D.M.

    1995-08-01

    The present study is concerned with the formation of defect structures resulting from phosphorus ion implantation into p-type, <100> silicon and with the rearrangement as well as removal of defect structures following high temperature annealing. The problematic interaction of background impurities with extended defects also is included in this study, as are the non-illuminated and illuminated electrical characteristics of n+/p diodes that are fabricated using ion implantation. Wafers and diodes that are fabricated using a phosphorus planar diffusion technique are run in parallel and serve as the controls. In this contribution, preliminary results for the cases of a 50 keV implant followed by an anneal at 900{degrees}C/30 min and a diffusion at 825{degrees}C/60 min are summarized.

  3. In vitro prominent bone regeneration by release zinc ion from Zn-modified implant

    SciTech Connect

    Yusa, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Osamu; Fukuda, Masayuki; Koyota, Souichi; Koizumi, Yukio; Sugiyama, Toshihiro

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} We isolated the Zn{sup 2+} ions (eluted Zn{sup 2+} ion; EZ) from zinc-incorporated titanium implant. {yields} The EZ promoted the cell viability in hBMCs. {yields} The EZ stimulated preosteoblast and osteoblast marker gene expression in hBMCs. {yields} The hBMCs supplemented with EZ showed typically cell morphology when osteoblast maturing. {yields} It is revealed that the EZ also stimulates the calcium deposition of hBMCs. -- Abstract: Zinc is one of the trace elements which induce the proliferation and the differentiation of the osteoblast. In the previous study, we found that zinc ions (Zn{sup 2+} ion)-releasing titanium implants had excellent bone fixation using a rabbit femurs model. In this study, we isolated the Zn{sup 2+} ions (eluted Zn{sup 2+} ion; EZ) released from the implant surface, and evaluated the effect of EZ on the osteogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (hBMCs). In the result, it was found that the EZ stimulated cell viability, osteoblast marker gene (type I collagen, osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone sialoprotein (BSP)) expressions and calcium deposition in hBMCs.

  4. Study of Biological Effects of Low Energy Ion Implantation on Tomato and Radish Breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qiuxia; Huang, Qunce; Cao, Gangqiang; Ying, Fangqing; Liu, Yanbo; Huang, Wen

    2008-04-01

    Biological effects of 30 keV low energy nitrogen ion implantation on the seeds of five types of tomato and one type of radish were investigated. Results showed that low energy ions have different effects on different vegetables. The whole dose-response curve of the germination ratio did not take on "the shape of saddle", but was a rising and falling waveform with the increase or decrease in ion implantation. In the vegetable of Solanaceae, two outstanding aberrant plants were selected from M1 of Henan No.4 tomato at a dose of 7 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, which had thin-leaves, long-petal and nipple tip fruit stably inherited to M7. Furthermore the analysis of the isozyme showed that the activity of the mutant tomato seedling was distinct in quantity and color. In Raphanus sativus L., the aberrances were obvious in the mutant of radish 791 at a dose of 5 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, and the weight of succulent root and the volume of growth were over twice the control's. At present, many species for breeding have been identified in the field and only stable species have been selected for the experiment of production. It is evident that the low energy ion implantation technology has clear effects on vegetables' genetic improvement.

  5. Highly tunable formation of nitrogen-vacancy centers via ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sangtawesin, S.; Brundage, T. O.; Atkins, Z. J.; Petta, J. R.

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrate highly tunable formation of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers using 20 keV {sup 15}N{sup +} ion implantation through arrays of high-resolution apertures fabricated with electron beam lithography. By varying the aperture diameters from 80 to 240 nm, as well as the average ion fluences from 5×10{sup 10} to 2 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}, we can control the number of ions per aperture. We analyze the photoluminescence on multiple sites with different implantation parameters and obtain ion-to-NV conversion yields of 6%–7%, consistent across all ion fluences. The implanted NV centers have spin dephasing times T{sub 2}{sup *} ∼ 3 μs, comparable to naturally occurring NV centers in high purity diamond with natural abundance {sup 13}C. With this technique, we can deterministically control the population distribution of NV centers in each aperture, allowing for the study of single or coupled NV centers and their integration into photonic structures.

  6. Low-temperature, site selective graphitization of SiC via ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaitre, Maxime G.; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wang, Xiaotie; Venkatachalam, Dinesh K.; Elliman, Robert G.; Fridmann, Joel; Gila, Brent P.; Appleton, Bill R.; Hebard, Arthur F.; Ren, Fan

    2012-05-07

    A technique is presented to selectively graphitize regions of SiC by ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing (PLA). Nanoscale features are patterned over large areas by multi-ion beam lithography and subsequently converted to few-layer graphene via PLA in air. Graphitization occurs only where ions have been implanted and without elevating the temperature of the surrounding substrate. Samples were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, ion scattering/channeling, SEM, and AFM, from which the degree of graphitization was determined to vary with implantation species, damage and dose, laser fluence, and pulsing. Contrasting growth regimes and graphitization mechanisms during PLA are discussed.

  7. Wafer-scale synthesis of multi-layer graphene by high-temperature carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Janghyuk; Lee, Geonyeop; Kim, Jihyun

    2015-07-20

    We report on the synthesis of wafer-scale (4 in. in diameter) high-quality multi-layer graphene using high-temperature carbon ion implantation on thin Ni films on a substrate of SiO{sub 2}/Si. Carbon ions were bombarded at 20 keV and a dose of 1 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2} onto the surface of the Ni/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate at a temperature of 500 °C. This was followed by high-temperature activation annealing (600–900 °C) to form a sp{sup 2}-bonded honeycomb structure. The effects of post-implantation activation annealing conditions were systematically investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Carbon ion implantation at elevated temperatures allowed a lower activation annealing temperature for fabricating large-area graphene. Our results indicate that carbon-ion implantation provides a facile and direct route for integrating graphene with Si microelectronics.

  8. On the characteristics of ion implanted metallic surfaces inducing dropwise condensation of steam.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Michael H; Leipertz, Alfred; Fröba, Andreas P

    2010-04-20

    The present work provides new information on the characteristics of ion implanted metallic surfaces responsible for the adjustment of stable dropwise condensation (DWC) of steam. The results are based on condensation experiments and surface analyses via contact angle (CA) and surface free energy (SFE) measurements as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For studying possible influences of the base material and the implanted ion species, commercially pure titanium grade 1, aluminum alloy Al 6951, and stainless steel AISI 321 were treated with N(+), C(+), O(+), or Ar(+) using ion beam implantation technology. The studies suggest that chemically inhomogeneous surfaces are instrumental in inducing DWC. As this inhomogeneity is apparently caused by particulate precipitates bonded to the metal surface, the resulting nanoscale surface roughness may also influence the condensation form. On such surfaces nucleation mechanisms seem to be capable of maintaining DWC even when CA and SFE measurements indicate increased wettability. The precipitates are probably formed due to the supersaturation of ion implanted metal surfaces with doping elements. For high-alloyed materials like AISI 321 or Hastelloy C-276, oxidation stimulated by the condensation process obviously tends to produce similar surfaces suitable for DWC.

  9. Optical properties of K9 glass waveguides fabricated by using carbon-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Fu, Li-Li; Zhu, Xu-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao

    2016-07-01

    K9 glass is a material with promising properties that make it attractive for optical devices. Ion implantation is a powerful technique to form waveguides with controllable depth and refractive index profile. In this work, optical planar waveguide structures were fabricated in K9 glasses by using 6.0-MeV C3+-ion implantation with a fluence of 1.0 × 1015 ions/cm2. The effective refractive indices of the guided modes were measured by using a prism-coupling system. The refractive index change in the ion-irradiated region was simulated by using the intensity calculation method. The modal intensity profile of the waveguide was calculated and measured by using the finite difference beam propagation method and the end-face coupling technique, respectively. The transmission spectra before and after the implantation showed that the main absorption band was not influenced by the low fluence dopants. The optical properties of the carbon-implanted K9 glass waveguides show promise for use as integrated photonic devices.

  10. Photoluminescence study of self-interstitial clusters and extended defects in ion-implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, P. K.

    2003-12-01

    We report on the photoluminescence (PL) studies of self-interstitial (I) clustering in ion-implanted Si at various stages of post-implantation annealing. Low-temperature PL measurements on as-implanted and low-temperature annealed (up to 450°C) samples show sharp X and W bands at 1200 and 1218 nm which are attributed to I4 and I3 clusters, respectively. Annealing at 600°C shows a drastic change in the PL spectra. In case of high-energy self-ion-implanted samples, 600°C annealing produces several peaks in the range 1250-1400 nm. For longer duration annealing, two broad bands form at 1322 and 1392 nm irrespective of the ion fluence. These PL signatures are attributed to I8 clusters and/or (1 0 0) I-chains, and they are believed to be the precursor of {3 1 1} rod-like defects. For annealing above 600°C and for fluence ⩾1×1013 cm-2, a sharp PL band is observed at 1376 nm and it is attributed to {3 1 1} rod-like defects. At higher fluences, an additional broad band appears in the PL spectrum at ∼1576 nm which is related to residual ion-damage or extended defect formation. These results illustrate the potential of silicon I-clusters as a possible source of light emission from Si.

  11. The influence of nitrogen ion implantation on microhardness of the Stellite 6 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyński, P.; Kamiński, M.; Pałka, K.; Droździel, A.; Wiertel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Cobalt alloys known as Stellite used to produce or surfacing machine elements subjected to combustion gases and heat. They are used a currently in the manufacture of valves and valve seats in internal combustion engines. Because of the small thermal conductivity, stellite may not be subjected heat treatment. In order to improve the mechanical properties of cobalt alloys, samples were implanted with nitrogen ions with 65 keV energy and ion dose of 1·1016, 5·1016, 1·1017 N+/cm2. The influence of ion implantation on properties of strength was determined by measuring microhardness using a Vickers hardness test. The measurement results allowed to determine the increase in the microhardness of 20% with dose 5·1016 N+/cm2 compared to the sample not implanted. Implantation of nitrogen ions can increase the strength of the valves and the valve seats having Stellite without changing the external dimensions of the final element, and without interfering with its inner structure by low-temperature of modification the surface layer.

  12. Zinc ion implantation-deposition technique improves the osteoblast biocompatibility of titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, YONGQIANG; XU, JUAN; CHEN, JING; QI, MENGCHUN; XIE, XUEHONG; HU, MIN

    2015-01-01

    The plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) technique was used to implant zinc (Zn) ions into smooth surfaces of pure titanium (Ti) disks for investigation of tooth implant surface modification. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the surface structure and chemical composition of a modified Ti surface following Zn ion implantation and deposition and to examine the effect of such modification on osteoblast biocompatibility. Using the PIIID technique, Zn ions were deposited onto the smooth surface of pure Ti disks. The physical structure and chemical composition of the modified surface layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. In vitro culture assays using the MG-63 bone cell line were performed to determine the effects of Zn-modified Ti surfaces following PIIID on cellular function. Acridine orange staining was used to detect cell attachment to the surfaces and cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. SEM revealed a rough ‘honeycomb’ structure on the Zn-modified Ti surfaces following PIIID processing and XPS data indicated that Zn and oxygen concentrations in the modified Ti surfaces increased with PIIID processing time. SEM also revealed significantly greater MG-63 cell growth on Zn-modified Ti surfaces than on pure Ti surfaces (P<0.05). Flow cytometric analysis revealed increasing percentages of MG-63 cells in S phase with increasing Zn implantation and deposition, suggesting that MG-63 apoptosis was inhibited and MG-63 proliferation was promoted on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces. The present results suggest that modification with Zn-PIIID may be used to improve the osteoblast biocompatibility of Ti implant surfaces. PMID:25673139

  13. Structural defects and chemical interaction of implanted ions with substrate structure in amorphous SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Matsunami, Noriaki

    1993-11-01

    Structural defects in SiO2 glasses implanted with Li+, N+, O+, F+, Si+, and P+ ions were examined by vacuum-ultraviolet-absorption and electron-paramagnetic-resonance spectroscopies as well as thermal-gas-release analysis. The chemical interaction of implanted ions with substrate structure was considered on the basis of the obtained results. It is found that the type of predominant defects is controlled by the electronegative nature of implants. Silicon-silicon homobonds, which are oxygen-vacancy-type defects, are produced by electropositive implants (i.e., Li, P, and Si) at concentrations comparable to those of the implants. On the other hand, in the case of electronegative implants (F and O) O2 molecules and peroxy radicals (POR), both of which may be regarded as oxygen-interstitial-type defects, are the major defects and the total concentrations of these two defects are comparable to implant concentrations. These results indicate that chemical interaction of implanted ions with SiO2 is primarily controlled by the electronegative nature of implants. Electropositive implants (M) react chemically with oxygen atoms in the substrate structure to form M-O bonds, leaving Si-Si bonds. Electronegative implants (A) react chemically with silicon atoms to form Si-A bonds and oxygen atoms recoiled with implants combine with each other to form O2 molecules or react with the silica-network structure to form POR's. Concentrations of these predominant defects relative to implants can be used quantitatively to describe the strength of chemical interactions. When the chemical interaction is strong, both concentrations are comparable. On the other hand, when the chemical interaction is weak, concentrations of these defects are much smaller than those of implants because the major fraction of implants occur in a neutral state without forming chemical bonds with constituents of the substrate. Nitrogen is an example of this category and the major fraction of implanted nitrogen atoms

  14. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Ridgway, Mark; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic 84Kr and 197Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm-1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles.

  15. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Bin Hasan, Shakeeb; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Ridgway, Mark; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic (84)Kr and (197)Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm(-1) in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles. PMID:26902734

  16. Enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophic lake water by Ipomoea aquatica with low-energy ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Wu, Yue-Jin; Yu, Zeng-Liang; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2009-03-01

    Ipomoea aquatica with low-energy N+ ion implantation was used for the removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus from the eutrophic Chaohu Lake, China. The biomass growth, nitrate reductase and peroxidase activities of the implanted I. aquatica were found to be higher than those of I. aquatica without ion implantation. Higher NO3-N and PO4-P removal efficiencies were obtained for the I. aquatica irradiation at 25 keV, 3.9 x 10(16) N+ ions/cm(2) and 20 keV 5.2 x 10(16) N+ ions/cm(2), respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, the nitrogen and phosphorus contents in the plant biomass with ion implantation were also greater than those of the controls. I. aquatica with ion implantation was directly responsible for 51-68% N removal and 54-71% P removal in the three experiments. The results further confirm that the ion implantation could enhance the growth potential of I. aquatica in real eutrophic water and increase its nutrient removal efficiency. Thus, the low-energy ion implantation for aquatic plants could be considered as an approach for in situ phytoremediation and bioremediation of eutrophic waters.

  17. High-level damage saturation below amorphisation in ion implanted β-Ga2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Elke; Treiber, Enrico; Baldauf, Julia; Wolf, Steffen; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    Ion implantation induced effects were studied in single crystalline <0 1 0> oriented bulk β-Ga2O3 at room temperature using P, Ar and Sn ions with ion fluences ranging from 1 × 1011 up to 2 × 1015 cm-2. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channelling configuration (RBS) using He ions of various ion energies was applied for damage analysis. Clear damage peaks are visible in the RBS spectra. The concentration of displaced lattice atoms in the maximum of the distribution (as deduced from the channelling spectra) increases with increasing ion fluence up to a saturation value of about 90%. Once this level is reached, further implantation only leads to a broadening of the distribution, while the concentration remains at 90%. The ion fluence dependence of maximum damage concentration is represented by a common model assuming two types of defects: point defects (which can recombine with those already existing from previous ion impacts) and non-recombinable damage clusters. The damage produced dominantly consists of randomly displaced lattice atoms, which indicates point defects and point defect complexes. For higher damage levels also a contribution of correlated displaced lattice atoms can be identified. This suggests that the damage clusters are not amorphous. A possible explanation of the observed results could be the formation of another phase of Ga2O3.

  18. Joint contributions of Ag ions and oxygen vacancies to conducting filament evolution of Ag/TaO{sub x}/Pt memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Yu-Lung; Cheng, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei-Chih; Jhan, Sheng-An; Chen, Jen-Sue; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2014-10-28

    The electroforming and resistive switching behaviors in the Ag/TaO{sub x}/Pt trilayer structure are investigated under a continual change of temperatures between 300 K and 100 K to distinguish the contributions of Ag ions and oxygen vacancies in developing of conducting filaments. For either electroforming or resistive switching, a significantly higher forming/set voltages is needed as the device is operated at 100 K, as compared to that observed when operating at 300 K. The disparity in forming/set voltages of Ag/TaO{sub x}/Pt operating at 300 K and 100 K is attributed to the contribution of oxygen vacancies, in addition to Ag atoms, in formation of conducting filament at 100 K since the mobilities of oxygen vacancies and Ag ions become comparable at low temperature. The presence of oxygen vacancy segment in the conducting filament also modifies the reset current from a gradually descending behavior (at 300 K) to a sharp drop (at 100 K). Furthermore, the characteristic set voltage and reset current are irreversible as the operation temperature is brought from 100 K back to 300 K, indicating the critical role of filament constituents on the switching behaviors of Ag/oxide/Pt system.

  19. Oxide formation on NbAl{sub 3} and TiAl due to ion implantation of {sup 18}O

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Verink, E.D. Jr.; Withrow, S.P.; Ristolainen, E.O.

    1993-12-31

    Surface modification by ion implantation of {sup 18}O ions was investigated as a technique for altering the high-temperature oxidation of aluminide intermetallic compounds and related alloys. Specimens of NbAl{sub 3} and TiAl were implanted to a dose of 1 {times} 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2} at 168 keV. Doses and accelerating energies were calculated to obtain near-stoichiometric concentrations of oxygen. Use of {sup 18}O allowed the implanted oxygen profiles to be measured using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The near surface oxides formed were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy. Specimens were also examined using x-ray diffraction and SEM. This paper presents results for specimens examined in the as-implanted state. The oxide formed due to implantation is a layer containing a mixture of Nb or Ti and amorphous Al oxides.

  20. NiAg catalysts prepared by reduction of Ni2+ ions in aqueous hydrazine II. Support effect.

    PubMed

    Bettahar, M M; Wojcieszak, R; Monteverdi, S

    2009-04-15

    A series of bimetallic NiAg (Ni + Ag = 1% wt) catalysts supported on amorphous silica was synthesized via chemical reduction using hydrazine as the reducing agent at 353 K. Catalysts were prepared via impregnation or precipitation technique. It was found that the reduction of the Ni(2+) ions occurred only in the presence of silver, otherwise a stable blue [Ni(N(2)H(4))(3)](2+) complex was formed. Comparisons with similar NiAg catalysts supported on crystallized silica as prepared in our previous work indicated that the Ni(2+) ions weakly interacted with acidic crystallized silica on which they were readily reduced. For both supports, the combination of silver and nickel gave rise to a synergistic effect due to the existence of NiAg groupings. The surface and catalytic properties of the metal particles formed depended on the Ni:Ag ratio, method of preparation, and acidity of the support.

  1. Low flux and low energy helium ion implantation into tungsten using a dedicated plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentecoste, Lucile; Thomann, Anne-Lise; Melhem, Amer; Caillard, Amael; Cuynet, Stéphane; Lecas, Thomas; Brault, Pascal; Desgardin, Pierre; Barthe, Marie-France

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the first stages of defect formation in tungsten (W) due to the accumulation of helium (He) atoms inside the crystal lattice. To reach the required implantation conditions, i.e. low He ion fluxes (1011-1014 ions.cm2.s-1) and kinetic energies below the W atom displacement threshold (about 500 eV for He+), an ICP source has been designed and connected to a diffusion chamber. Implantation conditions have been characterized by means of complementary diagnostics modified for measurements in this very low density helium plasma. It was shown that lowest ion fluxes could only be reached for the discharge working in capacitive mode either in α or γ regime. Special attention was paid to control the energy gained by the ions by acceleration through the sheath at the direct current biased substrate. At very low helium pressure, in α regime, a broad ion energy distribution function was evidenced, whereas a peak centered on the potential difference between the plasma and the biased substrate was found at higher pressures in the γ mode. Polycrystalline tungsten samples were exposed to the helium plasma in both regimes of the discharge and characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy in order to detect the formed vacancy defects. It was found that W vacancies are able to be formed just by helium accumulation and that the same final implanted state is reached, whatever the operating mode of the capacitive discharge.

  2. Corrosion behaviors of Mo coating on stainless steel 316 substrates implanted by different nitrogen ion fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Madjid; Bafandeh, Nastaran

    2014-03-01

    The molybdenum nitride coating was produced by nitrogen ion implantation of the molybdenum layer deposited on the stainless steel 316 (SS) substrates. At first, molybdenum layers were deposited on the substrates by ion beam sputtering method, then nitrogen ions with an energy of 30 keV and a fluence between 1×1017 and 12×1017 N+ cm-2 were implanted in Mo/SS system. Crystal structure and topography of the surface are investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) image respectively. XRD patterns showed the formation of molybdenum nitride phases in all implanted samples. Corrosion tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the samples strongly depends on the nitrogen applied fluences. A considerable improvement of corrosion performance by increasing ions fluences was observed. The lowest corrosion current density with amount of 0.1 μA/cm2 was obtained at 12×1017 ions/cm2 fluence in our case.

  3. In-situ observation of sputtered particles for carbon implanted tungsten during energetic isotope ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Oya, Y.; Sato, M.; Uchimura, H.; Okuno, K.; Ashikawa, N.; Sagara, A.; Yoshida, N.; Hatano, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Tungsten is a candidate for plasma facing materials in future fusion reactors. During DT plasma operations, carbon as an impurity will bombard tungsten, leading to the formation of tungsten-carbon (WC) layer and affecting tritium recycling behavior. The effect of carbon implantation for the dynamic recycling of deuterium, which demonstrates tritium recycling, including retention and sputtering, has been investigated using in-situ sputtered particle measurements. The C{sup +} implanted W, WC and HOPG were prepared and dynamic sputtered particles were measured during H{sub 2}{sup +} irradiation. It has been found that the major hydrocarbon species for C{sup +} implanted tungsten is CH{sub 3}, while for WC and HOPG (Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite) it is CH{sub 4}. The chemical state of hydrocarbon is controlled by the H concentration in a W-C mixed layer. The amount of C-H bond and the retention of H trapped by carbon atom should control the chemical form of hydrocarbon sputtered by H{sub 2}{sup +} irradiation and the desorption of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 2} are due to chemical sputtering, although that for CH is physical sputtering. The activation energy for CH{sub 3} desorption has been estimated to be 0.4 eV, corresponding to the trapping process of hydrogen by carbon through the diffusion in W. It is concluded that the chemical states of hydrocarbon sputtered by H{sub 2}{sup +} irradiation for W is determined by the amount of C-H bond on the W surface. (authors)

  4. Effect of ion implantation and silanization on the corrosion and cathodic delamination resistances of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    De Crosta, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Two surface modification techniques for improving the corrosion and delamination resistances of steel were investigated: ion implantation and silanization. Ion implantation improves corrosion resistance and, subsequently, cathodic delamination through the formation of a stable, modified surface oxide. Silane treatment of steel inhibits cathodic activity and electron flow as a result of the formation of a complete, stable polymeric barrier film on the surface. Increased chemical and physical interactions with a subsequently applied polymer matrix significantly reduce the delamination rate. The corrosion resistance of automotive steel (DQSK) steel was observed to increase following the implantation of aluminum and titanium. Electrochemical evaluations of the resultant surfaces revealed more noble corrosion potentials, decreased corrosion current densities and polarization resistance values approximately three orders of magnitude greater than non-implanted steel. An overall reduction in cathodic activity was also observed for these systems. Greater than a 75% reduction in the delamination rates for polybutadiene- and Eponol-coated Al-and Ti-implanted steels was observed, attributable to decreased cathodic activity. Three of the ten organosilanes brush-coated on to 1010 steel produced corrosion-resistant barrier films.

  5. Bioactivity of titanium following sodium plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition.

    PubMed

    Maitz, M F; Poon, R W Y; Liu, X Y; Pham, M-T; Chu, Paul K

    2005-09-01

    Bio-activation of titanium surface by Na plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D) is illustrated by precipitation of calcium phosphate and cell culture. The bioactivity of the plasma-implanted titanium is compared to that of the untreated, Na beam-line implanted and NaOH-treated titanium samples. Our data show that the samples can be classified into two groups: non-bioactive (untreated titanium and beam-line Na implanted titanium) and bioactive (Na-PIII and D and NaOH-treated titanium). None of the four types of surfaces exhibited major cell toxicity as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. However, the LDH release was higher on the more bioactive PIII and NaOH-treated surfaces. From a morphological point of view, cell adherence on the NaOH-treated titanium is the best. On the other hand, the cell activity and protein production were higher on the non-bioactive surfaces. The high alkaline phosphatase activity per cell suggests that the active surfaces support an osteogenic differentiation of the bone marrow cells at the expense of lower proliferation. The use of Na-PIII and D provides an environmentally cleaner technology to improve the bioactivity of Ti compared to conventional wet chemical processes. The technique is also particularly useful for the uniform and conforming treatment of medical implants that typically possess an irregular shape and are difficult to treat by conventional ion beam techniques.

  6. Fabrication of waveguides in Yb:YCOB crystal by MeV oxygen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xue-Lin; Wang, Ke-Ming; Wang, Lei; Wang, Liang-Ling; Zhang, Huai-Jin; Lu, Qing-Ming; Ma, Hong-Ji; Nie, Rui

    2007-07-01

    Oxygen ions with energies of 6.0 or 3.0 MeV were implanted into y-cut Yb:YCOB crystals at fluences ranging from 5.0 × 10 13 to 2.0 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 at room temperature, forming optical planar waveguide structures. Dark-mode line spectroscopy was applied at two wavelengths, 633 and 1539 nm, in various excitation configurations, showing strong enhancement of one of the indices ( nx) in the implanted near surface. The nx refractive index profile is reconstructed by a reflectivity calculation method and compared to the ion energy losses profiles deduced from SRIM-code simulation. Moreover, the near-field patterns were imaged by an end-fire coupling arrangement.

  7. Ion beam sputter etching of orthopedic implanted alloy MP35N and resulting effects on fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.; Christopher, M.; Bahnuik, E.; Wang, S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of two types of argon ion sputter etched surface structures on the tensile stress fatigue properties of orthopedic implant alloy MP35N were investigated. One surface structure was a natural texture resulting from direct bombardment by 1 keV argon ions. The other structure was a pattern of square holes milled into the surface by a 1 keV argon ion beam through a Ni screen mask. The etched surfaces were subjected to tensile stress only in fatigue tests designed to simulate the cyclic load conditions experienced by the stems of artificial hip joint implants. Both types of sputter etched surface structures were found to reduce the fatigue strength below that of smooth surface MP35N.

  8. Performance Enhancement of PFET Planar Devices by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (P3I)

    SciTech Connect

    Ortolland, Claude; Horiguchi, Naoto; Kerner, Christoph; Chiarella, Thomas; Eyben, Pierre; Everaert, Jean-Luc; Hoffmann, Thomas; Del Agua Borniquel, Jose Ignacio; Poon, Tze; Santhanam, Kartik; Porshnev, Peter; Foad, Majeed; Schreutelkamp, Robert; Absil, Philippe; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Felch, Susan

    2008-11-03

    A study of doping the pMOS Lightly Doped Drain (LDD) by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (P3i) with BF3 is presented which demonstrates a better transistor performance compared to standard beam line Ion Implantation (I/I). The benefit of P3i comes from the broad angular distribution of the impinging ions thereby doping the poly-silicon gate sidewall as well. Gate capacitance of short channel devices has been measured and clearly shows this improvement. This model is clearly supported by high resolution 2D-carrier profiles using Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SSRM) which shows this gate sidewall doping. The broad angular distribution also implies a smaller directional sensitivity (to for instance the detailed gate edge shape) and leads to devices which are perfectly balanced, when Source and Drain electrode are switched.

  9. Coupling of a locally implanted rare-earth ion ensemble to a superconducting micro-resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Wisby, I. Tzalenchuk, A. Ya.; Graaf, S. E. de; Adamyan, A.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Gwilliam, R.; Meeson, P. J.; Lindström, T.

    2014-09-08

    We demonstrate the coupling of rare-earth ions locally implanted in a substrate (Gd{sup 3+} in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to a superconducting NbN lumped-element micro-resonator. The hybrid device is fabricated by a controlled ion implantation of rare-earth ions in well-defined micron-sized areas, aligned to lithographically defined micro-resonators. The technique does not degrade the internal quality factor of the resonators which remain above 10{sup 5}. Using microwave absorption spectroscopy, we observe electron-spin resonances in good agreement with numerical modelling and extract corresponding coupling rates of the order of 1 MHz and spin linewidths of 50–65 MHz.

  10. Temperature dependences of the photoluminescence intensities of centers in silicon implanted with erbium and oxygen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A. Shtel’makh, K. F.; Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.

    2015-12-15

    Low-temperature photoluminescence in n-Cz-Si after the implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature and subsequent implantation of oxygen ions at room temperature is studied. So-called X and W centers formed from self-interstitial silicon atoms, H and P centers containing oxygen atoms, and Er centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. The energies of enhancing and quenching of photoluminescence for these centers are determined. These energies are determined for the first time for X and H centers. In the case of P and Er centers, the values of the energies practically coincide with previously published data. For W centers, the energies of the enhancing and quenching of photoluminescence depend on the conditions of the formation of these centers.

  11. Investigation of dose uniformity on the inner races of bearings treated by plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Z. M.; Kwok, T. K.; Tian, X. B.; Tang, B. Y.; Chu, P. K.

    1999-07-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is an effective technique for the surface modification of industrial components possessing an irregular shape. We have recently used PIII to treat a real industrial ball bearing to enhance the surface properties of the race surface on which the balls roll. The implantation dose uniformity along the groove is assessed using theoretical simulation and experiments. The two sets of results agree very well, showing larger doses near the center. However, the highest dose is not observed at the bottom or center of the groove, but rather offset toward the side close to the sample platen when the bearing is placed horizontally. The minimum dose is observed near the edge or corner of the groove and our model indicates that it is due to the more glancing ion incidence as a result of the evolution of the ion sheath near the corner. The dose nonuniformity along the groove surface is about 40% based on our experimental data.

  12. Unanalyzed ion implantation procedure with incoherent light scanning annealing for silicon solar cells manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Bentini, G.; Correra, L.; Galloni, R.; Hage-Ali, M.; Mesli, A.; Muller, J.C.; Pedulli, L.; Siffert, P.

    1982-09-01

    Unanalyzed ion implantation procedure (AMI technique) in association with incoherent light scanning annealing in the solid phase regime has been experimented to obtain solar cells. Silicon single crystals have been used to get a better understanding of the process and to make direct comparison with other doping process. The main results of the characterization of the doped layer are: the carrier concentration profile shows a maximum of 3-4 x 10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/ active ions; the values of carrier mobility are similar to these obtained by furnace annealing. Solar cells test at AM1 show promising values for efficiency. These results have been compared to AMI procedure followed by a laser pulsed annealing in the liquid phase regime and to classical ion implantion solid phase annealed with the incoherent light.

  13. Contents of Ag and other metals in food-contact plastics with nanosilver or Ag ion and their migration into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Asako; Kishi, Eri; Ooshima, Tomoko; Hase, Atsushi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2016-09-01

    Six nanosilver-labelled products and five silver ion (Ag(+))-labelled products were investigated to measure the migration of Ag from food-contact plastics, including nanosilver into various food simulants. The products were obtained in Japanese markets in 2012. Zinc (Zn), another major antimicrobial agent, and three harmful metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), were also examined. Ag and Zn were detected in all six nanosilver products at concentrations of 21-200 and 8.4-140 mg kg(-1), respectively. These metals were also detected in all five Ag(+) products at the same level as nanosilver products. Cd, Pb and As were not detected in any sample. Migrations of Ag and Zn were highest in 4% acetic acid, but also observed in water and 20% ethanol. Big differences were not observed in the migration ratio between nanosilver products and Ag(+) products. The ultrafiltration experiments suggested that the Ag that migrated from nanosilver products into 4% acetic acid was in its ionic form, while that into water and 20% ethanol was in its nanoparticle form.

  14. Contents of Ag and other metals in food-contact plastics with nanosilver or Ag ion and their migration into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Asako; Kishi, Eri; Ooshima, Tomoko; Hase, Atsushi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2016-09-01

    Six nanosilver-labelled products and five silver ion (Ag(+))-labelled products were investigated to measure the migration of Ag from food-contact plastics, including nanosilver into various food simulants. The products were obtained in Japanese markets in 2012. Zinc (Zn), another major antimicrobial agent, and three harmful metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), were also examined. Ag and Zn were detected in all six nanosilver products at concentrations of 21-200 and 8.4-140 mg kg(-1), respectively. These metals were also detected in all five Ag(+) products at the same level as nanosilver products. Cd, Pb and As were not detected in any sample. Migrations of Ag and Zn were highest in 4% acetic acid, but also observed in water and 20% ethanol. Big differences were not observed in the migration ratio between nanosilver products and Ag(+) products. The ultrafiltration experiments suggested that the Ag that migrated from nanosilver products into 4% acetic acid was in its ionic form, while that into water and 20% ethanol was in its nanoparticle form. PMID:27484099

  15. Development of ion-implantation confined, shallow mesa stripe (Pn,Sn)Te/Pb(Te,Se) DH laser diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonstad, C. G.; Harton, A.; Jiang, Y.-N.; Appelman, H.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a program to develop ion implantation confined, shallow mesa stripe (Pb,Sn)Te laser diodes are presented. The practicality of using a shallow mesa stripe to produce single mode laser output and to increase the single mode tuning range are demonstrated. The first results of p-type ion implantation in the lead-tin salts are also reported. It is shown that sodium and lithium both can be used to convert n-type Pb(Te,Se) to p-type. The implant and anneal procedures are described, and electrical characteristics of Li-implanted layers are presented.

  16. Study of the corrosion rate behavior of ion implanted Fe-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Weiping; Tian Wei; Wu Run ); Godechot, X.; Brown, I. )

    1991-06-01

    We report on some studies we have made of the time evolution of the corrosion behavior of ion implanted samples of pure iron, medium carbon steel, and 18-8 Cr-Ni stainless steel. Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mo and Yb were implanted at mean ion energies near 100 keV and at doses up to 1 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}2} using a Mevva metal ion implantation facility. A novel feature of this experiment was the simultaneous implantation with several different implanted species. The implanted samples were immersed in sulfuric acid solution at 40{degrees}C and the corrosion monitored as a function of time. The loss in mass was accurately measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The functional dependence of the corrosion behavior was established for all samples. The cumulative mass loss Q is given as a function of time t by Q = At{sup N}, where A and N are parameters; thus the corrosion rate V is given by V = ANt{sup N-1}. A is dominated by the initial mass loss and N reflects the long-time corrosion behavior. The values of the parameters A and N were obtained by a least-squares regression for all the samples investigated. We determined that for the samples investigated here, N > 1 always and V increases with time throughout the experimental duration. In this paper we summarize the experimental results and discuss the effect of A and N on corrosion rate and the relationship between the corrosion current density and the parameters A and N. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Zinc-ion implanted and deposited titanium surfaces reduce adhesion of Streptococccus mutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Juan; Ding, Gang; Li, Jinlu; Yang, Shenhui; Fang, Bisong; Sun, Hongchen; Zhou, Yanmin

    2010-10-01

    While titanium (Ti) is a commonly used dental implant material with advantageous biocompatible and mechanical properties, native Ti surfaces do not have the ability to prevent bacterial colonization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and bacterial adhesive properties of zinc (Zn) ion implanted and deposited Ti surfaces (Zn-PIIID-Ti) as potential dental implant materials. Surfaces of pure Ti (cp-Ti) were modified with increasing concentrations of Zn using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID), and elemental surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). To evaluate bacterial responses, Streptococcus mutans were seeded onto the modifiedTi surfaces for 48 h and subsequently observed by scanning electron microscopy. Relative numbers of bacteria on each surface were assessed by collecting the adhered bacteria, reculturing and counting colony forming units after 48 h on bacterial grade plates. Ti, oxygen and carbon elements were detected on all surfaces by XPS. Increased Zn signals were detected on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces, correlating with an increase of Zn-deposition time. Substantial numbers of S. mutans adhered to cp-Ti samples, whereas bacterial adhesion on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces signficantly decreased as the Zn concentration increased ( p < 0.01). In conclusion, PIIID can successfully introduce Zn onto a Ti surface, forming a modified surface layer bearing Zn ions that consequently deter adhesion of S. mutans, a common bacterium in the oral environment.

  18. Depth distribution of deuterium atoms and molecules in beryllium oxide implanted with deuterium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, V. Kh; Chernikov, V. N.

    1999-08-01

    In-depth concentration profiles of deuterium (D) in beryllium oxide (BeO) films implanted with 3 keV D ions at 300 and 700 K have been determined using SIMS and RGA (residual gas analysis) measurements in the course of surface sputtering. The microstructure of implanted specimens was studied by TEM. Implanted D is found to be retained in the BeO matrix in the form of D atoms and D 2 molecules. At 300 and 700 K, the maximum concentration of deuterium in both states reaches values of 0.2 and 0.07 D/BeO, respectively. Irradiation with D ions at 300 and 700 K leads to the formation of tiny D 2 bubbles of 0.6-0.7 nm radius and of high volume density ≈(4-5) × 10 24 m -3. These bubbles together with the intercrystalline gaps are responsible for the accumulation of D 2 molecules. At both irradiation temperatures, D 2 concentration reaches in the ion stopping zone its maximum of 0.01 molecules/BeO. At 300 and 700 K, the major part of deuterium implanted in BeO films is present in the form of D atoms, probably chemically bound to O atoms. Maximum D atom concentration is 0.18 D atoms/BeO for 300 K and 0.05 D atoms/BeO for 700 K.

  19. Role of surface states in Auger neutralization of He{sup +} ions on Ag surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sarasola, A.; Silkin, V. M.; Arnau, A.

    2007-01-15

    Recent measurements of He{sup +} ion fractions that survive to a whole scatterig event when they impinge on Ag surfaces have shown two different and interesting effects: (1) a notable difference of surviving ion fraction depending on which crystallographic face of the target surface is studied [Yu. Bandurin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017601 (2004)], and (2) an uncommonly high ion fraction in the very-low-energy range (tens of eV) [S. Wethekam et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 037602 (2003)]. Apart from the geometry, one of the differences between the surfaces of a crystal can be seen in the electronic structure: while the (111) surface has an occupied surface state near the Fermi level at the {gamma} point the (110) and (100) faces have not. Motivated by these facts, in this work we study the role that the occupied surface state plays on the Auger neutralization rate and we present an estimation of the ion fractions that survive for the different Ag faces.

  20. Stoichiometric titanium dioxide ion implantation in AISI 304 stainless steel for corrosion protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, A.; Decker, M.; Klein, O.; Karl, H.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of highly chemically inert titanium dioxide synthesized by ion beam implantation for corrosion protection of AISI 304 stainless steel in sodium chloride solution. More specifically, the prevention of galvanic corrosion between carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and AISI 304 was investigated. Corrosion performance of TiO2 implanted AISI 304 - examined for different implantation and annealing parameters - is strongly influenced by implantation fluence. Experimental results show that a fluence of 5 × 1016 cm-2 (Ti+) and 1 × 1017 cm-2 (O+) is sufficient to prevent pitting corrosion significantly, while galvanic corrosion with CFRP can already be noticeably reduced by an implantation fluence of 5 × 1015 cm-2 (Ti+) and 1 × 1016 cm-2 (O+). Surface roughness, implantation energy and annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C show only little influence on the corrosion behavior. TEM analysis indicates the existence of stoichiometric TiO2 inside the steel matrix for medium fluences and the formation of a separated metal oxide layer for high fluences.