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Sample records for ag nanoparticles embedded

  1. Preparation and characterization of Ag nanoparticle-embedded blank and ligand-anchored silica gels.

    PubMed

    Im, Hee-Jung; Lee, Byung Cheol; Yeon, Jei-Won

    2013-11-01

    Ag nanoparticles, used for halogen (especially iodine) adsorption and an evaluation of halogen behavior, were embedded in synthesized inorganic-organic hybrid gels. In particular, an irradiation method using an electron beam plays a part in introducing Ag nanoparticles to the organofunctionalized silica gels from AgNO3 solutions in a simple way at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For preparation of the Ag nanoparticle-embedded inorganic-organic hybrid gels, ligands of ethylenediamine (NH2CH2CH2NH-, TMSen) and mercapto (HS-) functionalized three-dimensional porous SiO2 sol-gels were first synthesized through hydrolysis and condensation reactions, and Ag nanoparticles were then embedded into the ethylenediamine- and mercapto-anchored silica gels each, through electron-beam irradiation. The addition of ligands yielded larger average pore sizes than the absence of any ligand. Moreover, the ethylenediamine ligand led to looser structures and better access of the Ag nanoparticles to the ethylenediamine-anchored gel. As a result, more Ag nanoparticles were introduced into the ethylenediamine-anchored gel. The preparation and characterization of Ag nanoparticle-embedded blank and ligand-anchored silica gels are discussed in detail.

  2. Subsurface Synthesis and Characterization of Ag Nanoparticles Embedded in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Vilayur Ganapathy, Subramanian; Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Pandey, Archana; Varga, Tamas; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Kayani, Asghar N.; Hess, Wayne P.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-03-08

    Metal nanoparticles exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) which is very sensitive to the size and shape of the nanoparticle and the dielectric medium surrounding it. LSPR causes field enhancement near the surface of the nanoparticle making them interesting candidates for plasmonic applications. In particular, partially exposed metallic nanoparticles distributed in a dielectric matrix form hotspots which are prime locations for LSPR spectroscopy and sensing. This study involves synthesizing partially buried Ag nanoparticles in MgO and investigating the characteristics of this material system. Ag nanoparticles of different shapes and size distributions were synthesized below the surface of MgO by implanting 200 keV Ag+ ions followed by annealing at 10000C for 10 and 30 hours. A detailed optical and structural characterization was carried out to understand the evolution of Ag nanoparticle microstructure and size distribution inside the MgO matrix. Micro x-ray diffraction (MicroXRD) was employed to investigate the structural properties and estimate the crystallite size. The nanoparticles evolved from a spherical to faceted morphology with annealing time, assuming an octahedral shape truncated at the (001) planes as seen from aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The nanoparticles embedded in MgO were shown to be pure metallic Ag using atom probe tomography (APT). The nanoparticles were partially exposed to the surface employing plasma etch techniques to remove the overlaying MgO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to study the surface morphology and obtain a height distribution for the partially exposed nanoparticles.

  3. Enhanced resistive switching effect in Ag nanoparticle embedded BaTiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Au, K.; Wang, Juan; Bao, Z. Y.; Dai, J. Y.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, J. M.

    2013-07-14

    Ag nanoparticle (NP) embedded BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) thin films on SrRuO{sub 3}-coated SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrates are prepared by the integrated nanocluster beam deposition and laser-molecular beam epitaxy. Enhanced resistive switching, up to an ON/OFF ration of 10{sup 4}, has been achieved at low switching voltage (less than 1 V) without a forming voltage. These characteristics make such nanocomposite film very promising for application of low voltage non-volatile random access memory. The enhanced resistive switching effect may be attributed to the charge storage effect of the Ag nanoparticles and easy formation of Ag filament inside the BTO film.

  4. Tuning the SERS Response with Ag-Au Nanoparticle-Embedded Polymer Thin Film Substrates.

    PubMed

    Rao, V Kesava; Radhakrishnan, T P

    2015-06-17

    Development of facile routes to the fabrication of thin film substrates with tunable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) efficiency and identification of the optimal conditions for maximizing the enhancement factor (EF) are significant in terms of both fundamental and application aspects of SERS. In the present work, polymer thin films with embedded bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag-Au are fabricated by a simple two-stage protocol. Ag nanoparticles are formed in the first stage, by the in situ reduction of silver nitrate by the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film through mild thermal annealing, without any additional reducing agent. In the second stage, aqueous solutions of chloroauric acid spread on the Ag-PVA thin film under ambient conditions, lead to the galvanic displacement of Ag by Au in situ inside the film, and the formation of Ag-Au particles. Evolution of the morphology of the bimetallic nanoparticles into hollow cage structures and the distribution of Au on the nanoparticles are revealed through electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction of the nanocomposite thin film evolves with the Ag-Au composition; theoretical simulation of the extinction spectra provides insight into the observed trends. The Ag-Au-PVA thin films are found to be efficient substrates for SERS. The EF follows the variation of the LSPR extinction vis-à-vis the excitation laser wavelength, but with an offset, and the maximum SERS effect is obtained at very low Au content; experiments with Rhodamine 6G showed EFs on the order of 10(8) and a limit of detection of 0.6 pmol. The present study describes a facile and simple fabrication of a nanocomposite thin film that can be conveniently deployed in SERS investigations, and the utility of the bimetallic system to tune and maximize the EF.

  5. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Ridgway, Mark; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic 84Kr and 197Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm-1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles.

  6. Enhanced magneto-optical effects in composite coaxial nanowires embedded with Ag nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianwen; Zheng, Xuanli; He, Jialun; Wang, Weiping; Fu, Mingming; Cao, Yiyan; Li, Heng; Wu, Yaping; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Chunmiao; Chen, Xiaohong; Yu, Binbin; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong; Wu, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructures decorated with noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit potential for use in highly sensitive optoelectronic devices through the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect. In this study, Faraday rotation was significantly enhanced through the structural optimization of ferromagnetic (FM)/semiconductor composite nanostructures. Experimental and theoretical results revealed that the position of noble metal NPs significantly influenced the coupling of the LSPR-enhanced electromagnetic field with FM materials. Furthermore, nanostructures embedded with noble metals demonstrated an improved capability to efficiently use the electromagnetic field compared to other structures. The Faraday rotation of ZnO/Ag(NPs)/Fe was enhanced 58 fold compared to that of the ZnO(film)/Fe. This work provides a basis for the design of nanoarchitectures for miniaturized high-performance magneto-optical devices. PMID:27403716

  7. β-CD Dimer-immobilized Ag Assembly Embedded Silica Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Eunil; Jeong, Daham; Cha, Myeong Geun; Choi, Jae Min; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hwanhee; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jung, Seunho; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    We designed a β-CD dimer on silver nanoparticles embedded with silica nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2 NPs) structure to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silica NPs were utilized as a template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spot structures and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, and a thioether-bridged dimeric β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture PAHs. The assembled Ag NPs on silica NPs were confirmed by TEM and the presence of β-CD dimer on Ag@SiO2 was confirmed by UV-vis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs were used as SERS substrate for detecting perylene, a PAH, directly and in a wide linearity range of 10‑7 M to 10‑2 M with a low detection limit of 10‑8 M. Also, the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs exhibited 1000-fold greater sensitivity than Ag@SiO2 NPs in terms of their perylene detection limit. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting various PAH compounds using the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs as a multiplex detection tool. Various PAH compounds with the NPs exhibited their distinct SERS bands by the ratio of each PAHs. This approach of utilizing the assembled structure and the ligands to recognize target has potential for use in sensitive analytical sensors.

  8. β-CD Dimer-immobilized Ag Assembly Embedded Silica Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Eunil; Jeong, Daham; Cha, Myeong Geun; Choi, Jae Min; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hwanhee; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jung, Seunho; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We designed a β-CD dimer on silver nanoparticles embedded with silica nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2 NPs) structure to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silica NPs were utilized as a template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spot structures and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, and a thioether-bridged dimeric β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture PAHs. The assembled Ag NPs on silica NPs were confirmed by TEM and the presence of β-CD dimer on Ag@SiO2 was confirmed by UV-vis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs were used as SERS substrate for detecting perylene, a PAH, directly and in a wide linearity range of 10−7 M to 10−2 M with a low detection limit of 10−8 M. Also, the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs exhibited 1000-fold greater sensitivity than Ag@SiO2 NPs in terms of their perylene detection limit. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting various PAH compounds using the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs as a multiplex detection tool. Various PAH compounds with the NPs exhibited their distinct SERS bands by the ratio of each PAHs. This approach of utilizing the assembled structure and the ligands to recognize target has potential for use in sensitive analytical sensors. PMID:27184729

  9. Redox-Robust Pentamethylferrocene Polymers and Supramolecular Polymers, and Controlled Self-Assembly of Pentamethylferricenium Polymer-Embedded Ag, AgI, and Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haibin; Ciganda, Roberto; Castel, Patricia; Vax, Amélie; Gregurec, Danijela; Irigoyen, Joseba; Moya, Sergio; Salmon, Lionel; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ruiz, Jaime; Hernández, Ricardo; Astruc, Didier

    2015-12-07

    We report the first pentamethylferrocene (PMF) polymers and the redox chemistry of their robust polycationic pentamethylferricenium (PMFium) analogues. The PMF polymers were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a PMF-containing norbornene derivative by using the third-generation Grubbs ruthenium metathesis catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry studies allowed us to determine confidently the number of monomer units in the polymers through the Bard-Anson method. Stoichiometric oxidation by using ferricenium hexafluorophosphate quantitatively and instantaneously provided fully stable (even in aerobic solutions) blue d(5) Fe(III) metallopolymers. Alternatively, oxidation of the PMF-containing polymers was conducted by reactions with Ag(I) or Au(III) , to give PMFium polymer-embedded Ag and Au nanoparticles (NPs). In the presence of I2 , oxidation by using Ag(I) gave polymer-embedded Ag/AgI NPs and AgNPs at the surface of AgI NPs. Oxidation by using Au(III) also produced an Au(I) intermediate that was trapped and characterized. Engineered single-electron transfer reactions of these redox-robust nanomaterial precursors appear to be a new way to control their formation, size, and environment in a supramolecular way.

  10. DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles assembled on silicon slides as a reliable SERS substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Zhang, Sha; Lin, Mengshi

    2014-05-07

    This study aimed at developing a sensitive and reliable SERS substrate by assembling DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) on silicon slides. First, a monolayer of well separated DNA-functionalized Au NPs (40 nm) was decorated on (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane modified silicon slides. The DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell NPs were assembled on the 40 nm Au-DNA NPs to form a core-satellite structure through DNA hybridization. Using 4-MBA as a Raman dye, the SERS performance of the substrates was evaluated after being cleaned by low oxygen and argon plasma. The Raman intensity of the assembly using DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell NPs was 8-10 times higher than the intensity of the assembly using Au NPs as satellites. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the assembly was 2.6 times higher than that of a commercial substrate (Klarite™) when a 785 nm laser was used. The SERS enhancements of the assembled substrates were 2.2 to 2.8 times higher than the Klarite when an acquisition time of 5 s was used at an excitation wavelength of 633 nm. The assembled substrates also show a good spot-to-spot and substrate-to-substrate reproducibility at the excitation wavelengths of 633 and 785 nm. These results demonstrate that the fabrication process is simple and cost-effective for assembling DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell NPs on silicon slides that can be used as a reliable SERS substrate.

  11. Large broadband visible to infrared plasmonic absorption from Ag nanoparticles with a fractal structure embedded in a Teflon AFxAE matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Eilers, H.; Hidden, F.; Aktas, O. C.; Kiran, C. V. S.

    2006-01-01

    An unusual almost flat broadband plasmonic absorption, ranging from 400nm to well beyond 2500nm, was observed in a 150nm thin film of Ag nanoparticles embedded in a Teflon AF® matrix. The nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple single-step vapor-phase codeposition method. The Ag nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes, and thus various resonance frequencies, form a fractal percolating network. The broadband absorption, attributed to plasmon excitations within the nanoparticles, could be useful for multicolor applications in the visible and infrared wavelengths region.

  12. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibrous films through electrospinning for antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijie; Wu, Yunping; Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Xueyan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticle-embedded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning technique, using as antimicrobial agents and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in liquid phase, followed by evenly dispersing in PVA solution. After electrospinning of the mixed solution at room temperature, the PVA embedded with Ag NPs (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibers were obtained. The morphologies and structures of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and Ag/PVA fibers were characterized by the techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Ag NPs have an average diameter of 13.8nm, were found to be uniformly dispersed in PVA nanofibers. The Ag/PVA nanofibers provided robust antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) microorganisms. It's also found that Ag/PVA nanofibers make a significant contribution to the high sensitivity of SERS to 4-mercaptophenol (4-MPh) molecules.

  13. Enhancement of photo-response via surface plasmon resonance induced by Ag nano-particles embedded in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaoming; Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Guangde; Ye, Honggang; Duan, Xiangyang; Hou, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Surface plasmon resonance can be exploited to improve the performance of the photodetectors. However, it may cause the increase of dark current as a side effect. The enhancement of responsivity is highly dependent on the device structure involving SPR and the situations of the metal nano-particles. In this paper, we reported the responsivity enhancement of the ZnO UV detectors with SPR based on a structure in which Ag nano-particles are embedded in ZnO film, without the apparent increase of dark current. We found that the characteristic wavelength for SPR absorption is 380 nm, well predicted by Mie theory. And the spectral responsivity peak value increases from 472 mA/W to 10.522 A/W, by 22.3 times. The good matching between enhancement spectra and SPR absorption spectra confirms that the responsivity enhancement is resulted from SPR. Our results are of great importance in improving the photodetectors based on SPR effects, which may be widely used in light detection.

  14. Large third-order optical nonlinearity in vertically oriented mesoporous silica thin films embedded with Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Min; Liu, Qiming

    2016-12-01

    Taking advantage of the channel confinement of mesoporous films to prevent the agglomeration of Ag nanoparticles to achieve large third-order optical nonlinearity in amorphous materials, Ag-loaded composite mesoporous silica film was prepared by the electrochemical deposition method on ITO substrate. Ag ions were firstly transported into the channels of mesoporous film by the diffusion and binding force of channels, which were reduced to nanoparticles by applying suitable voltage. The existence and uniform distribution of Ag nanoparticles ranging in 1-10 nm in the mesoporous silica thin films were exhibited by UV spectrophotometer, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The third-order optical nonlinearity induced by Ag nanoparticles was studied by the Z-scan technique. Due to the local field surface plasmon resonance, the maximum third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of Ag-loaded composite mesoporous silica film is 1.53×10-10 esu, which is 1000 times larger than that of the Ag-contained chalcogenide glasses which showed large nonlinearity in amorphous materials.

  15. Highly sensitive colorimetric detection of glucose in a serum based on DNA-embeded Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Fei; Hou, Xiangshu; Xu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    Glucose is a key energy substance in diverse biology and closely related to the life activities of the organism. To develop a simple and sensitive method for glucose detection is extremely urgent but still remains a key challenge. Herein, we report a colorimetric glucose sensor in a homogeneous system based on DNA-embedded core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles. In this assay, a glucose substrate was first catalytically oxidized by glucose oxidase to produce H2O2 which would further oxidize and gradually etch the outer silver shell of Au@Ag nanoparticles. Afterwards, the solution color changed from yellow to red and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Au@Ag nanoparticles declined and red-shifted from 430 to 516 nm. Compared with previous silver-based glucose colorimetric detection strategies, the distinctive SPR band change is superior to the color variation, which is critical to the high sensitivity of this assay. Benefiting from the outstanding optical property, robust stability and well-dispersion of the core-shell Au@AgNPs hybrid, this colorimetric assay obtained a detection limit of glucose as low as 10 nM, which is at least a 10-fold improvement over other AgNPs-based procedures. Moreover, this optical biosensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in fetal bovine serum.

  16. Random lasing in Eu³⁺ doped borate glass-ceramic embedded with Ag nanoparticles under direct three-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuhui; Zhang, Wenfei; Jin, Limin; Qiu, Jianbei; Yu, Siu Fung

    2015-10-21

    We report the observation of random lasing from Eu(3+) doped borate glass ceramic films embedded with Ag nanoparticles through three-photon absorption at room temperature. Under 1179 nm ultrashort femtosecond pulse excitation, discrete sharp peaks with linewidth ∼0.4 nm emerge randomly from a broad emission band with peak wavelength at ∼612 nm. In addition, the number of sharp peaks increases with the increase of excitation power. We also show that the emission spectrum varies with different observation angles and the corresponding lasing threshold is dependent on the excitation area. Hence, we verify unambiguously that the Eu(3+) doped borate glass ceramic film supports random lasing action via three-photon absorption excitation. In addition, Ag nanoparticles, which act as light scatterers, allow the formation of random microcavities inside the bulk film.

  17. Optical properties of Ag nanoparticles embedded Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films prepared by alternating pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Suk; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Kim, Sang Sub

    2006-11-01

    Nanocomposite thin films consisting of nanometer-sized Ag particles embedded in amorphous Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 matrix were prepared on fused silica substrates by an alternating pulsed laser deposition method. Their optical nonlinearities have been studied using the Z-scan method. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak shifts to red and increases with the increasing the volume fraction of Ag in the nanocomposite films. The magnitude of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the nanocomposite with an Ag volume fraction of 3.3% was calculated to be approximately 2 x 10(-8) esu at the SPR wavelength.

  18. Plasmonic modification of electron-longitudinal-optical phonon coupling in Ag-nanoparticle embedded InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, Antonio; Neogi, Arup; Pereira, Sérgio M. S.; Watson, Ian M.

    2014-09-01

    Surface plasmon enhanced GaN and InGaN quantum wells (QWs) show promise for use as room-temperature light emitters. The effectiveness of the plasmon enhancement, however, is limited by the strong electron/hole and longitudinal optical phonon coupling found in the III-V nitrides. The electron-phonon coupling within semiconductor QWs has been modified using silver nanoparticles embedded within the QWs. Direct evidence is provided for this change via confocal Raman spectroscopy of the samples. This evidence is augmented by Angle-dependent photoluminescence experiments which show the alteration of the electron-phonon coupling strength through measurement of the emitted phonon replicas. Together these demonstrate a direct modification of carrier-phonon interactions within the system, opening up the possibility of controlling the coupling strength to produce high-efficiency room-temperature light emitters.

  19. Ag doped silicon nitride nanocomposites for embedded plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C.; Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Pécassou, B.; Khomenkova, L.; Gourbilleau, F.; Carles, R.

    2015-09-01

    The localized surface plasmon-polariton resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is widely exploited for enhanced optical spectroscopies of molecules, nonlinear optics, photothermal therapy, photovoltaics, or more recently in plasmoelectronics and photocatalysis. The LSPR frequency depends not only of the noble metal NP material, shape, and size but also of its environment, i.e., of the embedding matrix. In this paper, Ag-NPs have been fabricated by low energy ion beam synthesis in silicon nitride (SiNx) matrices. By coupling the high refractive index of SiNx to the relevant choice of dielectric thickness in a SiNx/Si bilayer for an optimum antireflective effect, a very sharp plasmonic optical interference is obtained in mid-range of the visible spectrum (2.6 eV). The diffusion barrier property of the host SiNx matrix allows for the introduction of a high amount of Ag and the formation of a high density of Ag-NPs that nucleate during the implantation process. Under specific implantation conditions, in-plane self-organization effects are obtained in this matrix that could be the result of a metastable coarsening regime.

  20. Ag doped silicon nitride nanocomposites for embedded plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C. Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Pécassou, B.; Carles, R.; Khomenkova, L.; Gourbilleau, F.

    2015-09-07

    The localized surface plasmon-polariton resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is widely exploited for enhanced optical spectroscopies of molecules, nonlinear optics, photothermal therapy, photovoltaics, or more recently in plasmoelectronics and photocatalysis. The LSPR frequency depends not only of the noble metal NP material, shape, and size but also of its environment, i.e., of the embedding matrix. In this paper, Ag-NPs have been fabricated by low energy ion beam synthesis in silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) matrices. By coupling the high refractive index of SiN{sub x} to the relevant choice of dielectric thickness in a SiN{sub x}/Si bilayer for an optimum antireflective effect, a very sharp plasmonic optical interference is obtained in mid-range of the visible spectrum (2.6 eV). The diffusion barrier property of the host SiN{sub x} matrix allows for the introduction of a high amount of Ag and the formation of a high density of Ag-NPs that nucleate during the implantation process. Under specific implantation conditions, in-plane self-organization effects are obtained in this matrix that could be the result of a metastable coarsening regime.

  1. Modeling Pulsed Laser Melting of Embedded Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Carolyn Anne

    A model of pulsed laser melting of embedded nanoparticles is introduced. Pulsed laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve a fast quench rate in nanoparticles; this model enables a better understanding of the influence of PLM on the size distribution of nanoparticles, which is crucial for studying or using their size-dependent properties. The model includes laser absorption according to the Mie theory, a full heat transport model, and rate equations for nucleation, growth, coarsening, and melting and freezing of nanoparticles embedded in a transparent matrix. The effects of varying the laser parameters and sample properties are studied, as well as combining PLM and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processing steps on the same sample. A general theory for achieving narrow size distributions of nanoparticles is presented, and widths as narrow as 12% are achieved using PLM and RTA.

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from 4-aminothiophenol molecules embedded inside Ag coated gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebtsov, Boris N.

    2016-04-01

    Here we report on the preparation of uniform Au@Ag core/shell nanorods with a controllable Ag shell thickness. 4- aminothiophenol molecules, used as the Raman reporters, were placed between the Au core and the Ag shell. The dependence of Raman intensity on the inside/surface location of the reporter molecules was studied. The interior molecules showed a strong and uniform Raman intensity, at least an order of magnitude higher than that of the molecules on the nanoparticle surface. In contrast to usual surface-functionalized Raman tags, aggregation and clustering of nanoparticles with embedded molecules decreased the SERS signal. The findings from this study provide the basis for a novel technique of low analyte concentration detection based on high SERS response inside the core/shell metal nanostructures.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nano Cdo/NiO, nano Ag/ZnO composites & Ag/Zno embedded polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godasu, Rahul

    Nanoparticles are finest structures whose size composition is within nanometer range. Thus nanoparticles are a collection of atoms bonded together with structural radius less than 100 nm. Nanocomposites are multiphase solid materials where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 mn. Nano composites are prepared to improve mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, electrochemical, catalytic properties from its parent materials. For instance, blend of nanoparticles with a polymer are called polymer nanocomposites. Nanostructured composites like Cadmium oxide/Nickel oxide (CdO/NiO) and silver/zinc oxide (Ag/ZnO) were prepared. Characterization of these prepared nanocomposites were carried out using X-ray powder diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry, Scanning electron microscopy and the average sizes were determined using zeta sizer. Results obtained using characterization methods were in agreement stating that we were successful in synthesizing composites. The prepared Ag/ZnO nano composite was embedded in PCL polymer and we made films of PCL embedded with nano composite. The SEM image of the 5% Ag/ZnO embedded film clearly shows two regions, which indicates that Ag/ZnO nano composite was successfully embedded into the polymer using a non insitu method. SEM results also showed that the Zinc Oxide nano particles were successfully embedded into the polymer .

  4. High Visible Photoelectrochemical Activity of Ag Nanoparticle-Sandwiched CdS/Ag/ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Zhang, Wu; Sun, Mingxuan; Li, Lequn; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada; Sun, Jian

    2017-01-11

    We report on the sensitizing of CdS-coated ZnO (CdS/ZnO) nanorods (NRs) by Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded between the CdS coating and the ZnO nanorod and the improved optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the Ag NP-sandwiched nanostructure CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs. The CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs were fabricated by growing Ag NPs on hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs and subsequently depositing CdS coatings followed by subsequent N2 annealing. The structure of the fabricated CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman backscattering, revealing that the ZnO NRs and the CdS coatings are both structured with hexagonal wurtzite and the Ag NPs contact well with ZnO and CdS. Optical properties were evaluated by measuring optical absorption and photoluminescence, showing that the Ag NPs behave well as sensitizers for optical property improvement and the CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs exhibit better photoresponse in a wide spectral region than CdS/ZnO because of plasmon-enhanced absorption due to the embedment of Ag NPs. The Ag NPs also serve as electron relays from CdS to ZnO, facilitating electron transfer from the CdS coatings to the ZnO NRs. The excellent photoresponse and efficient electron transfer make the CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs highly photoelectrochemically active. The CdS/Ag/ZnO NRs fabricated on indium-tin oxide present much better photoelectrochemical performance as photoanodes working in the visible region than CdS/ZnO NRs without Ag NPs. Under visible illumination, a maximum optical-to-chemical conversion efficiency of 3.13% is obtained for CdS/Ag/ZnO NR photoanodes against 1.35% for CdS/ZnO NR photoanodes.

  5. Silver Nanoparticle-Embedded Thin Silica-Coated Graphene Oxide as an SERS Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Xuan-Hung; Hahm, Eunil; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Shim, Seongbo; Kim, Tae Han; Jeong, Dae Hong; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid of Ag nanoparticle (NP)-embedded thin silica-coated graphene oxide (GO@SiO2@Ag NPs) was prepared as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. A 6 nm layer of silica was successfully coated on the surface of GO by the physical adsorption of sodium silicate, followed by the hydrolysis of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane. Ag NPs were introduced onto the thin silica-coated graphene oxide by the reduction of Ag+ to prepare GO@SiO2@Ag NPs. The GO@SiO2@Ag NPs exhibited a 1.8-fold enhanced Raman signal compared to GO without a silica coating. The GO@SiO2@Ag NPs showed a detection limit of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) at 0.74 μM. PMID:28335304

  6. Physio-chemical and antibacterial characteristics of pressure spun nylon nanofibres embedded with functional silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Mahalingam, S; Rohn, J L; Ren, G; Edirisinghe, M

    2015-11-01

    A novel and facile approach to prepare hybrid nanoparticle embedded polymer nanofibers using pressurised gyration is presented. Silver nanoparticles and nylon polymer were used in this work. The polymer solution's physical properties, rotating speed and the working pressure had a significant influence on the fibre diameter and the morphology. Fibres in the range of 60-500nm were spun using 10wt.%, 15wt.% and 20wt.% nylon solutions and these bead-free fibres were processed under 0.2MPa and 0.3MPa working pressure and a rotational speed of 36,000rpm. 1-4wt.% of Ag was added to these nylon solutions and in the case of wt.% fibres in the range 50-150nm were prepared using the same conditions of pressurised gyration. Successful incorporation of the Ag nanoparticles in nylon nanofibres was confirmed by using a combination of advanced microscopical techniques and Raman spectrometry was used to study the bonding characteristics of nylon and the Ag nanoparticles. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy showed a substantial concentration of Ag ions in the nylon fibre matrix which is essential for producing effective antibacterial properties. Antibacterial activity of the Ag-loaded nanofibres shows higher efficacy than nylon nanofibres for Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa microorganisms, and both Ag nanoparticles and the Ag ions were found to be the reason for enhanced cell death in the bacterial solutions.

  7. Using Ag-embedded TiO2 nanotubes array as recyclable SERS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yunhan; Zhuo, Yuqing; Huang, Liang; Mao, Duolu

    2016-12-01

    A simple strategy for synthesizing Ag-loaded TiO2 nanotube film for use as multifunctional photocatalyst and recyclable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is introduced. Highly aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTA) prepared via electrochemical anodization were used as a 3D rough host for silver nanoparticles. Ag deposits were sputtered in a vacuum, and it was found that their morphologies were mainly influenced by the diameters of nanotubes and the UV irradiation induced aging process, especially the self-migration of silver along the tubular wall. SERS and the self-cleaning effect were observed using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as the probe molecule. The results showed that narrow nanotube and silver nanoparticles embedment contributed significantly to both the phenomenal SERS and recyclability.

  8. Spin coating of Ag nanoparticles: Effect of reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, A. A. Sartale, S. D.

    2014-04-24

    A surfactant free method for the growth of Ag nanoparticles on glass substrate by spin coating of Ag ions solution followed by chemical reduction in aqueous hydrazine hydrate (HyH) solution has been presented. Appearance of surface plasmon resonance confirms the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Morphology and absorbance spectra of Ag nanoparticles films are used to examine effect of hydrazine concentration on the growth of Ag nanoparticles. SEM images show uniformly distributed Ag nanoparticles. Rate constant was found to be dependent on HyH concentration as a consequence influence particle size.

  9. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  10. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  11. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sahar, M. R. Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-09-25

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  12. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  13. Electrical transport studies of Ag nanoclusters embedded in glass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magudapathy, P.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nair, K. G. M.; Dhara, S.

    2001-05-01

    Silver nanoclusters embedded in glass matrices have been obtained by the combined use of ion exchange and subsequent ion implantation. XRD and UV-visible spectro-photometric analysis have confirmed the formation of Ag nano-clusters in the ion-irradiated samples. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements of the irradiated samples have been found to follow ρ( T)∝exp√( T0/ T) in the temperature range of 80-280 K. The observed behaviour of ρ( T) is consistent with charge transport due to hopping between isolated, conducting islands. The separation distance between the conducting islands has been found to be a function of fluence.

  14. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of unsaturated organic compounds by a monolithic silica column embedded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Morisato, Kei; Hasegawa, George; Moitra, Nirmalya; Kiyomura, Tsutomu; Kurata, Hiroki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2015-08-01

    The optimization of a porous structure to ensure good separation performances is always a significant issue in high-performance liquid chromatography column design. Recently we reported the homogeneous embedment of Ag nanoparticles in periodic mesoporous silica monolith and the application of such Ag nanoparticles embedded silica monolith for the high-performance liquid chromatography separation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, the separation performance remains to be improved and the retention mechanism as compared with the Ag ion high-performance liquid chromatography technique still needs to be clarified. In this research, Ag nanoparticles were introduced into a macro/mesoporous silica monolith with optimized pore parameters for high-performance liquid chromatography separations. Baseline separation of benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene was achieved with the theoretical plate number for analyte naphthalene as 36,000 m(-1). Its separation function was further extended to cis/trans isomers of aromatic compounds where cis/trans stilbenes were chosen as a benchmark. Good separation of cis/trans-stilbene with separation factor as 7 and theoretical plate number as 76,000 m(-1) for cis-stilbene was obtained. The trans isomer, however, is retained more strongly, which contradicts the long- established retention rule of Ag ion chromatography. Such behavior of Ag nanoparticles embedded in a silica column can be attributed to the differences in the molecular geometric configuration of cis/trans stilbenes.

  15. Construction of Ag/AgCl nanostructures from Ag nanoparticles as high-performance visible-light photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Dongzhi; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Wei; Hu, Wenping; Zhou, Xueqin

    2016-11-01

    A combined strategy of in situ oxidation and assembly is developed to prepare Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes from Ag nanoparticles under room temperature. It is a new facile way to fabricate Ag/AgCl with small sizes and defined morphologies. Ag/AgCl nanospheres with an average size of 80 nm were achieved without any surfactants, while Ag/AgCl nanocubes with a mean edge length of 150 nm were obtained by introduction of N-dodecyl- N, N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate. The possible formation mechanism involves the self-assembly of AgCl nanoparticles, Ostwald ripening and photoreduction of Ag+ into Ag0 by the room light. The as-prepared Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity and stability toward degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation. It is demonstrated that Ag/AgCl nanocubes display enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison with Ag/AgCl nanospheres due to the more efficient charge transfer. This work may pave an avenue to construct various functional materials via the assembly strategy using nanoparticles as versatile building blocks.

  16. Shaping of Au nanoparticles embedded in various layered structures by swift heavy ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawi, E. A.; ArnoldBik, W. M.; Ackermann, R.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel method to extend the ion-beam induced shaping of metallic nanoparticles in various layered structures. Monodisperse Au nanoparticles having mean diameter of 30 nm and their ion-shaping process is investigated for a limited number of experimental conditions. Au nanoparticles were embedded within a single plane in various layered structures of silicon nitride films (Si3N4), combinations of oxide-nitride films (SiO2-Si3N4) and amorphous silicon films (a-Si) and have been sequentially irradiated at 300 K at normal incidence with 50 and 25 MeV Ag ions, respectively. Under irradiation with heavy Ag ions and with sequential increase of the irradiation fluence, the evolution of the Au peak derived from the Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry show broadening in Au peak, which indicates that the Au becomes distributed over a larger depth region, indicative of the elongation of the nanoparticles. The latter is observed almost for every layer structure investigated except for Au nanoparticles embedded in pure a-Si matrix. The largest elongation rate at all fluences is found for the Au nanoparticles encapsulated in pure Si3N4 films. For all irradiation energy applied, we again demonstrate the existence of both threshold and saturation fluences for the elongation effects mentioned.

  17. Silver nanoparticles embedded in zeolite membranes: release of silver ions and mechanism of antibacterial action

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Amber; Harrison, Alistair; Sabbani, Supriya; Munson, Robert S; Dutta, Prabir K; Waldman, W James

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus of this study is on the antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles embedded within a zeolite membrane (AgNP-ZM). Methods and Results These membranes were effective in killing Escherichia coli and were bacteriostatic against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli suspended in Luria Bertani (LB) broth and isolated from physical contact with the membrane were also killed. Elemental analysis indicated slow release of Ag+ from the AgNP-ZM into the LB broth. The E. coli killing efficiency of AgNP-ZM was found to decrease with repeated use, and this was correlated with decreased release of silver ions with each use of the support. Gene expression microarrays revealed upregulation of several antioxidant genes as well as genes coding for metal transport, metal reduction, and ATPase pumps in response to silver ions released from AgNP-ZM. Gene expression of iron transporters was reduced, and increased expression of ferrochelatase was observed. In addition, upregulation of multiple antibiotic resistance genes was demonstrated. The expression levels of multicopper oxidase, glutaredoxin, and thioredoxin decreased with each support use, reflecting the lower amounts of Ag+ released from the membrane. The antibacterial mechanism of AgNP-ZM is proposed to be related to the exhaustion of antioxidant capacity. Conclusion These results indicate that AgNP-ZM provide a novel matrix for gradual release of Ag+. PMID:21931480

  18. Active systems based on silver-montmorillonite nanoparticles embedded into bio-based polymer matrices for packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Incoronato, A L; Buonocore, G G; Conte, A; Lavorgna, M; Nobile, M A Del

    2010-12-01

    Silver-montmorillonite (Ag-MMT) antimicrobial nanoparticles were obtained by allowing silver ions from nitrate solutions to replace the Na(+) of natural montmorillonite and to be reduced by thermal treatment. The Ag-MMT nanoparticles were embedded in agar, zein, and poly(ε-caprolactone) polymer matrices. These nanocomposites were tested in vitro with a three-strain cocktail of Pseudomonas spp. to assess antimicrobial effectiveness. The results indicate that Ag-MMT nanoparticles embedded into agar may have antimicrobial activity against selected spoilage microorganisms. No antimicrobial effects were recorded with active zein and poly(ε-caprolactone). The water content of the polymeric matrix was the key parameter associated with antimicrobial effectiveness of this active system intended for food packaging applications.

  19. Silver nanoparticle-embedded graphene oxide-methotrexate for targeted cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Raj Kumar; Kim, Jae Hee; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Shin, Beom Soo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2017-05-01

    Combination therapies are widely investigated cancer treatment modalities. Carbon based systems such as graphene oxide (GO), plasmonic nanoparticles such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and the folate analog, methotrexate (MTX), have been separately studied for their potential anticancer effects. In this study, we combined these systems to develop AgNPs-embedded GO with conjugated MTX (MTX-GO/AgNPs) and studied their folate receptor-targeted anticancer effects. Results revealed successful formation of AgNPs on GO along with MTX conjugation as suggested by UV/visible, TEM, AFM, FTIR, and XRD analysis. Folate receptor-positive MCF-7 cells were more prone to cytotoxic effects of MTX-GO/AgNPs compared to folate receptor-negative HepG2 cells. Folic acid analog MTX interacts with folate receptors expressed in MCF-7 cells, improving cellular uptake and subsequent anticancer effects of the system. Importantly, AgNPs enhanced the total ROS production within the treated cells leading to improve cellular apoptosis, as evidenced by western blot. Moreover, near infrared (NIR)-induced photothermal effects of GO improved the anticancer activity of the system. Therefore, the combinational therapy system MTX-GO/AgNPs can be potentially applied for effective folate receptor-targeted treatment of cancers.

  20. Decorating CdTe QD-Embedded Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres with Ag NPs to Prevent Bacteria Invasion for Enhanced Anticounterfeit Applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yangyang; Dong, Qigeqi; Lan, Shi; Cai, Qian; Simalou, Oudjaniyobi; Zhang, Shiqi; Gao, Ge; Chokto, Harnoode; Dong, Alideertu

    2015-05-13

    Quantum dots (QDs) as potent candidates possess advantageous superiority in fluorescence imaging applications, but they are susceptible to the biological circumstances (e.g., bacterial environment), leading to fluorescence quenching or lose of fluorescent properties. In this work, CdTe QDs were embedded into mesoporous silica nanospheres (m-SiO2 NSs) for preventing QD agglomeration, and then CdTe QD-embedded m-SiO2 NSs (m-SiO2/CdTe NSs) were modified with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to prevent bacteria invasion for enhanced anticounterfeit applications. The m-SiO2 NSs, which serve as intermediate layers to combine CdTe QDs with Ag NPs, help us establish a highly fluorescent and long-term antibacterial system (i.e., m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs). More importantly, CdTe QD-embedded m-SiO2 NSs showed fluorescence quenching when they encounter bacteria, which was avoided by attaching Ag NPs outside. Ag NPs are superior to CdTe QDs for preventing bacteria invasion because of the structure (well-dispersed Ag NPs), size (small diameter), and surface charge (positive zeta potentials) of Ag NPs. The plausible antibacterial mechanisms of m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were established. As for potential applications, m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs were developed as fluorescent anticounterfeiting ink for enhanced imaging applications.

  1. STM-assisted manipulation of Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radojkovic, P.; Schwartzkopff, M.; Gabriel, T.; Hartmann, E.

    We report scanning tunneling microscope (STM) investigations of inert-gas-evaporated Ag nanoparticles deposited on atomically flat, H-terminated Si(111) surfaces, to which they weakly stick. For the present purpose, nanoparticles having an average size of 3 nm are fabricated and the particle coverage on the substrate fluctuates between one and three monolayers. The weakly coupling particle network can repeatedly be imaged with the STM without inadvertently manipulating the fundamental building blocks. When the STM is operated in the field-emission regime and the tunnel current is kept between 50 pA and 39 μA, the temperature of the nanoparticles rises, thus stimulating local manipulation processes. Depending on the power density dissipated in the particles, we distinguish between a local sintering process leading to the formation of narrow necks to the nearest neighbors, while the original granular nature of the particle layer is maintained, and a complete fusion. In the latter case, stable nanometer-scale structures are fabricated which strongly interconnect with the underlying substrate. In combining nanoparticle-inherent properties with existing theory, we roughly estimate the temperature rise of the nanoparticles and confirm the possibility of particle liquefaction for the highest power densities generated.

  2. Enhanced Photoresponse of Conductive Polymer Nanowires Embedded with Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junchang; Zhong, Liubiao; Sun, Yinghui; Li, Anran; Huang, Jing; Meng, Fanben; Chandran, Bevita K; Li, Shuzhou; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-04-20

    A conductive polymer nanowire embedded with a 1D Au nanoparticle chain with defined size, shape, and interparticle distance is fabricated which demonstrates enhanced photoresponse behavior. The precise and controllable positioning of 1D Au nanoparticle chain in the conductive polymer nanowire plays a critical role in modulating the photoresponse behavior by excitation light wavelength or power due to the coupled-plasmon effect of 1D Au nanoparticle chain.

  3. Study of antibacterial activity of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles stabilized over montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Pourahmad, A.; Mehdipour Moghaddam, M. J.; Sadeghi, A.

    2015-02-01

    Silver carbonate and silver nanoparticles (NPs) over of stabilizer montmorillonite (MMT) have been synthesized in aqueous and polyol solvent, respectively. Dispersions of silver nanoparticles have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate over of MMT in presence and absence of Na2CO3 compound in ethylene glycol. It was observed that montmorillonite was capable of stabilizing formed Ag nanoparticles through the reduction of Ag+ ions in ethylene glycol. Na2CO3 was used as carbonate source in synthesis of Ag2CO3 NPs in water solvent and also for controlling of Ag nanoparticles size in ethylene glycol medium. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The TEM images showed that Ag NPs size in presence Na2CO3 salts was smaller than without that. The results indicated intercalation of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles into the montmorillonite clay layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra exhibited a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) adsorption peak in the visible region, resulting from Ag nanoparticles. The antibacterial testing results showed that the Ag2CO3-MMT nanocomposite exhibited an antibacterial activity higher than Ag-MMT sample against Escherichia coli.

  4. Toxicity of nanoparticles embedded in paints compared with pristine nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Stijn; Luyts, Katrien; Brabants, Gert; Landuyt, Kirsten Van; Kirschhock, Christine; Smolders, Erik; Golanski, Luana; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Hoet, Peter H M

    2014-09-01

    The unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have led to their increased use in many industrial applications, including as a paint additive. For example, titanium dioxide (TiO2) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have well-established anti-UV, self-cleaning, and air purification effects. Silver (Ag) ENPs are renowned for their anti-microbial capabilities and silicon dioxide (SiO2) ENPs are used as fire retardants and anti-scratch coatings. In this study, the toxic effects and biodistribution of three pristine ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2), three aged paints containing ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2) along with control paints without ENPs were compared. BALB/c mice were oropharyngeally aspirated with ENPs or paint particles (20 μg/aspiration) once a week for 5 weeks and sacrificed either 2 or 28 days post final aspiration treatment. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and systemic blood toxicity was evaluated to ascertain cell counts, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and key blood parameters. In addition, the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and heart were harvested and metal concentrations were determined. Exposure to pristine ENPs caused subtle effects in the lungs and negligible alterations in the blood. The most pronounced toxic effects were observed after Ag ENPs exposure; an increased neutrophil count and a twofold increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)) were identified. The paint containing TiO2 ENPs did not modify macrophage and neutrophil counts, but mildly induced KC and IL-1ß. The paints containing Ag or SiO2 did not show significant toxicity. Biodistribution experiments showed distribution of Ag and Si outside the lung after aspiration to respectively pristine Ag or SiO2 ENPs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that even though direct exposure to ENPs induced some toxic effects, once they were embedded in a complex paint matrix little to no adverse toxicological effects were

  5. Toxicity of Nanoparticles Embedded in Paints Compared with Pristine Nanoparticles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smulders, Stijn; Luyts, Katrien; Brabants, Gert; Landuyt, Kirsten Van; Kirschhock, Christine; Smolders, Erik; Golanski, Luana; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Hoet, Peter HM

    2014-01-01

    The unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have led to their increased use in many industrial applications, including as a paint additive. For example, titanium dioxide (TiO2) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have well-established anti-UV, self-cleaning, and air purification effects. Silver (Ag) ENPs are renowned for their anti-microbial capabilities and silicon dioxide (SiO2) ENPs are used as fire retardants and anti-scratch coatings. In this study, the toxic effects and biodistribution of three pristine ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2), three aged paints containing ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2) along with control paints without ENPs were compared. BALB/c mice were oropharyngeally aspirated with ENPs or paint particles (20 μg/aspiration) once a week for 5 weeks and sacrificed either 2 or 28 days post final aspiration treatment. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and systemic blood toxicity was evaluated to ascertain cell counts, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and key blood parameters. In addition, the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and heart were harvested and metal concentrations were determined. Exposure to pristine ENPs caused subtle effects in the lungs and negligible alterations in the blood. The most pronounced toxic effects were observed after Ag ENPs exposure; an increased neutrophil count and a twofold increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)) were identified. The paint containing TiO2 ENPs did not modify macrophage and neutrophil counts, but mildly induced KC and IL-1ß. The paints containing Ag or SiO2 did not show significant toxicity. Biodistribution experiments showed distribution of Ag and Si outside the lung after aspiration to respectively pristine Ag or SiO2 ENPs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that even though direct exposure to ENPs induced some toxic effects, once they were embedded in a complex paint matrix little to no adverse toxicological effects were

  6. Silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersome nanocarriers for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilich, Benjamin M.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Singleton, Gloria L.; Sepúlveda, Liuda J.; Sridhar, Srinivas; Webster, Thomas J.

    2015-02-01

    The rapidly diminishing number of effective antibiotics that can be used to treat infectious diseases and associated complications in a physician's arsenal is having a drastic impact on human health today. This study explored the development and optimization of a polymersome nanocarrier formed from a biodegradable diblock copolymer to overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance. Here, polymersomes were synthesized containing silver nanoparticles embedded in the hydrophobic compartment, and ampicillin in the hydrophilic compartment. Results showed for the first time that these silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersomes (AgPs) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli transformed with a gene for ampicillin resistance (bla) in a dose-dependent fashion. Free ampicillin, AgPs without ampicillin, and ampicillin polymersomes without silver nanoparticles had no effect on bacterial growth. The relationship between the silver nanoparticles and ampicillin was determined to be synergistic and produced complete growth inhibition at a silver-to-ampicillin ratio of 1 : 0.64. In this manner, this study introduces a novel nanomaterial that can effectively treat problematic, antibiotic-resistant infections in an improved capacity which should be further examined for a wide range of medical applications.

  7. Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of AgBr and Ag Nanoparticles (NPs)

    PubMed Central

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60–70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120–130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends – the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains. PMID:25781988

  8. Structural characterization of copolymer embedded magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, G. G.; Nastro, A.; Filippelli, L.; Cazacu, M.; Iacob, M.; Rossi, C. Oliviero; Popa, A.; Toloman, D.; Dobromir, M.; Iacomi, F.

    2015-10-01

    Small magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized by co-precipitation and coated by emulsion polymerization with poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-co-AAc) to create surface functional groups that can attach drug molecules and other biomolecules. The coated and uncoated magnetite nanoparticles were stored for two years in normal closed ships and than characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solid phase transformation of magnetite to maghemite, as well as an increase in particle size were evidenced for the uncoated nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles preserved their magnetite structure and magnetic properties. The influences of monomers and surfactant layers on interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles evidenced that the thickness of the polymer has a significant effect on magnetic properties.

  9. Theoretical modeling of optical properties of Ag8 and Ag14 silver clusters embedded in an LTA sodalite zeolite cavity.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Nguyen, Hue Minh Thi; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2013-10-07

    Optical properties of silver Ag(n) nanoclusters are demonstrated to be dependent on their size, structure and charge state. It is found that when being contained in the sodalite cavity of LTA zeolite the tetradecanuclear hexacation silver cluster Ag14(6+) is stable. Its lower-lying states and optical spectrum are theoretically determined using the quantum chemical TD-DFT method. Its ground state possesses an outer-shell electron configuration of A1g(2)T2g(6) mimicking the s(2)p(6) valence of noble gas atoms. These frontier orbitals are constructed from 5s,5p(Ag)-AOs with contributions from framework oxygen atoms. Light absorption of Ag14(6+) embedded in the sodalite cage which is characterized by strong peaks centered at 331 and 476 nm (transitions 5s,p(Ag) → 5s,p(Ag)) leads to much longer wavelength emission. The sodalite cage, as a container, stabilizes the central Ag14(6+) cluster by electrostatic attraction. The absorption spectrum of the isovalent neutral Ag8 cluster embedded inside the same sodalite cavity is also simulated using TD-DFT and CASPT2 methods. This absorption spectrum which is similar to that of the Ag14(6+) cluster has two absorption bands in the near UV and visible regions.

  10. Synthesis of beta-cyclodextrin-modified water-dispersible Ag-TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Shown, Indrajit; Ujihara, Masaki; Imae, Toyoko

    2011-04-01

    The beta-cyclodextrin-modified Ag-TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by sodium borohydrate reduction of AgNO3 and the subsequent hydrolysis of the tetraisopropyl orthotitanate in an aqueous medium. Inversely in the preparation of beta-cyclodextrin-modified TiO2-Ag core-shell nanoparticles, first hydrolysis and then following reduction were carried out. The synthesized spherical core-shell nanoparticles were highly water-dispersible and had an average diameter in the range of 9 to 12 nm. A significant shifting of surface plasmon band was observed for the synthesized Ag-TiO2 and TiO2-Ag core-shell nanoparticles. On a model reaction, namely, the photodegradation of phenol by the UV light irradiation, the photocatalytic property of TiO2 nanoparticles was enhanced, when the Ag nanoparticle was embedded in the core of TiO2 nanoparticles but TiO2 nanoparticles coated by Ag shell decreased the photocatalytic property of TiO2 nanoparticles. The mechanism is ascribed to the surface plasmon characteristics of Ag in the core of the TiO2 nanoparticles under the acceleration by host-guest inclusion characteristics.

  11. Surface spin polarization induced ferromagnetic Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Po-Hsun; Li, Wen-Hsien; Wu, Sheng Yun

    2016-05-01

    We report on the observation of ferromagnetic spin polarized moments in 4.5 nm Ag nanoparticles. Both ferromagnetic and diamagnetic responses to an applied magnetic field were detected. The spin polarized moments shown under non-linear thermoinduced magnetization appeared on the surface atoms, rather than on all the atoms in particles. The saturation magnetization departed substantially from the Bloch T3/2-law, showing the existence of magnetic anisotropy. The Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin wave model for Ha-aligned moments was then employed to identify the magnetic anisotropic energy gap of ~0.12 meV. Our results may be understood by assuming the surface magnetism model, in which the surface atoms give rise to polarized moments while the core atoms produce diamagnetic responses.

  12. Advances of Ag, Cu, and Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles synthesized via chemical reduction route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kim Seah; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2013-04-01

    Silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles have shown great potential in variety applications due to their excellent electrical and thermal properties resulting high demand in the market. Decreasing in size to nanometer scale has shown distinct improvement in these inherent properties due to larger surface-to-volume ratio. Ag and Cu nanoparticles are also shown higher surface reactivity, and therefore being used to improve interfacial and catalytic process. Their melting points have also dramatically decreased compared with bulk and thus can be processed at relatively low temperature. Besides, regularly alloying Ag into Cu to create Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles could be used to improve fast oxidizing property of Cu nanoparticles. There are varieties methods have been reported on the synthesis of Ag, Cu, and Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles. This review aims to cover chemical reduction means for synthesis of those nanoparticles. Advances of this technique utilizing different reagents namely metal salt precursors, reducing agents, and stabilizers, as well as their effects on respective nanoparticles have been systematically reviewed. Other parameters such as pH and temperature that have been considered as an important factor influencing the quality of those nanoparticles have also been reviewed thoroughly.

  13. Sequential repetitive chemical reduction technique to study size-property relationships of graphene attached Ag nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, M. Salman; Badejo, Abimbola Comfort; Shao, Godlisten N.; Imran, S. M.; Abbas, Nadir; Chai, Young Gyu; Hussain, Manwar; Kim, Hee Taik

    2015-06-01

    The present study demonstrates a novel, systematic and application route synthesis approach to develop size-property relationship and control the growth of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A sequential repetitive chemical reduction technique to observe the growth of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) attached to rGO, was performed on a single solution of graphene oxide (GO) and silver nitrate solution (7 runs, R1-R7) in order to manipulate the growth and size of the AgNPs. The physical-chemical properties of the samples were examined by RAMAN, XPS, XRD, SEM-EDAX, and HRTEM analyses. It was confirmed that AgNPs with diameter varying from 4 nm in first run (R1) to 50 nm in seventh run (R7) can be obtained using this technique. A major correlation between particle size and activities was also observed. Antibacterial activities of the samples were carried out to investigate the disinfection performance of the samples on the Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). It was suggested that the sample obtained in the third run (R3) exhibited the highest antibacterial activity as compared to other samples, toward disinfection of bacteria due to its superior properties. This study provides a unique and novel application route to synthesize and control size of AgNPs embedded on graphene for various applications.

  14. Impact of ZnO and Ag Nanoparticles on Bacterial Growth and Viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, M. S.; Digiovanni, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    Hundreds of consumer products containing nanomaterials are currently available in the U.S., including computers, clothing, cosmetics, sports equipment, medical devices and product packaging. Metallic nanoparticles can be embedded in or coated on product surfaces to provide antimicrobial, deodorizing, and stain- resistant properties. Although these products have the potential to provide significant benefit to the user, the impact of these products on the environment remains largely unknown. The purpose of this project is to study the effect of metallic nanoparticles released to the environment on bacterial growth and viability. Inhibition of bacterial growth was tested by adding doses of suspended ZnO and Ag nanoparticles into luria broth prior to inoculation of Escherichia coli cells. ZnO particles (approximately 40 nm) were obtained commercially and Ag particles (12-14 nm) were fabricated by reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride. Toxicity assays were performed to test the viability of E. coli cells exposed to both ZnO and Ag nanoparticles using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit (Invitrogen). Live cells stain green whereas cells with compromised membranes that are considered dead or dying stain red. Cells were first grown, stained, and exposed to varying doses of metallic nanoparticles, and then bacterial viability was measured hourly using fluorescence microscopy. Results indicate that both ZnO and Ag nanoparticles inhibit the growth of E. coli in liquid media. Preliminary results from toxicity assays confirm the toxic effect of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles on active cell cultures. Calculated death rates resulting from analyses of toxicity studies will be presented.

  15. Experimental investigation of nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoparticles: Effects of size quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Rodrigo; Ohnuma, Masato; Oyoshi, Keiji; Takeda, Yoshihiko

    2014-09-01

    The effects of size quantization on the nonlinear optical response of Ag nanoparticles are experimentally studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and femtosecond spectroscopic pump-and-probe techniques. In the vicinity of a localized surface-plasmon resonance (2.0-3.5 eV), we have investigated the optical nonlinearity of Ag particles embedded in silica glass for particle diameters ranging from 3.0 to 16 nm. The intrinsic third-order optical susceptibility χm(3) of Ag particles exhibited significant spectral and size dependences. These results are explained as quantum and dielectric confinements and are compared to the results of theoretical quantum finite-size effects calculation for metallic particles. In light of these results, we discuss the contribution of interband transitions to the size dependence of χm(3). Quantum size effects lead to an increase in nonlinearity in small Ag particles.

  16. Structure and magnetism in Cr-embedded Co nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baker, S H; Kurt, M S; Roy, M; Lees, M R; Binns, C

    2016-02-03

    We present the results of an investigation into the atomic structure and magnetism of 2 nm diameter Co nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic Cr matrix. The nanocomposite films used in this study were prepared by co-deposition directly from the gas phase, using a gas aggregation source for the Co nanoparticles and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source for the Cr matrix material. Co K and Cr K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments were performed in order to investigate atomic structure in the embedded nanoparticles and matrix respectively, while magnetism was investigated by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The atomic structure type of the Co nanoparticles is the same as that of the Cr matrix (bcc) although with a degree of disorder. The net Co moment per atom in the Co/Cr nanocomposite films is significantly reduced from the value for bulk Co, and decreases as the proportion of Co nanoparticles in the film is decreased; for the sample with the most dilute concentration of Co nanoparticles (4.9% by volume), the net Co moment was 0.25 μ B/atom. After field cooling to below 30 K all samples showed an exchange bias, which was largest for the most dilute sample. Both the structural and magnetic results point towards a degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface, leading to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic CoCr alloy shell surrounding a reduced ferromagnetic Co core.

  17. Fluorescent Nanocomposite of Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Electrospun Chitosan Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Samir, Effat; Gaballah, Soha; Hamed, Aya; Saad, Marwa; Salah, Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a detailed optical characterization for a novel fluorescent biodegradable nanocomposite of electro-spun chitosan nanofibers with in-situ embedded cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles as the nanocomposite optical fluorescent material. Under near ultra-violet excitation, this synthesized nanocomposite emits a visible green wavelength at nearly 520nmwith different intensities according to the concentration of the embedded fluorescent material; i.e. ceria nanoparticles. This emission is due to the synthesized ceria nanoparticles optical tri-valiant cerium ions ce(3+), associated with formed oxygen vacancies with a direct allowed bandgap around 3.5 eV. Optical characteristics such as fluorescence emission intensity, absorbance dispersion, and direct bandgap are presented besides structural characteristics such as FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis. The synthesized optical nanocomposite could be helpful in many further applications such as bio-imaging, biomedical engineering, and environmental optical sensors.

  18. An investigation of localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezgin, Serap Yiǧit; Kepceoǧlu, Abdullah; Kılıç, Hamdi Şükür

    2017-02-01

    Noble metal nano-structures such as Ag, Cu, Au are used commonly to increase power conversion efficiency of the solar cell by using their surface plasmons. The plasmonic metal nanoparticles of Ag among others that have strong LSPR in near UV range. They increase photon absorbance via embedding in the active semiconductor of the solar cell. Thin films of Ag are grown in the desired particle size and interparticle distance easily and at low cost by PLD technique. Ag nanoparticle thin films were grown on micro slide glass at 25-36 mJ laser pulse energies under by PLD using ns-Nd:YAG laser. The result of this work have been presented by carrying out UV-VIS and AFM analysis. It was concluded that a laser energy increases, the density and size of Ag-NPs arriving on the substrate increases, and the interparticle distance was decreases. Therefore, LSPR wavelength shifts towards to longer wavelength region.

  19. Enrichment of anodic MgO layers with Ag nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Necula, B S; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Berkani, A; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2009-01-01

    The growing fight against infections caused by bacteria poses new challenges for development of materials and medical devices with antimicrobial properties. Silver is a well known antimicrobial agent and has recently started to be used in nanoparticulate form, with the advantage of a high specific surface area and a continuous release of enough concentration of silver ions/radicals. The synthesis of MgO-Ag nanocomposite coatings by in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles during plasma electrolytic oxidation of a magnesium substrate is presented in this study. The process was performed in an electrolyte containing Ag nanoparticles under different oxidation conditions (i.e., current density, oxidizing time, silver nanoparticles concentration in the electrolyte). Surface morphology, phase composition and elemental composition (on the surface and across the thickness of MgO-Ag nanocomposite coatings) were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy X-ray dispersive spectrometry and radio frequency glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. The coatings were found to be porous, around 7 mum thick, consisting of a crystalline oxide matrix embedded with silver nanoparticles. The findings suggest that plasma electrolytic oxidation process has potential for the synthesis of MgO-Ag nanocomposite coatings.

  20. Silver nanoparticles embedded mesoporous SiO2 nanosphere: an effective anticandidal agent against Candida albicans 077

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, M.; Singh, Braj R.; Naqvi, A. H.; Paik, P.; Das, D.

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that causes common infections such as denture stomatitis, thrush, urinary tract infections, etc. Immunocompromised patients can become severely infected by this fungus. Development of an effective anticandidal agent against this pathogenic fungus, therefore, will be very useful for practical application. In this work, Ag-embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (mSiO2@AgNPs) have successfully been synthesized and their anticandidal activities against C. albicans have been studied. The mSiO2@AgNPs nanoparticles (d ˜ 400 nm) were designed using pre-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a precursor for SiO2 in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as an easily removable soft template. A simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach has been adopted to synthesize silver (Ag) nanoparticles using silver nitrate and leaf extract of Azadirachta indica. The mesopores, with size-equivalent diameter of the micelles (d = 4-6 nm), were generated on the SiO2 surface by calcination after removal of the CTAB template. The morphology and surface structure of mSiO2@AgNPs were characterized through x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size analysis (PSA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM micrograph reveals the well-ordered mesoporous structure of the SiO2 sphere. The antifungal activities of mSiO2@AgNPs on the C. albicans cell have been studied through microscopy and are seen to increase with increasing dose of mSiO2@AgNPs, suggesting mSiO2@AgNPs to be a potential antifungal agent for C. albicans 077.

  1. Beet Juice-Induced Green Fabrication of Plasmonic AgCl/Ag Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, green, and fast approach (complete within 5 min) was explored for the fabrication of hybrid AgCl/Ag plasmonic nanoparticles under microwave (MW) irradiation. In this method, beet juice served as a reducing reagent, which is an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce. I...

  2. Thermo-optical properties of embedded silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi Huyeh, M.; Shirdel Havar, M.; Palpant, B.

    2012-11-01

    Thermo-optical properties of nanocomposite materials consisting of noble metal nanoparticles dispersed in a dielectric medium are appropriate for many applications as imaging, nonlinear optics, or optical monitoring of local thermal exchanges. Here, we analyze the thermo-optical response of silver nanoparticles. The contribution of inter- and intraband transitions to the thermo-optical index of bulk silver is first extracted using experimental results reported earlier in the literature. The influence of these two contributions on the thermo-optical properties of silver nanoparticles embedded in glass is then investigated. The results show that these properties are essentially due to the intraband thermo-optical contribution in the vicinity of the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles, while they are dominated by the interband contribution close to the interband transition threshold.

  3. E-beam deposited Ag-nanoparticles plasmonic organic solar cell and its absorption enhancement analysis using FDTD-based cylindrical nano-particle optical model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Richard S; Zhu, Jinfeng; Park, Jeung Hun; Li, Lu; Yu, Zhibin; Shen, Huajun; Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L; Park, Gyechoon; Anderson, Timothy J; Pei, Qibing

    2012-06-04

    We report the plasmon-assisted photocurrent enhancement in Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells, and systematically investigate the causes of the improved optical absorption based on a cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model which is simulated with a 3-Dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model is able to explain the optical absorption enhancement by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes, and to provide a further understanding of Ag-NPs shape parameters which play an important role to determine the broadband absorption phenomena in plasmonic organic solar cells. A significant increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the plasmonic solar cell was experimentally observed and compared with that of the solar cells without Ag-NPs. Finally, our conclusion was made after briefly discussing the electrical effects of the fabricated plasmonic organic solar cells.

  4. Nanoparticles alloying in liquids: Laser-ablation-generated Ag or Pd nanoparticles and laser irradiation-induced AgPd nanoparticle alloying.

    PubMed

    Semaltianos, N G; Chassagnon, R; Moutarlier, V; Blondeau-Patissier, V; Assoul, M; Monteil, G

    2017-04-18

    Laser irradiation of a mixture of single-element micro/nanomaterials may lead to their alloying and fabrication of multi-element structures. In addition to the laser induced alloying of particulates in the form of micro/nanopowders in ambient atmosphere (which forms the basis of the field of additive manufacturing technology), another interesting problem is the laser-induced alloying of a mixture of single-element nanoparticles in liquids since this process may lead to the direct fabrication of alloyed-nanoparticle colloidal solutions. In this work, bare-surface ligand-free Ag and Pd nanoparticles in solution were prepared by laser ablation of the corresponding bulk target materials, separately in water. The two solutions were mixed and the mixed solution was laser irradiated for different time durations in order to investigate the laser-induced nanoparticles alloying in liquid. Nanoparticles alloying and the formation of AgPd alloyed nanoparticles takes place with a decrease of the intensity of the surface-plasmon resonance peak of the Ag nanoparticles (at ∼405 nm) with the irradiation time while the low wavelength interband absorption peaks of either Ag or Pd nanoparticles remain unaffected by the irradiation for a time duration even as long as 30 min. The nanoalloys have lattice constants with values between those of the pure metals, which indicates that they consist of Ag and Pd in an approximately 1:1 ratio similar to the atomic composition of the starting mixed-nanoparticle solution. Formation of nanoparticle networks consisting of bimetallic alloyed nanoparticles and nanoparticles that remain as single elements (even after the end of the irradiation), joining together, are also formed. The binding energies of the 3d core electrons of both Ag and Pd nanoparticles shift to lower energies with the irradiation time, which is also a typical characteristic of AgPd alloyed nanoparticles. The mechanisms of nanoparticles alloying and network formation are also

  5. Nanoparticles alloying in liquids: Laser-ablation-generated Ag or Pd nanoparticles and laser irradiation-induced AgPd nanoparticle alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semaltianos, N. G.; Chassagnon, R.; Moutarlier, V.; Blondeau-Patissier, V.; Assoul, M.; Monteil, G.

    2017-04-01

    Laser irradiation of a mixture of single-element micro/nanomaterials may lead to their alloying and fabrication of multi-element structures. In addition to the laser induced alloying of particulates in the form of micro/nanopowders in ambient atmosphere (which forms the basis of the field of additive manufacturing technology), another interesting problem is the laser-induced alloying of a mixture of single-element nanoparticles in liquids since this process may lead to the direct fabrication of alloyed-nanoparticle colloidal solutions. In this work, bare-surface ligand-free Ag and Pd nanoparticles in solution were prepared by laser ablation of the corresponding bulk target materials, separately in water. The two solutions were mixed and the mixed solution was laser irradiated for different time durations in order to investigate the laser-induced nanoparticles alloying in liquid. Nanoparticles alloying and the formation of AgPd alloyed nanoparticles takes place with a decrease of the intensity of the surface-plasmon resonance peak of the Ag nanoparticles (at ∼405 nm) with the irradiation time while the low wavelength interband absorption peaks of either Ag or Pd nanoparticles remain unaffected by the irradiation for a time duration even as long as 30 min. The nanoalloys have lattice constants with values between those of the pure metals, which indicates that they consist of Ag and Pd in an approximately 1:1 ratio similar to the atomic composition of the starting mixed-nanoparticle solution. Formation of nanoparticle networks consisting of bimetallic alloyed nanoparticles and nanoparticles that remain as single elements (even after the end of the irradiation), joining together, are also formed. The binding energies of the 3d core electrons of both Ag and Pd nanoparticles shift to lower energies with the irradiation time, which is also a typical characteristic of AgPd alloyed nanoparticles. The mechanisms of nanoparticles alloying and network formation are also

  6. A convenient phase transfer route for Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-Yong; Chen, Shen-Hao; Li, De-Gang; Yang, Xue-Geng; Ma, Hou-Yi

    2004-06-01

    Generally, phase transfer of metal nanoparticles between aqueous phase and organic phase need two reagents at last. One is stabilizer of nanoparticles, the other is phase-transfer agent (Chem. Lett. 21 (1992) 1527; J. Colloid Interface Sci. 161 (1993) 471; J. Phys. Chem B 101 (1997) 9876; Chem. Commun. (1997) 537; Langmuir 14 (1998) 602; J. Phys. Chem B 103 (1999) 7238; Chem. Mater. 13 (2001) 4692; Langmuir 17 (2001) 733; Langmuir 16 (2000) 9775; Langmuir 18 (2002) 3364; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123 (2001) 11148). In this paper, Ag nanoparticle prepared by tannic acid reduction of AgNO 3 in aqueous medium were transferred to chloroform solution via a remarkably simple one-step route under the effect of phase-transfer inducer dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DDAC), where no special stabilizer was required. Monolayer of Ag nanoparticles is obtained on carbon film by self-assembly using chloroform organosol. The effect of the inducer DDAC concentration is checked, and it was found that 5×10 -3 mol dm -3 of DDAC was the optimum concentration for phase transfer of Ag nanoparticles. The organosol, Ag nanoparticle self-assembled monolayer and phase transfer were characterized by UV-vis spectra, TEM, ED and TF-IR.

  7. Radiochemical synthesis of 105gAg-labelled silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichedef, C.; Simonelli, F.; Holzwarth, U.; Bagaria, J. Piella; Puntes, V. F.; Cotogno, G.; Gilliland, D.; Gibson, N.

    2013-11-01

    A method for synthesis of radiolabelled silver nanoparticles is reported. The method is based on proton activation of silver metal powder, enriched in 107Ag, with a 30.7 MeV proton beam. At this proton energy 105gAg is efficiently created, mainly via the 107Ag(p,3n)105Cd → 105gAg reaction. 105gAg has a half-life of 41.29 days and emits easily detectable gamma radiation on decay to 105Pd. This makes it very useful as a tracing radionuclide for experiments over several weeks or months. Following activation and a period to allow short-lived radionuclides to decay, the powder was dissolved in concentrated nitric acid in order to form silver nitrate (AgNO3), which was used to synthesise radiolabelled silver nanoparticles via the process of sodium borohydride reduction. For comparison, non-radioactive silver nanoparticles were synthesised using commercially supplied AgNO3 in order to check if the use of irradiated Ag powder as a starting material would alter in any way the final nanoparticle characteristics. Both nanoparticle types were characterised using dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential and X-ray diffraction measurements, while additionally the non-radioactive samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectrometry. A hydrodynamic diameter of about 16 nm was determined for both radiolabelled and non-radioactive nanoparticles, while the electron microscopy on the non-radioactive samples indicated that the physical size of the metal NPs was (7.3 ± 1.4) nm.

  8. Low temperature sintering of Ag nanoparticles for flexible electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, A.; Guo, J. Y.; Alarifi, H.; Patane, G.; Zhou, Y.; Compagnini, G.; Xu, C. X.

    2010-10-01

    We achieve robust bonding of Cu wires to Cu pads on polyimide with silver nanopaste cured at 373 K. The paste is prepared by simply condensing Ag nanoparticle (NP) solution via centrifuging. The bonding is formed by solid state sintering of Ag NPs through neck growth and direct metallic bonding between clean Ag-Cu interfaces. Both experiment and Monte Carlo simulation confirm that the melting point of joint clusters increases during sintering. This creates improved bonds for use at an elevated operating temperature using Ag NPs.

  9. Phytotoxicity of Ag nanoparticles prepared by biogenic and chemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Rupasree; Majumder, Manna; Roy, Dijendra Nath; Basumallick, Srijita; Misra, Tarun Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are now widely used as antibacterial and antifungal materials in different consumer products. We report here the preparation of Ag NPs by neem leaves extract ( Azadirachta) reduction and trisodium citrate-sodium borohydride reduction methods, and study of their phytotoxicity. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Both neem-coated and citrate-coated Ag NPs exhibit surface plasmon around 400 nm, and their average sizes measured by AFM are about 100 and 20 nm, respectively. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of these nanomaterials have been studied by simple pea seed germination and disk diffusion methods. It has been observed from the growth of root and shoot, citrate-coated Ag NPs significantly affect seedling growth, but neem-coated Ag NPs exhibit somehow mild toxicity toward germination process due to the nutrient supplements from neem. On the other hand, antifungal activity of neem-coated Ag NPs has been found much higher than that of citrate-coated Ag NPs due to the combined effects of antifungal activity of neem and Ag NPs. Present research primarily indicates a possible application of neem-coated Ag NPs as a potential fungicide.

  10. Noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains: annealing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shao Hui; Fei, Guang Tao; You, Qiao; Gao, Xu Dong; Huo, Peng Cheng; De Zhang, Li

    2016-09-01

    One-dimensional noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains have been prepared by electrodepositing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template and following an annealing process in vacuum. It is found that Bi, as a sacrificial metal, can be removed completely after annealing at 450 °C with a vacuum degree of 10-5 Torr. The regulation of particle size, shape and interparticle spacing of Ag NP chains has been realized by adjusting the segment length of the Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires and the annealing condition. With an extension of the annealing time, it is observed that Ag particles display the transform trend from ellipsoid to sphere. Our findings could inspire further investigation on the design and fabrication of metal nanoparticle chains.

  11. Noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains: annealing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shao Hui; Fei, Guang Tao; You, Qiao; Gao, Xu Dong; Huo, Peng Cheng; De Zhang, Li

    2016-09-16

    One-dimensional noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains have been prepared by electrodepositing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template and following an annealing process in vacuum. It is found that Bi, as a sacrificial metal, can be removed completely after annealing at 450 °C with a vacuum degree of 10(-5) Torr. The regulation of particle size, shape and interparticle spacing of Ag NP chains has been realized by adjusting the segment length of the Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires and the annealing condition. With an extension of the annealing time, it is observed that Ag particles display the transform trend from ellipsoid to sphere. Our findings could inspire further investigation on the design and fabrication of metal nanoparticle chains.

  12. Strongly visible-light responsive plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles for reduction of CO2 to methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Changhua; Wang, Jizhuang; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Meiyu; Ming, Xijuan; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Qinhui

    2012-08-01

    Plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a facile and versatile glycerol-mediated solution route. The as-prepared AgX:Ag nanoparticles exhibit regular shapes, i.e., cube-tetrapod-like AgCl:Ag nanoparticles and AgBr:Ag nanoplates. Compared with the pristine AgX, AgX:Ag nanocomposites display stronger absorption in the visible region due to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The calculation of bandgaps and band positions indicates the as-achieved AgX:Ag nanoparticles can be used as a class of potential photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2. For example, reduction of CO2 under visible light irradiation with the assistance of the anisotropic AgX:Ag nanoparticles yields as much as 100 μmol methanol in the products. Furthermore, the AgX:Ag nanoparticles can maintain its structure and activity after 3 runs of reactions. Therefore, the present route opens an avenue to acquire plasmonic photocatalysts for conversion of CO2 into useful organic compounds.Plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a facile and versatile glycerol-mediated solution route. The as-prepared AgX:Ag nanoparticles exhibit regular shapes, i.e., cube-tetrapod-like AgCl:Ag nanoparticles and AgBr:Ag nanoplates. Compared with the pristine AgX, AgX:Ag nanocomposites display stronger absorption in the visible region due to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The calculation of bandgaps and band positions indicates the as-achieved AgX:Ag nanoparticles can be used as a class of potential photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2. For example, reduction of CO2 under visible light irradiation with the assistance of the anisotropic AgX:Ag nanoparticles yields as much as 100 μmol methanol in the products. Furthermore, the AgX:Ag nanoparticles can maintain its structure and activity after 3 runs of reactions. Therefore, the present route opens an avenue to acquire plasmonic photocatalysts for conversion of CO2

  13. Current bistability and carrier transport mechanisms of organic bistable devices based on hybrid Ag nanoparticle-polymethyl methacrylate polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won Tae; Jung, Jae Hun; Kim, Tae Whan; Son, Dong Ick

    2010-06-01

    The current bistability and the carrier transport mechanisms of organic bistable devices (OBDs) using Ag nanoparticle-polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposites have been investigated. Current-voltage measurements at 300 K on the Al/Ag nanoparticles embedded in the PMMA layer/indium-tin-oxide devices exhibit a current bistability with an ON/OFF ratio of 103. Write-read-erase-read sequence results demonstrate the switching characteristics of the OBD. The cycling endurance number of the ON/OFF switching for the OBD is above 7×104. The current bistability and carrier transport mechanisms of the OBD fabricated utilizing hybrid Ag nanoparticle-PMMA polymer nanocomposites are described on the basis of the experimental data.

  14. Plasmonic ZnO/Ag embedded structures as collecting layers for photogenerating electrons in solar hydrogen generation photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao Ming; Chen, Chih Kai; Tseng, Ming Lun; Wu, Pin Chieh; Chang, Chia Min; Cheng, Liang-Chien; Huang, Hsin Wei; Chan, Ting Shan; Huang, Ding-Wei; Liu, Ru-Shi; Tsai, Din Ping

    2013-09-09

    A new fabrication strategy in which Ag plasmonics are embedded in the interface between ZnO nanorods and a conducting substrate is experimentally demonstrated using a femtosecond-laser (fs-laser)-induced plasmonic ZnO/Ag photoelectrodes. This fs-laser fabrication technique can be applied to generate patternable plasmonic nanostructures for improving their effectiveness in hydrogen generation. Plasmonic ZnO/Ag nanostructure photoelectrodes show an increase in the photocurrent of a ZnO nanorod photoelectrodes by higher than 85% at 0.5 V. Both localized surface plasmon resonance in metal nanoparticles and plasmon polaritons propagating at the metal/semiconductor interface are available for improving the capture of sunlight and collecting charge carriers. Furthermore, in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy is performed to monitor the plasmonic-generating electromagnetic field upon the interface between ZnO/Ag nanostructures. This can reveal induced vacancies on the conduction band of ZnO, which allow effective separation of charge carriers and improves the efficiency of hydrogen generation. Plasmon-induced effects enhance the photoresponse simultaneously, by improving optical absorbance and facilitating the separation of charge carriers.

  15. Biosynthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Daizy

    2009-07-01

    Integration of green chemistry principles to nanotechnology is one of the key issues in nanoscience research. There is growing need to develop environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis process that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on extracellular synthesis method for the preparation of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles in water, using the extract of Volvariella volvacea, a naturally occurring edible mushroom, as reducing and protecting agents. Gold nanoparticles of different sizes (20-150 nm) and shapes from triangular nanoprisms to nearly spherical and hexagonal are obtained by this novel method. The size and shape of gold nanoparticles are also found to depend on temperature of the extract. The silver nanoparticles are spherical with size ˜15 nm. There is increased productivity of nanoparticles as shown by sharp and intense surface plasmon resonance bands for the nanoparticles prepared using an excess of the extract. The Au-Ag nanoparticles prepared by co-reduction has only one plasmon band due to alloying of the constituents. All the synthesized nanoparticles are found to be photoluminescent and are highly crystalline as shown by SAED and XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (1 1 1) plane. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. It is found that Au nanoparticles are bound to proteins through free amino groups and silver nanoparticles through the carboxylate group of the amino acid residues. The position and intensity of the emission band is found to depend on composition of the nanoparticles indicating the possible use in therapeutic applications.

  16. Surface modification of titanium substrates with silver nanoparticles embedded sulfhydrylated chitosan/gelatin polyelectrolyte multilayer films for antibacterial application.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Xu, Dawei; Hu, Yan; Cai, Kaiyong; Lin, Yingcheng

    2014-06-01

    To develop Ti implants with potent antibacterial activity, a novel "sandwich-type" structure of sulfhydrylated chitosan (Chi-SH)/gelatin (Gel) polyelectrolyte multilayer films embedding silver (Ag) nanoparticles was coated onto titanium substrate using a spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly technique. Ag ions would be enriched in the polyelectrolyte multilayer films via the specific interactions between Ag ions and -HS groups in Chi-HS, thus leading to the formation of Ag nanoparticles in situ by photo-catalytic reaction (ultraviolet irradiation). Contact angle measurement and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were employed to monitor the construction of Ag-containing multilayer on titanium surface, respectively. The functional multilayered films on titanium substrate [Ti/PEI/(Gel/Chi-SH/Ag) n /Gel] could efficiently inhibit the growth and activity of Bacillus subtitles and Escherichia coli onto titanium surface. Moreover, studies in vitro confirmed that Ti substrates coating with functional multilayer films remained the biological functions of osteoblasts, which was reflected by cell morphology, cell viability and ALP activity measurements. This study provides a simple, versatile and generalized methodology to design functional titanium implants with good cyto-compatibility and antibacterial activity for potential clinical applications.

  17. Effective medium analysis of thermally evaporated Ag nanoparticle films for plasmonic enhancement in organic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidari, Gholamhosain; Hajimahmoodzadeh, Morteza; Fallah, Hamid Reza; Varnamkhasti, Mohsen Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Films of silver nanoparticles have optical properties that are useful for applications such as plasmonic light trapping in solar cells. We report on the simple fabrication of Ag nanoparticle films via thermal evaporation, with and without subsequent annealing. These films result in a random array of particles of various shapes and sizes. The modeling of such a vast collection of particles is still beyond reach of the modern computers. We show that it is possible to represent the silver island films by the Bergman effective mediums with the same optical properties. The effective medium method provides us with deep insight about the shape, the size and the distribution of nanoparticles. The far field simulations of solar cells, in which the silver island film is replaced with an effective medium layer, show a reduction in the absorption of active layer. Besides, the near field simulations based on finite-difference time-domain technique demonstrate that the near field effects on active layer absorption are negligible and this method highlights the importance of nanoparticles shapes. The PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells with embedded silver island films are fabricated, and it is found that their performances show the similar trend. This insight can be used for the optical analysis of thermally evaporated Ag nanoparticle films for the improvement of organic solar cells.

  18. Ag nanoparticles enhanced near-IR emission from Er3+ ions doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jiani; Xu, Tiefeng; Wu, Yi; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Yinsheng

    2013-10-01

    Vitreous materials containing rare-earth (RE) ions and metallic nanoparticles (NPs) attract considerable interest because the presence of the NPs may lead to an intensification of luminescence. In this work, the characteristics of 1.54 μm luminescence for the Er3+ ions doped bismuthate glasses containing Ag NPs were studied under 980 nm excitation. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag NPs appears from 500 to 1500 nm. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image reveals that the Ag NPs are dispersed homogeneously with the size from 2 to 7 nm. The strength parameters Ωt(t = 2, 4, 6), spontaneous emission probability (A), radiative lifetime (τ) and stimulated emission section (σem) of Er3+ ions were calculated by the Judd-Ofelt theory. When the glass contains 0.2 wt% AgCl, the 1.54 μm fluorescence intensity of Er3+ reaches a maximum value, which is 7.2 times higher than that of glass without Ag NPs. The Ag NPs embedded glasses show significantly fluorescence enhancement of Er3+ ions by local field enhancement from SPR.

  19. Modeling pulsed-laser melting of embedded semiconductor nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, C.A.; Guzman, J.; Boswell-Koller, C.N.; Sherburne, M.P.; Mastandrea, J.P.; Bustillo, K.C.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2011-05-18

    Pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve a fast quench rate in both thin films and nanoparticles. A model for the size evolution during PLM of nanoparticles confined in a transparent matrix, such as those created by ion-beam synthesis, is presented. A self-consistent mean-field rate equations approach that has been used successfully to model ion beam synthesis of germanium nanoparticles in silica is extended to include the PLM process. The PLM model includes classical optical absorption, multiscale heat transport by both analytical and finite difference methods, and melting kinetics for confined nanoparticles. The treatment of nucleation and coarsening behavior developed for the ion beam synthesis model is modified to allow for a non-uniform temperature gradient and for interacting liquid and solid particles with different properties. The model allows prediction of the particle size distribution after PLM under various laser fluences, starting from any particle size distribution including as-implanted or annealed simulated samples. A route for narrowing the size distribution of embedded nanoparticles is suggested, with simulated distribution widths as low as 15% of the average size.

  20. Modeling pulsed-laser melting of embedded semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, C. A.; Guzman, J.; Boswell-Koller, C. N.; Sherburne, M. P.; Mastandrea, J. P.; Bustillo, K. C.; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    Pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve a fast quench rate in both thin films and nanoparticles. A model for the size evolution during PLM of nanoparticles confined in a transparent matrix, such as those created by ion-beam synthesis, is presented. A self-consistent mean-field rate equations approach that has been used successfully to model ion beam synthesis of germanium nanoparticles in silica is extended to include the PLM process. The PLM model includes classical optical absorption, multiscale heat transport by both analytical and finite difference methods, and melting kinetics for confined nanoparticles. The treatment of nucleation and coarsening behavior developed for the ion beam synthesis model is modified to allow for a nonuniform temperature gradient and for interacting liquid and solid particles with different properties. The model allows prediction of the particle size distribution after PLM under various laser fluences, starting from any particle size distribution including as-implanted or annealed simulated samples. A route for narrowing the size distribution of embedded nanoparticles is suggested, with simulated distribution widths as low as 15% of the average size.

  1. Supported Membranes Embedded with Fixed Arrays of Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We present a supported membrane platform consisting of a fluid lipid bilayer membrane embedded with a fixed array of gold nanoparticles. The system is realized by preforming a hexagonal array of gold nanoparticles (∼5–7 nm) with controlled spacing (∼50–150 nm) fixed to a silica or glass substrate by block copolymer lithography. Subsequently, a supported membrane is assembled over the intervening bare substrate. Proteins or other ligands can be associated with the fluid lipid component, the fixed nanoparticle component, or both, providing a hybrid interface consisting of mobile and immobile components with controlled geometry. We test different biochemical coupling strategies to bind individual proteins to the particles surrounded by a fluid lipid membrane. The coupling efficiency to nanoparticles and the influence of nanoparticle arrays on the surrounding membrane integrity are characterized by fluorescence imaging, correlation spectroscopy, and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. Finally, the functionality of this system for live cell experiments is tested using the ephrin-A1–EphA2 juxtacrine signaling interaction in human breast epithelial cells. PMID:21967595

  2. Enzyme immobilization on Ag nanoparticles/polyaniline nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Crespilho, Frank N; Iost, Rodrigo M; Travain, Silmar A; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2009-06-15

    We show a simple strategy to obtain an efficient enzymatic bioelectrochemical device, in which urease was immobilized on electroactive nanostructured membranes (ENMs) made with polyaniline and silver nanoparticles (AgNP) stabilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PAni/PVA-AgNP). Fabrication of the modified electrodes comprised the chemical deposition of polyaniline followed by drop-coating of PVA-AgNP and urease, resulting in a final ITO/PAni/PVA-AgNP/urease electrode configuration. For comparison, the electrochemical performance of ITO/PAni/urease electrodes (without Ag nanoparticles) was also studied. The performance of the modified electrodes toward urea hydrolysis was investigated via amperometric measurements, revealing a fast increase in cathodic current with a well-defined peak upon addition of urea to the electrolytic solution. The cathodic currents for the ITO/PAni/PVA-AgNP/urease electrodes were significantly higher than for the ITO/PAni/urease electrodes. The friendly environment provided by the ITO/PAni/PVA-AgNP electrode to the immobilized enzyme promoted efficient catalytic conversion of urea into ammonium and bicarbonate ions. Using the Michaelis-Menten kinetics equation, a K(M)(app) of 2.7 mmol L(-1) was obtained, indicating that the electrode architecture employed may be advantageous for fabrication of enzymatic devices with improved biocatalytic properties.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of bone cements embedded with organic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Perni, Stefano; Thenault, Victorien; Abdo, Pauline; Margulis, Katrin; Magdassi, Shlomo; Prokopovich, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Infections after orthopedic surgery are a very unwelcome outcome; despite the widespread use of antibiotics, their incidence can be as high as 10%. This risk is likely to increase as antibiotics are gradually losing efficacy as a result of bacterial resistance; therefore, novel antimicrobial approaches are required. Parabens are a class of compounds whose antimicrobial activity is employed in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. We developed propylparaben nanoparticles that are hydrophilic, thus expanding the applicability of parabens to aqueous systems. In this paper we assess the possibility of employing paraben nanoparticles as antimicrobial compound in bone cements. The nanoparticles were embedded in various types of bone cement (poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA], hydroxyapatite, and brushite) and the antimicrobial activity was determined against common causes of postorthopedic surgery infections such as: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Nanoparticles at concentrations as low as 1% w/w in brushite bone cement were capable of preventing pathogens growth, 5% w/w was needed for hydroxyapatite bone cement, while 7% w/w was required for PMMA bone cement. No detrimental effect was determined by the addition of paraben nanoparticles on bone cement compression strength and cytocompatibility. Our results demonstrate that paraben nanoparticles can be encapsulated in bone cement, providing concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity; furthermore, lower concentrations are needed in calcium phosphate (brushite and hydroxyapatite) than in acrylic (PMMA) bone cements. These nanoparticles are effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria, including those already resistant to the antibiotics routinely employed in orthopedic applications, such as gentamicin.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of bone cements embedded with organic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Perni, Stefano; Thenault, Victorien; Abdo, Pauline; Margulis, Katrin; Magdassi, Shlomo; Prokopovich, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Infections after orthopedic surgery are a very unwelcome outcome; despite the widespread use of antibiotics, their incidence can be as high as 10%. This risk is likely to increase as antibiotics are gradually losing efficacy as a result of bacterial resistance; therefore, novel antimicrobial approaches are required. Parabens are a class of compounds whose antimicrobial activity is employed in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. We developed propylparaben nanoparticles that are hydrophilic, thus expanding the applicability of parabens to aqueous systems. In this paper we assess the possibility of employing paraben nanoparticles as antimicrobial compound in bone cements. The nanoparticles were embedded in various types of bone cement (poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA], hydroxyapatite, and brushite) and the antimicrobial activity was determined against common causes of postorthopedic surgery infections such as: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Nanoparticles at concentrations as low as 1% w/w in brushite bone cement were capable of preventing pathogens growth, 5% w/w was needed for hydroxyapatite bone cement, while 7% w/w was required for PMMA bone cement. No detrimental effect was determined by the addition of paraben nanoparticles on bone cement compression strength and cytocompatibility. Our results demonstrate that paraben nanoparticles can be encapsulated in bone cement, providing concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity; furthermore, lower concentrations are needed in calcium phosphate (brushite and hydroxyapatite) than in acrylic (PMMA) bone cements. These nanoparticles are effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria, including those already resistant to the antibiotics routinely employed in orthopedic applications, such as gentamicin. PMID:26487803

  5. Synergistic bactericidal activity of Ag-TiO₂ nanoparticles in both light and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghua; Noriega-Trevino, Maria Eugenia; Nino-Martinez, Nereyda; Marambio-Jones, Catalina; Wang, Jinwen; Damoiseaux, Robert; Ruiz, Facundo; Hoek, Eric M V

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput screening was employed to evaluate bactericidal activities of hybrid Ag-TiO₂ nanoparticles comprising variations in TiO₂ crystalline phase, Ag content, and synthesis method. Hybrid Ag-TiO₂ nanoparticles were prepared by either wet-impregnation or UV photo deposition onto both Degussa P25 and DuPont R902 TiO₂ nanoparticles. The presence of Ag was confirmed by ICP, TEM, and XRD analysis. The size of Ag nanoparticles formed on anatase/rutile P25 TiO₂ nanoparticles was smaller than those formed on pure rutile R902. When activated by UV light, all hybrid Ag-TiO₂ nanoparticles exhibited stronger bactericidal activity than UV alone, Ag/UV, or UV/TiO₂. For experiments conducted in the dark, bactericidal activity of Ag-TiO₂ nanoparticles was greater than either bare TiO₂ (inert) or pure Ag nanoparticles, suggesting that the hybrid materials produced a synergistic antibacterial effect unrelated to photoactivity. Moreover, less Ag(+) dissolved from Ag-TiO₂ nanoparticles than from Ag nanoparticles, indicating the antibacterial activities of Ag-TiO₂ was not only caused by releasing of toxic metal ions. It is clear that nanotechnology can produce more effective bactericides; however, the challenge remains to identify practical ways to take advantage of these exciting new material properties.

  6. PDMS embedded Ag clusters: Coalescence and cluster-matrix interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roese, S.; Engemann, D.; Hoffmann, S.; Latussek, K.; Sternemann, C.; Hövel, H.

    2016-05-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has proven to be a suitable embedding medium for silver clusters to prevent aggregation. In order to investigate the influence of the PDMS on the electronic and local atomic structure of the clusters the measurement of x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra for different coverages of silver clusters in PDMS and calculations of corresponding XANES spectra have been performed. The coalescence process and the cluster-PDMS interaction were investigated with XANES.

  7. Membrane deformation controlled by monolayer composition of embedded amphiphilic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lehn, Reid; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    In recent work, we have shown that charged, amphiphilic nanoparticles (NPs) can spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers, embedding the NP in a conformation resembling a transmembrane protein. Many embedded membrane proteins exert an influence on surrounding lipids that lead to deformation and membrane-mediated interactions that may be essential for function. Similarly, embedded NPs will also induce membrane deformations related to the same physicochemical forces. Unlike many transmembrane proteins, however, the highly charged NPs may exert preferential interactions on surrounding lipid head groups. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to show that the membrane around embedded particles may experience local thinning, head group reorientation, and an increase in lipid density depending on the size and surface composition of the NP. We quantify the extent of these deformations and illustrate the complex interplay between lipid tail group and head group interactions that go beyond pure thickness deformations that may be expected from coarse-grained or continuum models. This work thus suggests guidelines for the design of particles that spontaneously partition into lipid bilayers and influence local membrane mechanical properties in a targeted manner.

  8. In situ X-ray diffraction study of the growth of silver nanoparticles embedded in silica film by ion irradiation: The effect of volume fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Fouran; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kulriya, Pawan Kumar; Pivin, Jean Claude

    2013-09-01

    The effect of volume fraction of silver (Ag) on the growth of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded in ion-irradiated silica films is reported. Films with low volume fraction (LVF) and high volume fraction (HVF) of Ag in silica matrix were prepared by magnetron co-sputtering. The growth of AgNPs under 120 MeV Ag ion irradiation is monitored in situ using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). It is observed that the film with LVF shows the growth of AgNPs in a nearly single ion impact region, while the film with HVF shows a monotonous growth even in the region of multiple ion impacts. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) experiments are also performed to determine the exact volume fraction of Ag in the silica matrix and to understand the role of sputtering and diffusion processes on the growth of AgNPs. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is carried out to obtain further evidence of the mechanisms of growth. Our study reveals that the growth of embedded nanoparticles strongly depends on the volume fraction of metal in the matrices and affects the dipolar interactions among such noble metal NPs.

  9. In Situ Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticle Embedded Hybrid Soft Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Divya, Kizhmuri P; Miroshnikov, Mikhail; Dutta, Debjit; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M; John, George

    2016-09-20

    The allure of integrating the tunable properties of soft nanomaterials with the unique optical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles has led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. A promising method for the synthesis of such organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials is afforded by the in situ generation of metal nanoparticles within a host organic template. Due to their tunable surface morphology and porosity, soft organic materials such as gels, liquid crystals, and polymers that are derived from various synthetic or natural compounds can act as templates for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. This method provides stabilization to the metal nanoparticles by the organic soft material and advantageously precludes the use of external reducing or capping agents in many instances. In this Account, we exemplify the green chemistry approach for synthesizing these materials, both in the choice of gelators as soft material frameworks and in the reduction mechanisms that generate the metal nanoparticles. Established herein is the core design principle centered on conceiving multifaceted amphiphilic soft materials that possess the ability to self-assemble and reduce metal ions into nanoparticles. Furthermore, these soft materials stabilize the in situ generated metal nanoparticles and retain their self-assembly ability to generate metal nanoparticle embedded homogeneous organic-inorganic hybrid materials. We discuss a remarkable example of vegetable-based drying oils as host templates for metal ions, resulting in the synthesis of novel hybrid nanomaterials. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles via polymers and self-assembled materials fabricated via cardanol (a bioorganic monomer derived from cashew nut shell liquid) are also explored in this Account. The organic-inorganic hybrid structures were characterized by several techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and

  10. Broadband light absorption of silicon nanowires embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Lei; Ji, Chun-Lei; Li, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays with broadband light absorption is proposed in this paper. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were utilized to obtain absorptivity and band diagrams for both SiNWs and SiNWs embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays. A direct relationship between waveguide modes and extraordinary absorptivity is established qualitatively, which helps to optimal design the structure parameters to achieve broadband absorptivity. After introducing Ag nano-hole arrays at the rear side of SiNWs, the band modes are extended into leaky regions and light energy can be fully absorbed, resulting in high absorptivity at long wavelength. Severe reflection is also suppressed by light trapping capability of SiNWs at short wavelength. Over 70% average absorptivity from 400 nm to 1100 nm is realized finally. This kinds of design give promising route for high efficiency solar cells and optical absorbers.

  11. Organic memory device with polyaniline nanoparticles embedded as charging elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Kim, Minkeun; Oh, Sewook; Jung, Hunsang; Kim, Yejin; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Kim, Yong-Sang; Ho Lee, Hyun

    2012-04-01

    Polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI NPs) were synthesized and fabricated as charging elements for organic memory devices. The PANI NPs charging layer was self-assembled by epoxy-amine bonds between 3-glycidylpropyl trimethoxysilane functionalized dielectrics and PANI NPs. A memory window of 5.8 V (ΔVFB) represented by capacitance-voltage hysteresis was obtained for metal-pentacene-insulator-silicon capacitor. In addition, program/erase operations controlled by gate bias (-/+90 V) were demonstrated in the PANI NPs embedded pentacene thin film transistor device with polyvinylalcohol dielectric on flexible polyimide substrate. These results can be extended to development of fully organic-based electronic device.

  12. Enhanced chemiluminescence of the luminol-AgNO3 system by Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Shifeng; Sun, Huimin; Wang, Dong; Hong, Jianguo; Tao, Shanjun; Yu, Haiyin; Wang, Xiuhua; Wei, Xianwen

    2012-01-01

    The oxidation reaction of luminol with AgNO(3) can produce chemiluminescence (CL) in the presence of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in alkaline solution. Based on the studies of UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and CL spectra, a CL enhancement mechanism is proposed. The CL emission spectrum of the luminol-AgNO(3)-Ag NPs system indicated that the luminophore was still 3-aminophthalate. On injection of silver nanoparticles into the mixture of luminol and AgNO(3), they catalysed the reduction of AgNO(3) by luminol. The product luminol radicals reacted with the dissolved oxygen, to produce a strong CL emission. As a result, the CL intensity was substantially increased. Moreover, the influences of 18 amino acids, e.g. cystine, tyrosine and asparagine, and 25 organic compounds, including gallic acid, tannic acid and hydroquinone, on the luminol-AgNO(3)-Ag NPs CL system were studied by a flow-injection procedure, which led to an effective method for detecting these compounds.

  13. Modified embedded-atom potential for B2-MgAg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Interatomic potentials for pure Ag and Mg-Ag alloy have been developed in the framework of the second nearest-neighbors modified embedded-atom method (MEAM). The validity and the transferability of the Ag potential were obtained by calculating physical, mechanical, thermal, and dislocation related properties. Since the {1 1 1}-generalized stacking fault energy curves obtained from first-principle calculations was used to develop the Ag potential, the critical resolved shear stress to move screw dislocations in Ag single crystal is in good agreement with the experimental data. By combining the ability of the potential to predict the surface energies with its accuracy in describing dislocation properties, the potential is thought to be a predictive model for analyzing the fracture properties of Ag. In addition, the performance of the potential was tested under dynamics conditions by predicting the melting temperature, where a good agreement with experimental value was found. The Ag-MEAM potential was then coupled to an existing Mg-MEAM potential to describe the properties of the binary system MgAg. While the heat of formation, the elastic constants, and the (1 1 0) γ-surface of the MgAg compound in the B2 phase were used to parameterize the potential, heat of formation for MgAg alloys with different stoichiometry, thermal properties of the B2-MgAg compound, as well as dislocation related properties in B2-MgAg compound were tested to validate the transferability of the potential. The heat of formation of Mg5Ag2, MgAg, and MgAg3, the elastic constants and the thermal properties of B2-MgAg obtained with the proposed potential align with first-principles and experimental data. In addition, the core structure of both <0 0 1> and <1 1 1> dislocations in {1 1 0} are in agreement with theoretical predictions, and the magnitudes of the critical resolved shear stress obtained at 0 K for both slip systems partially validate the slip behavior of B2-MgAg

  14. Transport of engineered silver (Ag) nanoparticles through partially fractured sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, Christoph; Braun, Anika; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-08-01

    Transport behavior and fate of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in the subsurface is of major interest concerning soil and groundwater protection in order to avoid groundwater contamination of vital resources. Sandstone aquifers are important groundwater resources which are frequently used for public water supply in many regions of the world. The objective of this study is to get a better understanding of AgNP transport behavior in partially fractured sandstones. We executed AgNP transport studies on partially fissured sandstone drilling cores in laboratory experiments. The AgNP concentration and AgNP size in the effluent were analyzed using flow field-flow fractionation mainly. We employed inverse mathematical models on the measured AgNP breakthrough curves to identify and quantify relevant transport processes. Physicochemical filtration, time-dependent blocking due to filling of favorable attachment sites and colloid-facilitated transport were identified as the major processes for AgNP mobility. Physicochemical filtration was found to depend on solute chemistry, mineralogy, pore size distribution and probably on physical and chemical heterogeneity. Compared to AgNP transport in undisturbed sandstone matrix reported in the literature, their mobility in partially fissured sandstone is enhanced probably due to larger void spaces and higher hydraulic conductivity.

  15. Three-dimensional lattice matching of epitaxially embedded nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Brelon J.; Anderson, Peter M.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2017-02-01

    For a given degree of in-plane lattice mismatch between a two-dimensional (2D) epitaxial layer and a substrate (εIP*), there is a critical thickness above which interfacial defects form to relax the elastic strain energy. Here, we extend the 2D lattice-matching conditions to three-dimensions in order to predict the critical size beyond which epitaxially encased nanoparticles, characterized by both εIP* and out-of-plane lattice mismatch (εOP*), relax by dislocation formation. The critical particle length (Lc) at which defect formation proceeds is determined by balancing the reduction in elastic energy associated with dislocation introduction with the corresponding increase in defect energy. Our results, which use a modified Eshelby inclusion technique for an embedded, arbitrarily-faceted nanoparticle, provide new insight to the nanoepitaxy of low dimensional structures, especially quantum dots and nanoprecipitates. By engineering εIP* and εOP*, the predicted Lc for nanoparticles can be increased to well beyond the case of encapsulation in a homogenous matrix. For the case of truncated pyramidal shaped InAs, Lc 10.8 nm when fully embedded in GaAs (εIP* = εOP* = - 0.072); 16.4 nm when the particle is grown on GaAs, but capped with InSb (εIP* = - 0.072 and εOP* =+0.065); and a maximum of 18.4 nm if capped with an alloy corresponding to εOP* =+0.037. The effect, which we term "3D Poisson-stabilization" provides a means to increase the epitaxial strain tolerance in epitaxial heterostructures by tailoring εOP*.

  16. Antibacterial performance of Ag nanoparticles and AgGO nanocomposites prepared via rapid microwave-assisted synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chook, Soon Wei; Chia, Chin Hua; Zakaria, Sarani; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Chee, Kah Leong; Huang, Nay Ming; Neoh, Hui Min; Lim, Hong Ngee; Jamal, Rahman; Rahman, Raha Mohd Fadhil Raja Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles and silver-graphene oxide nanocomposites were fabricated using a rapid and green microwave irradiation synthesis method. Silver nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were formed under microwave irradiation for both samples. The silver nanoparticles were distributed randomly on the surface of graphene oxide. The Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetry analysis results showed that the graphene oxide for the AgNP-graphene oxide (AgGO) sample was partially reduced during the in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Both silver nanoparticles and AgGO nanocomposites exhibited stronger antibacterial properties against Gram-negative bacteria ( Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) than against Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphyloccocus aureus and Staphyloccocus epidermidis). The AgGO nanocomposites consisting of approximately 40 wt.% silver can achieve antibacterial performance comparable to that of neat silver nanoparticles.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of BSA Conjugated Silver Nanoparticles (Ag/BSA Nanoparticles) and Evaluation of Biological Properties of Ag/BSA Nanoparticles and Ag/BSA Nanoparticles Loaded Poly(hydroxy butyrate valerate) PHBV Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaye, Almaz

    Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the etiological agents of several infectious diseases. Antibiotic resistance by these three microbes has emerged as a prevalent problem due in part to the misuse of existing antibiotics and the lack of novel antibiotics. Nanoparticles have emerged as an alternative antibacterial agents to conventional antibiotics owing to their high surface area to volume ratio and their unique chemical and physical properties. Among the nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have gained increasing attention because silver nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial activity against a range of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Nanoparticles of well-defined chemistry and morphology can be used in broad biomedical applications, especially in bone tissue engineering applications, where bone infection by bacteria can be acute and lethal. It is commonly noted in the literature that the activity of nanoparticles against microorganisms is dependent upon the size and concentration of the nanoparticles as well as the chemistry of stabilizing agent. To the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive study that evaluates the antibacterial activity of well characterized silver nanoparticles in particular Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) stabilized against S. aureus and E. coli and cytotoxicity level of BSA stabilized silver nanoparticles towards osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) is currently lacking. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to characterize protein conjugated silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 and BSA mixture. The formation of Ag/BSA nanoparticles was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The molar ratio of silver to BSA in the Ag/BSA nanoparticles was established to be 27+/- 3: 1, based on Thermogravimetric Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Based on atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering,and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) measurements, the particle size (diameter) of

  18. Accelerated CO2 transport on surface of AgO nanoparticles in ionic liquid BMIMBF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Dahye; Kang, Yong Soo; Kang, Sang Wook

    2015-11-01

    The AgO nanoparticles were utilized for a CO2 separation membrane. The AgO nanoparticles were successfully generated in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4) by favorable interaction between the surface of particles and the counteranion of BMIMBF4. The generated AgO nanoparticles were confirmed by TEM, and the average size was 20 nm. Coordinative interactions of dissociated AgO particles with BMIM+BF4- were investigated by FT-Raman spectroscopy. When the ionic liquid BMIMBF4 containing AgO nanoparticles was utilized as a CO2 separation membrane, the separation performance was largely enhanced.

  19. Accelerated CO2 transport on surface of AgO nanoparticles in ionic liquid BMIMBF4

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Dahye; Kang, Yong Soo; Kang, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    The AgO nanoparticles were utilized for a CO2 separation membrane. The AgO nanoparticles were successfully generated in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4) by favorable interaction between the surface of particles and the counteranion of BMIMBF4. The generated AgO nanoparticles were confirmed by TEM, and the average size was 20 nm. Coordinative interactions of dissociated AgO particles with BMIM+BF4− were investigated by FT-Raman spectroscopy. When the ionic liquid BMIMBF4 containing AgO nanoparticles was utilized as a CO2 separation membrane, the separation performance was largely enhanced. PMID:26549605

  20. Ag/FeCo/Ag core/shell/shell magnetic nanoparticles with plasmonic imaging capability.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mari; Mohan, Priyank; Nakade, Akiko; Higashimine, Koichi; Mott, Derrick; Hamada, Tsutomu; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Maenosono, Shinya

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have been used to separate various species such as bacteria, cells, and proteins. In this study, we synthesized Ag/FeCo/Ag core/shell/shell NPs designed for magnetic separation of subcellular components like intracellular vesicles. A benefit of these NPs is that their silver metal content allows plasmon scattering to be used as a tool to observe detection by the NPs easily and semipermanently. Therefore, these NPs are considered a potential alternative to existing fluorescent probes like dye molecules and colloidal quantum dots. In addition, the Ag core inside the NPs suppresses the oxidation of FeCo because of electron transfer from the Ag core to the FeCo shell, even though FeCo is typically susceptible to oxidation. The surfaces of the Ag/FeCo/Ag NPs were functionalized with ε-poly-L-lysine-based hydrophilic polymers to make them water-soluble and biocompatible. The imaging capability of the polymer-functionalized NPs induced by plasmon scattering from the Ag core was investigated. The response of the NPs to a magnetic field using liposomes as platforms and applying a magnetic field during observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy was assessed. The results of the magnetophoresis experiments of liposomes allowed us to calculate the magnetic force to which each liposome was subjected.

  1. Effect of cysteine and humic acids on bioavailability of Ag from Ag nanoparticles to a freshwater snail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Tasha Stoiber,; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Isabelle Romer,; Ruth Merrifeild,; Lead, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Metal-based engineered nanoparticles (NPs) will undergo transformations that will affect their bioavailability, toxicity and ecological risk when released to the environment, including interactions with dissolved organic material. The purpose of this paper is to determine how interactions with two different types of organic material affect the bioavailability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Silver uptake rates by the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were determined after exposure to 25 nmol l-1 of Ag as PVP AgNPs, PEG AgNPs or AgNO3, in the presence of either Suwannee River humic acid or cysteine, a high-affinity thiol-rich organic ligand. Total uptake rate of Ag from the two NPs was either increased or not strongly affected in the presence of 1 – 10 mg 1-1 humic acid. Humic substances contain relatively few strong ligands for Ag explaining their limited effects on Ag uptake rate. In contrast, Ag uptake rate was substantially reduced by cysteine. Three components of uptake from the AgNPs were quantified in the presence of cysteine using a biodynamic modeling approach: uptake of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs, uptake of a polymer or large (>3kD) Ag-cysteine complex and uptake of the nanoparticle itself. Addition of 1:1 Ag:cysteine reduced concentrations of dissolved Ag, which contributed to, but did not fully explain the reductions in uptake. A bioavailable Ag-cysteine complex (> 3kD) appeared to be the dominant avenue of uptake from both PVP AgNPs and PEG AgNPs in the presence of cysteine. Quantifying the different avenues of uptake sets the stage for studies to assess toxicity unique to NPs.

  2. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films. PMID:26156001

  3. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films.

  4. Monolithic cryopolymers with embedded nanoparticles. I. Capillary liquid chromatography of proteins using neutral embedded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dario Arrua, R; Nordborg, Anna; Haddad, Paul R; Hilder, Emily F

    2013-01-18

    Rigid monolithic cryostructures were prepared in capillary format at sub-zero temperatures and used successfully in the separation of proteins by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The polymerization mixture consisted of poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) M(n)∼258 as the single monomer, a mixture of dioxane and water as the porogen and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) as the initiator system. At sub-zero temperatures, the solvent mixture used as the porogen is frozen, leading to the formation of a polymeric structure templated by the solvent crystals that are formed. The optimization of the polymerization reaction was carried out by studying the influence of different reaction parameters including the temperature of the reaction, monomer concentration and solvent, on the porous characteristics of the polymers obtained. Separations were performed in HIC mode using 3 M ammonium sulfate in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.9 to 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.9 over a 15 min gradient. The addition of neutral nanoparticles synthesized by mini-emulsion polymerization greatly improved the separation of the protein mixture, doubling the peak capacity of the control column without nanoparticles (from 7 to 17). Although the peak capacities and resolution values achieved were lower than those reported for conventional methacrylate monolithic columns, the use of this polymerization approach allows the preparation of polymeric structures which presented a more open porous structure and consequently exhibited significantly higher permeability than conventional polymer monoliths.

  5. Embedded Ag mesh electrodes for polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices on flexible substrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Hu, Jin; Chen, Linsen

    2016-10-31

    An embedded Ag mesh transparent conductive electrode (TCE) on flexible substrate, which is suitable for polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device, is demonstrated. With the combination of soft ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography and scrape technique, it offers parallel processing with high resolution (10000dpi), as well as remarkable simplicity and fully controllable flexibility to tailor the transmittance and sheet resistance. While being able to achieve maximum transmittance 60% in the on state and the minimum 0.1% in the off state, the PDLC smart window displays low sheet resistance (5.58 Ω/sq.) under low driven voltage (30V) safe for human. The main advantage of adoption of PDLC as an optically scattering element lies in the fact that there needs no mechanical part for in situ tunability. An enhancement factor of 50 of the diffraction intensity is observed experimentally. The embedded Ag mesh TCE for PDLC device has an environmentally-friendly additive manufacturing process inherently. Compared to existing solutions, the fabricated sample shows superior performance in both optoelectronic and mechanic characteristics. We envision that the embedded Ag mesh TCE will enable economically widen application of PDLC devices on flexible substrate.

  6. Cobalt magnetic nanoparticles embedded in carbon matrix: biofunctional validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krolow, Matheus Z.; Monte, Leonardo G.; Remião, Mariana H.; Hartleben, Cláudia P.; Moreira, Ângela N.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Piva, Evandro; Conceição, Fabricio R.; Carreño, Neftalí L. V.

    2012-09-01

    Carbon nanostructures and nanocomposites display versatile allotropic morphologies, physico-chemical properties and have a wide range of applications in mechanics, electronics, biotechnology, structural material, chemical processing, and energy management. In this study we report the synthesis, characterization, and biotechnological application of cobalt magnetic nanoparticles, with diameter approximately 15-40 nm, embedded in carbon structure (Co/C-MN). A single-step chemical process was used in the synthesis of the Co/C-MN. The Co/C-MN has presented superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature an essential property for immunoseparation assays carried out here. To stimulate interactions between proteins and Co/C-MN, this nanocomposite was functionalized with acrylic acid (AA). We have showed the bonding of different proteins onto Co/C-AA surface using immunofluorescence assay. A Co/C-AA coated with monoclonal antibody anti-pathogenic Leptospira spp. was able to capture leptospires, suggesting that it could be useful in immunoseparation assays.

  7. Flexible Textile-Based Organic Transistors Using Graphene/Ag Nanoparticle Electrode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn; Kwon, Yeon Ju; Lee, Kang Eun; Oh, Youngseok; Um, Moon-Kwang; Seong, Dong Gi; Lee, Jea Uk

    2016-08-16

    Highly flexible and electrically-conductive multifunctional textiles are desirable for use in wearable electronic applications. In this study, we fabricated multifunctional textile composites by vacuum filtration and wet-transfer of graphene oxide films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile in association with embedding Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) to improve the electrical conductivity. A flexible organic transistor can be developed by direct transfer of a dielectric/semiconducting double layer on the graphene/AgNP textile composite, where the textile composite was used as both flexible substrate and conductive gate electrode. The thermal treatment of a textile-based transistor enhanced the electrical performance (mobility = 7.2 cm²·V(-1)·s(-1), on/off current ratio = 4 × 10⁵, and threshold voltage = -1.1 V) due to the improvement of interfacial properties between the conductive textile electrode and the ion-gel dielectric layer. Furthermore, the textile transistors exhibited highly stable device performance under extended bending conditions (with a bending radius down to 3 mm and repeated tests over 1000 cycles). We believe that our simple methods for the fabrication of graphene/AgNP textile composite for use in textile-type transistors can potentially be applied to the development of flexible large-area electronic clothes.

  8. Flexible Textile-Based Organic Transistors Using Graphene/Ag Nanoparticle Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn; Kwon, Yeon Ju; Lee, Kang Eun; Oh, Youngseok; Um, Moon-Kwang; Seong, Dong Gi; Lee, Jea Uk

    2016-01-01

    Highly flexible and electrically-conductive multifunctional textiles are desirable for use in wearable electronic applications. In this study, we fabricated multifunctional textile composites by vacuum filtration and wet-transfer of graphene oxide films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile in association with embedding Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) to improve the electrical conductivity. A flexible organic transistor can be developed by direct transfer of a dielectric/semiconducting double layer on the graphene/AgNP textile composite, where the textile composite was used as both flexible substrate and conductive gate electrode. The thermal treatment of a textile-based transistor enhanced the electrical performance (mobility = 7.2 cm2·V−1·s−1, on/off current ratio = 4 × 105, and threshold voltage = −1.1 V) due to the improvement of interfacial properties between the conductive textile electrode and the ion-gel dielectric layer. Furthermore, the textile transistors exhibited highly stable device performance under extended bending conditions (with a bending radius down to 3 mm and repeated tests over 1000 cycles). We believe that our simple methods for the fabrication of graphene/AgNP textile composite for use in textile-type transistors can potentially be applied to the development of flexible large-area electronic clothes. PMID:28335276

  9. Optical nonlinearities of Au nanoparticles and Au/Ag coreshells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jae Tae; Yang, Qiguang; Kim, Wan-Joong; Heo, Jinhwa; Ma, Seong-Min; Austin, Jasmine; Yun, Wan Soo; Jung, Sung Soo; Han, Sang Woo; Tabibi, Bagher; Temple, Doyle

    2009-02-01

    Au nanoparticles exhibited both negative and positive nonlinear absorptions with ground-state plasmon bleaching and free-carrier absorption that could be origins of the saturable and reverse-saturable optical properties. Au/Ag coreshells displayed only positive nonlinear absorption and reverse-saturable optical properties as a function of excitation intensity at the edge of surface-plasmon resonance, which implies no ground-state plasmon bleaching and the existence of two-photon absorption.

  10. Strongly visible-light responsive plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles for reduction of CO2 to methanol.

    PubMed

    An, Changhua; Wang, Jizhuang; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Meiyu; Ming, Xijuan; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Qinhui

    2012-09-21

    Plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a facile and versatile glycerol-mediated solution route. The as-prepared AgX:Ag nanoparticles exhibit regular shapes, i.e., cube-tetrapod-like AgCl:Ag nanoparticles and AgBr:Ag nanoplates. Compared with the pristine AgX, AgX:Ag nanocomposites display stronger absorption in the visible region due to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The calculation of bandgaps and band positions indicates the as-achieved AgX:Ag nanoparticles can be used as a class of potential photocatalyst for the reduction of CO(2). For example, reduction of CO(2) under visible light irradiation with the assistance of the anisotropic AgX:Ag nanoparticles yields as much as 100 μmol methanol in the products. Furthermore, the AgX:Ag nanoparticles can maintain its structure and activity after 3 runs of reactions. Therefore, the present route opens an avenue to acquire plasmonic photocatalysts for conversion of CO(2) into useful organic compounds.

  11. Facile synthesis of AgCl/polydopamine/Ag nanoparticles with in-situ laser improving Raman scattering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wenqi; Wang, Lin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    We reported a simple and fast method to prepare a composite material of polydopamine (PDA) adlayer covered cubic AgCl core, which was inlaid with Ag nanoparticles (NPs), shortly named as AgCl/PDA/AgNPs. The resultant AgCl/PDA/AgNPs could be employed as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for in-situ detection and the SERS activity could be further greatly improved due to the production of more AgNPs upon laser irradiation. With 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy) as the probe molecule, the enhancement factor could reach 107. Additionally, such SERS substrate shows good reproducibility with relative standard deviation of 7.32% and long term stability (after storage for 100 days under ambient condition, SERS intensity decay is less than 25%). In-situ elevating SERS activity of AgCl/PDA/AgNPs induced by laser may be beneficial to sensitive analysis in practical fields.

  12. Highly quasi-monodisperse ag nanoparticles on titania nanotubes by impregnative aqueous ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Antonio, J A; Cortes-Jácome, M A; Angeles-Chavez, C; López-Salinas, E; Quintana, P

    2009-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles were homogenously dispersed on titania nanotubes (NT), which were prepared by alkali hydrothermal methodology and dried at 373 K. Ag(+) incorporation was done by impregnative ion exchange of aqueous silver nitrate onto NT. First, Ag(+) ions incorporate into the layers of nanotube walls, and then, upon heat treatment under N(2) at 573 and 673 K, they migrate and change into Ag(2)O and Ag(0) nanoparticles, respectively. In both cases, Ag nanoparticles are highly dispersed, decorating the nanotubes in a polka-dot pattern. The Ag particle size distribution is very narrow, being ca. 4 +/- 2 nm without any observable agglomeration. The reduction of Ag(2)O into Ag(0) octahedral nanoparticles occurs spontaneously and topotactically when annealing, without the aid of any reducing agent. The population of Ag(0) nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature. An electron charge transfer from NT support to Ag(0) nanoparticles, because of a strong interaction, is responsible for considerable visible light absorption in Ag(0) nanoparticles supported on NT.

  13. In situ growth of Ag nanoparticles on α-Ag2WO4 under electron irradiation: probing the physical principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Miguel, Miguel A.; da Silva, Edison Z.; Zannetti, Sonia M.; Cilense, Mario; Fabbro, Maria T.; Gracia, Lourdes; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2016-06-01

    Exploiting the plasmonic behavior of Ag nanoparticles grown on α-Ag2WO4 is a widely employed strategy to produce efficient photocatalysts, ozone sensors, and bactericides. However, a description of the atomic and electronic structure of the semiconductor sites irradiated by electrons is still not available. Such a description is of great importance to understand the mechanisms underlying these physical processes and to improve the design of silver nanoparticles to enhance their activities. Motivated by this, we studied the growth of silver nanoparticles to investigate this novel class of phenomena using both transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. A theoretical framework based on density functional theory calculations (DFT), together with experimental analysis and measurements, were developed to examine the changes in the local geometrical and electronic structure of the materials. The physical principles for the formation of Ag nanoparticles on α-Ag2WO4 by electron beam irradiation are described. Quantum mechanical calculations based on DFT show that the (001) of α-Ag2WO4 displays Ag atoms with different coordination numbers. Some of them are able to diffuse out of the surface with a very low energy barrier (less than 0.1 eV), thus, initiating the growth of metallic Ag nanostructures and leaving Ag vacancies in the bulk material. These processes increase the structural disorder of α-Ag2WO4 as well as its electrical resistance as observed in the experimental measurements.

  14. Effect of Ag nanoparticles deposition on photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuan Wang, Qi; Hu, Jin-Wen; Zou, Lan-Hua; You, Jia-Wen

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3} was developed as novel photocatalyst. • The effect of Ag nanoparticles deposition on photocatalytic activity was investigated. • The activation and deactivation mechanism was proposed. - Abstract: A novel photocatalyst Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3} was prepared and the effect of Ag nanoparticles, photo-deposited on the surface of Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3}, on its photocatalytic activity was investigated. The as-prepared photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photo-degradation of rhodamine B dye under UV light irradiation. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 3} was initially enhanced with deposition of Ag nanoparticles, but subsequently declined with Ag nanoparticles overloaded. The possible mechanism was proposed based on experimental results. These findings may contribute to developing novel photocatalysts and understanding of fundamentals of Ag-based photocatalytic materials.

  15. Comparison of antibacterial activities of Ag@TiO2 and Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanalekshmi, K. I.; Meena, K. S.

    2014-07-01

    Core-shell type Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by one pot simultaneous reduction of AgNO3 and hydrolysis of Ti (IV) isopropoxide and Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by Stober's method. They were characterized by absorption, XRD, and HR-TEM techniques. XRD patterns show the presence of anatase form of TiO2 and amorphous form of SiO2 and the noble metal (Ag). High resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed that their size is below 50 nm. The antibacterial properties of Ag@TiO2 and Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were examined by the agar diffusion method. As a result E. coli and S. aureus were shown to be substantially inhibited by Ag@TiO2 and Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles. These results demonstrated that TiO2 and SiO2 supported on the surface of Ag NPs without aggregation was proved to have enhanced antibacterial activity.

  16. Photo-catalytic activity of Plasmonic Ag@AgCl nanoparticles (synthesized via a green route) for the effective degradation of Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Devi, Th Babita; Begum, Shamima; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-07-01

    This study reports a green process for the fabrication of Ag@AgCl (silver@silver chloride) nanoparticles by using Aquilaria agallocha (AA) leaves juice without using any external reagents. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, reaction time and concentration of Aquilaria agallocha leaves juice in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. From the FTIR spectra of leaves juice and phytochemicals test, it was found that flavonoids present in the leaves are responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions to Ag(0) species and leads to the formation of Ag@AgCl NPs. The synthesized Ag@AgCl NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase. Approximately, 99.46% degradation of Victoria Blue B dye were observed with Ag@AgCl NPs. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the Ag@AgCl nanoparticles was unchanged after 5cycles of operation.

  17. Conversion of Ag nanowires to AgCI nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2010-02-11

    A two-step approach has been developed to synthesize AgCl nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles by using Ag nanowires as chemical templates. In the first step, the Ag nanowires are oxidized with FeCl{sub 3} followed by a simultaneous precipitation reaction between Ag{sup +} and Cl{sup -} ions at room temperature, resulting in conversion of the Ag nanowires to AgCl nanowires as well as reduction of Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 2+} ions. In the second step, the Fe{sup 2+} ions generated in the first step reduce Au precursors (e.g., NaAuCl{sub 4}) to deposit Au nanoparticles on the surfaces of the AgCl nanowires, resulting in the formation of AgCl:Au composite nanowires. Because of strong surface plasmon resonance and chemical inertness of Au nanoparticles, the as-synthesized AgCl:Au nanowires exhibit enhanced absorption coefficient in the visible region and enhanced chemical stability to prevent them from degradation and aggregation. These unique properties enable the AgCl:Au nanowires to be used as a class of promising plasmonic photocatalysts driven by visible light. Preliminary results demonstrate these composite nanowires can efficiently decompose organics, such as methylene blue molecules, under illumination of white light.

  18. Marangoni flow of Ag nanoparticles from the fluid-fluid interface.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Donald D; Kang, Barry; Vigorita, John L; Amram, Alec; Spain, Eileen M

    2008-10-02

    Fluid flow is observed when a volume of passivated Ag nanoparticles suspended in chloroform is mixed with a water/ethanol (v/v) mixture containing acidified 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. Following mechanical agitation, Ag nanoparticles embedded in a film are driven from the organic-aqueous interface. A reddish-brown colored film, verified by transmission electron microscopy to contain uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles, is observed to spontaneously climb the interior surface of an ordinary, laboratory glass vial. This phenomenon is recorded by a digital video recorder, and a measurement of the distance traveled by the film front versus time is extracted. Surface (interfacial) tension gradients due to surfactant concentration, temperature, and electrostatic potential across immiscible fluids are known to drive interface motion; this well-known phenomenon is termed Marangoni flow or the Marangoni effect. Experimental results are presented that show the observed mass transfer is dependent on an acid surfactant concentration and on the volume fraction of water in the aqueous phase, consistent with fluid flow induced by interfacial tension gradients. In addition, an effective desorption rate constant for the Marangoni flow is measured in the range of approximately 0.01 to approximately 1 s(-1) from a fit to the relative film front distance traveled versus time data. The fit is based on a time-dependent expression for the surface (interface) excess for desorption kinetics. Such flow suggests that purposeful creation of interfacial tension gradients may aid in the transfer of 2- and 3-dimensional assemblies, made with nanostructures at the liquid-liquid interface, to solid surfaces.

  19. Comparison of fine needle aspiration biopsy and paraffin embedded tissue sections for measuring AgNOR proteins.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, S; Eroz, R; Cucer, N; Oktay, M; Türkeli, M

    2015-07-01

    Paraffin embedded tissue sections and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are important methods for diagnosis. We compared thyroid tissue obtained by FNAB to paraffin embedded sections to determine whether there were differences in detection of the amounts of argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region (AgNOR) proteins. Twenty-two patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included in the study. Slides were prepared with both FNAB tissue and 3 μm sections of paraffin embedded tissue, and stained for AgNOR. One hundred nuclei per individual were evaluated; total AgNOR number/nucleus (TAn/TNn) and total AgNOR area/nuclear area (TAa/TNa) of individual cells were determined. Mean TAn/TNn and TAa/TNa values were 4.800 ± 1.118 and 13.382 ± 2.612, respectively, for FNAB samples; corresponding values were 2.406 ± 0.649 and 8.49 ± 0.893, respectively, for paraffin embedded sections. The differences between FNAB materials and paraffin embedded tissue sections were significant for the mean TAn/TNn and TAa/TNa values. Significant differences in the amounts of AgNOR protein detected were found between FNAB and paraffin embedded tissue sections.

  20. Modulation of population density and size of silver nanoparticles embedded in bacterial cellulose via ammonia exposure: visual detection of volatile compounds in a piece of plasmonic nanopaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heli, B.; Morales-Narváez, E.; Golmohammadi, H.; Ajji, A.; Merkoçi, A.

    2016-04-01

    The localized surface plasmon resonance exhibited by noble metal nanoparticles can be sensitively tuned by varying their size and interparticle distances. We report that corrosive vapour (ammonia) exposure dramatically reduces the population density of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded within bacterial cellulose, leading to a larger distance between the remaining nanoparticles and a decrease in the UV-Vis absorbance associated with the AgNP plasmonic properties. We also found that the size distribution of AgNPs embedded in bacterial cellulose undergoes a reduction in the presence of volatile compounds released during food spoilage, modulating the studied nanoplasmonic properties. In fact, such a plasmonic nanopaper exhibits a change in colour from amber to light amber upon the explored corrosive vapour exposure and from amber to a grey or taupe colour upon fish or meat spoilage exposure. These phenomena are proposed as a simple visual detection of volatile compounds in a flexible, transparent, permeable and stable single-use nanoplasmonic membrane, which opens the way to innovative approaches and capabilities in gas sensing and smart packaging.The localized surface plasmon resonance exhibited by noble metal nanoparticles can be sensitively tuned by varying their size and interparticle distances. We report that corrosive vapour (ammonia) exposure dramatically reduces the population density of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded within bacterial cellulose, leading to a larger distance between the remaining nanoparticles and a decrease in the UV-Vis absorbance associated with the AgNP plasmonic properties. We also found that the size distribution of AgNPs embedded in bacterial cellulose undergoes a reduction in the presence of volatile compounds released during food spoilage, modulating the studied nanoplasmonic properties. In fact, such a plasmonic nanopaper exhibits a change in colour from amber to light amber upon the explored corrosive vapour exposure and

  1. A Study of Heterogeneous Catalysis by Nanoparticle-Embedded Paper-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Basheer, Chanbasha; Zare, Richard N

    2016-10-04

    We have developed nanoparticle-embedded paper-spray mass spectrometry for studying three types of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions: 1) Palladium-nanoparticle-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reactions, 2) palladium- or silver-nanoparticle-catalyzed 4-nitrophenol reduction, and 3) gold-nanoparticle-catalyzed glucose oxidation. These reactions were almost instantaneous on the nanocatalyst-embedded paper, which subsequently transferred the transient intermediates and products to a mass spectrometer for their detection. This in situ method of capturing transient intermediates and products from heterogeneous catalysis is highly promising for investigating the mechanism of catalysis and rapidly screening catalytic activity under ambient conditions.

  2. Raman gas sensing of modified Ag nanoparticle SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, NoSoung; Yoo, Hyung Keun; Hwang, In-Wook

    2014-03-01

    Recent progress in modified Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) using Ag nanoparticles makes them promising optical technique for direct gas sensing of interest. However, SERS has been shown to provide sub ppb level detection of the compounds in the vapor phase. The major problem with the sensitivity scaling-up was in the development of fabrication technology for stability and reproducibility of SERS substrates. We report an optimization of 1-propanethiol coated multiple Ag nanoparticle layers on SiO2 substrate as well as new records of real-time, simultaneous vapor phase detection of toluene and 1-2 dichlorobenzene by the radiation of fiber optic coupled 785 nm diode laser and spectrograph. Multiple depositions of Ag NPs were loaded on SiO2 and soaked in 1-propanethiol solution for 24 hours to modify the surface into hydrophobic due to the characteristics of vapor phase of our interests. Raman bands at 1003 cm-1 and 1130 cm-1 for toluene and 12DCB, respectively were compared to 1089 cm-1 and each gas concentration in 1000 mL flask were calculated as a function of each vapor phase ratio. The saturation of toluene and 12DCB were limited only by 800 ppm and the detectable range was 0.6-800 ppm.

  3. Preparation of AgBr Nanoparticles in Microemulsions Via Reaction of AgNO3 with CTAB Counterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husein, Maen M.; Rodil, Eva; Vera, Juan H.

    2007-10-01

    Nanoparticles of AgBr were prepared by precipitating AgBr in the water pools of microemulsions consisting of CTAB, n-butanol, isooctane and water. An aqueous solution of AgNO3 added to the microemulsion was the source of Ag+ ions. The formation of AgBr nanoparticles in microemulsions through direct reaction with the surfactant counterion is a novel approach aimed at decreasing the role of intermicellar nucleation on nanoparticle formation for rapid reactions. The availability of the surfactant counterion in every reverse micelle and the rapidity of the reaction with the counterion trigger nucleation within individual reverse micelles. The effect of the following variables on the particle size and size distribution was investigated: the surfactant and cosurfactant concentrations, moles of AgNO3 added, and water to surfactant mole ratio, R. High concentration of the surfactant or cosurfactant, or high water content of the microemulsion favored intermicellar nucleation and resulted in the formation of large particles with broad size distribution, while high amounts of AgNO3 favored nucleation within individual micelles and resulted in small nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. A blue shift in the UV absorption threshold corresponding to a decrease in the particle size was generally observed. Notably, the variation of the absorption peak size with the nanoparticle size was opposite to those reported by us in previous studies using different surfactants.

  4. Photocurrent enhancements of organic solar cells by altering dewetting of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleetham, Tyler; Choi, Jea-Young; Choi, Hyung Woo; Alford, Terry; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Taek Sung; Lee, Wook Seong; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Li, Jian; Kim, Inho

    2015-09-01

    Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into active layers of organic solar cells is one of the promising light trapping approaches. The size of metal nanoparticles is one of key factors to strong light trapping, and the size of thermally evaporated metal nanoparticles can be tuned by either post heat treatment or surface modification of substrates. We deposited Ag nanoparticles on ITO by varying nominal thicknesses, and post annealing was carried out to increase their size in radius. PEDOT:PSS was employed onto the ITO substrates as a buffer layer to alter the dewetting behavior of Ag nanoparticles. The size of Ag nanoparticles on PEDOT:PSS were dramatically increased by more than three times compared to those on the ITO substrates. Organic solar cells were fabricated on the ITO and PEDOT:PSS coated ITO substrates with incorporation of those Ag nanoparticles, and their performances were compared. The photocurrents of the cells with the active layers on PEDOT:PSS with an optimal choice of the Ag nanoparticles were greatly enhanced whereas the Ag nanoparticles on the ITO substrates did not lead to the photocurrent enhancements. The origin of the photocurrent enhancements with introducing the Ag nanoparticles on PEDOT:PSS are discussed.

  5. Structural properties of Au and Ag nanoclusters embedded in MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huis, M. A.; Fedorov, A. V.; van Veen, A.; Falub, C. V.; Eijt, S. W. H.; Kooi, B. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Hibma, T.; Zimmerman, R. L.

    2002-05-01

    Gold and silver nanoclusters embedded in MgO were created by means of ion implantation of 1.0 MeV Au or 600 keV Ag ions to a dose of 10 16 cm -2 into single crystals of MgO(1 0 0) and subsequent annealing at 1473 K for a period of 22 h. The structural properties of the nanoclusters were characterised by optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS), high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Nanocluster sizes are estimated using three different methods: using the Doyle formula for the broadening of the optical absorption peak associated with Mie plasmon resonance; using the Scherrer formula for the broadening of the Au and Ag XRD peaks, and from direct observation of TEM images. For the Au clusters, the methods are in excellent agreement with mean cluster sizes of 4-5 nm. For the Ag clusters, the optical Doyle method yields a mean nanocluster size of 5 nm while the XRD and XTEM methods yield 10-11 nm. The XRD and XTEM results reveal a cube-on-cube orientation relationship of the Au and Ag nanoclusters with respect to the MgO matrix.

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for DNA detection by the self-assembly of Ag nanoparticles onto Ag nanoparticle-graphene oxide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-Wu; Wu, Hong-Yi; Tasi, Ting-Ti; Lai, Ying-Huang; Shen, Hsin-Hui

    2015-07-28

    A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing system which operates by the self-assembly of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto the nanocomposite of AgNPs and graphene oxide (AgNP-GO) in the presence of two complementary DNAs has been developed. In this system, AgNP-GO serves as a SERS-active substrate. The AgNPs with the modification of non-fluorescent 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) act as highly efficient Raman probes for DNA hybridization. When probe DNAs on AgNP-GO are complementary to target DNAs on AgNPs functionalized with 4-MBA, the DNA hybridization occurring directs the self-assembly of AgNPs onto AgNP-GO, leading to the creation of SERS hot spots. Due to the fact that partial 4-MBA molecules are located in the region of the hot spots, their SERS signals are greatly enhanced, indicating successful DNA hybridization. It is noteworthy that the size of AgNPs contributes significantly to the enhancement of SERS activity. The detection limit of the target DNAs at the pM level can be achieved through the self-assembly of large sized AgNPs onto AgNP-GO. More importantly, the AgNP-AgNP-GO system shows reproducible SERS signals in proportion to the logarithm of the target DNA concentrations spanning from 10(-6) to 10(-12) M and the excellent capability for multiplex DNA detection.

  7. Controlled joining of Ag nanoparticles with femtosecond laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Liu, L.; Peng, P.; Hu, A.; Duley, W. W.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We show that it is possible to tailor the gap separation and interface geometry between adjacent Ag nanoparticles (NPs) by controlling fluence when irradiating with pulses from a fs laser. Unirradiated samples extracted from aqueous solution consist of networks of Ag NPs coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). At low laser fluence, bonding between NPs occurs via the formation of an intervening hydrogenated amorphous carbon (α-C:H) layer resulting from the laser-induced decomposition of PVP. This occurs when electrons are emitted at hot-spots created by the trapping of plasmons. The thickness of the α-C:H layer determines the minimum separation between NPs. Ag NPs with different contact geometries can be produced by irradiation of the networks in solution at fluences exceeding the threshold for the formation of α-C:H. At fluences between 200 and 380 μJ/cm2, the α-C:H interface layer is replaced with a metallic neck. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been used to quantify the electromagnetic field enhancement in joined NP samples. We find that Ag NPs bonded by α-C:H and exhibiting a narrow gap possess the highest SERS enhancement.

  8. Synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Minakshi; Ahmad, Absar; Bhargava, Suresh; Sastry, Murali . E-mail: msastry@tatachemicals.com

    2007-07-03

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles. The triangular gold core is obtained by the reduction of gold ions by lemongrass extract. Utilizing the negative charge on the gold nanotriangles, silver ions are bound to their surface and thereafter reduced by ascorbic acid under alkaline conditions. The thickness of the silver shell may be modulated by varying the pH of the reaction medium. The formation of the Au core-Ag shell triangular nanostructures has been followed by UV-vis-NIR Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sharp vertices of the triangles coupled with the core-shell structure is expected to have potential for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and in the sensitive detection of biomolecules.

  9. Biotic and abiotic interactions in aquatic microcosms determine fate and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles: part 2-toxicity and Ag speciation.

    PubMed

    Bone, Audrey J; Colman, Benjamin P; Gondikas, Andreas P; Newton, Kim M; Harrold, Katherine H; Cory, Rose M; Unrine, Jason M; Klaine, Stephen J; Matson, Cole W; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2012-07-03

    To study the effects of complex environmental media on silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity, AgNPs were added to microcosms with freshwater sediments and two species of aquatic plants (Potamogeton diversifolius and Egeria densa), followed by toxicity testing with microcosm surface water. Microcosms were designed with four environmental matrices in order to determine the contribution of each environmental compartment to changes in toxicity: water only (W), water + sediment (WS), water + plants (WP), and water + plants + sediment (WPS). Silver treatments included AgNPs with two different coatings, gum arabic (GA-AgNPs) or polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP-AgNPs), as well as AgNO(3). Water samples taken from the microcosms at 24 h postdosing were used in acute toxicity tests with two standard model organisms, early life stage zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Daphnia magna. Speciation of Ag in these samples was analyzed using Ag L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Silver speciation patterns for the nanoparticle treatments varied significantly by coating type. While PVP-AgNPs were quite stable and resisted transformation across all matrices (>92.4% Ag(0)), GA-AgNP speciation patterns suggest significantly higher transformation rates, especially in treatments with plants (<69.2% and <58.8% Ag(0) in WP and WPS, respectively) and moderately increased transformation with sediments (<85.6% Ag(0)). Additionally, the presence of plants in the microcosms (with and without sediments) reduced both the concentration of Ag in the water column and toxicity for all Ag treatments. Reductions in toxicity may have been related to decreased water column concentrations as well as changes in the surface chemistry of the particles induced by organic substances released from the plants.

  10. New SERS-active alumina-based sorbents containing Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurova, Nadezhda S.; Markina, Natalia E.; Galushka, Victor V.; Burashnikova, Marina M.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.; Markin, Alexey V.; Rusanova, Tatiana Y.

    2016-04-01

    New SERS-active materials were obtained by preparation of alumina with embedded silver nanoparticles and their application both as sorbents for pre-concentration and SERS platforms was studied. The influence of ionic strength on Ag NPs size, absorption spectra and SERS signal was investigated. Synthesized materials were examined by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The optimal conditions for SERSmeasurements were chosen. Synthesized materials were applied for pre-concentration of model analytes (Rhodamine 6G, folic acid and pyrene) and their SERS detection directly within the sorbent. It was shown that the recovery of analytes could be improved by alumina modification. The combination of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with preconcentration is a promising instrument for analytical applications.

  11. Morphological and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited Zn–Ag nanoparticle composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Punith Kumar, M.K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2013-11-15

    Silver nanoparticles with an average size of 23 nm were chemically synthesized and used to fabricate Zn–Ag composite coatings. The Zn–Ag composite coatings were generated by electrodeposition method using a simple sulfate plating bath dispersed with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/l of Ag nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and texture co-efficient calculations revealed that Ag nanoparticles appreciably influenced the morphology, micro-structure and texture of the deposit. It was also noticed that agglomerates of Ag nanoparticles, in the case of high bath load conditions, produced defects and dislocations on the deposit surface. Ag nanoparticles altered the corrosion resistance property of Zn–Ag composite coatings as observed from Tafel polarization, electrochemical impedance analysis and an immersion test. Reduction in corrosion rate with increased charge transfer resistance was observed for Zn–Ag composite coatings when compared to a pure Zn coating. However, the particle concentration in the plating bath and their agglomeration state directly influenced the surface morphology and the subsequent corrosion behavior of the deposits. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 23 nm • Fabrication of Zn/nano Ag composite coating on mild steel • Composite coatings showed better corrosion resistance. • Optimization of particle concentration is necessary.

  12. Application of a new coordination compound for the preparation of AgI nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver iodide nanoparticles have been sonochemically synthesized by using silver salicylate complex, [Ag(HSal)], as silver precursor. A series of control experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of solvent, surfactant concentration, sonication time and temperature on the morphology of AgI nanostructures. - Highlights: • Silver salicylate as a new precursor was applied to fabricate γ-AgI nanoparticles. • To further decrease the particle size of AgI, SDS was used as surfactant. • The effect of preparation parameters on the particle size of AgI was investigated. - Abstract: AgI nanoparticles have been sonochemically synthesized by using silver salicylate, [Ag(HSal)], as silver precursor. To investigate the effects of solvent, surfactant concentration, sonication time and temperature on the morphology of AgI nanostructures, several experiments were carried out. The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA/DTA, UV–vis, and FT-IR. Based on the experimental findings in this research, it was found that the size of AgI nanoparticles was dramatically dependent on the silver precursor, sonochemical irradiation, and surfactant concentration. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was applied as surfactant. When the concentration of SDS was 0.055 mM, very uniform sphere-like AgI nanoparticles with grain size of about 25–30 nm were obtained. These results indicated that the high concentration of SDS could prevent the aggregation between colloidal nanoparticles due to its steric hindrance effect.

  13. Spectral investigation of nonlinear local field effects in Ag nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Rodrigo Takeda, Yoshihiko; Ohnuma, Masato; Oyoshi, Keiji

    2015-03-21

    The capability of Ag nanoparticles to modulate their optical resonance condition, by optical nonlinearity, without an external feedback system was experimentally demonstrated. These optical nonlinearities were studied in the vicinity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), using femtosecond pump-and-probe spectroscopy with a white-light continuum probe. Transient transmission changes ΔT/T exhibited strong photon energy and particle size dependence and showed a complex and non-monotonic change with increasing pump light intensity. Peak position and change of sign redshift with increasing pump light intensity demonstrate the modulation of the LSPR. These features are discussed in terms of the intrinsic feedback via local field enhancement.

  14. Nickel nanoparticles embedded in carbon foam for improving electromagnetic shielding effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kumari, Saroj; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2015-06-01

    To improve electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of light weight carbon foam (CF), magnetic nanoparticles were embedded in it during processing. The CF was developed from the coal tar pitch and mixture of coal tar pitch-Nickel (Ni) nanoparticles by sacrificial template technique and heat treated to up 1,000 °C. To ascertain the effect of Ni nanoparticles embedded in CF, it was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, vector network analyzer and vibration sample magnetometer. It is observed that Ni nanoparticles embedded in the carbon material play an important role for improving the structure and electrical conductivity of CF-Ni by catalytic carbonization. The structural investigation suggests that the Ni nanoparticles embedded in the carbon material in bulk as well on the surface of CF. The CF demonstrates excellent shielding response in the frequency range 8.2-12.4 GHz in which total shielding effectiveness (SE) dominated by absorption losses. The total SE is -25 and -61 dB of CF and CF-Ni, it is governed by absorption losses -48.5 dB in CF-Ni. This increase is due to the increase in dielectric and magnetic losses of ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles with high surface area. Thus, light weight CF embedded with small amount of magnetic nanoparticles can be useful material for stealth technology.

  15. Reversibly phototunable TiO{sub 2} photonic crystal modulated by Ag nanoparticles' oxidation/reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jian; Zhou Jinming; Ye Changqing; Li Mingzhu; Wang Jingxia; Jiang Lei; Song Yanlin

    2011-01-10

    We report a reversibly phototunable photonic crystal system whose reflectance at the stop band position can be modulated by alternating UV/visible (UV/Vis) irradiation. The phototunable system consists of Ag nanoparticles and TiO{sub 2} photonic crystal. The stop bands intensity of Ag loaded TiO{sub 2} photonic crystals were found to be dependent on the redox states of Ag nanoparticles. The quasi 'on' and 'off' states of the stop band were reversibly modulated by the Ag nanoparticles' oxidation/reduction through alternating UV/Vis light irradiation.

  16. Dendritic macromolecules supported Ag nanoparticles as efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Javad; Zarnegar, Zohre; Sadeghi, Masoud; Enayati-Najafabadi, Azadeh

    2016-12-01

    Polymer supported Ag nanoparticles, generated in situ by silver nitrate (AgNO3) reduction under reaction conditions, catalyzed the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol with high efficiency in water at room temperature in the presence of an excess amount of NaBH4. Amphiphilic linear-dendritic copolymers containing a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) core and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-poly(ε-caprolactone) arms were able to load the Ag nanoparticles. The Ag nanoparticles with a diameter of 8-10 nm were found to show a comparable catalytic activity towards formation of the aromatic amine as single product with short reaction time.

  17. Assessing bio-available silver released from silver nanoparticles embedded in silica layers using the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as bio-sensors.

    PubMed

    Pugliara, Alessandro; Makasheva, Kremena; Despax, Bernard; Bayle, Maxime; Carles, Robert; Benzo, Patrizio; BenAssayag, Gérard; Pécassou, Béatrice; Sancho, Maria Carmen; Navarro, Enrique; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Bonafos, Caroline

    2016-09-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) because of their strong antibacterial activity are widely used in health-care sector and industrial applications. Their huge surface-volume ratio enhances the silver release compared to the bulk material, leading to an increased toxicity for microorganisms sensitive to this element. This work presents an assessment of the toxic effect on algal photosynthesis due to small (size <20nm) AgNPs embedded in silica layers. Two physical approaches were originally used to elaborate the nanocomposite structures: (i) low energy ion beam synthesis and (ii) combined silver sputtering and plasma polymerization. These techniques allow elaboration of a single layer of AgNPs embedded in silica films at defined nanometer distances (from 0 to 7nm) beneath the free surface. The structural and optical properties of the nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy and optical reflectance. The silver release from the nanostructures after 20h of immersion in buffered water was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ranges between 0.02 and 0.49μM. The short-term toxicity of Ag to photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was assessed by fluorometry. The obtained results show that embedding AgNPs reduces the interactions with the buffered water free media, protecting the AgNPs from fast oxidation. The release of bio-available silver (impacting on the algal photosynthesis) is controlled by the depth at which AgNPs are located for a given host matrix. This provides a procedure to tailor the toxicity of nanocomposites containing AgNPs.

  18. Raman scattering of 4-aminobenzenethiol sandwiched between Ag nanoparticle and macroscopically smooth Au substrate: effects of size of Ag nanoparticles and the excitation wavelength.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan; Choi, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Hyang Bong; Shin, Kuan Soo

    2011-09-28

    A nanogap formed by a metal nanoparticle and a flat metal substrate is one kind of "hot site" for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Accordingly, although no Raman signal is observable when 4-aminobenzenethiol (4-ABT), for instance, is self-assembled on a flat Au substrate, a distinct spectrum is obtained when Ag or Au nanoparticles are adsorbed on the pendent amine groups of 4-ABT. This is definitely due to the electromagnetic coupling between the localized surface plasmon of Ag or Au nanoparticle with the surface plasmon polariton of the planar Au substrate, allowing an intense electric field to be induced in the gap even by visible light. To appreciate the Raman scattering enhancement and also to seek the optimal condition for SERS at the nanogap, we have thoroughly examined the size effect of Ag nanoparticles, along with the excitation wavelength dependence, by assembling 4-ABT between planar Au and a variable-size Ag nanoparticle (from 20- to 80-nm in diameter). Regarding the size dependence, a higher Raman signal was observed when larger Ag nanoparticles were attached onto 4-ABT, irrespective of the excitation wavelength. Regarding the excitation wavelength, the highest Raman signal was measured at 568 nm excitation, slightly larger than that at 632.8 nm excitation. The Raman signal measured at 514.5 and 488 nm excitation was an order of magnitude weaker than that at 568 nm excitation, in agreement with the finite-difference time domain simulation. It is noteworthy that placing an Au nanoparticle on 4-ABT, instead of an Ag nanoparticle, the enhancement at the 568 nm excitation was several tens of times weaker than that at the 632.8 nm excitation, suggesting the importance of the localized surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles for an effective coupling with the surface plasmon polariton of the planar Au substrate to induce a very intense electric field at the nanogap.

  19. Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced oxidation stability for printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Na Rae; Koo, Jahyun; Jong Lee, Yung; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we synthesized uniform Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles using a facile two-step process that consists of thermal decomposition and galvanic displacement methods. The core-shell structure of these nanoparticles was confirmed through characterization using transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Furthermore, we investigated the oxidation stability of the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles in detail. Both qualitative and quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirm that the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles have considerably higher oxidation stability than Cu nanoparticles. Finally, we formulated a conductive ink using the synthesized nanoparticles and coated it onto glass substrates. Following the sintering process, we compared the resistivity of the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with that of the Cu nanoparticles. The results of this study clearly show that the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles can potentially be used as an alternative to Ag nanoparticles because of their superior oxidation stability and electrical properties.

  20. Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced oxidation stability for printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Na Rae; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Yung Jong; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2015-11-13

    In this work, we synthesized uniform Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles using a facile two-step process that consists of thermal decomposition and galvanic displacement methods. The core-shell structure of these nanoparticles was confirmed through characterization using transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Furthermore, we investigated the oxidation stability of the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles in detail. Both qualitative and quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirm that the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles have considerably higher oxidation stability than Cu nanoparticles. Finally, we formulated a conductive ink using the synthesized nanoparticles and coated it onto glass substrates. Following the sintering process, we compared the resistivity of the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with that of the Cu nanoparticles. The results of this study clearly show that the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles can potentially be used as an alternative to Ag nanoparticles because of their superior oxidation stability and electrical properties.

  1. Silver nanoparticle-initiated chemiluminescence reaction of luminol-AgNO3 and its analytical application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui; Li, Baoxin

    2011-07-01

    Ag(+) has been regarded as an inert chemiluminescent oxidant. In this work, it was found that in the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), AgNO(3) could react with luminol to produce strong chemiluminescence (CL). The AgNPs with smaller size could initiate stronger CL emission. To investigate the CL mechanism of the AgNPs-luminol-AgNO(3) system, the UV-visible spectra and the CL spectrum of the CL system were obtained. The CL reaction mechanism involving catalysis was proposed. Compared with the reported nanoparticles-luminol-H(2)O(2) CL system, the AgNPs-luminol-AgNO(3) CL system has the advantages of low background and good stability. Moreover, the new CL system was used in immunoassay for IgG.

  2. Modulation of population density and size of silver nanoparticles embedded in bacterial cellulose via ammonia exposure: visual detection of volatile compounds in a piece of plasmonic nanopaper.

    PubMed

    Heli, B; Morales-Narváez, E; Golmohammadi, H; Ajji, A; Merkoçi, A

    2016-04-21

    The localized surface plasmon resonance exhibited by noble metal nanoparticles can be sensitively tuned by varying their size and interparticle distances. We report that corrosive vapour (ammonia) exposure dramatically reduces the population density of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded within bacterial cellulose, leading to a larger distance between the remaining nanoparticles and a decrease in the UV-Vis absorbance associated with the AgNP plasmonic properties. We also found that the size distribution of AgNPs embedded in bacterial cellulose undergoes a reduction in the presence of volatile compounds released during food spoilage, modulating the studied nanoplasmonic properties. In fact, such a plasmonic nanopaper exhibits a change in colour from amber to light amber upon the explored corrosive vapour exposure and from amber to a grey or taupe colour upon fish or meat spoilage exposure. These phenomena are proposed as a simple visual detection of volatile compounds in a flexible, transparent, permeable and stable single-use nanoplasmonic membrane, which opens the way to innovative approaches and capabilities in gas sensing and smart packaging.

  3. The Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles in Bacillus subtilis Are Mediated by Released Ag+ Ions

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Lin, Kuen-Song; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Chiang, Chao-Lung; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2015-01-01

    The superior antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are well-documented, but the exact mechanisms underlying Ag-NP microbial toxicity remain the subject of intense debate. Here, we show that Ag-NP concentrations as low as 10 ppm exert significant toxicity against Bacillus subtilis, a beneficial bacterium ubiquitous in the soil. Growth arrest and chromosomal DNA degradation were observed, and flow cytometric quantification of propidium iodide (PI) staining also revealed that Ag-NP concentrations of 25 ppm and above increased membrane permeability. RedoxSensor content analysis and Phag-GFP expression analysis further indicated that reductase activity and cytosolic protein expression decreased in B. subtilis cells treated with 10–50 ppm of Ag NPs. We conducted X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses to directly clarify the valence and fine structure of Ag atoms in B. subtilis cells placed in contact with Ag NPs. The results confirmed the Ag species in Ag NP-treated B. subtilis cells as Ag2O, indicating that Ag-NP toxicity is likely mediated by released Ag+ ions from Ag NPs, which penetrate bacterial cells and are subsequently oxidized intracellularly to Ag2O. These findings provide conclusive evidence for the role of Ag+ ions in Ag-NP microbial toxicity, and suggest that the impact of inappropriately disposed Ag NPs to soil and water ecosystems may warrant further investigation. PMID:26669836

  4. Thermal Behavior of Ag Micro/Nano Wires Formed by Low-Temperature Sintering of Ag Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen; Zhong, Yinghui; Li, Dongxue; Wang, Pan; Cai, Yuwei; Duan, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    Ag nanoparticles of 30 nm size were deposited onto a Si substrate to form Ag microwires. The nanoparticles were transformed into continuous Ag wires with low-temperature heat treatment at temperatures not higher than 200°C. The morphology, electrical properties, and interface of the sintered Ag nanoparticle wires are described. It is shown that the neck between the nanoparticles begins to form at 150°C, and obvious metallization was found at 170°C. The changes of the crystal structure of the Ag wires at different sintering temperatures were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. The grain boundary resistance decreased as the crystal grain size increased above 130 nm. The corresponding resistivity of the microstructure is close to that of the bulk. Through the comparison between the Mayadas-Shatzkes's model and experimental data, the range of the grain boundary reflection coefficient C at different temperatures is obtained. This research lays the foundation for the study of nanoimprint lithography with a pseudoplastic metal nanoparticle fluid.

  5. Metal work-function-dependent barrier height of Ni contacts with metal-embedded nanoparticles to 4H-SiC

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metal, typically gold [Au], nanoparticles [NPs] embedded in a capping metal contact layer onto silicon carbide [SiC] are considered to have practical applications in changing the barrier height of the original contacts. Here, we demonstrate the use of silver [Ag] NPs to effectively lower the barrier height of the electrical contacts to 4H-SiC. It has been shown that the barrier height of the fabricated SiC diode structures (Ni with embedded Ag-NPs) has significantly reduced by 0.11 eV and 0.18 eV with respect to the samples with Au-NPs and the reference samples, respectively. The experimental results have also been compared with both an analytic model based on Tung's theory and physics-based two-dimensional numerical simulations. PMID:22244310

  6. Metal work-function-dependent barrier height of Ni contacts with metal-embedded nanoparticles to 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min-Seok; Ahn, Jung-Joon; Moon, Kyoung-Sook; Koo, Sang-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Metal, typically gold [Au], nanoparticles [NPs] embedded in a capping metal contact layer onto silicon carbide [SiC] are considered to have practical applications in changing the barrier height of the original contacts. Here, we demonstrate the use of silver [Ag] NPs to effectively lower the barrier height of the electrical contacts to 4H-SiC. It has been shown that the barrier height of the fabricated SiC diode structures (Ni with embedded Ag-NPs) has significantly reduced by 0.11 eV and 0.18 eV with respect to the samples with Au-NPs and the reference samples, respectively. The experimental results have also been compared with both an analytic model based on Tung's theory and physics-based two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  7. DNA/Ag Nanoparticles as Antibacterial Agents against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Tomomi; Tada, Yuya; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Watari, Fumio; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2015-01-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were produced using DNA extracted from salmon milt as templates. Particles spherical in shape with an average diameter smaller than 10 nm were obtained. The nanoparticles consisted of Ag as the core with an outermost thin layer of DNA. The DNA/Ag hybrid nanoparticles were immobilized over the surface of cotton based fabrics and their antibacterial efficiency was evaluated using E. coli as the typical Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial experiments were performed according to the Antibacterial Standard of Japanese Association for the Functional Evaluation of Textiles. The fabrics modified with DNA/Ag nanoparticles showed a high enough inhibitory and killing efficiency against E. coli at a concentration of Ag ≥ 10 ppm. PMID:28347012

  8. Preparation of highly dispersed core/shell-type titania nanocapsules containing a single Ag nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hideki; Kanda, Takashi; Shibata, Hirobumi; Ohkubo, Takahiro; Abe, Masahiko

    2006-04-19

    Core/shell-type titania nanocapsules containing a single Ag nanoparticle were prepared. Ag nanoparticles were prepared using the reduction of silver nitrate with hydrazine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as protective agent. The sol-gel reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was used to prepare core/shell-type titania nanocapsules with CTAB-coated Ag nanoparticles as the core. TEM observations revealed that the size of the core (Ag particle) and the thickness of the shell (titania) of the core/shell particles obtained are about 10 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. In addition, the nanocapsules were found to be dispersed in the medium as individual particles without aggregation. Moreover, titania coating caused the surface plasmon absorption of Ag nanoparticles to shift toward the longer wavelength side.

  9. Fabrication of composite based on GeSi with Ag nanoparticles using ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalov, R. I.; Vorobev, V. V.; Nuzhdin, V. I.; Valeev, V. F.; Bayazitov, R. M.; Lyadov, N. M.; Osin, Yu. N.; Stepanov, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Comparative analysis of the structural and optical properties of composite layers fabricated with the aid of implantation of single-crystalline silicon ( c-Si) using Ge+ (40 keV/1 × 1017 ions/cm2) and Ag+ (30 keV/1.5 × 1017 ions/cm2) ions and sequential irradiation using Ge+ and Ag+ ions is presented. The implantation of the Ge+ ions leads to the formation of Ge: Si fine-grain amorphous surface layer with a thickness of 60 nm and a grain size of 20-40 nm. The implantation of c-Si using Ag+ ions results in the formation of submicron porous amorphous a-Si structure with a thickness of about 50 nm containing ion-synthesized Ag nanoparticles. The penetration of the Ag+ ions in the Ge: Si layer stimulates the formation of pores with Ag nanoparticles with more uniform size distribution. The reflection spectra of the implanted Ag: Si and Ag: GeSi layers exhibit a sharp decrease in the intensity in the UV (220-420 nm) spectral interval relative to the intensity of c-Si by more than 50% owing to the amorphization and structuring of surface. The formation of Ag nanoparticles in the implanted layers gives rise to a selective band of the plasmon resonance at a wavelength of about 820 nm in the optical spectra. Technological methods for fabrication of a composite based on GeSi with Ag nanoparticles are demonstrated in practice.

  10. Mechanisms of Toxicity of Ag Nanoparticles in Comparison to Bulk and Ionic Ag on Mussel Hemocytes and Gill Cells.

    PubMed

    Katsumiti, Alberto; Gilliland, Douglas; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are increasingly used in many products and are expected to end up in the aquatic environment. Mussels have been proposed as marine model species to evaluate NP toxicity in vitro. The objective of this work was to assess the mechanisms of toxicity of Ag NPs on mussel hemocytes and gill cells, in comparison to ionic and bulk Ag. Firstly, cytotoxicity of commercial and maltose stabilized Ag NPs was screened in parallel with the ionic and bulk forms at a wide range of concentrations in isolated mussel cells using cell viability assays. Toxicity of maltose alone was also tested. LC50 values were calculated and the most toxic Ag NPs tested were selected for a second step where sublethal concentrations of each Ag form were tested using a wide array of mechanistic tests in both cell types. Maltose-stabilized Ag NPs showed size-dependent cytotoxicity, smaller (20 nm) NPs being more toxic than larger (40 and 100 nm) NPs. Maltose alone provoked minor effects on cell viability. Ionic Ag was the most cytotoxic Ag form tested whereas bulk Ag showed similar cytotoxicity to the commercial Ag NPs. Main mechanisms of action of Ag NPs involved oxidative stress and genotoxicity in the two cell types, activation of lysosomal AcP activity, disruption of actin cytoskeleton and stimulation of phagocytosis in hemocytes and increase of MXR transport activity and inhibition of Na-K-ATPase in gill cells. Similar effects were observed after exposure to ionic and bulk Ag in the two cell types, although generally effects were more marked for the ionic form. In conclusion, results suggest that most observed responses were due at least in part to dissolved Ag.

  11. Mechanisms of Toxicity of Ag Nanoparticles in Comparison to Bulk and Ionic Ag on Mussel Hemocytes and Gill Cells

    PubMed Central

    Katsumiti, Alberto; Gilliland, Douglas; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Cajaraville, Miren P.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are increasingly used in many products and are expected to end up in the aquatic environment. Mussels have been proposed as marine model species to evaluate NP toxicity in vitro. The objective of this work was to assess the mechanisms of toxicity of Ag NPs on mussel hemocytes and gill cells, in comparison to ionic and bulk Ag. Firstly, cytotoxicity of commercial and maltose stabilized Ag NPs was screened in parallel with the ionic and bulk forms at a wide range of concentrations in isolated mussel cells using cell viability assays. Toxicity of maltose alone was also tested. LC50 values were calculated and the most toxic Ag NPs tested were selected for a second step where sublethal concentrations of each Ag form were tested using a wide array of mechanistic tests in both cell types. Maltose-stabilized Ag NPs showed size-dependent cytotoxicity, smaller (20 nm) NPs being more toxic than larger (40 and 100 nm) NPs. Maltose alone provoked minor effects on cell viability. Ionic Ag was the most cytotoxic Ag form tested whereas bulk Ag showed similar cytotoxicity to the commercial Ag NPs. Main mechanisms of action of Ag NPs involved oxidative stress and genotoxicity in the two cell types, activation of lysosomal AcP activity, disruption of actin cytoskeleton and stimulation of phagocytosis in hemocytes and increase of MXR transport activity and inhibition of Na-K-ATPase in gill cells. Similar effects were observed after exposure to ionic and bulk Ag in the two cell types, although generally effects were more marked for the ionic form. In conclusion, results suggest that most observed responses were due at least in part to dissolved Ag. PMID:26061169

  12. Resistive switching memory based on three-dimensionally confined Ag quantum dots embedded in ultra thin polyimide layers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang

    2013-02-01

    Resistive switching memory devices based on three-dimensionally confined Ag quantum dots (QDs) embedded in polyimide (PI) layers were fabricated by using spin-coating and thermal evaporation. The Ag QDs embedded in PI layer were distributed uniformly with sizes of approximately 4-6 nm and with surface density of approximately 1.25 x 10(11) cm(-2). The electrical properties of the Ag/PI (10 nm)/Ag QDs/PI (10 nm)/Ag devices were investigated at room temperature. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements on the devices showed a counterclockwise electrical hysteresis behavior with reliable and reproducible resistive switching to the existence of the Ag QDs. The memory device transformed from its original high-resistance state to low-resistance state under positive bias, and regained its original high-resistance state under negative bias. The maximum ON/OFF ratio of the current bistability was 1 x 10(4). The device also revealed excellent endurance ability at ambient conditions. The possible operating mechanisms concerning the interaction between Ag QDs and PI matrix for the resistance-transform phenomenon were analyzed on the basis of the I-V results.

  13. Highly selective and quantitative colorimetric detection of mercury(II) ions by carrageenan-functionalized Ag/AgCl nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Han, Sung Soo

    2017-03-15

    The natural algal polysaccharide carrageenan was used for the greener synthesis of silver/silver chloride nanoparticles (Carr-Ag/AgCl NPs) without any toxic chemicals. We report the robust, highly selective, and sensitive colorimetric sensing of Hg(2+) ions using Carr-Ag/AgCl NPs without any further surface modification. The dark-brown color of a solution of Carr-Ag/AgCl NPs turned to white in a concentration-dependent manner with the addition of Hg(2+) ions, confirming the interaction of Carr-Ag/AgCl NPs with Hg(2+) ions. The plot of the extinction ratio of absorbance at 350nm to 450nm (A350/A450) for Carr-Ag/AgCl NPs against the concentration of [Hg(2+)] ions was linear, and the calibration curve was A350/A450=1.05254+0.00318×CHg with a lower detection limit of 1μM. This portable and cost-effective method for mercury(II) ion sensing is widely applicable in on-field qualitative and quantitative measurements of [Hg(2+)] ions in environmental or biological samples.

  14. The calculations of electromagnetic fields around nanoparticles embedded in biological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytkova, Vera D.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2010-08-01

    The goal of our project is to use computational methods, such as discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to study nanoparticles in biomedical photonics problems. Nanoparticle absorption and scattering are strongly affected by their shape, size, composition and dielectric environment. We focus on light scattering from nanoparticles embedded in biological or biocompatible media, such as water, glycerin and hemoglobin at erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration at concentration characteristic to intrinsic erythrocyte concentration. This method lets us consider complex refractive index of the nanoparticle and the surrounding medium as a function on the wavelength of light. We are interested in strong absorption and scattering around 800 nm that makes such nanoparticles potentially useful in biomedical applications, such as detection and curing cancer. Considering nanoparticles in living cells containing nanoparticles lets us understand light scattering from normal and pathological structures within biological tissue.

  15. Preparation and Structural Analysis of CdS Nanoparticle Embedded Polyurethane Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indolia, Ajay Pal; Kumar, Purushottam; Gaur, M. S.

    2011-07-01

    Polymer nanocomposite samples of different weight ratio of CdS were developed by solution embedding of nanoparticles in polyurethane. XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to understand the structural properties of polymer nanocomposite samples. SEM micrograph demonstrates the dispersion of CdS nanoparticles in polymer matrix. It has been observed that crystallinity of PU decreases with increase in concentration of CdS nanoparticles. The XRD data show the characteristic peaks of nanoparticles (i.e.CdS) in nanocomposite samples, which confirm the nanostructure formation in polymer matrix.

  16. SERS detection and antibacterial activity from uniform incorporation of Ag nanoparticles with aligned Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Hsu, Li-Jen; Hsiao, Po-Hsuan; Yu, Chang-Tze Ricky

    2015-11-01

    We present a facile, reliable and controllable two-steps electroless deposition for uniformly decorating the silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on the highly aspect ratio of silicon (Si) nanowire arrays. Different from the direct Ag-loading process, which is normally challenged by the non-uniform coating of Ag, the formation of Ag NPs using such innovative electroless process is no longer to be limited at top nanowire surfaces solely; instead, each Ag+/Si interface can initiate the galvanic reduction of Ag+ ions, thus resulting in the uniform formation of Ag NPs on the entire Si nanowire arrays. In addition, systematic explorations of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) capability as well as antibacterial activity of the Ag/Si-incorporated nanostructures were performed, and the optimized Ag loadings on Si nanowire-based substrates along with the kinetic investigations were further revealed, which may benefit their practical applications in sensing, medical and biological needs.

  17. Facile fabrication of AgCl@polypyrrole-chitosan core-shell nanoparticles and polymeric hollow nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daming; Xia, Haibing; Chan, Hardy Sze On

    2004-11-09

    A one-step sequential method for preparing AgCl@polypyrrole-chitosan core-shell nanoparticles and subsequently the formation of polypyrrole-chitosan hollow nanospheres is reported. The formation of the core and the shell is performed in one reaction medium almost simultaneously. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the presence of core-shell nanoparticles and hollow nanospheres. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) studies reveal that AgCl was formed first followed by polypyrrole. X-ray diffration (XRD) and UV-vis studies show that AgCl was present in the core-shell nanoparticles and could be removed completely from the core.

  18. The impact of Ag nanoparticles on the parameters of DSS- cells sensitized by Z907

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, N. Kh; Aimukhanov, A. K.; Zeinidenov, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    Research of influence of Ag nanoparticles are in-process undertaken on absorption and on parameters CVC DSS-cells sensitized Z907. It is set that with the height of concentration Ag nanoparticles in tape to the concentration of 0.3% wt%. the absorbance of Z907 in a short-wave stripe grew to the value 1,6. It is set that under reaching the concentration of Ag nanoparticles in the cell of value the 0.3% wt%. efficiency of cell increased to 2.2%.

  19. Plasmonic effect of Ag nanoparticles in a SiON antireflective coating: engineering rules and physical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecler, S.; Bastide, S.; Tan, J.; Qu, M.; Slaoui, A.; Fix, T.

    2016-10-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons have been proposed in the architectures of several solar cells as a way to enhance light collection and thus to increase their efficiency. Here, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are embedded in a SiON antireflective layer using an electroless technique. The plasmonic effects are modeled and observed experimentally for NPs 5 to 200 nm in size. The systematic comparison of scattering and extinction efficiencies computed as a function of the NPs and surrounding medium properties allows establishing engineering rules, validated by the experimental measurements. The fact that Ag NPs larger than 30 nm mainly contribute to light scattering and therefore to optical path enlargement (green-red light), whereas those smaller than 15 nm absorb light by light trapping (blue-green), is demonstrated and physically explained. A physical barrier making it impossible to shift the dominant resonance beyond 650 nm is pointed out.

  20. Observation of Multipeak Collision Behavior during the Electro-Oxidation of Single Ag Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Oja, Stephen M; Robinson, Donald A; Vitti, Nicholas J; Edwards, Martin A; Liu, Yuwen; White, Henry S; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-18

    The dynamic collision behavior of the electro-oxidation of single Ag nanoparticles is observed at Au microelectrodes using stochastic single-nanoparticle collision amperometry. Results show that an Ag nanoparticle collision/oxidation event typically consists of a series of 1 to ∼10 discrete "sub-events" over an ∼20 ms interval. Results also show that the Ag nanoparticles typically undergo only partial oxidation prior to diffusing away from the Au electrode into the bulk solution. Both behaviors are characterized and shown to exist under a variety of experimental conditions. These previously unreported behaviors suggest that nanoparticle collision and electro-dissolution is a highly dynamic process driven by fast particle-electrode interactions and nanoparticle diffusion.

  1. Multilayer silver nanoparticles embedded in graded-index dielectric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokeen, Poonam; Jain, Amit; Gupta, Vinay; Kapoor, Avinashi

    2017-04-01

    A pulsed laser deposited SiO2/Ag/ZnO/Ag/TiO2 multilayer structure is studied to enhance the light trapping capability of thin-film solar cell. Structural and optical properties of structure are studied with scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and UV-visible spectroscopy. Proposed geometry improves the extinction spectra and quenches photoluminescence in comparison to TiO2/Ag and SiO2/Ag/ZnO geometry. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations indicate a promising effect of the proposed geometries on thin-film solar cells. Twofold enhancement in total quantum efficiency of an optimized multilayer plasmonic graded-index thin-film solar cell is observed in comparison to the pristine solar cell. Results suggest a more concerted study of multilayer plasmonic nanostructures with graded-index anti-reflection coatings to improve the performance of thin-film photovoltaic devices.

  2. Electron photoemission in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays: analysis of collective resonances and embedding effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2014-09-01

    We theoretically study the characteristics of photoelectron emission in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. Nanoparticles are partially embedded in a semiconductor, forming Schottky barriers at metal/semiconductor interfaces through which photoelectrons can tunnel from the nanoparticle into the semiconductor; photodetection in the infrared range, where photon energies are below the semiconductor band gap (insufficient for band-to-band absorption in semiconductor), is therefore possible. The nanoparticles are arranged in a sparse rectangular lattice so that the wavelength of the lattice-induced Rayleigh anomalies can overlap the wavelength of the localized surface plasmon resonance of the individual particles, bringing about collective effects from the nanoparticle array. Using full-wave numerical simulations, we analyze the effects of lattice constant, embedding depth, and refractive index step between the semiconductor layer and an adjacent transparent conductive oxide layer. We show that the presence of refractive index mismatch between media surrounding the nanoparticles disrupts the formation of a narrow absorption peak associated with the Rayleigh anomaly, so the role of collective lattice effects in the formation of plasmonic resonance is diminished. We also show that 5-20 times increase of photoemission can be achieved on embedding of nanoparticles without taking into account dynamics of ballistic electrons. The results obtained can be used to increase efficiency of plasmon-based photodetectors and photovoltaic devices. The results may provide clues to designing an experiment where the contributions of surface and volume photoelectric effects to the overall photocurrent would be defined.

  3. Halloysite Nanotubes Supported Ag and ZnO Nanoparticles with Synergistically Enhanced Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhan; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Qian; Yang, Huaming

    2017-12-01

    Novel antimicrobial nanocomposite incorporating halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and silver (Ag) into zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is prepared by integrating HNTs and decorating Ag nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with a size of about 100 and 8 nm, respectively, are dispersively anchored onto HNTs. The synergistic effects of ZnO NPs, Ag NPs, and HNTs led to the superior antibacterial activity of the Ag-ZnO/HNTs antibacterial nanocomposites. HNTs facilitated the dispersion and stability of ZnO NPs and brought them in close contact with bacteria, while Ag NPs could promote the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and enhanced the antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs. The close contact with cell membrane enabled the nanoparticles to produce the increased concentration of reactive oxygen species and the metal ions to permeate into the cytoplasm, thus induced quick death of bacteria, indicating that Ag-ZnO/HNTs antibacterial nanocomposite is a promising candidate in the antibacterial fields.

  4. Halloysite Nanotubes Supported Ag and ZnO Nanoparticles with Synergistically Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Zhan; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Qian; Yang, Huaming

    2017-02-01

    Novel antimicrobial nanocomposite incorporating halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and silver (Ag) into zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is prepared by integrating HNTs and decorating Ag nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with a size of about 100 and 8 nm, respectively, are dispersively anchored onto HNTs. The synergistic effects of ZnO NPs, Ag NPs, and HNTs led to the superior antibacterial activity of the Ag-ZnO/HNTs antibacterial nanocomposites. HNTs facilitated the dispersion and stability of ZnO NPs and brought them in close contact with bacteria, while Ag NPs could promote the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and enhanced the antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs. The close contact with cell membrane enabled the nanoparticles to produce the increased concentration of reactive oxygen species and the metal ions to permeate into the cytoplasm, thus induced quick death of bacteria, indicating that Ag-ZnO/HNTs antibacterial nanocomposite is a promising candidate in the antibacterial fields.

  5. Monodispersed bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles with twinned structures: Formation and enhancement for the methanol oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhen; Zhang, Yining; Chen, Kai; Li, Jing; Li, Wenjing; Tang, Pei; Zhao, Huabo; Zhu, Qingjun; Bao, Xinhe; Ma, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Monodispersed bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles can be fabricated through the emulsion-assisted ethylene glycol (EG) ternary system. Different compositions of bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles, Pd80Ag20, Pd65Ag35 and Pd46Ag54 can be obtained via adjusting the reaction parameters. For the formation process of the bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles, there have two-stage growth processes: firstly, nucleation and growth of the primary nanoclusters; secondly, formation of the secondary nanoparticles with the size-selection and relax process via the coalescence or aggregation of the primary nanoclusters. The as-prepared PdAg can be supported on the carbon black without any post-treatment, which exhibited high electro-oxidation activity towards methanol oxidation under alkaline media. More importantly, carbon-supported Pd80Ag20 nanoparticles reveal distinctly superior activities for the methanol oxidation, even if compared with commercial Pt/C electro-catalyst. It is concluded that the enhanced activity is dependant on the unique twinning structure with heterogeneous phase due to the dominating coalescence growth in EG ternary system. PMID:24608736

  6. Surface modification of oleylamine-capped Ag-Cu nanoparticles to fabricate low-temperature-sinterable Ag-Cu nanoink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Na Rae; Jong Lee, Yung; Lee, Changsoo; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2016-08-01

    By treating oleylamine (OA)-capped Ag-Cu nanoparticles with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), we obtained metal nanoparticles that are suspended in polar solvents and sinterable at low temperatures. The simple process with ultra sonication enables synthesis of monodispersed and high purity nanoparticles in an organic base, where the resulting nanoparticles are dispersible in polar solvents such as ethanol and isopropyl alcohol. To investigate the surface characteristics, we conducted Fourier-transform infrared and zeta-potential analyses. After thermal sintering at 200 °C, which is approximately 150 °C lower than the thermal decomposition temperature of OA, an electrically conductive thin film was obtained. Electrical resistivity measurements of the TMAH-treated ink demonstrate that surface modified nanoparticles have a low resistivity of 13.7 × 10-6 Ω cm. These results confirm the prospects of using low-temperature sinterable nanoparticles as the electrode layer for flexible printed electronics without damaging other stacked polymer layers.

  7. New approach for structural characterization of planar sets of nanoparticles embedded into a solid matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Dario F.; Marmitt, Gabriel; Marin, Cristiane; Baptista, Daniel L.; de M. Azevedo, Gustavo; Grande, Pedro L.; Fichtner, Paulo F. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work we demonstrate that Medium Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS) measurements in combination with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) or Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (GISAXS) can provide a complete characterization of nanoparticle (NP) systems embedded into dielectric films. This includes the determination of the nanoparticle characteristics (location, size distribution and number concentration) as well as the depth distribution and concentration of the NP atomic components dispersed in the matrix. Our studies are performed considering a model case system consisting of planar arrangements of Au NPs (size range from 1 to 10 nm) containing three distinct Au concentrations embedded in a SiO2 film.

  8. Fluorescent Nanocomposite of Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Nader; Gaballah, Soha; Samir, Effat; Hamed, Aya; Saad, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new fluorescent nanocomposite of electrospun biodegradable nanofibers embedded with optical nanoparticles. In detail, this work introduces the fluorescence properties of PVA nanofibers generated by the electrospinning technique with embedded cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles. Under near-ultra violet excitation, the synthesized nanocomposite generates a visible fluorescent emission at 520 nm, varying its intensity peak according to the concentration of in situ embedded ceria nanoparticles. This is due to the fact that the embedded ceria nanoparticles have optical tri-valiant cerium ions, associated with formed oxygen vacancies, with a direct allowed bandgap around 3.5 eV. In addition, the impact of chemical crosslinking of the PVA on the fluorescence emission is studied in both cases of adding ceria nanoparticles in situ or of a post-synthesis addition via a spin-coating mechanism. Other optical and structural characteristics such as absorbance dispersion, direct bandgap, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis are presented. The synthesized optical nanocomposite could be helpful in different applications such as environmental monitoring and bioimaging.

  9. Fluorescent Nanocomposite of Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Gaballah, Soha; Samir, Effat; Hamed, Aya; Saad, Marwa

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a new fluorescent nanocomposite of electrospun biodegradable nanofibers embedded with optical nanoparticles. In detail, this work introduces the fluorescence properties of PVA nanofibers generated by the electrospinning technique with embedded cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles. Under near-ultra violet excitation, the synthesized nanocomposite generates a visible fluorescent emission at 520 nm, varying its intensity peak according to the concentration of in situ embedded ceria nanoparticles. This is due to the fact that the embedded ceria nanoparticles have optical tri-valiant cerium ions, associated with formed oxygen vacancies, with a direct allowed bandgap around 3.5 eV. In addition, the impact of chemical crosslinking of the PVA on the fluorescence emission is studied in both cases of adding ceria nanoparticles in situ or of a post-synthesis addition via a spin-coating mechanism. Other optical and structural characteristics such as absorbance dispersion, direct bandgap, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis are presented. The synthesized optical nanocomposite could be helpful in different applications such as environmental monitoring and bioimaging.

  10. Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria J.; Maria, Vera L.; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; Amorim, Mónica J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are unclear, in particular in the terrestrial environment. In this study the effects of AgNP (AgNM300K) were assessed in terms of oxidative stress in the soil worm Enchytraeus crypticus, using a range of biochemical markers [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT), lipid peroxidation (LPO)]. E. crypticus were exposed during 3 and 7 days (d) to the reproduction EC20, EC50 and EC80 levels of both AgNP and AgNO3. AgNO3 induced oxidative stress earlier (3 d) than AgNP (7 d), both leading to LPO despite the activation of the anti-redox system. MT increased only for AgNP. The Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP, with e.g., CAT being the main descriptor for AgNP for 7 d. LPO, GST and GPx were for both 3 and 7 d associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with AgNP. These results may reflect a delay in the effects of AgNP compared to AgNO3 due to the slower release of Ag+ ions from the AgNP, although this does not fully explain the observed differences, i.e., we can conclude that there is a nanoparticle effect. PMID:26287225

  11. Interfacial magnetic coupling between Fe nanoparticles in Fe–Ag granular alloys.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J; Fdez-Gubieda, M L; Sarmiento, G; Chaboy, J; Boada, R; García Prieto, A; Haskel, D; Laguna-Marco, M A; Lang, J C; Meneghini, C; Fernández Barquín, L; Neisius, T; Orue, I

    2012-01-20

    The role of the interface in mediating interparticle magnetic interactions has been analysed in Fe50Ag50 and Fe55Ag45 granular thin films deposited by the pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD). These samples are composed of crystalline bcc Fe (2–4 nm) nanoparticles and fcc Ag (10–12 nm) nanoparticles, separated by an amorphous Fe50Ag50 interface, occupying around 20% of the sample volume, as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Interfacial magnetic coupling between Fe nanoparticles is studied by dc magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at the Fe K and Ag L2,3 edges. This paper reveals that these thin films present two magnetic transitions, at low and high temperatures, which are strongly related to the magnetic state of the amorphous interface, which acts as a barrier for interparticle magnetic coupling.

  12. Characterizing structural and vibrational properties of nanoparticles embedded in silica with XAS, SAXS and auxiliary techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, Leandro L.; Kluth, Patrick; Giulian, Raquel; Sprouster, David J.; Ridgway, Mark C.; Johannessen, Bernt; Foran, Garry J.; Cookson, David J.

    2009-01-29

    Synchrotron-based techniques were combined with conventional analysis methods to probe in detail the structural and vibrational properties of nanoparticles grown in a silica matrix by ion implantation and thermal annealing, as well as the evolution of such properties as a function of nanoparticle size. This original approach was successfully applied for several elemental nanoparticles (Au, Co, Cu, Ge, Pt) and the outcomes for Ge are reported here, illustrating the power of this combined methodology. The thorough analysis of XANES, EXAFS, SAXS, TEM and Raman data for Ge nanoparticles with mean diameters between 4 and 9 nm revealed that the peculiar properties of embedded Ge nanoparticles, like the existence of amorphous Ge layers between the silica matrix and the crystalline nanoparticle core, are strongly dependent on particle size and mainly governed by the variation in the surface area-to-volume ratio. Such detailed information provides valuable input for the efficient planning of technological applications.

  13. Solution structure of peptide AG4 used to form silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Dae-Hee; Woo, Yoonkyung; Hur, Ho-Gil; Lim, Yoongho

    2008-11-21

    The preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is of great interest due to their various biological activities, such as observed in their antimicrobial and wound healing actions. Moreover, the formation of AgNPs using silver-binding peptide has certain advantages because they can be made in aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The solution structure of the silver-binding peptide AG4 was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the site of the AG4 interaction with AgNPs was elucidated.

  14. Loading Ag nanoparticles on Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework for photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Zhang, De-Xiang; Chen, Shumei; Wen, Tian

    2016-05-01

    An amine-functionalized Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework (BIF-77) with three-dimensional open structure has been successfully synthesized, which can load Ag nanoparticles (NPs) for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB).

  15. A Sustainable Approach to Fabricating Ag Nanoparticles/PVA Hybrid Nanofiber and Its Catalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yongde

    2015-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by using Ficus altissima Blume leaf extract as a reducing agent at room temperature. The resulting Ag nanoparticles/PVA mixture was employed to create Ag nanoparticles/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) hybrid nanofibers via an electrospinning technique. The obtained nanofibers were confirmed by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and then tested to catalyze KBH4 reduction of methylene blue (MB). The catalytic results demonstrate that the MB can be reduced completely within 15 min. In addition, the Ag nanoparticles/PVA hybrid nanofibers show reusability for three cycles with no obvious losses in degradation ratio of the MB.

  16. Localized, plasmon-mediated heating from embedded nanoparticles in nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Somsubhra; Downen, Lori; Bochinski, Jason; Clarke, Laura

    2010-03-01

    Metallic nanoparticles exhibit a surface plasmon resonance which, when excited with visible light, results in a dramatic increase in the nanoparticle temperature. Previously such localized heating has been primarily employed in biomedical research and other experiments involving aqueous environments. In this work, we investigated use of the nanoparticles in solid phase to re-shape, bond, melt, and otherwise process nanofibrous mats of ˜200 nm diameter nanofibers doped with ˜80 nm spherical gold nanoparticles. Under low light intensities (100 mW/cm^2 @ 532 nm) and dilute nanoparticle loading (˜0.15% volume fraction), irradiation of a few minutes melted nanofibrous mats of poly (ethylene oxide) (Tm = 65 degree C). Control samples without gold nanoparticles displayed no melting. Because the heat is generated from within the material and only at the nanoparticle locations, this technique enables true nanoprocessing -- the non-contact, controlled application of heat at specific nano-sized locations within a material to effect desired local changes. Funded by CMMI-0829379.

  17. The role of exopolymeric substances in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles to algae

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kaijun; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag+, C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces. With EPS removed, the total bioaccumulations and surface adsorptions for the three Ag species decreased but the cell internalizations increased; the 96 h half growth inhibition concentrations decreased, indicating EPS alleviated the algal toxicity of Ag. The cell-internalized but not the adsorbed AgNPs could contribute to the nanotoxicity. The EPS could bind both AgNPs and Ag+, and thus inhibited the cell internalization and the nanotoxicity. However, the EPS-bound Ag on the cell surfaces would migrate along with the algae and be biologically amplified in the aquatic food chains, presenting ecological risks. These results are helpful for understanding the fate and ecological effects of NPs. PMID:27615743

  18. The role of exopolymeric substances in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles to algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kaijun; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2016-09-01

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag+, C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces. With EPS removed, the total bioaccumulations and surface adsorptions for the three Ag species decreased but the cell internalizations increased; the 96 h half growth inhibition concentrations decreased, indicating EPS alleviated the algal toxicity of Ag. The cell-internalized but not the adsorbed AgNPs could contribute to the nanotoxicity. The EPS could bind both AgNPs and Ag+, and thus inhibited the cell internalization and the nanotoxicity. However, the EPS-bound Ag on the cell surfaces would migrate along with the algae and be biologically amplified in the aquatic food chains, presenting ecological risks. These results are helpful for understanding the fate and ecological effects of NPs.

  19. The role of exopolymeric substances in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles to algae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaijun; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2016-09-12

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag(+), C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces. With EPS removed, the total bioaccumulations and surface adsorptions for the three Ag species decreased but the cell internalizations increased; the 96 h half growth inhibition concentrations decreased, indicating EPS alleviated the algal toxicity of Ag. The cell-internalized but not the adsorbed AgNPs could contribute to the nanotoxicity. The EPS could bind both AgNPs and Ag(+), and thus inhibited the cell internalization and the nanotoxicity. However, the EPS-bound Ag on the cell surfaces would migrate along with the algae and be biologically amplified in the aquatic food chains, presenting ecological risks. These results are helpful for understanding the fate and ecological effects of NPs.

  20. Impact of Ag and Al₂O₃ nanoparticles on soil organisms: in vitro and soil experiments.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, C; Saccà, M L; Costa, G; Nande, M; Martin, M

    2014-03-01

    In vitro analyses were conducted to assess the impact of Al2O3 and Ag nanoparticles on two common soil bacteria, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas stutzeri. Al2O3 nanoparticles did not show significant toxicity at any dose or time assayed, whereas exposure to 5 mg L(-1) Ag nanoparticles for 48 h caused bactericidal effects. Moreover, alterations at the morphological level were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); Ag but not Al2O3 nanoparticles evoked the entrance of B. cereus cells in an early sporulation stage and both nanoparticles penetrated P. stutzeri cells. At the molecular level, a dramatic increase (8.2-fold) in katB gene expression was found in P. stutzeri following Al2O3 nanoparticles exposure, indicative of an oxidative stress-defence system enhancement in this bacterium. In the microcosm experiment, using two different natural soils, Al2O3 or Ag nanoparticles did not affect the Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity endpoints growth, survival, or reproduction. However, differences in microbial phylogenetic compositions were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The use of katB- and pykA-based sequences showed that the microbial transcriptional response to nanoparticle exposure decreased, suggesting a decrease in cellular activity. These changes were attributable to both the nanoparticles treatment and soil characteristics, highlighting the importance of considering the soil matrix on a case by case basis.

  1. Preparation of a novel silk microfiber covered by AgCl nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qifan; Xu, Zongpu; Hu, Binhui; He, Xiuling; Zhu, Liangjun

    2017-03-01

    We prepared silk fibroin microfibers in which silver chloride (AgCl) nanoparticles were dispersed, by sequential dipping of microfibers obtained using alkaline hydrolysis in alternating solutions of silver nitrate and potassium chloride. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed an increase in nanoparticle size and quantity with increase in dipping cycles and solution concentration, but ultrasound irradiation did not affect nanoparticle formation. The presence of cubic AgCl crystals was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the nanoparticles do not affect the microfiber properties. The growth of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria was inhibited by microfiber covered with AgCl nanoparticles. This antimicrobial activity allows to use microfiber as a reinforced or surface additive biomaterial. Microsc. Res. Tech. 80:272-279, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Improving g-C3N4 photocatalysis for NOx removal by Ag nanoparticles decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanjuan; Xiong, Ting; Ni, Zilin; Liu, Jie; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Ho, Wing-Kei

    2015-12-01

    In order to overcome the intrinsic drawback of pristine g-C3N4, we prepared g-C3N4 nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic performance by Ag nanoparticles decoration using urea as the precursor. It was revealed that the monodispersed Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of g-C3N4 nanosheets. The Ag/g-C3N4 nanocomposites were applied in removal of NOx in air under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the decoration of Ag nanoparticles not only enhanced the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 nanosheets, but also benefited the oxidation of NO to final products. The increased visible light absorption arising from the surface plasmon resonance of Ag and improved separation and transfer of photoinduced carriers over Ag/g-C3N4 composites were demonstrated by the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence spectra, respectively. It was therefore proposed that the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag/g-C3N4 composites could be attributed to the extended light response range and enhanced charge separation due to the introduction of Ag nanoparticles.

  3. Ag-Mn nanoparticles: Three-dimensional finite size effect of the spin glass state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederth, J.; Hoel, A.; Johansson, C. I.; Kiss, L. B.; Olsson, E.; Granqvist, C. G.; Nordblad, P.

    1999-12-01

    Ag-Mn nanoparticles were prepared by advanced gas evaporation. Their composition corresponded to Ag0.89Mn0.11, and the particle size distribution was log normal. The particles demonstrated an unambiguous spin glass behavior with the temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility displaying a plateau at ˜25 K. The magnetic domains were limited by the size of the particles.

  4. Growth of Ag nanoparticles using plasma-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chun-Hao; Chen, Chuh-Yung

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for preparing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) grafted with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA)-silver complex (CNTs-HEMA-Ag complex) through plasma-induced grafting polymerization. The characteristics of the MWNTs after being grafted with HEMA polymer are monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The chelating groups in the HEMA polymer grafted on the surface of the CNTs-HEMA are the coordination sites for chelating silver ions, and are further used as nanotemplates for the growing of Ag nanoparticles (quantum dots). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the particle size of Ag nanoparticles on the CNT surfaces increases with the Ag+ chelating concentration, reaction time, and reaction temperature. Moreover, the crystalline phase of Ag nanoparticles is identified by using x-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of the MWNTs after chemical modification through plasma treatment; it demonstrates that the growing amount of the Ag nanoparticles on the nanotubes increases with the Ag+ chelating concentration due to the blocking effect of the Ag particles forming on the MWNTs.

  5. Biocompatible silver nanoparticles embedded in a PEG-PLA polymeric matrix for stimulated laser light drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, F.; Scala, A.; Grimato, S.; Santoro, M.; Spadaro, S.; Barreca, F.; Cimino, F.; Speciale, A.; Saija, A.; Grassi, G.; Fazio, E.

    2016-06-01

    The laser-induced release of a well-known hepatoprotective drug (silibinin, SLB) from a temperature-sensitive polymeric composite loaded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was investigated. The surface chemistry tuning and the specific design of Ag NPs are fundamental in view of the engineering of specific stimuli-responsive systems, able to control drug release in response to external stimuli. The release profiles of SLB from the newly synthesized PEG-PLA@Ag composite show strong dependences on laser wavelength and Ag NPs' Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The resonant laser light excites the SPR of the NPs and the absorbed energy is converted into heat due to electron-photon collisions. The heat generated from the nanometer-sized metal particles embedded within the polymer is efficient and strongly localized. The nanovector, irradiated by a relatively low-intensity laser but tuned specifically to the metal NPs' SPR, releases the encapsulated drug with a higher efficiency than that not irradiated or irradiated with a laser wavelength far from the metal SPR. A combination of analytical techniques including UV-Vis, NMR, and FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning/transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the structural and morphological properties of the composite. The controllable specificity of this approach and the possibility of the SPR-mediated localized photothermal effect to be usefully applied in aqueous environments are the relevant advances of the proposed system for photothermal therapies that make use of visible optical radiation or for the drug delivery in proximity of the tumor cells.

  6. Effect of Ag nanoparticle concentration on the electrical and ferroelectric properties of Ag/P(VDF-TrFE) composite films

    DOE PAGES

    Paik, Haemin; Choi, Yoon -Young; Hong, Seungbum; ...

    2015-09-04

    We investigated the effect of the Ag nanoparticles on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Ag/poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) composite films. We found that the remanent polarization and direct piezoelectric coefficient increased up to 12.14 μC/cm2 and 20.23 pC/N when the Ag concentration increased up to 0.005 volume percent (v%) and decreased down to 9.38 μC/cm2 and 13.45 pC/N when it increased up to 0.01 v%. Further increase in Ag concentration resulted in precipitation of Ag phase and significant leakage current that hindered any meaningful measurement of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. 46% increase of the remanent polarization value and 27% increasemore » of the direct piezoelectric coefficient were observed in the film with the 0.005 v% of the Ag nanoparticles added without significant changes to the crystalline structure confirmed by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) experiments. The enhancements of both the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are attributed to the increase in the effective electric field induced by the reduction in the effective volume of P(VDF-TrFE) that results in more aligned dipoles.« less

  7. Effect of Ag nanoparticle concentration on the electrical and ferroelectric properties of Ag/P(VDF-TrFE) composite films

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, Haemin; Choi, Yoon -Young; Hong, Seungbum; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-09-04

    We investigated the effect of the Ag nanoparticles on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Ag/poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) composite films. We found that the remanent polarization and direct piezoelectric coefficient increased up to 12.14 μC/cm2 and 20.23 pC/N when the Ag concentration increased up to 0.005 volume percent (v%) and decreased down to 9.38 μC/cm2 and 13.45 pC/N when it increased up to 0.01 v%. Further increase in Ag concentration resulted in precipitation of Ag phase and significant leakage current that hindered any meaningful measurement of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. 46% increase of the remanent polarization value and 27% increase of the direct piezoelectric coefficient were observed in the film with the 0.005 v% of the Ag nanoparticles added without significant changes to the crystalline structure confirmed by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) experiments. The enhancements of both the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are attributed to the increase in the effective electric field induced by the reduction in the effective volume of P(VDF-TrFE) that results in more aligned dipoles.

  8. Morphology and aspect ratio of bismuth nanoparticles embedded in a zinc matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Tae Eun; Wilde, Gerhard; Peterlechner, Martin

    2014-12-15

    Nanoscale Bi particles embedded in a Zn matrix were obtained by casting and melt-spinning, resulting in quenching rate-dependent sizes and shapes. With decreasing Bi particle size, an increasing aspect ratio was observed. Due to high resolution transmission electron microscopy performed for different orientations of the nanoparticles and the matrix, the three-dimensional shape and the respective crystallographic orientations of the Bi nanoparticles as well as the orientation relationship with the matrix have been evaluated. It is suggested that the size-dependence of the nanoparticle morphologies has a strong impact on their thermal stabilities thus affecting the size dependence of the melting temperature.

  9. Silica Cladding of Ag Nanoparticles for High Stability and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Miaomiao; Guo, Hao; Liu, Wenyao; Tang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Binzhen; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-09-01

    For high-precision biochemical sensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been demonstrated to be a highly sensitive spectroscopic analytical method and Ag is considered to be the best material for SERS performance. Due to the high surface activity of Ag nanoparticles, the high stability of Ag nanostructures, especially in moist environments, is one of the key issues that need to be solved. A method for silica (SiO2) cladding of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is demonstrated here for high sensitivity and long-term stability when putted in aqueous solution. The chemically inert, transparent, hydrophilic, and bio-compatible SiO2 surface acts as the protection layer for the Ag nanoparticles, which can also enhance the Raman intensity to a certain extent. In our study, the Ag@SiO2 core-shell substrate can detect crystal violet solutions with molar concentrations down to 10-12 M. After 24 h of immersion, the reduction in Raman scattering intensity is about 85 % for sole Ag NP films, compared to 12 % for the Ag coated with a 10-nm SiO2 layer. This thickness was found to be optimum for Ag@SiO2 core-shell substrates with long-term stability and high SERS activity.

  10. Dependence of SERS enhancement on the chemical composition and structure of Ag/Au hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Elise; O'Connor, Ryan T.; Barr, James; Huang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yongmei

    2016-08-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have unique plasmonic properties that give rise to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Generally, Ag NPs have much stronger plasmonic properties and, hence, provide stronger SERS signals than Au NPs. However, Ag NPs lack the chemical stability and biocompatibility of comparable Au NPs and typically exhibit the most intense plasmonic resonance at wavelengths much shorter than the optimal spectral region for many biomedical applications. To overcome these issues, various experimental efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for the purpose of SERS detections. However, a complete understanding on how the SERS enhancement depends on the chemical composition and structure of these nanoparticles has not been achieved. In this study, Mie theory and the discrete dipole approximation have been used to calculate the plasmonic spectra and near-field electromagnetic enhancements of Ag/Au hybrid NPs. In particular, we discuss how the electromagnetic enhancement depends on the mole fraction of Au in Ag/Au alloy NPs and how one may use extinction spectra to distinguish between Ag/Au alloyed NPs and Ag-Au core-shell NPs. We also show that for incident laser wavelengths between ˜410 nm and 520 nm, Ag/Au alloyed NPs provide better electromagnetic enhancement than pure Ag, pure Au, or Ag-Au core-shell structured NPs. Finally, we show that silica-core Ag/Au alloy shelled NPs provide even better performance than pure Ag/Au alloy or pure solid Ag and pure solid Au NPs. The theoretical results presented will be beneficial to the experimental efforts in optimizing the design of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for SERS-based detection methods.

  11. Morphology and electrochemical behavior of Ag-Cu nanoparticle-doped amalgams.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kwok-Hung; Hsiao, Li-Yin; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce Ag-Cu phase nanopowder as an additive to improve the corrosion behavior of dental amalgams. A novel Ag-Cu nanopowder was synthesized by the precipitation method. An amalgam alloy powder (World-Cap) was added and mixed with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of Ag-Cu nanopowders, respectively, to form experimental amalgam alloy powders. The original alloy powder was used as a control. Alloy powders were examined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Amalgam disk specimens of metallurgically prepared were tested in 0.9% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The changes in the corrosion potential and anodic polarization characteristics were determined. Corrosion potential data were analyzed statistically (n=3, analysis of variance, Tukey's test, p<0.05). The diameters of lamellar structure Ag-Cu nanoparticles were measured to be approximately 30 nm. The composition of the Ag-Cu nanoparticles determined by TEM-energy-dispersive spectroscopy was 56.28 at.% Ag-43.72 at.% Cu. A light-shaded phase was found mixing with dark Cu-Sn reaction particles in the reaction zones of Ag-Cu nanoparticle-doped amalgams. The Ag-Cu nanoparticle-doped amalgams exhibited zero current potentials more positive than the control (p<0.05) and no current peak was observed at -325mV that related to Ag-Hg phase and Cu6Sn5 phase in anodic polarization curves. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of high-copper single-composition amalgam could be improved by Ag-Cu nanoparticle-doping.

  12. Driving degradation within biodegradable polymers with embedded nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorga, Russell; Firestone, Gabriel; Fontecha, Daniela; Bochinski, Jason; Clarke, Laura

    The ability to controllably trigger breaking of chemical bonds enables a substance that has robust material properties during use but can be re-worked or deteriorated upon command. Photothermal heating creates intense local heat at isolated nanoparticle locations within a sample and can result in very different material responses than those achievable with conventional (uniform) heating. In this process, irradiation with visible light resonant with the nanoparticle's surface plasmon resonance results in dramatic local heating of the particles and the surrounding material. This work studies intentional thermal degradation of poly ethyl cyanoacrylate-starch composites doped with metal nanoparticles, and explores differences in degradation speed, efficiency, and resultant mechanical properties when heated via the photothermal effect. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant #: CMMI-1462966.

  13. Electromagnetic resonances of solar-selective absorbers with nanoparticle arrays embedded in a dielectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Atsushi; Kawamata, Tomoaki

    2016-11-01

    We numerically investigate a solar-selective absorber with tungsten core-shell nanoparticle arrays embedded in an SiO2 layer. The 3D full-wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations are performed to investigate the geometric effects of different types of solar-selective absorbers. Consequently, broadband light absorption was achieved with either a tungsten nanoparticle array or a tungsten core-shell nanoparticle array because of the strong electric field enhancement in the gap between the core nanoparticles. The solar performance of the proposed structure is shown for high-efficiency solar light absorption. This study enhances understanding of the light absorption mechanism of metallic nanoparticle/dielectric composite and facilitates the design of high-efficiency solar-selective absorbers.

  14. Optical bistability in plasmonic nanoparticles: Effect of size, shape and embedding medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshfar, Nader; Foroughi, Hamidreza

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistability, which one input signal allows two possible outputs, from single spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and also nanoshells in the frame work of quasi-static formalism. It is shown that the bistability behavior greatly depends on several parameters such as the nanoparticle size, material and the surrounding dielectric environment. We demonstrated the width of the bistability region and also the bistable threshold depends on the geometrical parameters, and can be tuned by adjusting the size of nanoparticle, the shell thickness and the dielectric constant of the embedding medium. It is also shown that the optical bistable behavior depends strongly on the shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and nanoshells. However, these dependences of optical bistability of spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and nanoshells on changing of their geometrical parameters can be used for realize optical switching and sensing purposes.

  15. Fabrication of graphene oxide enwrapped Z-scheme Ag2SO3/AgBr nanoparticles with enhanced visible-light photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yujuan; Liang, Chunyan; Xia, Yue; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2017-02-01

    A novel graphene oxide (GO) enwrapped Ag2SO3/AgBr (GO/Ag2SO3/AgBr) composite was fabricated through a facile solution approach via electrostatic interaction and precipitation transformation reaction for the first time. The results of XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM and XPS confirmed the structure, morphology and composition of the GO/Ag2SO3/AgBr composite very well. The Ag2SO3/AgBr nanoparticles were found to be encapsulated by GO sheets. The photocatalytic activity of the composite was investigated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) in water under visible light. The incorporation of GO sheets not only significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity but also improved the reusability of Ag2SO3/AgBr nanoparticles. The photocatalytic ability of GO/Ag2SO3/AgBr can be maintained at a high level for 4 times cycle experiments. The trapping experiments confirmed that holes and superoxide ion radicals were the main active species responsible for the degradation reaction. A plasmonic Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism was proposed to illustrate the possible transferred and separated behavior of electron-hole pairs among Ag, Ag2SO3, AgBr and GO quaternary system under visible light irradiation.

  16. In situ preparation of monodispersed Ag/polyaniline/Fe3O4 nanoparticles via heterogeneous nucleation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acrylic acid and styrene were polymerized onto monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles using a grafting copolymerization method. Aniline molecules were then bonded onto the Fe3O4 nanoparticles by electrostatic self-assembly and further polymerized to obtain uniform polyaniline/Fe3O4 (PANI/Fe3O4) nanoparticles (approximately 35 nm). Finally, monodispersed Ag/PANI/Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by an in situ reduction reaction between emeraldine PANI and silver nitrate. Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectrometers and a transmission electron microscope were used to characterize both the chemical structure and the morphology of the resulting nanoparticles. PMID:23819820

  17. Silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) are taken up by plants and are phytotoxic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Lombi, Enzo; Sekine, Ryo; Blamey, F Pax C; Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C; Cheng, Miaomiao; Kappen, Peter; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Tang, Caixian; Kopittke, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) are used in more consumer products than any other nanomaterial and their release into the environment is unavoidable. Of primary concern is the wastewater stream in which most silver NPs are transformed to silver sulfide NPs (Ag2S-NPs) before being applied to agricultural soils within biosolids. While Ag2S-NPs are assumed to be biologically inert, nothing is known of their effects on terrestrial plants. The phytotoxicity of Ag and its accumulation was examined in short-term (24 h) and longer-term (2-week) solution culture experiments with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed to Ag2S-NPs (0-20 mg Ag L(-1)), metallic Ag-NPs (0-1.6 mg Ag L(-1)), or ionic Ag (AgNO3; 0-0.086 mg Ag L(-1)). Although not inducing any effects during 24-h exposure, Ag2S-NPs reduced growth by up to 52% over a 2-week period. This toxicity did not result from their dissolution and release of toxic Ag(+) in the rooting medium, with soluble Ag concentrations remaining below 0.001 mg Ag L(-1). Rather, Ag accumulated as Ag2S in the root and shoot tissues when plants were exposed to Ag2S-NPs, consistent with their direct uptake. Importantly, this differed from the form of Ag present in tissues of plants exposed to AgNO3. For the first time, our findings have shown that Ag2S-NPs exert toxic effects through their direct accumulation in terrestrial plant tissues. These findings need to be considered to ensure high yield of food crops, and to avoid increasing Ag in the food chain.

  18. Targeting of albumin-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles to tumors

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Priya Prakash; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Kastantin, Mark; Black, Matthew; Missirlis, Dimitris; Tirrell, Matthew; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    We have used tumor-homing peptides to target abraxane, a clinically approved paclitaxel-albumin nanoparticle, to tumors in mice. The targeting was accomplished with two peptides, CREKA, and LyP-1 (CGQKRTRGC). Fluorescein (FAM)-labeled CREKA-abraxane, when injected intravenously into mice bearing MDA-MB-435 human cancer xenografts, accumulated in tumor blood vessels, forming aggregates that contained red blood cells and fibrin. FAM-LyP-1-abraxane co-localized with extravascular islands expressing its receptor, p32. Self-assembled mixed micelles carrying the homing peptide and the label on different subunits accumulated in the same areas of tumors as LyP-1-abraxane, showing that Lyp-1 can deliver intact nanoparticles into extravascular sites. Untargeted, FAM-abraxane was detected in the form of a faint meshwork in tumor interstitium. LyP-1-abraxane produced a statistically highly significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to untargeted abraxane. These results show that nanoparticles can be effectively targeted into extravascular tumor tissue and that targeting can enhance the activity of a therapeutic nanoparticle. PMID:18829396

  19. Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Luís André; Maria, Vera L.; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; Amorim, Mónica J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days). The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that AgNO3 was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC20 and EC50 was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag+ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO). Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses. PMID:26473892

  20. Controlled formation of ag nanoparticles by means of long-chain sodium polyacrylates in dilute solution.

    PubMed

    Huber, Klaus; Witte, Thomas; Hollmann, Jutta; Keuker-Baumann, Susanne

    2007-02-07

    A new tool is presented to control formation of Ag nanoparticles. Small amounts of silver ions were added to dilute solutions of long-chain sodium polyacrylates (NaPA). Four NaPA samples covering a molar mass regime of 97 kD < or = Mw < or = 650 kD have been used. With amounts of added Ag(+) as low as 1-2% of the COO(-) groups of the polyanionic chains, significant changes could already be induced in the NaPA coils with 650 kD. If the NaPA concentration was kept below 0.1 g/L, the coils with 650 kD exhibited a significant coil shrinking in stable solutions. At larger NaPA concentrations, addition of Ag+ initiates an aggregation of the polyacrylate coils toward compact structures. Coil shrinking and aggregation was revealed by means of time-resolved static light scattering. If exposed to UV-radiation, small Ag particles formed within the shrunken anionic polyacrylate coils. The Ag nanoparticles were identified by means of an enhanced light scattering and a characteristic plasmon absorption band around 410 nm. No such Ag particle formation could be observed even at 5 times larger concentrations of Ag(+) and NaPA if the two smallest polyacrylate samples have been used under otherwise equal conditions. This molar mass sensitive response of NaPA to Ag(+)-addition suggests an interesting phenomenon: if the coil size of the NaPa chains, which act as Ag(+) collectors, is large enough, local Ag(+) concentration in these coil-shaped Ag(+) containers exceeds a critical value, and irradiation with UV generates Ag nanoparticles.

  1. Influence of silver content on rifampicin adsorptivity for magnetite/Ag/rifampicin nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, Olena; Coy, Emerson; Peplinska, Barbara; Jarek, Marcin; Lewandowski, Mikołaj; Załęski, Karol; Warowicka, Alicja; Wozniak, Anna; Babutina, Tatiana; Jurga-Stopa, Justyna; Dolinsek, Janez; Jurga, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with silver (magnetite/Ag) are intensively investigated due to their application in the biomedical field. We demonstrate that the increase of silver content on the surface of nanoparticles improves the adsorptivity of antibiotic rifampicin as well as antibacterial properties. The use of ginger extract allowed to improve the silver nucleation on the magnetite surface that resulted in an increase of silver content. Physicochemical and functional characterization of magnetite/Ag NPs was performed. Our results show that 5%-10% of silver content in magnetite/Ag NPs is already sufficient for antimicrobial properties against Streptococcus salivarius and Staphylococcus aureus. The rifampicin molecules on the magnetite/Ag NPs surface made the spectrum of antimicrobial activity wider. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the magnetite/Ag/rifampicin NPs showed no harmful action towards normal human fibroblasts, whereas the effect on human embryonic kidney cell viability was time and dose dependent.

  2. Titanium dioxide encapsulation of supported Ag nanoparticles on the porous silica bead for increased photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Deng, Lu; Sun, Chaochao; Li, Junqi; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    A new synthetic strategy has been developed to encapsulate Ag nanoparticles in heterogeneous catalysts to prevent their dropping and sintering. Ag nanoparticles with diameters about 5-10 nm were first supported on the porous silica bead. These were then covered with a fresh layer of titanium dioxide with the thickness about 5 nm. SEM and TEM images were used to confirm the success of each synthesis step, and the photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized samples was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of Rhodamine B (Rh B) aqueous solution at ambient temperature under both UV and visible light irradiation. The resulting titanium dioxide encapsulated Ag nanoparticles exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation, this can be attributed to effective charge separation and light harvesting of the plasmonic silver nanoparticles decoration, even the reducing of the exciton recombination rate caused by the small grain size of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals.

  3. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Behavior of Fungal Extracellular Synthesized Ag Nanoparticles Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Salaheldin, Taher A.; Husseiny, Sherif M.; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Elzatahry, Ahmed; Cowley, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by subjecting a reaction medium to a Fusarium oxysporum biomass at 28 °C for 96 h. The biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles were characterized on the basis of their anticipated peak at 405 nm using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Structural confirmation was evident from the characteristic X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, high-resolution transmission electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and the particle size analyzer. The Ag nanoparticles were of dimension 40 ± 5 nm and spherical in shape. The study mainly focused on using the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to examine the cytotoxic activities of fungal synthesized Ag nanoparticles on a human breast carcinoma cell line MCF7 cell, which featured remarkable vacuolation, thus indicating a potent cytotoxic activity. PMID:26950118

  4. Enhanced electron field emission from ZnO nanoparticles-embedded DLC films prepared by electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peizeng; Li, Ruishan; Yang, Hua; Feng, Youcai; Xie, Erqing

    2012-06-01

    ZnO nanoparticles-embedded diamond-like amorphous (DLC) carbon films have been prepared by electrochemical deposition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) results confirm that the embedded ZnO nanoparticles are in the wurtzite structure with diameters of around 4 nm. Based on Raman measurements and atomic force microscope (AFM) results, it has been found that ZnO nanoparticles embedding could enhance both graphitization and surface roughness of DLC matrix. Also, the field electron emission (FEE) properties of the ZnO nanoparticles-embedded DLC film were improved by both lowering the turn-on field and increasing the current density. The enhancement of the FEE properties of the ZnO-embedded DLC film has been analyzed in the context of microstructure and chemical composition.

  5. Bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle-embedded graphene hydrogel films

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kyungwhan; Cho, Kyoungah; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Sangsig

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we fabricate bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle (NP)-embedded graphene hydrogel (GH) electrodes and investigate the influence of the Au NP embedment on the internal resistance and capacitive performance. Embedding the Au NPs into the GH electrodes results in a decrease of the internal resistance from 35 to 21 Ω, and a threefold reduction of the IR drop at a current density of 5 A/g when compared with GH electrodes without Au NPs. The Au NP-embedded GH supercapacitors (NP-GH SCs) exhibit excellent capacitive performances, with large specific capacitance (135 F/g) and high energy density (15.2 W·h/kg). Moreover, the NP-GH SCs exhibit comparable areal capacitance (168 mF/cm2) and operate under tensile/compressive bending. PMID:28074865

  6. Bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle-embedded graphene hydrogel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kyungwhan; Cho, Kyoungah; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Sangsig

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we fabricate bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle (NP)-embedded graphene hydrogel (GH) electrodes and investigate the influence of the Au NP embedment on the internal resistance and capacitive performance. Embedding the Au NPs into the GH electrodes results in a decrease of the internal resistance from 35 to 21 Ω, and a threefold reduction of the IR drop at a current density of 5 A/g when compared with GH electrodes without Au NPs. The Au NP-embedded GH supercapacitors (NP-GH SCs) exhibit excellent capacitive performances, with large specific capacitance (135 F/g) and high energy density (15.2 W·h/kg). Moreover, the NP-GH SCs exhibit comparable areal capacitance (168 mF/cm2) and operate under tensile/compressive bending.

  7. Biosynthesis of quasi-spherical Ag nanoparticle by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a bioreducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Otaqsara, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Use of microorganism as a novel and eco-friendly strategy to production of nanomaterials is an important aspect of modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has been investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that silver (Ag+) ions when exposed to P. aeruginosa biomass are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of Ag-NPs. Quasi-spherical shape and nearly well distribution and FCC crystal structure of Ag-NPs were confirmed by XRD pattern, STM and TEM micrographs. UV-Vis spectra show a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at ~ 435 nm.

  8. Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman probes for immunoassay of cancer marker using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as separation tools.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ji-Lai; Liang, Yi; Huang, Yong; Chen, Ji-Wei; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2007-02-15

    A simple, sensitive and highly specific immunoassay has been developed based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. This strategy combines the Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles embedded with rhodamine B isothiocyanate dye molecules as Raman tags and the amino group modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticle as immobilization matrix and separation tool. In the proposed system, a sandwich-type immunoassay was performed between polyclonal antibody functionalized Ag/SiO2 nanoparticle-based Raman tags and monoclonal antibody modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles. The presence of the analyte and the reaction between the antigen and antibody can be monitored by the Raman spectra of the Ag/SiO2 tags. Compared to the previous surface-enhanced Raman immunoassays, the main advantage of this strategy lies in two aspects. One is the high stability of Raman tags derived from the silica shell-coated silver core-shell nanostructure. The other is the use of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as immobilization matrix and separation tool, thus avoiding complicated pretreatment and washing steps. We have studied in detail the experimental parameters such as the effects of the antibody concentration modified on the Raman tags and on the magnetic particles, and the immunoreaction time. Using this strategy, concentration of human AFP up to 0.12 microg/ml was detected with a detection limit of 11.5 pg/ml.

  9. The role of Ag on dynamics of superspins in MnFe2- x Ag x O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslibeiki, B.; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of dipole-dipole and exchange interactions on dynamics of superspins in a system of MnFe2- x Ag x O4 (where x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.6) nanoparticles has been studied by Ac magnetic susceptibility measurements. Average crystallite size of samples was estimated to be 7 to 4 nm, with respect to the doping level of x = 0-0.6. It was found that the nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature with almost zero coercivity. Saturation magnetization of samples showed a remarkable reduction by increasing non-magnetic Ag doping level. By decreasing the temperature, a transition to frustrated superspin glass state was observed in all samples. Freezing temperatures of superspins were decreased by increasing the Ag content, as a result of decreasing size of crystallites, magnetization of nanoparticles, and consequently weakening of dipole-dipole interactions. The estimated values of zυ, τ 0, and T 0, using critical slowing down model, justify the observed variation of freezing temperatures. Furthermore it was realized that sensitivity of samples to the variation of applied frequency, an important parameter in hyperthermia based therapy, is affected by magnetic interactions between nanoparticles.

  10. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qingwu [Chelmsford, MA; Li, Wenguang [Andover, MA; Jiang, Hua [Methuen, MA

    2012-01-03

    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  11. Green and Tunable Decoration of Graphene with Spherical Nanoparticles Based on Laser Ablation in Water: A Case of Ag Nanoparticle/Graphene Oxide Sheet Composites.

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Wang, Haibo; Li, Kai; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Jianshuang; Meng, Xiangdong; Shen, Xiaoshuang; Zeng, Xianghua; Cai, Weiping

    2016-02-23

    A simple and green strategy is presented to decorate graphene with nanoparticles, based on laser ablation of targets in graphene auqeous solution. Ag and graphene oxide (GO) are chosen as model materials. The surface of GO sheets is strongly anchored with spherical Ag nanoparticles. The density and size of the Ag nanoparticles can be easily tuned by laser ablation conditions. Further, the GO sheets can be decorated with other nanoparticles from simple metals or semiconductors to multicomponent hybrids. Additionally, the Ag nanoparticle/GO sheet colloids can be utilized as blocks to build three-dimensional structures, such as sandwich membranes by evaporation-induced self-assembly. These graphene-based composite materials could be very useful in catalysis, sensors, and nanodevices. Particularly, the Ag nanoparticle/GO sheet sandwich composite membranes exhibit excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering performance and possess the huge potential in trace-detecting persistent organic pollutants in the environment.

  12. Halloysite nanotube supported Ag nanoparticles heteroarchitectures as catalysts for polymerization of alkylsilanes to superhydrophobic silanol/siloxane composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Li, Xueyuan; Duan, Xuelan; Li, Guangjie; Wang, Jiaqiang

    2014-12-15

    Halloysite nanotube supported Ag nanoparticles heteroarchitectures have been prepared through a very simple electroless plating method. Robust Ag nanocrystals can be reproducibly fabricated by soaking halloysite nanotubes in ethanolic solutions of AgNO3 and butylamine. By simply adjusting the molar ratio of AgNO3 and butylamine, Ag nanoparticles with tunable size and quantity on halloysite nanotube are achieved. It reveals that the Ag nanoparticles are well-dispersed on the surface of halloysite nanotubes. The halloysite nanotube supported Ag nanoparticles heteroarchitectures can serve as active catalysts for the polymerization of an alkylsilane C18H37SiH3 with water to form silanol/siloxane composite microspheres and exhibit interesting superhydrophobicity ascribed to the micro/nanobinary structure.

  13. Controlled growth of thermally stable uniform-sized Ag nanoparticles on flat support and their electrochemical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, A. A.; Sartale, S. D.

    2015-05-01

    A method consisting of spin coating of Ag+ ions (AgNO3) solution followed by chemical reduction in aqueous hydrazine solution has been presented for controlled growth of thermally stable uniform-sized Ag nanoparticles on flat substrate. Scanning electron microscopy images and local surface plasmon resonance absorption studies imply that most of the Ag nanoparticles grow with unique preferable size. This preferable size can be controlled by changing AgNO3 solution characteristics (drop size and concentration), spin-coating parameters (rpm and ramp) and annealing temperatures. With increase in rpm or ramp, particle size decreases with enhanced particles density. The Ag nanoparticles are thermally stable up to 450 °C, and the preferable size is increased with annealing temperature. The grown particles are catalytic active for oxygen reduction reaction, and activity was found to be dependent on size and density of Ag nanoparticles.

  14. Effect of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles on SERS spectral variance of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Li; Chen, Shaode; Zhang, Kaisong

    2015-02-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively utilized in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for bacterial identification. However, Ag NPs are toxic to bacteria. Whether such toxicity can affect SERS features of bacteria and interfere with bacterial identification is still unknown and needed to explore. Here, by carrying out a comparative study on non-toxic Au NPs with that on toxic Ag NPs, we investigated the influence of nanoparticle concentration and incubation time on bacterial SERS spectral variance, both of which were demonstrated to be closely related to the toxicity of Ag NPs. Sensitive spectral alterations were observed on Ag NPs with increase of NPs concentration or incubation time, accompanied with an obvious decrease in number of viable bacteria. In contrast, SERS spectra and viable bacterial number on Au NPs were rather constant under the same conditions. A further analysis on spectral changes demonstrated that it was cell response (i.e. metabolic activity or death) to the toxicity of Ag NPs causing spectral variance. However, biochemical responses to the toxicity of Ag were very different in different bacteria, indicating the complex toxic mechanism of Ag NPs. Ag NPs are toxic to a great variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa etc., therefore, this work will be helpful in guiding the future application of SERS technique in various complex biological systems.

  15. Hollow Au-Ag Nanoparticles Labeled Immunochromatography Strip for Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Youju; Dandapat, Anirban; Dai, Liwei; Zhang, Ganggang; Lu, Xuefei; Zhang, Jiawei; Lai, Weihua; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction. The surface of hollow Ag-Au NPs was functionalized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) for further covalently bonded with anti-CLE monoclonal antibody. Overall size of the Au-Ag NPs, size of the holes within individual NPs and also Au/Ag mole ratio have been systematically optimized to amplify both the visual inspection signals and the quantitative data. The sensitivity of optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs probes has been achieved even as low as 2 ppb in a short time (within 15 min), which is superior over the detection performance of conventional test strip using Au NPs. The optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs labeled test strip can be used as an ideal candidate for the rapid screening of CLE in food samples.

  16. Hollow Au-Ag Nanoparticles Labeled Immunochromatography Strip for Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Youju; Dandapat, Anirban; Dai, Liwei; Zhang, Ganggang; Lu, Xuefei; Zhang, Jiawei; Lai, Weihua; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction. The surface of hollow Ag-Au NPs was functionalized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) for further covalently bonded with anti-CLE monoclonal antibody. Overall size of the Au-Ag NPs, size of the holes within individual NPs and also Au/Ag mole ratio have been systematically optimized to amplify both the visual inspection signals and the quantitative data. The sensitivity of optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs probes has been achieved even as low as 2 ppb in a short time (within 15 min), which is superior over the detection performance of conventional test strip using Au NPs. The optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs labeled test strip can be used as an ideal candidate for the rapid screening of CLE in food samples. PMID:28134263

  17. Embedded Ag-rich nanodots in PbTe: Enhancement of thermoelectric properties through energy filtering of the carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Biplab; V, Ajay Kumar; Banerji, P.

    2010-09-01

    The concept of energy filtering of the carriers to control the thermoelectric properties of PbTe is experimentally applied in this present work. The energy barriers at the grain interfaces of the nanocomposites and the embedded Ag-rich nanodots within the grains are supposed to control the energy dependency of carrier scattering: that is what we mean by energy filtering of carriers. As a case study, vertical Bridgman grown bulk PbTe:undoped, PbTe:Ag crystals and nanocomposites of PbTe:Ag are used as samples. Thermoelectric properties of all the samples have been evaluated through temperature dependent electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and room temperature Hall and thermal conductivity measurements. It is found that the PbTe:Ag nanocomposites has the highest power factor of 18.78×10-4 W m-1 K-2 with a room temperature thermal conductivity of 1.69 W m-1 K-1. The crystal structures of these samples show the effective potential barrier at the grain boundaries and embedded nanodots within the grains to facilitate the energy filtering of the carriers.

  18. Matrix and interaction effects on the magnetic properties of Co nanoparticles embedded in gold and vanadium.

    PubMed

    Ruano, M; Díaz, M; Martínez, L; Navarro, E; Román, E; García-Hernandez, M; Espinosa, A; Ballesteros, C; Fermento, R; Huttel, Y

    2013-01-07

    The study of the magnetic properties of Co nanoparticles (with an average diameter of 10.3 nm) grown using a gas-phase aggregation source and embedded in Au and V matrices is presented. We investigate how the matrix, the number of embedded nanoparticles (counted by coverage percentage), the interparticle interactions and the complex nanoparticles/matrix interface structure define the magnetic properties of the studied systems. A threshold coverage of 3.5% of a monolayer was found in both studied systems: below this coverage, nanoparticles behave as an assembly of independent single-domain magnetic entities with uniaxial anisotropy. Above the threshold it is found that the magnetic behavior of the systems is more matrix dependent. While magnetic relaxation and Henkel plots measurements stress the importance of the dipolar interactions and the formation of coherent clusters in the case of the Au matrix, the magnetic behavior of cobalt clusters embedded in the vanadium matrix is explained through the formation of a spin glass-like state at the V-Co interface that screens the magnetic interactions between NPs.

  19. Three-dimensional chemical imaging of embedded nanoparticles using atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Shutthanandan, V; Prosa, T J; Adusumilli, P; Arey, B; Buxbaum, A; Wang, Y C; Tessner, T; Ulfig, R; Wang, C M; Thevuthasan, S

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of nanoparticles is often challenging especially when they are embedded in a matrix. Hence, we have used laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) to analyze the Au nanoclusters synthesized in situ using ion-beam implantation in a single crystal MgO matrix. APT analysis along with scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) indicated that the nanoparticles have an average size ~8-12 nm. While it is difficult to analyze the composition of individual nanoparticles using STEM, APT analysis can give three-dimensional compositions of the same. It was shown that the maximum Au concentration in the nanoparticles increases with increasing particle size, with a maximum Au concentration of up to 50%.

  20. Nanofibrillated Cellulose and Copper Nanoparticles Embedded in Polyvinyl Alcohol Films for Antimicrobial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Tuhua; Oporto, Gloria S.; Jaczynski, Jacek; Jiang, Changle

    2015-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop a hybrid cellulose-copper nanoparticle material as a functional nanofiller to be incorporated in thermoplastic resins for efficiently improving their antimicrobial properties. In this study, copper nanoparticles were first synthesized through chemical reduction of cupric ions on TEMPO nanofibrillated cellulose (TNFC) template using borohydride as a copper reducing agent. The resulting hybrid material was embedded into a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix using a solvent casting method. The morphology of TNFC-copper nanoparticles was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); spherical copper nanoparticles with average size of 9.2 ± 2.0 nm were determined. Thermogravimetric analysis and antimicrobial performance of the films were evaluated. Slight variations in thermal properties between the nanocomposite films and PVA resin were observed. Antimicrobial analysis demonstrated that one-week exposure of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli DH5α to the nanocomposite films results in up to 5-log microbial reduction. PMID:26137482

  1. Real-time imaging and elemental mapping of AgAu nanoparticle transformations.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E A; Slater, T J A; Prestat, E; Macedo, A; O'Brien, P; Camargo, P H C; Haigh, S J

    2014-11-21

    We report the controlled alloying, oxidation, and subsequent reduction of individual AgAu nanoparticles in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Through sequential application of electron beam induced oxidation and in situ heating and quenching, we demonstrate the transformation of Ag-Au core-shell nanoparticles into: AgAu alloyed, Au-Ag core-shell, hollow Au-Ag2O core-shell, and Au-Ag2O yolk-shell nanoparticles. We are able to directly image these morphological transformations in real-time at atomic resolution and perform energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum imaging to map changing elemental distributions with sub-nanometre resolution. By combining aberration corrected STEM imaging and high efficiency EDX spectroscopy we are able to quantify not only the growth and coalescence of Kirkendall voids during oxidation but also the compositional changes occurring during this reaction. This is the first time that it has been possible to track the changing distribution of elements in an individual nanoparticle undergoing oxidation driven shell growth and hollowing.

  2. Synthesis and formation mechanism of Ag-Ni alloy nanoparticles at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shi; Sun, Dongbai; Tan, Yuanyuan; Xing, Xueqing; Yu, Hongying; Wu, Zhonghua

    2016-11-01

    Ag-Ni nanoparticles were prepared with a chemical reduction method in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) used as a stabilizing agent. During the synthesis of Ag-Ni nanoparticles, silver nitrate was used as the Ag+ source while nickel sulfate hexahydrate was used as Ni2+ source. Mixed solutions of Ag+ source and Ni2+ source were used as the precursors and sodium borohydride was used as the reducing agent. Five ratios of Ag+/Ni2+ (9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 1:9) suspensions were prepared in the corresponding precursors. Ag-Ni alloy nanoparticles were obtained with this method at room temperature. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to characterize the morphology, composition and crystal structure of the nanoparticles. The crystal structure was also investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD). In all five Ag/Ni ratios, two kinds of particle structures were observed that are single crystal structure and five-fold twinned structure respectively. Free energy of nanoparticles with different crystal structures were calculated at each Ag/Ni ratio. Calculated results revealed that, with identical volume, free energy of single crystal particle is lower than multi-twinned particle and the difference becomes smaller with the increase of particle size; increase of Ni content will lead the increase of free energy for both structures. Formation of different crystal structures are decided by the structure of the original nuclei at the very early stage of the reduction process.

  3. Sulfur-doped graphene-supported Ag nanoparticles for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Liu, Yu; Wang, Weiping; Zhang, Xiao; Peng, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Heteroatom doping is an effective way to modulate the physicochemical properties of graphene and its hybrid materials. In this work, sulfur-doped graphene (SG) was used for the first time as a supporting material for loading Ag nanoparticles, and the resulting Ag/SG hybrid with a high S-doping level (2.8 at.%) and a uniform Ag NP decoration was successfully prepared by a microwave-assisted method. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the Ag/SG exhibited a better electrocatalytic activity toward H2O2 reduction than undoped Ag/reduced graphene oxide, which highlighted the important role of S-doping that could not only improve the charge transfer, but also introduce more defects as active sites. The nonenzymatic sensor based on Ag/SG displayed good sensing performances for highly sensitive, selective, and stable detection of H2O2, demonstrating that SG is indeed a promising catalyst-supporting material for electrochemical sensing.

  4. Electrically controlled plasmonic lasing resonances with silver nanoparticles embedded in amplifying nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chin; Deng, Luogen

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrated an electrical control of coherent plasmonic random lasing with very diluted Ag nanoparticles dispersed in a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal (NLC), in which the external electric field dependent emission intensity and frequency-splitting were recorded. A modified rate equation model is proposed to interpret the observed coherent lasing, which is a manifestation of the double enhancements caused by the plasmon-polariton near-fields of Ag particles on the population inversion of laser dye molecules and on the optical energy density of lasing modes. The featured laser quenching as weakening the applied field indicates that the present lasing resonances are very sensitive to the fluctuant dielectric perturbations in the NLC host, and are thus most likely associated with some coupled plasmonic oscillations among the metal nanoparticles.

  5. Determining the Concentration Dependent Transformations of Ag Nanoparticles in Complex Media: Using SP-ICP-MS and Au@Ag Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Tracers.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Ruth C; Stephan, Chady; Lead, Jamie

    2017-03-01

    The fate, behavior, and impact of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in toxicological and environmental media are driven by complex processes which are difficult to quantify. A key limitation is the ability to perform measurements at low and environmentally relevant concentrations, since concentration may be a key factor determining fate and effects. Here, we use single particle inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (SP-ICP-MS) to measure directly NP diameter and particle number concentration of suspensions containing gold-silver core-shell (Au@Ag) NPs in EPA moderately hard water (MHW) and MHW containing 2.5 mg L(-1) Suwannee River fulvic acid. The Au core of the Au@Ag NPs acts as an internal standard, and aids in the analysis of the complex Ag transformations. The high sensitivity of SP-ICP-MS, along with the Au@Ag NPs, enabled us to track the NP transformations in the range 0.01 and 50 μg L(-1), without further sample preparation. On the basis of the analysis of both Au and Ag parameters (size, size distribution, and particle number), concentration was shown to be a key factor in NP behavior. At higher concentration, NPs were in an aggregation-dominated regime, while at the lower and environmentally representative concentrations, dissolution of Ag was dominant and aggregation was negligible. In addition, further formation of ionic silver as Ag NPs in the form of AgS or AgCl was shown to occur. Between 1 and 10 μg L(-1), both aggregation and dissolution were important. The results suggest that, under realistic conditions, the role of NP homoaggregation may be minimal. In addition, the complexity of exposure and dose in dose-response relationships is highlighted.

  6. Ag2Mo3O10 Nanorods Decorated with Ag2S Nanoparticles: Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity, Photostability, and Charge Transfer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianjie; Liu, Fenglin; Yan, Xiaodong; Yang, Yang; Chen, Qian; Wan, Juan; Tian, Lihong; Xia, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-12-14

    Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods decorated with Ag2 S nanoparticles have been synthesized by an anion-exchange route. With thiourea as the sulfur source, sulfur ions replace [Mo3O10](2-) units of active sites on the surface of Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods, forming Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods decorated with Ag2S nanoparticles. This induces enhanced absorption in the visible-light region. Ag2 S nanoparticles decorate the surface of Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods uniformly with a suitable amount of thiourea. The Ag2S/Ag2Mo3O10 nanoheterostructure enhances the photocatalytic activity on the degradations of Rhodamine B and glyphosate under visible light. This enhancement is attributed to the improved absorption of visible light and effective separation of charge carriers in the nanoheterostructure. Meanwhile, the Ag2S/Ag2Mo3O10 nanoheterostructure displays good photocatalytic stability based on cyclic photocatalytic experiments.

  7. Size and alloying induced shift in core and valence bands of Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sengar, Saurabh K.; Mehta, B. R.; Govind

    2014-03-28

    In this report, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out on Pd, Ag, Cu, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Cu nanoparticles having identical sizes corresponding to mobility equivalent diameters of 60, 40, and 20 nm. The nanoparticles were prepared by the gas phase synthesis method. The effect of size on valence and core levels in metal and alloy nanoparticles has been studied by comparing the values to those with the 60 nm nanoparticles. The effect of alloying has been investigated by comparing the valence and core level binding energies of Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag alloy nanoparticles with the corresponding values for Pd, Ag, and Cu nanoparticles of identical sizes. These effects have been explained in terms of size induced lattice contractions, alloying induced charge transfer, and hybridization effects. The observation of alloying and size induced binding energy shifts in bimetallic nanoparticles is important from the point of view of hydrogen reactivity.

  8. Speciation and Lability of Ag-, AgCl- and Ag2S-Nanoparticles in Soil Determined by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term speciation and lability of silver (Ag-), silver chloride (AgCl-) and silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) in soil were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and newly developed "nano" Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) devices. These nano-D...

  9. Green synthetic, multifunctional hybrid micelles with shell embedded magnetic nanoparticles for theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyong; Ma, Junping; Zhu, Haiyan; Gao, Xiaolong; Dong, Haiqing; Shi, Donglu

    2013-08-14

    The objective of this study is to design and develop a green-synthetic, multifunctional hybrid micelles with shell embedded magnetic nanoparticles for theranostic applications. The hybrid micelles were engineered based on complex micelles self-assembled from amphiphilic block copolymers Pluronic F127 and peptide-amphiphile (PA) pal-AAAAHHHD. The reason to choose PA is due to its amphiphilic character and the coordination capability for Fe(3+) and Fe(2+). The PA incorporation allows the in situ growth of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles onto the complex micelles, to yield the nanostructures with shell embedded magnetic nanoparticles at an ambient condition without any organic solvents. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) can be efficiently loaded into the hybrid micelles. Interestingly, the magnetic nanoparticles anchored on the shell were found to significantly retard the DOX release behavior of the drug loaded hybrid micelles. It was proposed that a cross-linking effect of the shell by magnetic nanoparticles is a key to underlie the above intriguing phenomenon, which could enhance the stability and control the drug diffusion of the hybrid micelles. Importantly, in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the potential of these hybrid micelles to be served as a T2-weighted MR imaging contrast enhancer for clinical diagnosis.

  10. Synthesis and anti-bacterial activity of Cu, Ag and Cu-Ag alloy nanoparticles: A green approach

    SciTech Connect

    Valodkar, Mayur; Modi, Shefaly; Pal, Angshuman; Thakore, Sonal

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthesis of novel nanosized copper-silver alloys of different compositions. {yields} Completely green approach for synthesis of water soluble bimetallic nanoparticle. {yields} Interesting anti-bacterial activity of as synthesized metal and alloy nanoparticle. -- Abstract: Metallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of copper and silver in various proportions were prepared by microwave assisted chemical reduction in aqueous medium using the biopolymer, starch as a stabilizing agent. Ascorbic acid was used as the reducing agent. The silver and copper nanoparticles exhibited surface plasmon absorption resonance maxima (SPR) at 416 and 584 nm, respectively; while SPR for the Cu-Ag alloys appeared in between depending on the alloy composition. The SPR maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changes linearly with increasing copper content in the alloy. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) showed monodispersed particles in the range of 20 {+-} 5 nm size. Both silver and copper nanoparticles exhibited emission band at 485 and 645 nm, respectively. The starch-stabilized nanoparticles exhibited interesting antibacterial activity with both gram positive and gram negative bacteria at micromolar concentrations.

  11. Sequential laser and ultrasonic wave generation of TiO2@Ag core-shell nanoparticles and their anti-bacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Abubaker Hassan; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhu; Zhong, Xiang Li; Wang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles have unusual physical, chemical and biological properties. Until now, for the Ag and TiO2 combination, only Ag core and TiO2 shell nanoparticles have been practically demonstrated. In this investigation, novel TiO2@Ag core-shell (TiO2 core and Ag shell) nanoparticles were produced via ultrasonic vibration of Ag-TiO2 compound nanoparticles. A bulk Ti/Ag alloy plate was used to generate colloidal Ag-TiO2 compound nanoparticles via picosecond laser ablation in deionised water. The colloidal nanoparticles were then sonicated in an ultrasonic bath to generate TiO2@Ag core-shell nanoparticles. They were characterised using a UV-VIS spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-angle annular dark-field-Scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Ag-TiO2 compound and the TiO2@Ag core-shell nanoparticles were examined for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) JM109 strain bacteria and compared with those of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of the core-shell nanoparticles was slightly better than that of the compound nanoparticles at the same concentration under standard laboratory light conditions and both were better than the TiO2 nanoparticles but not as good as the Ag nanoparticles.

  12. Magnetic properties of nanocomposites formed by magnetic nanoparticles embedded in a non-magnetic matrix: a simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Serna, J Ceballos; Restrepo-Parra, E; Rojas, J C Riaño

    2012-06-01

    In this work, simulations of magnetic properties of nanocomposites formed by magnetic nanoparticles embedded in a non magnetic matrix are presented. These simulations were carried by means of the Monte Carlo Method and Heisenberg model. Properties as magnetization and Hysteresis loops were obtained varying different parameters as the nanoparticle size, distance between nanoparticles and temperature. The model employed includes interaction between ions belonging to each nanoparticle and also the interaction between nanoparticles. Results show that the magnetization and the coercive force decrease as a function of the nanoparticles distance.

  13. Hydrophobic interactions increase attachment of gum Arabic- and PVP-coated Ag nanoparticles to hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Jee Eun; Phenrat, Tanapon; Marinakos, Stella; Xiao, Yao; Liu, Jie; Wiesner, Mark R; Tilton, Robert D; Lowry, Gregory V

    2011-07-15

    A fundamental understanding of attachment of surface-coated nanoparticles (NPs) is essential to predict the distribution and potential risks of NPs in the environment. Column deposition studies were used to examine the effect of surface-coating hydrophobicity on NP attachment to collector surfaces in mixtures with varying ratios of octadecylichlorosilane (OTS)-coated (hydrophobic) glass beads and clean silica (hydrophilic) glass beads. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with organic coatings of varying hydrophobicity, including citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and gum arabic (GA), were used. The attachment efficiencies of GA and PVP AgNPs increased by 2- and 4-fold, respectively, for OTS-coated glass beads compared to clean glass beads. Citrate AgNPs showed no substantial change in attachment efficiency for hydrophobic compared to hydrophilic surfaces. The attachment efficiency of PVP-, GA-, and citrate-coated AgNPs to hydrophobic collector surfaces correlated with the relative hydrophobicity of the coatings. The differences in the observed attachment efficiencies among AgNPs could not be explained by classical DLVO, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between AgNPs and OTS-coated glass beads were responsible for the increase in attachment of surface-coated AgNPs with greater hydrophobicity. This study indicates that the overall attachment efficiency of AgNPs will be influenced by the hydrophobicity of the NP coating and the fraction of hydrophobic surfaces in the environment.

  14. The disinfection performance and mechanisms of Ag/lysozyme nanoparticles supported with montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Chang, Ying-Na; Song, Biao; Deng, Can-Hui; Liu, Hong-Yu

    2016-11-05

    The fabrication of montmorillonite (Mt) decorated with lysozyme-modified silver nanoparticles (Ag/lyz-Mt) was reported. The lysozyme (lyz) was served as both reducing and capping reagent. Coupling the bactericidal activity of the lyz with AgNPs, along with the high porous structure and large specific surface area of the Mt, prevented aggregation of AgNPs and promoted nanomaterial-bacteria interactions, resulting in a greatly enhanced bactericidal capability against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. This paper systematically elucidated the bactericidal mechanisms of Ag/lyz-Mt. Direct contact between the Ag/lyz-Mt surface and the bacterial cell was essential to the disinfection. Physical disruption of bacterial membrane was considered to be one of the bactericidal mechanisms of Ag/lyz-Mt. Results revealed that Ag(+) was involved in the bactericidal activity of Ag/lyz-Mt via tests conducted using Ag(+) scavengers. A positive ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging test indirectly confirmed the involvement of ROS (O2(-), H2O2, and OH) in the bactericidal mechanism. Furthermore, the concentrations of individual ROS were quantified. Results showed that Ag/lyz-Mt nanomaterial could be a promising bactericide for water disinfection.

  15. The characteristics of novel bimodal Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles generated by hybrid laser-ultrasonic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Abubaker; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhu; Zhong, Xiang Li; Burke, Grace; Wang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Silver-titania (Ag-TiO2) nanoparticles with smaller Ag nanoparticles attached to larger TiO2 nanoparticles were generated by hybrid ultrasonic vibration and picosecond laser ablation of Ag and Ti bulk targets in deionised water, for the first time. The laser has a wavelength of 1064 nm and a pulse duration of 10 ps. It was observed that without the ultrasonic vibration, Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles did not combine, thus the role of ultrasonic vibration is essential. In addition, colloidal TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles were generated separately for comparison under the same laser beam characteristics and process conditions. The absorption spectra of colloidal Ag-TiO2 cluster nanoparticles were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, and size distribution was characterised using transmission electron microscopy. The morphology and composition of Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles were examined using scanning transmission electron microscopy in high-angle annular dark field, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The crystalline structures were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The size of larger TiO2 particles was in the range 30-150 nm, and the smaller-sized Ag nanoparticles attached to the TiO2 was mainly in the range of 10-15 nm. The yield is more than 50 % with the remaining nanoparticles in the form of uncombined Ag and TiO2. The nanoparticles generated had strong antibacterial effects as tested against E. coli. A discussion is given on the role of ultrasonic vibration in the formation of Ag-TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles by picosecond laser ablation.

  16. Beet juice utilization: Expeditious green synthesis of nobel metal nanoparticles (Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd) using microwaves

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal nanoparticles of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd were prepared in aqueous solutions via a rapid microwave-assisted green method using beet juice, an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce, served as both a reducing and a capping reagent. The Ag nanoparticles with capping prepared by b...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Co@Ag core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Torres, Jose; Vallés, Elisa; Gómez, Elvira

    2010-08-01

    A micellar method has been used to prepare silver-coated cobalt (Co@Ag) nanoparticles. The synthesized particles have been deeply characterized by several methods, i.e., XRD, UV-Vis, TEM, XPS, and electrochemical techniques. There is every indication that the obtained particles show a truly core-shell structure. All the nanoparticles obtained under different conditions are in the size range 3-5 nm. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM), Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT), and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) indicated that the presence of hcp-Co and fcc-Ag, in which cobalt is located in the central area; meanwhile silver is at the edges of the nanoparticle. The absorption band of the Co@Ag colloid shifts to a longer wavelength and broadens relative to that of pure silver colloid. Voltammetric characterization allowed to determine the coverage of the cobalt core.

  18. Preparation and thermoelectric properties of sulfur doped Ag2Te nanoparticles via solvothermal methods.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenwen; Zhao, Weiyun; Lu, Ziyang; Zhu, Jixin; Fan, Shufen; Ma, Jan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

    2012-07-07

    In this work, n-type Ag(2)Te nanoparticles are prepared by a solvothermal approach with uniform and controllable sizes, e.g. 5-15 nm. The usage of dodecanethiol during the synthesis effectively introduces sulfur doping into the sample, which optimizes the charge carrier concentration of the nanoparticles to >1 × 10(20) cm(-3). This allows us to achieve the desired electrical resistivities of <5 × 10(-6)Ω m. It is demonstrated that Ag(2)Te particles prepared by this solvothermal process can exhibit high ZT values, e.g. 15 nm Ag(2)Te nanoparticles with effective sulphur doping show a maximum ZT value of ~0.62 at 550 K.

  19. Prediction of size distribution of Ag nanoparticles synthesized via gamma-ray radiolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia-liang; Shen, Sheng-wen; Ye, Sheng-ying; Ye, Lü-meng

    2015-09-01

    The spherical shape Ag nanoparticles synthesized via gamma-ray radiolysis were observed with the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Diameters of Ag nanoparticles were measured from the TEM photographs. Statistical analysis showed that the particle diameter complied with a linear-converted Poisson distribution. The distribution parameter, which was the average of diameters, was related to the ultraviolet-visible spectrum peak position of the nanosilver collosol. An empirical equation was established to predicting size distribution of Ag nanoparticles with the peak position. Nanosilver of different sizes could be synthesized by adjusting the intensity of γ-irradiation, the kind and the addition amount of the stabilizing agent. Because particle size affects the physiochemical properties of nanosilver material, results of this paper would be of practical significance for the application of nanosilver.

  20. Studies on plasmon characteristics and the local density of states of Au and Ag based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod, M.; Biju, V.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the conductive properties and the local density of states of chemically pure Au, Ag, Ag@Au core-shell and Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles is technologically important. Herein, the I-V characteristics and the density of states derived from scanning tunneling microscopy measurements made under atmospheric conditions is reported. The nanoparticles in thin film form used in this study were prepared by laser ablation in water followed by drop and evaporation. The morphology of the surface of the nanostructures was observed from optimizing tunneling current in each case. The monometallic Au and Ag particles shows almost similar current characteristics as well as discrete energy states but the slope of I-V characteristics was different for bimetallic structures. An attempt has also been made to compare the current measurements done in the nanoscale with the surface plasmon characteristics.

  1. Highly reproducible and uniform SERS substrates based on Ag nanoparticles with optimized size and gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yiming; Yan, Lingling; Wang, Jun; Su, Lin; Chen, Nuofu; Tan, Zhanao

    2017-02-01

    It's quite necessary to fabricate reproducible and uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) composite substrate with high enhancement factor simply. Therefore, in this work, in order to obtain the SERS substrates with optimized size and gap, Ag films with different thickness deposited by magnetron sputtering and following annealing are performed. The results both elucidate the function relationship between the size, gap of nanoparticles and the thickness of Ag films, and ascertain the optimized parameters for silver nanoparticles on the basis of finite-difference time-domain simulation, the SERS signal using graphene and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as probe molecules for Ag-NPs/Si substrates. Moreover, our findings highlight the Ag NPs with optimized size and gap as SERS substrates present high reproducibility and uniformity.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Au-core Ag-shell nanoparticles from unmodified apoferritin

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Shibata, T.; Cook, R. E.; Miller, J. T.; Suthiwangcharoen, N.; Lee, S.; Winans, R. E.; Lee, B.

    2012-01-01

    Narrow-size distributed, water-soluble Au-core Ag-shell nanoparticles with a size range from 1 to 5 nm are synthesized using unmodified apoferritin as a template. Fast protein liquid chromatography reveals that the nanoparticles are formed inside the apoferritin cavity and are stable in aqueous solution. Electron microscopy shows that the particles are uniform in size and composed of both Au and Ag. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure confirms that the particles have a core-shell structure with a Au core covered with a Ag shell. By varying the loading amounts of the silver precursor, the Ag shell thickness is controlled from one layer to several layers.

  3. Size effects in the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt nanoparticles: from shape to surface

    PubMed Central

    Oyarzún, Simón; Tamion, Alexandre; Tournus, Florent; Dupuis, Véronique; Hillenkamp, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Strong size-dependent variations of the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt clusters are evidenced quantitatively by combining magnetic experiments and advanced data treatment. The obtained values are discussed in the frame of two theoretical models that demonstrate the decisive role of the shape in larger nanoparticles and the predominant role of the surface anisotropy in clusters below 3 nm diameter. PMID:26439626

  4. Magnetic properties of nanocomposites based on opal matrices with embedded ferrite-spinel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Korolev, A. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Klescheva, S. M.; Perov, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocomposites based on opal matrices with ferrite-spinel nanoparticles embedded have been investigated in temperature range from 2 to 300 K. The magnetization curves and hysteresis loops as well as the temperature dependence of magnetic moment and the temperature and frequency dependences of AC susceptibility have been measured. The results of magnetic measurements are compared to X-ray analysis and electron microscopy investigations.

  5. Fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots embedded chitosan nanoparticles: a stable, biocompatible preparation for bio-imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghormade, Vandana; Gholap, Haribhau; Kale, Sonia; Kulkarni, Vaishnavi; Bhat, Suresh; Paknikar, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) are an optically attractive option for bioimaging, but are known to display high cytotoxicity. Nanoparticles synthesized from chitosan, a natural biopolymer of β 1-4 linked glucosamine, display good biocompatibility and cellular uptake. A facile, green synthetic strategy has been developed to embed green fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) in biocompatible CNPs to obtain a safer preparation than 'as is' QDs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed the crystal lattice corresponding to CdTe QDs embedded in CNPs while thermogravimetry confirmed their polymeric composition. Electrostatic interactions between thiol-capped QDs (4 nm, -57 mV) and CNPs (~300 nm, +38 mV) generated CdTe QDs-embedded CNPs that were stable up to three months. Further, viability of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells in vitro increased in presence of QDs-embedded CNPs as compared to bare QDs. At the highest concentration (10 μg/ml), the former shows 34 and 39% increase in viability at 24 and 48 h, respectively, as compared to the latter. This shows that chitosan nanoparticles do not release the QDs up to 48 h and do not cause extended toxicity. Furthermore, hydrolytic enzymes such as lysozyme and chitinase did not degrade chitosan nanoparticles. Moreover, QDs-embedded CNPs show enhanced internalization in NIH3T3 cells as compared to bare QDs. This method offers ease of synthesis and handling of stable, luminescent, biocompatible CdTe QDs-embedded CNPs with a favorable toxicity profile and better cellular uptake with potential for bioimaging and targeted detection of cellular components.

  6. Studies on interaction of colloidal Ag nanoparticles with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA).

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Aswathy; Singh, Anupam; Raichur, Ashok M; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2010-03-01

    Biofunctionalization of noble metal nanoparticles like Ag, Au is essential to obtain biocompatibility for specific biomedical applications. Silver nanoparticles are being increasingly used in bio-sensing applications owing to excellent optoelectronic properties. Among the serum albumins, the most abundant proteins in plasma, a wide range of physiological functions of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) has made it a model system for biofunctionalization. In absence of adequate prior reports, this study aims to investigate the interaction between silver nanoparticles and BSA. The interaction of BSA [0.05-0.85% concentrations] with Ag nanoparticles [50ppm concentration] in aqueous dispersion was studied through UV-vis spectral changes, morphological and surface structural changes. At pH 7, which is more than the isoelectric point of BSA, a decrease in absorbance at plasmon peak of uninteracted nanoparticles (425nm) was noted till 0.45% BSA, beyond that a blue shift towards 410nm was observed. The blue shift may be attributed to enhanced electron density on the particle surfaces. Increasing pH to 12 enhanced the blue shift further to 400nm. The conformational changes in BSA at alkaline pH ranges and consequent hydrophobic interactions also played an important role. The equilibrium adsorption data fitted better to Freundlich isotherm compared to Langmuir curve. The X-ray diffraction study revealed complete coverage of Ag nanoparticles by BSA. The scanning electron microscopic study of the interacted nanoparticles was also carried out to decipher morphological changes. This study established that tailoring the concentration of BSA and pH of the interaction it was possible to reduce aggregation of nanoparticles. Biofunctionalized Ag nanoparticles with reduced aggregation will be more amenable towards bio-sensing applications.

  7. In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported.

  8. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix (KIT-6) synthesized via novel chemical route

    SciTech Connect

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Panda, Rabi N.; Raja, M. Manivel

    2015-06-24

    Thermally stable Ni nanoparticles have been embedded in mesoporous silica matrix (KIT-6) via novel chemical reduction method by using superhydride as reducing agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms that pure and embedded Ni nanoparticles crystallize in face centered cubic (fcc) structure. Crystallite sizes of pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were estimated to be 6.0 nm, 10.4 nm and 10.5 nm, respectively. Morphology and dispersion of Ni in silica matrix were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetic study shows enhancement of magnetic moments of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix compared with that of pure Ni. The result has been interpreted on the basis of size reduction and magnetic exchange effects. Saturation magnetization values for pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were found to be 15.77 emu/g, 5.08 emu/g and 2.00 emu/g whereas coercivity values were 33.72 Oe, 92.47 Oe and 64.70 Oe, respectively. We anticipate that the observed magnetic properties may find application as soft magnetic materials.

  9. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix (KIT-6) synthesized via novel chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Raja, M. Manivel; Panda, Rabi. N.

    2015-06-01

    Thermally stable Ni nanoparticles have been embedded in mesoporous silica matrix (KIT-6) via novel chemical reduction method by using superhydride as reducing agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms that pure and embedded Ni nanoparticles crystallize in face centered cubic (fcc) structure. Crystallite sizes of pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were estimated to be 6.0 nm, 10.4 nm and 10.5 nm, respectively. Morphology and dispersion of Ni in silica matrix were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetic study shows enhancement of magnetic moments of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix compared with that of pure Ni. The result has been interpreted on the basis of size reduction and magnetic exchange effects. Saturation magnetization values for pure Ni, 4 wt% and 8 wt% Ni in silica were found to be 15.77 emu/g, 5.08 emu/g and 2.00 emu/g whereas coercivity values were 33.72 Oe, 92.47 Oe and 64.70 Oe, respectively. We anticipate that the observed magnetic properties may find application as soft magnetic materials.

  10. Enhanced antioxidant activity of gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone: a combinational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhe, Sharad; Bansal, Prachi; Srivastava, Man Mohan

    2012-12-01

    The antioxidative effect of selected dietary compounds (3,6-dihydroxyflavone, lutein and selenium methyl selenocysteine) was determined in single and combination using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl), OH (hydroxyl), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and NO (nitric oxide) radical scavenging assays. Radical scavenging effect of the dietary phytochemicals individually are found to be in the order: ascorbic acid (standard) > lutein > 3,6-dihydroxyflavone > selenium methyl selenocysteine, at concentration 100 μg/ml, confirmed by all the four bioassays (p < 0.05). Among the various combinations studied, the triplet combination of 3,6-dihydroxyflavone, lutein and selenium methyl selenocysteine (1:1:1), exhibited enhancement in the target activity at same concentration level. Synthesized gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone further enhanced the target antioxidant activity. The combinational study including gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone with other native dietary nutrients showed remarkable increase in antioxidant activity at the same concentration level. The present in vitro study on combinational and nanotech enforcement of dietary phytochemicals shows the utility in the architecture of nanoparticle embedded phytoproducts having a wide range of applications in medical science.

  11. Novel method for the preparation of core-shell nanoparticles with movable Ag core and polystyrene loop shell

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Weijun; Zhang Zhicheng . E-mail: lwj3600@ustc.edu; He Weidong; Zheng Cheng; Ge Xuewu; Li, Jian; Liu Huarong; Jiang Hao

    2006-04-15

    Core/shell nanoparticles with movable silver (Ag) core and polystyrene (PSt) shell (Ag at PSt nanoparticle) were successfully synthesized at room temperature and under ambient pressure via two steps: {gamma}-irradiation and interfacial-initiated polymerization. Firstly, mono-dispersed Ag nanoparticles with diameters 20 nm were synthesized in inversed microemulsion by reducing silver nitrate under {gamma}-irradiation. Then, Ag nanoparticles were coated with PSt via interfacial-initiated polymerization with cumene hydroperoxide/ferrous sulfate/disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate/sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (CHPO-Fe {sup 2+}-EDTA-SFS) as the redox initiation pair. The resulted Ag at PSt nanoparticles were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  12. Novel method for the preparation of core shell nanoparticles with movable Ag core and polystyrene loop shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; He, Wei-Dong; Zheng, Cheng; Ge, Xue-Wu; Li, Jian; Liu, Hua-Rong; Jiang, Hao

    2006-04-01

    Core/shell nanoparticles with movable silver (Ag) core and polystyrene (PSt) shell (Ag@PSt nanoparticle) were successfully synthesized at room temperature and under ambient pressure via two steps: γ-irradiation and interfacial-initiated polymerization. Firstly, mono-dispersed Ag nanoparticles with diameters 20 nm were synthesized in inversed microemulsion by reducing silver nitrate under γ-irradiation. Then, Ag nanoparticles were coated with PSt via interfacial-initiated polymerization with cumene hydroperoxide/ferrous sulfate/disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate/sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (CHPO-Fe 2+-EDTA-SFS) as the redox initiation pair. The resulted Ag@PSt nanoparticles were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  13. Negligible particle-specific toxicity mechanism of silver nanoparticles: the role of Ag+ ion release in the cytosol.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Valeria; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Galeone, Antonio; Brunetti, Virgilio; De Luca, Elisa; Kote, Sachin; Kshirsagar, Prakash; Sabella, Stefania; Bardi, Giuseppe; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is supported by many observations in literature, but no mechanism details have been proved yet. Here we confirm and quantify the toxic potential of fully characterized AgNPs in HeLa and A549 cells. Notably, through a specific fluorescent probe, we demonstrate the intracellular release of Ag(+) ions in living cells after nanoparticle internalization, showing that in-situ particle degradation is promoted by the acidic lysosomal environment. The activation of metallothioneins in response to AgNPs and the possibility to reverse the main toxic pathway by Ag(+) chelating agents demonstrate a cause/effect relationship between ions and cell death. We propose that endocytosed AgNPs are degraded in the lysosomes and the release of Ag(+) ions in the cytosol induces cell damages, while ions released in the cell culture medium play a negligible effect. These findings will be useful to develop safer-by-design nanoparticles and proper regulatory guidelines of AgNPs. From the clinical editor: The authors describe the toxic potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in human cancer cell lines. Cell death following the application of AgNPs is dose-dependent, and it is mostly due to Ag+ ions. Further in vivo studies should be performed to gain a comprehensive picture of AgNP-toxicity in mammals.

  14. Electromagnetic wave propagation in a Ag nanoparticle-based plasmonic power divider.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iftikhar; Png, Ching Eng; Li, Er-Ping; Vahldieck, Rüdiger

    2009-01-05

    In this paper a new silver (Ag) nanoparticle-based structure is presented which shows potential as a device for front end applications, in nano-interconnects or power dividers. A novel oxide bar ensures waveguiding and control of the signal strength with promising results. The structure is simulated by the two dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method considering TM polarization and the Drude model. The effect of different wavelengths, material loss, gaps and particle sizes on the overall performance is discussed. It is found that the maximum signal strength remains along the Ag metallic nanoparticles and can be guided to targeted end points.

  15. Correlating second harmonic optical responses of single Ag nanoparticles with morphology.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rongchao; Jureller, Justin E; Kim, Hee Y; Scherer, Norbert F

    2005-09-14

    Femtosecond laser excited second harmonic (SH) activity from single Ag nanoparticles is reported. A correlation of SH single-particle measurements with high-resolution imaging of particle morphology by TEM was achieved by creating position markers on an optical and electron transparent substrate (Si3N4 thin film, approximately 100 nm). We compared the SH activity of single Ag nanoparticles (nanospheres versus nanorods) and cluster structures (composed of two or multiple particles, e.g., dimers and trimers). The direct correlation of single-particle structures and SH activity, spectral and power dependence, strongly suggests one-photon resonant driven nonlinear oscillator response mechanism.

  16. Iron nanoparticles embedded in carbon films: structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, Fatemeh; Shafiekhani, Azizollah; Sebt, Seyed Ali

    2016-06-01

    In the present work amorphous hydrogenated carbon films with sputtered iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs @ a-C:H) were deposited by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods using acetylene gas and iron target on quartz and silicon substrates. Samples were prepared in different initial pressures and during constant deposition time. The crystalline structure of Fe NPs @ a-C:H was studied using X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction patterns. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis presents that increasing the initial pressure decreases the atomic ratio of Fe/C and the sp3-hybridized carbon content in prepared samples. The transmission electron microscope image shows the encapsulated Fe NPs in carbon films. The optical properties and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of samples were studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry, which is shown that increasing of Fe content decreases the intensity of LSPR peak and increases the optical band gap.

  17. Effect of Ag nanowire addition into nanoparticle paste on the conductivity of Ag patterns printed by gravure offset method.

    PubMed

    Ok, Ki-Hun; Lee, Chan-Jae; Kwak, Min-Gi; Choi, Duck-Kyun; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Jung, Seung-Boo; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of Ag nanowire addition into a commercial Ag nanopaste and the printability evaluation of the mixed paste by the gravure offset printing methodology. Ag nanowires were synthesized by a modified polyol method, and a small amount of them was added into a commercial metallic paste based on Ag nanoparticles of 50 nm in diameter. Two annealing temperatures were selected for comparison, and electrical conductivity was measured by four point probe method. As a result, the hybrid mixture could be printed by the gravure offset method for patterning fine lines up to 15 μm width with sharp edges and scarce spreading. The addition of the Ag nanowires was significantly efficient for enhancement of electrical conductivity of the printed lines annealed at a low temperature (150 degrees C), while the effect was somewhat diluted in case of high temperature annealing (200 degrees C). The experimental results were discussed with the conduction mechanism in the printed conductive circuits with a schematic description of the electron flows in the printed lines.

  18. Localized surface plasmon resonance-based hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaoli; Du, ChunLei; Fu, Yongqi

    2009-09-01

    A triangular hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles array was proposed for the purpose of biosensing in this paper. Constructing the hybrid nanoparticles, an Au thin film is capped on the Ag nanoparticles which are attached on glass substrate. The hybrid nanoparticles array was designed by means of finite-difference and time-domain (FDTD) algorithm-based computational numerical calculation and optimization. Sensitivity of refractive index of the hybrid nanoparticles array was obtained by the computational calculation and experimental detection. Moreover, the hybrid nanoparticles array can prevent oxidation of the pure Ag nanoparticles from atmosphere environment because the Au protective layer was deposited on top of the Ag nanoparticles so as to isolate the Ag particles from the atmosphere. We presented a novel surface covalent link method between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect-based biosensors with hybrid nanoparticles array and the detected target molecules. The generated surface plasmon wave from the array carries the biological interaction message into the corresponding spectra. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), a small protein toxin was directly detected at nanogramme per milliliter level using the triangular hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles. Hence one more option for the SEB detection is provided by this way.

  19. Chemical and phase distributions in a multilayered organic matter-Ag nanoparticle thin film system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, F. M.; Levard, C.; Wang, Y.; Choi, Y.; Eng, P.; Brown, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnologies raises concern regarding the environmental impact of nanoparticles on ecosystems. Among the types of nanoparticles currently in production, metallic silver is the most widely used in nanotechnology (1). Synthetic Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are most often used for their antimicrobial and antifungal properties that are, in part, explained by the release of highly toxic Ag+ species (2). While such properties are desirable in certain applied cases, the release of Ag-NPs and soluble Ag+ species to the environment is expected to impact biota as well as soil and water quality (3). With the production of Ag-NPs projected to increase (1), the amount of Ag-NPs that will be released to the environment through waste streams is also likely to increase. As such, a deeper understanding of the fundamental processes associated with Ag-NPs toxicity and reactivity is needed to evaluate their impact on the environment. We have studied the interaction during aging of poly-acrylic acid (PAA) and Ag-NPs with average particle sizes of 20 ±5 nm. The sample studied was composed of thin films of PAA and Ag-NPs deposited on a Si-wafer support. PAA served as a model compound and a simplified surrogate for exopolysaccharide, an organic substance produced through metabolic activity by most microorganisms. We applied a novel combination of long-period x-ray standing wave fluorescence yield (XSW-FY) spectroscopy, grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), and XRD-based standing wave profiles (XSW-XRD) to obtain chemical- and phase-specific information on this sample. After 24 hours, we observed the formation of AgCl(s) in the PAA film of the sample, which suggests oxidation and dissolution of a portion of the Ag-NPs during aging, resulting in the release of Ag+. In addition, we see partitioning of Cl and Br, both present initially in the PAA, to the intact Ag-NPs thin film. To our knowledge, this is the first application of this suite of techniques to this

  20. Microfluidic synthesis of Ag@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Tao, Sha; Yang, Mei; Chen, Huihui; Ren, Mingyue; Chen, Guangwen

    2017-01-15

    A microfluidic-based method for the continuous synthesis of Ag@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed. It only took 32s to obtain Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs, indicating a high efficiency of this microfluidic-based method. Triangular Ag nanoprisms were employed as the cores for the overgrowth of Cu2O through the reduction of Cu(OH)4(2-) with ascorbic acid. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, HAADF-STEM, EDX, HRTEM, UV-vis spectra and N2 adsorption-desorption. The characterization results revealed that the as-synthesized Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs exhibited a well-defined core-shell nanostructure with a polycrystalline shell, which was composed of numbers of Cu2O domains epitaxially growing on the triangular Ag nanoprism. It was concluded that the synthesis parameters such as the molar ratio of trisodium citrate to AgNO3, H2O2 to AgNO3, NaOH to CuSO4, ascorbic acid to CuSO4 and AgNO3 to CuSO4 had significant effect on the synthesis of Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs. Moreover, Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs exhibited superior catalytic activity in comparison with pristine Cu2O NPs towards the visible light-driven degradation of methyl orange. This enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs was attributed to the larger BET surface area and improved charge separation efficiency. The trapping experiment indicated that holes and superoxide anion radicals were the major reactive species in the photodegradation of methyl orange over Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs. In addition, Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs showed no obvious deactivation in the cyclic test.

  1. Preparation of graphene-Ag nanoparticles hybrids and their SERS activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Ning; Gong, Tiancheng; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on graphene and Ag nanoparticles hybrid structures with low cost, high uniformity were prepared by a standard process of immobilization of silver nanoparticles with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Thermal annealing was used for removing residual APTMS and adjusting the morphology of silver nanoparticles, and the effectiveness of this method was verified experimentally. The influence of annealing temperature, dipping duration, and APTMS volume on the distribution of Ag nanoparticles and Raman enhancement was investigated experimentally and analyzed in detail. Our samples were prepared under the preparation conditions of 10% ν/ν APTMS, dipping time of 48 h, annealing temperature of 450 °C, duration of 30 min, and Ar flow rate of 40 sccm. SERS activities with enhancement of 107 and relative standard deviation of <20% were observed using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as probe molecule with a concentration of 10-6 M and 10-7 M.

  2. Transport properties of β-Ga2O3 nanoparticles embedded in Nb thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidhyanathan, L. S.; Srinivasan, M. P.; Chandra Mohan, P.; Baisnab, D. K.; Mythili, R.; Janawadkar, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of ferromagnetism in nanoparticles of nonmagnetic oxides is an interesting area of research. In the present work, transport properties of niobium thin films, with β-Ga2O3 nanoparticles embedded within them, are presented. Nanoparticles of β-Ga2O3 embedded in a Nb matrix were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency co-sputtering technique on Si (100) and glass substrates held at room temperature. The thin films deposited on Si substrates were subjected to Ar annealing at a temperature range of 600-650 C for 1 hour. Films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman and elemental identification was performed with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Transport measurements were performed down to liquid helium temperatures by four-probe contact technique, showed characteristics analogous to those observed in the context of a Kondo system. A comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical formalism of Kondo and Hamann is presented. It is suggested that this behavior arises from the existence of magnetic moments associated with the oxygen vacancy defects in the nanoparticles of the nonmagnetic oxide Ga2O3.

  3. Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers as Optical Sensors for Radicals.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Samir, Effat; Gaballah, Soha; Hamed, Aya; Elrasheedy, Asmaa

    2016-08-26

    This work presents a new nanocomposite of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles embedded in electrospun PVA nanofibers for optical sensing of radicals in solutions. Our ceria nanoparticles are synthesized to have O-vacancies which are the receptors for the radicals extracted from peroxide in water solution. Ceria nanoparticles are embedded insitu in PVA solution and then formed as nanofibers using an electrospinning technique. The formed nanocomposite emits visible fluorescent emissions under 430 nm excitation, due to the active ceria nanoparticles with fluorescent Ce(3+) ionization states. When the formed nanocomposite is in contact with peroxide solution, the fluorescence emission intensity peak has been found to be reduced with increasing concentration of peroxide or the corresponding radicals through a fluorescence quenching mechanism. The fluorescence intensity peak is found to be reduced to more than 30% of its original value at a peroxide weight concentration up to 27%. This work could be helpful in further applications of radicals sensing using a solid mat through biomedical and environmental monitoring applications.

  4. MIL-100 derived nitrogen-embodied carbon shells embedded with iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chengyu; Kong, Aiguo; Wang, Yuan; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-06-01

    The use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as templates and precursors to synthesize new carbon materials with controllable morphology and pre-selected heteroatom doping holds promise for applications as efficient non-precious metal catalysts. Here, we report a facile pyrolysis pathway to convert MIL-100 into nitrogen-doped carbon shells encapsulating Fe nanoparticles in a comparative study involving multiple selected nitrogen sources. The hierarchical porous architecture, embedded Fe nanoparticles, and nitrogen decoration endow this composite with a superior oxygen reduction activity. Furthermore, the excellent durability and high methanol tolerance even outperform the commercial Pt-C catalyst.The use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as templates and precursors to synthesize new carbon materials with controllable morphology and pre-selected heteroatom doping holds promise for applications as efficient non-precious metal catalysts. Here, we report a facile pyrolysis pathway to convert MIL-100 into nitrogen-doped carbon shells encapsulating Fe nanoparticles in a comparative study involving multiple selected nitrogen sources. The hierarchical porous architecture, embedded Fe nanoparticles, and nitrogen decoration endow this composite with a superior oxygen reduction activity. Furthermore, the excellent durability and high methanol tolerance even outperform the commercial Pt-C catalyst. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Material synthesis and elemental analysis, electrochemistry measurements, and additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02346g

  5. Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers as Optical Sensors for Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Nader; Samir, Effat; Gaballah, Soha; Hamed, Aya; Elrasheedy, Asmaa

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a new nanocomposite of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles embedded in electrospun PVA nanofibers for optical sensing of radicals in solutions. Our ceria nanoparticles are synthesized to have O-vacancies which are the receptors for the radicals extracted from peroxide in water solution. Ceria nanoparticles are embedded insitu in PVA solution and then formed as nanofibers using an electrospinning technique. The formed nanocomposite emits visible fluorescent emissions under 430 nm excitation, due to the active ceria nanoparticles with fluorescent Ce3+ ionization states. When the formed nanocomposite is in contact with peroxide solution, the fluorescence emission intensity peak has been found to be reduced with increasing concentration of peroxide or the corresponding radicals through a fluorescence quenching mechanism. The fluorescence intensity peak is found to be reduced to more than 30% of its original value at a peroxide weight concentration up to 27%. This work could be helpful in further applications of radicals sensing using a solid mat through biomedical and environmental monitoring applications. PMID:27571083

  6. Controlled synthesis of Ag nanoparticles with different morphologies and their antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minjie; Sun, Lei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yanbao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Ag triangle nanoplates and nanospheres were synthesized by liquid chemical reduction method in the presence of seeds, with L-ascorbic acid as the reductant and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the surface modification agent, respectively. Characterizations of the particles were conducted by various techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry, and thermal analysis. The antibacterial properties of Ag nanoparticles against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated by disk diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results indicate that Ag nanospheres exhibit better antibacterial properties than that of triangle nanoplates.

  7. Thermooptical properties of gold nanoparticles embedded in ice: characterization of heat generation and melting.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Hugh H; Hickman, Zackary N; Govorov, Alexander O; Thomas, Alyssa C; Zhang, Wei; Kordesch, Martin E

    2006-04-01

    We investigate the system of optically excited gold NPs in an ice matrix aiming to understand heat generation and melting processes at the nanoscale level. Along with the traditional fluorescence method, we introduce thermooptical spectroscopy based on phase transformation of a matrix. With this, we can not only measure optical response but also thermal response, that is, heat generation. After several recrystallization cycles, the nanoparticles are embedded into the ice film where the optical and thermal properties of the nanoparticles are probed. Spatial fluorescence mapping shows the locations of Au nanoparticles, whereas the time-resolved Raman signal of ice reveals the melting process. From the time-dependent Raman signals, we determine the critical light intensities at which the laser beam is able to melt ice around the nanoparticles. The melting intensity depends strongly on temperature and position. The position-dependence is especially strong and reflects a mesoscopic character of heat generation. We think that it comes from the fact that nanoparticles form small complexes of different geometry and each complex has a unique thermal response. Theoretical calculations and experimental data are combined to make a quantitative measure of the amount of heat generated by optically excited Au nanoparticles and agglomerates. The information obtained in this study can be used to design nanoscale heaters and actuators.

  8. Pt nanoparticles embedded on reduced graphite oxide with excellent electrocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, Gengan; Mohan, Subramanian

    2016-11-01

    Economically viable electrochemical approach has been developed for the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles through electrodeposition technique on the surface of Reduced Graphite Oxide (RGO). Pt nanoparticles embedded Reduced Graphite Oxide on Glassy Carbon Electrode are employed (Pt-rGO/GCE) for electrooxidation of formic acid. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image shows that reduced graphite oxide act as an excellent support to anchor the Pt nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry results confirmed that Pt-rGO/GCE enhanced current density as many folds than that of bare platinum electrode for electrooxidation of formic acid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for Pt-graphene composites illustrate that peaks at 69.15 and 23° for Pt (220) and graphene carbon (002) respectively. 13C NMR spectrum of the electrochemically reduced graphite oxide resonance contains only one peak at 133 ppm which retains graphitic sp2 carbon and does not contain any oxygenated carbon and the carbonyl carbons.

  9. Magneto-optical Faraday rotation of semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices.

    PubMed

    Savchuk, Andriy I; Stolyarchuk, Ihor D; Makoviy, Vitaliy V; Savchuk, Oleksandr A

    2014-04-01

    Faraday rotation has been studied for CdS, CdTe, and CdS:Mn semiconductor nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal chemistry methods. Additionally these materials were prepared in a form of semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol films. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses served as confirmation of nanocrystallinity and estimation of the average size of the nanoparticles. Spectral dependence of the Faraday rotation for the studied nanocrystals and nanocomposites is correlated with a blueshift of the absorption edge due to the confinement effect in zero-dimensional structures. Faraday rotation spectra and their temperature behavior in Mn-doped nanocrystals demonstrates peculiarities, which are associated with s, p-d exchange interaction between Mn²⁺ ions and band carriers in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures.

  10. Surface-plasmon-enhanced emissions of phosphors with Au nanoparticles embedded in ITO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ja-Yeon; Oh, Seung Jong; Park, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Min-Woo; Cho, Yoo-Hyun; Kwon, Min-Ki

    2017-03-01

    Au nanoparticles were embedded in a transparent conducting layer of indium tin oxide in order to evaluate the feasibility of applying a surface-plasmon (SP)-enhanced phosphor to light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The efficiency of the phosphor was improved by energy matching between the phosphor and the SP of the Au nanoparticles. After the density of the Au nanoparticles and the thickness of the spacer layer had been optimized, the efficiency of a green phosphor was improved by 64% compared to that of an isolated green phosphor. This work provides a way to fabricate high-efficiency LEDs with high color-rendering indices and wide color gamuts in white LEDs.

  11. The enhanced SERS effect of Ag/ZnO nanoparticles through surface hydrophobic modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Zhu, Kaixing; Zhao, Qian; Meng, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Ag/ZnO nanocomposites modified by a mixture of stearic acid (SA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were obtained using a heating reflux method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) suggests that organic SA/PVP was bonded onto the surface of Ag/ZnO nanocrystals, converting the wettability property of the nanostructures from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The modified Ag/ZnO nanostructures were confirmed as effective Raman substrates, with a 3-fold signal enhancement compared to the ordinary hydrophilic Ag/ZnO substrate for detecting Rh B molecules due to the hydrophobic condensation effect. It is expected that the modified Ag/ZnO nanoparticles have potential for SERS-based rapid detection of molecules.

  12. Low-temperature ferromagnetic properties in Co-doped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fengxia E-mail: xia9020@hust.edu.cn; Yu, Gen; Han, Chong; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Duanming; Xia, Zhengcai E-mail: xia9020@hust.edu.cn

    2014-01-06

    β-Ag{sub 2}Se is a topologically nontrivial insulator. The magnetic properties of Co-doped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles with Co concentrations up to 40% were investigated. The cusp of zero-field-cooling magnetization curves and the low-temperature hysteresis loops were observed. With increasing concentration of Co{sup 2+} ions mainly substituting Ag{sub I} sites in the Ag{sub 2}Se structure, the resistivity, Curie temperature T{sub c}, and magnetization increased. At 10 T, a sharp drop of resistance near T{sub c} was detected due to Co dopants. The ferromagnetic behavior in Co-doped Ag{sub 2}Se might result from the intra-layer ferromagnetic coupling and surface spin. This magnetic semiconductor is a promising candidate in electronics and spintronics.

  13. Effects of Ag Nanoparticles on Growth and Fat Body Proteins in Silkworms (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xu; Abdlli, Nouara; Wang, Niannian; Lü, Peng; Nie, Zhichao; Dong, Xin; Lu, Shuang; Chen, Keping

    2017-03-30

    Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs), a widely used non-antibiotic, antibacterial material, have shown toxic and other potentially harmful effects in mammals. However, the deleterious effects of AgNPs on insects are still unknown. Here, we studied the effects of AgNPs on the model invertebrate organism Bombyx mori. After feeding silkworm larvae different concentrations of AgNPs, we evaluated the changes of B. mori body weights, survival rates, and proteomic differences. The results showed that low concentrations (<400 mg/L) of AgNPs promoted the growth and cocoon weights of B. mori. Although high concentrations (≥800 mg/L) of AgNPs also improved B. mori growth, they resulted in silkworm death. An analysis of fat body proteomic differences revealed 13 significant differences in fat body protein spots, nine of which exhibited significantly downregulated expression, while four showed significantly upregulated expression. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed that at an AgNP concentration of 1600 mg/L, the expression levels of seven proteins were similar to the transcription levels of their corresponding genes. Our results suggest that AgNPs lowered the resistance to oxidative stress, affected cell apoptosis, and induced cell necrosis by regulating related protein metabolism and metabolic pathways in B. mori.

  14. Green synthesis of halloysite nanotubes supported Ag nanoparticles for photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, MeiLing; Du, MingLiang; Zhu, Han; Xu, CongSheng; Fu, YaQin

    2012-08-01

    Using tea polyphenols (TPs) as a reductant, Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) supported on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were simply and greenly synthesized for the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue (MB). HNTs were initially functionalized by N-β-aminoethyl-γ-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS) to introduce amino groups to form N-HNTs to fasten the AgNPs; then AgNPs were synthesized and ‘anchored’ on the surface of the HNTs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to testify the amino groups on the surface of the HNTs. Transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize the structure and morphology of the synthesized HNTs supported by the AgNPs (AgNPs@N-HNTs). The results showed that the AgNPs had been synthesized and ‘anchored’ onto the surface of the HNTs with a diameter of about 20-30 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed the chelating interaction between the AgNPs and N atoms together with the TP molecular. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared AgNPs@N-HNTs catalyst was evaluated by decomposition of MB; the results showed that the prepared catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity and high adsorption capability to MB.

  15. Ag nanoparticles loaded on porous graphitic carbon nitride with enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhenwei; Wang, Nan; Fan, Hai; Ai, Shiyun

    2017-03-01

    Highly efficient photocatalyst of visible-light-driven Ag nanoparticles loaded on porous graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was prepared by the reduction of Ag ions on porous g-C3N4. The obtained Ag/porous g-C3N4 composite products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra (DRS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results demonstrated that a homogeneous distribution of Ag NPs of 10 nm was attached onto the surface of the porous g-C3N4. The prepared Ag/porous g-C3N4 samples were applied for catalyzing the degradation of phenol in water under visible light irradiation. Porous g-C3N4 demonstrated an excellent support for the formation and dispersion of small uniform Ag NPs. When the weight percentage of Ag reaches 5%, the nanohybrid exhibits superior photocatalytic activities compared to bulk g-C3N4, porous g-C3N4, and 2% Ag/porous g-C3N4 hybrids. The enhanced photocatalytic performance is due to the synergic effect between Ag and porous g-C3N4, which suppressed the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  16. The role of Ag nanoparticles in inverted polymer solar cells: Surface plasmon resonance and backscattering centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Shen, Liang; Meng, Fanxu; Zhang, Jiaqi; Xie, Wenfa; Yu, Wenjuan; Guo, Wenbin; Jia, Xu; Ruan, Shengping

    2013-03-01

    Here, we demonstrate silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) existing in molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) buffer layers can improve the photocurrent by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and backscattering enhancement. The device structure is glass/indium tin oxides/titanium dioxide (TiO2)/regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester/MoO3/Ag NPs/MoO3/Ag. Compared to the device without Ag NPs, the short current density (Jsc) is improved from 7.76 ± 0.14 mA/cm2 to 8.89 ± 0.12 mA/cm2, and the power conversion efficiency is also enhanced from 2.70% ± 0.11% to 3.35% ± 0.08%. The transmittance spectra show that the device with Ag NPs has weaker transmittance than the device without, which could be attributed to the photons absorption of Ag NPs and light scattering by Ag NPs. The absorption profile of the devices with or without Ag NPs is simulated using finite-difference time-domain methods. It is approved that the Ag NPs result in the absorption improvement by SPR and backscattering enhancement.

  17. Characterization of Silver/Bovine Serum Albumin (Ag/BSA) nanoparticles structure: morphological, compositional, and interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Gebregeorgis, A; Bhan, C; Wilson, O; Raghavan, D

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the structure of protein conjugated silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO(3) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) mixture. The role of BSA in the formation of Ag/BSA nanoparticles was established by UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The association of silver with BSA in Ag/BSA nanoparticles was studied by the decrease in the intensity of absorbance peak at 278 nm in UV-Vis spectra and shift in cathodic peak potential in cyclic voltammogram. The molar ratio of silver to BSA in the Ag/BSA nanoparticles is 27:1, as ascertained by thermogravimetric analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Based on atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements, the average particle size of nanoparticles was found to be range of 11-15 nm. TEM image showed that the nanoparticle has two distinct phases and selected area electron diffraction pattern of nanoparticles indicated that the silver phase in Ag/BSA is fcc. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy measurements of freshly prepared and argon sputtered nanoparticles provided evidence that the outer and inner region of nanoparticles are mainly composed of BSA and silver respectively. The structural and compositional findings of nanoparticles could have a strong bearing on the bioavailability and antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles.

  18. Assemblies of silicate sol-gel matrix encapsulated core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles: interparticles surface plasmon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, Shanmugam; Ramaraj, Ramasamy

    2012-06-01

    Cluster-like assemblies of bimetal core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles were prepared. The Ag shell was deposited on the preformed Au nanoparticles using two different types of preformed Au nanoparticles in the presence of EDAS silane monomer, one stabilized by citrate and other by β-cyclodextrin. The Ag shell was deposited on the preformed Au nanoparticles by the reduction of Ag+ ions by β-cyclodextrin and EDAS silane composite. Interestingly, productive Ag shell deposition occurred only on the β-cyclodextrin-stabilized Au nanoparticles and led to the assembly formation, whereas aggregation occurred with the citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles. The average particle size of the core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles was found to be 6.5 nm. Spectral features of this assembly of core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles resembled the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance behavior of Au nanorod-like structures arising from the interparticles surface plasmon coupling. The assemblies so prepared were characterized by uv-vis absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Ag/Pd core-shell nanoparticles by a successive method: Pulsed laser ablation of Ag in water and reduction reaction of PdCl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghi, N.; Ranjbar, M.; Farrokhpour, H.; Khoshouei, M.; Khoshouei, A.; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H.; Tabrizchi, M.; Jalilian-Nosrati, M.

    2014-02-01

    In this study Ag/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) have been fabricated by a successive method; first, colloids of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared in water by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) method. Then PdCl2 solution (up to 0.2 g/l) were added to the as-prepared or aged colloidal Ag NPs. Characterizations were done using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmissions electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Spectroscopy data showed that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of as-prepared Ag NPs at about λ = 400 nm were completely extinguished after addition of PdCl2 solution while this effect was not observed when aged Ag NPs are used. XRD and XPS results revealed that by addition of the PdCl2 solution into the as-prepared Ag NPs, metallic palladium, and silver chloride composition products are generated. TEM images revealed that as a result of this reaction, single and core-shell nanoparticles are obtained and their average sizes are 2.4 nm (Ag) and 3.2 nm (Ag/Pd). The calculated d-spacing values form XRD data with observations on high magnification TEM images were able to explain the chemical nature of different parts of Ag/Pd NPs.

  20. Exchange bias of Ni nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix.

    PubMed

    Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Wiedwald, Ulf; Haering, Felix; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Ziemann, Paul; Herr, Ulrich

    2013-11-15

    The magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) embedded in an antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix were investigated. The Ni-NPs of 8.4 nm mean diameter were synthesized by inert gas aggregation. In a second processing step, the Ni-NPs were in situ embedded in IrMn films or SiOx films under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. Findings showed that Ni-NPs embedded in IrMn have an exchange bias field HEB = 821 Oe at 10 K, and 50 Oe at 300 K. The extracted value of the exchange energy density is 0.06 mJ m(-2) at 10 K, which is in good accordance with the results from multilayered thin film systems. The Ni-NPs embedded in SiOx did not show exchange bias. As expected for this particle size, they are superparamagnetic at T = 300 K. A direct comparison of the Ni-NPs embedded in IrMn or SiOx reveals an increase of the blocking temperature from 210 K to around 400 K. The coercivity of the Ni-NPs exchange coupled to the IrMn matrix at 10 K is 8 times larger than the value for Ni-NPs embedded in SiOx. We studied time-dependent remanent magnetization at different temperatures. The relaxation behavior is described by a magnetic viscosity model which reflects a rather flat distribution of energy barriers. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of different field cooling processes on the magnetic properties of the embedded Ni-NPs. Exchange bias values fit to model calculations which correlate the contribution of the antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix to its grain size.

  1. All-thiol-stabilized Ag44 and Au12Ag32 nanoparticles with single-crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huayan; Wang, Yu; Huang, Huaqi; Gell, Lars; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Malola, Sami; Häkkinen, Hannu; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2013-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles stabilized by organic ligands are important for applications in assembly, site-specific bioconjugate labelling and sensing, drug delivery and medical therapy, molecular recognition and molecular electronics, and catalysis. Here we report crystal structures and theoretical analysis of three Ag44(SR)30 and three Au12Ag32(SR)30 intermetallic nanoclusters stabilized with fluorinated arylthiols (SR=SPhF, SPhF2 or SPhCF3). The nanocluster forms a Keplerate solid of concentric icosahedral and dodecahedral atom shells, protected by six Ag2(SR)5 units. Positive counterions in the crystal indicate a high negative charge of 4(-) per nanoparticle, and density functional theory calculations explain the stability as an 18-electron superatom shell closure in the metal core. Highly featured optical absorption spectra in the ultraviolet-visible region are analysed using time-dependent density functional perturbation theory. This work forms a basis for further understanding, engineering and controlling of stability as well as electronic and optical properties of these novel nanomaterials.

  2. Visual determination of Cu2+ through copper-catalysed in situ formation of Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi

    2012-10-07

    A new strategy was explored for the visual determination of Cu(2+) using copper-catalysed in situ formation of Ag nanoparticles. In this method, only common reagents were used and the pre-synthesis and modification of nanoparticles are avoided. Ag(+) can form a milk-white suspension (AgBr) with Br(-) in an aqueous solution composed of AgNO(3), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, ascorbic acid, bovine serum albumin, and NaNO(3). The reaction will be stopped by addition of Cu(2+), accompanied by a colour change from milk-white to orange or brilliant yellow. Cu(+) (the reduction product of Cu(2+)) consumes the dissolved O(2) and prevents the O(2) from oxidizing the newly reduced Ag atoms (by ascorbic acid) back to Ag(+), facilitating the further aggregation of Ag atoms to become Ag nanoparticles. The visible colour change was shown to be specific towards Cu(2+) over most other metal ions. The limit of detection was 0.75 μM Cu(2+) by the naked eye and 0.25 μM by spectrometer. Quantitation of Cu(2+) was achieved in a linear range from 0.25 to 2.0 μM. This method was validated by measuring real water and serum samples, giving results agreeing well with the data reported and measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The recovery was 95.6-106% for untreated tap water and 96.0-100% for resin-pre-treated water and serum samples.

  3. Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-01-01

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L−1 NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37–0.44 μg L−1) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L−1), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag+, and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag+ is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials. PMID:25858866

  4. Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-04-01

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L-1 NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37-0.44 μg L-1) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L-1), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag+, and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag+ is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials.

  5. Antibacterial wound dressing from chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers mats embedded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Feng; Gao, Jing; Wang, Lu

    2015-03-01

    Novel antibacterial nanomaterials have been developed for biomedical applications. The present study involves the preparation and properties of antibacterial nanofibers from chitosan/polyethylene oxide electrospun nanofibers incorporated with silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were efficiently synthesized in situ after ultra violet (UV) with AgNO3 as precursor and chitosan/polyethylene oxide as reducing agent and protecting agent, respectively. Then the resultant solutions were electrospun into nanofibers. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed with ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the electrospun nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. The resultant fibers exhibited uniform morphology with silver nanoparticles distributed throughout the fiber. Also, the fibers showed certain tensile strength and excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Sustained release of silver nanoparticles from fibers could last for over 72 h. The silver-containing chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers showed excellent cytocompatibility.

  6. Size-selected ag nanoparticles with five-fold symmetry.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Pinilla, Miguelángel; Ferrer, Domingo; Mejía-Rosales, Sergio; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo

    2009-05-15

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using the inert gas aggregation technique. We found the optimal experimental conditions to synthesize nanoparticles at different sizes: 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.3, 2.5 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, 4.5 ± 0.9, and 5.5 ± 0.3 nm. We were able to investigate the dependence of the size of the nanoparticles on the synthesis parameters. Our data suggest that the aggregation of clusters (dimers, trimer, etc.) into the active zone of the nanocluster source is the predominant physical mechanism for the formation of the nanoparticles. Our experiments were carried out in conditions that kept the density of nanoparticles low, and the formation of larges nanoparticles by coalescence processes was avoided. In order to preserve the structural and morphological properties, the impact energy of the clusters landing into the substrate was controlled, such that the acceleration energy of the nanoparticles was around 0.1 eV/atom, assuring a soft landing deposition. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed that the nanoparticles were icosahedral in shape, preferentially oriented with a five-fold axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. Our results show that the synthesis by inert gas aggregation technique is a very promising alternative to produce metal nanoparticles when the control of both size and shape are critical for the development of practical applications.

  7. Size-Selected Ag Nanoparticles with Five-Fold Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using the inert gas aggregation technique. We found the optimal experimental conditions to synthesize nanoparticles at different sizes: 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.3, 2.5 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, 4.5 ± 0.9, and 5.5 ± 0.3 nm. We were able to investigate the dependence of the size of the nanoparticles on the synthesis parameters. Our data suggest that the aggregation of clusters (dimers, trimer, etc.) into the active zone of the nanocluster source is the predominant physical mechanism for the formation of the nanoparticles. Our experiments were carried out in conditions that kept the density of nanoparticles low, and the formation of larges nanoparticles by coalescence processes was avoided. In order to preserve the structural and morphological properties, the impact energy of the clusters landing into the substrate was controlled, such that the acceleration energy of the nanoparticles was around 0.1 eV/atom, assuring a soft landing deposition. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed that the nanoparticles were icosahedral in shape, preferentially oriented with a five-fold axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. Our results show that the synthesis by inert gas aggregation technique is a very promising alternative to produce metal nanoparticles when the control of both size and shape are critical for the development of practical applications. PMID:20596397

  8. Bioaccumulation of Zn and Ag Nanoparticles in the Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Lee Seung; Sung-Dae, Kim; Yi, Yang Song; Byeong-Gweon, Lee

    2014-05-01

    Many studies are carried out to evaluate environmental effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Most of the previous studies primarily focused on the effects of nanoparticles into the aquatic environment and human. Model studies predict that ENPs released into environment would transferred primarily to the soil of the terrestrial environment. Despite this prediction, biogeochemical behavior of ENPs in soil environment as well as bioavailability of ENPs to soil-dwelling organisms such as earthworm, springtail, isopod and nematodes are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to compare the bioaccumulation factor (BAFs) and subcellular partitioning of nanoparticles in the soil-dwelling earthworm (Eisenia fetida) from ENP (ZnO and Ag nanoparticles) or ionic metal (Zn2+, Ag+) contaminated soil. And the sequential extraction was also used to determine the mobility of metals in soil which could be used as to predict bioavailability and compare that with bioaccumulation factor. The radiotracer method was employed to trace the transfer of ENPs and ionic metal among different environmental media and animals. Radiolabeled 65ZnO, 110mAgNPs coated with PVP or citrate were synthesized in the laboratory and their chemical and biological behavior was compared to ionic 65Zn and 110mAg. The BAFs of Zn and Ag in the earthworms were determined after animals exposed to the contaminated soils. After the 7 days of elimination phase, subcellular partitioning of metals were also obtained. BAF for ZnO(0.06) was 31 times lower than that for Zn ion (1.86), suggesting that ZnO was less bioavailable than its ionic form from contaminated soil. On the other hands, BAFs for AgNPs coated with PVP (0.12) or with citrate (0.11) were comparable to those for Ag ion (0.17), indicating that Ag from contaminated soil was bioavailable in a similar rate regardless of chemical forms. The subcellular partitioning results showed that bioaccumulated Zn from Zn ion and ZnO contaminated soil were

  9. Contribution of Eu ions on the precipitation of silver nanoparticles in Ag-Eu co-doped borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Qing; Qiu, Jianbei; Zhou, Dacheng; Xu, Xuhui

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles are precipitated from the borate glasses during the melting process without any further heat treatment. • The reduction of Eu{sup 3+} ions to Eu{sup 2+} ions is presented in this material. • The intensity of Ag{sup +} luminescence. • The introduction of Eu ions accelerated the reaction between Eu{sup 2+} ions and silver ions inducing the silver clusters formation. - Abstract: Ag{sup +} doped sodium borate glasses with different Eu ions concentration were prepared by the melt-quenching method. The absorption at about 410 nm which was caused by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is promoted with increasing of Eu ions concentration. Meanwhile, the luminescent spectra showed that the emission intensity of Ag{sup +} decreased while that of the Ag aggregates increased simultaneously. The results indicated that the Ag ions intend to form the high-polymeric state such as Ag aggregates and nanoparticles with increasing of europium ions. Owing to the self-reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} in our glass system, it revealed that Ag{sup +} has been reduced by the neighboring Eu{sup 2+} which leads to the formation of Ag aggregates and the precipitation of Ag NPs in the matrix. In addition, energy transfer (ET) process from Ag{sup +}/Ag aggregates to the Eu{sup 3+} was investigated for the enhancement of Eu{sup 3+} luminescence.

  10. On-the-fly green generation and dispersion of AgI nanoparticles for cloud seeding nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiuli; Zhou, Wenbo; Wang, Xizheng; Wu, Tao; Delisio, Jeffery B.; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    This study reports on an on-the-fly green synthesis/dispersion of silver iodide (AgI) nanoparticles from the combustion of AgIO3/carbon black (CB)/nitrocellulose (NC) composites, which could be used as a candidate for a cloud-seeding pyrotechnic. Films were formed by direct electrospray deposition of a mixture of synthesized silver iodate with CB and NC. The decomposition pathways of AgIO3/CB and AgIO3/CB/NC were evaluated by temperature jump time of flight mass spectrometry (T-jump TOFMS) and XRD, showing that AgI particles and CO2 are released from the reaction between AgIO3 and CB without other toxic residuals. The flame propagation velocity of AgIO3/CB/NC films increases with the increasing of particle mass loading of AgIO3 and CB and peaks at 40 wt%, which is much higher than that of an AgI/AP/NC film. The mean diameter of the resultant AgI nanoparticles is from 51 to 97 nm. The mass loading of AgIO3 and CB was found to play a major role in size control of the AgI nanoparticles.

  11. Ag nanoparticles/PPV composite nanofibers with high and sensitive opto-electronic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Yang, Peipei; Wang, Chunjiao; Zhan, Sumei; Zhang, Lianji; Huang, Zonghao; Li, Wenwen; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Zijiang; Shao, Chen

    2011-12-01

    The novel Ag nanoparticles/poly( p-phenylene vinylene) [PPV] composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning. The transmission electron microscope image shows that the average diameter of composite fibers is about 500 nm and Ag nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in the PPV matrix with an average diameter of about 25 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectra suggest that there could be a coordination effect to a certain extent between the Ag atom and the π system of PPV, which is significantly favorable for the dissociation of photoexcitons and the charge transfer at the interface between the Ag nanoparticle and the PPV. The Au top electrode device of the single Ag/PPV composite nanofiber exhibits high and sensitive opto-electronic responses. Under light illumination of 5.76 mW/cm2 and voltage of 20 V, the photocurrent is over three times larger than the dark current under same voltage, which indicates that this kind of composite fiber is an excellent opto-electronic nanomaterial.

  12. Ultrasensitive SERS performance in 3D "sunflower-like" nanoarrays decorated with Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Dai, Zhigao; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xingang; Fu, Lei; Jiang, Changzhong

    2017-03-02

    Low-cost, stabilized and ultrasensitive three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates ("sunflower-like" nanoarrays decorated with Ag nanoparticles, denoted as SLNAs-Ag) have been obtained by fabricating binary colloidal crystals and then decorating with Ag nanoparticles. In order to provide a larger density of hot spots within the laser-illumination area, the silica sphere arrays were chosen as the island-type platform for the polystyrene (PS) nanosphere deposition, and the distances between the PS nanospheres were tuned by etching for different durations. Compared with conventional 2D planar systems, the as-fabricated 3D SLNAs-Ag exhibited extremely high SERS sensitivity ascribed to the larger SERS active regions. Quantitative detection of molecules with an extremely low incident laser power was achieved on the "sunflower-like" nanoarrays in which the PS nanospheres were etched for 5 minutes and decorated with Ag nanoparticles, and the corresponding analytical enhancement factor is calculated to be 2 × 10(14) with the concentration of rhodamine 6G down to 10(-15) M. Based on the achieved SERS substrates, we have further demonstrated the highly sensitive detection of molecules such as melamine for food safety inspection.

  13. Photocatalytic Applications of Electrospun TiO2 Nanofibres Embedded with Bimodal Sized and Prismatic Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gopika, G; Asha, A M; Sivakumar, N; Balakrishnan, A; Nair, S V; Subramanian, K R V

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we have synthesized electrospun TiO2 nanofibers embedded with bimodal sized and prismatic gold nanoparticles. The surface plasmons generated in the gold nanoparticles were used to enhance the performance of photocatalysis. The photocatalytic conversion efficiencies of these bimodal sized/prismatic gold nanoparticles when embedded in electrospun TiO2 fibres showed an enhancement of upto 60% over bare fiber systems and also show higher efficiencies than electrospun fibrous systems embedded with unimodal sized gold nanoparticles. Anisotropic bimodal gold nanoparticles show the highest degree of photocatalytic activity. This may be attributed to greater density/concentration of nanoparticles with higher effective surface area and formation of a junction between the smaller and larger nanoparticles. Such a bimodally distributed range of nanoparticles could also lead to greater trapping of charge carriers at the TiO2 conduction band edge and promoting catalytic reactions on account of these trapped charges. This enhanced photocatalytic activity is explained by invoking different operating mechanisms such as improved surface area, greater trapping, coarse plasmon resonance and band effects. Thus, a useful applicability of the gold nanoparticles is shown in the area of photocatalysis.

  14. Ag Nanoparticle/Polydopamine-Coated Inverse Opals as Highly Efficient Catalytic Membranes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gwan H; Rhee, Do Kyung; Park, A Reum; Oh, Min Jun; Hong, Sunghwan; Richardson, Joseph J; Guo, Junling; Caruso, Frank; Yoo, Pil J

    2016-02-10

    Polymeric three-dimensional inverse-opal (IO) structures provide unique structural properties useful for various applications ranging from optics to separation technologies. Despite vast needs for IO functionalization to impart additional chemical properties, this task has been seriously challenged by the intrinsic limitation of polymeric porous materials that do not allow for the easy penetration of waterborne moieties or precursors. To overcome this restriction, we present a robust and straightforward method of employing a dipping-based surface modification with polydopamine (PDA) inside the IO structures, and demonstrate their application to catalytic membranes via synthetic incorporation of Ag nanoparticles. The PDA coating offers simultaneous advantages of achieving the improved hydrophilicity required for the facilitated infiltration of aqueous precursors and successful creation of nucleation sites for a reduction of growth of the Ag nanoparticles. The resulting Ag nanoparticle-incorporated IO structures are utilized as catalytic membranes for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to its amino derivatives in the presence of NaBH4. Synergistically combined characteristics of high reactivity of Ag nanoparticles along with a greatly enhanced internal surface area of IO structures enable the implementation of remarkably improved catalytic performance, exhibiting a good conversion efficiency greater than 99% while minimizing loss in the membrane permeability.

  15. Collagen-chitosan scaffold modified with Au and Ag nanoparticles: Synthesis and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubina, M. S.; Kamitov, E. E.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.; Peters, G. S.; Naumkin, A. V.; Suzer, S.; Vasil'kov, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, the dermal biomimetic scaffolds are widely used in regenerative medicine. Collagen-chitosan scaffold one of these materials possesses antibacterial activity, good compatibility with living tissues and has been already used as a wound-healing material. In this article, collagen-chitosan scaffolds modified with Ag and Au nanoparticles have been synthesized using novel method - the metal-vapor synthesis. The nanocomposite materials are characterized by XPS, TEM, SEM and synchrotron radiation-based X-ray techniques. According to XRD data, the mean size of the nanoparticles (NPs) is 10.5 nm and 20.2 nm in Au-Collagen-Chitosan (Au-CollCh) and Ag-Collagen-Chitosan (Ag-CollCh) scaffolds, respectively in fair agreement with the TEM data. SAXS analysis of the composites reveals an asymmetric size distribution peaked at 10 nm for Au-CollCh and 25 nm for Ag-CollCh indicative of particle's aggregation. According to SEM data, the metal-carrying scaffolds have layered structure and the nanoparticles are rather uniformly distributed on the surface material. XPS data indicate that the metallic nanoparticles are in their unoxidized/neutral states and dominantly stabilized within the chitosan-rich domains.

  16. Trimetallic nanostructures: the case of AgPd/Pt multiply twinned nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Subarna; Bhattarai, Nabraj; Velázquez-Salazar, J. Jesús; Bahena, Daniel; Soldano, German; Ponce, Arturo; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Mejía-Rosales, Sergio; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis, structural characterization, and atomistic simulations of AgPd/Pt trimetallic (TM) nanoparticles. Two types of structure were synthesized using a relatively facile chemical method: multiply twinned core-shell, and hollow particles. The nanoparticles were small in size, with an average diameter of 11 nm and a narrow distribution, and their characterization by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy allowed us to probe the structure of the particles at atomistic level. In some nanoparticles, the formation of a hollow structure was also observed, that facilitates the alloying of Ag and Pt in the shell region and the segregation of Ag atoms in the surface, affecting the catalytic activity and stability. We also investigated the growth mechanism of the nanoparticles using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, and we have found that Pt regions grow at overpotentials on the AgPd nanoalloys, forming 3D islands at the early stages of the deposition process. We found very good agreement between the simulated structures and those observed experimentally. PMID:24165796

  17. Nano sand filter with functionalized nanoparticles embedded in anodic aluminum oxide templates

    PubMed Central

    Phuong, NguyenThi; Andisetiawan, Anugrah; Van Lam, Do; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Doo-Sun; Whang, Kyung-Hyun; Nham, Jeasun; Lee, Yun Jung; Yoo, Yeong-Eun; Yoon, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Since the ancient Egyptians had used sand as filter media for water purification, its principle has been inherited through generations and it is still being used now in industries. The sand filter consists of sand literally, and the voids within the sand bed are the pores for filtration. Here we present a filtration principle using nanoparticles, so that the voids between the nanoparticles can be considered as effective pores in nanoscale dimension. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane has been used as the working template, and the nanoparticles have been injected and embedded within the pores of the AAO template. Nanoparticles with multiple sizes have been used in order to obtain smaller voids. Moreover, the nanoparticles have been functionalized, or electrically charged, with arginine/phenylalanine (RF) peptide group. In this way, filtration performance for charged particles or molecules, such as methylene blue, has been enhanced. Consequently, this study is expected to provide a new principle for fabrication of nano voids, or nano pores, and for filtration in nanoscale dimension. PMID:27876886

  18. Nano sand filter with functionalized nanoparticles embedded in anodic aluminum oxide templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong, Nguyenthi; Andisetiawan, Anugrah; van Lam, Do; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Doo-Sun; Whang, Kyung-Hyun; Nham, Jeasun; Lee, Yun Jung; Yoo, Yeong-Eun; Yoon, Jae Sung

    2016-11-01

    Since the ancient Egyptians had used sand as filter media for water purification, its principle has been inherited through generations and it is still being used now in industries. The sand filter consists of sand literally, and the voids within the sand bed are the pores for filtration. Here we present a filtration principle using nanoparticles, so that the voids between the nanoparticles can be considered as effective pores in nanoscale dimension. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane has been used as the working template, and the nanoparticles have been injected and embedded within the pores of the AAO template. Nanoparticles with multiple sizes have been used in order to obtain smaller voids. Moreover, the nanoparticles have been functionalized, or electrically charged, with arginine/phenylalanine (RF) peptide group. In this way, filtration performance for charged particles or molecules, such as methylene blue, has been enhanced. Consequently, this study is expected to provide a new principle for fabrication of nano voids, or nano pores, and for filtration in nanoscale dimension.

  19. Nanocomposites of silver nanoparticles embedded in glass nanofibres obtained by laser spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, Belén; Quintero, Félix; Díaz, Luís Antonio; Rojo, Fernando; Dieste, Oliver; Pou, Juan; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José Serafín

    2013-04-01

    Nanocomposites made of non-woven glass fibres with diameters ranging from tens of nanometers up to several micrometers, containing silver nanoparticles, were successfully fabricated by the laser spinning technique. Pellets of a soda-lime silicate glass containing silver nanoparticles with varying concentrations (5 and 10 wt%) were used as a precursor. The process followed to obtain the silver nanofibres did not agglomerate significantly the metallic nanoparticles, and the average particle size is still lower than 50 nm. This is the first time that glass nanofibres containing silver nanoparticles have been obtained following a process different from electrospinning of a sol-gel, thus avoiding the limitations of this method and opening a new route to composite nanomaterials. Antibacterial efficiency of the nanosilver glass fibres, tested against one of the most common Gram negative bacteria, was greater than 99.99% compared to the glass fibres free of silver. The silver nanoparticles are well-dispersed not only on the surface but are also embedded into the uniform nanofibres, which leads to a long lasting durable antimicrobial effect. All these novel characteristics will potentially open up a whole new range of applications.

  20. Enhanced localized plasmonic detections using partially-embedded gold nanoparticles and ellipsometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Moirangthem, Rakesh Singh; Yaseen, Mohammad Tariq; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective, stable and ultrasensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) partially embedded in transparent substrate is presented. Partially embedded AuNPs were prepared by thermal annealing of gold thin films deposited on glass at a temperature close to the glass transition temperature of the substrate. Annealed samples were optically characterized by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and compare with theoretical modeling to understand the optical responses from the samples. By combining the partially-embedded AuNPs substrate with a microfluidic flow cell and dove prism in an ellipsometry setup, an ultrasensitive change in the LSPR signal can be detected. The refractive index sensitivity obtained from the phase measurement is up to 1938 degrees/RIU which is several times higher than that of synthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles. The sample is further used to investigate the interactions between primary and secondary antibodies. The bio-molecular detection limit of the LSPR signal is down to 20 pM. Our proposed sensor is label free, non-destructive, with high sensitivity, low cost, and easy to fabricate. These features make it feasible for commercialization in biomedical applications. PMID:22567583

  1. Green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles using Tamarind fruit extract for the antibacterial studies.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, N; Vijaya, J Judith; Kaviyarasu, K; Kombaiah, K; Kennedy, L John; Ramalingam, R Jothi; Munusamy, Murugan A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, first time we report the microwave-assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Tamarindus indica natural fruit extract. The plant extract plays a dual role of reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of AgNPs. The formation of spherical shape AgNPs is confirmed by XRD, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The presence of face-centered cubic (FCC) silver is confirmed by XRD studies and the average crystallite size of AgNPs is calculated to be around 6-8nm. The average particle diameter is found to be around 10nm, which is identified from HR-TEM images. The purity of AgNPs is confirmed by EDX analysis. The presence of sigmoid curve in UV-Visible absorption spectra suggests that the reaction has complicated kinetic features. To investigate the functional groups of the extract and their involvement in the reduction of AgNO3 to form AgNPs, FT-IR studies are carried out. The redox peaks are observed in cyclic voltammetry in the potential range of -1.2 to +1.2V, due to the redox active components of the T. indica fruit extract. In photoluminescence spectroscopy, the excited and emission peaks were obtained at 432nm and 487nm, respectively. The as-prepared AgNPs showed good results towards antibacterial activities. Hence, the present approach is a facile, cost- effective, reproducible, eco-friendly, and green method.

  2. Adsorption of DNA on colloidal Ag nanoparticles: effects of nanoparticle surface charge, base content and length of DNA.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Sara; Moshaii, Ahmad; Nikkhah, Maryam; Farkhari, Nahid

    2014-04-01

    The adsorption of single and double stranded DNA on colloidal silver nanoparticles has been studied to investigate the effects of surface charge of the nanoparticles, the composition of the oligonucleotide and its length on the adsorption characteristics. The results explain that the nanoparticle surface charge is a key parameter determining the propensity of oligonucleotides to adsorb on nanoparticles. The adsorption also depends on the length and composition of oligonucleotide. The protective effects of both single and double stranded DNA against salt-induced aggregation dramatically increase as the DNA length increases. In contrast to other available reports, we observed that long oligonucleotides (single-stranded and double stranded) can well be adsorbed on the nanoparticles as the short ones leading to almost complete protection of nanoparticles against salt induced aggregation and hence are not suitable for the sensing applications. Finally, the light scattering from the Ag nanoparticles has been simulated and the results compared with the experiments. Our understanding should improve development of colorimetric assays for DNA detection based on aggregation of unmodified metallic nanoparticles.

  3. Photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles with shell thickness as controlling parameter under green environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Himanshu; Bhattacharjee, Suparna; Datta, Pranayee

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic Ag/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles have been synthesized via a simple two-step wet chemical method for application in Photocatalysis. The morphology, size, crystal structure, composition and optical properties of the nanoparticles are investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The shell thicknesses are varied by varying the concentration of zinc nitrate hexa-hydrate and triethanolamine. The ZnO shell coating over Ag core enhances the charge separation, whereas the larger shell thickness and increased refractive index of surrounding medium cause red shifts of surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of Ag core. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Ag/ZnO core–shell show that the larger shell thickness quenches the near band edge UV emission of ZnO. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) i.e. Nyquist plots also confirm the higher charge transfer efficiency of the Ag/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. The Photocatalytic activities of Ag/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles are investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under direct sunlight irradiation. Compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), Ag/ZnO core–shell NPs display efficient sunlight plasmonic photocatalytic activity because of the influence of SPR of Ag core and the electron sink effect. The photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO core–shell NPs is found to be enhanced with increase in shell thickness.

  4. Preparation and structural properties of pure and codoped (Mg, Ag) ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, B. Sankara; Reddy, S. Venkatramana; Reddy, N. Koteeswara

    2013-06-01

    Pure and co-doped (Mg, Ag) ZnO nanoparticles (Zn0.90Mg0.05Ag0.05O) are synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method in the presence of capping agent Polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG 600) and annealed at 500°C in air ambient for 1h. The XRD measurements reveals that the pure and co-doped ZnO samples have hexagonal structure without any change and the size of ZnO nanoparicles were decreased from 17 nm to 13 nm. FESEM images indicates that they are flake like structures of the ZnO and co-doped ZnO samples and ED AX spectra reveals that the successful doping concentration of Mg and Ag. From the TEM results, the size of the ZnO nanoparticles which are in good agreement with the XRD results.

  5. Improving the sensitivity of immunoassay based on MBA-embedded Au@SiO2 nanoparticles and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chao; Xu, Min-Min; Fang, Cong-Wei; Jin, Qi; Yuan, Ya-Xian; Yao, Jian-Lin

    2017-03-01

    Traditional "sandwich" structure immunoassay is mainly based on the self-assembly of "antibody on solid substrate-antigen-antibody with nanotags" architectures, and the sensitivity of this strategy is critically depended on the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities and stability of nanotags. Therefore, the rational design and fabrication on the SERS nanotags attracts the common interests to the bio-related detecting and imaging. Herein, silica encapsulated Au with mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) core-shell nanoparticles (Au-MBA@SiO2) are fabricated instead of the traditional naked Au or Ag nanoparticles for the SERS-based immunoassay on human and mouse IgG antigens. The MBA molecules facilitate the formation of continuous pinhole-free silica shell and are also used as SERS labels. The silica shell is employed to protect MBA labels and to isolate Au core from the ambient solution for blocking the aggregation. This shell also played the similar role to BSA in inhibiting the nonspecific bindings, which allowed the procedures for constructing "sandwich" structures to be simplified. All of these merits of the Au-MBA@SiO2 brought the high performance in the related immunoassay. Benefiting from the introduction of silica shell to encapsulate MBA labels, the detection sensitivity was improved by about 1- 2 orders of magnitude by comparing with the traditional approach based on naked Au-MBA nanoparticles. This kind of label-embedded core-shell nanoparticles could be developed as the versatile nanotags for the bioanalysis and bioimaging.

  6. The IP6 micelle-stabilized small Ag cluster for synthesizing Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles and the tunable surface plasmon resonance effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Na; Wen, Ying; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Xiyao; Ling, Bo; Huan, Shuangyan; Yang, Haifeng

    2012-04-01

    The stable small Ag seeds (size in diameter < 10 nm) were obtained in the presence of inositol hexakisphosphoric (IP6) micelles. Then Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized through a replacement reaction with the rapid interdiffusion process between such small Ag seeds in nanoclusters and HAuCl4. Adjusting the dosage of HAuCl4 resulted in different products, which possessed unique surface plasmon resonances (SPR). The morphologies of the as-made nanoparticles were observed using transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy and their compositions were determined by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Among them, the Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles with the cauliflower-like structure had a suitable SPR for highly sensitive Raman detection application as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with a long-term stability of six months.

  7. Energetics of the formation of Cu-Ag core–shell nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Chandross, Michael

    2014-10-06

    Our work presents molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations aimed at developing an understanding of the formation of core–shell Cu-Ag nanoparticles. The effects of surface and interfacial energies were considered and used to form a phenomenological model that calculates the energy gained upon the formation of a core–shell structure from two previously distinct, non-interacting nanoparticles. In most cases, the core–shell structure was found to be energetically favored. Specifically, the difference in energy as a function of the radii of the individual Cu and Ag particles was examined, with the assumption that a core–shell structure forms. In general, it was foundmore » that the energetic gain from forming such a structure increased with increasing size of the initial Ag particle. This result was interpreted as a result of the reduction in surface energy. Moreover, for two separate particles, both Cu and Ag contribute to the surface energy; however, for a core–shell structure, the only contribution to the surface energy is from the Ag shell and the Cu contribution is changed to a Cu–Ag interfacial energy, which is always smaller.« less

  8. Energetics of the formation of Cu-Ag core–shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chandross, Michael

    2014-10-06

    Our work presents molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations aimed at developing an understanding of the formation of core–shell Cu-Ag nanoparticles. The effects of surface and interfacial energies were considered and used to form a phenomenological model that calculates the energy gained upon the formation of a core–shell structure from two previously distinct, non-interacting nanoparticles. In most cases, the core–shell structure was found to be energetically favored. Specifically, the difference in energy as a function of the radii of the individual Cu and Ag particles was examined, with the assumption that a core–shell structure forms. In general, it was found that the energetic gain from forming such a structure increased with increasing size of the initial Ag particle. This result was interpreted as a result of the reduction in surface energy. Moreover, for two separate particles, both Cu and Ag contribute to the surface energy; however, for a core–shell structure, the only contribution to the surface energy is from the Ag shell and the Cu contribution is changed to a Cu–Ag interfacial energy, which is always smaller.

  9. Structural and plasmonic studies of Ag nanoparticles in silica glass hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Rejikumar P.; Thomas, Vinoy; George, Jacob; Joseph, Cyriac; R, Biju P.; V, Unnikrishnan N.

    2013-05-01

    Silica glassy materials doped with Ag were prepared through sol gel route. The structural studies of the prepared samples showed an icosahedral morphology of the nanocrystals formed along with spherical morphology. The XRD and TEM data confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles of size between 20 and 22nm. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of silver nanoparticles with spherical morphology was studied with the discrete dipole approximation . The shape and size effects of the nanoparticles can induce distinctive features of the SPR spectrum. It has been shown that such effects can induce peak intensity enhancement, wavelength shift and spectral broadening of the SPR spectra of the nanoparticles. The results obtained depend on the existence of highly localized plasmonic oscillations. An attempt has also been made to calculate the van der Waals force between nanoparticles.

  10. Cooperative plasmonic effect of Ag and Au nanoparticles on enhancing performance of polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luyao; Luo, Zhiqiang; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2013-01-09

    This article describes a cooperative plasmonic effect on improving the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. When mixed Ag and Au nanoparticles are incorporated into the anode buffer layer, dual nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with single nanoparticles, which led to the realization of a polymer solar cell with a power conversion efficiency of 8.67%, accounting for a 20% enhancement. The cooperative plasmonic effect aroused from dual resonance enhancement of two different nanoparticles. The idea was further unraveled by comparing Au nanorods with Au nanoparticles for solar cell application. Detailed studies shed light into the influence of plasmonic nanostructures on exciton generation, dissociation, and charge recombination and transport inside thin film devices.

  11. Synthesis and the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 nanocrystals coupled with Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. Z.; Meng, Shan; Tan, Miao; Jia, L. J.; Zhou, Y. X.; Wu, Shuang; Huang, X. W.; Liang, Y. J.; Shi, H. L.

    2015-03-01

    BiVO4 nanocrystals coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag-BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures) have been prepared by a new strategy via combining a hydrothermal route with a polyol process, in which BiVO4 nanocrystals were first synthesized by a hydrothermal route, and then, Ag nanoparticles were grown on the surfaces of the presynthesized BiVO4 nanocrystals through a polyol process. The photocatalytic evaluations demonstrate that BiVO4 nanocrystals coupled with Ag nanoparticles exhibit the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The energy alignment and diffuse reflectance property of Ag-BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures demonstrate that Ag nanoparticles attached on the surfaces of BiVO4 nanocrystals play double roles for the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity. First, the Ag nanoparticles grown on the surfaces of BiVO4 nanocrystals may act as electron sinks to retard the recombination of the photogenerated electrons and holes in BiVO4 so as to improve the charge separation on its surfaces. Second, the Ag nanoparticles increase the visible light absorption of the Ag-BiVO4 photocatalyst due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles. These double roles of Ag nanoparticles make Ag-BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures to exhibit the enhanced photocatalytic activity to decompose MB and RhB under visible light irradiation, compared to the pure BiVO4 nanocrystals. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the charge transfer from BiVO4 to the attached Ag nanoparticles as well as SPR absorption of Ag nanoparticles. The present work not only provides an efficient route to enhance visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of BiVO4, but also offers a new strategy for fabricating metal-semiconductor heterogeneous nanostructure photocatalysts, which are expected to show considerable potential applications in solar-driven wastewater treatment and water

  12. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles deposited on silica by γ-irradiation and preparation of PE/Ag nano compound masterbatches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Lan; Trinh Nguyen, Thuy Ai; Phu Dang, Van; Duy Nguyen, Ngoc; Le, Anh Quoc; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) deposited on silica were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation of Ag+ dispersion in silica/ethanol/water mixture (9/80/20:w/v/v). The reduction of Ag+ is occurred by hydrated electron (e-aq) and hydrogen atom (H•) generated during radiolysis of ethanol/water. The conversion doses (Ag+ → Ag0) were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs/silica were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), which showed the size of AgNPs to be in the range of 5-40 nm for Ag+ concentrations from 5 to 20 mM. Masterbatches of PE/AgNPs/silica compound with silver content from 250 to 1000 mg kg-1 were also prepared. These masterbatches can be suitably used for various applications such as antimicrobial food containers and packing films, etc.

  13. Anomalous Tunnel Magnetoresistance and Spin Transfer Torque in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with Embedded Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Useinov, Arthur; Ye, Lin-Xiu; Useinov, Niazbeck; Wu, Te-Ho; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2015-01-01

    The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with embedded nanoparticles (NPs) was calculated in range of the quantum-ballistic model. The simulation was performed for electron tunneling through the insulating layer with embedded magnetic and non-magnetic NPs within the approach of the double barrier subsystem connected in parallel to the single barrier one. This model can be applied for both MTJs with in-plane magnetization and perpendicular one. We also calculated the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque (STT) versus the applied voltage in MTJs with magnetic NPs and determined that its value can be much larger than in single barrier system (SBS) for the same tunneling thickness. The reported simulation reproduces experimental data of the TMR suppression and peak-like TMR anomalies at low voltages available in leterature. PMID:26681336

  14. Stellated Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles: An effective platform for catalytic activity tuning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yao, Qiaofeng; Cao, Hongbin; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of Pt-based nanomaterials for catalysis can be greatly enhanced by coupling morphology engineering to the strategic presence of a second or even third metal. Here we demonstrate the design and preparation of stellated Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles where significant activity difference between the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) may be realized by relegating Ag to the core or by hollowing out the core. In particular the stellated Pt surface, with an abundance of steps, edges, corner atoms, and {111} facets, is highly effective for the ORR but is ineffective for MOR. MOR activity is only observed in the presence of a Ag core through electronic coupling to the stellated Pt shell. The bimetallic Ag-Pt stellates therefore demonstrate the feasibility of tuning a Pt surface for two very different structure sensitive catalytic reactions. Stellated bimetallics may therefore be an effective platform for highly tunable catalyst designs. PMID:24495979

  15. Memristive behavior of Al2O3 film with bottom electrode surface modified by Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shu-Chao; Dong, Rui-Xin; Yan, Xun-Ling

    2014-09-01

    The memristive behavior of Al2O3-based device is significantly improved by introducing Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Inserting Ag NPs can effectively reduce the switching voltages, increase the resistance ratio (about 104) and enhance the sweep endurance (300 cycles). In particular, the stable switching properties are obtained by inserting an Ag NPs layer with an average diameter of 14 nm on the surface of bottom electrode, and the devices show a long retention time (more than 106 s) compared with the devices without Ag NPs. The switching mechanism is related to the oxygen-vacancy-based conducting filaments and the interfacial effect. The local enhancement and nonuniform distribution of electric field have the benefits to promote, induce and modulate the growth of conducting filaments, such as shape, location and orientation, which are responsible for the improvement performance of the devices.

  16. Memristive behavior of Al2O3 film with bottom electrode surface modified by Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shu-Chao; Dong, Rui-Xin; Yan, Xun-Ling

    2015-02-01

    The memristive behavior of Al2O3-based device is significantly improved by introducing Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Inserting Ag NPs can effectively reduce the switching voltages, increase the resistance ratio (about 104) and enhance the sweep endurance (300 cycles). In particular, the stable switching properties are obtained by inserting an Ag NPs layer with an average diameter of 14 nm on the surface of bottom electrode, and the devices show a long retention time (more than 106 s) compared with the devices without Ag NPs. The switching mechanism is related to the oxygen-vacancy-based conducting filaments and the interfacial effect. The local enhancement and nonuniform distribution of electric field have the benefits to promote, induce and modulate the growth of conducting filaments, such as shape, location and orientation, which are responsible for the improvement performance of the devices.

  17. Photostability of gold nanoparticles with different shapes: the role of Ag clusters.

    PubMed

    Attia, Yasser A; Buceta, David; Requejo, Félix G; Giovanetti, Lisandro J; López-Quintela, M Arturo

    2015-07-14

    Anisotropic gold nanostructures prepared by the seed method in the presence of Ag ions have been used to study their photostability to low-power UV irradiation (254 nm) at room temperature. It has been observed that, whereas spheres are very stable to photoirradiation, rods and prisms suffer from photocorrosion and finally dissolve completely with the production of Au(III) ions. Interpretation of these differences is based on the presence of semiconductor-like Ag clusters, adsorbed onto rods and prisms, able to photocorrode the Au nanoparticles, which are absent in the case of Au spheres. We further show direct evidence of the presence of Ag clusters in Au nanorods by XANES. These results confirm a previous hypothesis (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 1182-1185) about the major influence of very stable small Ag clusters, not only on the anisotropic formation of nanostructures but also on their photostability.

  18. Fabrication of high aspect ratio nanogrid transparent electrodes via capillary assembly of Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Juhoon; Park, Chang-Goo; Lee, Su-Han; Cho, Changsoon; Choi, Dae-Geun; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-06-07

    In this report, we describe the fabrication of periodic Ag nanogrid electrodes by capillary assembly of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) along patterned nanogrid templates. By assembling the AgNPs into these high-aspect-ratio nanogrid patterns, we can obtain high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, which can overcome the inherent trade-off between the optical transmittance and the sheet resistance of transparent electrodes. The junction resistance between the AgNPs is effectively reduced by photochemical welding and post-annealing. The fabricated high-aspect-ratio nanogrid structure with a line width of 150 nm and a height of 450 nm has a sheet resistance of 15.2 Ω sq(-1) and an optical transmittance of 85.4%.

  19. Insignificant influence of the matrix on the melting of incoherently embedded tin and zinc nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, L. M.; Hou, H. F.; Yao, C. Y.; Wang, L. W.

    2017-01-01

    For studying the melting point depression of metals, isolated metallic nanoparticles embedded in a matrix are usually prepared by mechanical milling. Al is the main available matrix material. In this work, to explore possible alternative matrices for further investigation of melting, mechanically milled metal-nonmetal systems are developed, namely Sn-LiF, Zn-LiF and Zn-Al2O3. The outcome indicates that different matrices do not have a significantly different influence on the melting of Sn and Zn. Theoretical analyses of both the thermodynamics and kinetics of surface-induced melting may support this experimental finding.

  20. Study of the relative performance of silicon and germanium nanoparticles embedded gate oxide in metal-oxide-semiconductor memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, G.; Sengupta, A.; Requejo, F. G.; Sarkar, C. K.

    2011-03-01

    In the present work, we have investigated a comparative performance of the silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) nanoparticles embedded SiO2 floating gate MOS memory devices. In such devices for low applied fields, the tunneling current is dominated by the direct tunneling mechanism, whereas for higher electric fields, the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism dominates. As the device dimensions get smaller, problem arises in the conventional MOS memory devices due to the leakage through the thin tunnel oxide. This leakage can be reduced via charge trapping by embedding nanoparticles in the gate dielectric of such devices. Here one objective is to prevent the leakage due to the direct tunneling mechanism and the other objective is to reduce the write voltage, by lowering the onset voltage of the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism. Our simulations for the current voltage characteristics covered both the low and the high applied field regions. Simulations showed that both the Si and the Ge nanoparticles embedded gate dielectrics offer reduction of the leakage current and a significant lowering of the writing or programming onset voltage, compared to the pure SiO2 gate dielectric. In terms of the comparative performance, the Germanium nanoparticles embedded gate dielectric showed better results compared to the silicon nanoparticles embedded one. The results of the simulations are discussed in the light of recent experimental results.

  1. Laser-material interaction during atom probe tomography of oxides with embedded metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, D.; Arnoldi, L.; Devaraj, A.; Vella, A.

    2016-10-01

    Oxide-supported metal nano-particles are of great interest in catalysis but also in the development of new large-spectrum-absorption materials. The design of such nano materials requires three-dimensional characterization with a high spatial resolution and elemental selectivity. The laser assisted Atom Probe Tomography (La-APT) presents both these capacities if an accurate understanding of laser-material interaction is developed. In this paper, we focus on the fundamental physics of field evaporation as a function of sample geometry, laser power, and DC electric field for Au nanoparticles embedded in MgO. By understanding the laser-material interaction through experiments and a theoretical model of heat diffusion inside the sample after the interaction with laser pulse, we point out the physical origin of the noise and determine the conditions to reduce it by more than one order of magnitude, improving the sensitivity of the La-APT for metal-dielectric composites.

  2. Fabrication of high aspect ratio nanogrid transparent electrodes via capillary assembly of Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Juhoon; Park, Chang-Goo; Lee, Su-Han; Cho, Changsoon; Choi, Dae-Geun; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-05-01

    In this report, we describe the fabrication of periodic Ag nanogrid electrodes by capillary assembly of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) along patterned nanogrid templates. By assembling the AgNPs into these high-aspect-ratio nanogrid patterns, we can obtain high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, which can overcome the inherent trade-off between the optical transmittance and the sheet resistance of transparent electrodes. The junction resistance between the AgNPs is effectively reduced by photochemical welding and post-annealing. The fabricated high-aspect-ratio nanogrid structure with a line width of 150 nm and a height of 450 nm has a sheet resistance of 15.2 Ω sq-1 and an optical transmittance of 85.4%.In this report, we describe the fabrication of periodic Ag nanogrid electrodes by capillary assembly of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) along patterned nanogrid templates. By assembling the AgNPs into these high-aspect-ratio nanogrid patterns, we can obtain high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, which can overcome the inherent trade-off between the optical transmittance and the sheet resistance of transparent electrodes. The junction resistance between the AgNPs is effectively reduced by photochemical welding and post-annealing. The fabricated high-aspect-ratio nanogrid structure with a line width of 150 nm and a height of 450 nm has a sheet resistance of 15.2 Ω sq-1 and an optical transmittance of 85.4%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01896c

  3. Nanospherical-lens lithographical Ag nanodisk arrays embedded in p-GaN for localized surface plasmon-enhanced blue light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Tongbo Wu, Kui; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Yonghui; Chen, Yu; Huo, Ziqiang; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Junxi; Zeng, Yiping; Li, Jinmin; Lan, Ding

    2014-06-15

    Large-scale Ag nanodisks (NDs) arrays fabricated using nanospherical-lens lithography (NLL) are embedded in p-GaN layer of an InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) for generating localized surface plasmon (LSP) coupling with the radiating dipoles in the quantum-well (QWs). Based on the Ag NDs with the controlled surface coverage, LSP leads to the improved crystalline quality of regrowth p-GaN, increased photoluminescence (PL) intensity, reduced PL decay time, and enhanced output power of LED. Compared with the LED without Ag NDs, the optical output power at a current of 350 mA of the LSP-enhanced LEDs with Ag NDs having a distance of 20 and 35 nm to QWs is increased by 26.7% and 31.1%, respectively. The electrical characteristics and optical properties of LEDs with embedded Ag NPs are dependent on the distance of between Ag NPs and QWs region. The LED with Ag NDs array structure is also found to exhibit reduced emission divergence, compared to that without Ag NDs.

  4. Luminescent Ag-doped In2S3 nanoparticles stabilized by mercaptoacetate in water and glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raevskaya, Alexandra E.; Ivanchenko, Maria V.; Stroyuk, Oleksandr L.; Kuchmiy, Stepan Ya.; Plyusnin, Victor F.

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) of tetragonal β-In2S3 were stabilized in water and glycerol by mercaptoacetate anions. Doping of In2S3 NPs with AgI cations at the time of the synthesis imparts the NPs with the photoluminescence (PL) in the visible part of the spectrum. The doping results also in a shift of the absorption threshold and the PL band maximum to longer wavelengths proportional to the AgI content. The PL band maximum of AgI-doped In2S3 NPs can be varied from 575-580 to 760-765 nm by augmenting the silver(I) amount and the duration and temperature of the post-synthesis aging. The average radiative life-time of AgI-doped In2S3 NPs also depends on the silver(I) content and reaches the maximal value, 960 ns, at a molar Ag:In ratio of 1:4. The maximal quantum yield of stationary PL, 12 %, is observed at this Ag:In ratio as well. Deposition of a ZnS "shell" on the surface of AgI-doped In2S3 NPs results in an increase of the PL quantum yield to 30 %.

  5. Ag Nanoparticle-Sensitized WO3 Hollow Nanosphere for Localized Surface Plasmon Enhanced Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Ji, Fangxu; Yin, Mingli; Ren, Xianpei; Ma, Qiang; Yan, Junqing; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2016-07-20

    Ag nanoparticle (NP)-sensitized WO3 hollow nanospheres (Ag-WO3-HNSs) are fabricated via a simple sonochemical synthesis route. It is found that the Ag-WO3-HNS shows remarkable performance in gas sensors. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images reveal that the Agx-WO3 adopts the HNS structure in which WO3 forms the outer shell framework and the Ag NPs are grown on the inner wall of the WO3 hollow sphere. The size of the Ag NPs can be controlled by adjusting the addition amount of WCl6 during the reaction. The sensor Agx-WO3 exhibits extremely high sensitivity and selectivity toward alcohol vapor. In particular, the Ag(15nm)-WO3 sensor shows significantly lower operating temperature (230 °C), superior detection limits as low as 0.09 ppb, and faster response (7 s). Light illumination was found to boost the sensor performance effectively, especially at 405 and 900 nm, where the light wavelength resonates with the absorption of Ag NPs and the surface oxygen vacancies of WO3, respectively. The improved sensor performance is attributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect.

  6. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Processing of Barium Titanate Nanoparticles Embedded in Polymer Films.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Michael D; Gao, Kai; Mendis, Gamini P; Slamovich, Elliott B; Howarter, John A

    2015-12-30

    Barium titanate nanoparticles embedded in flexible polymer films were synthesized using hydrothermal processing methods. The resulting films were characterized with respect to material composition, size distribution of nanoparticles, and spatial location of particles within the polymer film. Synthesis conditions were varied based on the mechanical properties of the polymer films, ratio of polymer to barium titanate precursors, and length of aging time between initial formulations of the solution to final processing of nanoparticles. Block copolymers of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMAh) were used to spatially separate titanium precursors based on specific chemical interactions with the maleic anhydride moiety. However, the glassy nature of this copolymer restricted mobility of the titanium precursors during hydrothermal processing. The addition of rubbery butadiene moieties, through mixing of the SMAh with poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) (SBS) copolymer, increased the nanoparticle dispersion as a result of greater diffusivity of the titanium precursor via higher mobility of the polymer matrix. Additionally, an aminosilane was used as a means to retard cross-linking in polymer-metalorganic solutions, as the titanium precursor molecules were shown to react and form networks prior to hydrothermal processing. By adding small amounts of competing aminosilane, excessive cross-linking was prevented without significantly impacting the quality and composition of the final barium titanate nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to verify nanoparticle compositions. Particle sizes within the polymer films were measured to be 108 ± 5 nm, 100 ± 6 nm, and 60 ± 5 nm under different synthetic conditions using electron microscopy. Flexibility of the films was assessed through measurement of the glass transition temperature using dynamic mechanical analysis. Dielectric permittivity was measured using an impedance analyzer.

  7. AC Conductivity and Diffuse Reflectance Studies of Ag-TiO2 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Gafoor, A. K.; Musthafa, M. M.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2012-09-01

    Silver (Ag)-TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by a low-temperature hydrothermal method in the anatase phase have been investigated by x-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy has been used for morphological studies. Surface areas were studied by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Alternating-current (AC) conductivity and dielectric properties were studied for various dopant levels of 0.25 wt.%, 0.5 wt.%, and 1.0 wt.% at 300 K in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 5 MHz. AC conductivity and dielectric properties of TiO2 nanoparticles were greatly affected by loading with Ag. At high frequencies, the materials showed high AC conductivity and low dielectric constant. Diffuse reflectance studies were carried out for various dopant levels at 300 K by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Considerable absorption of visible light by 0.5 wt.% and 1.0 wt.% Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles was observed due to the decrease of the energy band gap on Ag loading.

  8. Green rapid biogenic synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Busi, Siddhardha; Rajkumari, Jobina; Ranjan, Bibhuti; Karuganti, Sukumar

    2014-12-01

    The present work was focused on isolating a bacterial strain of Pseudomonas sp. with the ability to synthesise AgNPs rapidly. A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa designated JO was found to be a potential candidate for rapid synthesis of AgNPs with a synthesis time of 4h in light, at room temperature which is a shorter time period noticed for the synthesis when compared to the previous reports Biosynthesis of AgNPs was achieved by addition of culture supernatant with aqueous silver nitrate solution (1 mM). The reaction mixture exhibits change in colour from green to brown with a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of AgNPs by UV-vis spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Zetasizer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD spectrum exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the silver nanocrystals. TEM and SEM micrographs revealed the extracellular formation of polydispersed elongated nanoparticles with an average size of 27.5 nm. Synthesised nanoparticles showed antibacterial property against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, but more effective towards gram-negative.

  9. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Tunable Anisotropic Absorption of Ag-Embedded SiO2 Thin Films by Oblique Angle Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiu-Di; Dong, Guo-Ping; Shao, Jian-Da; Fan, Zheng-Xiu; He, Hong-Bo; Qi, Hong-Ji

    2009-08-01

    Ag-embedded SiO2 thin films are prepared by oblique angle deposition. Through field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an orientated slanted columnar structure is observed. Energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis shows the Ag concentration is about 3% in the anisotropic SiO2 matrix. Anisotropic surface plasma resonance (SPR) absorption is observed in the Ag-embedded SiO2 thin films, which is dependent on polarization state and incidence angle of two orthogonal polarized lights and the deposition angle. This means that optical properties and anisotropic SPR absorption can be tunable in Ag-embedded SiO2 thin films. Broadband polarization splitting is also observed and the transmission ratio Tp/Ts between p- and s-polarized lights is up to 2.7 for thin films deposited at α = 70°, which means that Ag-embedded SiO2 thin films are a promising candidate for thin film polarizers.

  10. Lateral quantization of two-dimensional electron states by embedded Ag nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Haesendonck, Chris; Schouteden, Koen

    2013-03-01

    We show that quantization of image-potential state (IS)electrons above the surface of nanostructures can be experimentally achieved by Ag nanocrystals that appear as stacking fault tetrahedrons (SFTs) at Ag(111) surfaces. By means of cryogenic scanning tunneling spectroscopy the n = 1 IS of the Ag(111) surface is revealed to split up in discrete energy levels, which is accompanied by the formation of pronounced standing wave patterns that directly reflect the eigenstates of the SFT surface. The IS confinement behavior is compared to that of the surface state electrons in the SFT surface and can be directly linked to the particle-in-a-box model. ISs provide a novel playground for investigating quantum size effects and defect induced scattering above nanostructured surfaces. This work has been supported by the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO, Belgium). K.S. is a postdoctoral researcher of the FWO.

  11. Morphological and optical data of AgNW embedded transparent conductive layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Sik; Patel, Dipal B; Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Joondong

    2016-12-01

    In this data article, morphological and optical data of AgNW encapsulated between ITO layers are presented to get insights into our article (DOI:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.038; Hong-Sik Kim, Pankaj Yadav, Malkeshkumar Patel, Hyunki Kim, Kavita Pandey, Joondong Kim, 2016) [1]. SEM images for the formation of AgNWs networks by number of spin coating are also presented. SEM photographs showing the surface morphologies before and after rapid thermal treatment of prepared samples have been presented. Apart from morphological data set, optical characteristics of this type of samples are given. The comparison plots of optical reflectance from AgNW encapsulated between ITO layers and bare ITO are given between the wavelength ranges from 300 to 1100 nm. At the end, transmittance and reflectance curves of native glass substrates used in this study are presented.

  12. Ion beam mixing effects in Ag precipitates embedded in MgO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, G.; Abouchacra, G.; Treilleux, M.; Thevenard, P.; Serughetti, J.

    1988-05-01

    MgO single crystals have been implanted at room temperature with 8 × 10 16 Ag cm -2 of 180 keV energy. After 973 K thermal annealing, Ag atoms precipitate in the MgO matrix. The MgOAg samples were then irradiated at 77 K with 800 keV xenon up to 1.7 × 10 16 ions cm -2. The modification of the metallic precipitated phase induced by such ionic bombardment, has been characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The evolution of the optical spectra with xenon bombardment has been interpreted in terms of silver precipitate dispersion induced by ion beam mixing effects. The inhibition of atomic diffusion or radiation induced diffusion, due the low sample temperature during irradiation, increases the efficiency of atomic mixing effects. TEM observations confirm this assumption.

  13. Lateral quantization of two-dimensional electron states by embedded Ag nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Schouteden, K; Van Haesendonck, C

    2012-02-17

    We show that quantization of image-potential state (IS) electrons above the surface of nanostructures can be experimentally achieved by Ag nanocrystals that appear as stacking-fault tetrahedrons (SFTs) at Ag(111) surfaces. By means of cryogenic scanning tunneling spectroscopy, the n=1 IS of the Ag(111) surface is revealed to split up in discrete energy levels, which is accompanied by the formation of pronounced standing wave patterns that directly reflect the eigenstates of the SFT surface. The IS confinement behavior is compared to that of the surface state electrons in the SFT surface and can be directly linked to the particle-in-a-box model. ISs provide a novel playground for investigating quantum size effects and defect-induced scattering above nanostructured surfaces.

  14. Effect of in-situ application of ultrasonic waves during formation of silver nanoparticles embedded in phospholipid membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongdeok; Hwan An, Hyeun; Bae Han, Won; Kim, Hee-Soo; Jun Kim, Suk; Seung Yoon, Chong

    2013-10-01

    Effect of in-situ application of ultrasonic waves (up to 1 MHz) on the Ag nanoparticles spontaneously produced inside the 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) membrane by thermal evaporation of Ag was studied by placing the membrane on a ultrasonic transducer during the metal deposition. Application of the ultrasonic vibration promoted spatial ordering of the deposited nanoparticles due to the induced phase transition from Lα to HII for DOPE. Arising from the agitation effect, particle size refinement, which depended on the amplitude of the ultrasonic vibration, was observed. It was also shown that a stiff gel state 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) membrane can be made locally permeable to incident Ag atoms by introducing DOPE molecules into the DPPC membrane as the Ag nanoparticles preferentially nucleated in the DOPE-rich region. Application of ultrasonic vibration with increasingly higher amplitude or frequency made the Ag nanoparticles uniformly distributed in the DPPC, suggesting that the permeability of the DPPC membrane can be temporarily increased without permanently damaging the membrane by addition of liquid crystalline lipids and subsequent application of ultrasonic waves.

  15. Microstructure of interface between Si chip and tape-type Ag nanoparticle sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutoh, Hayato; Moriyama, Naoki; Kaneko, Keiya; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki; Kida, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    A Ag nanoparticles-based technology for joining semiconductor materials through sintering has been developed. Currently, a paste consisting of Ag nanoparticles is used for die bonding in the electronics industry. A binder-free Ag nanojoining material has been developed for fabricating electronic devices. In this study, we investigated the joining ability of this binder-free tape-type Ag nanojoining material with respect to Si chips. A paste-type Ag nanojoining material that contained an organic binder was also investigated for comparison. The microstructures of the Si-joining material interfaces were observed using a focused ion beam system. The cleaved surfaces of the joints were observed using scanning electron microscopy. High-quality joints that contained only a few pores could be formed between a Au thin film electroplated on the Si chip and the tape-type material after sintering, owing to the simplicity of the joining process and the binder-free nature of the joining material.

  16. Ag/AgO Nanoparticles Grown via Time Dependent Double Mechanism in a 2D Layered Ni-PCP and Their Antibacterial Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rashmi A.; Gupta, Neeraj K.; Singh, Rajan; Nigam, Shivansh; Ateeq, Bushra

    2017-01-01

    A simple synthesis route for growth of Ag/AgO nanoparticles (NPs) in large quantitative yields with narrow size distribution from a functional, non-activated, Ni (II) based highly flexible porous coordination polymer (PCP) as a template has been demonstrated. This template is a stable storage media for the NPs larger than the pore diameters of the PCP. From EPR study it was concluded that NPs were synthesized via two mechanisms i.e. acid formation and the redox activity of the framework. Size range of Ag/AgO NPs is sensitive to choice of solvent and reaction time. Direct use of Ag/AgO@Ni-PCP shows influential growth inhibition towards Escherichia coli and the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium at extremely low concentrations. The pristine template shows no cytotoxic activity, even though it contains Ni nodes in the framework. PMID:28322256

  17. Ag/AgO Nanoparticles Grown via Time Dependent Double Mechanism in a 2D Layered Ni-PCP and Their Antibacterial Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Rashmi A.; Gupta, Neeraj K.; Singh, Rajan; Nigam, Shivansh; Ateeq, Bushra

    2017-03-01

    A simple synthesis route for growth of Ag/AgO nanoparticles (NPs) in large quantitative yields with narrow size distribution from a functional, non-activated, Ni (II) based highly flexible porous coordination polymer (PCP) as a template has been demonstrated. This template is a stable storage media for the NPs larger than the pore diameters of the PCP. From EPR study it was concluded that NPs were synthesized via two mechanisms i.e. acid formation and the redox activity of the framework. Size range of Ag/AgO NPs is sensitive to choice of solvent and reaction time. Direct use of Ag/AgO@Ni-PCP shows influential growth inhibition towards Escherichia coli and the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium at extremely low concentrations. The pristine template shows no cytotoxic activity, even though it contains Ni nodes in the framework.

  18. Enhanced and tunable optical quantum efficiencies from plasmon bandwidth engineering in bimetallic CoAg nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Ehrsam, M.; Goodwin, J.; Garcia, H.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2016-10-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles are amongst the most effective ways to resonantly couple optical energy into and out of nanometer sized volumes. However, controlling and/or tuning the transfer of this incident energy to the surrounding near and far field is one of the most interesting challenges in this area. Due to the dielectric properties of metallic silver (Ag), its nanoparticles have amongst the highest radiative quantum efficiencies (η), i.e., the ability to radiatively transfer the incident energy to the surrounding. Here we report the discovery that bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag made with immiscible and plasmonically weak Co metal can show comparable and/or even higher η values. The enhancement is a result of the narrowing of the plasmon bandwidth from these bimetal systems. The phenomenological explanation of this effect based on the dipolar approximation points to the reduction in radiative losses within the Ag nanoparticles when in contact with cobalt. This is also supported by a model of coupling between poor and good conductors based on the surface to volume ratio. This study presents a new type of bandwidth engineering, one based on using bimetal nanostructures, to tune and/or enhance the quality factor and quantum efficiency for near and far-field plasmonic applications.

  19. Breathing Raman modes in Ag2S nanoparticles obtained from F9 zeolite matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Britto Hurtado, R.; Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Perez-Rodríguez, A.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2015-12-01

    Ag2S nanoparticles were synthesized with a combination of synthetic F9, silver nitrate (AgNO3) and monohydrated sodium sulfide (Na2S9H2O). An ionic exchange was achieved via hydrothermal reaction. Nanoparticles with a predominant size ranging from 2 to 3 nm were obtained through Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles feature a phase P21/n (14) monoclinic structure. A Raman band can be observed at around 250 cm-1 in the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the vibrational properties and stability parameters of the clusters (AgS)n, (with n = 2-9) were studied by the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The approximation levels used with DFT were: Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA) and Becke's three-parameter and the gradient corrected functional of Lee, Yang and Puar (B3LYP) in combination with the basis set LANL2DZ (the effective core potentials and associated double-zeta valence). The Radial Breathing Mode (RBM) for B3LYP was found between 227 and 295 cm-1 as well as in longer wavelengths for LSDA.

  20. Decoration of crumpled rGO sheets with Ag nanoparticles by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papailias, I.; Giannouri, M.; Trapalis, A.; Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Boukos, N.; Lekakou, C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, crumpled reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanostructures were produced using spray pyrolysis technique. Graphite oxide (GtO) prepared through a modified Hummers method was used as starting material. Water dispersions of graphene oxide (GO) were prepared and sprayed in a tube furnace at 300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C using Argon (Ar) as carrier gas. Also, precursor dispersions with different AgNO3 concentrations were processed at the same conditions. During the treatment, the sprayed droplets underwent rapid heating and then gradual cooling until the exit of the oven, where crumpled rGO and Ag/rGO powders were collected. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. It was established that the crumpling of the nanosheets was slightly affected by the increase of the process temperature. Crumpled morphologies were obtained even at low temperature of 300 °C. In contrast, the degree of GO reduction was temperature dependent and increased with the increase of the temperature. The incorporation of Ag nanoparticles was evidenced by the XRD and TEM analysis with the size of the Ag nanoparticles to grow as the concentration of AgNO3 and/or the process temperature increased. SERS effect in the Raman spectra of the Ag/rGO materials was observed that reached a maximum at 500 °C. Spray pyrolysis was suggested as a simple, controllable and scalable route for the instantaneous crumpling, reduction and decoration of GO nanosheets with metal/metal oxide nanoparticles.

  1. Plasmonic effects of au/ag bimetallic multispiked nanoparticles for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Vinogradova, Ekaterina; Ayon, Arturo A

    2014-09-10

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the use of plasmons, that is, free electron oscillations in conductors, to boost the performance of both organic and inorganic thin film solar cells. This has been driven by the possibility of employing thin active layers in solar cells in order to reduce materials costs, and is enabled by significant advances in fabrication technology. The ability of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures to guide and confine light in the nanometer scale has opened up new design possibilities for solar cell devices. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of highly monodisperse, reasonably stable, multipode Au/Ag bimetallic nanostructures using an inorganic additive as a ligand for photovoltaic applications. A promising surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect has been observed for the synthesized bimetallic Au/Ag multispiked nanoparticles, which compare favorably well with their Au and Ag spherical nanoparticle counterparts. The synthesized plasmonic nanostructures were incorporated on the rear surface of an ultrathin planar c-silicon/organic polymer hybrid solar cell, and the overall effect on photovoltaic performance was investigated. A promising enhancement in solar cell performance parameters, including both the open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current density (JSC), has been observed by employing the aforementioned bimetallic multispiked nanoparticles on the rear surface of solar cell devices. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) value as high as 7.70% has been measured in a hybrid device with Au/Ag multispiked nanoparticles on the rear surface of an ultrathin, crystalline silicon (c-Si) membrane (∼ 12 μm). This value compares well to the measured PCE value of 6.72% for a similar device without nanoparticles. The experimental observations support the hope for a sizable PCE increase, due to plasmon effects, in thin-film, c-Si solar cells in the near future.

  2. Screening sensitive nanosensors via the investigation of shape-dependent localized surface plasmon resonance of single Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of differently shaped plasmonic nanoparticles benefits screening and designing highly sensitive single nanoparticle sensors. Herein, in the present work, we systematically investigated the shape-dependent scattering light colours and refractive index (RI) sensitivity of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) at the single nanoparticle level using conventional dark-field light scattering microscopy and spectroscopy. AgNPs in various shapes and scattering colourful light were synthesized, and the shape effect on the scattering light colour was determined by the colocalization of the same nanoparticles with dark-field microscopy (DFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the AgNPs that scattered blue, cyan, yellow, and red light are spheres, cubes, triangular bipyramids, and rods, respectively, which enable us to directly recognize the shape of AgNPs through dark-field microscopy instead of electron microscopy. Further studies on investigation of the scattering spectral responses of single AgNPs to their surrounding solvents show that the RI sensitivity of AgNPs of different shapes followed the order of rods > cubes > triangular bipyramids > spheres. Among the commonly studied AgNPs, Ag nanorods have the highest RI sensitivity, which increases as the aspect ratio increases. Then, AgNPs of various shapes were used as single nanoparticle sensors for probing the adsorption of small molecules.Understanding the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of differently shaped plasmonic nanoparticles benefits screening and designing highly sensitive single nanoparticle sensors. Herein, in the present work, we systematically investigated the shape-dependent scattering light colours and refractive index (RI) sensitivity of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) at the single nanoparticle level using conventional dark-field light scattering microscopy and spectroscopy. AgNPs in various shapes and scattering colourful

  3. Zinc-embedded silica nanoparticle layer in a multilayer coating on a glass substrate achieves broadband antireflection and high transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Bae, Dong-Sik; Shin, Hyunho

    2004-12-01

    A zinc-embedded silica (Zn-SiO2) nanoparticle layer has been applied as the outermost layer over the three-layer coating system, Zn-SiO2/SiO2/ITO (indium tin oxide), coated on a soda-lime glass substrate. The additional coating of the zinc-embedded nanoparticle layer over the 2-layer/glass, i.e., SiO2/ITO /glass system, yielded a significant diminution in reflectance, as well as an improved transmittance as compared to the 2-layer/glass system. Plausible mechanisms responsible for such phenomena are discussed. The application of the zinc-embedded silica nanoparticle layer to the multilayer coating system is shown to provide a flexible way to achieve a broadband antireflection and a high transmission.

  4. Ag-nanoparticle fractionation by low melting point agarose gel electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarrotxena, Nekane; Braun, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The separation of surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS)-active Ag-multi-nanoparticle (NP) assemblies by low melting point agarose gel electrophoresis was accomplished here by controlling surface charge using NP capping agents, and the pore size of agarose gel matrix. Detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis of excised gel fractions showed dimers and small clusters to have the greatest SERS activity and a mobility in between the monomers and large aggregates. This strategy enables one to: (1) stabilize small multispherical Ag clusters against further aggregation during purification; (2) fractionate and recover spherical assemblies by nuclearity; and (3) analyze SERS-enhancements for each fraction to optimize purification conditions.

  5. Coupling of Ag Nanoparticle with Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals as a Novel Strategy for Upconversion Emission Enhancement of NaYF4: Yb(3+), Er(3+) Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shao, Bo; Yang, Zhengwen; Wang, Yida; Li, Jun; Yang, Jianzhi; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo

    2015-11-18

    Rare-earth-ion-doped upconversion (UC) nanoparticles have generated considerable interest because of their potential application in solar cells, biological labeling, therapeutics, and imaging. However, the applications of UC nanoparticles were still limited because of their low emission efficiency. Photonic crystals and noble metal nanoparticles are applied extensively to enhance the UC emission of rare earth ions. In the present work, a novel substrate consisting of inverse opal photonic crystals and Ag nanoparticles was prepared by the template-assisted method, which was used to enhance the UC emission of NaYF4: Yb(3+), Er(3+) nanoparticles. The red or green UC emissions of NaYF4: Yb(3+), Er(3+) nanoparticles were selectively enhanced on the inverse opal substrates because of the Bragg reflection of the photonic band gap. Additionally, the UC emission enhancement of NaYF4: Yb(3+), Er(3+) nanoparticles induced by the coupling of metal nanoparticle plasmons and photonic crystal effects was realized on the Ag nanoparticles included in the inverse opal substrate. The present results demonstrated that coupling of Ag nanoparticle with inverse opal photonic crystals provides a useful strategy to enhance UC emission of rare-earth-ion-doped nanoparticles.

  6. Electrospun aligned PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers embedded with silica nanoparticles for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mehrasa, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salehi, Hossein; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2015-08-01

    Aligned poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds embedded with mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) were fabricated using electrospinning method. The mean diameters of nanofibers were 641±24 nm for the pure PLGA scaffolds vs 418±85 nm and 267±58 nm for the PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively. The contact angle measurement results (102°±6.7 for the pure PLGA scaffold vs 81°±6.8 and 18°±8.7 for the PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively) revealed enhanced hydrophilicity of scaffolds upon incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs. Besides, embedding the scaffolds with MSNPs resulted in improved tensile mechanical properties. Cultivation of PC12 cells on the scaffolds demonstrated that introduction of MSNPs into PLGA and PLGA/gelatin matrices leads to the improved cell attachment and proliferation as well as long cellular processes. DAPI staining results indicated that cell proliferations on the PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds were strikingly (nearly 2.5 and 3 folds, respectively) higher than that on the aligned pure PLGA scaffolds. These results suggest superior properties of silica nanoparticles-incorporated PLGA/gelatin eletrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for the stem cell culture and tissue engineering applications.

  7. The structural conversion from α-AgVO3 to β-AgVO3: Ag nanoparticle decorated nanowires with application as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    McNulty, David; Ramasse, Quentin; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2016-09-15

    The majority of electrode materials in batteries and related electrochemical energy storage devices are fashioned into slurries via the addition of a conductive additive and a binder. However, aggregation of smaller diameter nanoparticles in current generation electrode compositions can result in non-homogeneous active materials. Inconsistent slurry formulation may lead to inconsistent electrical conductivity throughout the material, local variations in electrochemical response, and the overall cell performance. Here we demonstrate the hydrothermal preparation of Ag nanoparticle (NP) decorated α-AgVO3 nanowires (NWs) and their conversion to tunnel structured β-AgVO3 NWs by annealing to form a uniform blend of intercalation materials that are well connected electrically. The synthesis of nanostructures with chemically bound conductive nanoparticles is an elegant means to overcome the intrinsic issues associated with electrode slurry production, as wire-to-wire conductive pathways are formed within the overall electrode active mass of NWs. The conversion from α-AgVO3 to β-AgVO3 is explained in detail through a comprehensive structural characterization. Meticulous EELS analysis of β-AgVO3 NWs offers insight into the true β-AgVO3 structure and how the annealing process facilitates a higher surface coverage of Ag NPs directly from ionic Ag content within the α-AgVO3 NWs. Variations in vanadium oxidation state across the surface of the nanowires indicate that the β-AgVO3 NWs have a core-shell oxidation state structure, and that the vanadium oxidation state under the Ag NP confirms a chemically bound NP from reduction of diffused ionic silver from the α-AgVO3 NWs core material. Electrochemical comparison of α-AgVO3 and β-AgVO3 NWs confirms that β-AgVO3 offers improved electrochemical performance. An ex situ structural characterization of β-AgVO3 NWs after the first galvanostatic discharge and charge offers new insight into the Li(+) reaction mechanism for β-Ag

  8. A model electrode of well-defined geometry prepared by direct laser-induced decoration of nanoporous templates with Au-Ag@C nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Stefanie; Kireev, Alexey; Vasileva, Anna; Grachova, Elena V; Tunik, Sergey P; Manshina, Alina A; Bachmann, Julien

    2017-02-10

    We present an original type of model electrode system consisting of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix with an extremely well-defined geometry of parallel, straight, cylindrical macropores. The samples are prepared in one step by direct laser deposition of the metal/carbon composite onto the inner walls of a porous 'anodic' alumina matrix serving as a template. The coating is homogeneous from top to bottom of the pores, and the amount of material deposited can be tuned by the duration of the deposition procedure. As a test system, we demonstrate that a bimetallic Ag-Au@C system is catalytically active for the electrochemical oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution, the anodic reaction of a direct glucose fuel cell. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic current density increases with the amount of Ag-Au@C NPs deposited, up to a point at which the pores are clogged with it. This type of model system allows for the systematic study of geometric effects in fuel cell electrodes. It can be generalized to a number of different nanoparticle compositions, and thereby, to various electrocatalytic reactions.

  9. A model electrode of well-defined geometry prepared by direct laser-induced decoration of nanoporous templates with Au-Ag@C nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlicht, Stefanie; Kireev, Alexey; Vasileva, Anna; Grachova, Elena V.; Tunik, Sergey P.; Manshina, Alina A.; Bachmann, Julien

    2017-02-01

    We present an original type of model electrode system consisting of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix with an extremely well-defined geometry of parallel, straight, cylindrical macropores. The samples are prepared in one step by direct laser deposition of the metal/carbon composite onto the inner walls of a porous ‘anodic’ alumina matrix serving as a template. The coating is homogeneous from top to bottom of the pores, and the amount of material deposited can be tuned by the duration of the deposition procedure. As a test system, we demonstrate that a bimetallic Ag-Au@C system is catalytically active for the electrochemical oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution, the anodic reaction of a direct glucose fuel cell. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic current density increases with the amount of Ag-Au@C NPs deposited, up to a point at which the pores are clogged with it. This type of model system allows for the systematic study of geometric effects in fuel cell electrodes. It can be generalized to a number of different nanoparticle compositions, and thereby, to various electrocatalytic reactions.

  10. Simple and Sensitive Colorimetric Assay for Pb2+ Based on Glutathione Protected Ag Nanoparticles by Salt Amplification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang; Li, Huidong; Chu, Lin; Liu, Chenbin; Luo, Shenglian

    2015-02-01

    A simple and sensitive colorimetric assay for Pb2+ detection has been reported using glutathione protected silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by salt amplification. The naked AgNPs aggregate under the influence of salt. Glutathione (GSH) can bind to AgNPs via Ag-S bond, helping AgNPs to against salt-induced aggregation. However, GSH binding to AgNPs can be compromised by the interaction between Pb2+ and GSH. As a result, Pb2+-mediated aggregation of AgNPs under the influence of salt is reflected by the UV-Visible spectrum, and the qualitative and quantitative detection for Pb2+ is accomplished, with the detection range 0.5-4 µM and a detection limit of 0.5 µM. At the same time, Pb2+ in real water sample is detected. Furthermore, the high selectivity and low cost of the assay means it is promising for enviromental applications.

  11. Preparation of carboxylated Ag nanoparticles as a coating material for medical devices and control of antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Furuzono, Tsutomu; Iwamoto, Takashi; Azuma, Yoshinao; Okada, Masahiro; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2013-12-01

    Carboxyl group-donated silver (Ag) nanoparticles for coating on medical devices were prepared by a two-phase reduction system in situ. AgNO3 was the Ag ion source, tetraoctylammonium bromide [N(C8H17)4Br] the phase-transfer agent, sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH4) the reducing agent and 10-carboxy-1-decanthiol (C11H22O2S, CDT) the capping agent. The characterizations of the Ag nanoparticles were conducted by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and transmission electron microscope. With CDT capped on Ag nanoparticles, we found that the band around 3,100 cm(-1) was attributed to COO-H stretching vibration, two adsorptions at 2,928 and 2,856 cm(-1) to C-H symmetric/anti-symmetric stretching vibration, and at 1,718 cm(-1) to C=O stretching vibration in the FT-IR spectra. The organic components of the carboxylated Ag nanoparticles were 5.8-25.9 wt%, determined by TG/DTA. The particle sizes of the carboxylated Ag nanoparticles were well controlled by the addition of the capping agent, CDT, into the reaction system. The antimicrobial activity of the Ag nanoparticles covered with different contents of CDT against E. coli was evaluated. Smaller-size Ag nanoparticles showed higher antibacterial activity, which depended on a surface area that attached easily to a microorganism cell membrane.

  12. Solution-processed assembly of ultrathin transparent conductive cellulose nanopaper embedding AgNWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yaoquan; Shi, Liyi; Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Miao, Miao; Fang, Jianhui

    2015-08-01

    Natural biomass based cellulose nanopaper is becoming a promising transparent substrate to supersede traditional petroleum based polymer films in realizing future flexible paper-electronics. Here, ultrathin, highly transparent, outstanding conductive hybrid nanopaper with excellent mechanical flexibility was synthesized by the assembly of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) using a pressured extrusion paper-making technique. The hybrid nanopaper with a thickness of 4.5 μm has a good combination of transparent conductive performance and mechanical stability using bamboo/hemp NFC and AgNWs cross-linked by hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC). The heterogeneous fibrous structure of BNFC/HNFC/AgNWs endows a uniform distribution and an enhanced forward light scattering, resulting in high electrical conductivity and optical transmittance. The hybrid nanopaper with an optimal weight ratio of BNFC/HNFC to AgNWs shows outstanding synergistic properties with a transmittance of 86.41% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 1.90 ohm sq-1, equal to the electronic conductivity, which is about 500 S cm-1. The BNFC/HNFC/AgNW hybrid nanopaper maintains a stable electrical conductivity after the peeling test and bending at 135° for 1000 cycles, indicating remarkably strong adhesion and mechanical flexibility. Of importance here is that the high-performance and low-cost hybrid nanopaper shows promising potential for electronics application in solar cells, flexible displays and other high-technology products.Natural biomass based cellulose nanopaper is becoming a promising transparent substrate to supersede traditional petroleum based polymer films in realizing future flexible paper-electronics. Here, ultrathin, highly transparent, outstanding conductive hybrid nanopaper with excellent mechanical flexibility was synthesized by the assembly of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) using a pressured extrusion paper-making technique. The

  13. Enhanced Electronic Properties of Pt@Ag Heterostructured Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Anh Thi Ngoc; Mott, Derrick M.; Higashimine, Koichi; Maenosono, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    Platinum coated by silver nanoparticles was synthesized, which displays a unique structure where polycrystalline platinum particles are completely encapsulated in continuous monocrystalline silver shells. These particles display accentuated electronic properties, where the silver shells gain electron density from the platinum cores, imparting enhanced properties such as oxidation resistance. This electron transfer phenomenon is highly interfacial in nature, and the degree of electron transfer decreases as the thickness of silver shell increases. The nanoparticle structure and electronic properties are studied and the implication to creating sensing probes with enhanced robustness, sensitivity and controllable plasmonic properties is discussed. PMID:23778193

  14. Enhanced hydrogenation and reduced lattice distortion in size selected Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu alloy nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sengar, Saurabh K.; Mehta, B. R.; Kulriya, P. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2013-10-21

    Important correlation between valence band spectra and hydrogenation properties in Pd alloy nanoparticles is established by studying the properties of size selected and monocrystalline Pd, Ag, Cu, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Cu nanoparticles. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analysis show that size induced Pd4d centroid shift is related to enhanced hydrogenation with H/Pd ratio of 0.57 and 0.49 in Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu nanoparticles in comparison to reported bulk values of 0.2 and 0.1, respectively. Pd-alloy nanoparticles show lower hydrogen induced lattice distortion. The reduced distortion and higher hydrogen reactivity of Pd-alloy nanoparticles is important for numerous hydrogen related applications.

  15. Disruption and activation of blood platelets in contact with an antimicrobial composite coating consisting of a pyridinium polymer and AgBr nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kris N; Knetsch, Menno L; Sen, Ayusman; Sambhy, Varun; Koole, Leo H

    2009-09-01

    Composite materials made up from a pyridinium polymer matrix and silver bromide nanoparticles embedded therein feature excellent antimicrobial properties. Most probably, the antimicrobial activity is related to the membrane-disrupting effect of both the polymer matrix and Ag(+) ions; both may work synergistically. One of the most important applications of antimicrobial materials would be their use as surface coatings for percutaneous (skin-penetrating) catheters, such as central venous catheters (CVCs). These are commonly used in critical care, and serious complications due to bacterial infection occur frequently. This study aimed at examining the possible effects of a highly antimicrobial pyridinium polymer/AgBr composite on the blood coagulation system, i.e., (i) on the coagulation cascade, leading to the formation of thrombin and a fibrin cross-linked network, and (ii) on blood platelets. Evidently, pyridinium/AgBr composites could not qualify as coatings for CVCs if they trigger blood coagulation. Using a highly antimicrobial composite of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-co-poly(4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide) (NPVP) and AgBr nanoparticles as a thin adherent surface coating on Tygon elastomer tubes, it was found that contacting blood platelets rapidly acquire a highly activated state, after which they become substantially disrupted. This implies that NPVP/AgBr is by no means blood-compatible. This disqualifies the material for use as a CVC coating. This information, combined with earlier findings on the hemolytic effects (i.e., disruption of contacting red blood cells) of similar materials, implies that this class of antimicrobial materials affects not only bacteria but also mammalian cells. This would render them more useful outside the biomedical field.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance-induced visible light photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide: using Ag nanoparticles as a plasmonic photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tongshun; Liu, Sen; Luo, Yonglan; Lu, Wenbo; Wang, Lei; Sun, Xuping

    2011-05-01

    The present communication reports on the first preparation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-induced visible light photocatalytic reduction of GO with the use of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a plasmonic photocatalyst in the presence of an electron donor (ED).

  17. Highly dynamic PVP-coated silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: chemical and morphology change induced by oxidation of Ag(0) and reduction of Ag(+).

    PubMed

    Yu, Su-Juan; Yin, Yong-Guang; Chao, Jing-Bo; Shen, Mo-Hai; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2014-01-01

    The fast growing and abundant use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products alerts us to be cautious of their unknown health and environmental risks. Because of the inherent redox instability of silver, AgNPs are highly dynamic in the aquatic system, and the cycle of chemical oxidation of AgNPs to release Ag(+) and reconstitution to form AgNPs is expected to occur in aquatic environments. This study investigated how inevitable environmentally relevant factors like sunlight, dissolved organic matter (DOM), pH, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), Cl(-), and S(2-) individually or in combination affect the chemical transformation of AgNPs. It was demonstrated that simulated sunlight induced the aggregation of AgNPs, causing particle fusion or self-assembly to form larger structures and aggregates. Meanwhile, AgNPs were significantly stabilized by DOM, indicating that AgNPs may exist as single particles and be suspended in natural water for a long time or delivered far distances. Dissolution (ion release) kinetics of AgNPs in sunlit DOM-rich water showed that dissolved Ag concentration increased gradually first and then suddenly decreased with external light irradiation, along with the regeneration of new tiny AgNPs. pH variation and addition of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) within environmental levels did not affect the tendency, showing that this phenomenon was general in real aquatic systems. Given that a great number of studies have proven the toxicity of dissolved Ag (commonly regarded as the source of AgNP toxicity) to many aquatic organisms, our finding that the effect of DOM and sunlight on AgNP dissolution can regulate AgNP toxicity under these conditions is important. The fact that the release of Ag(+) and regeneration of AgNPs could both happen in sunlit DOM-rich water implies that previous results of toxicity studies gained by focusing on the original nature of AgNPs should be reconsidered and highlights the necessity to monitor the fate and toxicity of AgNPs under more

  18. Green synthesis and applications of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena Kumari, M.; Jacob, John; Philip, Daizy

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports for the first time the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles at room temperature using the fruit juice of pomegranate. Simultaneous reduction of gold and silver ions in different molar ratios leads to the formation of alloy as well as core-shell nanostructures. The nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized alloy particles are used as catalysts in the reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-nitrophenols to the corresponding amines and in the degradation of methyl orange. The reduction kinetics for all the reactions follows pseudo-first order. The rate constants follow the order k4-nitrophenol < k2-nitrophenol < k3-nitrophenol. Thermal conductivity is measured as a function of volume fraction and it is observed that the incorporation of the alloy nanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity of the base fluid (water) showing nanofluid application. The nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity shown by the nanoparticles promise the potential application in biomedical field.

  19. Cu/Ag-based bifunctional nanoparticles obtained by one-pot laser-assisted galvanic replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgetti, Emilia; Marsili, Paolo; Canton, Patrizia; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Caporali, Stefano; Giammanco, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We have prepared, for the first time, stable and uncapped Ag/Cu-based bifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) (BFNPs) in water, by combining ps laser ablation in liquid environment and galvanic replacement. The particles were obtained in a single step by 1,064 nm irradiation of a Cu target in water solutions of AgNO3 or AgNO2. Under proper salt concentration and irradiation conditions, the laser beam activates formation of deep orange colloids, which are positively charged and stable for weeks. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis showed a predominance of composite crystalline nanostructures with size in the 1-15 nm range and consisting of fcc Ag and fcc Cu (or its oxides). While CuO tenorite crystalline phase was detected by HRTEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis permitted to observe also the Cu(I) oxidation state of Cu, being the Cu(I)/Cu(II) ratio different in the samples obtained in AgNO3 or AgNO2 baths. Functionalization with organic ligands and subsequent Raman tests demonstrated the SERS activity of the BFNPs and the existence of different complexing surface sites.

  20. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Hugo Martins; Fagundes, Gabriela Elibio; Venâncio, Mireli; Ronconi, João Vitor Vieira; Merlini, Aline; Streck, Emílio L.; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2012-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5-45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro , in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  1. Enhanced magnetic resonance contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in a porous silicon nanoparticle host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsella, Joseph; Ananda, Shalini; Andrew, Jennifer; Grondek, Joel; Chien, Miao-Ping; Scandeng, Miriam; Gianneschi, Nathan; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Sailor, Michael

    2013-02-01

    In this report, we prepared a porous Si nanoparticle with a pore morphology that facilitates the proximal loading and alignment of magnetite nanoparticles. We characterized the composite materials using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and MRI. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the composite materials was tested using cell viability assays on human liver cancer cells and rat hepatocytes. An in vivo analysis using a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Sprague Dawley rat model was used to determine the biodistribution properties of the material, while naïve Sprague Dawley rats were used to determine the pharmocokinetic properties of the nanomaterials. The composite material reported here demonstrates an injectable nanomaterial that exploits the dipolar coupling of superparamagnetic nanoparticles trapped within a secondary inorganic matrix to yield significantly enhanced MRI contrast. This preparation successfully avoids agglomeration issues that plague larger ferromagnetic systems. A Fe3O4:pSi composite formulation consisting of 25% by mass Fe3O4 yields an maximal T2* value of 556 mM Fe-1 s-1. No cellular (HepG2 or rat hepatocyte cells) or in vivo (rat) toxicity was observed with the formulation, which degrades and is eliminated after 4-8 h in vivo. The ability to tailor the magnetic properties of such materials may be useful for in vivo imaging, magnetic hyperthermia, or drug-delivery applications.

  2. Manufacturing carbon nanofiber electrodes with embedded metallic nanoparticles using block copolymers templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazinejad, Maziar; Holmberg, Sunshine; Madou, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Owing to its superb thermal and electrical attributes, as well as electrochemical stability, carbon is emerging as an attractive material for fabrication of many bioelectrochemical devices such as biosensors and biofuel cells. However, carbon's inert nature makes it difficult to functionalize with biocatalysts; often requiring harsh chemical treatment, such as nitric acid oxidation, to attach reactive amines and carboxylic acids to its surface. Recent studies, however, points toward a self-assembly approach for fabricating well organized layers of carbon loaded with arrays of metallic nanoparticles patterned by block-copolymers (BCP) templates. Herein, we demonstrate an effective method for developing carbon nanofibers meshes embedded with metal nanoparticles, by incorporating a BCP self-assembly approach into our C-MEMS fabrication technique. The main phase of this hybrid method includes electrospinning metal salt-loaded BCP into nanofiber meshes, and subsequently reducing the metal salts into metal nanoparticles prior to pyrolysis. This cost-effective process will pave the way for fabricating scalable advanced 3-D carbon electrodes that can be applied to biosensors and biofuel cells devices.

  3. High efficiency removal of dissolved As(III) using iron nanoparticle-embedded macroporous polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Savina, Irina N; English, Christopher J; Whitby, Raymond L D; Zheng, Yishan; Leistner, Andre; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Cundy, Andrew B

    2011-09-15

    Novel nanocomposite materials where iron nanoparticles are embedded into the walls of a macroporous polymer were produced and their efficiency for the removal of As(III) from aqueous media was studied. Nanocomposite gels containing α-Fe(2)O(3) and Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were prepared by cryopolymerisation resulting in a monolithic structure with large interconnected pores up to 100 μm in diameter and possessing a high permeability (ca. 3 × 10(-3) ms(-1)). The nanocomposite devices showed excellent capability for the removal of trace concentrations of As(III) from solution, with a total capacity of up to 3mg As/g of nanoparticles. The leaching of iron was minimal and the device could operate in a pH range 3-9 without diminishing removal efficiency. The effect of competing ions such as SO(4)(2-) and PO(4)(3-) was negligible. The macroporous composites can be easily configured into a variety of shapes and structures and the polymer matrix can be selected from a variety of monomers, offering high potential as flexible metal cation remediation devices.

  4. Synthesis and thermal behavior of tin-based alloy (Sn-Ag-Cu) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Roshanghias, Ali; Yakymovych, Andriy; Bernardi, Johannes; Ipser, Herbert

    2015-03-19

    The prominent melting point depression of nanoparticles has been the subject of a considerable amount of research. For their promising applications in electronics, tin-based nano-alloys such as near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloys have been synthesized via various techniques. However, due to issues such as particle aggregation and oxidation or introduced impurities, the application of these nano-size particles has been confined or aborted. For instance, thermal investigations by DTA/DSC in a large number of studies revealed exothermic peaks in the range of 240-500 °C, i.e. above the melting point of SAC nanoparticles, with different and quite controversial explanations for this unclear phenomenon. This represents a considerable drawback for the application of nanoparticles. Correspondingly, in the current study, the thermal stability of SAC nanoparticles has been investigated via electron microscopy, XRD, FTIR, and DSC/TG analysis. It was found that the nanoparticles consist mainly of a metallic β-Sn core and an amorphous tin hydroxide shell structure. The SnO crystalline phase formation from this amorphous shell has been associated with the exothermic peaks on the first heating cycle of the nanoparticles, followed by a disproportionation reaction into metallic Sn and SnO₂.The results also revealed that the surfactant and reducing agent cannot only affect the size and size distribution of the nanoparticles, they might also alter the ratio between the amorphous shell and the crystalline core in the structure of particles.

  5. Light induced diffusion driven self assembly of Ag nanoparticles in a-Se/Ag bi-layer thin film with ultrafast optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sharma, Rituraj; Barik, A. R.; Khan, Pritam; Ranjan Kumar, Rakesh; Adarsh, K. V.

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate that femtosecond light-induced interdiffusion of Ag driven by the electrostatic attraction between photo-excited Ag+ ions and negatively charged amorphous layer can act as an efficient single step method for hybrid integration of spatially ordered and interconnected nanoparticles on the surface of amorphous films. Such self assembled complex hybrid structures of silver nanoparticles via bottom-up nano-construction method on a-Se thin film show an ultrafast optical response over an unusually broad wavelength range that can be used to construct optical modulators operating at switching speed of ˜5 ps.

  6. Antifungal mechanisms of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles to Sclerotinia homoeocarpa.

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Sang, Hyunkyu; Guo, Huiyuan; Popko, James T; He, Lili; White, Jason C; Parkash Dhankher, Om; Jung, Geunhwa; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-04-18

    Fungicides have extensively been used to effectively combat fungal diseases on a range of plant species, but resistance to multiple active ingredients has developed in pathogens such as Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the causal agent of dollar spot on cool-season turfgrasses. Recently, ZnO and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have received increased attention due to their antimicrobial activities. In this study, the NPs' toxicity and mechanisms of action were investigated as alternative antifungal agents against S. homoeocarpa isolates that varied in their resistance to demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. S. homoeocarpa isolates were treated with ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 (25-400 μg ml(-1)) and Ag NPs and AgNO3 (5-100 μg ml(-1)) to test antifungal activity of the NPs and ions. The mycelial growth of S. homoeocarpa isolates regardless of their DMI sensitivity was significantly inhibited on ZnO NPs (≥200 μg ml(-1)), Ag NPs (≥25 μg ml(-1)), Zn(2+) ions (≥200 μg ml(-1)), and Ag(+) ions (≥10 μg ml(-1)) amended media. Expression of stress response genes, glutathione S-transferase (Shgst1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (ShSOD2), was significantly induced in the isolates by exposure to the NPs and ions. In addition, a significant increase in the nucleic acid contents of fungal hyphae, which may be due to stress response, was observed upon treatment with Ag NPs using Raman spectroscopy. We further observed that a zinc transporter (Shzrt1) might play an important role in accumulating ZnO and Ag NPs into the cells of S. homoeocarpa due to overexpression of Shzrt1 significantly induced by ZnO or Ag NPs within 3 h of exposure. Yeast mutants complemented with Shzrt1 became more sensitive to ZnO and Ag NPs as well as Zn(2+) and Ag(+) ions than the control strain and resulted in increased Zn or Ag content after exposure. This is the first report of involvement of the zinc transporter in the accumulation of Zn and Ag from NP exposure in filamentous plant pathogenic fungi. Understanding

  7. Antifungal mechanisms of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles to Sclerotinia homoeocarpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junli; Sang, Hyunkyu; Guo, Huiyuan; Popko, James T.; He, Lili; White, Jason C.; Parkash Dhankher, Om; Jung, Geunhwa; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-04-01

    Fungicides have extensively been used to effectively combat fungal diseases on a range of plant species, but resistance to multiple active ingredients has developed in pathogens such as Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the causal agent of dollar spot on cool-season turfgrasses. Recently, ZnO and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have received increased attention due to their antimicrobial activities. In this study, the NPs’ toxicity and mechanisms of action were investigated as alternative antifungal agents against S. homoeocarpa isolates that varied in their resistance to demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. S. homoeocarpa isolates were treated with ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 (25–400 μg ml‑1) and Ag NPs and AgNO3 (5–100 μg ml‑1) to test antifungal activity of the NPs and ions. The mycelial growth of S. homoeocarpa isolates regardless of their DMI sensitivity was significantly inhibited on ZnO NPs (≥200 μg ml‑1), Ag NPs (≥25 μg ml‑1), Zn2+ ions (≥200 μg ml‑1), and Ag+ ions (≥10 μg ml‑1) amended media. Expression of stress response genes, glutathione S-transferase (Shgst1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (ShSOD2), was significantly induced in the isolates by exposure to the NPs and ions. In addition, a significant increase in the nucleic acid contents of fungal hyphae, which may be due to stress response, was observed upon treatment with Ag NPs using Raman spectroscopy. We further observed that a zinc transporter (Shzrt1) might play an important role in accumulating ZnO and Ag NPs into the cells of S. homoeocarpa due to overexpression of Shzrt1 significantly induced by ZnO or Ag NPs within 3 h of exposure. Yeast mutants complemented with Shzrt1 became more sensitive to ZnO and Ag NPs as well as Zn2+ and Ag+ ions than the control strain and resulted in increased Zn or Ag content after exposure. This is the first report of involvement of the zinc transporter in the accumulation of Zn and Ag from NP exposure in filamentous plant pathogenic fungi. Understanding the

  8. Quantitative determination of melamine in milk using Ag nanoparticle monolayer film as SERS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruoping; Yang, Jingliang; Han, Junhe; Liu, Junhui; Huang, Mingju

    2017-04-01

    A Raman method employing silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) monolayer film as Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate was presented to rapidly detect melamine in milk. The Ag NPs with 80 nm diameter were modified by polyvinylpyrrolidone to improve their uniformity and chemical stability. The treatment procedure of liquid milk required only addition of acetic acid and centrifugation, and required time is less than 15 min. The Ag NP monolayer film significantly enhanced Raman signal from melamine and allowed experimentally reproducible determination of the melamine concentration. A good linear relationship (R2=0.994) between the concentration and Raman peak intensity of melamine at 681 cm-1 was obtained for melamine concentrations between 0.10 mg L-1 and 5.00 mg L-1. This implies that this method can detect melamine concentrations below 1.0 mg L-1, the concentration currently considered unsafe.

  9. Dielectric properties of crystalline binary KNO3—AgNO3 mixtures embedded in nanoporous silicate matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshnikov, S. V.; Charnaya, E. V.; Milinskiĭ, A. Yu.; Stukova, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Michel, D.

    2010-02-01

    The results of dielectric studies of MCM-41 sili cate matrices with cellular pores (37.0 and 26.1 Å in diameter) filled by binary mixtures of K1- x Ag x NO3 ( x=0, 0.05, 0.10) are reported in comparison with those obtained for bulk salts of the same composition in the temperature range of structural phase transitions. It has been revealed that, upon heating, the nanocomposites undergo transitions from crystal modification II to phase I, as in bulk KNO3, whereas the bulk mixtures with x=0.05 and 0.10 have a complex structure in accordance with the phase diagram. It has been shown that embedding binary salts and pure potassium nitrate in pores with a diameter of 26.1Å results in the formation of an intermediate ferroelectric phase upon cooling. The permittivity and electrical conductivity are found to increase with increasing AgNO3 concentration in bulk samples, as well as with decreasing pore size in the nanocomposites for all values of x.

  10. Synthesis of spindle-shaped AgI/TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Gao, Minggang; Dai, Bin; Guo, Xuhong; Liu, Zhiyong; Peng, Banghua

    2016-11-01

    A novel synthetic route has been developed to prepare silver iodide (AgI) loaded spindle-shaped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The morphology and crystallinity characterization revealed that small AgI NPs, with an average diameter of 15 nm were dispersed on the surface and interior of nanoporous anatase TiO2 support. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to identify the nanoporous structure of TiO2 and the existence of AgI NPs. Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) showed that AgI/TiO2 composite exhibited a remarkable enhancement of visible light absorption, which is ascribed to the addition of AgI. For illustrating the superior property of this hybrid as photocatalyst, the degradation experiments were carried out for processing rhodamine B (RhB) solution under visible light irradiation and it was found that the photocatalytic activity was dramatically improved for AgI/TiO2 compared with nanoporous TiO2 and commercial P25 TiO2. The enhanced photocatalytic properties could be attributed to the large surface area of porous TiO2, good stability of AgI particles, and the effective charge separation due to the synergetic effect between AgI and TiO2 that can facilitate the separation of electron-hole pairs. Our novel composite based on nanoporous spindle-shaped TiO2 represents a promising new pathway for the design of high-performance photocatalysts for environmental applications.

  11. Rapid synthesis of ordered hexagonal mesoporous silica and their incorporation with Ag nanoparticles by solution plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu; Lee, Sang Yul

    2012-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Overall reactions of mesoporous silica and AgNPs-incorporated mesoporous silica syntheses by solution plasma process (SPP). Highlights: ► SPP for rapid synthesis of mesoporous silica. ► SPP for rapid synthesis of mesoporous silica and AgNPs incorporation. ► Higher surface area and larger pore diameter of mesoporous silica synthesized by SPP. -- Abstract: Rapid synthesis of silica with ordered hexagonal mesopore arrangement was obtained using solution plasma process (SPP) by discharging the mixture of P123 triblock copolymer/TEOS in acid solution. SPP, moreover, was utilized for Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporation in silica framework as one-batch process using silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) solution as precursor. The turbid silicate gel was clearly observed after discharge for 1 min and the white precipitate formed at 3 min. The mesopore with hexagonal arrangement and AgNPs were observed in mesoporous silica. Two regions of X-ray diffraction patterns (2θ < 2° and 2θ = 35–90°) corresponded to the mesoporous silica and Ag nanocrystal characteristics. Comparing with mesoporous silica prepared by a conventional sol–gel route, surface area and pore diameter of mesoporous silica prepared by solution plasma were observed to be larger. In addition, the increase in Ag loading resulted in the decrease in surface area with insignificant variation in the pore diameter of mesoporous silica. SPP could be successfully utilized not only to enhance gelation time but also to increase surface area and pore diameter of mesoporous silica.

  12. Characterization and Evaluation of Reverse Osmosis Membranes Modified with Ag2O Nanoparticles to Improve Performance.

    PubMed

    Al-Hobaib, Abdullah S; Al-Sheetan, Khalid M; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Al-Andis, Naser M; Al-Suhybani, M S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare and characterize a new and highly efficient modified membrane by in situ interfacial polymerization on porous polysulfone supports. The process used m-phenylenediamine and trimesoyl chloride in hexane, incorporating silver oxide Ag2O nanoparticles of varied concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 wt%. Ag2O nanoparticles were prepared at different sizes varying between 20 and 50 nm. The modified membranes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and contact angle measurement. The results showed a smooth membrane surface and average surface roughness from 31 to 74 nm. Moreover, hydrophilicity improved and the contact angle decreased to 41° at 0.009 wt% silver oxide. The performances of the developed membranes were investigated by measuring permeate fluxes and salt rejection capability by passing NaCl solutions (2000 ppm) through the membranes at 225 psi. The results showed that the flux increased from 26 to 40.5 L/m(2) h, while the salt rejection was high, at 99 %, with 0.003 wt% Ag2O nanoparticles.

  13. Growth of different morphologies (quantum dots to nanorod) of Ag-nanoparticles: role of cysteine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheer; Talib, Abou

    2010-03-01

    This work describes an easy chemical method for the preparation of orange-red color silver sol by the cysteine reduction of silver (I) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The obtained sol was found to have very small particles in the order of quantum dots for the first time. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the silver sol consists of aggregated as well as cross-linking arrangement of spherical silver quantum dots (size in the range ca. Ag-nanoparticles from quantum dots to nanorod of diameter 60nm and pearl-necklace shaped which occurred due to the cross-linking aggregation of silver quantum dots. For a certain reaction time, i.e., 100min, the absorbance of reaction mixture first increased until it reached a maximum, then decreased with [cysteine]. The rate of Ag-nanoparticles formation decreases with the increase in [cysteine] whereas [CTAB] and [Ag(+)] have no effect on the reaction rate. Interestingly, at higher [cysteine] (>or=20.0x10(-4)mol dm(-3)), white precipitate was formed instead of transparent silver sol. Cysteine acts as a reducing, cross-linking, stabilizing and buffering agent during the growth of different shape and size of silver nanoparticles.

  14. Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Ruslan, N. E.; Ali, Z. A.; Reduan, S. A.; Lee, C. S. J.; Shaharuddin, R. A.; Nayan, N.; Ismail, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The use of silver (Ag)-nanoparticle as saturable absorber (SA) to induce tunable Q-switched fiber laser in C-band is demonstrated. The Ag-nanoparticle SA exhibits modulation depth of 31.6% and saturation intensity of 0.54 MW cm-2. The SA is integrated into the laser cavity by sandwiching it between two fiber ferrules. Lasing in CW region starts at 10 mW, whereas stable self-starting Q-switching with a central wavelength of 1558.4 nm begins at 20 mW. As the pump power increases, the repetition rate varies from 10.5 kHz to 24.4 kHz and the narrowest pulse width obtained is around 6.5 μs. The Q-switched laser has a tuning range of 27.3 nm (1552.9-1580.2 nm). The stability of the pulse is verified from the radio-freqeuncy (RF) spectrum with a measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 46.22 dB. The ability of Ag-nanoparticle as an effective SA may lead to further development of pulsed fiber laser in the field of photonics.

  15. Structure and magnetism in Fe/FexPd1-x core/shell nanoparticles formed by alloying in Pd-embedded Fe nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baker, S H; Lees, M; Roy, M; Binns, C

    2013-09-25

    We have investigated atomic structure and magnetism in Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 2 nm embedded in a Pd matrix. The samples for these studies were prepared directly from the gas phase by co-deposition, using a gas aggregation source and an MBE-type source for the Fe nanoparticles and Pd matrix respectively. Extended absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements indicate that there is an appreciable degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface; at dilute nanoparticle concentrations, more than half of the Fe atoms are alloyed with Pd. This leads to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles, with an FexPd1-x shell surrounding a reduced pure Fe core. Magnetism in the nanocomposite samples was probed by means of magnetometry measurements, which were interpreted in the light of their atomic structure. These point to a magnetized cloud of Pd atoms surrounding the embedded nanoparticles which is significantly larger than around single Fe atoms in Pd. The coercivities in the Fe/Pd nanocomposite samples are larger than in FexPd1-x atomic alloys of corresponding composition, which is consistent with exchange coupling between the magnetically harder and softer regions in the nanocomposite samples.

  16. One-pot laser-assisted synthesis of porous carbon with embedded magnetic cobalt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimbeu, Camélia Matei; Sopronyi, Mihai; Sima, Felix; Delmotte, Luc; Vaulot, Cyril; Zlotea, Claudia; Paul-Boncour, Valérie; Le Meins, Jean-Marc

    2015-05-01

    A novel one-pot laser-assisted approach is reported herein for the synthesis of ordered carbons with embedded cobalt nanoparticles. The process is based on a UV pulsed laser exposure of an ethanolic solution consisting of green carbon precursors, a structure directing agent and a cobalt salt. Very short irradiation times (5 to 30 min) are only required to polymerize and cross-link carbon precursors (i.e. phloroglucinol and glyoxylic acid) independent of a catalyst presence. The influence of three metallic salts (acetate, nitrate and chloride) on the phenolic resin and carbon characteristics (structure, texture and particle size/distribution) was systematically studied. When exposed to UV laser, the metallic salt exhibited a strong influence on the particle size and distribution in the carbon matrix rather than on the textural carbon properties. Using cobalt acetate, very small (3.5 nm) and uniformly dispersed particles were obtained by this simple, fast and green one-pot synthesis approach. An original combined 13C CP-MAS and DP-DEC solid state NMR spectroscopy analysis allowed to determine the structure of phenolic resins as well as the location of the cobalt salt in the resin. Complementarily, the 1H solid-state and relaxation NMR provided unique insights into the rigidity (cross-linking) of the phenolic resin and dispersion of the cobalt salt. The magnetic properties of cobalt nanoparticles were found to be size-dependent: large Co nanoparticles (~50 nm) behave as bulk Co whereas small Co nanoparticles are superparamagnetic.A novel one-pot laser-assisted approach is reported herein for the synthesis of ordered carbons with embedded cobalt nanoparticles. The process is based on a UV pulsed laser exposure of an ethanolic solution consisting of green carbon precursors, a structure directing agent and a cobalt salt. Very short irradiation times (5 to 30 min) are only required to polymerize and cross-link carbon precursors (i.e. phloroglucinol and glyoxylic acid

  17. Biphasic peptide amphiphile nanomatrix embedded with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for stimulated osteoinductive response.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel M; Patterson, Jessica L; Vines, Jeremy B; Javed, Amjad; Gilbert, Shawn R; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2011-12-27

    Formation of the native bone extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an attractive template for bone tissue engineering. The structural support and biological complexity of bone ECM are provided within a composite microenvironment that consists of an organic fibrous network reinforced by inorganic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. Recreating this biphasic assembly, a bone ECM analogous scaffold comprising self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers and interspersed HA nanoparticles was investigated. PAs were endowed with biomolecular ligand signaling using a synthetically inscribed peptide sequence (i.e., RGDS) and integrated with HA nanoparticles to form a biphasic nanomatrix hydrogel. It was hypothesized the biphasic hydrogel would induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and improve bone healing as mediated by RGDS ligand signaling within PA nanofibers and embedded HA mineralization source. Viscoelastic stability of the biphasic PA hydrogels was evaluated with different weight concentrations of HA for improved gelation. After demonstrating initial viability, long-term cellularity and osteoinduction of encapsulated hMSCs in different PA hydrogels were studied in vitro. Temporal progression of osteogenic maturation was assessed by gene expression of key markers. A preliminary animal study demonstrated bone healing capacity of the biphasic PA nanomatrix under physiological conditions using a critical size femoral defect rat model. The combination of RGDS ligand signaling and HA nanoparticles within the biphasic PA nanomatrix hydrogel demonstrated the most effective osteoinduction and comparative bone healing response. Therefore, the biphasic PA nanomatrix establishes a well-organized scaffold with increased similarity to natural bone ECM with the prospect for improved bone tissue regeneration.

  18. Solid-state synthesis of embedded single-crystal metal oxide and phosphate nanoparticles and in situ crystallization.

    PubMed

    Díaz, C; Valenzuela, M L; Bravo, D; Dickinson, C; O'Dwyer, C

    2011-10-01

    A new solid state organometallic route to embedded nanoparticle-containing inorganic materials is shown, through pyrolysis of metal-containing derivatives of cyclotriphosphazenes. Pyrolysis in air and at 800 °C of new molecular precursors gives individual single-crystal nanoparticles of SiP(2)O(7), TiO(2), P(4)O(7,) WP(2)O(7) and SiO(2), depending on the precursor used. High resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations reveal, in most cases, perfect single crystals of metal oxides and the first nanostructures of negative thermal expansion metal phosphates with diameters in the range 2-6 nm for all products. While all nanoparticles are new by this method, WP(2)O(7) and SiP(2)O(7) nanoparticles are reported for the first time. In situ recrystallization formation of nanocrystals of SiP(2)O(7) was also observed due to electron beam induced reactions during measurements of the nanoparticulate pyrolytic products SiO(2) and P(4)O(7). The possible mechanism for the formation of the nanoparticles at much lower temperatures than their bulk counterparts in both cases is discussed. Degrees of stabilization from the formation of P(4)O(7) affects the nanocrystalline products: nanoparticles are observed for WP(2)O(7), with coalescing crystallization occurring for the amorphous host in which SiP(2)O(7) crystals form as a solid within a solid. The approach allows the simple formation of multimetallic, monometallic, metal-oxide and metal phosphate nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous dielectric. The method and can be extended to nearly any metal capable of successful coordination as an organometallic to allow embedded nanoparticle layers and features to be deposited or written on surfaces for application as high mobility pyrophosphate lithium-ion cathode materials, catalysis and nanocrystal embedded dielectric layers.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol using Ag core-TiO2 shell (Ag@TiO2) nanoparticles under UV light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Shet, Amruta; Shetty K, Vidya

    2016-10-01

    Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by one pot synthesis method with postcalcination. These nanoparticles were tested for their photocatalytic efficacies in degradation of phenol both in free and immobilized forms under UV light irradiation through batch experiments. Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles were found to be the effective photocatalysts for degradation of phenol. The effects of factors such as pH, initial phenol concentration, and catalyst loading on phenol degradation were evaluated, and these factors were found to influence the process efficiency. The optimum values of these factors were determined to maximize the phenol degradation. The efficacy of the nanoparticles immobilized on cellulose acetate film was inferior to that of free nanoparticles in UV photocatalysis due to light penetration problem and diffusional limitations. The performance of fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor operated under batch with recycle mode was evaluated for UV photocatalysis with immobilized Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles. In the fluidized bed reactor, the percentage degradation of phenol was found to increase with the increase in catalyst loading.

  20. Long-term transformation and fate of manufactured ag nanoparticles in a simulated large scale freshwater emergent wetland.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Gregory V; Espinasse, Benjamin P; Badireddy, Appala Raju; Richardson, Curtis J; Reinsch, Brian C; Bryant, Lee D; Bone, Audrey J; Deonarine, Amrika; Chae, Soryong; Therezien, Mathieu; Colman, Benjamin P; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Bernhardt, Emily S; Matson, Cole W; Wiesner, Mark R

    2012-07-03

    Transformations and long-term fate of engineered nanomaterials must be measured in realistic complex natural systems to accurately assess the risks that they may pose. Here, we determine the long-term behavior of poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in freshwater mesocosms simulating an emergent wetland environment. AgNPs were either applied to the water column or to the terrestrial soils. The distribution of silver among water, solids, and biota, and Ag speciation in soils and sediment was determined 18 months after dosing. Most (70 wt %) of the added Ag resided in the soils and sediments, and largely remained in the compartment in which they were dosed. However, some movement between soil and sediment was observed. Movement of AgNPs from terrestrial soils to sediments was more facile than from sediments to soils, suggesting that erosion and runoff is a potential pathway for AgNPs to enter waterways. The AgNPs in terrestrial soils were transformed to Ag(2)S (~52%), whereas AgNPs in the subaquatic sediment were present as Ag(2)S (55%) and Ag-sulfhydryl compounds (27%). Despite significant sulfidation of the AgNPs, a fraction of the added Ag resided in the terrestrial plant biomass (~3 wt % for the terrestrially dosed mesocosm), and relatively high body burdens of Ag (0.5-3.3 μg Ag/g wet weight) were found in mosquito fish and chironomids in both mesocosms. Thus, Ag from the NPs remained bioavailable even after partial sulfidation and when water column total Ag concentrations are low (<0.002 mg/L).

  1. Toxicological Effects of Caco-2 Cells Following Short-Term and Long-Term Exposure to Ag Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ni; Song, Zheng-Mei; Tang, Huan; Xi, Wen-Song; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2016-01-01

    Extensive utilization increases the exposure of humans to Ag nanoparticles (NPs) via the oral pathway. To comprehensively address the action of Ag NPs to the gastrointestinal systems in real situations, i.e., the long-term low-dose exposure, we evaluated and compared the toxicity of three Ag NPs (20–30 nm with different surface coatings) to the human intestine cell Caco-2 after 1-day and 21-day exposures, using various biological assays. In both the short- and long-term exposures, the variety of surface coating predominated the toxicity of Ag NPs in a descending order of citrate-coated Ag NP (Ag-CIT), bare Ag NP (Ag-B), and poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-coated Ag NP (Ag-PVP). The short-term exposure induced cell growth inhibition and death. The cell viability loss appeared after cells were exposed to 0.7 μg/mL Ag-CIT, 0.9 μg/mL Ag-B or >1.0 μg/mL Ag-PVP for 24 h. The short-term and higher-dose exposure also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial damage, cell membrane leakage, apoptosis, and inflammation (IL-8 level). The long-term exposure only inhibited the cell proliferation. After 21-day exposure to 0.4 μg/mL Ag-CIT, the cell viability dropped to less than 50%, while cells exposed to 0.5 μg/mL Ag-PVP remained normal as the control. Generally, 0.3 μg/mL is the non-toxic dose for the long-term exposure of Caco-2 cells to Ag NPs in this study. However, cells presented inflammation after exposure to Ag NPs with the non-toxic dose in the long-term exposure. PMID:27338357

  2. Doping effect of Ag+, Mn2+ ions on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankara Reddy, B.; Venkatramana Reddy, S.; Venkateswara Reddy, P.; Koteeswara Reddy, N.; Vijayalakshmi, R. P.

    2015-02-01

    Pure ZnO and co-doped (Mn, Ag) ZnO nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by chemical co-precipitation method without using a capping agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirms the presence of wurtzite (hexagonal) crystal structure similar to undoped ZnO, suggesting that doped Mn, Ag ions are substituted to the regular Zn sites. The morphology of the samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition of pure and co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectroscopy (EDAX). Optical absorption properties were determined by UV-vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectrophotometer. The incorporation of Ag+, Mn2+ in the place of Zn2+ provoked to decrease the size of nanocrystals as compared to pure ZnO. Optical absorption measurements indicates blue shift in the absorption band edge upon Ag, Mn ions doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  3. Fluorescence enhancement of europium complexes by core-shell Ag@SiO₂ nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Xia; Lin, Xue-Mei; Wang, Ai-Ling; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Chu, Hai-Bin

    2015-12-05

    Three kinds of core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles with shell thickness of around 10, 15, and 25 nm, respectively, have been prepared by modified Stöber method and used for fluorescence enhancement. Six kinds of europium complexes with halobenzoic acid have been synthesized. Elemental analysis and lanthanide coordination titration show that the complexes have the compositions of Eu(p-XBA)3·H2O and Eu(o-XBA)3·2H2O (X=F, Cl, Br). The fluorescence spectra investigation indicates that the introduction of Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles into the europium complexes' solution can significantly enhance the fluorescence intensities of the complexes. The sequence of enhancement factors for halobenzoic acid complexes with different halogen atoms is Fnanoparticles. And the nanoparticles near the complexes can effectively prevent complexes from the interaction with the solvent molecules, leading to a decrease of nonradiative energy transfer and the suppression of luminescence quench.

  4. Drastic nickel ion removal from aqueous solution by curcumin-capped Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, S.; Pagano, R.; Valli, L.; Giancane, G.

    2014-08-01

    A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%.A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02583k

  5. Comparison of Ag and SiO2 Nanoparticles for Light Trapping Applications in Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Theuring, Martin; Wang, Peng Hui; Vehse, Martin; Steenhoff, Volker; von Maydell, Karsten; Agert, Carsten; Brolo, Alexandre G

    2014-10-02

    Plasmonic and photonic light trapping structures can significantly improve the efficiency of solar cells. This work presents an experimental and computational comparison of identically shaped metallic (Ag) and nonmetallic (SiO2) nanoparticles integrated to the back contact of amorphous silicon solar cells. Our results show comparable performance for both samples, suggesting that minor influence arises from the nanoparticle material. Particularly, no additional beneficial effect of the plasmonic features due to metallic nanoparticles could be observed.

  6. Optimum Conditions for the Fabrication of Zein/Ag Composite Nanoparticles from Ethanol/H2O Co-Solvents Using Electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seong Baek; Rabbani, Mohammad Mahbub; Ji, Byung Chul; Han, Dong-Wook; Lee, Joon Seok; Kim, Jong Won; Yeum, Jeong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the fabrication of zein/Ag composite nanoparticles from ethanol/H2O cosolvents using electrospinning and the properties of the composite were investigated. The zein/Ag nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis. The antibacterial activity of the zein/Ag composite nanoparticles was also investigated. The XRD patterns and TEM images indicate the coexistence of a zein matrix and well-distributed Ag nanoparticles. PMID:28335358

  7. Development of Novel Cadmium-Free AgInS2 Semiconductor Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wentao; Gong, Xiaoqun; Chang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    AgInS2 (AIS) semiconductor nanoparticles as the novel alternatives to cadmium- or lead-containing semiconductors have attracted much attention both on the theory and application research, based on their tunable fluorescence emission wavelengths, high photostability and low toxicity of chemical composition. The bandgap of AIS nanoparticles can be adjusted from 1.54 to 2.03 eV, which makes AIS nanocrystalline suitable for applications in solar energy conversion. Moreover, the fluorescence emission wavelengths can be tuned in the near-infrared regions, and thus make it the next-generation low-toxicity materials for the applications in bioimaging. In this review, the research progress of the AIS nanoparticles is summarized, including synthetic methods, properties and the possibilities to influence their shape and crystallographic structure. Furthermore, we discuss the potential applications of this novel material in photocatalysis, solar energy conversion and biological area.

  8. Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2≤n≤9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

  9. Partitioning of silver and chemical speciation of free Ag in soils amended with nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about silver nanoparticles in soils is limited even if soils are a critical pathway for their environmental fate. In this paper, speciation results have been acquired using a silver ion selective electrode in three different soils. Results Soil organic matter and pH were the most important soil properties controlling the occurrence of silver ions in soils. In acidic soils, more free silver ions are available while in the presence of organic matter, ions were tightly bound in complexes. The evolution of the chemical speciation of the silver nanoparticles in soils was followed over six months. Conclusion During the first few hours, there appeared to be a strong sorption of the silver with soil ligands, whereas over time, silver ions were released, the final concentration being approximately 10 times higher than at the beginning. Ag release was associated with either the oxidation of the nanoparticles or a dissociation of adsorbed silver from the soil surfaces. PMID:23617903

  10. Kinetic trapping through coalescence and the formation of patterned Ag-Cu nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Kioseoglou, Joseph; Galea, Antony; Vernieres, Jerome; Benelmekki, Maria; Diaz, Rosa E.; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, due to its inherent flexibility, magnetron-sputtering has been widely used to synthesise bi-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) via subsequent inert-gas cooling and gas-phase condensation of the sputtered atomic vapour. Utilising two separate sputter targets allows for good control over composition. Simultaneously, it involves fast kinetics and non-equilibrium processes, which can trap the nascent NPs into metastable configurations. In this study, we observed such configurations in immiscible, bi-metallic Ag-Cu NPs by scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and noticed a marked difference in the shape of NPs belonging to Ag- and Cu-rich samples. We explained the formation of Janus or Ag@Cu core/shell metastable structures on the grounds of in-flight mixed NP coalescence. We utilised molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations to demonstrate that such configurations cannot occur as a result of nanoalloy segregation. Instead, sintering at relatively low temperatures can give rise to metastable structures, which eventually can be stabilised by subsequent quenching. Furthermore, we compared the heteroepitaxial diffusivities along various surfaces of both Ag and Cu NPs, and emphasised the differences between the sintering mechanisms of Ag- and Cu-rich NP compositions: small Cu NPs deform as coherent objects on large Ag NPs, whereas small Ag NPs dissolve into large Cu NPs, with their atoms diffusing along specific directions. Taking advantage of this observation, we propose controlled NP coalescence as a method to engineer mixed NPs of a unique, patterned core@partial-shell structure, which we refer to as a ``glass-float'' (ukidama) structure.In recent years, due to its inherent flexibility, magnetron-sputtering has been widely used to synthesise bi-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) via subsequent inert-gas cooling and gas-phase condensation of the sputtered atomic vapour. Utilising two

  11. Organic bistable memory devices based on MoO3 nanoparticle embedded Alq3 structures.

    PubMed

    Abhijith, T; Kumar, T V Arun; Reddy, V S

    2017-03-03

    Organic bistable memory devices were fabricated by embedding a thin layer of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) between two tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) layers. The device exhibited excellent switching characteristics with an ON/OFF current ratio of 1.15 × 10(3) at a read voltage of 1 V. The device showed repeatable write-erase capability and good stability in both the conductance states. These conductance states are non-volatile in nature and can be obtained by applying appropriate voltage pulses. The effect of MoO3 layer thickness and its location in the Alq3 matrix on characteristics of the memory device was investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the MoO3 layer revealed the presence of isolated nanoparticles. Based on the experimental results, a mechanism has been proposed for explaining the conductance switching of fabricated devices.

  12. Tailoring the surface plasmon resonance of embedded silver nanoparticles by combining nano- and femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doster, J.; Baraldi, G.; Gonzalo, J.; Solis, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that the broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a single layer of near-coalescence silver nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in a dielectric matrix can be tailored by irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse into a distribution featuring a sharp resonance at 435 nm. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal the underlying mechanism to be a transformation into a distribution of well-separated spherical particles. Additional exposure to multiple femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm or 800 nm wavelength induces polarization anisotropy of the SPR, with a peak shift that increases with laser wavelength. The spectral changes are measured in-situ, employing reflection and transmission micro-spectroscopy with a lateral resolution of 4 μm. Spectral maps as a continuous function of local fluence can be readily produced from a single spot. The results open exciting perspectives for dynamically tuning and switching the optical response of NP systems, paving the way for next-generation applications.

  13. Cobalt diselenide nanoparticles embedded within porous carbon polyhedra as advanced electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renbing; Xue, Yanhong; Liu, Bo; Zhou, Kun; Wei, Jun; Chan, Siew Hwa

    2016-10-01

    Highly efficient and cost-effective electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is crucial for a variety of renewable energy applications. Herein, strongly coupled hybrid composites composed of cobalt diselenide (CoSe2) nanoparticles embedded within graphitic carbon polyhedra (GCP) as high-performance ORR catalyst have been rationally designed and synthesized. The catalyst is fabricated by a convenient method, which involves the simultaneous pyrolysis and selenization of preformed Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67). Benefiting from the unique structural features, the resulting CoSe2/GCP hybrid catalyst shows high stability and excellent electrocatalytic activity towards ORR (the onset and half-wave potentials are 0.935 and 0.806 V vs. RHE, respectively), which is superior to the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.912 and 0.781 V vs. RHE, respectively).

  14. Iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in activated carbons prepared from hydrothermally treated waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenming; Björkman, Eva; Yun, Yifeng; Lilliestråle, Malte; Hedin, Niklas

    2014-03-01

    Particles of iron oxide (Fe3O4 ; 20–40 nm) were embedded within activated carbons during the activation of hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses in a flow of CO2. Four different HTC biomass samples (horse manure, grass cuttings, beer production waste, and biosludge) were used as precursors for the activated carbons. Nanoparticles of iron oxide formed from iron catalyst included in the HTC biomasses. After systematic optimization, the activated carbons had specific surface areas of about 800 m2g1. The pore size distributions of the activated carbons depended strongly on the degree of carbonization of the precursors. Activated carbons prepared from highly carbonized precursors had mainly micropores, whereas those prepared from less carbonized precursors contained mainly mesopores. Given the strong magnetism of the activated carbon–nano-Fe3O4 composites, they could be particularly useful for water purification.

  15. Absorption Enhancement in Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskite Films with Embedded Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on the numerical analysis of solar absorption enhancement in organic–inorganic halide perovskite films embedding plasmonic gold nanoparticles. The effect of particle size and concentration is analyzed in realistic systems in which random particle location within the perovskite film and the eventual formation of dimers are also taken into account. We find a maximum integrated solar absorption enhancement of ∼10% in perovskite films of 200 nm thickness and ∼6% in 300 nm films, with spheres of radii 60 and 90 nm, respectively, in volume concentrations of around 10% in both cases. We show that the presence of dimers boosts the absorption enhancement up to ∼12% in the thinnest films considered. Absorption reinforcement arises from a double contribution of plasmonic near-field and scattering effects, whose respective weight can be discriminated and evaluated from the simulations. PMID:26500712

  16. Organic bistable memory devices based on MoO3 nanoparticle embedded Alq3 structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhijith, T.; Kumar, T. V. Arun; Reddy, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Organic bistable memory devices were fabricated by embedding a thin layer of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) between two tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) layers. The device exhibited excellent switching characteristics with an ON/OFF current ratio of 1.15 × 103 at a read voltage of 1 V. The device showed repeatable write–erase capability and good stability in both the conductance states. These conductance states are non-volatile in nature and can be obtained by applying appropriate voltage pulses. The effect of MoO3 layer thickness and its location in the Alq3 matrix on characteristics of the memory device was investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the MoO3 layer revealed the presence of isolated nanoparticles. Based on the experimental results, a mechanism has been proposed for explaining the conductance switching of fabricated devices.

  17. Reliable Quantitative SERS Analysis Facilitated by Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Embedded Internal Standards.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Lin, Xuan; Jiang, Chaoyang; Li, Chaoyu; Lin, Haixin; Huang, Jingtao; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Guokun; Yan, Xiaomei; Zhong, Qiling; Ren, Bin

    2015-06-15

    Quantitative analysis is a great challenge in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Core-molecule-shell nanoparticles with two components in the molecular layer, a framework molecule to form the shell, and a probe molecule as a Raman internal standard, were rationally designed for quantitative SERS analysis. The signal of the embedded Raman probe provides effective feedback to correct the fluctuation of samples and measuring conditions. Meanwhile, target molecules with different affinities can be adsorbed onto the shell. The quantitative analysis of target molecules over a large concentration range has been demonstrated with a linear response of the relative SERS intensity versus the surface coverage, which has not been achieved by conventional SERS methods.

  18. Self-Assembly of Ag Nanoparticles Induced by Centrifuging and Broken by Silanization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Zhang, Yulan

    2015-08-01

    A novel method was developed to assemble Ag nanoparticles (NPs) into chain-like structures. The assembly of the NPs was created by suspending in an ethanol and water solution as well as centrifuging at a high speed (a force of more than 29 Kg for the NPs with an average diameter of 18 nm). The composition of solvents and centrifuged speeds of samples play important roles for the formation of regular assemblies. The number of Ag NPs in the chain-like assemblies was adjusted by changing centrifuging forces. The assemblies of the NPs were fixed by a SiO2 coating through a St6ber synthesis. In addition, the assemblies were broken through a silanization process because of partially hydrolyzed tetraethyl-orthosilicate molecules adsorbed on the surface of Ag NPs to form a SiO2 layer opposite aggregation. A slow silanization process made Ag NPs monodispersed in solutions, in which Ag/SiO2 core/shell NPs were created.

  19. Efficient photon management with Ag nanoparticles coated TiO2 nanowire clusters for photodetector application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngangbam, Chitralekha; Mondal, Aniruddha; Choudhuri, Bijit

    2015-09-01

    TiO2 nanowire clusters (NWCs) covered with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized on Si substrates using GLAD technique. Ag NPs/TiO2 NWCs showed enhanced optical absorption all over the spectrum compared to bare TiO2 NWCs. The leakage current of the TiO2 NWCs device (-10.8 μA) was reduced by ˜9 × 103 times for Ag NPs/TiO2 NWCs detector (-1.2 nA) at -1 V applied bias. Ag NPs/TiO2 NWCs detector exhibited maximum photoresponsivity ˜2.4 times (-2 V) as compared to the bare TiO2 NWCs detector. Using 10 K photocapacitance measurement, a sharp peak at 355 nm (˜3.5 eV) was detected due to the main band transition. The other sub band gap defects were observed within 410-490 nm along with a broad hump between 595-700 nm. The light dependent capacitance-time (I-T) characteristic of the Ag/TiO2 NWCs detector shows rise-time ( T r ) of 9.6 s and decay time ( T d ) of 10 s. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Effect of Synthesis Techniques on Crystallization and Optical Properties of Ag-Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ziye; Qin, Fen; Huang, Po-Shun; Nettleship, Ian; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Silver (Ag)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the reduction of silver nitrate and copper (II) acetate monohydrate using ethylene glycol in a microwave (MW) heating system with controlled reaction times ranging from 5 min to 30 min. The molar ratio Ag/Cu was varied from 1:1 to 1:3. The effect of reaction conditions on the bimetallic NPs structures and compositions were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The average particle size was approximately 150 nm. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag-Cu bimetallic NPs was investigated by monitoring the SPR band peak behavior via UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The resonance peak positions and peak widths varied due to the different structures of the bimetallic NPs created under the synthesis conditions. In the MW heating method, the reduction of Cu was increased and Cu was inhomogeneously deposited over the Ag cores. As the composition of Cu becoming higher in the Ag-Cu bimetallic NPs, the absorption between 400 nm to 600 nm was greatly enhanced.

  1. Study on surface-enhanced Raman scattering efficiency of Ag core-Au shell bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Gu, Huaimin; Kang, Jian; Yuan, Xiaojuan

    2009-08-01

    In this article, the relationship between the states of Ag core-Au shell (core-shell) nanoparticles (NP) and the intensity of Raman scattering of analytes dissolved in the water and adsorbed on the NP was studied. The core-shell NP were synthesised by coating Au layers over Ag seeds by the method of "seed-growth". To highlight the advantage of the core-shell NP, Ag colloid and Au colloid were chosen for contrasting. The analyte that were chosen for this testing were methylene blue (MB) for the reason that MB has very strong signal in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The SERS activity of optimalizing states of Ag and Au colloids were compared with that of core-shell NP when MB was used as analyte. In this study, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium nitrate were used as aggregating agents for Ag, Au colloids and core-shell NP, because anions have a strong influence on the SERS efficiency and the stability of colloids. The results indicate that core-shell NP can obviously enhance the SERS of MB. The aim of this study is to prove that compared with the metal colloid, the core-shell NP is a high efficiency SERS active substrate.

  2. Room temperature nanojoining of Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaqi; Shin, Seungha

    2017-02-01

    Room temperature ( T room, 300 K) nanojoining of Ag has been widely employed in fabrication of microelectronic applications where the shapes and structures of microelectronic components must be maintained. In this research, the joining processes of pure Ag nanoparticles (NPs), Cu-Ag core-shell NPs, and nanowires (NWs) are studied using molecular dynamics simulations at T room. The evolution of densification, potential energy, and structural deformation during joining process are analyzed to identify joining mechanisms. Depending on geometry, different joining mechanisms including crystallization-amorphization, reorientation, Shockley partial dislocation are determined. A three-stage joining scenario is observed in both joining process of NPs and NWs. Besides, the Cu core does not participate in all joining processes, however, it enhances the mobility of Ag shell atoms, contributing to a higher densification and bonding strength at T room, compared with pure Ag nanomaterials. The tensile test shows that the nanojoint bears higher rupture strength than the core-shell NW itself. This study deepens understanding in the underlying joining mechanisms and thus nanojoint with desirable thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties could be potentially achieved.

  3. Fabrication, characterization and screen printing of conductive ink based on carbon@Ag core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Shuanglei; Zhang, Shaofeng; Zhang, Hongbo; Jiang, Changzhong

    2014-08-01

    The large-scale synthesis and characterization of carbon-core/Ag-shell (C@Ag) nanoparticles by the successive reduction of silver ammonia are described. The resultant C@Ag nanoparticles had a mean core diameter of 360 nm and a controllable shell thickness from 10 to 40 nm by simple adjustments of repeat coating times. Various analysis techniques confirmed that the carbon cores were fully covered by Ag nanoshells. The results also show that C/Ag composite nanomaterials-based conductive inks, which can be easily produced on a large scale and possess outstanding electronic properties, have great potential for the convenient fabrication of flexible and low-cost carbon-based electronic devices and replace the traditional pure silver paste, by using a simple screen printing technique.

  4. Few-layer graphene sheets with embedded gold nanoparticles for electrochemical analysis of adenine

    PubMed Central

    Biris, Alexandru R; Pruneanu, Stela; Pogacean, Florina; Lazar, Mihaela D; Borodi, Gheorghe; Ardelean, Stefania; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Watanabe, Fumiya; Biris, Alexandru S

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of few-layer graphene sheets embedded with various amounts of gold nanoparticles (Gr-Au-x) over an Aux/MgO catalytic system (where × = 1, 2, or 3 wt%). The sheet-like morphology of the Gr-Au-x nanostructures was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, which also demonstrated that the number of layers within the sheets varied from two to seven. The sample with the highest percentage of gold nanoparticles embedded within the graphitic layers (Gr-Au-3) showed the highest degree of crystallinity. This distinct feature, along with the large number of edge-planes seen in high resolution transmission electron microscopic images, has a crucial effect on the electrocatalytic properties of this material. The reaction yields (40%–50%) and the final purity (96%–98%) of the Gr-Au-x composites were obtained by thermogravimetric analysis. The Gr-Au-x composites were used to modify platinum substrates and subsequently to detect adenine, one of the DNA bases. For the bare electrode, no oxidation signal was recorded. In contrast, all of the modified electrodes showed a strong electrocatalytic effect, and a clear peak for adenine oxidation was recorded at approximately +1.05 V. The highest increase in the electrochemical signal was obtained using a platinum/Gr-Au-3-modified electrode. In addition, this modified electrode had an exchange current density (I0, obtained from the Tafel plot) one order of magnitude higher than that of the bare platinum electrode, which also confirmed that the transfer of electrons took place more readily at the Gr-Au-3-modified electrode. PMID:23610521

  5. Kinetic trapping through coalescence and the formation of patterned Ag-Cu nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Kioseoglou, Joseph; Galea, Antony; Vernieres, Jerome; Benelmekki, Maria; Diaz, Rosa E; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2016-05-14

    In recent years, due to its inherent flexibility, magnetron-sputtering has been widely used to synthesise bi-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) via subsequent inert-gas cooling and gas-phase condensation of the sputtered atomic vapour. Utilising two separate sputter targets allows for good control over composition. Simultaneously, it involves fast kinetics and non-equilibrium processes, which can trap the nascent NPs into metastable configurations. In this study, we observed such configurations in immiscible, bi-metallic Ag-Cu NPs by scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and noticed a marked difference in the shape of NPs belonging to Ag- and Cu-rich samples. We explained the formation of Janus or Ag@Cu core/shell metastable structures on the grounds of in-flight mixed NP coalescence. We utilised molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations to demonstrate that such configurations cannot occur as a result of nanoalloy segregation. Instead, sintering at relatively low temperatures can give rise to metastable structures, which eventually can be stabilised by subsequent quenching. Furthermore, we compared the heteroepitaxial diffusivities along various surfaces of both Ag and Cu NPs, and emphasised the differences between the sintering mechanisms of Ag- and Cu-rich NP compositions: small Cu NPs deform as coherent objects on large Ag NPs, whereas small Ag NPs dissolve into large Cu NPs, with their atoms diffusing along specific directions. Taking advantage of this observation, we propose controlled NP coalescence as a method to engineer mixed NPs of a unique, patterned core@partial-shell structure, which we refer to as a "glass-float" (ukidama) structure.

  6. Ag-doped manganite nanoparticles: new materials for temperature-controlled medical hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, O V; Gorbenko, O Yu; Markelova, M N; Kaul, A R; Atsarkin, V A; Demidov, V V; Soto, C; Roy, E J; Odintsov, B M

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to introduce newly synthesized nanomaterials as an alternative to superparamagnetic ironoxide based particles (SPIO) and thus to launch a new platform for highly controllable hyperthermia cancer therapy and imaging. The new material that forms the basis for this article is lanthanum manganite particles with silver ions inserted into the perovskite lattice: La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta). Adjusting the silver doping level, it is possible to control the Curie temperature (T(c)) in the hyperthermia range of interest (41-44 degrees C). A new class of nanoparticles based on silver-doped manganites La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta) is suggested. New nanoparticles are stable, and their properties were not affected by the typical ambient conditions in the living tissue. It is possible to monitor the particle uptake and retention by MRI. When these particles are placed into an alternating magnetic field, their temperature increases to the definite value near T(c) and then remains constant if the magnetic field is maintained. During the hyperthermia procedure, the temperature can be restricted, thereby preventing the necrosis of normal tissue. A new class of nanoparticles based on silver-doped manganites La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta) was suggested. Ag-doped perovskite manganites particles clearly demonstrated the effect of adjustable Curie temperature necessary for highly controllable cellular hyperthermia. The magnetic relaxation properties of the particles are comparable with that of SPIO, and so we were able to monitor the particle movement and retention by MRI. Thus, the new material combines the MRI contrast enhancement capability with targeted hyperthermia treatment.

  7. Embedment of nano-sized Ag layer into Ag-doped In2O3 films for use as highly transparent and conductive anode in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Han-Ki

    2015-08-01

    By inserting a nano-sized Ag layer between bottom Ag-doped In2O3 (AIO) and a top AIO layer, we were able to control the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of AIO films for application in organic solar cells (OSCs) as a transparent electrode. To optimize the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer, we investigated the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties of the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer as a function of Ag interlayer thickness with a constant bottom and top AIO thickness of 35 nm. The optimized AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer showed a much lower resistivity of 3.988 × 10-5 Ω cm and a higher optical transmittance of 84.79% than the values (4.625 × 10-4 Ω cm and 78.36%) of the single AIO film, due to the high conductivity of the metallic Ag layer and the antireflection effect of the symmetric AIO/Ag/AIO structure. In addition, we investigated the performances of OSCs with AIO/Ag/AIO electrodes as a function of Ag interlayer thickness to determine the optimal Ag thickness to produce a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs. Based on the PCE of the OSCs, we correlated the performance of the OSCs with the Ag interlayer thickness in the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer and suggested a possible mechanism to explain the dependency of PCE on Ag thickness in AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer electrodes.

  8. A chip-calorimetric approach to the analysis of Ag nanoparticle caused inhibition and inactivation of beads-grown bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Tom; Mühling, Martin; Wolf, Antje; Mariana, Frida; Maskow, Thomas; Mertens, Florian; Neu, Thomas R; Lerchner, Johannes

    2013-11-01

    With the increasing complexity of model systems for the investigation of antibacterial effects of nanoparticles, the demands on appropriate analysis methods are rising. In case of biofilms grown on small particles, the high inhomogeneity of the samples represents a major challenge for traditional biofilm analysis. For this purpose, we developed a new calorimetric method which allows non-invasive and real-time investigation of the effects of nanoparticles on beads-grown biofilms which meets the requirements for an increased sample throughput. The method employs a newly developed chip calorimeter that is able to detect changes in the metabolic activity of biofilm samples within minutes. Using this novel device, the antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles on Pseudomonas putida biofilms grown on agarose beads was investigated. The superparamagnetic properties of the embedded particles within the agarose beads allow an automated sample throughput. Growth inhibition and inactivation effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on biofilm bacteria were quantified by analyzing the metabolic heat production rate. As a result, a concentration dependent manner of growth inhibition and inactivation was found demonstrating the suitability and sensitivity of the methodology.

  9. Influence of temperature and precursor concentration on the synthesis of HDA-capped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mlambo, M.; Moloto, M.J.; Moloto, N.; Mdluli, P.S.

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: The temperature effect on the growth and size of silver selenide nanoparticles with the size distribution and XRD patterns. Highlights: ► The HDA-capped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles were synthesized via the colloidal route. ► Temperature and monomer concentration of the reaction were varied. ► The concentration as a factor influenced particles with a decrease observed as the amount of Ag{sup +} ion source is increased. ► Temperature has expected influence on the growth of particles resulting in increase as the temperature is increased. ► TEM images shows spherical particles and their orthorhombic phase from structural analysis by XRD. - Abstract: The size dependent of temperature and precursor concentration on the synthesis of hexadecylamine capped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles via the colloidal route were studied using the combination of optical and structural analysis. The as-prepared Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles showed the quantum confinement with all the obtained absorption band edges blue-shifted from the bulk and their corresponding emission maxima displaying a red-shift from band edges characterised by UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The particle sizes were obtained from transmission electron microscopy analysis. The increase in precursor concentration resulted in a decrease in nanoparticle sizes. The increase in reaction temperature showed an increase in the nanoparticle sizes, when the critical temperature at 160 °C was reached, the nanoparticle sizes decreased.

  10. Effects of soil and dietary exposures to Ag nanoparticles and AgNO₃ in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Ag-NPs and AgNO3 on the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were determined upon soil and dietary exposures. Isopods avoided Ag in soil, with EC50 values of ∼16.0 and 14.0 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Feeding inhibition tests in soil showed EC50s for effects on consumption ratio of 127 and 56.7 mg Ag/kg, respectively. Although similar EC50s for effects on biomass were observed for nanoparticulate and ionic Ag (114 and 120 mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively), at higher concentrations greater biomass loss was found for AgNO3. Upon dietary exposure, AgNO3 was more toxic, with EC50 for effects on biomass change being >1500 and 233 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. The difference in toxicity between Ag-NPs and AgNO3 could not be explained from Ag body concentrations. This suggests that the relation between toxicity and bioavailability of Ag-NPs differs from that of ionic Ag in soils.

  11. Embedding MnO nanoparticles in robust carbon microsheets for excellent lithium storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlei; Chen, Ning; Pan, Qinmin

    2015-12-01

    MnO is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but a big challenge remains in impeding its structural and kinetic deterioration in the lithiation/delithiation process. In this study, we report that the structural integrity and electrochemical kinetics of MnO electrodes can be significantly enhanced by homogenously embedding MnO nanoparticles in robust carbon microsheets. The MnO/C microsheets were synthesized by sintering polyurethane (PU) sponge grafted with manganese polyacrylate at 800 °C. At a current density of 100 mA g-1, the resulting microsheets delivered a high reversible capacity of 797.6 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. They also exhibited good cycling stability and rate capability of 323.2 mAh g-1 at 2000 mA g-1, showing one of the best lithium storage properties among the reported MnO anodes. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the buffering, confining and conducting effects of robust carbon microsheets on MnO nanoparticles. These synergistic effects allow the hybrid microsheets to keep good structural integrity, high electronic conduction, and fast electrochemical kinetics in the cycling process. Our findings offer an alternative strategy to address the structural and kinetic issues of a MnO anode in the lithiation/delithiation process, which might be extendable to other electrode materials of LIBs.

  12. Polymeric nanoparticles-embedded organogel for roxithromycin delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Główka, Eliza; Wosicka-Frąckowiak, Hanna; Hyla, Kinga; Stefanowska, Justyna; Jastrzębska, Katarzyna; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil; Cal, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Drug delivery into hair follicles with the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is gaining more importance as drug-loaded NPs may accumulate in hair follicle openings. The aim was to develop and evaluate a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) with roxithromycin (ROX)-loaded NPs for follicular targeting. Polymeric NPs were evaluated in terms of particle shape, size, zeta potential, suspension stability, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Lyophilized NPs were incorporated into the PLO and rheological measurements of the nanoparticles-embedded organogels were done. The fate of the NPs in the skin was traced by incorporation of a fluorescent dye into the NPs. As a result, ROX was efficiently incorporated into polymeric NPs characterized by the appropriate size (approximately 300 nm) allowing drug delivery to hair follicles. In ex vivo human skin penetration studies, horizontal skin sections revealed fluorescence deep in the hair follicles. Although the organogel has higher affinity to the lipidic follicular area than an aqueous suspension of NPs, it did not seem to improve penetration of the NPs along the hair shaft. The results proved that it was possible to achieve preferential targeting to the pilosebaceous unit using polymeric NPs formulated either into the aqueous suspension or semisolid topical formulation.

  13. Room-temperature embedment of anatase titania nanoparticles into porous cellulose aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yue; Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a facile easy method for room-temperature embedment of anatase titania (TiO2) nanoparticles into porous cellulose aerogels was reported. The obtained anatase TiO2/cellulose (ATC) aerogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that high-purity anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 3.69 ± 0.77 nm were evenly dispersed in the cellulose aerogels, which leaded to the significant improvement in specific surface area and pore volume of ATC aerogels. Meanwhile, the hybrid ATC aerogels also had a high loading content of TiO2 (ca. 17.7 %). Furthermore, through a simple photocatalytic degradation test of indigo carmine dye under UV light, ATC aerogels exhibited superior photocatalytic activity and shape stability, which might be useful in some fields like governance of water pollution, and chemical leaks.

  14. ZnO nanoparticles embedded in UVM-7-like mesoporous silica materials: Synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskouri, Jamal El; Dallali, Lobna; Fernández, Lorenzo; Garro, Nuría; Jaziri, Sihem; Latorre, Julio; Guillem, Carmen; Beltrán, Aurelio; Beltrán, Daniel; Amorós, Pedro

    2009-11-01

    ZnO nanodomains embedded in bimodal mesoporous silica (UVM-7) materials with high Zn content (4≤Si/Zn≤30) have been synthesized by an one-pot surfactant-assisted procedure from a hydro alcoholic medium using a cationic surfactant (CTMABr=cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) as structural directing agent, and starting from molecular atrane complexes of Zn and Si as hydrolytic inorganic precursors. This chemical procedure allows optimizing the dispersion of the ZnO particles in the silica walls. The bimodal mesoporous nature of the final high surface area nano-sized materials is confirmed by XRD, TEM, and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The small intra-particle mesopore system is due to the supramolecular templating effect of the surfactant, while the large pores have their origin in the packing voids generated by aggregation of the primary nanometric mesoporous particles. A limited pore blocking and a high accessibility to the ZnO active nanoparticles have been achieved. The effects induced by the progressive incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into the mesostructure have been examined, including a careful optical spectroscopic study (PL and UV-visible).

  15. Laser-material interaction during atom probe tomography of oxides with embedded metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Shinde, D.; Arnoldi, L.; Devaraj, A.; Vella, A.

    2016-10-28

    Oxide-supported metal nano-particles are of great interest in catalysis but also in the development of new large-spectrum-absorption materials. The design of such nano materials requires three-dimensional characterization with a high spatial resolution and elemental selectivity. The laser assisted Atom Probe Tomography (La-APT) presents both these capacities if an accurate understanding of laser-material interaction is developed. In this paper, we focus on the fundamental physics of field evaporation as a function of sample geometry, laser power, and DC electric field for Au nanoparticles embedded in MgO. By understanding the laser-material interaction through experiments and a theoretical model of heat diffusion inside the sample after the interaction with laser pulse, we point out the physical origin of the noise and determine the conditions to reduce it by more than one order of magnitude, improving the sensitivity of the La-APT for metal-dielectric composites. Published by AIP Publishing.

  16. A facile and green strategy for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using aerial parts of R. hypocrateriformis extract and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Godipurge, S S; Yallappa, S; Biradar, Naveen J; Biradar, J S; Dhananjaya, B L; Hegde, Gajanan; Jagadish, K; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2016-12-01

    A facile and green strategy is reported here to synthesize gold (Au), silver (Ag) and gold-silver (Au-Ag) alloy nanoparticles (NPs) through bio-reduction reactions of aqueous corresponding metal precursors mediated by extracts of aerial parts of R. hypocrateriformis, which act as both reducing and stabilizing agents, under microwave irradiation. UV-vis spectrophotometer, XRD, FT-IR, FESEM/TEM, TGA and EDAX analysis were used to characterize the obtained NPs. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance peak observed at λmax=∼550, 450 and 500nm for Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy NPs respectively. XRD pattern revealed that fcc structure, while FT-IR spectra signify the presence of phytochemicals adsorbed on NPs. Such a biofunctionalized NPs were characterized by their weight loss, 30% due to thermal degradation of plant phytochemicals observed in TG analysis. The spherical shape of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy NPs (∼10-50nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images. EDAX analysis confirms the expected elemental composition. Moreover, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, though it is more pronounced for Au-Ag alloy NPs, which is due to the combining effect of phytochemicals, Au and Ag metals. Thus, the biosynthesized NPs could be applied as effective growth inhibitors for various biomedical applications.

  17. W 18O 49 nanorods decorated with Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as highly-sensitive gas-sensing material and visible-light-driven photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Dong, Lihua; Zhang, Yidong; Li, Zhenjiang; Qiu, Yanyan

    2011-08-01

    A novel gas-sensing material and photocatalyst was successfully obtained by decorating Ag/AgCl nanoparticles on the W 18O 49 nanorods through a clean photochemical route. The as-prepared samples were characterized using combined techniques of X-ray diffractometry, electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Gas-sensing measurements indicate that the Ag/AgCl/W 18O 49 NRs sensors exhibit superior reducing gas-sensing properties to those of bare W 18O 49 NRs, and they are highly selective and sensitive to NH 3, acetone, and H 2S with short response and recovery times. The Ag/AgCl/W 18O 49 NRs photocatlysts also possess higher photocatalytic performance than bare W 18O 49 NRs for degradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight irradiation. Possible mechanisms concerning the enhancement of gas-sensing and photocatalytic activities of the Ag/AgCl/W 18O 49 NRs composite were proposed.

  18. An ultrasensitive, uniform and large-area surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate based on Ag or Ag/Au nanoparticles decorated Si nanocone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P. P.; Gao, J.; Sun, X. H.

    2015-01-01

    Large-area and highly ordered Si nanocone arrays decorated with Ag or Au/Ag nanoparticles have been fabricated via a mask-free lithography with reaction ion etching, followed by metal deposition process. Ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering signals with an enhancement factor of 1012 were achieved even at the concentration of the Rhodamine 6G as low as 10-15 M. The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate was also applied on the detection of Sudan I dye and the Raman signals were substantially enhanced as well. The stability of the SERS substrate can be significantly improved by covering Ag nanoparticles with Au thin layer, which maintain a high SERS performance even after one month storage. This nanofabrication process appears to be a feasible approach to prepare uniform and reproducible SERS-active substrates with high sensitivity and stability for practical SERS applications.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and 3D-FDTD simulation of Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles for shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Uzayisenga, Viviane; Lin, Xiao-Dong; Li, Li-Mei; Anema, Jason R; Yang, Zhi-Lin; Huang, Yi-Fan; Lin, Hai-Xin; Li, Song-Bo; Li, Jian-Feng; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2012-06-19

    Au-seed Ag-growth nanoparticles of controllable diameter (50-100 nm), and having an ultrathin SiO(2) shell of controllable thickness (2-3 nm), were prepared for shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). Their morphological, optical, and material properties were characterized; and their potential for use as a versatile Raman signal amplifier was investigated experimentally using pyridine as a probe molecule and theoretically by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method. We show that a SiO(2) shell as thin as 2 nm can be synthesized pinhole-free on the Ag surface of a nanoparticle, which then becomes the core. The dielectric SiO(2) shell serves to isolate the Raman-signal enhancing core and prevent it from interfering with the system under study. The SiO(2) shell also hinders oxidation of the Ag surface and nanoparticle aggregation. It significantly improves the stability and reproducibility of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal intensity, which is essential for SERS applications. Our 3D-FDTD simulations show that Ag-core SHINERS nanoparticles yield at least 2 orders of magnitude greater enhancement than Au-core ones when excited with green light on a smooth Ag surface, and thus add to the versatility of our SHINERS method.

  20. Selective turn-on fluorescence sensor for Ag+ using cysteamine capped CdS quantum dots: determination of free Ag+ in silver nanoparticles solution.

    PubMed

    Khantaw, Thitima; Boonmee, Chanida; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2013-10-15

    Cadmium sulfide quantum dots capped with cysteamine (Cys-CdS QDs) were demonstrated as a selective fluorescence probe for sensing of free trace silver ions. The fluorescence intensity of the Cys-CdS QDs can be enhanced only in the presence of free Ag(+) and the fluorescence spectrum was slightly red shift from the original spectra. In addition, the fluorescence intensities were linearly increased upon increasing Ag(+) concentration. At the optimized condition for Ag(+) detection, when adding other metal ions to the Cys-CdS QDs solution, fluorescence spectra of Cys-CdS QDs did not change significantly revealing good selectivity of the sensors towards Ag(+). The working linear concentration range was found to be 0.1-1.5 µM with LOD of 68 nM. The proposed sensor was then applied to detect free Ag(+) in the silver nanoparticles solution. The results showed that the proposed sensor can be efficiently used with good accuracy and precision providing the simple method for detection of free Ag(+) in silver nanoparticles of quality control products.

  1. Ag nanoparticle mediated growth of CdS nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, K.; Nuwad, J.; Thinaharan, C.; Dey, G. K.; Pillai, C. G. S.

    2007-06-01

    Catalytic growth of CdS have been carried out on large scale by evaporation of bulk CdS on Ag deposited Si (1 1 1) at atmospheric pressure. The as prepared CdS had wurtzite structure as evidenced by X-ray diffraction. The nanostructures were beltlike with several tens of micrometers length, several micrometers width and few nanometers to tens of nanometers thick as seen by scanning electron microscope and confirmed by TEM studies. The nanobelts were single crystalline in nature and showed reflection corresponding to (1 1 2) and (0 0 2) planes in SAED. The PL studies revealed the green band due to band gap emission and red band due to emission from the surface states. The higher intensity of the defect emission indicated the presence of considerable concentration of surface defects in the as prepared sample. The deposition of CdS could be explained on the basis of catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-solid mechanism.

  2. Potential of bismuth nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix for spectral-selective thermo-optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez de Castro, M.; Cabello, F.; Toudert, J.; Serna, R.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.

    2014-09-01

    The optical transmission at a fixed visible wavelength of Bi nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric is known to show a sharp hysteretic evolution as a function of the temperature due to the reversible melting-solidification of the nanoparticles. In this work, we explore the temperature-dependent optical response of Bi nanoparticles embedded in a doped germanate glass (GeO2-Al2O3-Na2O) in a broad range from the visible to the near infrared. The transmission contrast induced by melting of the nanoparticles is shown to be strongly wavelength-dependent and evolves from positive to negative as the wavelength increases. This behaviour is well modelled using effective medium calculations, assuming that the nanoparticles size, shape, and distribution are unmodified upon melting, while their dielectric function turns from that of solid Bi to that of liquid Bi thus modifying markedly their optical response. These results open a route to the spectral tailoring of the thermo-optical response of Bi nanoparticles-based materials, which can be profitable for the engineering of wavelength-selective thermo-optical modulators and filters with optimized amplitude of modulation and wavelength dependence.

  3. Ag Nanoparticles-Modified 3D Graphene Foam for Binder-Free Electrodes of Electrochemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tao; Jin, Jianli; Wang, Congxu; Sun, Youyi; Zhang, Yinghe; Liu, Yaqing

    2017-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles-modified 3D graphene foam was synthesized through a one-step in-situ approach and then directly applied as the electrode of an electrochemical sensor. The composite foam electrode exhibited electrocatalytic activity towards Hg(II) oxidation with high limit of detection and sensitivity of 0.11 µM and 8.0 µA/µM, respectively. Moreover, the composite foam electrode for the sensor exhibited high cycling stability, long-term durability and reproducibility. These results were attributed to the unique porous structure of the composite foam electrode, which enabled the surface of Ag nanoparticles modified reduced graphene oxide (Ag NPs modified rGO) foam to become highly accessible to the metal ion and provided more void volume for the reaction with metal ion. This work not only proved that the composite foam has great potential application in heavy metal ions sensors, but also provided a facile method of gram scale synthesis 3D electrode materials based on rGO foam and other electrical active materials for various applications. PMID:28336878

  4. Ag Nanoparticles-Modified 3D Graphene Foam for Binder-Free Electrodes of Electrochemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Han, Tao; Jin, Jianli; Wang, Congxu; Sun, Youyi; Zhang, Yinghe; Liu, Yaqing

    2017-02-16

    Ag nanoparticles-modified 3D graphene foam was synthesized through a one-step in-situ approach and then directly applied as the electrode of an electrochemical sensor. The composite foam electrode exhibited electrocatalytic activity towards Hg(II) oxidation with high limit of detection and sensitivity of 0.11 μM and 8.0 μA/μM, respectively. Moreover, the composite foam electrode for the sensor exhibited high cycling stability, long-term durability and reproducibility. These results were attributed to the unique porous structure of the composite foam electrode, which enabled the surface of Ag nanoparticles modified reduced graphene oxide (Ag NPs modified rGO) foam to become highly accessible to the metal ion and provided more void volume for the reaction with metal ion. This work not only proved that the composite foam has great potential application in heavy metal ions sensors, but also provided a facile method of gram scale synthesis 3D electrode materials based on rGO foam and other electrical active materials for various applications.

  5. Role of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Carmen; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel Alejandro; Salazar-García, Samuel; Ali, Syed F

    2016-03-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, the use and applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have increased, both in consumer products as well as in medical devices. However, little is known about the effects of these nanoparticles on human health, more specific in the cardiovascular system, since this system represents an important route of action in terms of distribution, bioaccumulation and bioavailability of the different circulating substances in the bloodstream. A collection of studies have addressed the effects and applications of different kinds of AgNPs (shaped, sized, coated and functionalized) in several components of the cardiovascular system, such as endothelial cells, isolated vessels and organs as well as integrative animal models, trying to identify the underlying mechanisms involved in their actions, to understand their implication in the field of biomedicine. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the most relevant studies to date of AgNPs effects in the cardiovascular system and provide a broader picture of the potential toxic effects and exposure risks, which in turn will allow pointing out the directions of further research as well as new applications of these versatile nanomaterials.

  6. Autocatalytic synthesis of multifunctional precursors for fabricating silica microspheres with well-dispersed Ag and Co3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linxu; Cui, Fang; Zhang, Jiajia; Hao, Yanjun; Wang, Yan; Cui, Tieyu

    2017-01-05

    Herein, an autocatalytic route to fabricate dual metal ion-equipped organic/inorganic hybrid silica, an ideal precursor for multifunctional silica-based composites integrated with well-dispersed Ag and Co3O4 nanoparticles was demonstrated. Significantly, by rational selection of reactants, such dual metal ion-equipped organic/inorganic hybrid silica can be synthesized through successive spontaneous reactions under near neutral conditions without an additional catalyst. Both the Ag(+) and Co(2+) ions are introduced into silica by chemical bonds, which favor the formation of small-sized and well-dispersed Ag and Co3O4 nanoparticles without aggregation in the entire silica matrix. After calcination, multifunctional silica composites equipped with well-dispersed Ag and Co3O4 nanoparticles were obtained. The as-obtained silica composites, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), have a spherical morphology and smooth surface. TEM tests also reveal the well dispersed fashion of Ag and Co3O4 nanoparticles. In addition, the obtained Ag-Co3O4@SiO2 composites exhibit good catalytic performance in the reduction of methylene blue (MB) with NaBH4 as a reducing agent, and can be readily recycled by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic properties.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of AgI nanoparticles in β-CD/PAN nanofibers by electrospinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Haiou; Li, Chunping; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Liping; Huang, Yarong

    2013-04-01

    AgI nanoparticles/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite nanofibers film were prepared via a new route which combined electrospinning technology with the reaction of solid-liquid process. In this article, AgI nanoparticles were successfully prepared in β-CD/PAN nanofibers which contained different concentration β-CD by the new route. Firstly, the AgNO3-β-CD/PAN nanofibers were obtained via electrospinning method, then put the nanofibers into the solution of potassium iodide to prepare AgI-β-CD/PAN nanofibers. The morphology and structure of the composite nanofibers and nanoparticles have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electro microscopy (TEM). The existence of the AgI nanoparticles was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) patterns. The results of various characterizations indicated that the sample of AgI-β-CD (2 wt%)/PAN have the optimum morphology and structure.

  8. Biosynthesis of Cu, ZVI, and Ag nanoparticles using Dodonaea viscosa extract for antibacterial activity against human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiruba Daniel, S. C. G.; Vinothini, G.; Subramanian, N.; Nehru, K.; Sivakumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biosynthesis of copper, zero-valent iron (ZVI), and silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Dodonaea viscosa has been investigated in this report. There are no additional surfactants/polymers used as capping or reducing agents for these syntheses. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The phase analysis was performed using selected area electron diffraction. The pH dependence of surface plasmon resonance and subsequent size variation has been determined. The synthesized nanoparticles showed spherical morphology and the average size of 29, 27, and 16 nm for Cu, ZVI, and Ag nanoparticles, respectively. Finally, biosynthesized Cu, ZVI, and Ag nanoparticles were tested against human pathogens viz. Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and showed good antimicrobial activity.

  9. Determination of anthracene on Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles/overoxidized-polypyrrole composite modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mailu, Stephen N; Waryo, Tesfaye T; Ndangili, Peter M; Ngece, Fanelwa R; Baleg, Abd A; Baker, Priscilla G; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I

    2010-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of anthracene was prepared by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with over-oxidized polypyrrole (PPyox) and Ag-Au (1:3) bimetallic nanoparticles (Ag-AuNPs). The composite electrode (PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE) was prepared by potentiodynamic polymerization of pyrrole on GCE followed by its overoxidation in 0.1 M NaOH. Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were chemically prepared by the reduction of AgNO(3) and HAuCl(4) using C(6)H(5)O(7)Na(3) as the reducing agent as well as the capping agent and then immobilized on the surface of the PPyox/GCE. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy technique which confirmed the homogeneous formation of the bimetallic alloy nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were in the range of 20-50 nm. The electrochemical behaviour of anthracene at the PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE with Ag: Au atomic ratio 25:75 (1:3) exhibited a higher electrocatalytic effect compared to that observed when GCE was modified with each constituent of the composite (i.e., PPyox, Ag-AuNPs) and bare GCE. A linear relationship between anodic current and anthracene concentration was attained over the range of 3.0 × 10(-6) to 3.56 × 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 1.69 × 10(-7) M. The proposed method was simple, less time consuming and showed a high sensitivity.

  10. Systematic investigation of the SERS efficiency and SERS hotspots in gas-phase deposited Ag nanoparticle assemblies.

    PubMed

    He, L B; Wang, Y L; Xie, X; Han, M; Song, F Q; Wang, B J; Chen, W L; Xu, H X; Sun, L T

    2017-02-15

    Gas-phase deposited Ag nanoparticle assemblies are one of the most commonly used plasmonic substrates benefiting from their remarkable advantages such as clean particle surface, tunable particle density, available inter-particle gaps, low-cost and scalable fabrication, and excellent industry compatibility. However, their performance efficiencies are difficult to optimize due to the lack of knowledge of the hotspots inside their structures. We here report a design of delicate rainbow-like Ag nanoparticle assemblies, based on which the hotspots can be revealed through a combinatorial approach. The findings show that the hotspots in gas-phase deposited Ag nanoparticle assemblies are uniquely entangled by the excitation energy and specific inter-particle gaps, differing from the matching conditions in periodic arrays. For Ag nanoparticle assemblies deposited on Formvar-filmed substrates, the mean particle size is maintained around 10 nm, while the particle density can be widely tuned. The one possessing the highest SERS efficiency (under 473 nm excitation) have a particle number density of around 7100 μm(-2). Gaps with an inter-particle spacing of around 3 nm are found to serve as SERS hotspots, and these hotspots contribute to 68% of the overall SERS intensity. For Ag nanoparticle assemblies fabricated on carbon-filmed substrates, the mean particle size can be feasibly tuned. The one possessing the highest SERS efficiency under 473 nm excitation has a particle number density of around 460 μm(-2) and a mean particle size of around 42.1 nm. The construction of Ag-analyte-Ag sandwich-like nanoparticle assemblies by a two-step-deposition method slightly improves the SERS efficiency when the particle number density is low, but suppresses the SERS efficiency when the particle number density is high.

  11. Photo-bioreduction of Ag(+) ions towards the generation of multifunctional silver nanoparticles: Mechanistic perspective and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Jena, Satyapriya; Singh, Rohit Kumar; Panigrahi, Bijayananda; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Mandal, Dindyal

    2016-11-01

    In this article, light induced plant extract mediated one pot synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been demonstrated and potential mechanistic insight in the synthesis has been investigated. Bioactive molecules containing medicinal plant Cassytha filiformis has been explored for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques including Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Among different light sources (sunlight, room light, UV) applied the sunlight was found to be efficient external stimuli to induce rapid synthesis of AgNPs at room temperature. Modified DPPH assay indicated that polyphenolic compounds were most likely involved in the synthesis of AgNPs. Possible molecule responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs was identified, purified and characterized. Potential biomedical applications such as antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activities of AgNPs have been evaluated. Irrespective of nature of pathogenic strains nanoparticles exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram positive (Streptococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial pathogens. It showed higher activity on E. coli than on S. aureus. Distinct antifungal activity (MIC=5.244μg/ml) and remarkable anticancer activity (IC50=10μg/ml) was found against Candida albicans and HCT116 (colorectal carcinoma) cells, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggested that light induced plant generated silver nanoparticles could be used for various biomedical purposes.

  12. Spectral anion sensing and γ-radiation induced magnetic modifications of polyphenol generated Ag-nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Zarina; Dhara, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Bilwadal; Saha, Abhijit; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-03-01

    A fast one step bio-synthesis for in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles is proposed. The method involves reduction of AgNO3 with an aqueous extract of peanut skin, which is a good source of polyphenols. The silver nanoparticles thus synthesized were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Effect of low dose γ irradiation during the synthesis was studied and their physico-chemical properties were compared with those produced without irradiation. On the contrary to the diamagnetic behavior of bulk silver, the silver nanoparticles thus prepared show a significant ferromagnetic moment component. Variable time exposure to γ-irradiation results in an exponential decay of ferromagnetic component. A freshly prepared solution of silver nanoparticles shows selective spectral changes towards iodide ions at trace concentration (below 50 μM) among a series of 16 other competing anions. The prepared nanoparticles are therefore suitable for anion sensing application.

  13. Preparation of Novel Europium Complex Doped Ag@SiO2 Nanoparticles with Intense Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Yin, Dongguang; Song, Kailin; Yang, Juan Ou; Wang, Chengcheng; Wu, Minghong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new europium complex of 4,4'-bis (1",1",1",2",2",3",3"-heptafluoro-4",6"- hexanedion-6"-yl)-o-terpheny-Eu(3+)-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid-(3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (BHHT-Eu(3+)-DPPDA-APTMS) was prepared first. Then novel core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles with BHHT-Eu(3+)-DPPDA-APTMS doped in shell were synthesized by a facile water-in-oil microemulsion method. The properties of the prepared complex and nanoparticles, and the effect of metal enhanced fluorescence for the nanoparticles were investigated. The prepared nanopartilces exhibited intense fluorescence, uniform morphology and good water-solubility. The fluorescent intensities of silver core-present nanopartciles were significant higher than that of silver core-absent nanoparticles owing to the metal enhanced fluorescence of silver core. It is expectable that the as-prepared nanoparticles can serve as a potential fluorescent nanoprobe, applying in high sensitive biological and medical detections.

  14. Spectral anion sensing and γ-radiation induced magnetic modifications of polyphenol generated Ag-nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Zarina; Dhara, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Bilwadal; Saha, Abhijit; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-03-05

    A fast one step bio-synthesis for in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles is proposed. The method involves reduction of AgNO3 with an aqueous extract of peanut skin, which is a good source of polyphenols. The silver nanoparticles thus synthesized were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Effect of low dose γ irradiation during the synthesis was studied and their physico-chemical properties were compared with those produced without irradiation. On the contrary to the diamagnetic behavior of bulk silver, the silver nanoparticles thus prepared show a significant ferromagnetic moment component. Variable time exposure to γ-irradiation results in an exponential decay of ferromagnetic component. A freshly prepared solution of silver nanoparticles shows selective spectral changes towards iodide ions at trace concentration (below 50 μM) among a series of 16 other competing anions. The prepared nanoparticles are therefore suitable for anion sensing application.

  15. Single-pulse transformation of Ag thin film into nanoparticles via laser-induced dewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Yoonseok; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we show that Ag thin films deposited on glass can be transformed into nanoparticles by laser-induced dewetting using a nanosecond-pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The film could be completely dewetted by a single pulse and the pulse energy density required for a 10 nm-thick Ag film was 86 mJ/cm2 at λ = 1064 nm. This made it possible to dewet a film area of ∼10 cm2 by a single pulse with energy of 850 mJ. The produced particles exhibited a monomodal size distribution and the mean particle size increased as the initial film thickness increased. Repeated exposure to pulses induced no noticeable change in the particle size distribution. The initial film thickness was the only factor that determined the mean particle size. The absorption spectra of dewetted films were well consistent with the surface plasma resonance behaviors of metal nanoparticles. This process provides a facile and scalable method of forming metal nanoparticle arrays for plasmonic and other applications.

  16. Polymer Assisted Core-shell Ag-C nanoparticles Synthesis via Green hydrothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James; Mishra, Sanjay

    2009-03-01

    Core-Shell Ag-C nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of glucose through a one-pot green hydrothermal wet chemical process. An aqueous solution of glucose and Ag nitrate was hydrothermally treated to produce porous carbonaceous shell over silver core nanoparticles. The growth of carbon shells was regulated by either of the polymers (poly) vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) or poly vinyl alcohol (PVA). The two polymers were compared to take a measure of different tunable sizes of cores, and shells. The effects of hydrothermal temperature, time, and concentration of reagents on the final formation of nanostructures were studied using UV-vis extinction spectra, transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy. The polymer molecules were found to be incorporated into carbonaceous shell. The resulting opacity of the shell was found to be hydrothermal time and temperature dependent. The shell structure was found to be more uniform with PVP than PVA. Furthermore, the polymer concentration was found to influence size and shape of the core-silver particles as well. The core-shelled nanoparticles have surfaces with organic groups capable of assembling with different reagents that could be useful in drug-delivery, optical nanodevices or biochemistry.

  17. Assessing Pistia stratiotes for phytoremediation of silver nanoparticles and Ag(I) contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Hanks, Nicole A; Caruso, Joseph A; Zhang, Peng

    2015-12-01

    To study the phytoremediation capabilities of Pistia stratiotes in silver nanoparticle (AgNP) and silver ion contaminated wastewaters, individual plants were grown in media spiked with different concentrations of silver nanoparticle and silver ions (0.02, 0.2, and 2 mg L(-1)). Control experiments were carried out at the same time for comparison purposes. Visual changes in the plants were also recorded periodically during each experiment. Total silver concentrations were monitored in the media before, during, and at the termination of the experiments. In addition, analysis of total silver in plant root and leaf samples after termination were carried out to determine the effect of the different media concentrations. The results showed that P. stratiotes can survive in AgNP and ions under 0.02 mg L(-1) and contaminants are retained within the plant. The use of P. stratiotes as a phytoremediator shows potential in removing heavy metal nanoparticles and is competitive in its removal of the ion counterpart. Even higher concentrations of silver, regardless of form, can be reduced to lower levels than the World Health Organization's maximum contamination limit.

  18. Unaffected features of BSA stabilized Ag nanoparticles after storage and reconstitution in biological relevant media.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Laura E; Giacomelli, Carla E

    2015-08-01

    Silver-coated orthopedic implants and silver composite materials have been proposed to produce local biocidal activity at low dose to reduce post-surgery infection that remains one of the major contributions to the patient morbidity. This work presents the synthesis combined with the characterization, colloidal stability in biological relevant media, antimicrobial activity and handling properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) before and after freeze dry and storage. The nanomaterial was synthesized in aqueous solution with simple, reproducible and low-cost strategies using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the stabilizing agent. Ag-NP were characterized by means of the size distribution and morphology (UV-vis spectra, dynamic light scattering measurements and TEM images), charge as a function of the pH (zeta potential measurements) and colloidal stability in biological relevant media (UV-vis spectra and dynamic light scattering measurements). Further, the interactions between the protein and Ag-NP were evaluated by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and the antimicrobial activity was tested with two bacteria strains (namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) mainly present in the infections caused by implants and prosthesis in orthopedic surgery. Finally, the Ag-NP dispersed in aqueous solution were dried and stored as long-lasting powders that were easily reconstituted without losing their stability and antimicrobial properties. The proposed methods to stabilize Ag-NP not only produce stable dispersions in media of biological relevance but also long-lasting powders with optimal antimicrobial activity in the nanomolar range. This level is much lower than the cytotoxicity determined in vitro on osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. The synthesized Ag-NP can be incorporated as additive of biomaterials or pharmaceutical products to confer antimicrobial activity in a powdered form in different formulations, dispersed in

  19. Synthesis and thermal behavior of tin-based alloy (Sn-Ag-Cu) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshanghias, Ali; Yakymovych, Andriy; Bernardi, Johannes; Ipser, Herbert

    2015-03-01

    The prominent melting point depression of nanoparticles has been the subject of a considerable amount of research. For their promising applications in electronics, tin-based nano-alloys such as near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloys have been synthesized via various techniques. However, due to issues such as particle aggregation and oxidation or introduced impurities, the application of these nano-size particles has been confined or aborted. For instance, thermal investigations by DTA/DSC in a large number of studies revealed exothermic peaks in the range of 240-500 °C, i.e. above the melting point of SAC nanoparticles, with different and quite controversial explanations for this unclear phenomenon. This represents a considerable drawback for the application of nanoparticles. Correspondingly, in the current study, the thermal stability of SAC nanoparticles has been investigated via electron microscopy, XRD, FTIR, and DSC/TG analysis. It was found that the nanoparticles consist mainly of a metallic β-Sn core and an amorphous tin hydroxide shell structure. The SnO crystalline phase formation from this amorphous shell has been associated with the exothermic peaks on the first heating cycle of the nanoparticles, followed by a disproportionation reaction into metallic Sn and SnO2.The results also revealed that the surfactant and reducing agent cannot only affect the size and size distribution of the nanoparticles, they might also alter the ratio between the amorphous shell and the crystalline core in the structure of particles.The prominent melting point depression of nanoparticles has been the subject of a considerable amount of research. For their promising applications in electronics, tin-based nano-alloys such as near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloys have been synthesized via various techniques. However, due to issues such as particle aggregation and oxidation or introduced impurities, the application of these nano-size particles has been confined or aborted. For

  20. In situ assembly of well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) on electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNFs) for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Shao, Changlu; Zhang, Zhenyi; Zhang, Mingyi; Mu, Jingbo; Guo, Zengcai; Liu, Yichun

    2011-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers/silver nanoparticles (CNFs/AgNPs) composite nanofibers were fabricated by two steps consisting of the preparation of the CNFs by electrospinning and the hydrothermal growth of the AgNPs on the CNFs. The as-prepared nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, resonant Raman spectra, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that not only were AgNPs (25-50 nm) successfully grown on the CNFs but also the AgNPs were distributed without aggregation on the CNFs. Further more, by adjusting the parameters in hydrothermal processing, the content of silver supported on the CNFs could be easily controlled. The catalytic activities of the CNFs/AgNPs composite nanofibers to the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) with NaBH4 were tracked by UV-visible spectroscopy. It was suggested that the CNFs/AgNPs composite nanofibers exhibited high catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-NP, which might be attributed to the high surface areas of AgNPs and synergistic effect on delivery of electrons between CNFs and AgNPs. And, the catalytic efficiency was enhanced with the increasing of the content of silver on the CNFs/AgNPs composite nanofibers. Notably, the CNFs/AgNPs composite nanofibers could be easily recycled due to their one-dimensional nanostructural property.Carbon nanofibers/silver nanoparticles (CNFs/AgNPs) composite nanofibers were fabricated by two steps consisting of the preparation of the CNFs by electrospinning and the hydrothermal growth of the AgNPs on the CNFs. The as-prepared nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, resonant Raman spectra, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results

  1. Blood surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on Ag and Au nanoparticles for nasopharyngeal cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Duo; Ge, Xiaosong; Lin, Xueliang; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Rong

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare the utility of blood surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on Au or Ag nanoparticles (NPs), respectively, for detection of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). A rapid home-made Raman system was employed for SERS measurement, and high quality SERS spectra can be recorded from blood plasma samples belonging to 60 healthy volunteers and 100 NPC patients, using both metallic NPs. The spectral differences under Ag-SERS measurement between the normal and cancer groups are more significant than Au-SERS. Principal component analysis combined with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) was used for differentiating the two blood groups with a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 95%, respectively, using Ag-SERS method, which has almost a 20% improvement in diagnostic specificity in comparison to Au-SERS. This exploratory study demonstrates that blood SERS based on Ag NPs is capable of achieving a better diagnostic performance for NPC detection, and has promising potential for improving NPC screening.

  2. Homogeneous synthesis of Ag nanoparticles-doped water-soluble cellulose acetate for versatile applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jie; Sun, Xunwen; Zhang, Xinxing; Lu, Canhui

    2016-11-01

    We report a facile and efficient approach for synthesis of well-dispersed and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using water-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) as both reductant and stabilizer. Partially substituted CA with highly active hydroxyl groups and excellent water-solubility is able to reduce silver ions in homogeneous aqueous medium effectively. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope analysis. The as-prepared Ag NPs were well-dispersed, showing a surface plasmon resonance peak at 426nm. The resulted Ag NPs@CA nanohybrids exhibit high catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4. Meanwhile, the nanohybrids are also effective in inhibiting the growth of bacterial. This environmentally friendly method promotes the use of renewable natural resources to prepare a variety of inorganic-organic materials for catalysis, antibacterial, sensors and other applications.

  3. Microwave properties of La0.8Ag0.2MnO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostamnejadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    In this research, single-phase nanoparticles of La0.8Ag0.2MnO3 with mean particle size of 15 nm have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The microwave properties of La0.8Ag0.2MnO3/paraffin nanocomposite are studied by measuring the complex permittivity and permeability in the frequency range of 1-18 GHz. The composite shows both reflection and absorption electromagnetic shielding effectiveness with maximum total value of 36 dB, which is suitable for defense and microwave radiation shielding applications at high temperatures. The electromagnetic absorption properties are described in terms of dielectric relaxation processes.

  4. Influence of size, shape and core–shell interface on surface plasmon resonance in Ag and Ag@MgO nanoparticle films deposited on Si/SiOx

    PubMed Central

    Pinotti, Daniele; Spadaro, Maria Chiara; Paolicelli, Guido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Valeri, Sergio; Pasquali, Luca; Bergamini, Luca; Corni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ag and Ag@MgO core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of d = 3–10 nm were obtained by physical synthesis methods and deposited on Si with its native ultrathin oxide layer SiOx (Si/SiOx). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of bare Ag NPs revealed the presence of small NP aggregates caused by diffusion on the surface and agglomeration. Atomic resolution TEM gave evidence of the presence of crystalline multidomains in the NPs, which were due to aggregation and multitwinning occurring during NP growth in the nanocluster source. Co-deposition of Ag NPs and Mg atoms in an oxygen atmosphere gave rise to formation of a MgO shell matrix surrounding the Ag NPs. The behaviour of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) excitation in surface differential reflectivity (SDR) spectra with p-polarised light was investigated for bare Ag and Ag@MgO NPs. It was shown that the presence of MgO around the Ag NPs caused a red shift of the plasmon excitation, and served to preserve its existence after prolonged (five months) exposure to air, realizing the possibility of technological applications in plasmonic devices. The Ag NP and Ag@MgO NP film features in the SDR spectra could be reproduced by classical electrodynamics simulations by treating the NP-containing layer as an effective Maxwell Garnett medium. The simulations gave results in agreement with the experiments when accounting for the experimentally observed aggregation. PMID:25821680

  5. Montmorillonite-supported Ag/TiO(2) nanoparticles: an efficient visible-light bacteria photodegradation material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong-Shun; Wang, Kai-Xue; Li, Guo-Dong; Sun, Shi-Yang; Sun, Jian; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2010-02-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT)-supported Ag/TiO(2) composite (Ag/TiO(2)/MMT) has been prepared through a one-step, low-temperature solvothermal technique. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that the Ag particles coated with TiO(2) nanoparticles are well-dispersed on the surface of MMT in the composite. As a support for the Ag/TiO(2) composite, the MMT prevents the loss of the catalyst during recycling test. This Ag/TiO(2)/MMT composite exhibits high photocatalytic activity and good recycling performance in the degradation of E. coli under visible light. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity of the Ag/TiO(2)/MMT composite is ascribed to the increase in surface active centers and the localized surface plasmon effect of the Ag nanoparticles. The Ag/TiO(2)/MMT materials with excellent stability, recyclability, and bactericidal activities are promising photocatalysts for application in decontamination.

  6. The effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on proliferation and apoptosis of in ovo cultured glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbańska, Kaja; Pająk, Beata; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz; Sokołowska, Justyna; Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Szmidt, Maciej; Sysa, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    Recently, it has been shown that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) provide a unique approach to the treatment of tumors, especially those of neuroepithelial origin. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells cultured in an in ovo model. Human GBM cells, line U-87, were placed on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. After 8 days, the tumors were divided into three groups: control (non-treated), treated with colloidal AgNPs (40 μg/ml), and placebo (tumors supplemented with vehicle only). At the end of the experiment, all tumors were isolated. Assessment of cell proliferation and cell apoptosis was estimated by histological, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses. The results show that AgNPs can influence GBM growth. AgNPs inhibit proliferation of GBM cells and seem to have proapoptotic properties. Although there were statistically significant differences between control and AgNP groups in the AI and the levels of active caspase 9 and active caspase 3, the level of these proteins in GBM cells treated with AgNPs seems to be on the border between the spontaneous apoptosis and the induced. Our results indicate that the antiproliferative properties of silver nanoparticles overwhelm proapoptotic ones. Further research focused on the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on tumor and normal cells should be conducted.

  7. Electrochemical detection of Cu2+ through Ag nanoparticle assembly regulated by copper-catalyzed oxidation of cysteamine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Wu, Jie; Li, Jie; Ge, Yanqiu; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-05-15

    A highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor was developed for the detection of Cu(2+) by the assembly of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) at dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] encapsulated Au nanoparticles (DSP-AuNPs), which was regulated by copper-catalyzed oxidation of cysteamine (Cys). The electrochemical sensor was constructed by layer-by-layer modification of glassy carbon electrode with carbon nanotubes, poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and DSP-AuNPs. In the absence of Cu(2+), Cys could bind to the surface of citrate-stabilized AgNPs via Ag-S bond, thus AgNPs could be assembled on the sensor surface through the reaction between DSP and Cys. In contrast, the copper-catalyzed oxidation of Cys by dissolved oxygen in the presence of Cu(2+) inhibited the Cys-induced aggregation of AgNPs, leading to the decrease of the electrochemical stripping signal of AgNPs. Under the optimized conditions, this method could detect Cu(2+) in the range of 1.0-1000 nM with a detection limit of 0.48 nM. The proposed Cu(2+) sensor showed good reproducibility, stability and selectivity. It has been satisfactorily applied to determine Cu(2+) in water samples.

  8. W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanorods decorated with Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as highly-sensitive gas-sensing material and visible-light-driven photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Shibin; Chang Xueting; Dong Lihua; Zhang Yidong; Li Zhenjiang; Qiu Yanyan

    2011-08-15

    A novel gas-sensing material and photocatalyst was successfully obtained by decorating Ag/AgCl nanoparticles on the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanorods through a clean photochemical route. The as-prepared samples were characterized using combined techniques of X-ray diffractometry, electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Gas-sensing measurements indicate that the Ag/AgCl/W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs sensors exhibit superior reducing gas-sensing properties to those of bare W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs, and they are highly selective and sensitive to NH{sub 3}, acetone, and H{sub 2}S with short response and recovery times. The Ag/AgCl/W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs photocatlysts also possess higher photocatalytic performance than bare W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs for degradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight irradiation. Possible mechanisms concerning the enhancement of gas-sensing and photocatalytic activities of the Ag/AgCl/W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs composite were proposed. - Graphical Abstract: The Ag/AgCl nanoparticles adhered well to the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanorod. The Ag could act as transfer center of the photoexcited carriers, prohibiting their recombinations in both W{sub 18}O{sub 49} and AgCl. Highlights: > Ag/AgCl/W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs were successfully obtained via a clean photochemical route. > The Ag/AgCl nanoparticles decorated on the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs possessed cladding structure. > The Ag/AgCl/W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs exhibited excellent gas-sensing and photocatalytic properties.

  9. Biotic and abiotic interactions in aquatic microcosms determine fate and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles. Part 1. Aggregation and dissolution.

    PubMed

    Unrine, Jason M; Colman, Benjamin P; Bone, Audrey J; Gondikas, Andreas P; Matson, Cole W

    2012-07-03

    To better understand their fate and toxicity in aquatic environments, we compared the aggregation and dissolution behavior of gum arabic (GA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in aquatic microcosms. There were four microcosm types: surface water; water and sediment; water and aquatic plants; or water, sediment, and aquatic plants. Dissolution and aggregation behavior of AgNPs were examined using ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dynamic and static laser light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plants released dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the water column either through active or passive processes in response to Ag exposure. This organic matter fraction readily bound Ag ions. The plant-derived DOM had the effect of stabilizing PVP-AgNPs as primary particles, but caused GA-AgNPs to be removed from the water column, likely by dissolution and binding of released Ag ions on sediment and plant surfaces. The destabilization of the GA-AgNPs also corresponded with X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy results which suggest that 22-28% of the particulate Ag was associated with thiols and 5-14% was present as oxides. The results highlight the potential complexities of nanomaterial behavior in response to biotic and abiotic modifications in ecosystems, and may help to explain differences in toxicity of Ag observed in realistic exposure media compared to simplified laboratory exposures.

  10. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic studies on the interaction between bovine serum albumin and Ag-nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Manping; Shi, Yarong; Chen, Huacai

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between bovine serum albumin(BSA) and Ag-nanoparticles was studied under a pH 7.4 buffer system by time-resolved fluorescence technique combined with the steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectrum. With Ag-nanoparticles, the BSA showed blue shift of fluorescence from 335nm to 332.5nm, accompanied by the fluorescence intensity decreasing. When adding the Ag-nanoparticles to the three fluorescent amino acids tryptophan(Trp), tyrosine(Tyr)and phenylalanine(Phe), only Trp displayed peak shift which from 346.5nm to 341nm. Strong interaction between BSA and the Ag-nanoparticles may come from Trp residue. Time-resolved fluorescence gave that BSA had only one fluorescence lifetime around 6ns from 308 to 313K. When adding Ag-nanoparticles, two fluorescence lifetimes appeared. One is a little above than 6ns and the other is around 3ns. The two Trp residues in 134th and 212th position may give contribution to the changes of the fluorescence lifetime. The 134th Trp residue is probably protected by BSA molecule structure and basically don't contact with Ag-nanoparticles, which shows little change of fluorescence lifetime. The 212th Trp residue is likely the target of the Ag-nanoparticles. The Ag-nanoparticles changed the microenvironment of BSA around the 212th Trp residue and therefore increases the exposure of the 212th Trp and the 134th Trp .

  11. Effects of concentration of Ag nanoparticles on surface structure and in vitro biological responses of oxide layer on pure titanium via plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Ki Ryong; Kim, Yeon Sung; Kim, Gye Won; Yang, Hae Woong; Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Dong Hyuk

    2015-08-01

    This study was to investigate how Ag nanoparticles with various concentrations affect the surface structure and in vitro biological properties of oxide layers on the pure titanium produced by a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. For this aim, PEO processes were carried out at an AC current density of 100 mA/cm2 for 300 s in potassium pyrophosphate (K4P2O7) electrolytes containing 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 g/l Ag nanoparticles. Structural investigations using scanning electron microscopy evidenced that the oxide layers showed the successful incorporation of Ag nanoparticles, and the topographical deformation of the porous surface was found when the concentration of Ag nanoparticles was more than 0.1 g/l. Based on the anti-bacterial activity of all oxide layers, the Ag nanoparticles uniformly spread were of considerable importance in triggering the disinfection of E. coli bacteria. The bone forming abilities and cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation rates of oxide layers produced in electrolytes containing 0 and 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles were higher than those containing 0.3 and 0.5 g/l Ag nanoparticles. Consequently, the oxide layer on pure titanium via PEO process in the electrolyte with 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles exhibited better the bioactivity accompanying the anti-bacterial activity.

  12. Self-organization and photo-induced formation of cyanine dye aggregates on the plasmonic Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starovoytov, Anton A.; Nabiullina, Rezida D.; Toropov, Nikita A.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of hybrid film based on plasmon Ag nanoparticles of different size and cyanine dyes with different length of conjugation chain depending on the relative position of the plasmon resonance and the absorption of organic molecules were studied. The absorption spectra of the films revealed several molecular forms, such as all-trans- and cisisomers, dimers and J-aggregate, which also exist in pure organic films without Ag nanoparticles. It's shown that the absorption of aggregate bands increased after exposure by nanosecond laser on the hybrid films due to photo-induced additional self-organization of aggregates. In the presence of Ag nanoparticles, laser radiation leads to the change of molecular forms at a comparatively low threshold.

  13. Ag Nanoparticles-enhanced Fluorescence of Terbium-Deferasirox Complexes for the Highly Sensitive Determination of Deferasirox.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Naderali, Roza; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2016-01-01

    We describe the effect of different sized gold and silver nanoparticles on the terbium sensitized fluorescence of deferasirox. It is indicated that silver nanostructures, especially 18 nm Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs), have a remarkable amplifying effect compared to Au nanoparticles. Based on this observation, a highly sensitive and selective method was developed for the determination of deferasirox. Effects of various parameters like AgNPs and Tb(3+) concentration and pH of media were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, a calibration curve was plotted as the fluorescence intensities versus the concentration of deferasirox in the range of 0.1 to 200 nmol L(-1), and detection limit of 0.03 nmol L(-1) was obtained. The method has good linearity, recovery, reproducibility and sensitivity, and was satisfactorily applied for the determination of deferasirox in urine and pharmaceutical samples.

  14. AuAg bimetallic nonalloyed nanoparticles on a periodically nanostructured GaAs substrate for enhancing light trapping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Kyung; Tan, Chee Leong; Ju, Gun Wu; Song, Jae Hong; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2015-12-15

    We present a light trapping structure consisting of AuAg bimetallic nonalloyed nanoparticles (BNNPs) on cone-shaped GaAs subwavelength structures (SWSs), combining the advantages of plasmonic structures and SWSs for GaAs-based solar cell applications. To obtain efficient light trapping in solar cells, the optical properties' dependence on the size and composition of the Ag and Au metal nanoparticles was systematically investigated. Cone-shaped GaAs SWSs with AuAg BNNPs formed from an Au film of 12 nm and an Ag film of 10 nm exhibited the extremely low average reflectance (R(avg)) of 2.43% and the solar-weighted reflectance (SWR) of 2.38%, compared to that of a bare GaAs substrate (R(avg), 37.50%; SWR, 36.72%) in the wavelength range of 300 to 870 nm.

  15. Anchoring of Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide sheets for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hareesh, K.; Joshi, R. P.; D. V., Sunitha; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    One-step gamma radiation assisted method has been used for the synthesis of Silver-Gold (Ag-Au) alloy nanoparticles with simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide (GO). UV-vis spectroscopic results along with X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the decoration face centered cubic structured Ag-Au nanoparticles of size (5-19) nm on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The increase in disorder parameter in Raman spectroscopy indicates the formation of more number of small sp2 domains. The synthesized Ag-Au-rGO nanocomposite showed enhanced catalytic activity towards the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol compared to individual Ag-Au and rGO components.

  16. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar Boxi, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated •OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  17. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-26

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated (•)OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  18. Coating geometry of Ag, Ti, Co, Ni, and Al nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberio, M.; Stranges, F.; Xu, F.

    2015-04-01

    We present a morphology study on laser ablation produced metal nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on carbon nanotube (CNT) substrates. We analyzed the coating geometry and topography by processing AFM and SEM images. Our results show that Ag NPs aggregate together to form large agglomerates, that Ti NPs are well dispersed on the substrate surface forming a quasi-continuous layer, and that Co, Ni, and Al NPs coat quite uniformly CNTs and locally grow in a layer like fashion. We interpret the coating and clustering geometries in terms of cohesion, surface, and interfacial energies and diffusion barriers. Fractal analysis of composites morphology suggests the formation of structures with a smoother topography relative to pure carbon nanotubes for reactive metal nanoparticles.

  19. Antimicrobial effects of TiO(2) and Ag(2)O nanoparticles against drug-resistant bacteria and leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Malahat; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2011-08-01

    Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices and systems at atomic and molecular scales (1-100 nm), where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale. The use of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in medical research is growing rapidly. Recently, nanotechnologic developments in microbiology have gained importance in the field of chemotherapy. Bacterial strains that are resistant to current antibiotics have become serious public health problems that raise the need to develop new bactericidal materials. Metal oxide nanoparticles, especially TiO(2) and Ag(2)O nanoparticles, have demonstrated significant antibacterial activity. Therefore, it is thought that this property of metal oxide nanoparticles could effectively be used as a novel solution strategy. In this review, we focus on the unique properties of nanoparticles, their mechanism of action as antibacterial agents and recent studies in which the effects of visible and UV-light induced TiO(2) and Ag(2)O nanoparticles on drug-resistant bacteria have been documented. In addition, from to previous results of our studies, antileishmanial effects of metal oxide nanoparticles are also demonstrated, indicating that metal oxide nanoparticles can also be effective against eukaryotic infectious agents. Conversely, despite their significant potential in antimicrobial applications, the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles restricts their use in humans. However, recent studies infer that metal oxide nanoparticles have considerable potential to be the first-choice for antibacterial and antiparasitic applications in the future, provided that researchers can bring new ideas in order to cope with their main problem of toxicity.

  20. Internally dispersed synthesis of uniform silver nanoparticles via in situ reduction of [Ag(NH3)2]+ along natural microfibrillar substructures of cotton fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are known to have efficient antimicrobial properties, but the direct application of Ag NPs onto the surface of textiles has shown to be ineffective and raise environmental concerns because Ag NPs leach out during washing. In this study, non-leaching and stable Agcotton ...

  1. Nonlinear optical characterization of the Ag nanoparticles doped in polyvinyl alcohol films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanipour, Mahshad; Dorranian, Davoud

    2015-06-01

    The effect of silver nanoparticles doped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on the nonlinear optical properties of composite films is studied experimentally. Samples are PVA films of 0.14 mm thickness doped with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Nonlinear optical properties of doped polymer films are studied experimentally employing Z-scan techniques. Experiments are performed using the second harmonic of a continuous Nd-Yag laser beam at 532 nm wavelength and 45 mW power. The effect of nonlinear refractive index of samples is obtained by measuring the profile of propagated beam through the samples and their nonlinear refractive index is found to be negative. The nonlinear absorption coefficient is calculated using open aperture Z-scan data while its nonlinear refractive index is measured using the closed aperture Z-scan data, leads to measuring the third order susceptibility |χ(3)|. Real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility |χ(3)| are decrease with increasing the concentration of Ag nanoparticles in the films. The values of thermo-optic coefficient are determined at different concentrations of silver nanoparticles for samples.

  2. Microbial disinfection of water with endotoxin degradation by photocatalysis using Ag@TiO2 core shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    S, Sreeja; K, Vidya Shetty

    2016-09-01

    The studies on photocatalytic disinfection of water contaminated with Escherichia coli using Ag core and TiO2 shell (Ag@TiO2) nanoparticles under UV irradiation showed that these nanoparticles are very efficient in water disinfection both in their free and immobilised form. Complete disinfection of 40 × 10(8) CFU/mL could be achieved in 60 min with 0.4 g/L catalyst loading and in 35 min with 1 g/L catalyst loading. Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles were found to be superior to TiO2 nanoparticles in photocatalytic disinfection of water. Kinetics of disinfection followed Chick's law, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant was 0.0168 min(-1) for a catalyst loading of 0.1 g/L. Disinfection of water and degradation of endotoxins (harmful disinfection residual) occurred simultaneously during photocatalysis thereby making the treated water safe for use. Endotoxin degradation showed a shifting order of kinetics. The rate of photocatalysis with nanoparticles immobilised in cellulose acetate film was marginally lower as compared to that of free nanoparticles. Negligible Ag ion leakage and re-growth of cells post-photo-catalytic treatment of water confirmed that complete disintegration of E. coli occurred during photocatalysis making the treated water safe for use. Therefore, Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles have a potential for large-scale application in drinking water treatment plants and household purification units.

  3. Preparation and antibacterial activity of titanium nanotubes loaded with Ag nanoparticles in the dark and under the UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chanjuan; Feng, Bo; Li, Yiting; Tan, Jing; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Highly ordered anatase-type titanium nanotubes (TNTs) arrays were prepared on the surface of titanium by anodization and subsequently heat treatment at 450 °C for 5 h. Three different diameters of TNTs (50 nm, 75 nm, 100 nm) were fabricated via the voltage changed. Then Ag was loaded on these TNTs through a photo-reduction method of AgNO3 solution. Ag particles with the size of approximately 10 nm were uniformly distributed on the surface of TNTs. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and contact angle test. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activities of Ag-loaded TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs-Ag) were evaluated through antibacterial experiment against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the dark and under the UV light (λ = 365 nm) irradiation respectively. The results indicated that under the UV light TNTs-Ag had higher antibacterial activities to the two bacteria than TNTs, though the later also showed antibacterial ability. While in the dark environment, the loading of Ag nanoparticles largely enhanced the antibacterial activities of the titanium nanotubes. In addition, the antibacterial efficiencies of all samples increased with increase of nanotube diameters both in the dark and under the UV light. Therefore, TNTs loaded with Ag nanoparticles are expected to be well suited for endo-prosthetic applications due to their excellent antibacterial activities in the dark. And their antibacterial efficiencies can be controlled by adjusting diameters of TNTs, distribution and size of Ag nanoparticles.

  4. Carbon nanotube supported PdAg nanoparticles for electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Benipal, Neeva; Qi, Ji; Liu, Qi; ...

    2017-03-10

    Electro-oxidation of alcohol is the key reaction occurring at the anode of a direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC), in which both reaction kinetics (rate) and selectivity (to deep oxidation products) need improvement to obtain higher power density and fuel utilization for a more efficient DAFC. We recently found that a PdAg bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst is more efficient than Pd for alcohol oxidation: Pd can facilitate deprotonation of alcohol in a base electrolyte, while Ag can promote intermediate aldehyde oxidation and cleavage of C-single bondC bond of C3 species to C2 species. Furthermore, a combination of the two active sites (Pdmore » and Ag) with two different functions, can simultaneously improve the reaction rates and deeper oxidation products of alcohols. In this continuing work, Pd, Ag mono, and bimetallic nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (Ag/CNT, Pd/CNT, Pd1Ag1/CNT, and Pd1Ag3/CNT) were prepared using an aqueous-phase reduction method; they served as working catalysts for studying electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol in an anion-exchange membrane-based direct glycerol fuel cell. Combined XRD, TEM, and HAADF-STEM analyses performed to fully characterize as-prepared catalysts suggested that they have small particle sizes: 2.0 nm for Pd/CNT, 2.3 nm for PdAg/CNT, 2.4 nm for PdAg3/CNT, and 13.9 nm for Ag/CNT. XPS further shows that alloying with Ag results in more metal state Pd presented on the surface, and this may be related to their higher direct glycerol fuel cell (DGFC) performances. Single DGFC performance and product analysis results show that PdAg bimetallic nanoparticles can not only improve the glycerol reaction rate so that higher power output can be achieved, but also facilitate deep oxidation of glycerol so that a higher faradaic efficiency and fuel utilization can be achieved along with optimal reaction conditions (increased base-to-fuel ratio). Half-cell electrocatalytic activity measurement and single fuel cell product analysis

  5. Synthesis of ZnS:Ag,Co water-soluble blue afterglow nanoparticles and application in photodynamic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lun; Zou, Xiaoju; Hossu, Marius; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Silver and cobalt co-doped ZnS (ZnS:Ag,Co) water-soluble afterglow nanoparticles were synthesized using a wet chemistry method followed by aging at room temperature. The nanoparticles had a cubic zinc blende structure with average sizes of approximately 4 nm and emitted a blue fluorescence emission centered at 441 nm due to radiative transitions from surface defects to Ag+ luminescent centers. Intense afterglow emission peaking at 475 nm from the obtained nanoparticles was observed and was red-shifted compared to the fluorescence emission peak. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a large increase of O/S ratio, indicating a surface oxidation process during aging. The S vacancies produced accordingly may contribute to form more electron traps and enhance afterglow. The ZnS:Ag,Co afterglow nanoparticles have a very low dark-toxicity and are applied as a light source for photodynamic therapy activation by conjugating with protoporphyrin together. Our preliminary study has shown that the ZnS:Ag,Co afterglow nanoparticles can significantly reduce the x-ray dosage used in activation and thus may be a very promising candidate for future x-ray excited photodynamic therapy in deep cancer treatment.

  6. Impact of Ag nanoparticle exposure on p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation by Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) and Glycine max (soybean).

    PubMed

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto; Hawthorne, Joseph; Musante, Craig; Xing, Baoshan; Newman, Lee A; Ma, Xingmao; White, Jason C

    2013-01-15

    The effect of nanoparticle (NP), bulk, or ionic Ag exposure on dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; DDT metabolite) accumulation by Glycine max L. (soybean) and Cucurbita pepo L. (zucchini) was investigated. The plants were grown in 125-mL jars of vermiculite amended with 500 or 2000 mg/L of bulk or NP Ag; ion controls at 5 and 20 mg/L were established. During 19 d of growth, plants were amended with solution containing 100 ng/mL of p,p'-DDE. Total shoot p,p'-DDE levels in non-Ag exposed G. max and C. pepo were 500 and 970 ng, respectively; total root DDE content was 13,700 and 20,300 ng, respectively. Ag decreased the p,p'-DDE content of G. max tissues by up to 40%, with NP exposure resulting in less contaminant uptake than bulk Ag. Total Ag content of exposed G. max ranged from 50.5 to 373 μg; NP-exposed plants had 1.9-2.2 times greater overall Ag than corresponding bulk particle treatments and also significantly greater relative Ag transport to shoot tissues. Bulk and NP Ag at 500 mg/L suppressed DDE uptake by C. pepo by 21-29%, although Ag exposure at 2000 mg/L had no impact on contaminant uptake. Similar to G. max , C. pepo whole plant Ag content ranged from 50.5 to 182 μg, with tissue element content generally being greater for NP exposed plants. These findings show that the Ag may significantly alter the accumulation and translocation of cocontaminants in agricultural systems. Notably, the cocontaminant interactions vary both with Ag particle size (NP vs bulk) and plant species. Future investigations will be needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the cocontaminant interactions and assess the impact on overall exposure and risk.

  7. Surface-plasmon enhanced ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities in ellipsoidal gold nanoparticles embedded bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feifei; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Tiefeng; Shen, Xiang; Lin, Changgui; Nie, Qiuhua; Liu, Chao; Heo, Jong

    2011-09-01

    Ellipsoidal gold nanoparticles embedded bismuthate glasses have been prepared via a facile melt-annealing approach. Femtosecond Z-scan measurement shows that the nanocomposites exhibit a maximum third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of 4.88 × 10-10 esu at 800 nm, which is two orders higher than that of the host glass. Optical Kerr shutter measurement demonstrates ultrafast response time (in scale of sub-picosecond) of the intraband transition enhanced third-order nonlinearities.

  8. Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon for highly effective adsorption of rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lin; Cai, Ye; Yang, Guide; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Li, Sisi; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Sheng; Fang, Yan; He, Yibin

    2014-09-01

    Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Co/OMC), prepared through a simple method involving infusing and calcination, was used as a highly effective adsorbent for rhodamine B (Rh B) removal. Several techniques, including SEM, HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, Raman spectra, EDX, zeta potential and VSM measurement, were applied to characterize the adsorbent. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity of the resultant adsorbent was relatively high compared with raw ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and reached an equilibrium value of 468 mg/g at 200 mg/L initial Rh B concentration. Removal efficiency even reached 96% within 25 min at 100 mg/L initial Rh B concentration. Besides, the adsorption amount increased with the increase of solution pH, adsorbent dose and initial Rh B concentration. Kinetics study showed that the adsorption agreed well with pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.999) and had a significant correlation with intra-particle diffusion model in the both two adsorption periods. Furthermore, thermodynamics research indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The adsorption isotherms fitted well with Langmuir model, demonstrating the formation of mono-molecular layer on the surface of Co/OMC during adsorption process. The results confirmed that Co/OMC has the potential superiority in removal of Rh B from aqueous solution.