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Sample records for agage advanced global

  1. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R. F.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) is an ongoing research project, for which the work carried out by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Due to the need to complete AGAGE activities specifically funded under NAGW-2034 that had been delayed, a no-cost extension to this grant was obtained, creating an overlap period between the two grants. Because the AGAGE project is continuing, and a Final Project Report is required only because of the change in grant numbers, it is most appropriate to submit for this report the Introduction and Accomplishments sections which appear on pages 1-62 of the October 1998 AGAGE renewal proposal. A copy of the complete proposal is attached.

  2. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Kurylo, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We seek funding from NASA for the third year (2005) of the four-year period January 1, 2003 - December 31, 2006 for continued support of the MIT contributions to the multi-national global atmospheric trace species measurement program entitled Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE). The case for real-time high-frequency measurement networks like AGAGE is very strong and the observations and their interpretation are widely recognized for their importance to ozone depletion and climate change studies and to verification issues arising from the Montreal Protocol (ozone) and Kyoto Protocol (climate). The proposed AGAGE program is distinguished by its capability to measure over the globe at high frequency almost all of the important species in the Montreal Protocol and almost all of the significant non-CO2 gases in the Kyoto Protocol.

  3. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2001-01-01

    AGAGE comprises continuous high frequency in-situ gas chromatographic FID/ECD measurements of two biogenic/anthropogenic gases (CH4, N2O) and five anthropogenic gases (CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CH3CCl3, CF2ClCFCl2, CCl4) which are carried out at five globally distributed sites (Ireland, California, Barbados, Samoa, Tasmania). Also, high frequency in-situ gas-chromatographic mass spectrometric measurements of about 30 species including chlorofluorocarbon replacements and many natural halocarbons are made at two sites (Ireland, Tasmania), and will soon begin at the other three sites. Finally, high frequency in-situ gas chromatographic HgO-RD measurements of CO and H2 are performed at two sites (Ireland, Tasmania). The goal is quantitative determination of the sources, sinks, and circulation of these environmentally important gases.

  4. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE): MIT Contribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We describe in detail the instrumentation and calibrations used in the ALE, GAGE and AGAGE experiments and present a history of the majority of the anthropogenic ozone- depleting and climate-forcing gases in air based on these experiments. Beginning in 1978, these three successive automated high frequency in-situ experiments have documented the long-term behavior of the measured concentrations of these gases over the past twenty years, and show both the evolution of latitudinal gradients and the high frequency variability due to sources and circulation. We provide estimates of the long-term trends in total chlorine contained in long- lived halocarbons involved in ozone depletion. We summarize interpretations of these measurements using inverse methods to determine trace gas lifetimes and emissions. Finally, we provide a combined observational and modeled reconstruction of the evolution of chlorocarbons by latitude in the atmosphere over the past sixty years which can be used as boundary conditions for interpreting trapped air in glaciers and oceanic measurements of chlorocarbon tracers of the deep oceanic circulation. Some specific conclusions are: (a) International compliance with the Montreal Protocol is so far resulting in chlorofluorocarbon and chlorocarbon mole fractions comparable to target levels, (b) Mole fractions of total chlorine contained in long-lived halocarbons (CCl2F2, CCl3F, CH3CCl3, CCl4, CHClF2, CCl2FCClF2, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl2=CCl2) in the lower troposphere reached maximum values of about 3.6 ppb in 1993 and are beginning to slowly decrease in the global lower atmosphere, (c) The chlorofluorocarbons have atmospheric lifetimes consistent with destruction in the stratosphere being their principal removal mechanism, (d) Multi-annual variations in chlorofluorocarbon and chlorocarbon emissions deduced from ALUGAGWAGAGE data are consistent approximately with variations estimated independently from industrial production and sales data where

  5. Rapid growth of hydrofluorocarbon 134a and hydrochlorofluorocarbons 141b, 142b, and 22 from Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) observations at Cape Grim, Tasmania, and Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Doherty, S.; Cunnold, D. M.; Manning, A.; Miller, B. R.; Wang, R. H. J.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Simmonds, P. G.; McCulloch, A.; Weiss, R. F.; Salameh, P.; Porter, L. W.; Prinn, R. G.; Huang, J.; Sturrock, G.; Ryall, D.; Derwent, R. G.; Montzka, S. A.

    2004-03-01

    An update of in situ Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) measurements made at Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Grim, Tasmania, from 1998 to 2002 are reported. HCFC-142b, HCFC-141b, HCFC-22 and HFC-134a show continued rapid growth in the atmosphere at mean rates of 1.1, 1.6, 6.0, and 3.4 ppt/year, respectively. Emissions inferred from measurements are compared to recent estimates from consumption data. Minor updates to the industry estimates of emissions are reported together with a discussion of how to best determine OH concentrations from these trace gas measurements. In addition, AGAGE measurements and derived emissions are compared to those deduced from NOAA-Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory flask measurements (which are mostly made at different locations). European emission estimates obtained from Mace Head pollution events using the Nuclear Accident Model (NAME) dispersion model and the best fit algorithm (known as simulated annealing) are presented as 3-year rolling average emissions over Europe for the period 1999-2001. Finally, the measurements of HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, and HCFC-22 discussed in this paper have been combined with the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE)/Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (GAGE)/AGAGE measurements of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, and CH3CCl3 to produce the evolution of tropospheric chlorine loading.

  6. A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.; Fraser, P. J.; Simmonds, P. G.; Cunnold, D. M.; Alyea, F. N.; O'Doherty, S.; Salameh, P.; Miller, B. R.; Huang, J.; Wang, R. H. J.; Hartley, D. E.; Harth, C.; Steele, L. P.; Sturrock, G.; Midgley, P. M.; McCulloch, A.

    2000-07-01

    We describe in detail the instrumentation and calibrations used in the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE), the Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (GAGE), and the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and present a history of the majority of the anthropogenic ozone-depleting and climate-forcing gases in air based on these experiments. Beginning in 1978, these three successive automated high-frequency in situ experiments have documented the long-term behavior of the measured concentrations of these gases over the past 20 years, and show both the evolution of latitudinal gradients and the high-frequency variability due to sources and circulation. We provide estimates of the long-term trends in total chlorine contained in long-lived halocarbons involved in ozone depletion. We summarize interpretations of these measurements using inverse methods to determine trace gas lifetimes and emissions. Finally, we provide a combined observational and modeled reconstruction of the evolution of chlorocarbons by latitude in the atmosphere over the past 60 years which can be used as boundary conditions for interpreting trapped air in glaciers and oceanic measurements of chlorocarbon tracers of the deep oceanic circulation. Some specific conclusions are as follows: (1) International compliance with the Montreal Protocol is so far resulting in chlorofluorocarbon and chlorocarbon mole fractions comparable to target levels; (2) mole fractions of total chlorine contained in long-lived halocarbons (CCl2F2, CCl3F, CH3CCl3, CCl4, CHClF2, CCl2FCClF2, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl2=CCl2) in the lower troposphere reached maximum values of about 3.6 ppb in 1993 and are beginning to slowly decrease in the global lower atmosphere; (3) the chlorofluorocarbons have atmospheric lifetimes consistent with destruction in the stratosphere being their principal removal mechanism; (4) multiannual variations in chlorofluorocarbon and chlorocarbon emissions deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE data are

  7. Growth of HFC-143a (CH3CF3) determined from in-situ observation at AGAGE observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Doherty, Simon

    2010-05-01

    High frequency, in-situ observation from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and System for the Observation of Greenhouse Gases in Europe (SOGE) networks for the period 2004 to 2008 have been used to capture the rapid growth of the HFC-143a (CH3CF3) in the atmosphere. These measurements indicate that the atmospheric accumulation has increased considerably since the only other reported measurements by Culbertson et al. (2004) indicated levels of 2ppt in 1997. The growth rate was 1.1 ppt/year (13%/yr) in 2008. The mole fraction in the lower troposphere in 2008 is estimated to be 8.5 ppt. The rapid increase is the effect of the phaseout of the HCFC compounds under the Montreal Protocol and the increased usage of HFC-143a in mixtures for commercial refrigeration as its main application. The extensive observations have been combined with a range of modelling techniques to derive global and regional emission estimates in a top down approach, which can be compared to bottom up estimates of emissions based on production and consumption data. This independent verification of emissions is vital in assessing the effectiveness of international treaties such as the Kyoto protocol.

  8. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals. PMID:25276514

  9. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  10. Ag-Ag2S Hybrid Nanoprisms: Structural versus Plasmonic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Shahjamali, Mohammad M; Zhou, Yong; Zaraee, Negin; Xue, Can; Wu, Jinsong; Large, Nicolas; McGuirk, C Michael; Boey, Freddy; Dravid, Vinayak; Cui, Zhifeng; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-05-24

    Recently, Ag-Ag2S hybrid nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention due to their enhanced chemical and thermal stability, in addition to their morphology- and composition-dependent tunable local surface plasmon resonances. Although Ag-Ag2S nanostructures can be synthesized via sulfidation of as-prepared anisotropic Ag nanoparticles, this process is poorly understood, often leading to materials with anomalous compositions, sizes, and shapes and, consequently, optical properties. In this work, we use theory and experiment to investigate the structural and plasmonic evolution of Ag-Ag2S nanoprisms during the sulfidation of Ag precursors. The previously observed red-shifted extinction of the Ag-Ag2S hybrid nanoprism as sulfidation occurs contradicts theoretical predictions, indicating that the reaction does not just occur at the prism tips as previously speculated. Our experiments show that sulfidation can induce either blue or red shifts in the extinction of the dipole plasmon mode, depending on reaction conditions. By elucidating the correlation with the final structure and morphology of the synthesized Ag-Ag2S nanoprisms, we find that, depending on the reaction conditions, sulfidation occurs on the prism tips and/or the (111) surfaces, leading to a core(Ag)-anisotropic shell(Ag2S) prism nanostructure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the direction of the shift in the dipole plasmon is a function of the relative amounts of Ag2S at the prism tips and Ag2S shell thickness around the prism.

  11. Self-regulated route to ternary hybrid nanocrystals of Ag-Ag2S-CdS with near-infrared photoluminescence and enhanced photothermal conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guoxing; Bao, Chunlin; Liu, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaoping; Xi, Chunyan; Xu, Zheng; Ji, Zhenyuan

    2014-09-01

    Developing hybrid nanocrystals is a hot topic in materials science. Herein, a ternary hybrid nanocrystal, Ag-Ag2S-CdS, combining near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties was demonstrated. The ternary Ag-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanocrystals with cubic shape and uniform size were synthesized by a simple one-pot and one-step colloidal method. The growth process is self-regulated with the formation order of Ag2S, Ag, and CdS, sequentially. The formation of Ag originates from the partial reduction of Ag2S, while the formation of CdS is through an Ag2S catalytic mechanism based on its superionic feature. The obtained ternary hybrid nanocrystals show near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties in a lab-on-a-particle system. Importantly, an enhanced effect is observed for the photothermal conversion, which is mainly due to the presence of heterointerfaces among the crystals. This work will not only advance the synthesis chemistry of multi-component hybrid nanocrystals but also provide a possible route for the design of advanced multi-model materials used in bio-related fields.Developing hybrid nanocrystals is a hot topic in materials science. Herein, a ternary hybrid nanocrystal, Ag-Ag2S-CdS, combining near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties was demonstrated. The ternary Ag-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanocrystals with cubic shape and uniform size were synthesized by a simple one-pot and one-step colloidal method. The growth process is self-regulated with the formation order of Ag2S, Ag, and CdS, sequentially. The formation of Ag originates from the partial reduction of Ag2S, while the formation of CdS is through an Ag2S catalytic mechanism based on its superionic feature. The obtained ternary hybrid nanocrystals show near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties in a lab-on-a-particle system. Importantly, an enhanced effect is observed for the photothermal conversion, which is mainly due to the presence of

  12. Advances in Global Flood Forecasting Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielen-del Pozo, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Burek, P.; Alfieri, L.; Kreminski, B.; Muraro, D.

    2012-12-01

    -meteorological processes are not fully captured and calibration is necessary. Critical thresholds are computed from long-term simulations where the coupled HTESSEL/LISFLOOD model is driven with ERA-Interim data for a period of 21 years.From the longterm runs return periods are estimated against which each flood forecasts are compared. Results are displayed as maps and time series on a web-interface providing global overviews as well as local quantitative information. Major floods such as the ones in South East Asia in September-October 2010 in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam were well captured by the system: for the lower Mekong River, probabilistic forecasts from the global simulations on the 18th September 2011 showed a probability higher than 40% of exceeding the high alert level from 2nd-4th October, hence 14 days in advance. Collaborations exist between the EU and Brazil to further the system for Brazilian rivers. Next steps include further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations. calibration of the system with available data, and work on selected case studies for quantitative improvements.

  13. BiPO4 photocatalyst employing synergistic action of Ag/Ag3PO4 nanostructure and graphene nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaghegh, N.; Rahimi, E.

    2016-06-01

    Graphene-supported BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst has been fabricated by simple hydrothermal and impregnation reaction. In BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 based on Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO), this network renders numerous pathways for rapid mass transport, strong adsorption and multireflection of incident light; meanwhile, the interface between BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 and RGO increases the active sites and electron transfer rate. BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 based on RGO noticeably exhibited high photocatalytic activity than that of BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 and P25 under visible light irradiation for cationic dye (Rhodamine B), anionic dye (methyl orange) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) as a neutral pollutant, which are usually difficult to be degraded over the other catalysts. This enhanced photocatalytic activity of Graphene-supported BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 for all pollutants could be mainly ascribed to the reinforced charge transfer from BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 to RGO, which suppresses the recombination of electron/hole pairs. Besides that, this photocatalyst can be used repetitively with a high photocatalytic activity and no apparent loss of activity occurs. The results reveal that the RGO nanosheets work as a photocatalyst promoter during the photocatalytic reaction, leading to an improved photocatalytic activity.

  14. Normal-incidence steering effect in crystal growth: Ag/Ag(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Montalenti, F.; Voter, A. F.

    2001-08-15

    During crystal growth by vapor deposition, normal incident atoms are deflected toward three-dimensional surface structures. The effect becomes strong when the atoms are deposited with a low initial kinetic energy. At low T this steering effect induces an instability in the growth process, causing a perfectly flat surface to become rough after a few monolayers are deposited. Quantitative results for the initial stages of growth of Ag/Ag(100) at T{approx}0 K are presented.

  15. Ag@Ag8W4O16 nanoroasted rice beads with photocatalytic, antibacterial and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Selvamani, Muthamizh; Krishnamoorthy, Giribabu; Ramadoss, Manigandan; Sivakumar, Praveen Kumar; Settu, Munusamy; Ranganathan, Suresh; Vengidusamy, Narayanan

    2016-03-01

    Increasing resistance of pathogens and cancer cell line towards antibiotics and anticancer agents has caused serious health problems in the past decades. Due to these problems in recent years, researchers have tried to combine nanotechnology with material science to have intrinsic antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The metals and metal oxides were investigated with respect to their antimicrobial and anticancer effects towards bacteria and cancer cell line. In the present work metal@metal tungstate (Ag@Ag8W4O16 nanoroasted rice beads) is investigated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using Mueller-Hinton broth and the anticancer activity against B16F10 cell line was studied. Silver decorated silver tungstate (Ag@Ag8W4O16) was synthesized by the microwave irradiation method using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB). Ag@Ag8W4O16 was characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. The phase and crystalline nature were analyzed by using XRD. The morphological analysis was carried out using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectral analysis were carried out in order to ascertain the presence of functional groups in Ag@Ag8W4O16. The optical property was investigated using Diffuse Reflectance Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (DRS-UV-Vis) and the band gap was found to be 3.08eV. Surface area of the synthesized Ag@Ag8W4O16 wasanalyzed by BET analysis and Ag@Ag8W4O16 was utilized for the degradation of organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B. The morphology of the Ag@Ag8W4O16 resembles roasted rice beads with breath and length in nm range. The oxidation state of tungsten (W) and silver (Ag) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  16. Spacecraft applications of advanced global positioning system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, Gaylord; Dodds, James; Udalov, Sergei; Austin, Richard; Loomis, Peter; Duboraw, I. Newton, III

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential uses of Global Positioning System (GPS) in spacecraft applications in the following areas: attitude control and tracking; structural control; traffic control; and time base definition (synchronization). Each of these functions are addressed. Also addressed are the hardware related issues concerning the application of GPS technology and comparisons are provided with alternative instrumentation methods for specific functions required for an advanced low earth orbit spacecraft.

  17. Recent Advances on Solar Global Magnetism and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, A. S.; Browning, M. K.; Dikpati, M.; Hotta, H.; Strugarek, A.

    2015-12-01

    We discuss recent observational, theoretical and numerical progress made in understanding the solar global magnetism and its short and long term variability. We discuss the physical process thought to be at the origin of the solar magnetic field and its 22-yr cycle, namely dynamo action, and the nonlinear interplay between convection, rotation, radiation and magnetic field, yielding modulations of the solar constant or of the large scale flows such as the torsional oscillations. We also discuss the role of the field parity and dynamo families in explaining the complex multipolar structure of the solar global magnetic field. We then present some key MHD processes acting in the deep radiative interior and discuss the probable topology of a primordial field there. Finally we summarize how helioseismology has contributed to these recent advances and how it could contribute to resolving current unsolved problems in solar global dynamics and magnetism.

  18. Advancing Research to Action in Global Child Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Anna E; Collins, Pamela Y

    2015-10-01

    Most mental and substance use disorders begin during childhood and adolescence and are the leading cause of disability in this population. Prenatal and postnatal genetic, familial, social, and environmental exposures interact to influence risk for mental disorders and trajectories of cognitive development. Efforts to advance prevention and implement early interventions to reduce the burden of mental disorders require a global research workforce, intersectoral cooperation, attention to environmental contexts, and the development and testing of evidence-based interventions. The authors describe challenges and resources for building mental health research capacity that stands to influence children's mental health outcomes around the globe.

  19. Photoreduction of Ag+ in Ag/Ag2S/Au memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, N. I.; Tabib-Azar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Silver halides and chalcogenides are excellent memristor materials that have been extensively used in the past as photosensitive layers in photography. Here we examine the effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag2S/Au memristors using a green laser (473-523 nm). Our results indicate that illumination decreases the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreases the turn-off voltages dramatically from -0.8 V to -0.25 V that we attribute to the change in sulfur valency and a photo-induced change in its oxidation/reduction potential. Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag2S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset.

  20. Ag-Ag dispersive interaction and physical properties of Ag3Co(CN)6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hong; Dove, Martin T.; Refson, Keith

    2014-08-01

    We report a density functional theory (DFT) study of Ag3Co(CN)6, a material noted for its colossal positive and negative thermal expansion, and its giant negative linear compressibility. Here, we explicitly include the dispersive interaction within the DFT calculation, and find that it is essential to reproduce the ground state, the high-pressure phase, and the phonons of this material, and hence essential to understand this material's remarkable physical properties. New exotic properties are predicted. These include heat enhancement of the negative linear compressibility, a large reduction in the coefficient of thermal expansion on compression with change of sign of the mode Grüneisen parameters under pressure, and large softening of the material on heating. Our results suggest that these are associated with the weak Ag-Ag dispersive interactions acting with an efficient hinging mechanism in the framework structure.

  1. Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2010-11-01

    The flux of atomic oxygen generated in a electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma source was quantified by two different methods. The commonly applied approach of monitoring the frequency change of a silver-coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) deposition rate monitor as the silver is oxidized was found to underestimate the atomic oxygen flux by an order of magnitude compared to a more direct deposition approach. In the mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition method, silver films were deposited in the presence of the plasma such that the films were partially oxidized to Ag2O; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was utilized for quantification of the oxidized fraction. The inaccuracy of the QCM oxidation method was tentatively attributed to efficient catalytic recombination of O atoms on the silver surface.

  2. Quantifying Regional Greenhouse Gas Emissions of HFC-134a From Atmospheric Measurements at the Trinidad Head (California), Cape Grim (Tasmania) and Mace Head (Ireland) Remote AGAGE Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, A. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Mühle, J.; Fraser, P. J.; Krummel, P. B.; O'Doherty, S.; Simmonds, P. G.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric measurement-based "top-down" approaches to emissions estimation provide a method of validating reported inventory-based "bottom-up" emissions assessments. At the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) measurement stations at Trinidad Head (THD) on the Northern California coast (41°N, 124°W), Cape Grim (CGM) on the northwestern tip of Tasmania (41°S, 145°E), and Mace Head (MHD) on the western coast of Ireland (53°N, 10°W), Medusa GC/MS and GC/ECD/FID instrumentation measure a wide range of trace gases in ambient air at high temporal resolution and high precision. Here, the western US, northwestern European and southern Australian emissions of the greenhouse gas (GHG) HFC-134a are estimated using the HFC-134a measurements, an atmospheric dispersion model (NAME), and an inversion methodology. NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) is a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model that uses 3D meteorology from the UK Met Office numerical weather prediction model. Mid-latitude Northern and Southern Hemisphere baseline concentrations of HFC-134a are determined using NAME and statistical post- processing of the observations, and this baseline is used to generate a time series of "polluted" (above baseline) observations. In this application NAME is run backwards in time for ten days for each 3-hour interval in 1995-2008 for MHD, 2003-2008 for CGM and 2005-2008 for THD releasing thousands of model particles at each observing site. A map is then produced estimating all of the surface (0-100m) contributions within ten days of travel arriving at each site during each interval. The resulting matrix describes the dilution in concentration that occurs from a unit release from each grid as it travels to the measurement site. Iterative inversion modeling is then carried out to generate an emission estimate that provides the best statistical match between the modeled time series and the observations. Uncertainty in the emission

  3. Visible light driven Ag/Ag3PO4/AC photocatalyst with highly enhanced photodegradation of tetracycline antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqin; Ye, Zhefei; Liu, Chun; Li, Jinze; Zhou, Mingjun; Guan, Qingfeng; Lv, Peng; Huo, Pengwei; Yan, Yongsheng

    2015-10-01

    Ag/Ag3PO4/active carbon (AC) composite photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using the simple deposition and photoinduced methods. The structures, morphology and photocatalytic properties of as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag/Ag3PO4/AC composite photocatalysts exhibited a conspicuously improved photocatalytic performance for tetracycline (TC) degradation. The optimal conditions of loaded dosage and photoinduced time were investigated, and the results showed that the photoinduced time played an important role in prepared processes, and also that for the loaded dosage of Ag3PO4. The DRS analysis showed that the composite photocatalysts exhibited strong absorption ability in the visible light range. The radicals trap experiments demonstrated that there were multiple active species during the degrading process of TC. The possible mechanism of improved photocatalytic activity of Ag-Ag3PO4/AC composite was also proposed.

  4. An efficient photocatalyst for degradation of various organic dyes: Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Yang; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku

    2016-04-15

    The Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite was prepared by a facile in-situ anion-exchange method, then the Ag nanoparticles were coated on this composite through photodeposition route to form a novel Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite. The in-situ Br(-) replacement in a crystal lattice node position of Ag2MoO4 crystal allows for overcoming the resistance of electron transition effectively. Meanwhile silver nano-particles on the surface of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite could act as electron traps to intensify the photogeneration electron-hole separation and the subsequent transfer of the trapped electron to the adsorbed O2 as an electron acceptor. As an efficient visible light catalyst, the Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The experimental results demonstrated superior photocatalytic rate of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite compared to pure AgBr and Ag2MoO4 crystals (37.6% and 348.4% enhancement respectively). The Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite cloud degraded Rhodamin B, bromophenol blue, and amino black 10b completed in 7min. PMID:26775100

  5. An efficient photocatalyst for degradation of various organic dyes: Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Yang; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku

    2016-04-15

    The Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite was prepared by a facile in-situ anion-exchange method, then the Ag nanoparticles were coated on this composite through photodeposition route to form a novel Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite. The in-situ Br(-) replacement in a crystal lattice node position of Ag2MoO4 crystal allows for overcoming the resistance of electron transition effectively. Meanwhile silver nano-particles on the surface of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite could act as electron traps to intensify the photogeneration electron-hole separation and the subsequent transfer of the trapped electron to the adsorbed O2 as an electron acceptor. As an efficient visible light catalyst, the Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The experimental results demonstrated superior photocatalytic rate of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite compared to pure AgBr and Ag2MoO4 crystals (37.6% and 348.4% enhancement respectively). The Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite cloud degraded Rhodamin B, bromophenol blue, and amino black 10b completed in 7min.

  6. Advancing Global Health – The Need for (Better) Social Science

    PubMed Central

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. PMID:27239873

  7. Submonolayer nucleation and growth and the initial stage of multilayer kinetic roughening during Ag/Ag (100) homoepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.

    1996-08-01

    A comprehensive Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) study of submonolayer nucleation and growth of 2D islands in Ag/Ag(100) homoepitaxy for temperature between 295K and 370K is presented. The initial stages of multilayer kinetic roughening is also studied. Analysis of an appropriate model for metal (100) homoepitaxy, produces estimates of 350 meV for the terrace diffusion barrier, 400 meV for the adatom bond energy, and 25 meV for the additional Ehrlich-Schwoebel step-edge barrier.

  8. Recent Advances in Global Measurement and Application of River Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Among variables relevant to river form and discharge that can be observed from space, river width is perhaps the simplest to measure. Width can be extracted directly from optical or radar imagery, and application of remotely sensed widths to problems in hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and ecology dates back more than two decades. Despite this long heritage, until very recently remotely sensed width measurements have largely been made on an ad-hoc basis for individual studies over relatively small regions. Global studies that required river widths have largely relied on estimates from downstream hydraulic geometry relationships with basin area, which inevitably simplify width variability and may, in practice, underestimate the fraction of wide rivers and the total river surface area in many basins. Over the last two years, multiple new regional- and global-scale, satellite-derived river width datasets have been developed that have substantially improved our global understanding of river form. These datasets include the Global Width Database for Large Rivers (GWD-LR), which provides width measurements for rivers wider than ~180 m, and all rivers wider than ~300 m, based on the SRTM water mask and the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL), which provides measurements for rivers as narrow as 30 m and all rivers wider than ~100 m. Several regional-scale datasets have also been developed. These datasets will facilitate improvements to regional and global scale hydrodynamic models, will provide more robust information on global river surface area for gas flux studies, and constitute novel information on global patterns of fluvial geomorphology. These datasets represent the beginning, not the end, of global river width measurements, however, as in the future multitemporal width measurements can be combined with recently developed algorithms to estimate river discharge for many rivers, globally.

  9. Oxidase-like mimic of Ag@Ag3PO4 microcubes as a smart probe for ultrasensitive and selective Hg(2+) detection.

    PubMed

    Chai, Dong-Feng; Ma, Zhuo; Qiu, Yunfeng; Lv, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong; Song, Chao-Yu; Gao, Guang-Gang

    2016-02-21

    An oxidase-like mimic system based on facilely synthesized Ag@Ag3PO4 microcubes (Ag@Ag3PO4MCs) was designed and utilized to detect mercury ions with high selectivity and ultrasensitivity. Ag@Ag3PO4MCs with an average size of ca. 1.6 μm were synthesized by the reaction of [Ag(NH3)2](+) complex and Na2HPO4 and subsequent photoreduction under ultraviolet light. The as-prepared Ag@Ag3PO4MCs can effectively catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and o-phenylenediamine (OPD) in the presence of dissolved oxygen in slightly acidic solution, exhibiting oxidase-like activities rather than peroxidase-like activity. Interestingly, the introduction of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the surfaces of Ag3PO4MCs can dramatically enhance the oxidase-like activities due to a synergistic effect between AgNPs and Ag3PO4MCs, as evidenced by the faster oxidation speed of TMB and OPD than that of native Ag3PO4MCs in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The enzyme kinetics can be well-explained by the Michaelis-Menten equation. As "poisoning" inhibitor, Hg(2+) ions can inhibit the enzyme reaction catalyzed by Ag3PO4MCs or Ag@Ag3PO4MCs. On the basis of this effect, a colorimetric Hg(2+) sensor was developed by the enzyme inhibition reaction of Ag3PO4MCs or Ag@Ag3PO4MCs. The excellent specific interaction of Hg-Ag or Hg(2+)-Ag(+) provides high selectivity for Hg(2+) over interfering metal ions. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of this sensor to Hg(2+) is extremely excellent with a limit of detection as low as 0.253 nM for Ag@Ag3PO4MCs. Considering the advantages of low detection limit, low cost, facile preparation, and visualization, the colorimetric Ag@Ag3PO4MCs sensor shows high promise for the testing of Hg(2+) in water samples. PMID:26763181

  10. Global scale hydrology - Advances in land surface modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.F. )

    1991-01-01

    Research into global scale hydrology is an expanding area that includes researchers from the meteorology, climatology, ecology and hydrology communities. This paper reviews research in this area carried out in the United States during the last IUGG quadrennial period of 1987-1990. The review covers the representation of land-surface hydrologic processes for general circulation models (GCMs), sensitivity analysis of these representations on global hydrologic fields like precipitation, regional studies of climate that have global hydrologic implications, recent field studies and experiments whose aims are the improved understanding of land surface-atmospheric interactions, and the use of remotely sensed data for the further understanding of the spatial variability of surface hydrologic processes that are important at regional and global climate scales. 76 refs.

  11. Globalization and Health: developing the journal to advance the field.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Labonté, Ronald; Larkan, Fiona; Vallières, Frédérique; Bergin, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    Founded in 2005, Globalization and Health was the first open access global health journal. The journal has since expanded the field, and its influence, with the number of downloaded papers rising 17-fold, to over 4 million. Its ground-breaking papers, leading authors -including a Nobel Prize winner- and an impact factor of 2.25 place it among the top global health journals in the world. To mark the ten years since the journal's founding, we, members of the current editorial board, undertook a review of the journal's progress over the last decade. Through the application of an inductive thematic analysis, we systematically identified themes of research published in the journal from 2005 to 2014. We identify key areas the journal has promoted and consider these in the context of an existing framework, identify current gaps in global health research and highlight areas we, as a journal, would like to see strengthened. PMID:26961760

  12. Globalization and Health: developing the journal to advance the field.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Labonté, Ronald; Larkan, Fiona; Vallières, Frédérique; Bergin, Niamh

    2016-03-09

    Founded in 2005, Globalization and Health was the first open access global health journal. The journal has since expanded the field, and its influence, with the number of downloaded papers rising 17-fold, to over 4 million. Its ground-breaking papers, leading authors -including a Nobel Prize winner- and an impact factor of 2.25 place it among the top global health journals in the world. To mark the ten years since the journal's founding, we, members of the current editorial board, undertook a review of the journal's progress over the last decade. Through the application of an inductive thematic analysis, we systematically identified themes of research published in the journal from 2005 to 2014. We identify key areas the journal has promoted and consider these in the context of an existing framework, identify current gaps in global health research and highlight areas we, as a journal, would like to see strengthened.

  13. Americans Need Advanced Math to Stay Globally Competitive. Math Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    No student who hopes to compete in today's rapidly evolving global economy and job market can afford to graduate from high school with weak mathematical skills, which include the ability to use logic, reason, and solve problems. The benefits associated with improving the math performance of American students also extend to the larger U.S. economy.…

  14. The Role of Plastic Surgeons in Advancing Development Global

    PubMed Central

    Broer, P. Niclas; Jenny, Hillary E.; Ng-Kamstra, Joshua S.; Juran, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the international community came together to agree on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a plan of action for people, the planet, and prosperity. Ambitious and far-reaching as they are, they are built on three keystones: the elimination of extreme poverty, fighting climate change, and a commitment to fighting injustice and inequality. Critical to the achievement of the Agenda is the global realization of access to safe, affordable surgical and anesthesia care when needed. The landmark report by the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that between 28 and 32 percent of the global burden of disease is amenable to surgical treatment. However, as many as five billion people lack access to safe, timely, and affordable surgical care, a burden felt most severely in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Surgery, and specifically plastic surgery, should be incorporated into the international development and humanitarian agenda. As a community of care providers dedicated to the restoration of the form and function of the human body, plastics surgeons have a collective opportunity to contribute to global development, making the world more equitable and helping to reduce extreme poverty. As surgical disease comprises a significant burden of disease and surgery can be delivered in a cost-effective manner, surgery must be considered a public health priority. PMID:27579265

  15. Update: International Strategic Partnership Initiative. Strengthening Connections, Advancing Global Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Museums and libraries are portals to the world. Valued nearly everywhere as trusted community organizations, they are well positioned to help foster cross-border and cross-cultural communication and enhance global awareness. These institutions are centers for intercultural learning, ideal venues for cross-cultural communication, and prime partners…

  16. The Role of Plastic Surgeons in Advancing Development Global.

    PubMed

    Broer, P Niclas; Jenny, Hillary E; Ng-Kamstra, Joshua S; Juran, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    In September 2015, the international community came together to agree on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a plan of action for people, the planet, and prosperity. Ambitious and far-reaching as they are, they are built on three keystones: the elimination of extreme poverty, fighting climate change, and a commitment to fighting injustice and inequality. Critical to the achievement of the Agenda is the global realization of access to safe, affordable surgical and anesthesia care when needed. The landmark report by the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that between 28 and 32 percent of the global burden of disease is amenable to surgical treatment. However, as many as five billion people lack access to safe, timely, and affordable surgical care, a burden felt most severely in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Surgery, and specifically plastic surgery, should be incorporated into the international development and humanitarian agenda. As a community of care providers dedicated to the restoration of the form and function of the human body, plastics surgeons have a collective opportunity to contribute to global development, making the world more equitable and helping to reduce extreme poverty. As surgical disease comprises a significant burden of disease and surgery can be delivered in a cost-effective manner, surgery must be considered a public health priority. PMID:27579265

  17. Advances in Global Water Cycle Science Made Possible by Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally sponsored Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams from very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and on to blends of the former datastreams with other less-high caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of NASA's role in global water cycle science and its own Global Water & Energy Cycle (GWEC) program, GPM is the centerpiece mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a space-based measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in global temperature. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination, This paper presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Mission and how its datasets can be used in a set of quantitative tests within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine comprehensively whether substantive rate changes do accompany perturbations in global temperatures and how such rate changes manifest themselves in both water storage and water flux transport processes.

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 74 in water using Ag-Ag2O-Zno nanostuctures anchored on graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umukoro, Eseoghene H.; Peleyeju, Moses G.; Ngila, Jane C.; Arotiba, Omotayo A.

    2016-01-01

    Water pollution due to industrial effluents from industries which utilize dyes in the manufacturing of their products has serious implications on aquatic lives and the general environment. Thus, there is need for the removal of dyes from wastewater before being discharged into the environment. In this study, a nanocomposite consisting of silver, silver oxide (Ag2O), zinc oxide (ZnO) and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized, characterized and photocatalytically applied in the degradation (and possibly mineralization) of organic pollutants in water treatment process. The Ag-Ag2O-ZnO nanostructure was synthesized by a co-precipitation method and calcined at 400 °C. It was functionalized using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane and further anchored on carboxylated graphene oxide via the formation of an amide bond to give the Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. The applicability of Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite as a photocatalyst was investigated in the photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 74 dye under visible light irradiation in synthetic wastewater containing the dye. The results indicated that Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite has a higher photocatalytic activity (90% removal) compared to Ag-Ag2O-ZnO (85% removal) and ZnO (75% removal) respectively and thus lends itself to application in water treatment, where the removal of organics is very important.

  19. Advances in Global Adjoint Tomography -- Massive Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Y.; Lei, W.; Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Azimuthal anisotropy and anelasticity are key to understanding a myriad of processes in Earth's interior. Resolving these properties requires accurate simulations of seismic wave propagation in complex 3-D Earth models and an iterative inversion strategy. In the wake of successes in regional studies(e.g., Chen et al., 2007; Tape et al., 2009, 2010; Fichtner et al., 2009, 2010; Chen et al.,2010; Zhu et al., 2012, 2013; Chen et al., 2015), we are employing adjoint tomography based on a spectral-element method (Komatitsch & Tromp 1999, 2002) on a global scale using the supercomputer ''Titan'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After 15 iterations, we have obtained a high-resolution transversely isotropic Earth model (M15) using traveltime data from 253 earthquakes. To obtain higher resolution images of the emerging new features and to prepare the inversion for azimuthal anisotropy and anelasticity, we expanded the original dataset with approximately 4,220 additional global earthquakes (Mw5.5-7.0) --occurring between 1995 and 2014-- and downloaded 300-minute-long time series for all available data archived at the IRIS Data Management Center, ORFEUS, and F-net. Ocean Bottom Seismograph data from the last decade are also included to maximize data coverage. In order to handle the huge dataset and solve the I/O bottleneck in global adjoint tomography, we implemented a python-based parallel data processing workflow based on the newly developed Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF). With the help of the data selection tool MUSTANG developed by IRIS, we cleaned our dataset and assembled event-based ASDF files for parallel processing. We have started Centroid Moment Tensors (CMT) inversions for all 4,220 earthquakes with the latest model M15, and selected high-quality data for measurement. We will statistically investigate each channel using synthetic seismograms calculated in M15 for updated CMTs and identify problematic channels. In addition to data screening, we also modified

  20. Advancing the right to health through global organizations: The potential role of a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O; Buse, Kent

    2013-06-14

    Organizations, partnerships, and alliances form the building blocks of global governance. Global health organizations thus have the potential to play a formative role in determining the extent to which people are able to realize their right to health. This article examines how major global health organizations, such as WHO, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, UNAIDS, and GAVI approach human rights concerns, including equality, accountability, and inclusive participation. We argue that organizational support for the right to health must transition from ad hoc and partial to permanent and comprehensive. Drawing on the literature and our knowledge of global health organizations, we offer good practices that point to ways in which such agencies can advance the right to health, covering nine areas: 1) participation and representation in governance processes; 2) leadership and organizational ethos; 3) internal policies; 4) norm-setting and promotion; 5) organizational leadership through advocacy and communication; 6) monitoring and accountability; 7) capacity building; 8) funding policies; and 9) partnerships and engagement. In each of these areas, we offer elements of a proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), which would commit state parties to support these standards through their board membership and other interactions with these agencies. We also explain how the FCGH could incorporate these organizations into its overall financing framework, initiate a new forum where they collaborate with each other, as well as organizations in other regimes, to advance the right to health, and ensure sufficient funding for right to health capacity building. We urge major global health organizations to follow the leadership of the UN Secretary-General and UNAIDS to champion the FCGH. It is only through a rights-based approach, enshrined in a new Convention, that we can expect to achieve health for all in our lifetimes.

  1. Advances in Understanding Global Water Cycle with Advent of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a global measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the global water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is the natural variability of a fixed rate cycle.

  2. The global need for effective antibiotics: challenges and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Liselotte Diaz; Heddini, Andreas; Cars, Otto

    2010-11-01

    The emerging problem of antibiotic resistance is a serious threat to global public health. The situation is aggravated by a substantial decline in the research and development of antibacterial agents. Hence, very few new antibacterial classes are brought to market when older classes lose their efficacy. There has been renewed and growing attention within policy groups to: (i) address the problem; (ii) discuss incentives for the development of urgently needed new treatments; (iii) preserve the efficacy of existing therapeutic options. We briefly review the basic principles of antibiotic resistance, and contrast the increasing resistance to the dwindling antibacterial 'pipeline'. We also highlight some recent policy initiatives aiming to secure the future need of effective antibiotics.

  3. Jupiter's Global Winds in Advance of the Juno Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael H.; Tollefson, Joshua; Simon, Amy A.; Cosentino, Rick; de Pater, Imke; Marcus, Philip; Orton, Glenn S.; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Johnson, Perianne

    2016-10-01

    We use Hubble/WFC3 imaging observations in February 2016 to derive Jupiter's global wind field, the closest wind velocity measurement to Juno's focused atmospheric campaign (November 2016 through January 2017).Using the methods of Asay-Davis et al. (2011, Icarus 211, 1215), we derive zonal wind profiles from Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program data in 2015 and 2016, and from 2009 and 2012 data, all taken at red optical wavelengths with the WFC3/UVIS instrument. Several jets show significant variability in peakspeed over the 2000-2016 time period, while most jets are very stable.We quantify uncertainties in order to determine which changes are significant, and we find a roughly 2x improvement in precision compared to the HST/WFPC2 and Cassini-derived zonal wind profiles in Asay-Davis et al. (2011). Some improvement in precision is likely to be instrumental. The WFC3/UVIS detector better samples the HST point-spread function by about 15% compared to WFPC2, and the larger WFC3/UVIS field of view reduces navigational uncertainty by capturing the entire planetary disk in every image. It is not yet clear whether instrumental effects can explain the entire reduction in uncertainty, which could potentially include time-variable noise due to coherent features (waves, vortices) as well as turbulence. Global variability of this magnitude would be a surprise, since Asay-Davis et al. (2011) found the same level of velocity uncertainty (~11 m/s) in both Cassini data from 2000 and HST/WFPC2 data from 2008.We will generate spatial spectra of kinetic energy and cloud features (in multiple filters), using Fourier transforms of OPAL Jupier imaging data and 2D velocity fields. We will fit composite linear models (Barrado-Izagirre et al. 2009, Icarus 202, 181; Choi and Showman 2011, Icarus 216, 597) to the kinetic energy and cloud albedo spectra, comparing spectral indices to past observations and determining forcing scales.

  4. Advancing Collaborative Climate Studies through Globally Distributed Geospatial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Percivall, G.

    2009-12-01

    (note: acronym glossary at end of abstract) For scientists to have confidence in the veracity of data sets and computational processes not under their control, operational transparency must be much greater than previously required. Being able to have a universally understood and machine-readable language for describing such things as the completeness of metadata, data provenance and uncertainty, and the discrete computational steps in a complex process take on increased importance. OGC has been involved with technological issues associated with climate change since 2005 when we, along with the IEEE Committee on Earth Observation, began a close working relationship with GEO and GEOSS (http://earthobservations.org). GEO/GEOS provide the technology platform to GCOS who in turn represents the earth observation community to UNFCCC. OGC and IEEE are the organizers of the GEO/GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot (see http://www.ogcnetwork.net/AIpilot). This continuing work involves closely working with GOOS (Global Ocean Observing System) and WMO (World Meteorological Organization). This session reports on the findings of recent work within the OGC’s community of software developers and users to apply geospatial web services to the climate studies domain. The value of this work is to evolve OGC web services, moving from data access and query to geo-processing and workflows. Two projects will be described, the GEOSS API-2 and the CCIP. AIP is a task of the GEOSS Architecture and Data Committee. During its duration, two GEO Tasks defined the project: AIP-2 began as GEO Task AR-07-02, to lead the incorporation of contributed components consistent with the GEOSS Architecture using a GEO Web Portal and a Clearinghouse search facility to access services through GEOSS Interoperability Arrangements in support of the GEOSS Societal Benefit Areas. AIP-2 concluded as GEOS Task AR-09-01b, to develop and pilot new process and infrastructure components for the GEOSS Common

  5. LLNL Scientists Use NERSC to Advance Global Aerosol Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, D J; Chuang, C; Rotman, D

    2004-10-13

    While ''greenhouse gases'' have been the focus of climate change research for a number of years, DOE's ''Aerosol Initiative'' is now examining how aerosols (small particles of approximately micron size) affect the climate on both a global and regional scale. Scientists in the Atmospheric Science Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are using NERSC's IBM supercomputer and LLNL's IMPACT (atmospheric chemistry) model to perform simulations showing the historic effects of sulfur aerosols at a finer spatial resolution than ever done before. Simulations were carried out for five decades, from the 1950s through the 1990s. The results clearly show the effects of the changing global pattern of sulfur emissions. Whereas in 1950 the United States emitted 41 percent of the world's sulfur aerosols, this figure had dropped to 15 percent by 1990, due to conservation and anti-pollution policies. By contrast, the fraction of total sulfur emissions of European origin has only dropped by a factor of 2 and the Asian emission fraction jumped six fold during the same time, from 7 percent in 1950 to 44 percent in 1990. Under a special allocation of computing time provided by the Office of Science INCITE (Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment) program, Dan Bergmann, working with a team of LLNL scientists including Cathy Chuang, Philip Cameron-Smith, and Bala Govindasamy, was able to carry out a large number of calculations during the past month, making the aerosol project one of the largest users of NERSC resources. The applications ran on 128 and 256 processors. The objective was to assess the effects of anthropogenic (man-made) sulfate aerosols. The IMPACT model calculates the rate at which SO{sub 2} (a gas emitted by industrial activity) is oxidized and forms particles known as sulfate aerosols. These particles have a short lifespan in the atmosphere, often washing out in about a week. This means that their effects on climate tend to be

  6. Global Economic Effects of USA Biofuel Policy and the Potential Contribution from Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gbadebo Oladosu; Keith Kline; Paul Leiby; Rocio Uria-Martinez; Maggie Davis; Mark Downing; Laurence Eaton

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the global economic effects of the USA renewable fuel standards (RFS2), and the potential contribution from advanced biofuels. Our simulation results imply that these mandates lead to an increase of 0.21 percent in the global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, including an increase of 0.8 percent in the USA and 0.02 percent in the rest of the world (ROW); relative to our baseline, no-RFS scenario. The incremental contributions to GDP from advanced biofuels in 2022 are estimated at 0.41 percent and 0.04 percent in the USA and ROW, respectively. Although production costs of advanced biofuels are higher than for conventional biofuels in our model, their economic benefits result from reductions in oil use, and their smaller impacts on food markets compared with conventional biofuels. Thus, the USA advanced biofuels targets are expected to have positive economic benefits.

  7. Iron Resources and Oceanic Nutrients: Advancement of Global Environment Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaar, H. J.

    2002-12-01

    The concept of a single factor limiting plankton blooms, is presently giving way to co-limitation by light, and the nutrients N, P, Si and Fe. Primary production, export into the deep sea, and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere together form the 'biological pump' in Ocean Biogeochemical Climate Models (OBCM's). Thus far OBCM's assume just one limiting nutrient (P) and one universal phytoplankton species, for C budgets and CO2 exchange. New realistic OBCM's are being developed for budgeting and exchanges of both CO2 and DMS, implementing (i) co-limitation by 4 nutrients of 5 major taxonomic classes of phytoplankton, (ii) DMS(P) pathways, (iii) global iron cycling, (iv) chemical forms of iron and (v) iron supply into surface waters. The new OBCM's will predict realistic climate scenario's, notably climatic feedbacks on oceanic biogeochemistry. IRONAGES is a European consortium of twelve institutes and is coordinated by Royal NIOZ. Input from below of iron from anoxic sediments of coastal margins has been assessed (March 2002) along a 2-D vertical section from Europe into the centre of the north Atlantic. Input from above of Fe(II) dissolved in rainwater from Sahara dust blown over the central Atlantic will be quantified at sea (October 2002), and related to observed plankton production. Different chemical forms of iron are being assessed and a certification excercise for Fe in seawater also under aegis of SCOR Working Group 109 is being completed (December 2002). For two major DMS-producing algal groups Phaeocystis sp. and Emiliania huxleyi the life cycle, Fe limitation, export production, CO2 uptake and DMS emissions have been synthesized from existing literature and laboratory experiments. This is being fed into ecosystem modeling, as well as into DMS(P) pathway modeling. Also know-how has been synthesized for three other major classes (diatoms, N2-fixing Trichodesmium and nano-pico-plankton) and fed into the ecosystem modeling. Pathways of DMS(P) in blooms are being

  8. Global and regional emission estimates for HCFC-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Rigby, M.; Prinn, R. G.; Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B. R.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.; Fraser, P. J. B.; Vollmer, M. K.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Harth, C. M.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Salameh, P. K.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Park, S.; Kim, K.-R.; Young, D.; O'Doherty, S.; Simmonds, P. G.; McCulloch, A.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Lunder, C.; Hermansen, O.; Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Yao, B.; Zhou, L. X.; Wang, H. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Hall, B.

    2012-11-01

    HCFC-22 (CHClF2, chlorodifluoromethane) is an ozone-depleting substance (ODS) as well as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG). HCFC-22 has been used widely as a refrigerant fluid in cooling and air-conditioning equipment since the 1960s, and it has also served as a traditional substitute for some chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) controlled under the Montreal Protocol. A low frequency record on tropospheric HCFC-22 since the late 1970s is available from measurements of the Southern Hemisphere Cape Grim Air Archive (CGAA) and a few Northern Hemisphere air samples (mostly from Trinidad Head) using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. Since the 1990s high-frequency, high-precision, in situ HCFC-22 measurements have been collected at these AGAGE stations. Since 1992, the Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also collected flasks on a weekly basis from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of halocarbons including HCFC-22. Additionally, since 2006 flasks have been collected approximately daily at a number of tower sites across the US and analyzed for halocarbons and other gases at NOAA. All results show an increase in the atmospheric mole fractions of HCFC-22, and recent data show a growth rate of approximately 4% per year, resulting in an increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction by a factor of 1.7 from 1995 to 2009. Using data on HCFC-22 consumption submitted to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), as well as existing bottom-up emission estimates, we first create globally-gridded a priori HCFC-22 emissions over the 15 yr since 1995. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions. Our inversion indicates that the global HCFC

  9. Global and regional emissions estimates for HCFC-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Rigby, M.; Prinn, R. G.; Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B. R.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.; Fraser, P. J. B.; Vollmer, M. K.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Harth, C. M.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Salameh, P. K.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Park, S.; Kim, K.-R.; Young, D.; O'Doherty, S.; Simmonds, P. G.; McCulloch, A.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Lunder, C.; Hermansen, O.; Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Yao, B.; Zhou, L. X.; Wang, H. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Hall, B.

    2012-07-01

    HCFC-22 (CHClF_2, chlorodifluoromethane) is an ozone-depleting substance (ODS) as well as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG). HCFC-22 has been used widely as a refrigerant fluid in cooling and air-conditioning equipment since the 1960s, and it has also served as a traditional substitute for some chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) controlled under the Montreal Protocol. A low frequency record on tropospheric HCFC-22 since the late 1970s is available from measurements of the Southern Hemisphere Cape Grim Air Archive (CGAA) and a few Northern Hemisphere air samples (mostly from Trinidad Head) using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. Since the 1990s high-frequency, high-precision, in situ HCFC-22 measurements have been collected at these AGAGE stations. Since 1992, the Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also collected flasks on a weekly basis from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of halocarbons including HCFC-22. Additionally, since 2006 flasks have been collected approximately daily at a number of tower sites across the US and analyzed for halocarbons and other gases at NOAA. All results show an increase in the atmospheric mole fractions of HCFC-22, and recent data show a growth rate of approximately 4% per year, resulting in an increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction by a factor of 1.7 from 1995 to 2009. Using data on HCFC-22 consumption submitted to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), as well as an existing bottom-up emissions estimate, we first create globally-gridded a priori HCFC-22 emissions over the 15 yr since 1995. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4) and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions. Our inversion indicates that the global

  10. Are treelines advancing? A global meta-analysis of treeline response to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Melanie A; Hulme, Philip E; McGlone, Matt S; Duncan, Richard P

    2009-10-01

    Treelines are temperature sensitive transition zones that are expected to respond to climate warming by advancing beyond their current position. Response to climate warming over the last century, however, has been mixed, with some treelines showing evidence of recruitment at higher altitudes and/or latitudes (advance) whereas others reveal no marked change in the upper limit of tree establishment. To explore this variation, we analysed a global dataset of 166 sites for which treeline dynamics had been recorded since 1900 AD. Advance was recorded at 52% of sites with only 1% reporting treeline recession. Treelines that experienced strong winter warming were more likely to have advanced, and treelines with a diffuse form were more likely to have advanced than those with an abrupt or krummholz form. Diffuse treelines may be more responsive to warming because they are more strongly growth limited, whereas other treeline forms may be subject to additional constraints.

  11. Advanced Manufacturing as an Online Case Study for Global Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Michael R.; Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Drake, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing continues to be an important sector for emerging and industrialized economies, therefore, remaining an important topic for economic geography education. This article describes a case study created for the Association of American Geographer's Center for Global Geography Education and its implementation. The international…

  12. Putting Old Tensions to Rest: Integrating Multicultural Education and Global Learning to Advance Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Harvey; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Miller, Angela E.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural education and global learning have long been acknowledged by higher education professionals to be necessary in advancing student development. Both of these agendas overlap in significant ways and can be characterized as two sides of the same coin. Notwithstanding, there has been a historical divide, even a tension between these two…

  13. Student perceptions about the mission of dental schools to advance global dentistry and philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Yaneva, Krassimira; Hottel, Timothy L; Proctor, Hannah L

    2013-10-01

    In this study, 491 dental students at one dental school in the United States and one in Bulgaria were surveyed to assess their perceptions about the mission of dental schools to advance global dentistry and philanthropy. The study included questions about prior involvement in charitable dental missions. Many respondents felt that their dental school does not advance global dentistry nor adequately teaches students the virtues of philanthropy and volunteerism. The majority agreed, however, that dental schools have a moral obligation to raise the level of oral health care worldwide and help underserved communities access basic dental care. They reported that an opportunity to spend a semester at a foreign dental school would enhance their dental education in ways that are not presently fulfilled; help them better understand cultural diversity; and teach them about philanthropy and volunteerism. In their opinion, international exchange programs that provide clinical rotations and field experiences in economically challenged and underserved areas of the world would a) foster the global advancement of dentistry; b) promote an appreciation for cultural diversity and socioeconomic disparity in the communities that graduates will be serving; and c) teach students the virtues of philanthropy and volunteerism. This study may contribute to understanding factors affecting student involvement in programs to advance global dentistry.

  14. A Korean perspective on developing a global policy for advance directives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoon; Hahm, Ki-Hyun; Park, Hyoung Wook; Kang, Hyun Hee; Sohn, Myongsei

    2010-03-01

    Despite the wide and daunting array of cross-cultural obstacles that the formulation of a global policy on advance directives will clearly pose, the need is equally evident. Specifically, the expansion of medical services driven by medical tourism, just to name one important example, makes this issue urgently relevant. While ensuring consistency across national borders, a global policy will have the additional and perhaps even more important effect of increasing the use of advance directives in clinical settings and enhancing their effectiveness within each country, regardless of where that country's state of the law currently stands. One cross-cultural issue that may represent a major obstacle in formulating, let alone applying, a global policy is whether patient autonomy as the underlying principle for the use of advance directives is a universal norm or a construct of western traditions that must be reconciled with alternative value systems that may place lesser significance on individual choice. A global policy, at a minimum, must emphasize respect for patient autonomy, provision of medical information, limits to the obligations for physicians, and portability. And though the development of a global policy will be no easy task, active engagement in close collaboration with the World Health Organization can make it possible.

  15. Advanced technology needs for a global change science program: Perspective of the Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Swissler, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the NASA program in remote sensing is primarily the Earth system science and the monitoring of the Earth global changes. One of NASA's roles is the identification and development of advanced sensing techniques, operational spacecraft, and the many supporting technologies necessary to meet the stringent science requirements. Langley Research Center has identified the elements of its current and proposed advanced technology development program that are relevant to global change science according to three categories: sensors, spacecraft, and information system technologies. These technology proposals are presented as one-page synopses covering scope, objective, approach, readiness timeline, deliverables, and estimated funding. In addition, the global change science requirements and their measurement histories are briefly discussed.

  16. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  17. Ag/Ag2SO3 plasmonic catalysts with high activity and stability for CO2 reduction with water vapor under visible light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da; Yu, Yan; Zhang, Zhipeng; Fang, Huiying; Chen, Jianmeng; He, Zhiqiao; Song, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    The conversion of CO2 into useful raw materials for fuels and chemicals by solar energy is described using a plasmonic photocatalyst comprised of Ag supported on Ag2SO3 (Ag/Ag2SO3) fabricated by a facile solid-state ion-exchange method and subsequent reduction with hydrazine hydrate. The optimum molar ratio of Ag(0)/Ag(+) was 5 %. Visible light irradiation (>400 nm) of the Ag/Ag2SO3 powder in the presence of CO2 and water vapor led to the formation of CH4 and CO with a quantum yield of 0.126 %, and an energy returned on energy invested of 0.156 %. The Ag/Ag2SO3 retained high catalytic activity after ten successive experimental cycles. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses, as well as photocurrent action spectroscopy. It is proposed that the photocatalytic activity of the catalysts is initiated by energy conversion from incident photons to localized surface plasmon resonance oscillations of silver nanoparticles. This plasmonic energy is transferred to the Ag2SO3 by direct electron transfer and/or resonant energy transfer, causing the separation of photogenerated electron/hole pairs. PMID:27282369

  18. The global roadmap for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: Update and next steps.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Deal, Carolyn D; Giersing, Birgitte; Rees, Helen; Bolan, Gail; Johnston, Christine; Timms, Peter; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Jerse, Ann E; Cameron, Caroline E; Moorthy, Vasee S; Kiarie, James; Broutet, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization, the US National Institutes of Health, and global technical partners published a comprehensive roadmap for development of new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Since its publication, progress has been made in several roadmap activities: obtaining better epidemiologic data to establish the public health rationale for STI vaccines, modeling the theoretical impact of future vaccines, advancing basic science research, defining preferred product characteristics for first-generation vaccines, and encouraging investment in STI vaccine development. This article reviews these overarching roadmap activities, provides updates on research and development of individual vaccines against herpes simplex virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum, and discusses important next steps to advance the global roadmap for STI vaccine development.

  19. The global roadmap for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: Update and next steps.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Deal, Carolyn D; Giersing, Birgitte; Rees, Helen; Bolan, Gail; Johnston, Christine; Timms, Peter; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Jerse, Ann E; Cameron, Caroline E; Moorthy, Vasee S; Kiarie, James; Broutet, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization, the US National Institutes of Health, and global technical partners published a comprehensive roadmap for development of new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Since its publication, progress has been made in several roadmap activities: obtaining better epidemiologic data to establish the public health rationale for STI vaccines, modeling the theoretical impact of future vaccines, advancing basic science research, defining preferred product characteristics for first-generation vaccines, and encouraging investment in STI vaccine development. This article reviews these overarching roadmap activities, provides updates on research and development of individual vaccines against herpes simplex virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum, and discusses important next steps to advance the global roadmap for STI vaccine development. PMID:27105564

  20. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) after fifteen years: Review of global products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Michael; Tsu, Hiroji; Hulley, Glynn; Iwao, Koki; Pieri, David; Cudahy, Tom; Kargel, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 15-channel imaging instrument operating on NASA's Terra satellite. A joint project between the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years, since March 2000. The archive now contains over 2.8 million scenes; for the majority of them, a stereo pair was collected using nadir and backward telescopes imaging in the NIR wavelength. The majority of users require only a few to a few dozen scenes for their work. Studies have ranged over numerous scientific disciplines, and many practical applications have benefited from ASTER's unique data. A few researchers have been able to mine the entire ASTER archive, that is now global in extent due to the long duration of the mission. Six examples of global products are described in this contribution: the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), the most complete, highest resolution DEM available to all users; the ASTER Emissivity Database (ASTER GED), a global 5-band emissivity map of the land surface; the ASTER Global Urban Area Map (AGURAM), a 15-m resolution database of over 3500 cities; the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), an archive of over 1500 active volcanoes; ASTER Geoscience products of the continent of Australia; and the Global Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project.

  1. Atmospheric histories and global emissions of halons H-1211 (CBrClF2), H-1301 (CBrF3), and H-2402 (CBrF2CBrF2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Mühle, Jens; Trudinger, Cathy M.; Rigby, Matthew; Montzka, Stephen A.; Harth, Christina M.; Miller, Benjamin R.; Henne, Stephan; Krummel, Paul B.; Hall, Bradley D.; Young, Dickon; Kim, Jooil; Arduini, Jgor; Wenger, Angelina; Yao, Bo; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon; Maione, Michela; Etheridge, David M.; Li, Shanlan; Verdonik, Daniel P.; Park, Sunyoung; Dutton, Geoff; Steele, L. Paul; Lunder, Chris R.; Rhee, Tae Siek; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Wang, Ray H. J.; Hill, Matthias; Salameh, Peter K.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Zhou, Lingxi; Blunier, Thomas; Schwander, Jakob; Elkins, James W.; Butler, James H.; Simmonds, Peter G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Fraser, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    We report ground-based atmospheric measurements and emission estimates for the halons H-1211 (CBrClF2), H-1301 (CBrF3), and H-2402 (CBrF2CBrF2) from the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration global networks. We also include results from archived air samples in canisters and from polar firn in both hemispheres, thereby deriving an atmospheric record of nearly nine decades (1930s to present). All three halons were absent from the atmosphere until ˜1970, when their atmospheric burdens started to increase rapidly. In recent years H-1211 and H-2402 mole fractions have been declining, but H-1301 has continued to grow. High-frequency observations show continuing emissions of H-1211 and H-1301 near most AGAGE sites. For H-2402 the only emissions detected were derived from the region surrounding the Sea of Japan/East Sea. Based on our observations, we derive global emissions using two different inversion approaches. Emissions for H-1211 declined from a peak of 11 kt yr-1 (late 1990s) to 3.9 kt yr-1 at the end of our record (mean of 2013-2015), for H-1301 from 5.4 kt yr-1 (late 1980s) to 1.6 kt yr-1, and for H-2402 from 1.8 kt yr-1 (late 1980s) to 0.38 kt yr-1. Yearly summed halon emissions have decreased substantially; nevertheless, since 2000 they have accounted for ˜30% of the emissions of all major anthropogenic ozone depletion substances, when weighted by ozone depletion potentials.

  2. Globalization and advances in information and communication technologies: the impact on nursing and health.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Patricia A; Coenen, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and information and communication technology (ICT) continue to change us and the world we live in. Nursing stands at an opportunity intersection where challenging global health issues, an international workforce shortage, and massive growth of ICT combine to create a very unique space for nursing leadership and nursing intervention. Learning from prior successes in the field can assist nurse leaders in planning and advancing strategies for global health using ICT. Attention to lessons learned will assist in combating the technological apartheid that is already present in many areas of the globe and will highlight opportunities for innovative applications in health. ICT has opened new channels of communication, creating the beginnings of a global information society that will facilitate access to isolated areas where health needs are extreme and where nursing can contribute significantly to the achievement of "Health for All." The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationships between globalization, health, and ICT, and to illuminate opportunities for nursing in this flattening and increasingly interconnected world. PMID:18922277

  3. Advanced practice nursing for enduring health needs management: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Liisa; Mikkonen, Irma; Graham, Iain; Norman, Linda D; Richardson, Jim; Savage, Eileen; Schorn, Mavis

    2012-07-01

    Advanced practice nursing expertise has been acknowledged worldwide as one response to the challenges arising from changes in society and health care. The roots of advanced practice nursing education are at the University of Colorado where the first known programme started in 1965. In many countries advanced practice nurses (APNs) have taken responsibility for routine patient care formerly carried out by physicians in order to reduce their workload. However, more and more, APNs have taken responsibility for new service areas and quality programmes not previously provided. Chronic disease management is one of these new service areas because long-term diseases are increasingly challenging service systems globally. This article is based on an international APN partnership. The aim of the article is to describe how the partnership will design a 15 ECTS credit course on Enduring Health Need Management as a cross-cultural collaborative endeavour. The adaptation of an inquiry based learning framework will be described drawing on four main principles of the theory: authentic learning communities; student encouragement in analysing gradually more complicated problems; networking in knowledge creation and; student engagement and activity. The cross-cultural online course aims to increase APNs' intercultural competence as well as their global and international work orientation. PMID:21839552

  4. The optimization of Ag/Ag2S electrode using carrier electroplating of nano silver particles and its preliminary application to offshore Kueishan Tao, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qian; Pan, Yi-wen; Huang, Yuan-feng; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication-induced ocean acidification is causing a dramatic ecologic change in the coastal ocean. A more acidic ocean would lead to more volatile H2S in the coastal ocean, especially in the area where shallow hydrothermal vents exist. Therefore, the early detection of H2S and its associates is needed. In this study, the preparation method for and the detection limit of an Ag/Ag2S electrode were optimized by coating the electrode with micro-scale to nano-scale silver particles. The size of the silver particles was dependent on the electroplating power used to produce them: (1) direct current power made micrometer scale silver particles, and (2) direct current carrier power made nano-scale silver particles. As a result, the detection limits of [S2-] of the Ag/Ag2S electrode made using direct current and direct carrier current were improved to 1×10-5 mol L-1 and 1×10-7 mol L-1, respectively. Such improvements were mostly due to the fact that nano silver particles have larger surface area and higher surface energy. The Ag/Ag2S electrode made by direct carrier current method was then mounted to a multi-parameter sensor (including a pH and an Eh electrode) used to search of new hydrothermal vents near the Kueishan Tao in May, 2011. A new hydrothermal vent was discovered based on pH, Eh and H2S anomalies at three depths. A clear [S2-] signal anomaly was observed from the top sensor indicating the dispersive pattern of the hot fluid near this shallow vent site. This could also provide additional information on the dispersion pattern of anthropogenic pollutants in the coastal ocean.

  5. Self-assembled hetero-bimetallic sandwich with Ag-Ag bridging using a flexible two-arm ferrocene amide linker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jia; Wei, Kai-Ju; Chen, Yao-Wen; Liu, Yangzhong

    2012-03-01

    The tetradentate ferrocenyl sandwich molecule N,N'-bis(di-2-pyridylamine)-1,1'-ferrocenedicarboxamine (bdpfa) has been designed and synthesized as an organometallic ligand in order to construct hetero-bimetallic architectures. By combining the flexibility from the arm-like molecule bdpfa with AgI ions, a novel complex [Ag2(bdpfa)](ClO4)2·(H2O)2 (1) was obtained. Single crystal X-ray analysis has revealed that complex 1 forms a hetero-trinuclear sandwich-type complex with Ag-Ag bridging. Furthermore, the preliminary electrochemical properties of the ligand and complex were investigated.

  6. The role of Mott-Schottky heterojunctions in Ag-Ag8SnS6 as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Qingquan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan; Liang, Na; Xu, Miao; Chen, Wenlong; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2015-03-01

    Well-defined uniform pyramidal Ag-Ag8SnS6 heterodimers are prepared via a one-pot method. A plausible formation mechanism for the unique structures based on a seed-growth process and an etching effect due to oleylamine is proposed. The formed metal-semiconductor Mott-Schottky heterojunction promotes electron transfer from semiconducting Ag8 SnS6 to metallic Ag, which catalyzes the reduction of I3 (-) to I(-). When used as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells, the heterodimers show comparable performance to platinum.

  7. Joint IAMAS/IAHS Symposium J1 on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohring, G.; Aoki, T.; Halpern D.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Charlock, T.; Joseph, J.; Labitzke, K.; Raschke, E.; Smith, W.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy papers were presented at the two-and-a-half-day Symposium on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. The symposium was jointly organized by the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). Global observing systems are receiving increased attention in connection with such problems as monitoring global climate change. The symposium included papers on observational requirements; measurement methodologies; descriptions of available datasets; results of analysis of observational data; plans for future observing systems, including the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS); and the programs and plans of the space agencies.

  8. Advances in Landslide Nowcasting: Evaluation of a Global and Regional Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia Bach; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Adler, Robert; Hong, Yang; Kumar, Sujay; Lerner-Lam, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    represents an important step forward in advancing regional and global-scale landslide hazard assessment.

  9. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Butler, J. H.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  10. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-05-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CC14 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  11. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  12. Advances in Landslide Hazard Forecasting: Evaluation of Global and Regional Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia B.; Adler, Robert; Hone, Yang; Kumar, Sujay; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Lerner-Lam, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    algorithm performance accuracy include incorporating additional triggering factors such as tectonic activity, anthropogenic impacts and soil moisture into the algorithm calculation. Despite these limitations, the methodology presented in this regional evaluation is both straightforward to calculate and easy to interpret, making results transferable between regions and allowing findings to be placed within an inter-comparison framework. The regional algorithm scenario represents an important step in advancing regional and global-scale landslide hazard assessment and forecasting.

  13. Asymmetry-induced resistive switching in Ag-Ag2S-Ag memristors enabling a simplified atomic-scale memory design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubicza, Agnes; Manrique, Dávid Zs.; Pósa, László; Lambert, Colin J.; Mihály, György; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András

    2016-08-01

    Prevailing models of resistive switching arising from electrochemical formation of conducting filaments across solid state ionic conductors commonly attribute the observed polarity of the voltage-biased switching to the sequence of the active and inert electrodes confining the resistive switching memory cell. Here we demonstrate stable switching behaviour in metallic Ag-Ag2S-Ag nanojunctions at room temperature exhibiting similar characteristics. Our experimental results and numerical simulations reveal that the polarity of the switchings is solely determined by the geometrical asymmetry of the electrode surfaces. By the lithographical design of a proof of principle device we demonstrate the merits of simplified fabrication of atomic-scale, robust planar Ag2S memory cells.

  14. Asymmetry-induced resistive switching in Ag-Ag2S-Ag memristors enabling a simplified atomic-scale memory design

    PubMed Central

    Gubicza, Agnes; Manrique, Dávid Zs.; Pósa, László; Lambert, Colin J.; Mihály, György; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing models of resistive switching arising from electrochemical formation of conducting filaments across solid state ionic conductors commonly attribute the observed polarity of the voltage-biased switching to the sequence of the active and inert electrodes confining the resistive switching memory cell. Here we demonstrate stable switching behaviour in metallic Ag-Ag2S-Ag nanojunctions at room temperature exhibiting similar characteristics. Our experimental results and numerical simulations reveal that the polarity of the switchings is solely determined by the geometrical asymmetry of the electrode surfaces. By the lithographical design of a proof of principle device we demonstrate the merits of simplified fabrication of atomic-scale, robust planar Ag2S memory cells. PMID:27488426

  15. Asymmetry-induced resistive switching in Ag-Ag2S-Ag memristors enabling a simplified atomic-scale memory design.

    PubMed

    Gubicza, Agnes; Manrique, Dávid Zs; Pósa, László; Lambert, Colin J; Mihály, György; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing models of resistive switching arising from electrochemical formation of conducting filaments across solid state ionic conductors commonly attribute the observed polarity of the voltage-biased switching to the sequence of the active and inert electrodes confining the resistive switching memory cell. Here we demonstrate stable switching behaviour in metallic Ag-Ag2S-Ag nanojunctions at room temperature exhibiting similar characteristics. Our experimental results and numerical simulations reveal that the polarity of the switchings is solely determined by the geometrical asymmetry of the electrode surfaces. By the lithographical design of a proof of principle device we demonstrate the merits of simplified fabrication of atomic-scale, robust planar Ag2S memory cells. PMID:27488426

  16. Compression of regions in the global advanced very high resolution radiometer 1-km data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kess, Barbara L.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    The global advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data set is a 10-band image produced at USGS' EROS Data Center for the study of the world's land surfaces. The image contains masked regions for non-land areas which are identical in each band but vary between data sets. They comprise over 75 percent of this 9.7 gigabyte image. The mask is compressed once and stored separately from the land data which is compressed for each of the 10 bands. The mask is stored in a hierarchical format for multi-resolution decompression of geographic subwindows of the image. The land for each band is compressed by modifying a method that ignores fill values. This multi-spectral region compression efficiently compresses the region data and precludes fill values from interfering with land compression statistics. Results show that the masked regions in a one-byte test image (6.5 Gigabytes) compress to 0.2 percent of the 557,756,146 bytes they occupy in the original image, resulting in a compression ratio of 89.9 percent for the entire image.

  17. Requirements and Technology Advances for Global Wind Measurement with a Coherent Lidar: A Shrinking Gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Koch, Grady J.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.; Emmitt, G. David

    2007-01-01

    Early concepts to globally measure vertical profiles of vector horizontal wind from space planned on an orbit height of 525 km, a single pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system to cover the full troposphere, and a continuously rotating telescope/scanner that mandated a vertical line of sight wind profile from each laser shot. Under these conditions system studies found that laser pulse energies of approximately 20 J at 10 Hz pulse repetition rate with a rotating telescope diameter of approximately 1.5 m was required. Further requirements to use solid state laser technology and an eyesafe wavelength led to the relatively new 2-micron solid state laser. With demonstrated pulse energies near 20 mJ at 5 Hz, and no demonstration of a rotating telescope maintaining diffraction limited performance in space, the technology gap between requirements and demonstration was formidable. Fortunately the involved scientists and engineers set out to reduce the gap, and through a combination of clever ideas and technology advances over the last 15 years, they have succeeded. This paper will detail the gap reducing factors and will present the current status.

  18. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Preceptor and Student Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ratka, Anna; Gleason, Shaun E.; Ombengi, David N.; Tofade, Toyin; Wigle, Patricia R.; Zapantis, Antonia; Ryan, Melody; Connor, Sharon; Jonkman, Lauren J.; Ochs, Leslie; Jungnickel, Paul W.; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Alsharif, Naser Z.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the key areas of consideration for global/international advanced pharmacy practice experience (G/I APPE) preceptors, students and learning objectives. At the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the GPE SIG prepared and presented an initial report on the G/IAPPE initiatives. Round table discussions were conducted at the 2014 AACP Annual Meeting to document GPE SIG member input on key areas in the report. Literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE with keywords was conducted to expand this report. In this paper, considerations related to preceptors and students and learning outcomes are described. Preceptors for G/I APPEs may vary based on the learning outcomes of the experience. Student learning outcomes for G/I APPEs may vary based on the type of experiential site. Recommendations and future directions for development of G/IAPPEs are presented. Development of a successful G/I APPE requires significant planning and consideration of appropriate qualifications for preceptors and students. PMID:27170810

  19. The COPERNIC3 project: how AREVA is successfully developing an advanced global fuel rod performance code

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, Ch.; Mailhe, P.; Sontheimer, F.; Landskron, H.; Deuble, D.; Arimescu, V.I.; Billaux, M.

    2007-07-01

    Fuel performance is a key factor for minimizing operating costs in nuclear plants. One of the important aspects of fuel performance is fuel rod design, based upon reliable tools able to verify the safety of current fuel solutions, prevent potential issues in new core managements and guide the invention of tomorrow's fuels. AREVA is developing its future global fuel rod code COPERNIC3, which is able to calculate the thermal-mechanical behavior of advanced fuel rods in nuclear plants. Some of the best practices to achieve this goal are described, by reviewing the three pillars of a fuel rod code: the database, the modelling and the computer and numerical aspects. At first, the COPERNIC3 database content is described, accompanied by the tools developed to effectively exploit the data. Then is given an overview of the main modelling aspects, by emphasizing the thermal, fission gas release and mechanical sub-models. In the last part, numerical solutions are detailed in order to increase the computational performance of the code, with a presentation of software configuration management solutions. (authors)

  20. Global Climate Monitoring with the EOS PM-Platform's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning 2 Radiometer (AMSR-E) is being built by NASDA to fly on NASA's PM Platform (now called Aqua) in December 2000. This is in addition to a copy of AMSR that will be launched on Japan's ADEOS-II satellite in 2001. The AMSRs improve upon the window frequency radiometer heritage of the SSM/I and SMMR instruments. Major improvements over those instruments include channels spanning the 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz frequency range, and higher spatial resolution from a 1.6 m reflector (AMSR-E) and 2.0 m reflector (ADEOS-II AMSR). The ADEOS-II AMSR also will have 50.3 and 52.8 GHz channels, providing sensitivity to lower tropospheric temperature. NASA funds an AMSR-E Science Team to provide algorithms for the routine production of a number of standard geophysical products. These products will be generated by the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville, Alabama. While there is a separate NASDA-sponsored activity to develop algorithms and produce products from AMSR, as well as a Joint (NASDA-NASA) AMSR Science Team 3 activity, here I will review only the AMSR-E Team's algorithms and how they benefit from the new capabilities that AMSR-E will provide. The US Team's products will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

  1. Top-down Validation of Global and East Asian Emissions of Tetrafluoromethane and Hexaflurorethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Muhle, J.; Fraser, P. J.; Li, S.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Leist, M.; Stohl, A.; Park, M.; Weiss, R. F.; Kim, K.

    2010-12-01

    CF4 (tetrafluoromethane, PFC-14) and C2F6 (hexafluororethane, PFC-116) are powerful greenhouse gases (100-year Global Warming Potentials of 7,390 and 12,200, respectively), and are mostly emitted during aluminum manufacture and semiconductor production. Global emissions of these species were recently reported by Mühle et al. (2010) using in situ measurements of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) combined with a global 12-box inversion model. The study found a discrepancy of up to ~6 Gg/yr for CF4 in recent years between their measurement derived (top-down) and industry-reported (bottom-up) emissions, and speculated that underestimated emissions from aluminum manufacture in China could be one of the sources of this discrepancy. In this study, we use in situ measurements taken at Cape Grim (Tasmania, Australia) and Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) within AGAGE to estimate C2F6/CF4 emission ratios (ER) from aluminum manufacture (in Australia) and semiconductor production (in Korea), deriving ERs of 0.11 (by mass) and 0.42 (by mass), respectively. Assuming that all emissions of CF4 and C2F6 occur from just these two sources, industry-specific emissions of these compounds can be calculated from the following simple formulas: ECF4,global = ECF4,Al + ECF4,SC (1) EC2F6,global = (ECF4,Al)*ERAl + (ECF4,SC)*ERSC (2) whereby ECF4,global and EC2F6,global are global emissions of CF4 and C2F6 reported in Mühle et al. (2010), and RAl and RSC are the emission ratios of C2F6/CF4 derived for the aluminum industry and the semiconductor industry, respectively, thus solving for the global CF4 emissions from the aluminum industry (ECF4,Al) and semiconductor industry (ECF4,SC), respectively. Analysis of global CF4 emissions from 1990-2008 show that bottom-up emissions reported by the International Aluminum Institute (IAI, 2010) are in good agreement with top-down emissions derived for the aluminum industry until 2005, after which time the industry reports are

  2. Mapping and Modeling Web Portal to Advance Global Monitoring and Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, G.; Malhotra, S.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathulla, S.; Goodale, C. E.; Ramirez, P.; Kim, R. M.; Rodriguez, L.; Law, E.

    2011-12-01

    principal investigators to share their research and analysis seamlessly. In addition, this extension will allow users to easily share their tools and data, and to enrich their mapping and analysis experiences. In this talk, we will describe the advanced data management and portal technologies used to power this collaborative environment. We will further illustrate how this environment can enable, enhance and advance global monitoring and climate research.

  3. Initial global 2-D shielding analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source core and reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This document describes the initial global 2-D shielding analyses for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor, the D{sub 2}O reflector, the reflector vessel, and the first 200 mm of light water beyond the reflector vessel. Flux files generated here will later serve as source terms in subsequent shielding analyses. In addition to reporting fluxes and other data at key points of interest, a major objective of this report was to document how these analyses were performed, the phenomena that were included, and checks that were made to verify that these phenomena were properly modeled. In these shielding analyses, the fixed neutron source distribution in the core was based on the `lifetime-averaged` spatial power distribution. Secondary gamma production cross sections in the fuel were modified so as to account intrinsically for delayed fission gammas in the fuel as well as prompt fission gammas. In and near the fuel, this increased the low-energy gamma fluxes by 50 to 250%, but out near the reflector vessel, these same fluxes changed by only a few percent. Sensitivity studies with respect to mesh size were performed, and a new 2-D mesh distribution developed after some problems were discovered with respect to the use of numerous elongated mesh cells in the reflector. All of the shielding analyses were performed sing the ANSL-V 39n/44g coupled library with 25 thermal neutron groups in order to obtain a rigorous representation of the thermal neutron spectrum throughout the reflector. Because of upscatter in the heavy water, convergence was very slow. Ultimately, the fission cross section in the various materials had to be artificially modified in order to solve this fixed source problem as an eigenvalue problem and invoke the Vondy error-mode extrapolation technique which greatly accelerated convergence in the large 2-D RZ DORT analyses. While this was quite effective, 150 outer iterations (over energy) were still required.

  4. Global Climate Monitoring with the Eos Pm-Platform's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) is being built by NASDA to fly on NASA's PM Platform (now called "Aqua") in December 2000. This is in addition to a copy of AMSR that will be launched on Japan's ADEOS-11 satellite in 2001. The AMSRs improve upon the window frequency radiometer heritage of the SSM[l and SMMR instruments. Major improvements over those instruments include channels spanning the 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz frequency range, and higher spatial resolution from a 1.6 m reflector (AMSR-E) and 2.0 m reflector (ADEOS-11 AMSR). The ADEOS-11 AMSR also will have 50.3 and 52.8 GHz channels, providing sensitivity to lower tropospheric temperature. NASA funds an AMSR-E Science Team to provide algorithms for the routine production of a number of standard geophysical products. These products will be generated by the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville, Alabama. While there is a separate NASDA-sponsored activity to develop algorithms and produce products from AMSR, as well as a Joint (NASDA-NASA) AMSR Science Team activity, here I will review only the AMSR-E Team's algorithms and how they benefit from the new capabilities that AMSR-E will provide. The U.S. Team's products will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Further information about AMSR-E can be obtained at http://www.jzhcc.msfc.nasa.Vov/AMSR.

  5. Advances in Global Magnetosphere Modeling at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Maria

    2016-07-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) hosts a set of state-of-the-art global magnetosphere models that are capable to reproduce a broad range of physical phenomena in Earth's magnetosphere. We will discuss successes and challenges in global magnetosphere modeling and the role of non-MHD effects on global dynamics.

  6. Non-State Actors, and the Advance of Frontier Higher Education Markets in the Global South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.; Komljenovic, Janja

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the growth of global non-state and multilateral actors in the "global south" and the creation of frontier markets in the higher education sector. These developments are part of market-making changes in higher education as the sector is opened to new actors, logics, and innovative services, aimed at "the global…

  7. Advances In Understanding Global Water Cycle With Advent of GPM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    During the coming decade, the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space based on an international fleet of satellites operated as a constellation. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the Earth's water cycle from a global measurement perspective and on down to regional scales and below. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper first presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its overriding scientific objectives for climate, weather, and hydrology flow from the anticipated improvements that are being planned for the constellation-based measuring system. Next, the paper shows how the GPM observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is simply part of the natural

  8. Shared learning in an interconnected world: innovations to advance global health equity.

    PubMed

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Nutt, Cameron T; Mutabazi, Vincent; Karema, Corine; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Gasana, Michel; Drobac, Peter C; Rich, Michael L; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Murphy, Michael R; Wagner, Claire M; Makaka, Andrew; Ruton, Hinda; Mody, Gita N; Zurovcik, Danielle R; Niconchuk, Jonathan A; Mugeni, Cathy; Ngabo, Fidele; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Asiimwe, Anita; Farmer, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    The notion of "reverse innovation"--that some insights from low-income countries might offer transferable lessons for wealthier contexts--is increasingly common in the global health and business strategy literature. Yet the perspectives of researchers and policymakers in settings where these innovations are developed have been largely absent from the discussion to date. In this Commentary, we present examples of programmatic, technological, and research-based innovations from Rwanda, and offer reflections on how the global health community might leverage innovative partnerships for shared learning and improved health outcomes in all countries.

  9. Shared learning in an interconnected world: innovations to advance global health equity.

    PubMed

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Nutt, Cameron T; Mutabazi, Vincent; Karema, Corine; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Gasana, Michel; Drobac, Peter C; Rich, Michael L; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Murphy, Michael R; Wagner, Claire M; Makaka, Andrew; Ruton, Hinda; Mody, Gita N; Zurovcik, Danielle R; Niconchuk, Jonathan A; Mugeni, Cathy; Ngabo, Fidele; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Asiimwe, Anita; Farmer, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    The notion of "reverse innovation"--that some insights from low-income countries might offer transferable lessons for wealthier contexts--is increasingly common in the global health and business strategy literature. Yet the perspectives of researchers and policymakers in settings where these innovations are developed have been largely absent from the discussion to date. In this Commentary, we present examples of programmatic, technological, and research-based innovations from Rwanda, and offer reflections on how the global health community might leverage innovative partnerships for shared learning and improved health outcomes in all countries. PMID:24119388

  10. Global emissions of refrigerants HCFC-22 and HFC-134a: Unforeseen seasonal contributions

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Bin; Montzka, Stephen A.; Miller, Scot M.; Elkins, James W.; Moore, Fred L.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Miller, Ben R.; Weiss, Ray F.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    HCFC-22 (CHClF2) and HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) are two major gases currently used worldwide in domestic and commercial refrigeration and air conditioning. HCFC-22 contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion, and both species are potent greenhouse gases. In this work, we study in situ observations of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a taken from research aircraft over the Pacific Ocean in a 3-y span [HIaper-Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) 2009–2011] and combine these data with long-term ground observations from global surface sites [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) networks]. We find the global annual emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a have increased substantially over the past two decades. Emissions of HFC-134a are consistently higher compared with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) inventory since 2000, by 60% more in recent years (2009–2012). Apart from these decadal emission constraints, we also quantify recent seasonal emission patterns showing that summertime emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a are two to three times higher than wintertime emissions. This unforeseen large seasonal variation indicates that unaccounted mechanisms controlling refrigerant gas emissions are missing in the existing inventory estimates. Possible mechanisms enhancing refrigerant losses in summer are (i) higher vapor pressure in the sealed compartment of the system at summer high temperatures and (ii) more frequent use and service of refrigerators and air conditioners in summer months. Our results suggest that engineering (e.g., better temperature/vibration-resistant system sealing and new system design of more compact/efficient components) and regulatory (e.g., reinforcing system service regulations) steps to improve containment of these gases from working devices could effectively reduce their release to the atmosphere. PMID:25422438

  11. Global emissions of refrigerants HCFC-22 and HFC-134a: unforeseen seasonal contributions.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Bin; Patra, Prabir K; Montzka, Stephen A; Miller, Scot M; Elkins, James W; Moore, Fred L; Atlas, Elliot L; Miller, Ben R; Weiss, Ray F; Prinn, Ronald G; Wofsy, Steven C

    2014-12-01

    HCFC-22 (CHClF2) and HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) are two major gases currently used worldwide in domestic and commercial refrigeration and air conditioning. HCFC-22 contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion, and both species are potent greenhouse gases. In this work, we study in situ observations of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a taken from research aircraft over the Pacific Ocean in a 3-y span [HIaper-Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) 2009-2011] and combine these data with long-term ground observations from global surface sites [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) networks]. We find the global annual emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a have increased substantially over the past two decades. Emissions of HFC-134a are consistently higher compared with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) inventory since 2000, by 60% more in recent years (2009-2012). Apart from these decadal emission constraints, we also quantify recent seasonal emission patterns showing that summertime emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a are two to three times higher than wintertime emissions. This unforeseen large seasonal variation indicates that unaccounted mechanisms controlling refrigerant gas emissions are missing in the existing inventory estimates. Possible mechanisms enhancing refrigerant losses in summer are (i) higher vapor pressure in the sealed compartment of the system at summer high temperatures and (ii) more frequent use and service of refrigerators and air conditioners in summer months. Our results suggest that engineering (e.g., better temperature/vibration-resistant system sealing and new system design of more compact/efficient components) and regulatory (e.g., reinforcing system service regulations) steps to improve containment of these gases from working devices could effectively reduce their release to the atmosphere. PMID:25422438

  12. Accelerating the Global Workforce Demand for Nurse Informaticians: Advanced Health Informatics Certification (AHIC).

    PubMed

    Gadd, Cynthia; Delaney, Connie W; de Fátima Marin, Heimar; Greenwood, Karen; Williamson, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in professional recognition of nursing informatics vary by country but examples exist of training programs moving from curriculum-based education to competency based frameworks to produce highly skilled nursing informaticians. This panel will discuss a significant credentialing project in the United States that should further enhance professional recognition of highly skilled nurses matriculating from NI programs as well as nurses functioning in positions where informatics-induced transformation is occurring. The panel will discuss the professionalization of health informatics by describing core content, training requirements, education needs, and administrative framework applicable for the creation of an Advanced Health Informatics Certification (AHIC). PMID:27332309

  13. Advancing the National and Global Knowledge Economy: The Role of Research Universities in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Research universities are a central part of all academic systems. They are the key points of international contact and involvement. Research is produced, disseminated and in many cases imported. For developing countries, the mechanisms for the involvement of research universities in the global knowledge economy is complex, and includes issues of…

  14. Constructing Patriotism: Teaching History and Memories in Global Worlds. Advances in Cultural Psychology: Constructing Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carretero, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Memory construction and national identity are key issues in our societies, as well as it is patriotism. How can we nowadays believe and give sense to traditional narrations that explain the origins of nations and communities? How do these narrations function in a process of globalization? How should we remember the recent past? In the construction…

  15. Advancing global marine biogeography research with open-source GIS software and cloud-computing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujioka, Ei; Vanden Berghe, Edward; Donnelly, Ben; Castillo, Julio; Cleary, Jesse; Holmes, Chris; McKnight, Sean; Halpin, patrick

    2012-01-01

    Across many scientific domains, the ability to aggregate disparate datasets enables more meaningful global analyses. Within marine biology, the Census of Marine Life served as the catalyst for such a global data aggregation effort. Under the Census framework, the Ocean Biogeographic Information System was established to coordinate an unprecedented aggregation of global marine biogeography data. The OBIS data system now contains 31.3 million observations, freely accessible through a geospatial portal. The challenges of storing, querying, disseminating, and mapping a global data collection of this complexity and magnitude are significant. In the face of declining performance and expanding feature requests, a redevelopment of the OBIS data system was undertaken. Following an Open Source philosophy, the OBIS technology stack was rebuilt using PostgreSQL, PostGIS, GeoServer and OpenLayers. This approach has markedly improved the performance and online user experience while maintaining a standards-compliant and interoperable framework. Due to the distributed nature of the project and increasing needs for storage, scalability and deployment flexibility, the entire hardware and software stack was built on a Cloud Computing environment. The flexibility of the platform, combined with the power of the application stack, enabled rapid re-development of the OBIS infrastructure, and ensured complete standards-compliance.

  16. Government/industry partnership: A revolutionary approach in global leadership of advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Zeh, C.M.

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a government/industry partnership program to greatly improve the capabilities of U.S. gas turbine technology. A new and challenging program named the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) has been initiated by DOE. The technical and business objectives of this initiative are to challenge the bounds of high performance capabilities of gas turbines, meet stringent environmental requirements, and produce lower cost electric power and cogeneration steam. This program will also yield greater societal benefits through continued expansion of high skilled U.S. jobs and export of U.S. products world wide. A progress report on the ATS program pertaining to program status at DOE will be presented and reviewed in this paper. A preliminary design of an industrial advanced turbine system configuration will also be outlined in the paper. The technical challenges; advanced critical technologies incorporation, analytical and experimental solutions, and test results of an advanced gas turbine meeting the DOE goals will be described and discussed.

  17. Recent Advances in Micro/Nanotechnologies for Global Control of Hepatitis B Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, U. Hakan; Inci, Fatih; Wang, ShuQi; Toy, Mehlika; Tekin, H. Cumhur; Javaid, Asad; Lau, Daryl T.-Y.; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    The control of Hepatits B virus (HBV) infection is a challenging task, specifically in developing countries where there is limited access to diagnostics and antiviral treatment mainly due to high costs and insufficient healthcare infrastructure. Although current diagnostic technologies can reliably detect HBV, they are relatively laborious, impractical and expensive for resource-limited settings. Advances in micro/nanotechnology are pioneering the development of new generation methodologies in diagnosis and screening of HBV. Owing to combination of nanomaterials (metal/inorganic nanopaticles, carbon nanotubes, etc.) with microfabrication technologies, utilization of miniaturized sensors detecting HBV and other viruses from ultra-low volume of blood, serum and plasma is realized. The state-of-the-art microfluidic devices with integrated nanotechnologies potentially allow for HBV screening at low cost. This review aims to highlight recent advances in nanotechnology and microfabrication processes that are employed for developing point-of-care (POC) HBV assays. PMID:25450190

  18. Research ethics in global mental health: advancing culturally responsive mental health research.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

    2014-12-01

    Global mental health research is needed to inform effective and efficient services and policy interventions within and between countries. Ethical reflection should accompany all GMHR and human resource capacity endeavors to ensure high standards of respect for participants and communities and to raise public debate leading to changes in policies and regulations. The views and circumstances of ethno-cultural and disadvantaged communities in the Majority and Minority world need to be considered to enhance scientific merit, public awareness, and social justice. The same applies to people with vulnerabilities yet who are simultaneously capable, such as children and youth. The ethical principles of respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence/non-maleficence, justice, and relationality require careful contextualization for research involving human beings. Building on the work of Fisher and colleagues (2002), this article highlights some strategies to stimulate the ethical conduct of global mental health research and to guide decision-making for culturally responsible research, such as developing culturally sensitive informed consent and disclosure policies and procedures; paying special attention to socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental risks and benefits; and ensuring meaningful community and individual participation. Research and capacity-building partnerships, political will, and access to resources are needed to stimulate global mental health research and consolidate ethical practice.

  19. Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Dlugokencky, E.; Ishijima, K.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Langenfelds, R.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Manizza, M.; Rigby, M.; O'Doherty, S.; Patra, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; van der Schoot, M.; Fraser, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Elkins, J. W.

    2013-07-01

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide ( N2O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N2O are available from measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and at Trinidad Head, California using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. The Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also discrete air samples collected in flasks and in situ measurements from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of species including N2O. In addition to these major networks, we include in situ and aircraft measurements from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and flask measurements from the Tohoku University and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) networks. All measurements show increasing atmospheric mole fractions of N2O, with a varying growth rate of 0.1-0.7 % yr-1, resulting in a 7.4% increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction between 1979 and 2011. Using existing emission inventories as well as bottom-up process modeling results, we first create globally-gridded a priori N2O emissions over the 37 yr since 1975. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions for five source sectors from 13 regions in the world. This is the first time that all of these measurements from multiple networks have been combined to determine emissions. Our inversion indicates that global and regional N2O emissions have an increasing trend between 1995 and 2008. Despite large uncertainties, a significant increase is seen from the Asian agricultural sector in the recent years, most likely

  20. Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Ishijima, K.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Langenfelds, R.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Manizza, M.; Rigby, M. L.; Odoherty, S. J.; Patra, P. K.; Harth, C.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; van der Schoot, M.; Fraser, P.; Steele, P.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Elkins, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N2O are available from measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and at Trinidad Head, California using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. The Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also discrete air samples collected in flasks and in situ measurements from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of species including N2O. In addition to these major networks, we include in situ and aircraft measurements from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and flask measurements from the Tohoku University and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) networks. All measurements show increasing atmospheric mole fractions of N2O, with a varying growth rate of 0.1-0.7%yr-1, resulting in a 7.4% increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction between 1979 and 2011. Using existing emission inventories as well as bottom-up process modeling results, we first create globally-gridded a priori N2O emissions over the 37 yr since 1975. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions for five source sectors from 13 regions in the world. This is the first time that all of these measurements from multiple networks have been combined to determine emissions. Our inversion indicates that global and regional N2O emissions have an increasing trend between 1995 and 2008. Despite large uncertainties, a significant increase is seen from the Asian agricultural sector in the recent years, most likely due

  1. Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Dlugokencky, E.; Ishijima, K.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Langenfelds, R.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Manizza, M.; Rigby, M.; O'Doherty, S.; Patra, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; van der Schoot, M.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Elkins, J. W.

    2014-05-01

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N2O are available from measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and at Trinidad Head, California using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. The Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also collected discrete air samples in flasks and in situ measurements from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of species including N2O. In addition to these major networks, we include in situ and aircraft measurements from the National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES) and flask measurements from the Tohoku University and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) networks. All measurements show increasing atmospheric mole fractions of N2O, with a varying growth rate of 0.1-0.7% per year, resulting in a 7.4% increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction between 1979 and 2011. Using existing emission inventories as well as bottom-up process modeling results, we first create globally gridded a priori N2O emissions over the 37 years since 1975. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions for five source sectors from 13 regions in the world. This is the first time that all of these measurements from multiple networks have been combined to determine emissions. Our inversion indicates that global and regional N2O emissions have an increasing trend between 1995 and 2008. Despite large uncertainties, a significant increase is seen from the Asian agricultural sector in recent years, most likely

  2. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of peony-like Ag/Ag0.68V2O5 hybrid as high-performance anode and cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Denghu; Li, Xiaona; Zhu, Yongchun; Liang, Jianwen; Zhang, Kailong; Qian, Yitai

    2014-04-01

    A peony-like Ag/Ag0.68V2O5 hybrid assembled from nanosheets with the thickness of 40 nm was synthesized through a one-pot hydrothermal approach from vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), oxalic acid (H2C2O4), and silver nitrate (AgNO3) at 180 °C for 24 h. The hybrid exhibits high performance as both anode and cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the as-prepared Ag/Ag0.68V2O5 hybrid displayed excellent cycling stability, especially as an anode material. The resulting anode retains 100% of the initial capacity after 1000 cycles under a current density of 400 mA g-1. This phenomenon may be attributed to electron conductivity improvement by the existence of metallic silver in the hybrid in addition to the convenient access to lithium ion ingress/egress because of its unique structure.A peony-like Ag/Ag0.68V2O5 hybrid assembled from nanosheets with the thickness of 40 nm was synthesized through a one-pot hydrothermal approach from vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), oxalic acid (H2C2O4), and silver nitrate (AgNO3) at 180 °C for 24 h. The hybrid exhibits high performance as both anode and cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the as-prepared Ag/Ag0.68V2O5 hybrid displayed excellent cycling stability, especially as an anode material. The resulting anode retains 100% of the initial capacity after 1000 cycles under a current density of 400 mA g-1. This phenomenon may be attributed to electron conductivity improvement by the existence of metallic silver in the hybrid in addition to the convenient access to lithium ion ingress/egress because of its unique structure. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00250d

  3. Beyond indicators: advances in global HIV monitoring and evaluation during the PEPFAR era.

    PubMed

    Porter, Laura E; Bouey, Paul D; Curtis, Sian; Hochgesang, Mindy; Idele, Priscilla; Jefferson, Bobby; Lemma, Wuleta; Myrick, Roger; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Prybylski, Dimitri; Souteyrand, Yves; Tulli, Tuhuma

    2012-08-15

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is fundamental to global HIV program implementation and has been a cornerstone of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Rapid results were crucial to demonstrating feasibility and scalability of HIV care and treatment services early in PEPFAR. When national HIV M&E systems were nascent, the rapid influx of funds and the emergency expansion of HIV services contributed to the development of uncoordinated "parallel" information systems to serve donor demands for information. Close collaboration of PEPFAR with multilateral and national partners improved harmonization of indicators, standards, methods, tools, and reports. Concurrent PEPFAR investments in surveillance, surveys, program monitoring, health information systems, and human capacity development began to show signs of progress toward sustainable country-owned systems. Awareness of the need for and usefulness of data increased, far beyond discussions of indicators and reporting. Emphasis has turned toward ensuring the quality of data and using available data to improve the quality of care. Assessing progress toward an AIDS-free generation requires that the global community can measure the reduction of new HIV infections in children and adults and monitor the coverage, quality, and outcomes of highly efficacious interventions in combination. Building national M&E systems requires sustained efforts over long periods of time with effective leadership and coordination. PEPFAR, in close collaboration with its global and national partners, is well positioned to transform the successes and challenges associated with early rapid scale-up into future opportunities for sustainable, cost-effective, country-owned programs and systems. PMID:22797733

  4. Beyond indicators: advances in global HIV monitoring and evaluation during the PEPFAR era.

    PubMed

    Porter, Laura E; Bouey, Paul D; Curtis, Sian; Hochgesang, Mindy; Idele, Priscilla; Jefferson, Bobby; Lemma, Wuleta; Myrick, Roger; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Prybylski, Dimitri; Souteyrand, Yves; Tulli, Tuhuma

    2012-08-15

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is fundamental to global HIV program implementation and has been a cornerstone of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Rapid results were crucial to demonstrating feasibility and scalability of HIV care and treatment services early in PEPFAR. When national HIV M&E systems were nascent, the rapid influx of funds and the emergency expansion of HIV services contributed to the development of uncoordinated "parallel" information systems to serve donor demands for information. Close collaboration of PEPFAR with multilateral and national partners improved harmonization of indicators, standards, methods, tools, and reports. Concurrent PEPFAR investments in surveillance, surveys, program monitoring, health information systems, and human capacity development began to show signs of progress toward sustainable country-owned systems. Awareness of the need for and usefulness of data increased, far beyond discussions of indicators and reporting. Emphasis has turned toward ensuring the quality of data and using available data to improve the quality of care. Assessing progress toward an AIDS-free generation requires that the global community can measure the reduction of new HIV infections in children and adults and monitor the coverage, quality, and outcomes of highly efficacious interventions in combination. Building national M&E systems requires sustained efforts over long periods of time with effective leadership and coordination. PEPFAR, in close collaboration with its global and national partners, is well positioned to transform the successes and challenges associated with early rapid scale-up into future opportunities for sustainable, cost-effective, country-owned programs and systems.

  5. Advancing global hydro-climatological data archives to support climate change impact assessments on water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saile, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variations and changing climate will very likely alter the rate and nature of hydrological processes and consequently affect water resources in many regions. Current General Circulation Models and downscaling methods that are increasingly used to assess changes in the water cycle and water resource vulnerabilities introduce a cascade of uncertainties that cannot realistically be dealt with at the moment and are too inaccurate to support improved decision-making for water management and for future water systems design. Therefore, water managers need not only improved hydrological and climate modelling and downscaling methods but also access to adequate hydro-meteorological monitoring networks. The Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H), a joint effort by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and several global observing systems, aims at integrating in-situ and remote sensing hydrological observations with hydrological model results held by its partner institutions to support a wide range of hydrological applications including research of global and regional climate change. Adhering to the different needs of all data users (scientists, policy makes and other stakeholders) and bridging the gap between the distributed datasets, currently a new information system is being developed to enable web-based discovery, access and analysis of observation data and derived products served through GTN-H. This system is built on international standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) using open standardized web services, namely (1) Catalogue Services for data discovery, (2) Web Map Services for data visualization and (3) Web Feature Services, Web Coverage Services and Sensor Observation Services for data access. This presentation will give an overview about the GTN-H data archive and the design of the new information system including an outlook of its potential use for water related climate change impact assessments.

  6. Recent advances in satellite observations of solar variability and global atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    The launch of Nimbus 4 in April 1974 has made possible simultaneous measurements of the ultraviolet solar irradiance and the global distribution of atmospheric ozone by the monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) and backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) experiments respectively. Two long lived ultraviolet active solar regions which are about 180 deg apart in solar longitude were observed to be associated with central meridian passages of solar magnetic sector boundaries. The boundaries may be significant in the evaluation of correlations between solar magnetic sector structure and atmospheric circulation.

  7. The TMS Magnesium Committee: Committed to the Advancement of Global Magnesium Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sillekens, Wim H.; Nyberg, Eric A.

    2011-04-21

    The TMS Magnesium Committee was established in the year 2000 as a spin-off of the Reactive Metals Committee, triggered by the strong global growth of magnesium being used in a variety of structural lightweight applications since the mid-1990’s. Since then the committee has seen a distinct development in terms of size, participation and focus. The article at hand outlines this development by recapitulating the output of its two main activities: the annual Magnesium Technology Symposia and the JOM Special Issues dedicated to magnesium research and development. Further records on the Magnesium Committee are available from the committee homepage (accessible through http://members.tms.org).

  8. Advanced Technology Paths to Global Climate Stability: Energy for a Greenhouse Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffert, Martin I.; Caldeira, Ken; Benford, Gregory; Criswell, David R.; Green, Christopher; Herzog, Howard; Jain, Atul K.; Kheshgi, Haroon S.; Lackner, Klaus S.; Lewis, John S.; Lightfoot, H. Douglas; Manheimer, Wallace; Mankins, John C.; Mauel, Michael E.; Perkins, L. John; Schlesinger, Michael E.; Volk, Tyler; Wigley, Tom M. L.

    2002-11-01

    Stabilizing the carbon dioxide-induced component of climate change is an energy problem. Establishment of a course toward such stabilization will require the development within the coming decades of primary energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, in addition to efforts to reduce end-use energy demand. Mid-century primary power requirements that are free of carbon dioxide emissions could be several times what we now derive from fossil fuels (~1013 watts), even with improvements in energy efficiency. Here we survey possible future energy sources, evaluated for their capability to supply massive amounts of carbon emission-free energy and for their potential for large-scale commercialization. Possible candidates for primary energy sources include terrestrial solar and wind energy, solar power satellites, biomass, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, fission-fusion hybrids, and fossil fuels from which carbon has been sequestered. Non-primary power technologies that could contribute to climate stabilization include efficiency improvements, hydrogen production, storage and transport, superconducting global electric grids, and geoengineering. All of these approaches currently have severe deficiencies that limit their ability to stabilize global climate. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

  9. CONTEXT AND THE ADVANCEMENT OF A GLOBAL SCIENCE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: A COMMENTARY.

    PubMed

    Marfo, Kofi

    2016-03-01

    United Nations agencies mandated to address the needs of children around the developing (Majority) world, routinely create large global data sets mostly for purposes of surveillance and strategic planning of development aid. UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) have produced one of the largest sources of internationally comparable data on women and children. This monograph creatively and elegantly harnesses MICS data on 41 low- and middle-income countries to shed light on risk and protective factors associated with growing up a boy or girl in the developing world. In this commentary, I assess the monograph's contribution to the progress that our field must make toward greater geo-ecological and cultural inclusiveness of its knowledge base. I do so in the context of scholarship that is increasingly and justifiably questioning the relevance of mainstream developmental science outside the Euro-American world. I conclude that notwithstanding the limitations inherent in the data set, Bornstein, Putnick, Lansford, Deater-Deckard, and Bradley have done our field a great service by moving us further on a trajectory toward a more global science. PMID:27035454

  10. Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: energy for a greenhouse planet.

    PubMed

    Hoffert, Martin I; Caldeira, Ken; Benford, Gregory; Criswell, David R; Green, Christopher; Herzog, Howard; Jain, Atul K; Kheshgi, Haroon S; Lackner, Klaus S; Lewis, John S; Lightfoot, H Douglas; Manheimer, Wallace; Mankins, John C; Mauel, Michael E; Perkins, L John; Schlesinger, Michael E; Volk, Tyler; Wigley, Tom M L

    2002-11-01

    Stabilizing the carbon dioxide-induced component of climate change is an energy problem. Establishment of a course toward such stabilization will require the development within the coming decades of primary energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, in addition to efforts to reduce end-use energy demand. Mid-century primary power requirements that are free of carbon dioxide emissions could be several times what we now derive from fossil fuels (approximately 10(13) watts), even with improvements in energy efficiency. Here we survey possible future energy sources, evaluated for their capability to supply massive amounts of carbon emission-free energy and for their potential for large-scale commercialization. Possible candidates for primary energy sources include terrestrial solar and wind energy, solar power satellites, biomass, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, fission-fusion hybrids, and fossil fuels from which carbon has been sequestered. Non-primary power technologies that could contribute to climate stabilization include efficiency improvements, hydrogen production, storage and transport, superconducting global electric grids, and geoengineering. All of these approaches currently have severe deficiencies that limit their ability to stabilize global climate. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development. PMID:12411695

  11. Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: energy for a greenhouse planet.

    PubMed

    Hoffert, Martin I; Caldeira, Ken; Benford, Gregory; Criswell, David R; Green, Christopher; Herzog, Howard; Jain, Atul K; Kheshgi, Haroon S; Lackner, Klaus S; Lewis, John S; Lightfoot, H Douglas; Manheimer, Wallace; Mankins, John C; Mauel, Michael E; Perkins, L John; Schlesinger, Michael E; Volk, Tyler; Wigley, Tom M L

    2002-11-01

    Stabilizing the carbon dioxide-induced component of climate change is an energy problem. Establishment of a course toward such stabilization will require the development within the coming decades of primary energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, in addition to efforts to reduce end-use energy demand. Mid-century primary power requirements that are free of carbon dioxide emissions could be several times what we now derive from fossil fuels (approximately 10(13) watts), even with improvements in energy efficiency. Here we survey possible future energy sources, evaluated for their capability to supply massive amounts of carbon emission-free energy and for their potential for large-scale commercialization. Possible candidates for primary energy sources include terrestrial solar and wind energy, solar power satellites, biomass, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, fission-fusion hybrids, and fossil fuels from which carbon has been sequestered. Non-primary power technologies that could contribute to climate stabilization include efficiency improvements, hydrogen production, storage and transport, superconducting global electric grids, and geoengineering. All of these approaches currently have severe deficiencies that limit their ability to stabilize global climate. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

  12. Can Advances in Science and Technology Prevent Global Warming? A Critical Review of Limitations and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2006-07-03

    The most stringent emission scenarios published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) would result in the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at concentrations of approximately 550 ppm which would produce a global temperature increase of at least 2 C by 2100. Given the large uncertainties regarding the potential risks associated with this degree of global warming, it would be more prudent to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at or below current levels which, in turn, would require a greater than 20-fold reduction (i.e., ?95%) in per capita carbon emissions in industrialized nations within the next 50 to 100 years. Using the Kaya equation as a conceptual framework, this paper examines whether CO2 mitigation approaches such as energy efficiency improvements, carbon sequestration, and the development of carbon-free energy sources would be sufficient to bring about the required reduction in per capita carbon emissions without creating unforeseen negative impacts elsewhere. In terms of energy efficiency, large improvements (?5-fold) are in principle possible given aggressive investments in R&D and if market imperfections such as corporate subsidies are removed. However, energy efficiency improvements per se will not result in a reduction in carbon emissions if, as predicted by the IPCC, the size of the global economy has expanded 12-26 fold by 2100. Terrestrial carbon sequestration via reforestation and improved agricultural soil management has many environmental advantages but has only limited CO2 mitigation potential because the global terrestrial carbon sink (ca. 200 Gt C) is small relative to the size of fossil fuel deposits (?4000 Gt C). By contrast, very large amounts of CO2 can potentially be removed from the atmosphere via sequestration in geologic formations and oceans, but carbon storage is not permanent and is likely to create many unpredictable environmental consequences. Renewable solar energy can in theory provide

  13. Advances in global sensitivity analyses of demographic-based species distribution models to address uncertainties in dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Naujokaitis-Lewis, Ilona; Curtis, Janelle M R

    2016-01-01

    Developing a rigorous understanding of multiple global threats to species persistence requires the use of integrated modeling methods that capture processes which influence species distributions. Species distribution models (SDMs) coupled with population dynamics models can incorporate relationships between changing environments and demographics and are increasingly used to quantify relative extinction risks associated with climate and land-use changes. Despite their appeal, uncertainties associated with complex models can undermine their usefulness for advancing predictive ecology and informing conservation management decisions. We developed a computationally-efficient and freely available tool (GRIP 2.0) that implements and automates a global sensitivity analysis of coupled SDM-population dynamics models for comparing the relative influence of demographic parameters and habitat attributes on predicted extinction risk. Advances over previous global sensitivity analyses include the ability to vary habitat suitability across gradients, as well as habitat amount and configuration of spatially-explicit suitability maps of real and simulated landscapes. Using GRIP 2.0, we carried out a multi-model global sensitivity analysis of a coupled SDM-population dynamics model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in Mount Rainier National Park as a case study and quantified the relative influence of input parameters and their interactions on model predictions. Our results differed from the one-at-time analyses used in the original study, and we found that the most influential parameters included the total amount of suitable habitat within the landscape, survival rates, and effects of a prevalent disease, white pine blister rust. Strong interactions between habitat amount and survival rates of older trees suggests the importance of habitat in mediating the negative influences of white pine blister rust. Our results underscore the importance of considering habitat attributes along

  14. Advances in global sensitivity analyses of demographic-based species distribution models to address uncertainties in dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Naujokaitis-Lewis, Ilona; Curtis, Janelle M R

    2016-01-01

    Developing a rigorous understanding of multiple global threats to species persistence requires the use of integrated modeling methods that capture processes which influence species distributions. Species distribution models (SDMs) coupled with population dynamics models can incorporate relationships between changing environments and demographics and are increasingly used to quantify relative extinction risks associated with climate and land-use changes. Despite their appeal, uncertainties associated with complex models can undermine their usefulness for advancing predictive ecology and informing conservation management decisions. We developed a computationally-efficient and freely available tool (GRIP 2.0) that implements and automates a global sensitivity analysis of coupled SDM-population dynamics models for comparing the relative influence of demographic parameters and habitat attributes on predicted extinction risk. Advances over previous global sensitivity analyses include the ability to vary habitat suitability across gradients, as well as habitat amount and configuration of spatially-explicit suitability maps of real and simulated landscapes. Using GRIP 2.0, we carried out a multi-model global sensitivity analysis of a coupled SDM-population dynamics model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in Mount Rainier National Park as a case study and quantified the relative influence of input parameters and their interactions on model predictions. Our results differed from the one-at-time analyses used in the original study, and we found that the most influential parameters included the total amount of suitable habitat within the landscape, survival rates, and effects of a prevalent disease, white pine blister rust. Strong interactions between habitat amount and survival rates of older trees suggests the importance of habitat in mediating the negative influences of white pine blister rust. Our results underscore the importance of considering habitat attributes along

  15. Advances in global sensitivity analyses of demographic-based species distribution models to address uncertainties in dynamic landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Janelle M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Developing a rigorous understanding of multiple global threats to species persistence requires the use of integrated modeling methods that capture processes which influence species distributions. Species distribution models (SDMs) coupled with population dynamics models can incorporate relationships between changing environments and demographics and are increasingly used to quantify relative extinction risks associated with climate and land-use changes. Despite their appeal, uncertainties associated with complex models can undermine their usefulness for advancing predictive ecology and informing conservation management decisions. We developed a computationally-efficient and freely available tool (GRIP 2.0) that implements and automates a global sensitivity analysis of coupled SDM-population dynamics models for comparing the relative influence of demographic parameters and habitat attributes on predicted extinction risk. Advances over previous global sensitivity analyses include the ability to vary habitat suitability across gradients, as well as habitat amount and configuration of spatially-explicit suitability maps of real and simulated landscapes. Using GRIP 2.0, we carried out a multi-model global sensitivity analysis of a coupled SDM-population dynamics model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in Mount Rainier National Park as a case study and quantified the relative influence of input parameters and their interactions on model predictions. Our results differed from the one-at-time analyses used in the original study, and we found that the most influential parameters included the total amount of suitable habitat within the landscape, survival rates, and effects of a prevalent disease, white pine blister rust. Strong interactions between habitat amount and survival rates of older trees suggests the importance of habitat in mediating the negative influences of white pine blister rust. Our results underscore the importance of considering habitat attributes along

  16. RePORT International: Advancing Tuberculosis Biomarker Research Through Global Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Carol D; Swaminathan, Soumya; Christopher, Devasahayam J; Ellner, Jerrold; Gupta, Amita; Sterling, Timothy R; Rolla, Valeria; Srinivasan, Sudha; Karyana, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Sophia; Stoszek, Sonia K; Kim, Peter

    2015-10-15

    Progress in tuberculosis clinical research is hampered by a lack of reliable biomarkers that predict progression from latent to active tuberculosis, and subsequent cure, relapse, or failure. Regional Prospective Observational Research in Tuberculosis (RePORT) International represents a consortium of regional cohorts (RePORT India, RePORT Brazil, and RePORT Indonesia) that are linked through the implementation of a Common Protocol for data and specimen collection, and are poised to address this critical research need. Each RePORT network is designed to support local, in-country tuberculosis-specific data and specimen biorepositories, and associated research. Taken together, the expected results include greater global clinical research capacity in high-burden settings, and increased local access to quality data and specimens for members of each network and their domestic and international collaborators. Additional networks are expected to be added, helping to spur tuberculosis treatment and prevention research around the world.

  17. RePORT International: Advancing Tuberculosis Biomarker Research Through Global Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Carol D; Swaminathan, Soumya; Christopher, Devasahayam J; Ellner, Jerrold; Gupta, Amita; Sterling, Timothy R; Rolla, Valeria; Srinivasan, Sudha; Karyana, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Sophia; Stoszek, Sonia K; Kim, Peter

    2015-10-15

    Progress in tuberculosis clinical research is hampered by a lack of reliable biomarkers that predict progression from latent to active tuberculosis, and subsequent cure, relapse, or failure. Regional Prospective Observational Research in Tuberculosis (RePORT) International represents a consortium of regional cohorts (RePORT India, RePORT Brazil, and RePORT Indonesia) that are linked through the implementation of a Common Protocol for data and specimen collection, and are poised to address this critical research need. Each RePORT network is designed to support local, in-country tuberculosis-specific data and specimen biorepositories, and associated research. Taken together, the expected results include greater global clinical research capacity in high-burden settings, and increased local access to quality data and specimens for members of each network and their domestic and international collaborators. Additional networks are expected to be added, helping to spur tuberculosis treatment and prevention research around the world. PMID:26409277

  18. Geochemical constraints on sustainable development: Can an advanced global economy achieve long-term stability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, William F.

    2008-04-01

    The eighty-one stable chemical elements are examined individually with respect to (i) recent annual demand and (ii) worst case long-term availability in a distant future in which they must be extracted from the background sources of air, seawater, and ordinary rock. It is shown that, if a conventional use scenario is envisioned, the supplies of ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, tellurium, rhenium, osmium, iridium, platinum, gold, and especially phosphorus will be questionable while the supplies of copper, zinc, molybdenum, silver, cadmium, tin, antimony, tungsten, mercury, lead, and bismuth will be inadequate. It is therefore concluded that, in the long run, only the promotion of massive recycling and substitution technologies will suffice to maintain the global industrial society now developing.

  19. RePORT International: Advancing Tuberculosis Biomarker Research Through Global Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Carol D.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Ellner, Jerrold; Gupta, Amita; Sterling, Timothy R.; Rolla, Valeria; Srinivasan, Sudha; Karyana, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Sophia; Stoszek, Sonia K.; Kim, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Progress in tuberculosis clinical research is hampered by a lack of reliable biomarkers that predict progression from latent to active tuberculosis, and subsequent cure, relapse, or failure. Regional Prospective Observational Research in Tuberculosis (RePORT) International represents a consortium of regional cohorts (RePORT India, RePORT Brazil, and RePORT Indonesia) that are linked through the implementation of a Common Protocol for data and specimen collection, and are poised to address this critical research need. Each RePORT network is designed to support local, in-country tuberculosis-specific data and specimen biorepositories, and associated research. Taken together, the expected results include greater global clinical research capacity in high-burden settings, and increased local access to quality data and specimens for members of each network and their domestic and international collaborators. Additional networks are expected to be added, helping to spur tuberculosis treatment and prevention research around the world. PMID:26409277

  20. Advanced study of global oceanographic requirements for EOS A/B: Technical volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of the ocean are considered in terms of U.S. social, scientific and ecomomic priorities and in terms of the measurements that can best be made from a spacecraft. The kinds of information needed to advance the basic ocean sciences, to improve marine transportation and fisheries operations, and to provide information for pollution control are discussed. These information needs were related to sensor concepts and an optimum sensor complement is presented, together with orbital considerations. The data-gathering capabilities of an oceanographic spacecraft were considered in relation to those of terrestrial oceanographic programs, using airborne, surface, and submarine platforms. Data management problems are discussed and are considered to be solvable with current technology.

  1. Major impact: a global population policy can advance human development in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Mcnamara, R S

    1992-12-01

    In Tokyo, Japan, former president of the World Bank, Robert McNamara, addressed the Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute Symposium in April 1992. He reiterated a statement he made during his first presentation as president of the World Bank in September 1968--rapid population growth is the leading obstacle to economic growth and social well-being for people living in developing countries. He called for both developed and developing countries to individually and collectively take immediate action to reduce population growth rates, otherwise coercive action will be needed. Rapid population growth prevents countries from achieving sustainable development and jeopardizes our physical environment. It also exacerbates poverty, does not improve the role and status of women, adversely affects the health of children, and does not allow children a chance at a quality life. Even if developing countries were to quickly adopt replacement level fertility rates, high birth rates in the recent past prevent them from reducing fast population growth for decades. For example, with more than 60% of females in Kenya being at least 19 years old (in Sweden they represent just 23%), the population would continue to grow rapidly for 70 years if immediate reduction to replacement level fertility occurred. Mr. McNamara emphasized than any population program must center on initiating or strengthening extensive family planning programs and increasing the rate of economic and social progress. Successful family planning programs require diverse enough family planning services and methods to meet the needs of various unique populations, stressing of family planning derived health benefits to women and children, participation of both the public and private sectors, and political commitment. McNamara calculated that a global family planning program for the year 2000 would cost about US$8 billion. He added that Japan should increase its share of funds to population growth

  2. Major impact: a global population policy can advance human development in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Mcnamara, R S

    1992-12-01

    In Tokyo, Japan, former president of the World Bank, Robert McNamara, addressed the Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute Symposium in April 1992. He reiterated a statement he made during his first presentation as president of the World Bank in September 1968--rapid population growth is the leading obstacle to economic growth and social well-being for people living in developing countries. He called for both developed and developing countries to individually and collectively take immediate action to reduce population growth rates, otherwise coercive action will be needed. Rapid population growth prevents countries from achieving sustainable development and jeopardizes our physical environment. It also exacerbates poverty, does not improve the role and status of women, adversely affects the health of children, and does not allow children a chance at a quality life. Even if developing countries were to quickly adopt replacement level fertility rates, high birth rates in the recent past prevent them from reducing fast population growth for decades. For example, with more than 60% of females in Kenya being at least 19 years old (in Sweden they represent just 23%), the population would continue to grow rapidly for 70 years if immediate reduction to replacement level fertility occurred. Mr. McNamara emphasized than any population program must center on initiating or strengthening extensive family planning programs and increasing the rate of economic and social progress. Successful family planning programs require diverse enough family planning services and methods to meet the needs of various unique populations, stressing of family planning derived health benefits to women and children, participation of both the public and private sectors, and political commitment. McNamara calculated that a global family planning program for the year 2000 would cost about US$8 billion. He added that Japan should increase its share of funds to population growth

  3. Global metabolic profiling and its role in systems biology to advance personalized medicine in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Schnackenberg, Laura K

    2007-05-01

    Systems biology attempts to elucidate the complex interaction between genes, proteins and metabolites to provide a mechanistic understanding of cellular function and how this function is affected by disease processes, drug toxicity or drug efficacy effects. Global metabolic profiling is an important component of systems biology that can be applied in both preclinical and clinical settings for drug discovery and development, and to study disease mechanisms. The metabolic profile encodes the phenotype, which is composed of the genotype and environmental factors. The phenotypic profile can be used to make decisions about the best course of treatment for an individual patient. Understanding the combined effects of genetics and environment through a systems biology framework will enable the advancement of personalized medicine.

  4. Cyclo-octafluorobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) in the global atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhle, J.; Vollmer, M. K.; Ivy, D. J.; Fraser, P.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Leist, M.; Rhee, T. S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Lunder, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Reimann, S.; Simmonds, P.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    The perfluorocarbon (PFC) cyclo-octafluorobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) is a very long-lived (up to 3,200 years) and potent greenhouse gas (100-year global warming potential up to 10,300) with a wide range of industrial uses. We present an update of our PFC-318 archived air and in situ measurements from remote and urban AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) sites and affiliated stations in both hemispheres. Most importantly, we have significantly improved our Southern Hemisphere (SH) data density by measuring the Cape Grim Air Archive (1970s-2010). Combined with our previously presented measurements of archived Northern Hemisphere (NH) flasks (1973-2009), we provide thirty year spanning records for both hemispheres. We have also further extended our in situ records by continuing our measurements at all remote stations, with the longest hemispheric records starting in November 2007 at Jungfraujoch (NH) and in June 2010 at Cape Grim (SH). We compare our data with those of Oram (1999) and Oram et al. (2011), who focus on SH data alone, and with other previous data sets. From our measurements, we derive emission estimates using a chemical transport model and inverse method, and compare our results to previous measurement based emission estimates (top-down) and to the EDGAR emission database (bottom-up). As stated previously (Mühle et al., 2010), we find emissions of ~1 Gg/yr in recent years while EDGAR estimates only 0.02 Gg/yr for 2005, similar to what Oram et al. (2011) find. We conclude that PFC-318 is the third most important PFC in terms of abundance and CO2-equivalent emissions. We continue to observe mostly baseline concentrations at remote AGAGE stations and urban sites in the USA, Europe, and Australia, in contrast to frequent pollution episodes measured at sites in East Asia, indicating significant regional emissions in East Asia, as found by Saito et al. (2010). EDGAR, Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research, release version 4.1. http

  5. Researchers advance ideas for addressing global CO{sub 2} levels

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    For millions of years, the presence of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere was balanced with the natural storager of carbon in the solid phase. In the short term, naturally occurring CO{sub 2} was converted by photosynthesis into trees, plankton, and other plant matter. In the long term, such biomatter was transformed into coal, oil, and other fossil fuels. However, in recent decades, mankind has begun to short circuit this process by combusting ever-increasing amounts of fossil fuel and by destroying large numbers of trees and forests. Although the debate still rages as to the presence and severity of global warming, man`s actions have led to a measurable increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Taking a cue from mother nature`s carbon storage cycle, scientists have suggested an alternative process that could address a major anthropogenic source of excess CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Although only a conceptual idea at present, the storage of the oxidized carbon from coal combustion in common and abundant minerals might be possible. The process is described in this paper. 1 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Global proteomic screening of protein allergens and advanced glycation endproducts in thermally processed peanuts.

    PubMed

    Hebling, Christine M; McFarland, Melinda A; Callahan, John H; Ross, Mark M

    2013-06-19

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) are the cause of one of the most prevalent food allergies worldwide. Thermal processing (e.g., roasting) of peanuts and peanut-containing foods results in complex chemical reactions that alter structural conformations of peanut proteins, preventing accurate detection of allergens by most immunochemical and targeted screening methodologies. To improve food allergen detection and support more accurate food labeling, traditional methods for peanut protein extraction were modified to include protein denaturants and solubilization agents. Qualitative characterization by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses of raw and variably roasted peanut extracts confirmed improvements in total protein recovery and provided evidence for the incorporation of Ara h 1, Ara h 3, and, to a lesser extent, Ara h 2 into high molecular weight protein complexes upon roasting. Relative quantification of allergens in peanut lysates was accomplished by label-free spectral feature (MS1) LC-MS/MS methodologies, by which peanut allergen peptides exhibiting a differential MS response in raw versus roasted peanuts were considered to be candidate targets of thermal modification. Identification of lysine-modified Maillard advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) by LC-MS/MS confirmed the formation of (carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), (carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), and pyrraline (Pyr) protein modifications on Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 tryptic peptides in roasted peanut varieties. These results suggest that complex processed food matrices require initial analysis by an untargeted LC-MS/MS approach to determine optimum analytes for subsequent targeted allergen analyses. PMID:23039025

  7. Global proteomic screening of protein allergens and advanced glycation endproducts in thermally processed peanuts.

    PubMed

    Hebling, Christine M; McFarland, Melinda A; Callahan, John H; Ross, Mark M

    2013-06-19

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) are the cause of one of the most prevalent food allergies worldwide. Thermal processing (e.g., roasting) of peanuts and peanut-containing foods results in complex chemical reactions that alter structural conformations of peanut proteins, preventing accurate detection of allergens by most immunochemical and targeted screening methodologies. To improve food allergen detection and support more accurate food labeling, traditional methods for peanut protein extraction were modified to include protein denaturants and solubilization agents. Qualitative characterization by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses of raw and variably roasted peanut extracts confirmed improvements in total protein recovery and provided evidence for the incorporation of Ara h 1, Ara h 3, and, to a lesser extent, Ara h 2 into high molecular weight protein complexes upon roasting. Relative quantification of allergens in peanut lysates was accomplished by label-free spectral feature (MS1) LC-MS/MS methodologies, by which peanut allergen peptides exhibiting a differential MS response in raw versus roasted peanuts were considered to be candidate targets of thermal modification. Identification of lysine-modified Maillard advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) by LC-MS/MS confirmed the formation of (carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), (carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), and pyrraline (Pyr) protein modifications on Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 tryptic peptides in roasted peanut varieties. These results suggest that complex processed food matrices require initial analysis by an untargeted LC-MS/MS approach to determine optimum analytes for subsequent targeted allergen analyses.

  8. Advancing the Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. W.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a network of Earth observation and information systems, contributed on a voluntary basis by Members and Participating Organisations of the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO), is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system, in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth, increase understanding of Earth processes, and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. Such a global research effort requires an integrated multi-disciplinary effort that is underpinned by a cyber-infrastructure which is able to discover and access vast quantities of data across heterogeneous information systems and many disciplines. As GEO develops and the implementation of the GEOSS gathers pace, it is becoming common practice for groups to be organised at national, regional and international level to address critical issues. In many cases these groups evolve to become "communities", organising themselves to carry out tasks of interest to that community. In most cases, communities develop their own "community portal" to provide a focal point on the web for their activities. The data and information held by the members of a specific community can normally be discovered via their particular "community portal". There is now a clear recognition that the many thematic community initiatives, each with their own information system and portal, need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomes possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to

  9. Historical advances in the study of global terrestrial soil organic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Feller, C; Bernoux, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes: it provides a summarized scientific history of carbon sequestration in relation to the soil-plant system and gives a commentary on organic wastes and SOC sequestration. The concept of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration has its roots in: (i) the experimental work of Lundegårdh, particularly his in situ measurements of CO2 fluxes at the soil-plant interface (1924, 1927, 1930); (ii) the first estimates of SOC stocks at the global level made by Waksman [Waksman, S.A., 1938. Humus. Origin, Chemical Composition and Importance in Nature, second ed. revised. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 526] and Rubey [Rubey, W.W., 1951. Geologic history of sea water. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 62, 1111-1148]; (iii) the need for models dealing with soil organic matter (SOM) or SOC dynamics beginning with a conceptual SOM model by De Saussure (1780-1796) followed by the mathematical models of Jenny [Jenny, H., 1941. Factors of Soil Formation: a System of Quantitative Pedology. Dover Publications, New York, p. 288], Hénin and Dupuis [Hénin, S., Dupuis, M., 1945. Essai de bilan de la matière organique. Annales d'Agronomie 15, 17-29] and more recently the RothC [Jenkinson, D.S., Rayner, J.H., 1977. The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Science 123 (5), 298-305] and Century [Parton, W.J., Schimel, D.S., Cole, C.V., Ojima, D.S., 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in great plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 (5), 1173-1179] models. The establishment of a soil C sequestration balance is not straightforward and depends greatly on the origin and the composition of organic matter that is to be returned to the system. Wastes, which are important sources of organic carbon for soils, are taken as an example. For these organic materials the following factors have to be considered: the presence or absence of fossil C, the potential

  10. Major advances in globalization and consolidation of the artificial insemination industry.

    PubMed

    Funk, D A

    2006-04-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) industry in the United States has gone through many consolidations, mergers, and acquisitions over the past 25 yr. There are 5 major AI companies in the United States today: 3 large cooperatives, 1 private company, and 1 public company. The latter 2 have majority ownership outside of the United States. The AI industry in the United States progeny-tests more than 1,000 Holstein young sires per year. Because healthy, mature dairy bulls are capable of producing well over 100,000 straws of frozen semen per year, only a relatively small number of bulls are needed to breed the world's population of dairy cows. Most AI companies in the United States do not own many, if any, females and tend to utilize the same maternal families in their breeding programs. Little differences exist among the selection programs of the AI companies in the United States. The similarity of breeding programs and the extreme semen-production capabilities of bulls have contributed to difficulties the AI companies have had in developing genetically different product lines. Exports of North American Holstein genetics increased steadily from the 1970s into the 1990s because of the perceived superiority of North American Holsteins for dairy traits compared with European strains, especially for production. The breeding industry moved towards international genetic evaluations of bulls in the 1990s, with the International Bull Evaluation Service (Interbull) in Sweden coordinating the evaluations. The extensive exchange of elite genetics has led to a global dairy genetics industry with bulls that are closely related, and the average inbreeding level for the major dairy breeds continues to increase. Genetic markers have been used extensively and successfully by the industry for qualitative traits, especially for recessive genetic disorders, but markers have had limited impact for quantitative traits. Selection emphasis continues to migrate away from production traits and

  11. Major advances in globalization and consolidation of the artificial insemination industry.

    PubMed

    Funk, D A

    2006-04-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) industry in the United States has gone through many consolidations, mergers, and acquisitions over the past 25 yr. There are 5 major AI companies in the United States today: 3 large cooperatives, 1 private company, and 1 public company. The latter 2 have majority ownership outside of the United States. The AI industry in the United States progeny-tests more than 1,000 Holstein young sires per year. Because healthy, mature dairy bulls are capable of producing well over 100,000 straws of frozen semen per year, only a relatively small number of bulls are needed to breed the world's population of dairy cows. Most AI companies in the United States do not own many, if any, females and tend to utilize the same maternal families in their breeding programs. Little differences exist among the selection programs of the AI companies in the United States. The similarity of breeding programs and the extreme semen-production capabilities of bulls have contributed to difficulties the AI companies have had in developing genetically different product lines. Exports of North American Holstein genetics increased steadily from the 1970s into the 1990s because of the perceived superiority of North American Holsteins for dairy traits compared with European strains, especially for production. The breeding industry moved towards international genetic evaluations of bulls in the 1990s, with the International Bull Evaluation Service (Interbull) in Sweden coordinating the evaluations. The extensive exchange of elite genetics has led to a global dairy genetics industry with bulls that are closely related, and the average inbreeding level for the major dairy breeds continues to increase. Genetic markers have been used extensively and successfully by the industry for qualitative traits, especially for recessive genetic disorders, but markers have had limited impact for quantitative traits. Selection emphasis continues to migrate away from production traits and

  12. Advances in metals classification under the United Nations globally harmonized system of classification and labeling.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, James; Adams, William J; Rodriguez, Patricio; Brouwers, Tony; Waeterschoot, Hugo

    2011-10-01

    This article shows how regulatory obligations mandated for metal substances can be met with a laboratory-based transformation/dissolution (T/D) method for deriving relevant hazard classification outcomes, which can then be linked to attendant environmental protection management decisions. We report the results of a ring-test at 3 laboratories conducted to determine the interlaboratory precision of the United Nations T/D Protocol (T/DP) in generating data for classifying 4 metal-bearing substances for acute and chronic toxicity under the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling (GHS) criteria with respect to the aquatic environment. The test substances were Ni metal powder, cuprous oxide (Cu(2) O) powder, tricobalt tetroxide (Co(3) O(4) ) powder, and cuttings of a NILO K Ni-Co-Fe alloy. Following GHS Annex 10 guidelines, we tested 3 loadings (1, 10, and 100 mg/L) of each substance at pH 6 and 8 for 7 or 28 d to yield T/D data for acute and chronic classification, respectively. We compared the T/DP results (dissolved metal in aqueous media) against acute and chronic ecotoxicity reference values (ERVs) for each substance to assess GHS classification outcomes. For dissolved metal ions, the respective acute and chronic ERVs established at the time of the T/D testing were: 29 and 8 µg/L for Cu; 185 and 1.5 µg/L for Co; and 13.3 and 1.0 mg/L for Fe. The acute ERVs for Ni were pH-dependent: 120 and 68 µg/L at pH 6 and 8, respectively, whereas the chronic ERV for Ni was 2.4 µg/L. The acute classification outcomes were consistent among 3 laboratories: cuprous oxide, Acute 1; Ni metal powder, Acute 3; Co(3) O(4) and the NILO K alloy, no classification. We obtained similar consistent results in chronic classifications: Cu(2) O, Ni metal powder, and Co(3) O(4) , Chronic 4; and the NILO K alloy, no classification. However, we observed equivocal results only in 2 of a possible 48 cases where the coefficient of variation of final T

  13. Advanced Variance Reduction for Global k-Eigenvalue Simulations in MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward W. Larsen

    2008-06-01

    to the correlations between fission source estimates. In the new FMC method, the eigenvalue problem (expressed in terms of the Boltzmann equation) is integrated over the energy and direction variables. Then these equations are multiplied by J special "tent" functions in space and integrated over the spatial variable. This yields J equations that are exactly satisfied by the eigenvalue k and J space-angle-energy moments of the eigenfunction. Multiplying and dividing by suitable integrals of the eigenfunction, one obtains J algebraic equations for k and the space-angle-energy moments of the eigenfunction, which contain nonlinear functionals that depend weakly on the eigenfunction. In the FMC method, information from the standard Monte Carlo solution for each active cycle is used to estimate the functionals, and at the end of each cycle the J equations for k and the space-angle-energy moments of the eigenfunction are solved. Finally, these results are averaged over N active cycles to obtain estimated means and standard deviations for k and the space-angle-energy moments of the eigenfunction. Our limited testing shows that for large single fissile systems such as a commercial reactor core, (i) the FMC estimate of the eigenvalue is at least one order of magnitude more accurate than estimates obtained from the standard Monte Carlo approach, (ii) the FMC estimate of the eigenfunction converges and is several orders of magnitude more accurate than the standard estimate, and (iii) the FMC estimate of the standard deviation in k is at least one order of magnitude closer to the correct standard deviation than the standard estimate. These advances occur because: (i) the Monte Carlo estimates of the nonlinear functionals are much more accurate than the direct Monte Carlo estimates of the eigenfunction, (ii) the system of discrete equations that determines the FMC estimates of k is robust, and (iii) the functionals are only very weakly correlated between different fission

  14. Black Economic Advancement in the New Millennium: Globalization, Education, and Technology. Special Report: National Policy Institute (8th, Washington, DC, January 20-22, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This special issue presents, in capsule form, presentations from workshops at the Eighth National Policy Institute. The conference theme of black economic advancement in the new century focused on globalization, education, and technology. Ten workshops were the core of the conference, and their topics were: (1) overcoming the 2000 Census…

  15. Global faculty development: lessons learned from the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) initiatives.

    PubMed

    Burdick, William P

    2014-08-01

    Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) faculty development programs have operated since 2001 and are designed to overcome many of the challenges inherent in global health collaborations, including alignment with local needs, avoiding persistent dependency, and development of trust. FAIMER fellowship programs, developed for midcareer faculty members in all health professions from around the world, share goals of strengthening knowledge and skills in education leadership, education methods, and project management and evaluation. Building community is another explicit goal that allows participants to support and learn from each other.The author recommends several practices for successful international collaborations based on 13 years of experience with FAIMER fellowships. These include using authentic education projects to maintain alignment with local needs and apply newly acquired knowledge and skills, teaching leadership across cultures with careful communication and adaptation of concepts to local environments, cultivating a strong field of health professions education to promote diffusion of ideas and advocate for policy change, intentionally promoting field development and leadership to reduce dependency, giving generously of time and resources, learning from others as much as teaching others, and recognizing that effective partnerships revolve around personal relationships to build trust. These strategies have enabled the FAIMER fellowship programs to stay aligned with local needs, reduce dependency, and maintain trust.

  16. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N.; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O’Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-01-01

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education. PMID:27170809

  17. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations.

    PubMed

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-04-25

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education. PMID:27170809

  18. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations.

    PubMed

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-04-25

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education.

  19. Optimization of the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite II Global Imager channels by use of radiative transfer calculations.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T Y; Nakajima, T; Nakajima, M; Fukushima, H; Kuji, M; Uchiyama, A; Kishino, M

    1998-05-20

    The channel specifications of the Global Imager onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite II have been determined by extensive numerical experiments. The results show that there is an optimum feasible position for each ocean color channel. The bandwidth of the 0.763-microm channel should be less than 10 nm for good sensitivity to the cloud top height and geometric thickness of the cloud layer; a 40-nm bandwidth is suitable for the 1.38-microm channel to have the strongest contrast between cloudy and clear radiance with a sufficient radiant energy; and a 3.7-microm channel is better than a 3.95-microm channel for estimation of the sea surface temperature (SST) and determination of the cloud particle size when the bandwidth of the channel is 0.33 microm. A three-wavelength combination of 6.7, 7.3, and 7.5 microm is an optimized choice for water vapor profiling. The combination of 8.6, 10.8, and 12.0 microm is suitable for cloud microphysics and SST retrievals with the split-window technique.

  20. Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities around the Globe. International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elinor L., Ed.; Gibbons, Pamela E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume of Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice takes a resource perspective toward culture, ethnicity, and race. Its purpose is to foster global dialog about race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on sharing strategies and solutions. While one might view problems stemming from racial and ethnic differences as intractable, the book's…

  1. 76 FR 32364 - Collaboration in Regulatory Science and Capacity To Advance Global Access to Safe Vaccines and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... pandemic influenza vaccines). Expected outputs ] could include analyses, reports and data-driven strategy... sustainable global influenza vaccines production capacity. These financial and intellectual investments in... influenza and other vaccines, biological products and technologies. These norms and standards are based...

  2. Heavy perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: Atmospheric histories and top-down global emission estimates for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Rigby, M. L.; Baasandorj, M.; Muhle, J.; Harth, C.; Salameh, P.; Steele, P.; Leist, M.; Krummel, P. B.; Burkholder, J. B.; Fraser, P.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs) - perfluorobutane (C4F10), perfluoropentane (C5F12), perfluorohexane (C6F14), perfluoroheptane (C7F16) and perfluorooctane (C8F18) - are potent greenhouse gases with global warming potentials of ~ 9000 for a 100 year time horizon [Forster et al., 2007]. Currently, the heavy PFCs are regulated under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). However, no atmospheric observations or top-down emission estimates for these gases have been published. In this study, atmospheric histories of the heavy PFCs were determined through new measurements of the Cape Grim Air Archive and a collection of Northern Hemispheric archive flasks using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) cryogenic preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system "Medusa" [Miller et al., 2008]. Furthermore, global top-down emissions were estimated from 1973-2010 based on the atmospheric histories using an inverse method and the 3-D chemical transport model, Model of OZone and Related Tracers (MOZARTv4.5) [Emmons et al., 2009]. Comparison of the top-down emission estimates with bottom-up estimates from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.1) shows EDGARv4.1 emission estimates are underestimated by orders of magnitude for C4F10 and C5F12 [European Commission, 2009]. The bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.1 are comparable to the top-down estimates for C6F14 and C7F16; no bottom-up emission estimates are available for C8F18. Generally, UNFCCC reported inventories by countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are 5 to 10 times lower than the top-down emission estimates for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 (C7F16 and C8F18 are not reported to the UNFCCC). The atmospheric histories and top-down emission estimates presented are the most accurate and comprehensive compiled so far for the high molecular weight PFCs. Furthermore, this study illustrates the importance of

  3. ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI), global leader in advancing translational science to create science-based solutions for a sustainable, healthier world.

    PubMed

    Takei, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) is a non-profit scientific research organization based in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. HESI was established in 1989 as a global branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) to provide an international forum to advance the understanding of scientific issues related to human health, toxicology, risk assessment and the environment. For the last 25 years, HESI has been the global leader to advance application of new science and technologies in the areas of human health, toxicology, risk assessment and environment. The core principle of "tripartite approach" and the multi-sector operational model have successfully supported HESI's scientific programs to create science-based solutions for a sustainable and healthier world. HESI's achievements include the dataset to guide the selection of appropriate supporting assays for carcinogenicity testing, a new testing framework for agricultural chemicals with enhanced efficacy, predictivity, and reduced animal usage, novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity which provide data on the location of timing of drug effects in the kidney allowing for enhanced drug development, etc.

  4. U.S. DOE Roundtable and Workshop on Advanced Steel Technologies: Emerging Global Technologies and R&D Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, Joan; Jamison, Keith

    2015-12-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. DOE Roundtable and Workshop on Advanced Steel Technologies Workshop hosted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) on held on June 23, 2015. Representatives from industry, government, and academia met at the offices of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Washington, DC, to share information on emerging steel technologies, issues impacting technology investment and deployment, gaps in research and development (R&D), and opportunities for greater energy efficiency. The results of the workshop are summarized in this report. They reflect a snapshot of the perspectives and ideas generated by the individuals who attended and not all-inclusive of the steel industry and stakeholder community.

  5. LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

  6. Peak water from glaciers: advances and challenges in a global perspective (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine

    2014-05-01

    Mountain glaciers show a high sensitivity to changes in climate forcing. In a global perspective, their anticipated retreat will pose far-reaching challenges to the manage- ment of fresh water resources and will raise sea levels significantly within only a few decades. Different model frameworks have been applied to simulate melt water con- tributions of glaciers outside the two ice sheets for the recent IPCC report. However, these models depend on strongly simplified, and often empirical descriptions of the driving processes hampering the reliability of the results. For example, glacier retreat is parameterized with volume-area scaling thus neglecting the glacier's actual geome- try and the surface elevation feedback. Frontal ablation of tidewater and lake-calving glaciers, an important mass loss component for a third of the world's glacier area, is not accounted for. Thus, a transition from the physically-based mass balance-ice flow models developed for single glaciers to the application at the global scale is urgently needed. The chal- lenges are manifold but can be tackled with the new data sets, methods and process- understanding that have emerged during the last years. Here, we present a novel glacier model for calculating the response of surface mass balance and 3D glacier geometry for each individual glacier around the globe. Our approach accounts for feedbacks due to glacier retreat and includes models for mass loss due to frontal ablation and the refreezing of water in the snow/firn. The current surface geometry and thickness distribution for each of the world's roughly 200'000 glaciers is extracted from the Randolph Glacier Inventory v3.2 and terrain models. Our simulations are driven with 14 Global Circulation Models from the CMIP5 project using the RCP4.5, RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. Regionally specified cumulative global sea level rise due to glacier mass loss until 2100 is discussed in the light of model uncertainties and the advantages of using a

  7. Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Radio-Chemotherapy: A Novel Clinical-Pathologic Score Correlates With Global Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Berardi, Rossana; Mantello, Giovanna; Scartozzi, Mario; Del Prete, Stefano; Luppi, Gabriele; Martinelli, Roberto; Fumagalli, Marco; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Bearzi, Italo; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Marmorale, Cristina; Cascinu, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the importance of downstaging of locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant treatment. Methods and Materials: The study included all consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy) in different Italian centers from June 1996 to December 2003. A novel score was used, calculated as the sum of numbers obtained by giving a negative or positive point, respectively, to each degree of increase or decrease in clinical to pathologic T and N status. Results: A total of 317 patients were eligible for analysis. Neoadjuvant treatments performed were as follows: radiotherapy alone in 75 of 317 patients (23.7%), radiotherapy plus chemotherapy in 242 of 317 patients (76.3%). Worse disease-free survival was observed in patients with a lower score (Score 1 = -3 to +3 vs. Score 2 = +4 to +7; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a novel score, calculated from preoperative and pathologic tumor and lymph node status, could represent an important parameter to predict outcome in patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer. The score could be useful to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy after neoadjuvant treatment and surgery.

  8. A global economic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of new treatments for advanced breast cancer in Canada.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, C; Letarte, N; Mathurin, K; Yelle, L; Lachaine, J

    2016-06-01

    Objective Considering the increasing number of treatment options for metastatic breast cancer (MBC), it is important to develop high-quality methods to assess the cost-effectiveness of new anti-cancer drugs. This study aims to develop a global economic model that could be used as a benchmark for the economic evaluation of new therapies for MBC. Methods The Global Pharmacoeconomics of Metastatic Breast Cancer (GPMBC) model is a Markov model that was constructed to estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of new treatments for MBC from a Canadian healthcare system perspective over a lifetime horizon. Specific parameters included in the model are cost of drug treatment, survival outcomes, and incidence of treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Global parameters are patient characteristics, health states utilities, disutilities, and costs associated with treatment-related AEs, as well as costs associated with drug administration, medical follow-up, and end-of-life care. The GPMBC model was tested and validated in a specific context, by assessing the cost-effectiveness of lapatinib plus letrozole compared with other widely used first-line therapies for post-menopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) MBC. Results When tested, the GPMBC model led to incremental cost-utility ratios of CA$131 811 per QALY, CA$56 211 per QALY, and CA$102 477 per QALY for the comparison of lapatinib plus letrozole vs letrozole alone, trastuzumab plus anastrozole, and anastrozole alone, respectively. Results of the model testing were quite similar to those obtained by Delea et al., who also assessed the cost-effectiveness of lapatinib in combination with letrozole in HR+/HER2 + MBC in Canada, thus suggesting that the GPMBC model can replicate results of well-conducted economic evaluations. Conclusions The GPMBC model can be very valuable as it allows a quick and valid assessment of the cost

  9. Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Karin; Axelson, Henrik; Sheehan, Peter; Anderson, Ian; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Friedman, Howard S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E; Sweeny, Kim; Tulloch, Jim; Hansen, Peter; Chopra, Mickey; Gupta, Anuradha; Vogel, Joshua P; Ostergren, Mikael; Rasmussen, Bruce; Levin, Carol; Boyle, Colin; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Koblinsky, Marjorie; Walker, Neff; de Francisco, Andres; Novcic, Nebojsa; Presern, Carole; Jamison, Dean; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-04-12

    A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments. Increasing health expenditure by just $5 per person per year up to 2035 in 74 high-burden countries could yield up to nine times that value in economic and social benefits. These returns include greater gross domestic product (GDP) growth through improved productivity, and prevention of the needless deaths of 147 million children, 32 million stillbirths, and 5 million women by 2035. These gains could be achieved by an additional investment of $30 billion per year, equivalent to a 2% increase above current spending.

  10. Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Karin; Axelson, Henrik; Sheehan, Peter; Anderson, Ian; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Friedman, Howard S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E; Sweeny, Kim; Tulloch, Jim; Hansen, Peter; Chopra, Mickey; Gupta, Anuradha; Vogel, Joshua P; Ostergren, Mikael; Rasmussen, Bruce; Levin, Carol; Boyle, Colin; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Koblinsky, Marjorie; Walker, Neff; de Francisco, Andres; Novcic, Nebojsa; Presern, Carole; Jamison, Dean; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-04-12

    A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments. Increasing health expenditure by just $5 per person per year up to 2035 in 74 high-burden countries could yield up to nine times that value in economic and social benefits. These returns include greater gross domestic product (GDP) growth through improved productivity, and prevention of the needless deaths of 147 million children, 32 million stillbirths, and 5 million women by 2035. These gains could be achieved by an additional investment of $30 billion per year, equivalent to a 2% increase above current spending. PMID:24263249

  11. The biogeography of kelps (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae): a global analysis with new insights from recent advances in molecular phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, John J.

    2010-12-01

    Despite their ecological and economic importance, no summary of kelp global biogeography has been produced for almost two decades. The circumscription of the order Laminariales and familial and generic relationships in the group have changed considerably recently, in the light of molecular data. A global summary and geographical analysis of kelp species and their distributions (112 species in 33 genera) is presented. These data are analysed and discussed from the perspective of the new consensus of relationships within the group, and likely evolutionary events. The putative ancestors of the kelps occur and are overwhelmingly most diverse, in the cooler waters of northern Japan. The biogeographical evidence suggests three main lines of subsequent evolution: (a) a diversification producing the four ‘derived’ families Alariaceae, Costariceae, Laminariaceae, and Lessoniaceae and most extant genera in the temperate northern Pacific, probably during the Miocene. (b) The evolution of an Arctic flora which invaded the North Atlantic following the opening of the Bering Strait ca. 5.5 Ma. (c) At least four separate crossings, by different genera, of tropical regions from Northern to Southern Hemisphere (and one in the opposite direction). The recorded impacts of man on these distributions have thus far been minimal, with the notable exceptions of Undaria pinnatifida and species of Saccharina (grown in aquaculture systems for human food). Most genera are monospecific, with many confined to either the western or eastern temperate North Pacific, whereas the distribution of the most species-rich genera ( Alaria, Laminaria, Saccharina) includes the Arctic, and they are widespread in the North Atlantic. This rapid species-level evolution is hypothesised to have been promoted by the relatively recent invasion of the Atlantic by these taxa. The crossing of the tropics has occurred in warm-temperate species some of which occur and are sometimes abundant, in deeper water in today

  12. Linkages Between Global Vegetation and Climate: An Analysis Based on NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Data. Degree awarded by Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Los, Sietse Oene

    1998-01-01

    A monthly global 1 degree by 1 degree data set from 1982 until 1990 was derived from data collected by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on board the NOAA 7, 9, and 11 satellites. This data set was used to study the interactions between variations in climate and variations in the "greenness" of vegetation. Studies with the Colorado State University atmospheric general circulation model coupled to the Simple Biosphere model showed a large sensitivity of the hydrological balance to changes in vegetation at low latitudes. The depletion of soil moisture as a result of increased vegetation density provided a negative feedback in an otherwise positive association between increased vegetation, increased evaporation, and increased precipitation proposed by Charney and coworkers. Analysis of climate data showed, at temperate to high latitudes, a positive association between variation in land surface temperature, sea surface temperature and vegetation greenness. At low latitudes the data indicated a positive association between variations in sea surface temperature, rainfall and vegetation greenness. The variations in mid- to high latitude temperatures affected the global average greenness and this could provide an explanation for the increased carbon uptake by the terrestrial surface over the past couple of decades.

  13. The evolution of international policies and mechanisms to advance sustainable forest management and mitigate global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Bologna, J.; Lyke, J.; Theophile, K.

    1995-06-01

    Scientific findings regarding global climate change and deforestation led industrialized nations to bring both issues to the forefront of an international dialogue on the environment. International institutional attention to deforestation began in 1985 with the Tropical Forestry Action Program which helped countries develop plans for sustainable forest management. A few years later, the International Tropical Timber Organization, though designed to facilitate tropical timber trade, adopted guidelines for sustainable management of tropical production forests. Next, the activities before and after UNCED established a general set of forest principles and regional efforts to define sustainable forest management. The World Bank has also sought to reduce past lending failures that led to deforestation and other environmental degradation, through programmatic redirections and macro-economic policy reforms. Finally, through innovative financial incentives, industrialized and developing countries are identifying opportunities to offset debts and increase economic development without depleting forest resources. Collectively, these efforts have let to some trends that support sustainable forest management and mitigate climate change. The upcoming years will see a proactive set of multilateral programs to address deforestation, an increasing link between trade and the environment, and more uses of financial incentives to encourage sustainable forest management.

  14. Did Advances in Global Surveillance and Notification Systems Make a Difference in the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic?–A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Lopez-Gatell, Hugo; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.; Stoto, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2009 H1N1 outbreak provides an opportunity to identify strengths and weaknesses of disease surveillance and notification systems that have been implemented in the past decade. Methods Drawing on a systematic review of the scientific literature, official documents, websites, and news reports, we constructed a timeline differentiating three kinds of events: (1) the emergence and spread of the pH1N1 virus, (2) local health officials’ awareness and understanding of the outbreak, and (3) notifications about the events and their implications. We then conducted a “critical event” analysis of the surveillance process to ascertain when health officials became aware of the epidemiologic facts of the unfolding pandemic and whether advances in surveillance notification systems hastened detection. Results This analysis revealed three critical events. First, medical personnel identified pH1N1in California children because of an experimental surveillance program, leading to a novel viral strain being identified by CDC. Second, Mexican officials recognized that unconnected outbreaks represented a single phenomenon. Finally, the identification of a pH1N1 outbreak in a New York City high school was hastened by awareness of the emerging pandemic. Analysis of the timeline suggests that at best the global response could have been about one week earlier (which would not have stopped spread to other countries), and could have been much later. Conclusions This analysis shows that investments in global surveillance and notification systems made an important difference in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. In particular, enhanced laboratory capacity in the U.S. and Canada led to earlier detection and characterization of the 2009 H1N1. This includes enhanced capacity at the federal, state, and local levels in the U.S., as well as a trilateral agreement enabling collaboration among U.S., Canada, and Mexico. In addition, improved global notification systems contributed by helping

  15. Quality and compatibility analyses of global aerosol products derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Li, Zhanqing; Chu, D. Allen; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2005-05-01

    There exist numerous global aerosol products derived from various satellite sensors, but little insight has been gained about their compatibility and quality. This study presents a comparison of two prominent global aerosol products derived over oceans from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) under the Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) (Mishchenko et al., 1999) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Tanré et al., 1997). The comparisons are for monthly mean aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Ångström exponent (α) at a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 degree. The two monthly AOT products showed substantial discrepancies, with a tendency of higher values from MODIS than from GACP/AVHRR, especially near the coasts of major aerosol outbreak regions. Individual monthly AOT values have poor correlation, but their regional means are moderately correlated (correlation coefficient 0.5 < R < 1.0). While cloud screening has often been argued to be a major factor explaining large discrepancies, this study shows that differences in aerosol models in the two retrieval algorithms can lead to large discrepancies. Contributions of the size distribution are more significant than the refractive index. The noisiness of the GACP/AVHRR aerosol retrievals seem to be partially influenced by radiometric uncertainties in the AVHRR system, but it is unlikely a major factor to explain the observed systematic discrepancies between the MODIS and GACP/AVHRR AOTs. For α, correlations between MODIS and GACP/AVHRR are lower (0.2 < R < 0.7) than AOT. The MODIS α shows a well-behaved dependence on the AOT contingent upon the aerosol type, while the GACP/AVHRR α has little correlation with the AOT. The high sensitivity in the selection of aerosol models to radiometric errors may be a primary reason for the worse comparison of α. Part of the discrepancies in α is attributed to different aerosol size distributions.

  16. Quality, compatibility, and synergy analyses of global aerosol products derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Li, Zhanqing

    2005-05-01

    A number of global aerosol products of varying quality, strengths, and weaknesses have been generated. Presented here are synthetic analyses with regard to the quality, compatibility, and synergy of two long-term global (1983-2000) aerosol products derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Four essential aerosol parameters, namely, aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from AVHRR under the Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP), TOMS AOT, Ångström exponent (AE) from AVHRR, and TOMS aerosol index (AI) are analyzed together with various ancillary data sets on meteorological fields, ocean color, and ground-based AOT measurements. While the two satellite products reveal some common features, significant discrepancies exist. Reflectances measured at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths from the two sensors are incompatible in terms of the magnitude of AE computed from AOT derived from the two channels. The spatial distributions of the aerosol products from AVHRR and TOMS are complimentary in revealing different aspects of aerosol characteristics. In-depth analyses were carried out over several regions under the influence of different types of aerosols such as biomass burning, dust, sea salt, air pollution, and their mixtures. A classification algorithm was developed to identify dominant types of aerosols around the globe using aerosol products from the two instruments. Aerosol type information is used to develop and apply relationships between the AVHRR AOT and the TOMS AOT. The latter was used to extend the AOT at 0.55 μm over land around the globe. Comparisons of monthly mean AOTs with AERONET monthly mean AOTs showed a general agreement to within an estimated error range of ±0.08 ± 0.20τ. Finally, a comparison between the estimated AOT with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOT over land showed good agreement in terms of magnitude and seasonality, suggesting a means of

  17. Global shielding analysis for the three-element core advanced neutron source reactor under normal operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C.O.; Bucholz, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    Two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport calculations were performed for a model of the three-element core Advanced Neutron Source reactor design under normal operating conditions. The core consists of two concentric upper elements and a lower element radially centered in the annulus between the upper elements. The initial radiation transport calculations were performed with the DORT two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code using the 39-neutron-group/44-gamma-ray-group ANSL-V cross-section library, an S{sub 6} quadrature, and a P{sub 1} Legendre polynomial expansion of the cross sections to determine the fission neutron source distribution in the core fuel elements. These calculations were limited to neutron groups only. The final radiation transport calculations, also performed with DORT using the 39-neutron-group/44-gamma-ray-group ANSL-V cross-section library, an S{sub l0} quadrature, and a P{sub 3} Legendre polynomial expansion of the cross sections, produced neutron and gamma-ray fluxes over the full extent of the geometry model. Responses (or activities) at various locations in the model were then obtained by folding the appropriate response functions with the fluxes at those locations. Some comparisons were made with VENTURE-calculated (diffusion theory) 20-group neutron fluxes that were summed into four broad groups. Tne results were in reasonably good agreement when the effects of photoneutrons were not included, thus verifying the physics model upon which the shielding model was based. Photoneutrons increased the fast-neutron flux levels deep within the D{sub 2}0 several orders of magnitude. Results are presented as tables of activity values for selected radial and axial traverses, plots of the radial and axial traverse data, and activity contours superimposed on the calculational geometry model.

  18. Perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: a) Measurements of tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, and octafluoropropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhle, J.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Ganesan, A. L.; Harth, C. M.; Greally, B. R.; O'Doherty, S. J.; Trudinger, C. M.; Porter, L. W.; Steele, L. P.; Krummel, P. B.; Petrenko, V. V.; Rigby, M. L.; Simmonds, P. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We have reconstructed the atmospheric abundances of the extremely long-lived, infrared-absorbing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) tetrafluoromethane (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6), and octafluoropropane (C3F8) from archived Southern Hemisphere (SH, Cape Grim Air Archive) and Northern Hemisphere (NH) air and in situ ambient air measurements at remote sites of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) program using “Medusa” trace gas analytical systems. The PFC records span more than 30 years in both hemispheres - about twice the length of previous direct NH measurements, and unprecedented in the SH. The excellent precisions (<0.3% tetrafluoromethane, <1.5% hexafluoroethane, <4.5% octafluoropropane) and quality of the archived air and in situ data lead to clearly defined abundances and rise rates in both hemispheres with well defined interhemispheric gradients for the first time. Based on new calibration scales which have estimated accuracies of ~1%, the atmospheric abundance of tetrafluoromethane is 6-10% lower than previously published. The background tropospheric abundances of tetrafluoromethane have been increasing from ~50 ppt (parts-per-trillion, dry air mole fraction) in 1978 to ~77 ppt in 2008 in the SH and from ~46 ppt in 1973 to ~78 ppt in 2008 in the NH. Rise rates were ~1.1 ppt/year until ~1991 and ~0.7 ppt/year since ~1993. Its natural pre-industrial background is ~34.8 ppt based on air extracted from ancient Greenland ice and Antarctic firn. The tropospheric abundances of hexafluoroethane have been increasing from ~1 ppt in 1978 to ~3.9 ppt in 2008 in the SH and from ~0.8 ppt in 1973 to ~4.0 ppt in 2008 in the NH. Its interhemispheric gradient is larger than previously reported. The tropospheric abundances of octafluoropropane have been increasing from ~0.05 ppt in 1978 to ~0.5 ppt in 2008 in SH and from ~0.02 ppt in 1973 to ~0.52 ppt in 2008 in the NH. Abundances and rise rates are discussed in the context of changing emissions from the

  19. Acid glycosaminoglycan (aGAG) excretion is increased in children with autism spectrum disorder, and it can be controlled by diet.

    PubMed

    Endreffy, Ildikó; Bjørklund, Geir; Dicső, Ferenc; Urbina, Mauricio A; Endreffy, Emőke

    2016-04-01

    Autism research continues to receive considerable attention as the options for successful management are limited. The understanding of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) etiology has now progressed to encompass genetic, epigenetic, neurological, hormonal, and environmental factors that affect outcomes for patients with ASD. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a family of linear, sulfated polysaccharides that are associated with central nervous system (CNS) development, maintenance, and disorders. Proteoglycans (PG) regulate diverse functions in the central nervous system. Heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are two major GAGs present in the PGs of the CNS. As neuroscience advances, biochemical treatments to correct brain chemistry become better defined. Nutrient therapy can be very potent and has minimal to no side effects, since no molecules foreign to the body are needed. Given GAGs are involved in several neurological functions, and that its level can be somewhat modulated by the diet, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of GAGs levels in ASD symptoms. Both tGAG and its different fractions were evaluated in the urine of ASD and healthy control childrens. As levels differed between groups, a second trial was conduted evaluating if diet could reduce tGAG levels and if this in turn decrease ASD symptoms. The present study found that tGAG concentration was significantly higher in the urine of children with ASD compared to healthy control children and this was also evident in all GAG fractions. Within groups (controls and ASD), no gender differences in GAG excretion were found. The use of a 90 days elimination diet (casein-free, special carbohydrates, multivitamin/mineral supplement), had major effects in reducing urinary tGAG excretion in children with ASD.

  20. Advance of East Antarctic outlet glaciers during the Hypsithermal: Implications for the volume state of the Antarctic ice sheet under global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Domack, E.W. ); Jull, A.J.T. ); Nakao, Seizo )

    1991-11-01

    The authors present the first circum-East Antarctic chronology for the Holocene, based on 17 radiocarbon dates generated by the accelerator method. Marine sediments form around East Antarctica contain a consistent, high-resolution record of terrigenous (ice-proximal) and biogenic (open-marine) sedimentation during Holocene time. This record demonstrates that biogenic sedimentation beneath the open-marine environment on the continental shelf has been restricted to approximately the past 4 ka, whereas a period of terrigenous sedimentation related to grounding line advance of ice tongues and ice shelves took place between 7 and 4 ka. An earlier period of open-marine (biogenic sedimentation) conditions following the late Pleistocene glacial maximum is recognized from the Prydz Bay (Ocean Drilling Program) record between 10.7 and 7.3 ka. Clearly, the response of outlet systems along the periphery of the East Antarctic ice sheet during the mid-Holocene was expansion. This may have been a direct consequence of climate warming during an Antarctic Hypsithermal. Temperature-accumulation relations for the Antarctic indicate that warming will cause a significant increase in accumulation rather than in ablation. Models that predict a positive mass balance (growth) of the Antarctic ice sheet under global warming are supported by the mid-Holocene data presented herein.

  1. Advancing Global Health - The Need for (Better) Social Science Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-02-06

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance.

  2. Advancing Global Health - The Need for (Better) Social Science Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. PMID:27239873

  3. Globally Collaborative Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsumi, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    The Global University System (GUS) [Utsumi, et al, 2003] is a worldwide initiative to create advanced telecommunications infrastructure for access to educational resources across national and cultural boundaries for global peace. GUS aims to create a worldwide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21st…

  4. Globalization of Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  5. What could a strengthened right to health bring to the post-2015 health development agenda?: interrogating the role of the minimum core concept in advancing essential global health needs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Global health institutions increasingly recognize that the right to health should guide the formulation of replacement goals for the Millennium Development Goals, which expire in 2015. However, the right to health’s contribution is undercut by the principle of progressive realization, which links provision of health services to available resources, permitting states to deny even basic levels of health coverage domestically and allowing international assistance for health to remain entirely discretionary. Discussion To prevent progressive realization from undermining both domestic and international responsibilities towards health, international human rights law institutions developed the idea of non-derogable “minimum core” obligations to provide essential health services. While minimum core obligations have enjoyed some uptake in human rights practice and scholarship, their definition in international law fails to specify which health services should fall within their scope, or to specify wealthy country obligations to assist poorer countries. These definitional gaps undercut the capacity of minimum core obligations to protect essential health needs against inaction, austerity and illegitimate trade-offs in both domestic and global action. If the right to health is to effectively advance essential global health needs in these contexts, weaknesses within the minimum core concept must be resolved through innovative research on social, political and legal conceptualizations of essential health needs. Summary We believe that if the minimum core concept is strengthened in these ways, it will produce a more feasible and grounded conception of legally prioritized health needs that could assist in advancing health equity, including by providing a framework rooted in legal obligations to guide the formulation of new health development goals, providing a baseline of essential health services to be protected as a matter of right against governmental claims of

  6. Higher Education in a Global Society Achieving Diversity, Equity and Excellence (Advances in Education in Diverse Communities: Research Policy and Praxis, Volume 5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsevier, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "problem of the 21st century" is rapidly expanding diversity alongside stubbornly persistent status and power inequities by race, ethnicity, gender, class, language, citizenship and region. Extensive technological, economic, political and social changes, along with immigration, combine to produce a global community of great diversity…

  7. Preparing Teachers of Tomorrow with Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Sittason, Kelli S.

    2009-01-01

    Global education advances global perspectives and prepares globally competent citizens. Globally competent citizens know they have an impact on the world and that the world influences them. Global competency is often viewed in terms of three attributes: knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Given the importance of preparing pre-service teachers who…

  8. Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: growing and advancing in spite of global climate change and the 1986 and 2002 Russell Lake outburst floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trabant, Dennis C.; March, Rod S.; Thomas, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    Hubbard Glacier, the largest calving glacier on the North American Continent (25 percent larger than Rhode Island), advanced across the entrance to 35-mile-long Russell Fiord during June 2002, temporarily turning it into a lake. Hubbard Glacier has been advancing for more than 100 years and has twice closed the entrance to Russell Fiord during the last 16 years by squeezing and pushing submarine glacial sediments across the mouth of the fiord. Water flowing into the cutoff fiord from mountain streams and glacier melt causes the level of Russell Lake to rise. However, both the 1986 and 2002 dams failed before the lake altitude rose enough for water to spill over a low pass at the far end of the fiord and enter the Situk River drainage, a world-class sport and commercial fishery near Yakutat, Alaska.

  9. The eighth Asia cancer forum: seeking to advance the outcomes of the UN summit: 'global health as the key to a new paradigm in cancer research'.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Norie; Akaza, Hideyuki; Roh, Jae Kyung; Shibuya, Kenji; Inoue, Hajime; Takemi, Keizo; Nozaki, Shinjiro; Kawakami, Koji; Iwasaki, Masaru

    2012-12-01

    To date, the Asia Cancer Forum has focused its efforts on creating a common concept for collaborative efforts in international cancer research with a focus on Asia, where cancer incidence is rising dramatically, and also sharing information and knowledge among cancer specialists about the importance of cancer as a global health agenda issue. The Eighth Asia Cancer Forum was held following the historic outcome of the High-level Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases held in New York in September 2011, at which cancer was duly recognized as a global health agenda issue. Despite this significant development, however, the issue of cancer, one of the most intractable of all non-communicable diseases, still faces a variety of challenges if it is to be addressed on the global level. The Eighth Asia Cancer Forum sought to address these various issues, seeking ways to capitalize on the outcomes of the UN Meeting and take global collaborative studies and alliances in the field of cancer further. It was recognized that one of the main challenges for the Asia Cancer Forum is to formulate a proposal that demonstrates how middle-income countries can provide a good level of care using only their own limited medical resources. Given that the Asia Cancer Forum is one of the organizations that can provide assistance in working to further boost awareness about cancer research and the situation relating to cancer in Asian countries, discussion also focused on how to concretize activities in the future. PMID:23100603

  10. NASA University Research Centers Technical Advances in Aeronautics, Space Sciences and Technology, Earth Systems Sciences, Global Hydrology, and Education. Volumes 2 and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Tommy L. (Editor); White, Bettie (Editor); Goodman, Steven (Editor); Sakimoto, P. (Editor); Randolph, Lynwood (Editor); Rickman, Doug (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This volume chronicles the proceedings of the 1998 NASA University Research Centers Technical Conference (URC-TC '98), held on February 22-25, 1998, in Huntsville, Alabama. The University Research Centers (URCS) are multidisciplinary research units established by NASA at 11 Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCU's) and 3 Other Minority Universities (OMU's) to conduct research work in areas of interest to NASA. The URC Technical Conferences bring together the faculty members and students from the URC's with representatives from other universities, NASA, and the aerospace industry to discuss recent advances in their fields.

  11. Advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights in low- and middle-income countries: implications for the post-2015 global development agenda.

    PubMed

    Germain, Adrienne; Sen, Gita; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Shankar, Mridula

    2015-01-01

    The papers and commentaries in this special issue illuminate progress made by low- and middle-income countries towards implementation of the Programme of Action (PoA) agreed by 179 countries during the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. The PoA presents a path-breaking sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) framework for global and national population and health policies. While progress towards implementation has been made at global, regional and national levels, continuing and new challenges require that high priority be given to SRHR for all, particularly women and girls, during the remaining months of the millennium development goals and in the United Nations post-2015 development agenda. This paper highlights three critical gaps, raised in other papers: inequalities in access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services; the widespread need to improve SRH services to meet public health, human rights and medical ethics standards for quality of care; and the absence or inadequate use of accountability mechanisms to track and remedy the other two. We discuss priority actions to achieve equality, quality and accountability in SRHR policies, programmes and services, especially those that should be included in the post-2015 development agenda.

  12. Advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights in low- and middle-income countries: Implications for the post-2015 global development agenda

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Adrienne; Sen, Gita; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Shankar, Mridula

    2015-01-01

    The papers and commentaries in this special issue illuminate progress made by low- and middle-income countries towards implementation of the Programme of Action (PoA) agreed by 179 countries during the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. The PoA presents a path-breaking sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) framework for global and national population and health policies. While progress towards implementation has been made at global, regional and national levels, continuing and new challenges require that high priority be given to SRHR for all, particularly women and girls, during the remaining months of the millennium development goals and in the United Nations post-2015 development agenda. This paper highlights three critical gaps, raised in other papers: inequalities in access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services; the widespread need to improve SRH services to meet public health, human rights and medical ethics standards for quality of care; and the absence or inadequate use of accountability mechanisms to track and remedy the other two. We discuss priority actions to achieve equality, quality and accountability in SRHR policies, programmes and services, especially those that should be included in the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:25628182

  13. Global Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald T.

    1999-01-01

    Defines global fluency as a facility with cultural behaviors that help an organization thrive in an ever-changing global business environment; and discusses business culture, global culture, an example of a change effort at a global company, leadership values, company values, and defining global values and practices. (Author/LRW)

  14. Global Monitoring for Food Security and Sustainable Land Management - Recent Advances of Remote Sensing Applications to African and Siberian Show Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komp, K. U.; Haub, C.

    2012-07-01

    After four decades of space borne remote sensing, the unmapped white patches have mostly disappeared. Those basic information give the foundations to the observation of changes and even the introduction of monitoring programmes for a various number of features in the natural and human landscape of our planet. Recent indicators for climatic change together with worrisome alterations in regional food production versus the constantly increase of human population demand the design and implementation of reliable land management tools which will serve the food security as well as the sustainable use of resources of the ecosystem in its respective regional context. The positive responses and convincing results of ESA service elements in the efforts towards food security in several African countries have been the basis for the transfer of the methods into another region, the Western Siberian corn-belt. The large extends of cropping schemes in West Siberia demand advanced remote sensing methods to be applied in order to compare the impacts of climatic change not only on the agricultural production but also on risks for the ecosystem. A multi scale approach of remote sensing methods is introduced in analogy to the African activities. An adopted monitoring concept is developed using a nearly daily product of medium resolution for wide areas, high resolution sensors for stratified sample areas and in-situ observations. Beyond methodological research, the ability of remote sensing is contributing to operational solutions that can ensure the nutritional and ecological future of our planet.

  15. Toward single-walled carbon nanotube–gadolinium complex as advanced MRI contrast agents: pharmacodynamics and global genomic response in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Avti, Pramod K.; Talukdar, Yahfi; Sirotkin, Matvey V.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Gadolinium nanoparticle-catalyzed single-walled carbon nanotubes (Gd-SWCNTs) have recently shown potential in vitro as high-performance T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs). Their preclinical safety assessment at nontoxic dosages is essential for MRI applications. Herein, the in vivo (in rats) pharmacodynamics of Gd-SWCNTs (water solubilized with the amphiphilic polymer PEG-DSPE) at the organ, tissue, molecular, and genetic level is reported. Gd-SWCNT, commercially available iron catalyzed SWCNTs (Fe-SWCNTs, control 1) and PEG-DSPE (control 2) solutions were intravenously injected at a potential nontoxic therapeutic dose (0.5 mg/kg body weight, single bolus). Post-injection, bright-field optical microscopy showed their macroscale distribution in lung, liver, kidney, brain, and spleen up to 5 days. Raman and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed their presence at the nanoscale within hepatocytes. Their effects on the host organ tissue, molecular, and genetic level were analyzed after 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 days by histology, biomolecular [lipid peroxidation, plasma tumor necrosis factor TNF-α assay, microarrays] assays. The results indicate that Gd-SWCNTs neither cause any inflammation, nor damage to the above organs, nor any significant change in the lipid peroxidation or plasma proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) levels for all the groups at all time points. Global gene expression profile of liver (main organ for the metabolism) after day 1 treatment with Gd-SWCNTs shows that the gene regulation is directed toward maintaining normal homeostasis. The results taken together indicate that PEG-DSPE water-solubilized Gd-SWCNTs at potentially nontoxic dosages have pharmacodynamics similar to other commercially available Fe-SWCNTs and are suitable for future preclinical development as in vivo MRI CAs. PMID:23559429

  16. Probing S-state advancements and recombination pathways in photosystem II with a global fit program for flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern.

    PubMed

    Pham, Long Vo; Messinger, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II catalyzes the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. Four decades ago, measurements of flash-induced oxygen evolution have shown that the OEC steps through oxidation states S(0), S(1), S(2), S(3) and S(4) before O(2) is released and the S(0) state is reformed. The light-induced transitions between these states involve misses and double hits. While it is widely accepted that the miss parameter is S state dependent and may be further modulated by the oxidation state of the acceptor side, the traditional way of analyzing each flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern (FIOP) individually did not allow using enough free parameters to thoroughly test this proposal. Furthermore, this approach does not allow assessing whether the presently known recombination processes in photosystem II fully explain all measured oxygen yields during Si state lifetime measurements. Here we present a global fit program that simultaneously fits all flash-induced oxygen yields of a standard FIOP (2 Hz flash frequency) and of 11-18 FIOPs each obtained while probing the S(0), S(2) and S(3) state lifetimes in spinach thylakoids at neutral pH. This comprehensive data treatment demonstrates the presence of a very slow phase of S(2) decay, in addition to the commonly discussed fast and slow reduction of S(2) by YD and QB(-), respectively. Our data support previous suggestions that the S(0)→S(1) and S(1)→S(2) transitions involve low or no misses, while high misses occur in the S(2)→S(3) or S(3)→S(0) transitions. PMID:27033305

  17. Probing S-state advancements and recombination pathways in photosystem II with a global fit program for flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern.

    PubMed

    Pham, Long Vo; Messinger, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II catalyzes the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. Four decades ago, measurements of flash-induced oxygen evolution have shown that the OEC steps through oxidation states S(0), S(1), S(2), S(3) and S(4) before O(2) is released and the S(0) state is reformed. The light-induced transitions between these states involve misses and double hits. While it is widely accepted that the miss parameter is S state dependent and may be further modulated by the oxidation state of the acceptor side, the traditional way of analyzing each flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern (FIOP) individually did not allow using enough free parameters to thoroughly test this proposal. Furthermore, this approach does not allow assessing whether the presently known recombination processes in photosystem II fully explain all measured oxygen yields during Si state lifetime measurements. Here we present a global fit program that simultaneously fits all flash-induced oxygen yields of a standard FIOP (2 Hz flash frequency) and of 11-18 FIOPs each obtained while probing the S(0), S(2) and S(3) state lifetimes in spinach thylakoids at neutral pH. This comprehensive data treatment demonstrates the presence of a very slow phase of S(2) decay, in addition to the commonly discussed fast and slow reduction of S(2) by YD and QB(-), respectively. Our data support previous suggestions that the S(0)→S(1) and S(1)→S(2) transitions involve low or no misses, while high misses occur in the S(2)→S(3) or S(3)→S(0) transitions.

  18. Global Studies in the Community College Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The study reports on the development of global studies programs in community colleges. It offers a rationale for global studies through clarification of the widely contested phenomenon of globalization. By investigating key advances in global education over the past 15 years alongside current college initiatives, the research offers…

  19. Globalization and global health.

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1999-01-01

    Along with the positive or negative consequences of the globalization of health, we can consider global health as a goal, responding to human rights and to common interests. History tells us that after the "microbial unification" of the world, which began in 1492, over three centuries elapsed before the recognition of common risks and attempts to cope with them in a cross-boundary effort. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the struggle against epidemics united countries, world health became a common goal, and considerable results were achieved. However, in recent decades the notion of health as a cornerstone of economic development has been replaced by the idea that public health and health services are an obstacle to the wealth of nations. Meanwhile, new common threats are growing: among them, the exacerbation of old infections and emergence of new ones, the impact of environmental changes, drug traffic on a world scale, and destructive and self-destructive violence. New and stronger empirical motives relate the interests of peoples to universal rights and to global health. The author concludes with some proposals for policies.

  20. Thinking Globally when Teaching Locally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Reken, Ruth E.; Rushmore, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Advances in science and technology, globalization of trade, international competition for markets, ethnic conflicts, and the limits of the planet's ecosystem have brought global issues and the people of the world to doorsteps and classrooms. With the increasing interaction among peoples of the world, skills in cross-cultural communication,…

  1. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization. "An…

  2. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, June, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The articles in this collection deal with various methods of global education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of global education; (2) global education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…

  3. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of Globalism," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of global education for today's schools. "Global Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this…

  4. Advancing the use of radiocarbon in studies of global and regional carbon cycling with high precision measurements of carbon-14 in carbon dioxide from the Scripps Carbon Dioxide Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, Heather Dawn

    Measurements of 14C in atmospheric CO2 have served as a powerful geochemical tracer since the first observation programs began over 50 years ago. As the nuclear weapons tests of the 1950s and 60s caused an enormous perturbation to natural atmospheric 14C levels, tracking the response of 14C in CO2 provided a measure of exchange rates between different regions of the atmosphere and between the troposphere and the ocean surface and terrestrial biosphere. Early measurements of 14C/12C, or Delta14 C, in tree rings provided clear evidence that rising CO2 concentrations were due to human activities by revealing the dilution of 14C in the atmosphere by the combustion of million year old fossil carbon, a process termed the "Suess Effect". This thesis aimed to continue and expand the use of Delta14 C in atmospheric CO2 for investigating carbon cycle dynamics. Since much of the excess 14C derived from nuclear weapons testing has been redistributed into oceanic and biospheric reservoirs, trends and gradients in Delta14C of CO2 have diminished to levels that are nearly commensurate with measurement precision at most laboratories. Development of improved methods for Delta14C analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory advanced measurement uncertainty to 1.7‰. Application of the improved analytical procedures to an archive of CO 2 samples from the Scripps CO2 Program produced 2-15 year monthly time series of Delta14C at seven global sampling stations. The high precision observations show variability in the secular trend of Delta14C that could enable new insights to the climatic influences on CO2 exchange. Measurement of a shift in the Delta 14C gradient between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres since the 1980s also places constraints on regional fluxes of carbon, with particular relevance to Southern Ocean dynamics. The measurements presented here contribute significantly to the amount and global coverage of recent Delta14 C

  5. Global Emissions of Refrigerants HCFC-22 and HFC-134a: Unforeseen Seasonal Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, B.; Patra, P. K.; Montzka, S. A.; Miller, S. M.; Elkins, J. W.; Moore, F.; Atlas, E. L.; Miller, B. R.; Prinn, R. G.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    HCFC-22 (CHClF2) and HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) are two major gases currently used worldwide in domestic and commercial refrigeration and air conditioning. HCFC-22 contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion and both species are potent greenhouse gases, and their global emissions continue to rise at the present. In this work, we study aircraft based in-situ observations of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a over the Pacific Ocean in a three-year span (HIaper Pole-to-Pole Observation of carbon cycle and greenhouse gases study, HIPPO 2009-2011) and combine these data with long-term observations from global surface sites (NOAA and AGAGE networks). We find a steady increase in global annual emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a for the past two decades (on average 3% and 4% per year, respectively). Emissions of HFC-134a since 2000 are consistently higher, with 60% more in recent years (2009-2011), compared to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) inventory. Using both HIPPO and surface data, we quantify and verify enhanced summertime emissions of HFC-134a and HCFC-22 that are about three times those in the wintertime. This unforeseen large seasonal contribution indicates unaccounted mechanisms controlling refrigerant gas emissions, missing in the existing inventory estimates. Possible mechanisms for greater refrigerant leakages in the summer are: 1) higher vapor pressure in the sealed compartment of the system at summer high temperatures (saturated vapor pressure is ~ 3 times at 303 K compared to that at 273 K for both species), and 2) more frequent use of refrigeration and air conditioners in the summer (vapor pressure in the compressor line is higher when in use than not in use). Our results suggest that the engineering of the refrigeration and air conditioning systems can greatly influence the release of these two species to the atmosphere.

  6. Nanomedicine for global health.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Nathaniel; Lee, Bryan; Kim, Austin; Yang, Richard; Pan, Ricky; Lee, Dong-Keun; Chow, Edward K; Ho, Dean

    2014-12-01

    Despite modern advances, a broad range of disorders such as cancer and infectious diseases continually afflict the global population. Novel therapeutics are continuously being explored to address these challenges. Therefore, scalable, effective, and safe therapies that are readily accessible to third-world countries are of major interest. In this article, we discuss the potential advantages that the nanomedicine field may harness toward successful implementation against some of the major diseases of our generation.

  7. Global Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  MISR Global Images See the Light of Day     View Larger Image ... than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced reflection of light by atmospheric particulates. MISR data are processed at the ...

  8. Global Albedo

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... estimation of crop yields and disease outbreaks) and land management. Global MISR DHR maps are also available for all other parts of the ... of Directional Hemispherical Reflectance. project:  MISR category:  gallery date:  ...

  9. Facilitating Cross-Cultural Management Education through Global Faculty Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinebell, Sharon K.; Kvedaraviciene, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    According to the AACSB International (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) (AACSB International, 2011), the next big transformational wave to hit business schools is globalization. Globalizing the faculty is one strategy for enhancing the globalization of business schools and using global faculty exchanges is one method to…

  10. Advance care directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  11. Wildlife Endangerment: A Global Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshorn, Arthur

    1981-01-01

    This essay discusses threats to wildlife posed by technological advances and human population growth. It presents evidence that habitats are being destroyed by pollution, exploitation of virgin lands, energy resource extraction, and other rapidly changing conditions. The author proposes a coordinated global effort to preserve vanishing species.…

  12. Teaching Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2004-05-01

    Every citizen's education should include socially relevant science courses because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "Without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." I have developed a conceptual liberal-arts physics course that covers the major principles of classical physics, emphasizes modern/contemporary physics, and includes societal topics such as global warming, ozone depletion, transportation, exponential growth, scientific methodology, risk assessment, nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and the energy future. The societal topics, occupying only about 15% of the class time, appear to be the main cause of the surprising popularity of this course among non-scientists. I will outline some ideas for incorporating global warming into such a course or into any other introductory physics course. For further details, see my textbook Physics: Concepts and Connections (Prentice Hall, 3rd edition 2003).

  13. Global Precipitation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Kummerow, Christian D.; Shepherd, James Marshall

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a brief history and background of microwave precipitation sensors, with a discussion of the sensitivity of both passive and active instruments, to trace the evolution of satellite-based rainfall techniques from an era of inference to an era of physical measurement. Next, the highly successful Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission will be described, followed by the goals and plans for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission and the status of precipitation retrieval algorithm development. The chapter concludes with a summary of the need for space-based precipitation measurement, current technological capabilities, near-term algorithm advancements and anticipated new sciences and societal benefits in the GPM era.

  14. A New Global Geomorphology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    Geomorphology is entering a new era of discovery and scientific excitement centered on expanding scales of concern in both time and space. The catalysts for this development include technological advances in global remote sensing systems, mathematical modeling, and the dating of geomorphic surfaces and processes. Even more important are new scientific questions centered on comparative planetary geomorphology, the interaction of tectonism with landscapes, the dynamics of late Cenozoic climatic changes, the influence of cataclysmic processes, the recognition of extremely ancient landforms, and the history of the world's hydrologic systems. These questions all involve feedback relationships with allied sciences that have recently yielded profound developments.

  15. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on topics related to global issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates art from recycled…

  16. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  17. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  18. Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Global change is a relatively new area of scientific study using research from many disciplines to determine how Earth systems change, and to assess the influence of human activity on these changes. This teaching packet consists of a poster and three activity sheets. In teaching these activities four themes are important: time, change, cycles, and Earth as home.

  19. The need for leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Leeder, Stephen R; Raymond, Susan U; Greenberg, Henry M

    2007-11-01

    Globalisation has brought with it many advances in health, but also a new range of challenges. There is a need to move from "nation-focused" (international) public health to global public health--and the terminology we use here matters. Global public health leadership requires that respect be shown to evidence, especially that about the changing nature of disease worldwide. The Australian medical and research communities have a significant opportunity to provide global public health leadership. PMID:17949335

  20. The need for leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Leeder, Stephen R; Raymond, Susan U; Greenberg, Henry M

    2007-11-01

    Globalisation has brought with it many advances in health, but also a new range of challenges. There is a need to move from "nation-focused" (international) public health to global public health--and the terminology we use here matters. Global public health leadership requires that respect be shown to evidence, especially that about the changing nature of disease worldwide. The Australian medical and research communities have a significant opportunity to provide global public health leadership.

  1. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  2. Advanced Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarantos, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    This is an excerpt from a course for advanced students, designed to teach proficiency in English composition by providing activities specifically geared to the elimination of native language interference. (LG)

  3. Panwapa: Global Kids, Global Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to global communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged four to…

  4. Global precipitation measurement (GPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Flaming, Gilbert M.; Adams, W. James; Smith, Eric A.

    2001-12-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying options for future space-based missions for the EOS Follow-on Era (post 2003), building upon the measurements made by Pre-EOS and EOS First Series Missions. One mission under consideration is the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), a cooperative venture of NASA, Japan, and other international partners. GPM will capitalize on the experience of the highly successful Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). Its goal is to extend the measurement of rainfall to high latitudes with high temporal frequency, providing a global data set every three hours. A reference concept has been developed consisting of an improved TRMM-like primary satellite with precipitation radar and microwave radiometer to make detailed and accurate estimates of the precipitation structure and a constellation of small satellites flying compact microwave radiometers to provide the required temporal sampling of highly variable precipitation systems. Considering that DMSP spacecraft equipped with SSMIS microwave radiometers, successor NPOESS spacecraft equipped with CMIS microwave radiometers, and other relevant international systems are expected to be in operation during the timeframe of the reference concept, the total number of small satellites required to complete the constellation will be reduced. A nominal plan is to begin implementation in FY'03 with launches in 2007. NASA is presently engaged in advanced mission studies and advanced instrument technology development related to the mission.

  5. Going Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Garry

    2010-01-01

    In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their global recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and…

  6. Global Arrays

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  7. Global climate feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  8. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  9. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  10. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  11. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  12. Global teaching of global seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  13. A Global Language for the Global Village? A Response to Mary Snell-Hornby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Gunilla

    1999-01-01

    This response to an article on the effect of recent developments (particularly globalization and advances in technology) on the production and perception of language discusses the role of English as a global language and issues surrounding translation. Suggests that stereotyping resulting from non-nuanced and unsubtle transfer of information might…

  14. Global University System for Engineering Education in the Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsumi, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    The Global University System (GUS) is a world wide initiative to create an advanced telecommunications infrastructure for access to educational resources across national and cultural boundaries in the search for global peace. GUS aims to create a world wide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21st century…

  15. Global Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  16. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  17. Global gamesmanship.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  18. Global health for nursing...and nursing for global health.

    PubMed

    Merry, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    This article draws on the literature to present a conceptualization of global health (GH) that corresponds with the discipline of nursing and defines the contributions of nursing to GH. The author's perspective is that "health" should be defined and considered holistically to reflect the fact that GH involves more than the eradication of disease and that health as a fundamental right of every human being must be made explicit. "Global" refers to the supraterritorial links among the social determinants of health located at points anywhere on earth within a whole-world context. The focus of GH is the supraterritorial determinants and its ultimate objective is health equity for all nations and all people. The contributions of nurses are advocacy, healing and alleviating suffering through caring, and increasing nursing capacity globally. To truly advance the GH agenda, a new world order is needed, one in which political decision-making is guided by our shared humanity. PMID:23448073

  19. Ramucirumab: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Poole, Raewyn M; Vaidya, Asha

    2014-06-01

    Ramucirumab (Cyramza™ [US]), a fully human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), has been developed by Eli Lilly (formerly ImClone Systems) for the treatment of cancer. Ramucirumab has received its first global approval in the US for use as monotherapy in the treatment of advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma in patients who experience disease progression on or after fluoropyrimidine- or platinum-containing chemotherapy. Ramucirumab is the first treatment to be approved by the US FDA for this setting. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of ramucirumab leading to this first approval for the treatment of gastric cancer and gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

  20. Pembrolizumab: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Poole, Raewyn M

    2014-10-01

    Pembrolizumab [Keytruda(®) (US)], a humanized monoclonal antibody against the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) protein, has been developed by Merck & Co for the treatment of cancer. Pembrolizumab has received its first global approval for the treatment of advanced, unresectable or metastatic malignant melanoma in the US, for use in patients with disease progression after prior treatment with ipilimumab and, for BRAF V600 mutation-positive patients, a BRAF inhibitor. It is the first anti-PD-1 therapy to receive regulatory approval in the US, and is currently under regulatory review in the EU. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of pembrolizumab leading to this first approval for the treatment of malignant melanoma.

  1. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  2. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  3. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  4. Optimal estimation of regional N2O emissions using a three-dimensional global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Golombek, A.; Prinn, R.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we use the MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) model and Kalman filtering techniques to optimally estimate N2O emissions from seven source regions around the globe. The MATCH model was used with NCEP assimilated winds at T62 resolution (192 longitude by 94 latitude surface grid, and 28 vertical levels) from July 1st 1996 to December 31st 2000. The average concentrations of N2O in the lowest four layers of the model were then compared with the monthly mean observations from six national/global networks (AGAGE, CMDL (HATS), CMDL (CCGG), CSIRO, CSIR and NIES), at 48 surface sites. A 12-month-running-mean smoother was applied to both the model results and the observations, due to the fact that the model was not able to reproduce the very small observed seasonal variations. The Kalman filter was then used to solve for the time-averaged regional emissions of N2O for January 1st 1997 to June 30th 2000. The inversions assume that the model stratospheric destruction rates, which lead to a global N2O lifetime of 130 years, are correct. It also assumes normalized emission spatial distributions from each region based on previous studies. We conclude that the global N2O emission flux is about 16.2 TgN/yr, with {34.9±1.7%} from South America and Africa, {34.6±1.5%} from South Asia, {13.9±1.5%} from China/Japan/South East Asia, {8.0±1.9%} from all oceans, {6.4±1.1%} from North America and North and West Asia, {2.6±0.4%} from Europe, and {0.9±0.7%} from New Zealand and Australia. The errors here include the measurement standard deviation, calibration differences among the six groups, grid volume/measurement site mis-match errors estimated from the model, and a procedure to account approximately for the modeling errors.

  5. Towards continuous global measurements and optimal emission estimates of NF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, T.; Muhle, J.; Salameh, P.; Harth, C.; Ivy, D. J.; Weiss, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    We present an analytical method for the continuous in situ measurement of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) - an anthropogenic gas with a global warming potential of ~16800 over a 100 year time horizon. NF3 is not included in national reporting emissions inventories under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). However, it is a rapidly emerging greenhouse gas due to emission from a growing number of manufacturing facilities with increasing output and modern end-use applications, namely in microcircuit etching, and in production of flat panel displays and thin-film photovoltaic cells. Despite success in measuring the most volatile long lived halogenated species such as CF4, the Medusa preconcentration GC/MS system of Miller et al. (2008) is unable to detect NF3 under remote operation. Using altered techniques of gas separation and chromatography after initial preconcentration, we are now able to make continuous atmospheric measurements of NF3 with average precisions < 1.5% (1 s.d.) for modern background air samples. Most notably, the suite of gases previously measured by Medusa (the significant halogenated species listed under both the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols), can also be quantified from the same sample. Our technique was used to extend the most recent atmospheric measurements into 2011 and complete the background Southern Hemispheric trend over the past three decades using samples from the Cape Grim Air Archive. Using these latest results and those from Weiss et al. (2008) we present optimised annual emission estimates using a 2D atmospheric transport model (AGAGE 12-box model) and an inverse method (Rigby et al., 2011). We calculate emissions during 2010 of 7.6 +/- 1.3 kt (equivalent to 13 million metric tons of CO2), which is estimated to be around 6% of the total NF3 produced. Emission factors are shown to have reduced over the last decade; however, rising production and end-use have caused the average global atmospheric concentration

  6. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  7. Global cooling?

    PubMed

    Damon, P E; Kunen, S M

    1976-08-01

    The world's inhabitants, including Scientists, live primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. It is quite natural to be concerned about events that occur close to home and neglect faraway events. Hence, it is not surprising that so little attention has been given to the Southern Hemisphere. Evidence for global cooling has been based, in large part, on a severe cooling trend at high northern latitudes. This article points out that the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend appears to be out of phase with a warming trend at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The data are scanty. We cannot be sure that these temperature fluctuations are be not the result of natural causes. How it seems most likely that human activity has already significantly perturbed the atmospheric weather system. The effect of particulate matter pollution should be most severe in the highly populated and industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Because of the rapid diffusion of CO(2) molecules within the atmosphere, both hemispheres will be subject to warming due to the atmospheric (greenhouse) effect as the CO(2) content of the atmosphere builds up from the combustion of fossil fuels. Because of the differential effects of the two major sources of atmospheric pollution, the CO(2) greenhouse effect warming trend should first become evident in the Southern Hemisphere. The socioeconomic and political consequences of climate change are profound. We need an early warning system such as would be provided by a more intensive international world weather watch, particularly at high northern and southern latitudes.

  8. Global HCFC-22 measurements with MIPAS: retrieval, validation, global distribution and its evolution over 2005-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkov, M.; Stiller, G. P.; Laeng, A.; Kellmann, S.; von Clarmann, T.; Boone, C. D.; Elkins, J. W.; Engel, A.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Harth, C. M.; Kiefer, M.; Kolonjari, F.; Krummel, P. B.; Linden, A.; Lunder, C. R.; Miller, B. R.; Montzka, S. A.; Mühle, J.; O'Doherty, S.; Orphal, J.; Prinn, R. G.; Toon, G.; Vollmer, M. K.; Walker, K. A.; Weiss, R. F.; Wiegele, A.; Young, D.

    2016-03-01

    We report on HCFC-22 data acquired by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) in the reduced spectral resolution nominal observation mode. The data cover the period from January 2005 to April 2012 and the altitude range from the upper troposphere (above cloud top altitude) to about 50 km. The profile retrieval was performed by constrained nonlinear least squares fitting of modelled spectra to the measured limb spectral radiances. The spectral ν4-band at 816.5 ± 13 cm-1 was used for the retrieval. A Tikhonov-type smoothing constraint was applied to stabilise the retrieval. In the lower stratosphere, we find a global volume mixing ratio of HCFC-22 of about 185 pptv in January 2005. The rate of linear growth in the lower latitudes lower stratosphere was about 6 to 7 pptv year-1 in the period 2005-2012. The profiles obtained were compared with ACE-FTS satellite data v3.5, as well as with MkIV balloon profiles and cryosampler balloon measurements. Between 13 and 22 km, average agreement within -3 to +5 pptv (MIPAS - ACE) with ACE-FTS v3.5 profiles is demonstrated. Agreement with MkIV solar occultation balloon-borne measurements is within 10-20 pptv below 30 km and worse above, while in situ cryosampler balloon measurements are systematically lower over their full altitude range by 15-50 pptv below 24 km and less than 10 pptv above 28 km. MIPAS HCFC-22 time series below 10 km altitude are shown to agree mostly well to corresponding time series of near-surface abundances from the NOAA/ESRL and AGAGE networks, although a more pronounced seasonal cycle is obvious in the satellite data. This is attributed to tropopause altitude fluctuations and subsidence of polar winter stratospheric air into the troposphere. A parametric model consisting of constant, linear, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and several sine and cosine terms with different periods has been fitted to the temporal variation of stratospheric HCFC-22 for all 10°-latitude/1-to-2

  9. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  10. Trial geography, pharmacogenetics, and global drug development.

    PubMed

    Schuck, R N; Florian, J; Charlab, R; Pacanowski, M

    2015-03-01

    Drug development is increasingly global. The benefits of multiregional trials include worldwide evaluation of safety and efficacy. However, clinical practice, environmental, and genetic factors can vary across geographic regions, significantly influencing trial outcomes within a specific geographic region or the global population relative to the United States (US). Genomic technologies and research discoveries continue to advance at a remarkable pace, offering opportunities to explore intrinsic factors that could account for regional variability in drug pharmacokinetics or response.

  11. NASA Global Hawk Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John

    2008-01-01

    This joint NASA/NGSC study was conducted with the expectation that the Global Hawk Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration Phase was nearing completion. (final ACTD flight was in Aug 06) This study convinced the 303d that the 2 available ACTD aircraft should be transferred to NASA Dryden. Global Hawk is the only available system capable of simultaneously meeting the requirements for high altitude (65K ft), long endurance (>31 hours), power (10 KVA), and a large payload capacity (2000 lbs). There are important NASA and NOAA science data gathering and satellite validation requirements that can only be met with the combination of capabilities provided by the Global Hawk system. NASA Global Hawk Missions: Unmanned Aerial System AURA Validation Experiment. (UAS AVE) April-May 2009 is the target date. Flights will cover the Pacific Ocean region south of Hawaii. 10-15 NASA and NOAA sponsored instruments. Data will be used for satellite validation. Next planning meeting for UAS AVE is at Dryden in April. Unmanned Aerial System Synthetic Aperture Radar. (UAS SAR) Flights to begin in mid to late 2009. The SAR instrument, developed by JPL, is contained in a pod and is being flown on Dryden s G-III. Northrop Grumman is conducting a feasibility study on adding wing pods to the NASA Global Hawk aircraft. Hurricane and Severe Storm Research. Hurricane missions in 2010 and 2013. Planning workshop at Dryden in June.

  12. Towards Global Adjoint Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdag, E.; Zhu, H.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic tomography is at a stage where we can harness entire seismograms using the opportunities offered by advances in numerical wave propagation solvers and high-performance computing. Adjoint methods provide an efficient way for incorporating full nonlinearity of wave propagation and 3D Fréchet kernels in iterative seismic inversions which have so far given promising results at continental and regional scales. Our goal is to take adjoint tomography forward to image the entire planet. Using an iterative conjugate gradient scheme, we initially set the aim to obtain a global crustal and mantle model with confined transverse isotropy in the upper mantle. We have started with around 255 global CMT events having moment magnitudes between 5.8 and 7, and used GSN stations as well as some local networks such as USArray, European stations etc. Prior to the structure inversion, we reinvert global CMT solutions by computing Green functions in our 3D reference model to take into account effects of crustal variations on source parameters. Using the advantages of numerical simulations, our strategy is to invert crustal and mantle structure together to avoid any bias introduced into upper-mantle images due to "crustal corrections", which are commonly used in classical tomography. 3D simulations dramatically increase the usable amount of data so that, with the current earthquake-station setup, we perform each iteration with more than two million measurements. Multi-resolution smoothing based on ray density is applied to the gradient to better deal with the imperfect source-station distribution on the globe and extract more information underneath regions with dense ray coverage and vice versa. Similar to frequency domain approach, we reduce nonlinearities by starting from long periods and gradually increase the frequency content of data after successive model updates. To simplify the problem, we primarily focus on the elastic structure and therefore our measurements are based on

  13. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  14. Advanced composite fuselage technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Smith, Peter J.; Horton, Ray E.

    1993-01-01

    Boeing's ATCAS program has completed its third year and continues to progress towards a goal to demonstrate composite fuselage technology with cost and weight advantages over aluminum. Work on this program is performed by an integrated team that includes several groups within The Boeing Company, industrial and university subcontractors, and technical support from NASA. During the course of the program, the ATCAS team has continued to perform a critical review of composite developments by recognizing advances in metal fuselage technology. Despite recent material, structural design, and manufacturing advancements for metals, polymeric matrix composite designs studied in ATCAS still project significant cost and weight advantages for future applications. A critical path to demonstrating technology readiness for composite transport fuselage structures was created to summarize ATCAS tasks for Phases A, B, and C. This includes a global schedule and list of technical issues which will be addressed throughout the course of studies. Work performed in ATCAS since the last ACT conference is also summarized. Most activities relate to crown quadrant manufacturing scaleup and performance verification. The former was highlighted by fabricating a curved, 7 ft. by 10 ft. panel, with cocured hat-stiffeners and cobonded J-frames. In building to this scale, process developments were achieved for tow-placed skins, drape formed stiffeners, braided/RTM frames, and panel cure tooling. Over 700 tests and supporting analyses have been performed for crown material and design evaluation, including structural tests that demonstrated limit load requirements for severed stiffener/skin failsafe damage conditions. Analysis of tests for tow-placed hybrid laminates with large damage indicates a tensile fracture toughness that is higher than that observed for advanced aluminum alloys. Additional recent ATCAS achievements include crown supporting technology, keel quadrant design evaluation, and

  15. Global Methane Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeburgh, W. S.

    2003-12-01

    . Methane absorbs infrared radiation in the troposphere, as do CO2 and H2O, and is an important greenhouse gas (Lacis et al., 1981; Ramanathan et al., 1985).A number of review articles on atmospheric CH4 have appeared during the last 15 years. Cicerone and Oremland (1988) reviewed evidence for the temporal atmospheric increase, updated source estimates in the global CH4 budget, and placed constraints on the global budget, emphasizing that the total is well constrained, but that the constituent sources may be uncertain by a factor of 2 or more. This paper was part of a special section in Global Biogeochemical Cycles that resulted from a 1987 American Chemical Society Symposium, "Atmospheric Methane: Formation and Fluxes form the Biosphere and Geosphere." Tyler (1991) and Wahlen (1993) emphasized new information on stable isotopes of CH4 and 14CH4, respectively. Several reviews deal with the microbially mediated CH4 oxidation. King (1992) reviewed the ecology of microbial CH4 oxidation, emphasizing the important role of this process in global CH4 dynamics. R. S. Hanson and T. E. Hanson (1996) reviewed the physiology and taxonomy of methylotrophic bacteria, their role in the global carbon cycle, and the ecology of methanotrophic bacteria. Conrad (1996) reviewed the role of soils and soil microbial communities as controllers of CH4 fluxes, as well as those of H2, CO, OCS, N2O, and NO. Two meetings focusing on CH4 biogeochemistry were held in 1991: an NATO Advanced Science Workshop held at Mt. Hood, OR, and the Tenth International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEB). A dedicated issue of Chemosphere (26(1-4), 1993) contains contributions from the NATO workshop; two additional volumes (Khalil, 1993 and Khalil, 2000) contain a report of the workshop and updates of important topics. Contributions to the ISEB meeting are presented in Oremland (1993). Wuebbles and Hayhoe (2002) reviewed the effects of CH4 on atmospheric chemistry and examined the direct and indirect

  16. Advanced stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Arnulf

    1983-03-01

    Toroidal confinement of a plasma by an external magnetic field is not compatible with axisymmetry, in contrast to confinement by the pinch effect of induced electric currents as in a tokomak or by the reversed field pinch configuration. The existence of magnetic surfaces throughout the region in which grad p ≠ 0 is therefore not guaranteed in such configurations, though it is necessary for MHD-equilibrium when the lines of force possess a finite twist (or "rotational transform"). These twisted equilibria are called stellarators. The other type of external confinement requires all lines of force to be closed upon themselves and p to be function of the well defined quantity Q = φ d l/ B only. The resulting "bumpy" tori are sometimes also referred to as being M + S like. By discussing specific examples it is shown that stellarator configurations exist which retain as much as possible the properties of M + S like configurations, combine these with the magnetic well, and with an approximation to the isodynamic requirement of D. Palumbo. These so-called Advanced Stellarators shown an improvement in predicted particle confinement and beta-limit compared to the classical stellarators. They can also be viewed as forming a system of linked stabilized mirrors of small mirror ratio. These fields can be produced by modular coils. A prototype of such a configuration is being designed by the stellarator division of IPP under the name of Wendelstein VII-AS. Expected physical data and technical details of W VII-AS are given.

  17. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  18. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  19. Global hydrology 2015: State, trends, and directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2015-07-01

    Global hydrology has come a long way since the first introduction of the primitive land surface model of Manabe (1969) and the declaration of the "Emergence of Global Hydrology" by Eagleson (1986). Hydrological submodels of varying complexity are now part of global climate models, of models calculating global terrestrial carbon sequestration, of earth system models, and even of integrated assessment models. This paper reviews the current state of global hydrological modeling, discusses past and recent developments, and extrapolates these to future challenges and directions. First, established domains of global hydrological model applications are discussed, in terms of societal and science questions posed, the type of models developed, and recent advances therein. Next, a genealogy of global hydrological models is given. After reviewing recent efforts to connect model components from different domains, new domains are identified where global hydrology is now starting to become an integral part of the analyses. Finally, inspired by these new domains of application, persistent and emerging challenges are identified as well as the directions global hydrology is likely to take in the coming decade and beyond.

  20. Global Education at Streetsville Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    In 1973 an innovative, interdisciplinary global studies course was instituted at a secondary school in Ontario. Designed for advanced students at the grade 13 level, the course emphasized science, language arts, and mathematics issues in terms of the world's environmental and social problems. Rationale for the course included an awareness of the…

  1. Surfing Global Change: Negotiating Sustainable Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    SURFING GLOBAL CHANGE (SGC) serves as a procedural shell for attaining sustainable solutions for any interdisciplinary issue and is intended for use in advanced university courses. The participants' activities evolve through five levels from individual argumentation to molding one's own views for the "common good." The paradigm of "ethics of…

  2. Towards a Framework Convention on Global Health: a transformative agenda for global health justice.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Friedman, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Global health inequities cause nearly 20 million deaths annually, mostly among the world's poor. Yet international law currently does little to reduce the massive inequalities that underlie these deaths. This Article offers the first systematic account of the goals and justifications, normative foundations, and potential construction of a proposed new global health treaty, a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), grounded in the human right to health. Already endorsed by the United Nations Secretary-General, the FCGH would reimagine global governance for health, offering a new, post-Millennium Development Goals vision. A global coalition of civil society and academics has formed the Joint Action and Learning Initiative on National and Global Responsibilities for Health (JALI) to advance the FCGH.

  3. Transforming global health with mobile technologies and social enterprises: global health and innovation conference.

    PubMed

    Kayingo, Gerald

    2012-09-01

    More than 2,000 people convened for the ninth annual Global Health and Innovation Conference at Yale University on April 21-22, 2012. Participants discussed the latest innovations, ideas in development, lessons learned, opportunities and challenges in global health activities. Several themes emerged, including the important role of frontline workers, strengthening health systems, leveraging social media, and sustainable and impact-driven philanthropy. Overall, the major outcome of the conference was the increased awareness of the potential of mobile technologies and social enterprises in transforming global health. Experts warned that donations and technological advances alone will not transform global health unless there are strong functioning health infrastructures and improved workforce. It was noted that there is a critical need for an integrated systems approach to global health problems and a need for scaling up promising pilot projects. Lack of funding, accountability, and sustainability were identified as major challenges in global health. PMID:23012591

  4. [Globalization and the second sex].

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Adriana Dora; Madureira, Valéria Silvana Faganello

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a reflection which takes as a starting point the process of globalization, establishing a counterpoint between the characteristics of this process and the propositions of the International Conference on Population and Development/1994, aiming at discussing it according to Sen's (2000, 2001) writings. This comparative analysis indicates that the discussion about equality between the sexes has become more globalized, emphasizing women's situation in the contemporary world as an obstacle to development, which was reaffirmed in the IV Women's World Convention in 1995. Subsequently, the paper addresses the advances occurred in Brazil after the implementations of the propositions of the Conference. Finally, it concludes by locating the search of equality between sexes in the fields of rights and opportunities as a social necessity strictly connected to development.

  5. Used planet: A global history

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Erle C.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human–environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects. PMID:23630271

  6. An Attainable Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castaneda, Viann Pedersen

    Concordia College (Minnesota) has established a global studies curriculum that encourages the development of a global perspective in future business leaders. Global perspective is seen as having five dimensions: (1) perspective consciousness; (2) "state of the planet" awareness; (3) cross-cultural awareness; (4) knowledge of global dynamics; and…

  7. The Global File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, Steven R.; Ruwart, Thomas M.; OKeefe, Matthew T.

    1996-01-01

    The global file system (GFS) is a prototype design for a distributed file system in which cluster nodes physically share storage devices connected via a network-like fiber channel. Networks and network-attached storage devices have advanced to a level of performance and extensibility so that the previous disadvantages of shared disk architectures are no longer valid. This shared storage architecture attempts to exploit the sophistication of storage device technologies whereas a server architecture diminishes a device's role to that of a simple component. GFS distributes the file system responsibilities across processing nodes, storage across the devices, and file system resources across the entire storage pool. GFS caches data on the storage devices instead of the main memories of the machines. Consistency is established by using a locking mechanism maintained by the storage devices to facilitate atomic read-modify-write operations. The locking mechanism is being prototyped in the Silicon Graphics IRIX operating system and is accessed using standard Unix commands and modules.

  8. A critical view on advanced information society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    This is a record of the keynote lecture at the seminar to summarize various discussions on "advanced information society", which have have been carried by Journal of Information Processing and Management. To begin with reviewing very Japanese tendency toward technological determinism in the concept of advanced information society, it is pointed out that other factors such as growth of social needs and flexible telecommunication policy. Megatrends such as "Globalization", "Aging" and "information management" have been brought us diversified problems during the last decade of the 20th century. In the last part of this paper, major problems to be solved for advanced information society are raised.

  9. Status of global strategies for horticultural fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the International Horticultural Congress of 2014, a workshop discussed the advances of the development of global conservation strategies for some of the horticultural crops mentioned in International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) Annex 1. While global co...

  10. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  11. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  12. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  13. The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the 'serious life'.

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland

    2004-12-01

    Sport, in particular football, constitutes one of the most dynamic, sociologically illuminating domains of globalization. This paper examines the globalization of football with particular reference to Robertson's theorizations of global processes. We examine football's cultural globalization through the concept of 'glocalization', which highlights the interdependence of local and global processes within the game's identities and institutions. We address economic globalization in football by considering the world's leading clubs as 'glocal' transnational corporations. We assess the political globalization of football with reference to the possible enhancement of democracy within the game's international governance. We conclude by affirming the utility of sport in advancing our empirical and theoretical understanding of globalization processes.

  14. TECHcitement: Advances in Technological Education, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This publication includes 13 articles: (1) ATE [Advanced Technological Education] Attuned to Global Competition; (2) Materials Science Center Supplies Information on Often-Overlooked Field; (3) CSEC [Cyber Security Education Consortium] Builds Corps of Cyber Technicians; (4) KCTCS [Kentucky Community and Technical College System] Is U.S. Partner…

  15. Transforming Academic Globalization into Globalization for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalhoto, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Driving innovation and continuous improvement with regard to ecological, environmental and human sustainability is essential for win-win globalization. That calls for research on strategic and monitoring planning to manage globalization and technological and scientific change. This paper describes a new basic function of the university institution…

  16. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Hou, Arthur Y.

    2010-10-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will provide enhanced space-based precipitation measurements with sufficient coverage, spatial resolution, temporal sampling, retrieval accuracy, and microphysical information to advance the understanding of Earth's water and energy cycle and to improve predictions of its climate, weather, and hydrometeorological processes. Such improvements will in turn improve decision support systems in broad societal applications (e.g. water resource management, agriculture, transportation, etc). GPM is a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), building upon their highly successful partnership on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The GPM architecture consists of NASA satellites operating in partnership with other earth-observing satellites and instruments to produce global precipitation science data. The current generation of multi-satellite global precipitation products based on microwave/infrared sensors from uncoordinated satellite missions has for its anchor the TRMM precipitation radar and the TRMM Microwave Imager measurements over the tropics and subtropics (+/- 35 degrees latitude), with a mean sampling time of approximately 17 hours. The GPM mission will deploy a spaceborne Core Observatory as a reference standard to unify a space constellation of research and operational microwave sensors aimed at providing uniformly calibrated precipitation measurements globally every 2-4 hours. The Core Observatory measurements will provide, for the first time, quantitative information on precipitation particle size distribution needed for improving the accuracy of precipitation estimates by microwave radiometers and radars. In addition, the GPM will also include a second microwave radiometer and a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) communications subsystem for near real time data relay for a future partner-provided constellation satellite. This second GPM Microwave Imager (GMI

  17. Globalization, global health, and access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Collins, Téa

    2003-01-01

    It is now commonly realized that the globalization of the world economy is shaping the patterns of global health, and that associated morbidity and mortality is affecting countries' ability to achieve economic growth. The globalization of public health has important implications for access to essential healthcare. The rise of inequalities among and within countries negatively affects access to healthcare. Poor people use healthcare services less frequently when sick than do the rich. The negative impact of globalization on access to healthcare is particularly well demonstrated in countries of transitional economies. No longer protected by a centralized health sector that provided free universal access to services for everyone, large segments of the populations in the transition period found themselves denied even the most basic medical services. Only countries where regulatory institutions are strong, domestic markets are competitive and social safety nets are in place, have a good chance to enjoy the health benefits of globalization.

  18. Advances in Male Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  19. Global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vincanne; Novotny, Thomas E; Leslie, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    A variety of shifts emergent with globalization, which are reflected in part by nascent programs in "Global Public Health," "Global Health Sciences," and "Global Health," are redefining international public health. We explore three of these shifts as a critical discourse and intervention in global health diplomacy: the expansion in non-governmental organization participation in international health programs, the globalization of science and pharmaceutical research, and the use of militarized languages of biosecurity to recast public health programs. Using contemporary anthropological and international health literature, we offer a critical yet hopeful exploration of the implications of these shifts for critical inquiry, health, and the health professions.

  20. Recent advances in planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.

    1978-01-01

    During the past decade, significant advances in the in situ measurements of planetary magnetic fields have been made. The U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. have conducted spacecraft investigations of all the planets, from innermost Mercury out to Jupiter. Unexpectedly, Mercury was found to possess a global magnetic field but neither the Moon nor Venus do. The results at Mars are incomplete but if a global field exists, it is clearly quite weak. The main magnetic field of Jupiter has been measured directly for the first time and confirms, as well as augments appreciably, the past 2 decades of ground-based radio astronomical studies which provided indirect evidence of the field. Progress in developing analytically complete models of the dynamo process suggests a possible common origin for Mercury, earth and Jupiter.

  1. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  2. The Interaction of Global Biochemical Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B., III; Dastoor, M. N.

    1984-01-01

    The global biosphere in an exceedingly complex system. To gain an understanding of its structure and dynamic features, it is necessary not only to increase the knowledge about the detailed processes but also to develop models of how global interactions take place. Attempts to analyze the detailed physical, chemical and biological processes in this context need to be guided by an advancement of understanding of the latter. It is necessary to develop a strategy of data gathering that severs both these purposes simultaneously. The following papers deal with critical aspects in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in details as well as the cycle of water and the flow of energy in the Earth's environment. The objective is to set partly the foundation for the development of mathematical models that allow exploration of the coupled dynamics of the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, as well as energy and water flux.

  3. Advanced power systems for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System, which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit: two by NASA, two by the European Space Agency, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing 5 micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array, the total additional payload capability approaches 12 percent.

  4. Practical Advances in Petroleum Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chang S.; Robinson, Paul R.

    "This comprehensive book by Robinson and Hsu will certainly become the standard text book for the oil refining business...[A] must read for all who are associated with oil refining." - Dr. Walter Fritsch, Senior Vice President Refining, OMV "This book covers a very advanced horizon of petroleum processing technology. For all refiners facing regional and global environmental concerns, and for those who seek a more sophisticated understanding of the refining of petroleum resources, this book has been long in coming." - Mr. Naomasa Kondo, Cosmo Oil Company, Ltd.

  5. Advanced power systems for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit: two by NASA, two by the European Space Agency, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing 5-micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array, the total additional payload capability approaches 12 percent.

  6. Neuroinflammation in advanced canine glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing; Harper, Matthew M.; Kecova, Helga; Adamus, Grazyna; Kardon, Randy H.; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The pathophysiological events that occur in advanced glaucoma are not well characterized. The principal purpose of this study is to characterize the gene expression changes that occur in advanced glaucoma. Methods Retinal RNA was obtained from canine eyes with advanced glaucoma as well as from healthy eyes. Global gene expression patterns were determined using oligonucleotide microarrays and confirmed by real-time PCR. The presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors was evaluated by immunolabeling. Finally, we evaluated the presence of serum autoantibodies directed against retinal epitopes using western blot analyses. Results We identified over 500 genes with statistically significant changes in expression level in the glaucomatous retina. Decreased expression levels were detected for large number of functional groups, including synapse and synaptic transmission, cell adhesion, and calcium metabolism. Many of the molecules with decreased expression levels have been previously shown to be components of retinal ganglion cells. Genes with elevated expression in glaucoma are largely associated with inflammation, such as antigen presentation, protein degradation, and innate immunity. In contrast, expression of many other pro-inflammatory genes, such as interferons or interleukins, was not detected at abnormal levels. Conclusions This study characterizes the molecular events that occur in the canine retina with advanced glaucoma. Our data suggest that in the dog this stage of the disease is accompanied by pronounced retinal neuroinflammation. PMID:21042562

  7. Proceedings of GLOBAL 2013: International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference - Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    The Global conference is a forum for the discussion of the scientific, technical, social and regulatory aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Relevant topics include global utilization of nuclear energy, current fuel cycle technologies, advanced reactors, advanced fuel cycles, nuclear nonproliferation and public acceptance.

  8. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health. PMID:25006087

  9. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-06-14

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health.

  10. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    PubMed

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action.

  11. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  12. IMERG Global Precipitation Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission has produced its first global map of rainfall and snowfall. The GPM Core Observatory launched one year ago on Feb. 27, 2014 as a collaboration betwee...

  13. Global Health Observatory (GHO)

    MedlinePlus

    ... repository Reports Country statistics Map gallery Standards Global Health Observatory (GHO) data Monitoring health for the SDGs ... relevant web pages on the theme. Monitoring the health goal: indicators of overall progress Mortality and global ...

  14. Global Tuberculosis Report 2015

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis The End TB Strategy Areas ... data News, events and features About us Global tuberculosis report 2015 This is the twentieth global report ...

  15. Global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.

  16. Advancing Intervention Science through Effectiveness Research: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Adamson, Lena; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Eichas, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Effectiveness research is maturing as a field within intervention and prevention science. Effectiveness research involves the implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the dissemination of evidence-based interventions in everyday circumstances (i.e., type 2 translational research). Effectiveness research is characterized by…

  17. Global Perspectives: Developing Media Literacy Skills to Advance Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radeloff, Cheryl L.; Bergman, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    Women's studies and feminist curricula have been lauded for the development and application of critical thinking skills for social and political change in its students (Fisher; Kellner and Share; Mayberry). Critical thinking can be defined as the ability to identify and challenge assumptions, to search for alternative ways of thinking, and to…

  18. Global advances in selenium research from theory to application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium is without question one of the most influential natural-occurring trace elements for biological systems worldwide. The multi-faceted connections between the environment, food crops, human and animal health and selenium’s function through selenoprotein activity, have been well characterized....

  19. Advanced integrated modeling and measurement: The global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, P. B.

    1998-06-01

    Most of the carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by human activities comes from burning fossil fuels Only about half the CO2 we release into the atmosphere remains there, however, and the fate of the CO2 that does not remain in the atmosphere is uncertain As carbon dioxidecomes in contact with the sea surface it may be absorbed into the ocean, and as it comes in contact with the leaves of plants it may be absorbed and transformed into plant tissue, but the rates at which the sea or land plants can absorb CO2 are poorly characterized Hence, there is a great deal of uncertainty as to how much of the CO2 we release today will be found in the ocean, or in land plants, or in the atmosphere 10, 20 or 100 years from now The nanowing of these uncertainties is essential to making reliable predictions of the climate consequences of fossil fuel burning and deforestation

  20. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  1. Mapping Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The demand to cultivate global citizenship is frequently invoked as central to colleges' and universities' internationalization efforts. However, the term "global citizenship" remains undertheorized in the context of U.S. higher education. This article maps and engages three common global citizenship positions--entrepreneurial, liberal…

  2. Globalization: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Nationally oriented institutions of the developmentalist era are being replaced by globally oriented institutions under the legitimizing cloak of efficiency and financial credibility. Meanwhile, producing communities either seek niches in the global economy or resist global pressures, thereby newly emphasizing the local. Explores the conjunction…

  3. Globalization and American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  4. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  5. Global social identity and global cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Brewer, Marilynn B; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick K; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This research examined the question of whether the psychology of social identity can motivate cooperation in the context of a global collective. Our data came from a multinational study of choice behavior in a multilevel public-goods dilemma conducted among samples drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. Results demonstrate that an inclusive social identification with the world community is a meaningful psychological construct that plays a role in motivating cooperation that transcends parochial interests. Self-reported identification with the world as a whole predicts behavioral contributions to a global public good beyond what is predicted from expectations about what other people are likely to contribute. Furthermore, global social identification is conceptually distinct from general attitudes about global issues, and has unique effects on cooperative behavior.

  6. Global social identity and global cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Brewer, Marilynn B; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick K; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This research examined the question of whether the psychology of social identity can motivate cooperation in the context of a global collective. Our data came from a multinational study of choice behavior in a multilevel public-goods dilemma conducted among samples drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. Results demonstrate that an inclusive social identification with the world community is a meaningful psychological construct that plays a role in motivating cooperation that transcends parochial interests. Self-reported identification with the world as a whole predicts behavioral contributions to a global public good beyond what is predicted from expectations about what other people are likely to contribute. Furthermore, global social identification is conceptually distinct from general attitudes about global issues, and has unique effects on cooperative behavior. PMID:21586763

  7. Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

  8. Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

  9. The Global Seismographic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, J.; Anderson, K. R.; Butler, R.; Davis, P. B.; Derr, J.; Gee, L. S.; Song, X.

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-five years ago the IRIS Consortium was formed to advance the seismological interests of the US academic community. One of its core programs was the Global Seismographic Network (GSN).The GSN built upon the successes of its predecessors, the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network and the Global Digital Seismograph Network operated by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Project IDA operated by the University of California San Diego (UCSD), but with a far-reaching vision of more than 100 global stations with broadband seismometers, real-time data telemetry, and free and open data access. Based upon a partnership with USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory and the UCSD IDA group, and with funding from the National Science Foundation, IRIS established its first stations in 1986. Today the GSN comprises 153 stations operated in cooperation with over 100 host organizations in 69 countries. With the goal of recording the entire seismic spectrum, the GSN stations include very-broadband seismometers installed in vaults and in 100m boreholes, strong-motion sensors to insure on-scale recordings of nearby or very large earthquakes, and high-frequency sensors to extend the frequency band for nuclear treaty monitoring interests. Using the GSN logistics, communications, and infrastructure for broader science interests, many GSN stations have been expanded as geophysical observatories to include microbarographs, GPS receivers, along with numerous co-located gravimeters, geomagnetic sensors, and meteorological sensors. In the early days of the GSN data were recorded at the stations on magnetic tape and then sent to the IRIS Data Center via mail. Gradually near real-time data collection progressed to telephone dial-up access, via private VSAT satellite access, and finally through the public Internet. Now over 95% of the GSN stations have real-time data flow openly accessible from IRIS, and from USGS and IDA data collection centers. In the years prior to the

  10. Beyond global warming: Ecology and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Vitousek, P.M. )

    1994-10-01

    While ecologists involved in management or policy often are advised to learn to deal with uncertainty, some components of global environmental change are certainly occurring and are certainly human-caused. All have important ecological consequences. Well-documented global changes include: Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; alterations in the biogeochemistry of the global nitrogen cycle; and ongoing land use/land cover change. Human activity - now primarily fossil fuel combustion - has increased carbon dioxide concentrations from [approximately] 280 to 355 [mu]L/L since 1800 and is likely to have climatic consequences and direct effects on biota in all terrestrial ecosystems. The global nitrogen cycle has been altered so that more nitrogen is fixed annually by humanity than by all natural pathways combined. Altering atmospheric chemistry and aquatic ecosystems, contributes to eutrophication of the biosphere, and has substantial regional effects on biological diversity. Finally, human land use/land cover change has transformed one-third to one-half of Earth's ice-free surface, representing the most important component of global change now. Any clear dichotomy between pristine ecosystems and human-altered areas that may have existed in the past has vanished, and ecological research should account for this reality. Certain components of global environmental change are the primary causes of anticipated changes in climate, and of ongoing losses of biological diversity. They are caused by the extraordinary growth in size and resource use of the human population. On a broad scale, there is little uncertainty about any of these components of change or their causes. However, much of the public believes the causes of global change to be uncertain and contentious. By speaking out effectively,the focus of public discussion towards what can and should be done about global environmental change can be shifted. 135 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Global change technology architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. Bernard (Editor); Hypes, Warren D. (Editor); Wright, Robert L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Described here is an architecture trade study conducted by the Langley Research Center to develop a representative mix of advanced space science instrumentation, spacecraft, and mission orbits to assist in the technology selection processes. The analyses concentrated on the highest priority classes of global change measurements which are the global climate changes. Issues addressed in the tradeoffs includes assessments of the economics of scale of large platforms with multiple instruments relative to smaller spacecraft; the influences of current and possible future launch vehicles on payload sizes, and on-orbit assembly decisions; and the respective roles of low-Earth versus geostationary Earth orbiting systems.

  12. Global perspectives: A new global ethic, a new global partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Brundtland, G.H.

    1990-06-01

    In her keynote address at the opening plenary session of the Globe '90 Conference held in Vancouver in March, Mrs. Brundtland called for a new global partnership of government, industry, producers and consumers to meet present and future environmental challenges. This partnership would require help to developing countries to help free them from their handicaps of debt, overpopulation and poverty; that improvements made to the environment would not be offset by ecological damage in other areas. She was encouraged that the policy of sustainable development has been widely adapted as the only viable strategy for global change.

  13. Health care globalization: a need for virtual leadership.

    PubMed

    Holland, J Brian; Malvey, Donna; Fottler, Myron D

    2009-01-01

    As health care organizations expand and move into global markets, they face many leadership challenges, including the difficulty of leading individuals who are geographically dispersed. This article provides global managers with guidelines for leading and motivating individuals or teams from a distance while overcoming the typical challenges that "virtual leaders" and "virtual teams" face: employee isolation, confusion, language barriers, cultural differences, and technological breakdowns. Fortunately, technological advances in communications have provided various methods to accommodate geographically dispersed or "global virtual teams." Health care leaders now have the ability to lead global teams from afar by becoming "virtual leaders" with a responsibility to lead a "virtual team." Three models of globalization presented and discussed are outsourcing of health care services, medical tourism, and telerobotics. These models require global managers to lead virtually, and a positive relationship between the virtual leader and the virtual team member is vital in the success of global health care organizations.

  14. Health care globalization: a need for virtual leadership.

    PubMed

    Holland, J Brian; Malvey, Donna; Fottler, Myron D

    2009-01-01

    As health care organizations expand and move into global markets, they face many leadership challenges, including the difficulty of leading individuals who are geographically dispersed. This article provides global managers with guidelines for leading and motivating individuals or teams from a distance while overcoming the typical challenges that "virtual leaders" and "virtual teams" face: employee isolation, confusion, language barriers, cultural differences, and technological breakdowns. Fortunately, technological advances in communications have provided various methods to accommodate geographically dispersed or "global virtual teams." Health care leaders now have the ability to lead global teams from afar by becoming "virtual leaders" with a responsibility to lead a "virtual team." Three models of globalization presented and discussed are outsourcing of health care services, medical tourism, and telerobotics. These models require global managers to lead virtually, and a positive relationship between the virtual leader and the virtual team member is vital in the success of global health care organizations. PMID:19433929

  15. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  16. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    PubMed

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action. PMID:22827320

  17. Local/Global Cognitive Interfaces within Industrial Districts: An Italian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandinetti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With the advance of globalization the competitive chances of industrial districts depends increasingly on their ability to connect to the cognitive circuits of the global economy. This challenge demands the presence of local actors capable of acting as cognitive interfaces between the district context and the global environment. The paper…

  18. Statistical examination of climatological data relevant to global temperature variation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, H.L.; Gunst, R.F.; Woodward, W.A.

    1998-07-01

    Advanced statistical procedures have been developed to analyze and model climatological data. Research has focused on the following areas: testing the global temperature series for trend; the effect of initial conditions on autoregressive models for global temperature data; long memory modeling of the carbon dioxide data; and spatial modeling of global temperature data.

  19. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  20. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  1. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  2. Global stratigraphy. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Scott, David H.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to recent major advances in the definition and documentation of Martian stratigraphy and geology. Mariner 9 provided the images for the first global geologic mapping program, resulting in the recognition of the major geologic processes that have operated on the planet, and in the definition of the three major chronostratigraphic divisions: the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian Systems. Viking Orbiter images permitted the recognition of additional geologic units and the formal naming of many formations. Epochs are assigned absolute ages based on the densities of superposed craters and crater-flux models. Recommendations are made with regard to future areas of study, namely, crustal stratigraphy and structure, the highland-lowland boundary, the Tharsis Rise, Valles Marineris, channels and valley networks, and possible Martian oceans, lakes, and ponds.

  3. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628

  4. The New Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Patricia M.; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set. PMID:23876365

  5. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  6. The new global health.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.

  7. NASA Global Hawk Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Global Hawk Project is supporting Earth Science research customers. These customers include: US Government agencies, civilian organizations, and universities. The combination of the Global Hawks range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk platform from all other platforms available to the science community. This presentation includes an overview of the concept of operations and an overview of the completed science campaigns. In addition, the future science plans, using the NASA Global Hawk System, will be presented.

  8. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  9. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  10. "Global Competency" Is Imperative for Global Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    According to a recent report of scenarios prepared by the National Intelligence Council, the next 15 years will bring significant global changes, including the transformation of the international political system built after World War II, a transfer of wealth from the West to the East, pressure on natural resources resulting from continuing…

  11. From Global Knowledge to Global Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzini, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about global challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…

  12. Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD. PMID:27604540

  13. Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD.

  14. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate.

  15. Advanced sensing technology in environmental field.

    PubMed

    Wakida, Shin-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of advanced sensing technology in environmental fields, environmental issues were discussed as several categories, such as local environmental issues in the 1970s, global environmental issues in the 1980s, living environmental issues in the 2000s and environmental stress issues in near future, which are of increasing interest in Japan. Using advanced sensing technologies, such as electrochemical sensors, chemically-sensitive field-effect transistors (ChemFETs) based on micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) micromachining technology and subsequently electrophoretic separation and microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip using MEMS technology, we have steered several kinds of environmental monitoring projects timely in response to the environmental issues for over the last 25 years. Among the local environmental issues, the global environmental issues and the living environmental issues, some fruits of R&D project will be introduced. Finally, our latest concern of the environmental stress monitoring was discussed and preliminary results were also introduced.

  16. Learning to Plunder: Global Education, Global Inequality and the Global City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannock, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Most research and policy discussions of education in the global city have focused on the ways in which globalization and the emergence of global or globalizing cities can create social, economic and educational inequality locally, within the global city itself. Global cities, however, are, by definition, powerful places, where the core…

  17. Preparing Global Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Welch, Lucas; Al-Khanji, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Global citizens are those who are aware of, demonstrate respect for, and are comfortable engaging across cultural boundaries. This article explores why preparing global citizens is important and how positive psychology can inform our understanding of those who engage comfortably in today's complicated world. Soliya's Connect program is described…

  18. Globalization and Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiga, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    Today, it would be difficult to find a community that has been unaffected by globalization, yet its effects are still unknown to many people. This paper is an attempt to bring the subject to the awareness of educators while particularly focusing on those in the Philippines. It is ironic that globalization on one hand has incited people all over…

  19. Globalism and HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on globalization and human resource development (HRD). "Challenges and Strategies of Developing Human Resources in the Surge of Globalization: A Case of the People's Republic of China" (De Zhang, Baiyin Yang, Yichi Zhang) analyzes the challenges and strategies of HRD in China and discusses the…

  20. Critically Theorizing the Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has unleashed profound changes in education. These include positivistic international school comparisons, a singular focus on schools as drivers of economic development, and the adoption of neoliberal market principles in school. These changes, however, generally go unexamined within the field and literature of global education.…

  1. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  2. Multiculturalism vs. Globalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpokodu, Nelly

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the error of treating multiculturalism and globalism as the same concept. Considers the boundaries and shared purposes of multiculturalism and globalism. Defines the former as using multiple perspectives that reflect the diversity within a society and the latter as developing students' understanding of peoples and cultures of other…

  3. Assessing Individuals' Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kelly Carter; Braskamp, David C.; Braskamp, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Global Perspective Inventory (GPI), a survey instrument that measures participants' global perspective in terms of cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains--each in terms of both development and acquisition. A summary of the recent research on the GPI is provided along with a discussion of potential uses.

  4. Building Global Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  5. Globalization, Interdependence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Deane

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary globalization is marked by rapidly and dramatically increasing interdependence, which operates both within and among countries. Increasing global interdependence has profound influence on education at all levels, such as how to deal with a world with more permeable boundaries in which people are on the move more frequently (migration)…

  6. Global Managers' Career Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappellen, Tineke; Janssens, Maddy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to empirically examine the career competencies of global managers having world-wide coordination responsibility: knowing-why, knowing-how and knowing-whom career competencies. Design/methodology/approach: Based on in-depth interviews with 45 global managers, the paper analyzes career stories from a content analysis…

  7. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  8. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  9. Simulating Global Climate Summits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Haste, Turtle; Alrivy, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and controversial issues facing the global community is climate change. With the creation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the global community established some common ground on how to address this issue. However, the last several climate summits have failed…

  10. Global Interaction in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Audrey Grace

    2010-01-01

    Based on a virtual conference, Glide'08 (Global Interaction in Design Education), that brought international design scholars together online, this special issue expands on the topics of cross-cultural communication and design and the technological affordances that support such interaction. The author discusses the need for global interaction in…

  11. Global Awareness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, James

    The paper discusses the Global Awareness Test administered to 6,396 grade 9 students in New Brunswick, Canada at the beginning and end of the 1987 school year. The test was designed to better assess the impact of the grade 9 social studies program and the activities of New Brunswick's Global Education Centre. By comparing the results of the pre-…

  12. Defining Global Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Sarina; Lattimer, Heather

    2013-01-01

    As the world is becoming increasingly flat, it has become important for educators to prepare students to understand global perspectives and engage with people from countries and cultures around the world. Although there is no question as to the importance of global education to meet with the demands of a flat world, what internationalization and…

  13. Global Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the different definitions and conceptualizations of global education, stating that much of the traditional curriculum of international studies can be reinterpreted to prepare students to participate in an interdependent society. Gives nine objectives for global education, and delineates the issues surrounding current conceptions of…

  14. Wanted: Global Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.; Sattin, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Young people need more innovative thinking skills, cultural awareness, higher-order cognitive skills, and sophisticated communication and collaboration skills than ever before. To prepare students for their global futures, schools must be in tune with the new global reality. Schools need to restructure curriculum and pedagogy to place student…

  15. Global 2000 Countdown Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Fourteen units for high school global education classes are based on "The Global 2000 Report to the President," which examines the relationships between worldwide population growth and resource and environmental consequences. Topics of the units are population; income; food; fisheries; forests; water; nonfuel minerals; energy; impacts on…

  16. Translation as (Global) Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  17. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  18. Globalization and Health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg

    2005-04-22

    This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold:Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health - be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods - have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing.Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve.And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic.A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems) are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first.

  19. Globalization and Health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg

    2005-04-22

    This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold:Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health - be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods - have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing.Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve.And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic.A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems) are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first. PMID:15847699

  20. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida

    2013-02-01

    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies.

  1. Responsibility for global health.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen; DeCamp, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    There are several reasons for the current prominence of global health issues. Among the most important is the growing awareness that some risks to health are global in scope and can only be countered by global cooperation. In addition, human rights discourse and, more generally, the articulation of a coherent cosmopolitan ethical perspective that acknowledges the importance of all persons, regardless of where they live, provide a normative basis for taking global health seriously as a moral issue. In this paper we begin the task of translating the vague commitment to doing something to improve global health into a coherent set of more determinate obligations. One chief conclusion of our inquiry is that the responsibilities of states regarding global health are both more determinate and more extensive than is usually assumed. We also argue, however, that institutional innovation will be needed to achieve a more comprehensive, fair distribution of concrete responsibilities regarding global health and to provide effective mechanisms for holding various state and nonstate actors accountable for fulfilling them.

  2. [Research advances in ecosystem flux].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Peng, Zhenhua; Qi, Lianghua; Zhou, Jinxing

    2005-10-01

    To develop the long-term localized observation and investigation on ecosystem flux is of great importance. On the basis of generalizing the concepts and connotations of ecosystem flux, this paper introduced the construction and development histories of Global Flux Networks, Regional Flux Networks (Ameri-Flux, Euro-Flux and Asia-Flux) and China-Flux, as well as the main methodologies, including micrometeorological methods (such as eddy correlation method, mass balance method, energy balance method and air dynamic method)and chamber methods (static and dynamic chamber methods), and their basic operation principles. The research achievements, approaches and advances of CO2, N2O, CH4, and heat fluxes in forest ecosystem, farmland ecosystem, grassland ecosystem and water ecosystem were also summarized. In accordance with the realities and necessities of ecosystem flux research in China, some suggestions and prospects were put forward.

  3. Industrial application for global quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, A.; Petruccione, F.

    2012-09-01

    In the last decade the quantum communication community has witnessed great advances in photonic quantum cryptography technology with the research, development and commercialization of automated Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) devices. These first generation devices are however bottlenecked by the achievable spatial coverage. This is due to the intrinsic absorption of the quantum particle into the communication medium. As QKD is of paramount importance in the future ICT landscape, various innovative solutions have been developed and tested to expand the spatial coverage of these networks such as the Quantum City initiative in Durban, South Africa. To expand this further into a global QKD-secured network, recent efforts have focussed on high-altitude free-space techniques through the use of satellites. This couples the QKD-secured Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) with secured ground-tosatellite links as access points to a global network. Such a solution, however, has critical limitations that reduce its commercial feasibility. As parallel step to the development of satellitebased global QKD networks, we investigate the use of the commercial aircrafts' network as secure transport mechanisms in a global QKD network. This QKD-secured global network will provide a robust infrastructure to create, distribute and manage encryption keys between the MANs of the participating cities.

  4. Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Julliard, Romain; Bellingham, Peter J.; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Couvet, Denis; Elmendorf, Sarah; Forsyth, David M.; Moreno, Jaime García; Gregory, Richard D.; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Laura J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pereira, Henrique M.; Proença, Vânia; van Swaay, Chris A.M.; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Convention for Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 envisions that “By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” Although 193 parties have adopted these goals, there is little infrastructure in place to monitor global biodiversity trends. Recent international conservation policy requires such data to be up-to-date, reliable, comparable among sites, relevant, and understandable; as is becoming obvious from the work plan adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES: www.ipbes.net/; http://tinyurl.com/ohdnknq). In order to meet the five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its 20 accompanying Aichi Targets for 2020 (www.cbd.int/sp/targets/), advances need to be made in coordinating large-scale biodiversity monitoring and linking these with environmental data to develop a comprehensive Global Observation Network, as is the main idea behind GEOSS the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Christian 2005)...Here we identify ten requirements important for the successful implementation of a global biodiversity monitoring network under the flag of GEO BON and especially a global terrestrial species monitoring program.

  5. Information technology and global change science

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, F.P.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify and briefly describe major existing and near term information technologies that cold have a positive impact on the topics being discussed at this conference by helping to manage the data of global change science and helping global change scientists conduct their research. Desktop computer systems have changed dramatically during the past seven years. Faster data processing can be expected in the future through full development of traditional serial computer architectures. Some other proven information technologies may be currently underutilized by global change scientists. Relational database management systems and good organization of data through the use of thoughtful database design would enable the scientific community to better share and maintain quality research data. Custodians of the data should use rigorous data administration to ensure integrity and long term value of the data resource. Still other emerging information technologies that involve the use of artificial intelligence, parallel computer architectures, and new sensors for data collection will be in relatively common use in the near term and should become part of the global science community's technical toolkit. Consideration should also be given to the establishment of Information Analysis Centers to facilitate effective organization and management of interdisciplinary data and the prototype testing and use of advanced information technology to facilitate rapid and cost-effective integration of these tools into global change science. 8 refs.

  6. How global brands compete.

    PubMed

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise.

  7. How global brands compete.

    PubMed

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise. PMID:15449856

  8. Global atmospheric changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation. PMID:1820255

  9. Dilatonic global strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dando, Owen; Gregory, Ruth

    1998-07-01

    We examine the field equations of a self-gravitating global string in low energy superstring gravity, allowing for an arbitrary coupling of the global string to the dilaton. Massive and massless dilatons are considered. For the massive dilaton the spacetime is similar to the recently discovered non-singular time-dependent Einstein self-gravitating global string, but the massless dilaton generically gives a singular spacetime, even allowing for time dependence. We also demonstrate a time-dependent non-singular string-antistring configuration, in which the string pair causes a compactification of two of the spatial dimensions, albeit on a very large scale.

  10. Global atmospheric changes.

    PubMed

    Piver, W T

    1991-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation.

  11. Globalization and health.

    PubMed

    Walt, G

    2001-01-01

    Globalization means different things to different people; a general definition is the increasing movement of information, material and people across borders. It can be considered in terms of five conflicting but inter-relating themes, economic transformation; new patterns of trade; an increasing poverty gap associated with widening health inequalities; the revolution in electronic communication; and the growing role of non-state actors, such as non-governmental organizations and transnational corporations, in global governance. Globalization is both an opportunity and a threat, but it is not inexorable. Successful action against its undesirable aspects is possible.

  12. Development of the Global Ozone Lidar Demonstrator (GOLD) Instrument for Deployment on the NASA Global Hawk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, Jonathan W.; Browell, Edward V.; McGee, Thomas; Butler, Carolyn; Fenn, Marta; Os,ao (. Sued); Notari, Anthony; Collins, James; Cleckner, Craig; Hostetler, Chris

    2010-01-01

    A compact ozone (O3) and aerosol lidar system is being developed for conducting global atmospheric investigations from the NASA Global Hawk Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and for enabling the development and test of a space-based O3 and aerosol lidar. GOLD incorporates advanced technologies and designs to produce a compact, autonomously operating O3 and aerosol Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for a UAV platform. The GOLD system leverages advanced Nd:YAG and optical parametric oscillator laser technologies and receiver optics, detectors, and electronics. Significant progress has been made toward the development of the GOLD system, and this paper describes the objectives of this program, basic design of the GOLD system, and results from initial ground-based atmospheric tests.

  13. Advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Advance directives allow patients to have some control over decisions even when they are no longer able to make decisions themselves. All states authorize written advance directives, such as the appointment of a health care proxy, but commonly impose procedural requirements. Some states have restricted the use of oral advance directives, although they are frequently used in everyday practice. Advance directives are limited because they are infrequently used, may not be informed, and may conflict with the patient's current best interests. Moreover, surrogates often cannot state patients' preferences accurately. Furthermore, discussions among physicians and patients about advance directives are flawed. Physicians can improve discussions about advance directives by asking the patient who should serve as proxy and by ascertaining the patient's values and general preferences before discussing specific clinical situations. PMID:15538068

  14. A global regulatory science agenda for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Elmgren, Lindsay; Li, Xuguang; Wilson, Carolyn; Ball, Robert; Wang, Junzhi; Cichutek, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Michael; Kato, Atsushi; Cavaleri, Marco; Southern, James; Jivapaisarnpong, Teeranart; Minor, Philip; Griffiths, Elwyn; Sohn, Yeowon; Wood, David

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Collaboration and development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan provides a catalyst and unique opportunity for regulators worldwide to develop and propose a global regulatory science agenda for vaccines. Regulatory oversight is critical to allow access to vaccines that are safe, effective, and of assured quality. Methods used by regulators need to constantly evolve so that scientific and technological advances are applied to address challenges such as new products and technologies, and also to provide an increased understanding of benefits and risks of existing products. Regulatory science builds on high-quality basic research, and encompasses at least two broad categories. First, there is laboratory-based regulatory science. Illustrative examples include development of correlates of immunity; or correlates of safety; or of improved product characterization and potency assays. Included in such science would be tools to standardize assays used for regulatory purposes. Second, there is science to develop regulatory processes. Illustrative examples include adaptive clinical trial designs; or tools to analyze the benefit-risk decision-making process of regulators; or novel pharmacovigilance methodologies. Included in such science would be initiatives to standardize regulatory processes (e.g., definitions of terms for adverse events [AEs] following immunization). The aim of a global regulatory science agenda is to transform current national efforts, mainly by well-resourced regulatory agencies, into a coordinated action plan to support global immunization goals. This article provides examples of how regulatory science has, in the past, contributed to improved access to vaccines, and identifies gaps that could be addressed through a global regulatory science agenda. The article also identifies challenges to implementing a regulatory science agenda and proposes strategies and actions to fill these gaps. A global regulatory science agenda will enable

  15. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  16. Medium range flood forecasts at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, N.; Wood, A. W.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Wood, E. F.

    2006-12-01

    While weather and climate forecast methods have advanced greatly over the last two decades, this capability has yet to be evidenced in mitigation of water-related natural hazards (primarily floods and droughts), especially in the developing world. Examples abound of extreme property damage and loss of life due to floods in the underdeveloped world. For instance, more than 4.5 million people were affected by the July 2000 flooding of the Mekong River and its tributaries in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. The February- March 2000 floods in the Limpopo River of Mozambique caused extreme disruption to that country's fledgling economy. Mitigation of these events through advance warning has typically been modest at best. Despite the above noted improvement in weather and climate forecasts, there is at present no system for forecasting of floods globally, notwithstanding that the potential clearly exists. We describe a methodology that is eventually intended to generate global flood predictions routinely. It draws heavily from the experimental North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and the companion Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) for development of nowcasts, and the University of Washington Experimental Hydrologic Prediction System to develop ensemble hydrologic forecasts based on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models which serve both as nowcasts (and hence reduce the need for in situ precipitation and other observations in parts of the world where surface networks are critically deficient) and provide forecasts for lead times as long as fifteen days. The heart of the hydrologic modeling system is the University of Washington/Princeton University Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model. In the prototype (tested using retrospective data), VIC is driven globally up to the time of forecast with daily ERA40 precipitation (rescaled on a monthly basis to a station-based global climatology), ERA40 wind, and ERA40

  17. The Global Menace

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Summary The history of medicine has gone ‘global.’ Why? Can the proliferation of the ‘global’ in our writing be explained away as a product of staying true to our historical subjects’ categories? Or has this historiography in fact delivered a new ‘global’ problematic or performed serious ‘global’ analytic work? The situation is far from clear, and it is the tension between the global as descriptor and an analytics of the global that concerns me here. I have three main concerns: (1) that there is an epistemic collusion between the discourses of universality that inform medical science and global-talk; (2) that the embrace of the ‘global’ authorises a turning away from analyses of power in history-writing in that (3) this turning away from analyses of power in history-writing leads to scholarship that reproduces rather than critiques globalisation as a set of institutions, discourses and practices. PMID:26345469

  18. Technology and Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grübler, Arnulf

    2003-10-01

    Technology and Global Change describes how technology has shaped society and the environment over the last 200 years. Technology has led us from the farm to the factory to the internet, and its impacts are now global. Technology has eliminated many problems, but has added many others (ranging from urban smog to the ozone hole to global warming). This book is the first to give a comprehensive description of the causes and impacts of technological change and how they relate to global environmental change. Written for specialists and nonspecialists alike, it will be useful for researchers and professors, as a textbook for graduate students, for people engaged in long-term policy planning in industry (strategic planning departments) and government (R & D and technology ministries, environment ministries), for environmental activists (NGOs), and for the wider public interested in history, technology, or environmental issues.

  19. Cancer and globalization.

    PubMed

    Sasco, Annie J

    2008-02-01

    Global human cancer is increasing. Exposures to cancer risk factors are not only becoming more prevalent in the less industrialized countries, but they have also become more complex all over the world. Human societies have always traded and migrated, yet the growth of powerful economic institutions and globalization is accelerating, mixing many cancer risk factors. Critically, new cancer risk factors have also appeared, concurrent with globalization: modern diet, addictive products, pharmaceuticals, and toxic and waste products. Prevention, which still rests on recognition and elimination of exposure to carcinogens, is difficult, with seemingly opposed priorities such as income (corporate or individual) versus health. The solutions require not only individual behavioural change but also more importantly innovative action of all concerned at the global, collective level.

  20. Draft global warming study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Resource Program Global Warming Study examines potential Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) resource alternatives related to the risk of global warming. The study evaluates strategies for reducing net carbon emissions, and identifies the net carbon contribution of certain resource strategies designed to reduce those emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the greenhouse gas'' most associated with electricity production. The main purpose of the global warming study is to identify possible courses of action that BPA might take to reduce its contributions to the risk of global warming and to estimate the efficacy and costs of each approach. The principal measure of effectiveness is the reduction in total atmospheric carbon emissions compared to a base case. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Meeting global conservation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-10-01

    Hot on the heels of last year's Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement, representatives from the global conservation community met to set the conservation agenda that will help to implement these targets.

  2. Global Tropospheric OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicely, J. M.; Canty, T. P.; Lang, C.; Duncan, B. N.; Liang, Q.; Oman, L.; Salawitch, R. J.; Stolarski, R. S.; Waugh, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidizing capacity of the troposphere is controlled, to a large extent, by the abundance of hydroxyl radical (OH). The global mean concentration of OH, inferred from measurements of methyl chloroform, has remained relatively constant during the past several decades, despite rising levels of CH4 that should have led to a steady decline. Here we examine other factors that may have affected global [OH], such as the overhead burden of stratospheric O3 and tropospheric H2O, using global OH fields from the GEOS Chemistry-Climate Model. Our analysis suggests these factors may have contributed a positive trend to global [OH] large enough to counter the decrease due to CH4.

  3. Global reach and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  4. Global mental health and its discontents: an inquiry into the making of global and local scale.

    PubMed

    Bemme, Doerte; D'souza, Nicole A

    2014-12-01

    Global Mental Health's (GMH) proposition to "scale up" evidence-based mental health care worldwide has sparked a heated debate among transcultural psychiatrists, anthropologists, and GMH proponents; a debate characterized by the polarization of "global" and "local" approaches to the treatment of mental health problems. This article highlights the institutional infrastructures and underlying conceptual assumptions that are invested in the production of the "global" and the "local" as distinct, and seemingly incommensurable, scales. It traces how the conception of mental health as a "global" problem became possible through the emergence of Global Health, the population health metric DALY, and the rise of evidence-based medicine. GMH also advanced a moral argument to act globally emphasizing the notion of humanity grounded in a shared biology and the universality of human rights. However, despite the frequent criticism of GMH promoting the "bio"-medical model, we argue that novel logics have emerged which may be more important for establishing global applicability than arguments made in the name of "nature": the procedural standardization of evidence and the simplification of psychiatric expertise. Critical scholars, on the other hand, argue against GMH in the name of the "local"; a trope that underlines specificity, alterity, and resistance against global claims. These critics draw on the notions of "culture," "colonialism," the "social," and "community" to argue that mental health knowledge is locally contingent. Yet, paying attention to the divergent ways in which both sides conceptualize the "social" and "community" may point to productive spaces for an analysis of GMH beyond the "global/local" divide.

  5. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy. PMID:17519005

  6. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy. PMID:17519005

  7. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-05-22

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  8. Advancing the educational agenda.

    PubMed

    Baker, Cynthia

    2010-12-01

    This timely paper provides a thought-provoking analysis of current advanced practice nursing education in Canada. It comes at a critical juncture in the evolution of Canadian healthcare services and the redefinition of nursing roles. Increasingly, multiple sectors of society are calling for more nurses with advanced practice preparation and for a wider range of advanced practice nursing specialties. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) are being proposed as a solution to a financially overburdened national healthcare system, the increasing complexity of healthcare services, and a crisis in access to primary healthcare. Thus, governments seeking greater fiscal efficiency, medical specialists needing sophisticated collaborative support, and healthcare consumers see APNs as the way forward.

  9. Monitoring global snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Richard; Hardman, Molly

    1991-01-01

    A snow model that supports the daily, operational analysis of global snow depth and age has been developed. It provides improved spatial interpolation of surface reports by incorporating digital elevation data, and by the application of regionalized variables (kriging) through the use of a global snow depth climatology. Where surface observations are inadequate, the model applies satellite remote sensing. Techniques for extrapolation into data-void mountain areas and a procedure to compute snow melt are also contained in the model.

  10. Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winker, Margaret A.; Ferris, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  11. Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.; Shen, S.

    1996-09-01

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

  12. Global Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K.

    2010-12-01

    We update the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis of global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of global warming. Satellite-observed night lights are used to identify measurement stations located in extreme darkness and adjust temperature trends of urban and periurban stations for nonclimatic factors, verifying that urban effects on analyzed global change are small. Because the GISS analysis combines available sea surface temperature records with meteorological station measurements, we test alternative choices for the ocean data, showing that global temperature change is sensitive to estimated temperature change in polar regions where observations are limited. We use simple 12 month (and n × 12) running means to improve the information content in our temperature graphs. Contrary to a popular misconception, the rate of warming has not declined. Global temperature is rising as fast in the past decade as in the prior 2 decades, despite year-to-year fluctuations associated with the El Niño-La Niña cycle of tropical ocean temperature. Record high global 12 month running mean temperature for the period with instrumental data was reached in 2010.

  13. Globalization and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Carter, Lyn; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Duit, Reinders; Martin, Sonya; Siry, Christina; Krajcik, Joseph; Shin, Namsoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2013-06-01

    Processes of globalization have played a major role in economic and cultural change worldwide. More recently, there is a growing literature on rethinking science education research and development from the perspective of globalization. This paper provides a critical overview of the state and future development of science education research from the perspective of globalization. Two facets are given major attention. First, the further development of science education as an international research domain is critically analyzed. It seems that there is a predominance of researchers stemming from countries in which English is the native language or at least a major working language. Second, the significance of rethinking the currently dominant variants of science instruction from the perspectives of economic and cultural globalization is given major attention. On the one hand, it is argued that processes concerning globalization of science education as a research domain need to take into account the richness of the different cultures of science education around the world. At the same time, it is essential to develop ways of science instruction that make students aware of the various advantages, challenges and problems of international economic and cultural globalization.

  14. Globalization and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Carter, Lyn; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Duit, Reinders; Martin, Sonya; Siry, Christina; Krajcik, Joseph; Shin, Namsoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2012-12-01

    Processes of globalization have played a major role in economic and cultural change worldwide. More recently, there is a growing literature on rethinking science education research and development from the perspective of globalization. This paper provides a critical overview of the state and future development of science education research from the perspective of globalization. Two facets are given major attention. First, the further development of science education as an international research domain is critically analyzed. It seems that there is a predominance of researchers stemming from countries in which English is the native language or at least a major working language. Second, the significance of rethinking the currently dominant variants of science instruction from the perspectives of economic and cultural globalization is given major attention. On the one hand, it is argued that processes concerning globalization of science education as a research domain need to take into account the richness of the different cultures of science education around the world. At the same time, it is essential to develop ways of science instruction that make students aware of the various advantages, challenges and problems of international economic and cultural globalization.

  15. Is Global Warming Accelerating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

  16. Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, H

    1997-01-01

    Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat.

  17. Fungal biogeography. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Põlme, Sergei; Kõljalg, Urmas; Yorou, Nourou S; Wijesundera, Ravi; Villarreal Ruiz, Luis; Vasco-Palacios, Aída M; Thu, Pham Quang; Suija, Ave; Smith, Matthew E; Sharp, Cathy; Saluveer, Erki; Saitta, Alessandro; Rosas, Miguel; Riit, Taavi; Ratkowsky, David; Pritsch, Karin; Põldmaa, Kadri; Piepenbring, Meike; Phosri, Cherdchai; Peterson, Marko; Parts, Kaarin; Pärtel, Kadri; Otsing, Eveli; Nouhra, Eduardo; Njouonkou, André L; Nilsson, R Henrik; Morgado, Luis N; Mayor, Jordan; May, Tom W; Majuakim, Luiza; Lodge, D Jean; Lee, Su See; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Kohout, Petr; Hosaka, Kentaro; Hiiesalu, Indrek; Henkel, Terry W; Harend, Helery; Guo, Liang-dong; Greslebin, Alina; Grelet, Gwen; Geml, Jozsef; Gates, Genevieve; Dunstan, William; Dunk, Chris; Drenkhan, Rein; Dearnaley, John; De Kesel, André; Dang, Tan; Chen, Xin; Buegger, Franz; Brearley, Francis Q; Bonito, Gregory; Anslan, Sten; Abell, Sandra; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2014-11-28

    Fungi play major roles in ecosystem processes, but the determinants of fungal diversity and biogeographic patterns remain poorly understood. Using DNA metabarcoding data from hundreds of globally distributed soil samples, we demonstrate that fungal richness is decoupled from plant diversity. The plant-to-fungus richness ratio declines exponentially toward the poles. Climatic factors, followed by edaphic and spatial variables, constitute the best predictors of fungal richness and community composition at the global scale. Fungi show similar latitudinal diversity gradients to other organisms, with several notable exceptions. These findings advance our understanding of global fungal diversity patterns and permit integration of fungi into a general macroecological framework. PMID:25430773

  18. Fungal biogeography. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Põlme, Sergei; Kõljalg, Urmas; Yorou, Nourou S; Wijesundera, Ravi; Villarreal Ruiz, Luis; Vasco-Palacios, Aída M; Thu, Pham Quang; Suija, Ave; Smith, Matthew E; Sharp, Cathy; Saluveer, Erki; Saitta, Alessandro; Rosas, Miguel; Riit, Taavi; Ratkowsky, David; Pritsch, Karin; Põldmaa, Kadri; Piepenbring, Meike; Phosri, Cherdchai; Peterson, Marko; Parts, Kaarin; Pärtel, Kadri; Otsing, Eveli; Nouhra, Eduardo; Njouonkou, André L; Nilsson, R Henrik; Morgado, Luis N; Mayor, Jordan; May, Tom W; Majuakim, Luiza; Lodge, D Jean; Lee, Su See; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Kohout, Petr; Hosaka, Kentaro; Hiiesalu, Indrek; Henkel, Terry W; Harend, Helery; Guo, Liang-dong; Greslebin, Alina; Grelet, Gwen; Geml, Jozsef; Gates, Genevieve; Dunstan, William; Dunk, Chris; Drenkhan, Rein; Dearnaley, John; De Kesel, André; Dang, Tan; Chen, Xin; Buegger, Franz; Brearley, Francis Q; Bonito, Gregory; Anslan, Sten; Abell, Sandra; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2014-11-28

    Fungi play major roles in ecosystem processes, but the determinants of fungal diversity and biogeographic patterns remain poorly understood. Using DNA metabarcoding data from hundreds of globally distributed soil samples, we demonstrate that fungal richness is decoupled from plant diversity. The plant-to-fungus richness ratio declines exponentially toward the poles. Climatic factors, followed by edaphic and spatial variables, constitute the best predictors of fungal richness and community composition at the global scale. Fungi show similar latitudinal diversity gradients to other organisms, with several notable exceptions. These findings advance our understanding of global fungal diversity patterns and permit integration of fungi into a general macroecological framework.

  19. Global health justice and governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  20. Global health justice and governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors. PMID:23215931

  1. Powerful concepts in global health

    PubMed Central

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we emphasize the importance of questioning the global validity of significant concepts underpinning global health policy. This implies questioning the concept of global health as such and accepting that there is no global definition of the global. Further, we draw attention to ‘quality’ and ‘empowerment’ as examples of world-forming concepts. These concepts are exemplary for the gentle and quiet forms of power that underpin our reasoning within global health. PMID:25674576

  2. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  3. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  4. ADVANCED PLACEMENT IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Council on Advanced Placement, Columbus.

    THE DOCUMENT PRESENTS A DESCRIPTION OF THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN OHIO. ANSWERS ARE GIVEN TO KEY QUESTIONS ON THE FUNCTION OF ADVANCED PLACEMENT, ACADEMIC AREAS COVERED, PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, COSTS, BENEFITS, VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS, STUDENT PARTICIPANTS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN OHIO AND REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS…

  5. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  6. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  7. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  8. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  9. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  10. 3 CFR - Reviewing Our Global Signals Intelligence Collection and Communications Technologies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Communications Technologies Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of August 12, 2013 Reviewing Our Global Signals Intelligence Collection and Communications Technologies... years have brought unprecedented and rapid advancements in communications technologies,...

  11. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  12. Can International Large-Scale Assessments Inform a Global Learning Goal? Insights from the Learning Metrics Task Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winthrop, Rebecca; Simons, Kate Anderson

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the global community has developed a range of initiatives to inform the post-2015 global development agenda. In the education community, International Large-Scale Assessments (ILSAs) have an important role to play in advancing a global shift in focus to access plus learning. However, there are a number of other assessment tools…

  13. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Richard; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-06-24

    U.S. efforts to promote the international expansion of nuclear energy through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will result in a dramatic expansion of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the United States. New demonstration facilities, such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF), the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), and the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC) will use advanced nuclear and chemical process technologies that must incorporate increased proliferation resistance to enhance nuclear safeguards. The ASA-100 Project, “Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities,” commissioned by the NA-243 Office of NNSA, has been tasked with reviewing and developing advanced safeguards approaches for these demonstration facilities. Because one goal of GNEP is developing and sharing proliferation-resistant nuclear technology and services with partner nations, the safeguards approaches considered are consistent with international safeguards as currently implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This first report reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new fuel reprocessing processes to be deployed at the AFCF and CFTC facilities. Similar analyses addressing the ABR and transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication lines at AFCF and CFTC will be presented in subsequent reports.

  14. Global cancer research initiative.

    PubMed

    Love, Richard R

    2010-05-03

    Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested.

  15. Fueling global fishing fleets.

    PubMed

    Tyedmers, Peter H; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, fossil fuels became the dominant energy input to most of the world's fisheries. Although various analyses have quantified fuel inputs to individual fisheries, to date, no attempt has been made to quantify the global scale and to map the distribution of fuel consumed by fisheries. By integrating data representing more than 250 fisheries from around the world with spatially resolved catch statistics for 2000, we calculate that globally, fisheries burned almost 50 billion L of fuel in the process of landing just over 80 million t of marine fish and invertebrates for an average rate of 620 L t(-1). Consequently, fisheries account for about 1.2% of global oil consumption, an amount equivalent to that burned by the Netherlands, the 18th-ranked oil consuming country globally, and directly emit more than 130 million t of CO2 into the atmosphere. From an efficiency perspective, the energy content of the fuel burned by global fisheries is 12.5 times greater than the edible-protein energy content of the resulting catch.

  16. Global health and justice.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, James

    2005-10-01

    In Australia, Japan, Sweden, and Switzerland, the average life expectancy is now greater than 80 years. But in Angola, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Zimbabwe, the average life expectancy is less than 40 years. The situation is even worse than these statistics suggest because average figures tend to mask inequalities within countries. What are we to make of a world with such inequal health prospects? What does justice demand in terms of global health? To address these problems, I characterize justice at the local level, at the domestic or social level, and at the international or global level. Because social conditions, structures, and institutions have such a profound influence on the health of populations, I begin by focusing attention on the relationship between social justice and health prospects. Then I go on to discuss health prospects and the problem of global justice. Here I distinguish two views: a cosmopolitan view and a political view of global justice. In my account of global justice, I modify and use the political view that John Rawls developed in The Law of Peoples. I try to show why an adequate political account must include three duties: a duty not to harm, a duty to reconstruct international arrangements, and a duty to assist.

  17. Global crop forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.

    1980-01-01

    The needs for and remote sensing means of global crop forecasting are discussed, and key results of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) are presented. Current crop production estimates provided by foreign countries are shown often to be inadequate, and the basic elements of crop production forecasts are reviewed. The LACIE project is introduced as a proof-of-concept experiment designed to assimilate remote sensing technology, monitor global wheat production, evaluate key technical problems, modify the technique accordingly and demonstrate the feasibility of a global agricultural monitoring system. The global meteorological data, sampling and aggregation techniques, Landsat data analysis procedures and yield forecast procedures used in the experiment are outlined. Accuracy assessment procedures employed to evaluate LACIE technology performance are presented, and improvements in system efficiency and capacity during the three years of operation are pointed out. Results of LACIE estimates of Soviet, U.S. and Canadian wheat production are presented which demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the remote-sensing approach for global food and fiber monitoring.

  18. Salutogenesis, globalization, and communication.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Theodor Dierk; Lehmann, Nadja

    2011-12-01

    Achieving successful communication in transcultural contexts means integrating emotional communication patterns into a global context. Professional, rational communication is characteristic of the cultural dimension, and emotions are characteristic of the direct, interpersonal dimension of human existence. Humans strive to achieve coherence in all dimensions of their lives; this goal is in the end the most essential aspect of psychophysical self-regulation. A major role in integrating emotional needs and cultural features in global coherence is played by the attractor 'global affinity'. The transitions from emotional coherence to cultural coherence, and likewise from cultural coherence to global coherence, can cause considerable insecurity as well as psychological problems, which previously went by the name 'adjustment disorders'. However, instead of pathologizing these processes, we should understand them in a salutogenic sense as challenges important for both individual and collective development. The development of more coherence is regulated by the neuropsychological approach and avoidance system. This system can be consciously fostered by directing our attention to the commonalities of all human beings. Such a global salutogenic orientation furthers both communication and creativity in teamwork. This article introduces a consequent salutogenic and evolutionary systemic view of transcultural communication and demonstrates its effectiveness in a number of case examples. PMID:22272595

  19. Global High-Tech Economy Futures in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Earl C.

    It has become necessary to understand the expected trends and forces-of-change behind the global realities of technological advancement and the information age. The emergence of a new information age societal framework is rapidly altering the way in which social, business, economic, educational, and political exchanges are conducted. Motivating…

  20. Applying modeling Results in designing a global tropospheric experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A set of field experiments and advanced modeling studies which provide a strategy for a program of global tropospheric experiments was identified. An expanded effort to develop space applications for trospheric air quality monitoring and studies was recommended. The tropospheric ozone, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles are addressed. Stratospheric-tropospheric exchange is discussed. Fast photochemical processes in the free troposphere are considered.

  1. Internationalizing Global Education: A Professional Priority for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan L.

    The field of global education is being advanced by the development of programs for elementary, secondary, and university levels; the production and marketing of materials and classroom teaching strategies; and the creation of policy recommendations at national, state, and local levels. In addition, research efforts are underway. For the next level…

  2. A Noted Physicist's Contrarian View of Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    According to Freeman Dyson, an emeritus professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study, the debate about global warming has become too narrow and opinions have become too entrenched. Relying on a computer model designed by the Yale University economist William D. Nordhaus, Dyson compared the effectiveness and economic feasibility of…

  3. Going Glocal: Adaptive Education for Local and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances in communications, transportation, and information processing have deepened and broadened connections on multiple levels, local through global, thickening the webs of interactivity that bind us to each other economically, politically, militarily, socially, culturally, environmentally, and ethically. As with most complex…

  4. The Global Landscape of GIS in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerski, Joseph J.; Demirci, Ali; Milson, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of GIS in schools in thirty-three countries and proposes recommendations for advancing the implementation and effectiveness of GIS in secondary education from an international perspective. Thirty-three countries have been evaluated in the study to assess the global landscape of educational GIS by analyzing how GIS is…

  5. The Evolution of Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Sameer; Moore, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes technological advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is also known as the NAVSTAR GPS satellite constellation program developed in 1937, and changes in the nature of our world by GPS in the areas of agriculture, health, military, transportation, environment, wildlife biology, surveying and mapping, space applications, and…

  6. Knowledge, politics and power in global health

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Garrett Wallace

    2015-01-01

    This article agrees with recent arguments suggesting that normative and epistemic power is rife within global health policy and provides further examples of such. However, in doing so, it is argued that it is equally important to recognize that global health is, and always will be, deeply political and that some form of power is not only necessary for the system to advance, but also to try and control the ways in which power within that system operates. In this regard, a better focus on health politics can both expose illegitimate sources of power, but also provide better recommendations to facilitate deliberations that can, although imperfectly, help legitimate sources of influence and power. PMID:25674575

  7. Accessibility: global gateway to health literacy.

    PubMed

    Perlow, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Health literacy, cited as essential to achieving Healthy People 2010's goals to "increase quality and years of healthy life" and to "eliminate health disparities," is defined by Healthy People as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions." Accessibility, by definition, the aforementioned "capacity to obtain," thus is health literacy's primary prerequisite. Accessibility's designation as the global gateway to health literacy is predicated also on life's realities: global aging and climate change, war and terrorism, and life-extending medical and technological advances. People with diverse access needs are health professionals' raison d'être. However, accessibility, consummately cross-cultural and universal, is virtually absent as a topic of health promotion and practice research and scholarly discussion of health literacy and equity. A call to action to place accessibility in its rightful premier position on the profession's agenda is issued.

  8. Modern Physics in a Global Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuna, Davor

    Successes of modern physics and consequent technologies have enabled humanity to create our global village. However, despite their thorough training and proven, useful knowledge, physicists are nowadays often treated as a relatively inexpensive 'commodity'. Encouraged by experience of several former students, and by using selected examples, I argue that as a community we should better 'market' our physics profession that, in addition to its primary role - rational understanding of nature - provides: i) the most versatile undergraduate degree, also for those who want to continue studies in management, economy or bio-medicine; ii) fascinating creative opportunities in advanced research and new interdisciplinary technologies and iii) often more relevant insight into workings of the global economy than the 'conventional' economic approach, and especially into smart venture-investments. All these themes are equally relevant for the Croatian society and its welfare in the early 21st century.

  9. Searching for Global oscillations of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N.; Smith, E. J.; Rogers, W.; Gillam, S.; Rosner, R.; Baliunas, S.

    2000-12-01

    The detection of global oscillations of Jupiter would lead to significant advances in our understanding of giant planet internal structure, analogous to the enormous increase in knowledge of the sun's interior facilitated by helioseismology. In particular, the frequencies of p-mode oscillations will be strongly affected by the presence of density discontinuities and the planet's core size and structure. While it is clear from previous observations that such oscillations probably only exist with very small amplitudes, current instrumentation may still be able to detect them. We will describe a proposed experiment to detect (or place a firm upper amplitude limit on) global p-mode oscillations of Jupiter, using a magneto-optical filter on the Mt Wilson 100" telescope. We will describe the operation of the instrument, present preliminary data and describe models of instrument response which show that with 7 nights of data we can expect to detect signals with amplitudes less than 20 cm/s.

  10. Global Change Science: History and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, W. H.

    2006-05-01

    Ecology has expanded from its traditional focus on organisms to include studies of the Earth as an integrated ecosystem. Aided by satellite technologies and computer models of the Earth's climate, global change ecology now records basic parameters of our planet, including its net primary productivity, biogeochemical cycling and human impacts on the Earth. Important advances have derived from the synthesis of biogeochemical cycles at the global level, from the recognition that biochemical stoichiometry constrains the composition of living tissue, and from large-scal experiments that address the response of whole ecosystems to human impact.Future work will further pursue these avenues, with frequent use of moder, molecular methods to ascertain the role of individual species and species diversity in ecosystem function. These new perspectives show us what must be done to transform human behaviors to allow the persistence of life on this planet under human stewardship.

  11. Operational Space Technology for Global Vegetation Assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix N.

    2001-09-01

    The main goal of global agriculture and the grain sector is to feed 6 billion people. Frequent droughts causing grain shortages, economic disturbances, famine, and losses of life limit the ability to fulfill this goal. To mitigate drought consequences requires a sound early warning system. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has recently developed a new numerical method of drought detection and impact assessment from the NOAA operational environmental satellites. The method was tested during the past eight years, adjusted based on users' responses, validated against conventional data in 20 countries, including all major agricultural producers, and was accepted as a tool for the diagnosis of grain production. Now, drought can be detected 4-6 weeks earlier than before, outlined more accurately, and the impact on grain reduction can be predicted long in advance of harvest, which is most vital for global food security and trade. This paper addresses all these issues and also discusses ENSO impacts on agriculture.

  12. Global medicine technology.

    PubMed

    Mason, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    In little more than a decade, linkages between health care technologies of different cultures and continents have merged, resulting in global medicine technology. The next generation of young scientists and clinicians from both the research and clinical communities are merging established ancient technologies from outside the U.S. with modern medical technology and forging new ground in an increasingly challenging health care climate. Presently researchers, clinicians and communities are active in finding ways of using global medical technology to attack our most difficult and chronic (therefore expensive) health care problems. Using recent inventions, such as the fMRI, researchers and clinicians are understanding how and why they work. This chapter briefly discusses key ideas in the movement towards global medical technology: healthcare culture, mind-brain-body dialogue, and self-care including a self care exercise for the spine. PMID:16301783

  13. Sleep locally, act globally.

    PubMed

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Lima, Steven L; Lesku, John A

    2012-10-01

    In most animals, sleep is considered a global brain and behavioral state. However, recent intracortical recordings have shown that aspects of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness can occur simultaneously in different parts of the cortex in mammals, including humans. Paradoxically, however, NREM sleep still manifests as a global behavioral shutdown. In this review, the authors examine this paradox from an evolutionary perspective. On the basis of strategic modeling, they suggest that in animals with brains composed of heavily interconnected and functionally interdependent units, a global regulator of sleep maintains the behavioral shutdown that defines sleep and thereby ensures that local use-dependent functions are performed in a safe and efficient manner. This novel perspective has implications for understanding deficits in human cognitive performance resulting from sleep deprivation, sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, changes in consciousness that occur during sleep, and the function of sleep itself. PMID:22572533

  14. The global sulfur cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, D. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

  15. Global weather research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Modeling, prediction, and analysis of global meteorological phenomena influencing the large scale behavior of the atmosphere are summarized. Prediction of global weather phenomena based on satellite data is discussed and models of global phenomena developed. The atmospheric general circulation model (AGCE) is reviewed, axisymmetric flow calculated, and axisymmetric states in cylindrical, spherical, three dimensional, and spin up numerical models for AGCE described. The role of latent heat release in baroclinic waves, latent heat and cyclonic systems, and a theoretical study of baroclinic flow related to the AGCE and the flow regime were studied with a simplified general circulation model. AGCE and the geophysical fluid flow cell (GFFC) instrumentation are discussed. Investigation of solar and planetary convection for GFFC is described. The utilization of satellite cloud observations to diagnose the energy state and transformations in extratropical cyclones is reviewed.

  16. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  17. Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.

    1999-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, tides, hydrological water redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. With only a few exceptions on the Earth surface, the temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have the capability of monitoring certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. These techniques include the very-long-baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging and Doppler tracking, and the Global Positioning System, all entail global observational networks. While considerable advances have been made in observing and understanding of the dynamics of Earth's rotation, only the lowest-degree gravitational variations have been observed and limited knowledge of geocenter motion obtained. New space missions, projects and initiatives promise to further improve the measurements and hence our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding and modeling capability of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as the solid Earth's response to such changes in constraining the modeling of Earth's mechanical properties.

  18. Support for global science: Remote sensing's challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing uses a wide variety of techniques and methods. Resulting data are analyzed by man and machine, using both analog and digital technology. The newest and most important initiatives in the U. S. civilian space program currently revolve around the space station complex, which includes the core station as well as co-orbiting and polar satellite platforms. This proposed suite of platforms and support systems offers a unique potential for facilitating long term, multidisciplinary scientific investigations on a truly global scale. Unlike previous generations of satellites, designed for relatively limited constituencies, the space station offers the potential to provide an integrated source of information which recognizes the scientific interest in investigating the dynamic coupling between the oceans, land surface, and atmosphere. Earth scientist already face problems that are truly global in extent. Problems such as the global carbon balance, regional deforestation, and desertification require new approaches, which combine multidisciplinary, multinational research teams, employing advanced technologies to produce a type, quantity, and quality of data not previously available. The challenge before the international scientific community is to continue to develop both the infrastructure and expertise to, on the one hand, develop the science and technology of remote sensing, while on the other hand, develop an integrated understanding of global life support systems, and work toward a quantiative science of the biosphere.

  19. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. PMID:26359754

  20. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  1. Nasadem Global Elevation Model: Methods and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, R.; Buckley, S.; Agram, P.; Belz, E.; Gurrola, E.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2016-06-01

    NASADEM is a near-global elevation model that is being produced primarily by completely reprocessing the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) radar data and then merging it with refined ASTER GDEM elevations. The new and improved SRTM elevations in NASADEM result from better vertical control of each SRTM data swath via reference to ICESat elevations and from SRTM void reductions using advanced interferometric unwrapping algorithms. Remnant voids will be filled primarily by GDEM3, but with reduction of GDEM glitches (mostly related to clouds) and therefore with only minor need for secondary sources of fill.

  2. Advanced electron microscopy for advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bals, Sara; Van Aert, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Dyck, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    The idea of this Review is to introduce newly developed possibilities of advanced electron microscopy to the materials science community. Over the last decade, electron microscopy has evolved into a full analytical tool, able to provide atomic scale information on the position, nature, and even the valency atoms. This information is classically obtained in two dimensions (2D), but can now also be obtained in 3D. We show examples of applications in the field of nanoparticles and interfaces.

  3. Long range global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

  4. The global water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Taikan; Entekhabi, Dara; Harrold, Timothy Ives

    The global water cycle consists of the oceans, water in the atmosphere, and water in the landscape. The cycle is closed by the fluxes between these reservoirs. Although the amounts of water in the atmosphere and river channels are relatively small, the fluxes are high, and this water plays a critical role in society, which is dependent on water as a renewable resource. On a global scale, the meridional component of river runoff is shown to be about 10% of the corresponding atmospheric and oceanic meridional fluxes. Artificial storages and water withdrawals for irrigation have significant impacts on river runoff and hence on the overall global water cycle. Fully coupled atmosphere-land-river-ocean models of the world's climate are essential to assess the future water resources and scarcities in relation to climate change. An assessment of future water scarcity suggests that water shortages will worsen, with a very significant increase in water stress in Africa. The impact of population growth on water stress is shown to be higher than that of climate change. The virtual water trade, which should be taken into account when discussing the global water cycle and water scarcity, is also considered. The movement of virtual water from North America, Oceania, and Europe to the Middle East, North West Africa, and East Asia represents significant global savings of water. The anticipated world water crisis widens the opportunities for the study of the global water cycle to contribute to the development of sustainability within society and to the solution of practical social problems.

  5. A nanosized {Ag@Ag12} "molecular windmill" templated by polyoxometalates anions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Weiting; Zhu, Wei; Guan, Xingang; Xie, Zhigang; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Reaction of multidentate 5-(4-imidazol-1-yl-phenyl)-2H-tetrazole (L) ligand with Ag(I) ions in the existence of H3PW12O40 as anionic template under hydrothermal conditions results in tridecanuclear silver cluster-polyoxometalates hybrid: {Ag13L12}{PW12O40}4·30H2O (1). X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis indicates that the main structural feature of 1 is a nanosized molecular windmill-shaped polynuclear Ag cluster with intriguing {M@M12}-type cuboctahedral topology. The as-synthesized compound exhibits effective photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, respectively.

  6. Requirements to Sustain Global Ocean Color Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengelt, C.; Yoder, J. A.; Antoine, D.; Del Castillo, C. E.; Evans, R. H.; Mobley, C.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Sathyendranath, S.; Schueler, C. F.; Siegel, D. A.; Wilson, C.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite measurements of ocean color provide a unique vantage point to measure global phytoplankton abundance and their contribution to the health of marine ecosystems, the global cycle of nutrients, oxygen, and carbon, and their response to long-term climate change. However, the United States is at risk of losing access to ocean color data because the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has ceased operation, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is aging and planned new satellite missions might not be able to acquire data at the accuracy levels required for climate research. Given the importance of maintaining the ocean color time-series, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research requested the National Research Council (NRC) convene a committee of experts to review the minimum requirements to sustain global ocean color measurements for research and operational applications, and identify options to minimize the risk of a data gap. This poster summarizes the NRC report's findings. In particular, it reviews the minimum mission requirements to sustain at least the current capabilities for measuring ocean color at a global scale such as the need for post-launch vicarious calibration and monitoring of the sensor's stability. The poster will also summarize the report's recommendations regarding the options to improve the VIIRS/NPP mission. Moreover, it details how a data-centric planning effort could ensure that ocean color research can be advanced and maintained over the long term. The poster concludes that the ever broadening user community that depends on accurate and timely ocean color data highlights the urgency for fixing the VIIRS sensor and developing the next generation capability. In particular, NASA's climate continuity and decadal survey missions PACE/ACE, GEOCAPE and HyspIRI are required to advance ocean

  7. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy.

  8. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Christy, John R.; Goodman, Steven J.; Miller, Tim L.; Fitzjarrald, Dan; Lapenta, Bill; Wang, Shouping

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates changes on both global and regional scales. The following subject areas are covered: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) diabatic heating; (4) MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) temperature analysis; (5) Optimal precipitation and streamflow analysis; (6) CCM (Community Climate Model) hydrological cycle; (7) CCM1 climate sensitivity to lower boundary forcing; and (8) mesoscale modeling of atmosphere/surface interaction.

  9. Global Biogeochemistry: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B., III

    1984-01-01

    The dynamic biogeochemical equilibria among the major pools of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus represented by terrestrial biomes, the world's oceans, and the troposphere are disturbed. Since even the most rapid processes of adjustments among the reservoirs take decades, new equilibria are far from established. These human-induced perturbations and the system's subsequent responses constitute an on-going biogeochemical experiment at the global level. Current and new information must be combined in a way that allows testing of various hypotheses about the workings of global biogeochemical systems. This enables assessment of current knowledge and evaluation of the gaps.

  10. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are free-floating algae that grow in the euphotic zone of the upper ocean, converting carbon dioxide, sunlight, and available nutrients into organic carbon through photosynthesis. Despite their microscopic size, these photoautotrophs are responsible for roughly half the net primary production on Earth (NPP; gross primary production minus respiration), fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels our global ocean ecosystems. Phytoplankton thus play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, and their growth patterns are highly sensitive to environmental changes such as increased ocean temperatures that stratify the water column and prohibit the transfer of cold, nutrient richwaters to the upper ocean euphotic zone.

  11. The global event system

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, J.

    1994-03-02

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different.

  12. Global environmental report card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Worldwatch Institute, a Washington, D.C.-based think tank, issued a gloomy yet hopeful annual “State of the World” report on global environmental trends on 10 January.The report notes some recent successful efforts to protect the environment, including the phasing out of the production of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and the 2001 signing of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Nonetheless, the report calls for a global war on environmental degradation “that is as aggressive and well-funded as the war on terrorism” following the 11 September terrorist attacks in the United States.

  13. Global environmental politics

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, G.; Brown, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors explore past international environmental negotiations and the broader political landscape in which they take place to discern some elements of success. The overridding message is that it may take a long time, but in the end some combination of new scientific evidence, domestic political pressures, and international persuasion will likely turn the tide in favor of cooperative action. The authors feel that an incremental change approach, based on current international environmental governance, is the one most likely to be followed, although global governance, with a greatly strengthened UN and environmental law, or global partnership, developmental assistance from richer countries to poorer countries, are the better choices.

  14. The Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2003-10-01

    What can we teachers do? For students we can provide a strong background in the process of science and in scientific ethics. We can encourage students to apply such knowledge wisely throughout their lives. For the public at large, we can speak out in favor of real science at every opportunity. It is possible that the current scientific consensus on global warming is based on incomplete evidence, but global warming ought not be dismissed as unscientific or a hoax, and scientists ought not allow that to happen. As we celebrate National Chemistry Week, we should resolve to support chemistry and science as strongly as we can.

  15. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2014-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  16. Cladding and Duct Materials for Advanced Nuclear Recycle Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T; Klueh, Ronald L; Maloy, S; Toloczko, M

    2008-01-01

    The expanded use of nuclear energy without risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and with safe nuclear waste disposal is a primary goal of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To achieve that goal the GNEP is exploring advanced technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel that do not separate pure plutonium, and advanced reactors that consume transuranic elements from recycled spent fuel. The GNEP s objectives will place high demands on reactor clad and structural materials. This article discusses the materials requirements of the GNEP s advanced nuclear recycle reactors program.

  17. Kidney disease in children: latest advances and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Bertram, John F; Goldstein, Stuart L; Pape, Lars; Schaefer, Franz; Shroff, Rukshana C; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-03-01

    To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, cardiovascular health, and growth and nutrition, are all discussed within the context of paediatric and neonatal patients with kidney disease. Our global panel of researchers describe areas in which further studies and clinical advances are needed, and suggest ways in which research in these areas should progress to optimize renal care and long-term outcomes for affected patients.

  18. Cladding and duct materials for advanced nuclear recycle reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. R.; Busby, J. T.; Klueh, R. L.; Maloy, S. A.; Toloczko, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    The expanded use of nuclear energy without risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and with safe nuclear waste disposal is a primary goal of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To achieve that goal the GNEP is exploring advanced technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel that do not separate pure plutonium, and advanced reactors that consume transuranic elements from recycled spent fuel. The GNEP’s objectives will place high demands on reactor clad and structural materials. This article discusses the materials requirements of the GNEP’s advanced nuclear recycle reactors program.

  19. Advanced biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Biostack Experiment is described. The objectives are: (1) to confirm, complement, and enlarge the information obtained from the previous experiments by applying improved and advanced methods of localization and physical and biological evaluation, performing advanced experiments based on these data, and including additional biological specimens and additional radiation detectors; (2) to determine the biological importance of nuclear disintegration stars; (3) to determine the interference of HZE particle induced effects with those of other space flight factors (e.g., weightlessness); and (4) to determine the distribution of HZE particles and of disintegration stars at different locations inside the module and on the pallet.

  20. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  1. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  2. Forecasting phenology under global warming.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Inés; Primack, Richard B; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A

    2010-10-12

    As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953-2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology. PMID:20819816

  3. Global Learning Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning, education, and training becomes more and more internationalized. As examples, study programs are exported across borders, curricula are harmonized across Europe, learners work in globally distributed groups. However, the quality of educational offers differs dramatically. In this paper, an approach to manage quality for globally…

  4. Vaccines and global health.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V S

    2011-10-12

    Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, 'New vaccines for global health', was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing vaccines against some of the world's remaining major infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and tuberculosis. The important contribution that development of more effective veterinary vaccines could make to global health was also addressed. Some of the social and financial challenges to the development and deployment of new vaccines were reviewed. The latter issues were also discussed at a subsequent satellite meeting, 'Accelerating vaccine development', held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre. Delegates at this meeting considered challenges to the more rapid development and deployment of both human and veterinary vaccines and how these might be addressed. Papers based on presentations at the discussion meeting and a summary of the main conclusions of the satellite meeting are included in this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.

  5. Riociguat: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Conole, Daniel; Scott, Lesley J

    2013-11-01

    Riociguat (Adempas(®)), an oral first-in-class soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator, is under global development by Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals Inc. for the treatment of adult patients with inoperable or chronic/persistent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and for the treatment of adult patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The drug directly stimulates sGC in a nitric oxide independent manner, thereby increasing the sensitivity of sGC to nitric oxide, leading to increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate generation (a key signalling molecule involved in regulating vascular tone, proliferation, fibrosis and inflammation). Riociguat is the world's first approved pharmacotherapy for CTEPH, with its first global approval in this indication occurring in Canada. It has subsequently been approved in the USA for the treatment of patients with CTEPH and also received its first global approval in patients with PAH in the USA. It is undergoing regulatory review for these indications in Europe and for use in patients with CTEPH in Japan. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of riociguat, leading to its first global approvals in patients with CTEPH and PAH.

  6. The Global Internet Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Deborah Joy

    2009-01-01

    The global rise of Internet-based education is discussed in relation to models drawn from social studies and epidemiology. Experiential and data density models are highlighted, also the capacity for technological change, and phenomena observed in the spread of disease. The lesson of these illustrations is that even apparently permanent phenomena…

  7. Energy and Global Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reader, Mark

    1979-01-01

    Author believes that the nuclear fuel cycle is damaging to our health, physical system, ecosystem, and social system. He recommends reversing the trend toward nuclear power and solving the energy crisis by creating a global society able to live in balance with its physical environment. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York…

  8. Subnational Opposition to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Using a unique dataset on the geographic distribution of reported protest events from local sources, the study explains the variation in community-level mobilization in response to neoliberal reforms in two countries in the global periphery. Building on insights from macro, cross-national studies of protests related to market reforms, this article…

  9. Managing Global Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, C. Maxwell

    The book examines the historical background of and accomplishments in seven global problem areas. It is hypothesized that effective management within today's framework is the only way to progress toward the political and economic order that is necessary to assure peace and security, justice, and human rights, and to improve the quality of life. It…

  10. NASA Global Hawk Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    NASA Global Hawk is operational and supporting Earth science research. 29 Flights were conducted during the first year of operations, with a total of 253 flight hours. Three major science campaigns have been conducted with all objectives met. Two new science campaigns are in the planning stage

  11. Geography and global health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Moon, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the report of the World Health Organisation's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Closing the gap in a generation (Marmot 2008), this invited commentary considers the scope for geographical research on global health. We reflect on current work and note future possibilities, particularly those that take a critical perspective on the interplay of globalisation, security and health. PMID:22413171

  12. Global aspects of monsoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments are studied in three areas of monsoon research: (1) global aspects of the monsoon onset, (2) the orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the summer monsoon circulations, and (3) tropical 40 to 50 day oscillations. Reference was made only to those studies that are primarily based on FGGE Level IIIb data. A brief summary is given.

  13. GAR Global Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskrey, Andrew; Safaie, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk management strategies, policies and actions need to be based on evidence of current disaster loss and risk patterns, past trends and future projections, and underlying risk factors. Faced with competing demands for resources, at any level it is only possible to priorities a range of disaster risk management strategies and investments with adequate understanding of realised losses, current and future risk levels and impacts on economic growth and social wellbeing as well as cost and impact of the strategy. The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment and the objective of this submission is to present the GAR global risk assessment which contributed to Global Assessment Report (GAR) 2015. This initiative which has been led by UNISDR, was conducted by a consortium of technical institutions from around the world and has covered earthquake, cyclone, riverine flood, and tsunami probabilistic risk for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. The presentation will share thee results as well as the experience including the challenges faced in technical elements as well as the process and recommendations for the future of such endeavour.

  14. Making a global impact.

    PubMed

    2015-12-12

    How can vets, individually and collectively, make an impact on the global stage? Addressing this question at the BVA Congress at the London Vet Show, René Carlson, president of the World Veterinary Association, encouraged the profession to play its part locally, nationally and internationally, in tackling current challenges. Kristy Ebanks reports. PMID:26667429

  15. Global Hawk Science Flights

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Hawk is a robotic plane that can fly altitudes above 60,000 feet (18.3 kilometers) -- roughly twice as high as a commercial airliner -- and as far as 11,000 nautical miles (20,000 kilome...

  16. The Global Energy Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jax, Daniel W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about greenhouse effect and global warming. Includes diagrams and graphs from which students are asked to make inferences. Provides background information about how energy enters and leaves the earth system, the energy budget, consequences of obstructing the energy balance, and the greenhouse effect. (three references) (MCO)

  17. Mathematics and Global Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    This resource was written to provide students with an awareness of critical issues facing the world today. In courses for college students, it can motivate their study of mathematics, teach them how to solve mathematical problems related to current global issues, provide coherence to mathematical studies through a focus on issues of human…

  18. GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) is a collaboration of 14 member drinking and wastewater research organizations. The USEPA is currently a partner to the GWRC membership. Through the GWRC, the members are able to leverage research funds on mutually desired efforts to m...

  19. Amazonia and Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

    Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

  20. Globalism and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of twenty-four-hour news media, local, state, and national agencies' warnings and with the explosive role of the Internet, people are more aware of global health concerns that may have significant consequences for the world's population. As international travel continues to increase, health care professionals around the world are…

  1. Global Lessons from Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a visit by two U.S. social studies educators to schools in Krasnoyarsk, a city in Siberia, Russia. Discusses economic and social changes brought about by the end of the Cold War. Recommends more international and global education for both Russia and the United States. (CFR)

  2. Another "Mishegas": Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to focus on assertions that have accumulated around the work of international education professionals and practitioners: the idea of the global citizen. The propagation of this notion derives from, essentially, two sources: (1) it is a recurrent claim made by study abroad programs; and (2) it is used also as a means of…

  3. Tending the Global Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the global trends associated with the increasing levels of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFS) in the earth's atmosphere. Presents several ecological effects associated with these increases, along with some of the possible social and economic implications for the quality of life. Argues for more…

  4. A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary The emergence of global history has been one of the more notable features of academic history over the past three decades. Although historians of disease were among the pioneers of one of its earlier incarnations—world history—the recent “global turn” has made relatively little impact on histories of health, disease, and medicine. Most continue to be framed by familiar entities such as the colony or nation-state or are confined to particular medical “traditions.” This article aims to show what can be gained from taking a broader perspective. Its purpose is not to replace other ways of seeing or to write a new “grand narrative” but to show how transnational and transimperial approaches are vital to understanding some of the key issues with which historians of health, disease, and medicine are concerned. Moving on from an analysis of earlier periods of integration, the article offers some reflections on our own era of globalization and on the emerging field of global health. PMID:26725408

  5. Global Atmospheric Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Carl C.

    1975-01-01

    The global atmospheric monitoring plans of the World Meteorological Organization are detailed. Single and multipurpose basic monitoring systems and the monitoring of chemical properties are discussed. The relationship of the World Meteorological Organization with the United Nations environment program is discussed. A map of the World…

  6. The Global Resources Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubs, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The AAU/ARL Global Resources Program (GRP) was launched in 1997 with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to improve access to international research resources through cooperative structures and new technologies and to help libraries contain costs. A joint initiative of the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the Association of…

  7. Global Aerosol Observations

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... atmosphere, directly influencing global climate and human health. Ground-based networks that accurately measure column aerosol amount and ... being used to improve Air Quality Models and for regional health studies. To assess the human-health impact of chronic aerosol exposure, ...

  8. Global Is Local.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary R.

    1995-01-01

    By reflecting the new global community in staffing, collections, programs, exhibits, and services, public libraries will be fulfilling their role in the acculturation and education of new citizens, as well as contributing to greater community understanding and a new world order. A sidebar lists seven steps for serving recent immigrants. (AEF)

  9. The Globalization of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedo, Donaldo; Gounari, Panayota

    2005-01-01

    Addressing ethnic cleansing, culture wars, human sufferings, terrorism, immigration, and intensified xenophobia, "Globalization of Racism" explains why it is vital that we gain a nuanced understanding of how ideology underlies all social, cultural, and political discourse and racist actions. The book looks at recent developments in France,…

  10. Encouraging Global Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Forest Woody, Jr.; Keiser, Barbie E.

    2008-01-01

    While much has been done to address the digital divide, awareness concerning the importance of information literacy (IL) has taken a back seat to a world that focuses on technology. This article traces the genesis of a global effort to address information literacy education and training beyond discussions taking place within the library and…

  11. Geography and global health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Moon, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the report of the World Health Organisation's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Closing the gap in a generation (Marmot 2008), this invited commentary considers the scope for geographical research on global health. We reflect on current work and note future possibilities, particularly those that take a critical perspective on the interplay of globalisation, security and health.

  12. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  13. Global Skill Shortages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Malcolm S.; Zaidi, Mahmood A.

    This book discusses the causes and impact of global skill shortages, focusing on data from skill shortages measured in the period 1995-1998 in 19 developed and emerging economies. Chapter one contains a brief introduction. Chapter two is a review of theoretical literature on skill shortages, including static and dynamic shortages, efficiency wage…

  14. Global Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Sandra, Comp.

    Over 700 annotated resources, most of which were produced between 1970 and 1980, are presented in this resource guide which addresses global issues and interdependence from a world order perspective. Arranged into 3 parts, the resources listed in part I primarily provide background material organized under the following subtitles: world order;…

  15. The Global Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of and research related to a theory explaining the earth's electric budget. The theory suggests a global electric circuit completed by a positive current flowing up into thunderstorm clouds, from clouds to ionosphere, distributed around the globe, and down to earth through the lower atmosphere in fair-weather regions. (JN)

  16. Global Education Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Doug; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Learning in a Global Society" (Bourne); "Latin American Bureau" (Moriarty); "Council for Education in World Citizenship" (Rogers); "Development Education Centres"; "REFLECT (Regenerated Freirean Literacy through Empowering Community Techniques" (Archer); "Adapting REFLECT in Oxford" (Norris); "World Music: Education as Festival"…

  17. Advances in cancer control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.N. ); Engstrom, P.F. ); Mortenson, L.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the sixth annual meeting on Advances in Cancer Control. Included are the following articles: Barriers and facilitators to compliance with routine mammographic screening, Preliminary report of an intervention to improve mammography skills of radiologists.

  18. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem.

  19. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  20. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  1. Advanced Process Control Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

  2. Recent Advances in Vibroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Numerous vibroacoustics advances and impacts in the aerospace industry have occurred over the last 15 years. This article addresses some of these that developed from engineering programmatic task-work at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  3. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  4. Advanced General Dentistry Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Douglas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A description of the University of Maryland at Baltimore's one-year postdoctoral program in advanced general dentistry focuses on its goals and objectives, curriculum design, patient population, faculty and staff, finances, and program evaluation measures. (MSE)

  5. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  6. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem. PMID:25743056

  7. The Global Pharmacist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdan, Sudaxshina; Blum, Nicole; Francis, Sally-Anne; Slater, Emily; Alem, Naziha; Munday, Mike; Taylor, Jean; Smith, Felicity

    2014-01-01

    Globalisation can facilitate improvements in health through the speed and ease of shared information, advances in health care delivery and health policy, and the enhanced pace of discovery through international research collaborations. However, there are associated potential risks to health such as the spread of communicable diseases and…

  8. Global nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Monlove, H.O.; Goulding, C.A.; Martinez, B.J.; Coulter, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project provided a detailed systems design for advanced integrated facility monitoring and identified the components and enabling technologies required to facilitate the development of the monitoring system of the future.

  9. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  10. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  11. [Advances in hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Villanueva Egan, Luis Alberto; Pichardo Cuevas, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    This review provides an update regarding newer options in hormonal contraception that include the progestin-releasing intrauterine system, the contraceptive patch and ring, the single rod progestin-releasing implant, extended and emergency oral contraception and recent advances in hormonal male contraception. These methods represent a major advancement in this field, allowing for the development of more acceptable, safety and effective birth control regimens.

  12. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  13. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  14. Globalism and Tribalism and the State of the Discipline: A Response to Mary Snell-Hornby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salama-Carr, Myriam

    1999-01-01

    This response to an article on the effect of recent developments (particularly globalization and advances in technology) on the production and perception of language argues that the two opposing directions of globalization and tribalism can be equally related to what is going on within the discipline of translation studies. (Author/VWL)

  15. Strategies for Critiquing Global Citizenry: Undergraduate Research as a Possible Vehicle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    Even as an increasing number of universities commit to producing graduates possessing the attributes of "a global citizen", discussions between academics suggest it is common practice to design programme outcomes which include the attribute of global citizenship without advancing discussion as to ways of embedding them in deeper…

  16. NASA Scientific Forum on Climate Variability and Global Change: UNISPACE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, Robert A.; Unninayar, Sushel

    1999-01-01

    The Forum on Climate Variability and Global Change is intended to provide a glimpse into some of the advances made in our understanding of key scientific and environmental issues resulting primarily from improved observations and modeling on a global basis. This publication contains the papers presented at the forum.

  17. Communicating in the Global Village: On Language, Translation and Cultural Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell-Hornby, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the effect of recent developments (particularly globalization and advances in technology) on the production and perception of language, and on translation and the job profile of translators. Two conflicting forces of "globalism" and "tribalism" are presented and set off against the sociological concept of cultural identity. English in…

  18. A Model of Online Education Effecting Holistic Student Formation Appropriate for Global Cross-Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaford, Ronald Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Factors associated with globalization and unprecedented technological advancement have facilitated the opportunity to take education beyond the boundaries of the physical classroom and geographical borders to serve a global context. While this exponential growth has resulted in more convenient access to learning, increased possibilities for…

  19. Global Skills and Mobility Challenges and Possibilities for VET: A Crossborder Cross-Sectoral Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn; O'Hanlon-Rose, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The complex interplay of technological advances, global demographic trends and macroeconomic forces has seen the emergence of global markets, economies, supply chains and labour markets. The use of skilled migration policy and initiatives for many countries feeling the effects of aging populations and skill shortages adds another dimension to this…

  20. Toward Creating A Global Retrospective Climatology of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Robert J.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols are thought to cause a significant direct and indirect climate forcing, but the magnitude of this forcing remains highly uncertain because of poor knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and their temporal changes. The standard long-term global product, the one-channel Advanced Very-High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness over the ocean, relies on a single predefined aerosol model and can be inaccurate in many cases. Furthermore, it provides no information on aerosol column number density, thus making it impossible to estimate the indirect aerosol effect on climate. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data can be used to detect absorbing aerosols over land, but are insensitive to aerosols located below one kilometer. It is thus clear that innovative approaches must be employed in order to extract a more quantitative and accurate aerosol climatology from available satellite and other measurements, thus enabling more reliable estimates of the direct and indirect aerosol forcings. The Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) was established in 1998 as part of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). Its main objective is to analyze satellite radiance measurements and field observations to infer the global distribution of aerosols, their properties, and their seasonal and interannual variations. The overall goal is to develop advanced global aerosol climatologies for the period of satellite data and to make the aerosol climatologies broadly available through the GACP web site.