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Sample records for agaricus bisporus mushrooms

  1. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay.

  2. A detailed analysis of the recombination landscape of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Gao, Wei; Lavrijssen, Brian; Hendrickx, Patrick; Sedaghat-Tellgerd, Narges; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Kong, Won-Sik; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Baars, Johan J P; Visser, Richard G F

    2016-08-01

    The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the world's most cultivated mushroom species, but in spite of its economic importance generation of new cultivars by outbreeding is exceptional. Previous genetic analyses of the white bisporus variety, including all cultivars and most wild isolates revealed that crossing over frequencies are low, which might explain the lack of introducing novel traits into existing cultivars. By generating two high quality whole genome sequence assemblies (one de novo and the other by improving the existing reference genome) of the first commercial white hybrid Horst U1, a detailed study of the crossover (CO) landscape was initiated. Using a set of 626 SNPs in a haploid offspring of 139 single spore isolates and whole genome sequencing on a limited number of homo- and heterokaryotic single spore isolates, we precisely mapped all COs showing that they are almost exclusively restricted to regions of about 100kb at the chromosome ends. Most basidia of A. bisporus var. bisporus produce two spores and pair preferentially via non-sister nuclei. Combined with the COs restricted to the chromosome ends, these spores retain most of the heterozygosity of the parent thus explaining how present-day white cultivars are genetically so close to the first hybrid marketed in 1980. To our knowledge this is the first example of an organism which displays such specific CO landscape.

  3. Effect of spent mushroom compost tea on mycelial growth and yield of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Gea, Francisco J; Santos, Mila; Diánez, Fernando; Tello, Julio C; Navarro, María J

    2012-08-01

    Preliminary studies suggested that the use of compost tea made from spent mushroom substrate (SMS) may be regarded as a potential method for biologically controlling dry bubble disease in button mushroom. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SMS compost tea on the host, the button mushroom, to ascertain whether the addition of these water extracts has a toxic effect on Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth and on mushroom yield. In vitro experiments showed that the addition of SMS compost tea to the culture medium inoculated with a mushroom spawn grain did not have an inhibitory effect on A. bisporus mycelial growth. The effect of compost teas on the quantitative production parameters of A. bisporus (yield, unitary weight, biological efficiency and earliness) was tested in a cropping trial, applying the compost teas to the casing in three different drench applications. Quantitative production parameters were not significantly affected by the compost tea treatments although there was a slight delay of 0.8-1.4 days in the harvest time of the first flush. These results suggest that compost teas have no fungitoxic effect on A. bisporus so that they can be considered a suitable biocontrol substance for the control of dry bubble disease.

  4. The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Champignon) and some environmental and health aspects.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as button mushroom, requires the use of substrates for its cultivation, such as chicken and/or horse manure and the application of manufacturing steps, such as storage and composting that produce odours. The odours may cause disturbance to people living near the plant and may be a problem for workers. This article examines some measures that can be taken to reduce the odorous emissions during the production of Agaricus bisporus. The possibility of recovery of some organic matter left from the cultivation is examined. Finally, some occupational hazards for workers are highlighted.

  5. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Marta F.; González-Delgado, Purificación; Postigo, Idoia; Fernández, Javier; Soriano, Victor; Cueva, Begoña; Martínez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH) from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mold aeroallergens might explain severe food reactions to cross-reacting homologs mushroom proteins. PMID:25750856

  6. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens. PMID:26921302

  7. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-03

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens.

  8. Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Compost Against Pathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Sheng, Jiping; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Yanyan; Lee, David Yue Wei; Yang, Yang; Xu, Mingshuang; Shen, Lin

    2015-07-08

    Bacillus subtilis strain B154, isolated from Agaricus bisporus mushroom compost infected by red bread mold, exhibited antagonistic activities against Neurospora sitophila. Antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was also observed. The maximum antifungal activity was reached during the stationary phase. This antifungal activity was stable over a wide pH and temperature range and was not affected by proteases. Assay of antifungal activity in vitro indicated that a purified antifungal substance could strongly inhibit mycelia growth and spore germination of N. sitophila. In addition, treatment with strain B154 in A. bisporus mushroom compost infected with N. sitophila significantly increased the yield of bisporus mushrooms. Ultraviolet scan spectroscopy, tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed a molecular weight consistent with 1498.7633 Da. The antifungal compound might belong to a new type of lipopeptide fengycin.

  9. Evaluation of indigenous potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) on Agaricus bisporus production.

    PubMed

    Zarenejad, F; Yakhchali, B; Rasooli, I

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms such as Agaricus bisporus, are cultivated for food worldwide. Fruit body initiation in Agaricus bisporus is a phase change from the vegetative to the reproductive stage which depends on the presence of a casing layer with particular physical, chemical and microbiological properties. The phase change is achieved practically by environmental manipulation and the presence of naturally occurring bacteria such as Pseuodomonas putida. In this study, 274 individual bacterial isolates were collected by screening the casing layer of 14 edible mushroom farms. The isolates were analysed with respect to biochemical properties, organic and inorganic phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore and growth in the presence of volatile compound of 1-octen-3-ol. It was found that approximately 97% of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 1-octen-3-ol and 36% were able to solubilize phosphorus. Among the isolates, 23 strains were selected as potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) for inoculation of the casing layer. Field experiments using these strains showed various promoting effects on production of mushroom. Finally, 2 strains (strains Bt4 and Ps7) showing the highest increase in A. bisporus production, were characterized as Pseuodomonas putida by molecular methods and identified as the best suited growth promoting inoculants for application in production farms for increasing the mushroom yield.

  10. Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer 1 Based Characterization of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Strains.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Kim, Dae Wook; Oh, Youn-Lee; Hyun, Min Woo; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-12-01

    Breeding the button mushroom requires genetic information about its strains. This study was undertaken to genetically characterize four domestically bred button mushroom strains (Saea, Saejung, Saedo, Saeyeon cultivars) and to assess the possibility of using the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region of rDNA as a genetically variable region in the genetic characterization. For the experiment, 34 strains of Agaricus bisporus, two strains of A. bitorquis, and one strain of A. silvaticus, from 17 countries were used. Nucleotide sequence analysis of IGS1 rDNA in these 37 Agaricus strains confirmed that genetic variations exist, not only among the four domestic strains, but also between the four domestic strains and foreign strains. Crossing two different haploid strains of A. bisporus seems to generate genetic variation in the IGS1 region in their off-spring haploid strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the IGS1 sequence revealed all A. bisporus strains could be differentiated from A. silvaticus and A. bitorquis strains. Five genetic groups were resolved among A. bisporus strains. Saejung and Saeyeon cultivars formed a separate genetic group. Our results suggest that IGS1 could be complementarily applied in the polymorphism analysis of button mushroom.

  11. Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer 1 Based Characterization of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Kim, Dae Wook; Oh, Youn-Lee; Hyun, Min Woo; Kong, Won-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Breeding the button mushroom requires genetic information about its strains. This study was undertaken to genetically characterize four domestically bred button mushroom strains (Saea, Saejung, Saedo, Saeyeon cultivars) and to assess the possibility of using the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region of rDNA as a genetically variable region in the genetic characterization. For the experiment, 34 strains of Agaricus bisporus, two strains of A. bitorquis, and one strain of A. silvaticus, from 17 countries were used. Nucleotide sequence analysis of IGS1 rDNA in these 37 Agaricus strains confirmed that genetic variations exist, not only among the four domestic strains, but also between the four domestic strains and foreign strains. Crossing two different haploid strains of A. bisporus seems to generate genetic variation in the IGS1 region in their off-spring haploid strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the IGS1 sequence revealed all A. bisporus strains could be differentiated from A. silvaticus and A. bitorquis strains. Five genetic groups were resolved among A. bisporus strains. Saejung and Saeyeon cultivars formed a separate genetic group. Our results suggest that IGS1 could be complementarily applied in the polymorphism analysis of button mushroom. PMID:28154490

  12. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Pelkmans, Jordi F; Vos, Aurin M; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J P; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2016-08-01

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom forming basidiomycete using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphology, cap expansion rate, and total number and biomass of mushrooms were not affected by over-expression of c2h2. However, yield per day of the c2h2 over-expression strains peaked 1 day earlier. These data and expression analysis indicate that C2H2 impacts timing of mushroom formation at an early stage of development, making its encoding gene a target for breeding of commercial mushroom strains.

  13. Mitochondrial recombination in natural populations of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Ying; Pun, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    In the majority of sexual eukaryotes, the mitochondrial genomes are inherited uniparentally and have predominantly clonal population structures. In clonally evolving genomes, alleles at different loci will be in significant linkage disequilibrium. In this study, the associations among alleles at nine mitochondrial loci were analyzed for 379 isolates in four natural populations of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The results indicated that the mitochondrial genome in the Desert California population was not significantly different from random recombination. In contrast, the three other populations all showed predominantly clonal mitochondrial population structure. While no evidence of recombination was found in the Alberta, Canada A. bisporus population, signatures of recombination were evident in the Coastal Californian and the French populations. We discuss the potential mechanisms that could have contributed to the observed mitochondrial recombination and to the differences in allelic associations among the geographic populations in this economically important mushroom.

  14. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms.

  15. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) lowers blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Jeong, Yong Tae; Yang, Byung Keun; Islam, Rezuanul; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Pang, Gerald; Cho, Kai Yip; Song, Chi Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom; WBM) contains high levels of dietary fibers and antioxidants including vitamin C, D, and B(12); folates; and polyphenols that may provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular and diabetic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that intake of the fruiting bodies of WBM regulates anticholesterolemic and antiglycemic responses in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (0.5% cholesterol; 14% fat) and rats with type 2 diabetes induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The STZ-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats fed the Agaricus bisporus powder (ABP; 200 mg/kg of body weight) for 3 weeks had significantly reduced plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) concentrations (24.7% and 39.1%, respectively), liver enzyme activities, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (11.7% and 15.7%, respectively), and liver weight gain (P < .05). In hypercholesterolemic rats, oral feeding of ABP for 4 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (22.8% and 33.1%, respectively) (P < .05). A similar significant decrease in hepatic cholesterol and TG concentrations was observed (36.2% and 20.8%, respectively) (P < .05). Decrease in TC, LDL, and TG concentrations was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations. It was concluded that A bisporus mushroom had both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in rats.

  16. Macrophage immunomodulating and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from Agaricus bisporus white button mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Yong Tae; Song, Chi Hyun; Pang, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom (WBM) is widely consumed in most countries for its culinary properties. Recently, its dietary intake has been shown to protect against breast cancer. Mushroom polysaccharides are known for their immunomodulating and antitumor properties; however, little is known regarding the properties of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Using size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude extract of A. bisporus, two polysaccharide fractions (designated as ABP-1 and ABP-2) were obtained. The estimated molecular masses of ABP-1 and ABP-2 were 2,000 kDa and 40-70 kDa, respectively, and their sugar compositions consisted mainly of glucose, mannose, xylose, and fructose. Analysis of the effects of the polysaccharides on murine macrophages demonstrated that both fractions stimulated the production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Modulation of macrophage function by A. bisporus polysaccharides was mediated in part through activation of nuclear factor-κB with the production p50/105 heterodimers. Both ABP-1 and ABP-2 had the ability to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells but had little effect on the growth of human colon, prostate, gastric cancer, and murine Sarcoma 180 cells as assessed by a tetrazolium dye [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]-based assay. However, when murine Sarcoma 180 cells exposed to ABP-1 or ABP-2 were implanted subcutaneously into mice, a reduction in tumor growth was observed compared with that observed in control mice. Taken together, our data provide a molecular basis to explain in part the reported beneficial therapeutic effects of A. bisporus WBM intake and suggest that macrophages likely contribute to the antitumor effects of Agaricus polysaccharides.

  17. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Jia, Liang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were evaluated by various methods in vitro and in vivo. In antioxidant assays in vitro, ethanolic extract of A. bisporus was found to have strong reducing power, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and moderate hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with ethanolic extract of A. bisporus via gavage for 30 consecutive days. As a result, administration of ethanolic extract significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serums, livers and hearts of mice. In addition, the total phenolic content in the extract determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method was 6.18mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight. The main phenolic compounds in ethanolic extract analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were determined as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and myricetin. These results suggested that ethanolic extract of A. bisporus had potent antioxidant activity and could be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  18. Method Development for the Determination of Free and Esterified Sterols in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-05-04

    Ergosterol is the major sterol in button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and can occur as free alcohol or esterified with fatty acids (ergosteryl esters). In this study, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM) was used to determine ergosterol and ergosteryl esters as well as other sterols and steryl esters in button mushrooms. Different quality control measures were established and sample preparation procedures were compared to prevent the formation of artifacts and the degradation of ergosteryl esters. The final method was then used for the determination of ergosterol (443 ± 44 mg/100 g dry matter (d.m.)) and esterified ergosterol (12 ± 6 mg/100 g d.m.) in button mushroom samples (n = 4). While the free sterol fraction was vastly dominated by ergosterol (∼90% of five sterols in total), the steryl ester fraction was more diversified (nine sterols in total, ergosterol ∼55%) and consisted primarily of linoleic acid esters.

  19. First report of Syzygites megalocarpus (Mucorales) web mold on the commercial portabella button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach mushrooms are cultivated commercially under environmentally controlled conditions in several states within the US. They are the most important crop in Pennsylvania and an important high value crop in many other states. In August 2011 we first observed a mucoraceous m...

  20. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function.

  1. Tyrosinase extract from Agaricus bisporus mushroom and its in natura tissue for specific phenol removal.

    PubMed

    Kameda, E; Langone, M A P; Coelho, M A Z

    2006-11-01

    Phenols are toxic pollutants found in industrial wastes imposing several risks to human health. Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) is an oxygenase oxyreductase found in several life forms, like the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. This enzyme is readily available from this fungal tissue leading to high activity extracts without extensive purification, thus suggesting its potential as a biocatalyst for applications involving biomodification of phenols or bioremediation of phenol-polluted waters. The purpose of this work was to employ a crude extract from the Agaricus bisporus mushroom and its biomass for the removal of phenol from polluted water. Experiments were carried out without pH control. The initial phenol concentration in all solutions was 100 mg l(-1). Four enzymatic concentrations (50, 100, 200 and 400 U ml(-1)) were tested. Reactions, with 200 U ml(-1) and 400 U ml(-1) enzymatic activity, led to 90% of phenol removal. Chitosan was used as a coagulant, but no significant improvement was observed. The in natura fungi was also able to remove 90% of phenol, demostrating its viability as a biocatalyst in bioremediation process.

  2. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus.

  3. Effects of preservation methods on amino acids and 5'-nucleotides of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Huang, Fan; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, S A; Wang, Yan-Feng; Huang, Wen

    2014-04-15

    In this study, the proximate composition, free amino acids content and 5'-nucleotides in frozen, canned and salted Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were investigated. We found that the three kinds of A. bisporus products were good sources of protein, with amount varying in the ranges of 16.54-24.35g/100g (dry weight). Freezing, canning and salting process, followed by 6months of storage led to a significant reduction in free amino acids, especially tyrosine, alanine, glutamine and cysteine. There were medium levels of MSG-like amino acids in frozen A. bisporus and canned A. bisporus, and low levels of MSG-like amino acids in salted A. bisporus. The mount of flavor 5'-nucleotides in frozen A. bisporus was higher than that of canned and salted A. bisporus. The present study thus suggests that freezing is beneficial for the preservation of A. bisporus.

  4. Proteomic response of Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum to Agaricus bisporus tissue and mushroom compost.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Matt; Grogan, Helen; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    A cellular proteomic analysis was performed on Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum. Thirty-four individual protein spots were excised from 2-D electropherograms and analysed by ESI-Trap Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Searches of the NCBInr and SwissProt protein databases identified functions for 31 of these proteins based on sequence homology. A differential expression study was performed on the intracellular fraction of T. aggressivum f. europaeum grown in media containing Agaricus bisporus tissue and Phase 3 mushroom compost compared to a control medium. Differential expression was observed for seven proteins, three of which were upregulated in both treatments, two were down regulated in both treatments and two showed qualitatively different regulation under the two treatments. No proteins directly relating to fungal cell wall degradation or other mycoparasitic activity were observed. Functions of differentially produced intracellular proteins included oxidative stress tolerance, cytoskeletal structure, and cell longevity. Differential production of these proteins may contribute to the growth of T. aggressivum in mushroom compost and its virulence toward A. bisporus.

  5. Phenol determination by an amperométrico biosensor based on lyophilized mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissue.

    PubMed

    Silva, L M C; de Mello, A C C; Salgado, A M

    2014-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive biosensor based on lyophilized mushroom tissue (Agaricus bisporus) was developed for amperometric determination of phenol. This fungi tissue contains tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) enzyme that catalysis two sequential oxidation reactions with phenolic substrates. Both reactions involve molecular oxygen; therefore, the commercial Clark-type oxygen electrode was selected as a transducer. The lyophilized biocomponent was tested in two different forms: cubes (at two positions in the biosensor system) or powder. In characterization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as time reaction, linear range and repeatability were investigated. For the best biosensor configuration, a linear response was observed from 0.1 to 10.0mg L(-1) phenol; variation coefficient and standard deviation were calculated as 0.02% and +/- 0.11mg L(-1), respectively.

  6. Multi-trait QTL analysis for agronomic and quality characters of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Baars, Johan J P; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; Zhang, Jinxia; Sonnenberg, Anton S M

    2016-12-01

    The demand for button mushrooms of high quality is increasing. Superior button mushroom varieties require the combination of multiple traits to maximize productivity and quality. Very often these traits are correlated and should, therefore, be evaluated together rather than as single traits. In order to unravel the genetic architecture of multiple traits of Agaricus bisporus and the genetic correlations among traits, we have investigated a total of six agronomic and quality traits through multi-trait QTL analyses in a mixed-model. Traits were evaluated in three heterokaryon sets. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed among traits. For instance, earliness (ER) correlated to firmness (FM), cap color, and compost colonization, and FM correlated to scales (SC). QTLs of different traits located on the same chromosomes genetically explains the phenotypic correlations. QTL detected on chromosome 10 mainly affects three traits, i.e., ER, FM and SC. It explained 31.4 % phenotypic variation of SC on mushroom cap (heterokaryon Set 1), 14.9 % that of the FM (heterokaryon Set 3), and 14.2 % that of ER (heterokaryon Set 3). High value alleles from the wild parental line showed beneficial effects for several traits, suggesting that the wild germplasm is a valuable donor in terms of those traits. Due to the limitations of recombination pattern, we only made a start at understanding the genetic base for several agronomic and quality traits in button mushrooms.

  7. Vitamin D2 Formation from Post-Harvest UV-B Treatment of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and Retention during Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research were to study the effects of high intensity (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mW/cm2), dose (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J/cm2), and post-harvest time (1 and 4 days) on the vitamin D2 formation in Portabella mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) as a result of UV-B exposure, as well as the vitamin D...

  8. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  9. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-09-23

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P < 0.0001), which is equivalent to 17.6 μg (704 IU) vitamin D2 per 100 g of fresh mushrooms and comparable to levels found in fatty fish like the Atlantic salmon.

  10. Purification and Characterization of β-Glucosidase from Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushroom).

    PubMed

    Ašić, Adna; Bešić, Larisa; Muhović, Imer; Dogan, Serkan; Turan, Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    β-Glucosidase (β-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) is a catalytic enzyme present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that selectively catalyzes either the linkage between two glycone residues or between glycone and aryl or alkyl aglycone residue. Growing edible mushrooms in the soil with increased cellulose content can lead to the production of glucose, which is a process dependent on β-glucosidase. In this study, β-glucosidase was isolated from Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) using ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, giving 10.12-fold purification. Biochemical properties of the enzyme were investigated and complete characterization was performed. The enzyme is a dimer with two subunits of approximately 46 and 62 kDa. Optimum pH for the enzyme is 4.0, while the optimum temperature is 55 °C. The enzyme was found to be exceptionally thermostable. The most suitable commercial substrate for this enzyme is p-NPGlu with Km and Vmax values of 1.751 mM and 833 U/mg, respectively. Enzyme was inhibited in a competitive manner by both glucose and δ-gluconolactone with IC50 values of 19.185 and 0.39 mM, respectively and Ki values of 9.402 mM and 7.2 µM, respectively. Heavy metal ions that were found to inhibit β-glucosidase activity are I(-), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Ag(+), and Cu(2+). This is the first study giving complete biochemical characterization of A. bisporus β-glucosidase.

  11. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang

    2014-01-01

    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  12. The North American mushroom competitor, Trichoderma aggressivum f. aggressivum, produces antifungal compounds in mushroom compost that inhibit mycelial growth of the commercial mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Krupke, Oliver Albert; Castle, Alan J; Rinker, Danny Lee

    2003-12-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a ubiquitously distributed asexual soil fungus that produces a variety of antibiotic compounds. Colonisation of soil inhabited by competing microbiota is facilitated by the antibiotic activity of these compounds. In addition, T. harzianum produces hydrolytic enzymes that degrade the cell wall components of many microorganisms, which can then be used as a source of nutrients. Recently, biotypes of T. harzianum differing morphologically from those originally described by Rifai were isolated on commercial mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) farms. These 'aggressive' biotypes cause devastating crop loss on mushroom farms. The aggressive biotype in North America was originally known as 'Th4' but has been recently renamed Trichoderma aggressivum f. aggressivum. In contrast, 'non-aggressive' biotypes, have no noticeable effect on the crop, are similar to T. harzianum and are commonly found on mushroom farms. The mechanism of disease establishment is unknown. We have identified a metabolite produced by T. aggressivum isolates in vitro that inhibits growth of A. bisporus and other fungi. This antifungal compound is not produced by 'non-aggressive' T. harzianum isolates under the culture conditions tested and is identified as 3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin. Another compound was isolated from both liquid culture and infested compost. Although its chemical structure could not be precisely determined, this compound also inhibits A. bisporus growth, is predominant in infested compost and likely has a inhibitory effect on the mycelia present in mushroom compost, resulting in devastating crop loss.

  13. Downregulation of Ethylene Production Increases Mycelial Growth and Primordia Formation in the Button Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaohui; Huang, Tao; Shen, Chaohui; Wang, Xiaoting; Qi, Yuancheng; Shen, Jinwen; Song, Andong; Qiu, Liyou; Ai, Yuncan

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis and function in Agaricus bisporus (the button mushroom) remain uncertain. The enzyme activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) were detectable in A. bisporus AS2796 and inhibited by α-aminooxyacetic acid and Co2+. We cloned and sequenced 2 ACS genes (Ab-ACS1 and Ab-ACS2) and 1 ACO gene (Ab-ACO) from the mushroom strain. Ab-ACS1 and Ab-ACS2 demonstrated low amino acid sequence similarity. Ab-ACO demonstrated an amino acid sequence completely identical to that of ACO1_AGABI from A. bisporus. Antisense ACO significantly reduced ACO gene expression level, ACO enzyme activity, and ethylene production in the mushroom transformants. The transformants grew faster than the wild-type strain in sterilized compost and normally formed primordia when cultivated in sterilized compost with the sterilized casing vermiculite, but the wild-type strain did not. Our results show that ethylene is synthesized in button mushrooms via the ACC pathway. Ethylene inhibited button mushroom mycelial growth and development.

  14. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of the lectin from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Ditamo, Yanina; Rupil, Lucia L; Sendra, Victor G; Nores, Gustavo A; Roth, German A; Irazoqui, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are glycan-binding proteins that are resistant to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and enter intact to blood circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus lectin (ABL) on innate and adaptive immune responses as well as its effect in two different experimental pathologies that involve the immune system. ABL inhibited in vitro nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in response to the pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, it did not modify the activity of arginase, showing that while ABL downregulates M1 activation, it does not affect M2 activation. ABL also inhibited mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogen Con A, or in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. During the in vivo studies, oral administration of ABL to BALB/c mice induced a marked inhibition of NO production by peritoneal macrophages after LPS stimuli. The influence of ABL on tumor growth was studied in BALB/c mice receiving daily oral doses of ABL and implanted with CT26 tumor cells. ABL treatment induced significantly higher rate of tumor growth when compared with control mice. On the other hand, oral ABL administration in Wistar rats induced a marked diminution of the incidence of the disease and the severity of the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We can conclude that ABL has an in vivo immunomodulatory effect reducing the innate and adaptive responses. This food lectin shows potential therapeutic application on control of inflammatory autoimmune pathologies.

  15. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  16. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche.

    PubMed

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G; Ohm, Robin A; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L; Bailey, Andrew M; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hildén, Kristiina; Kües, Ursula; Labutti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lucas, Susan M; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W; Salamov, Asaf A; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wösten, Han A B; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C; Foster, Gary D; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S; Kerrigan, Richard W; Challen, Michael P; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis

    2012-10-23

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  17. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hilden, Kristiina; Kues, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wosten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

    2012-04-27

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the button mushroom forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  18. In Silico Study to Develop a Lectin-Like Protein from Mushroom Agaricus bisporus for Pharmaceutical Application

    PubMed Central

    Ismaya, Wangsa Tirta; Yunita; Damayanti, Sophi; Wijaya, Caroline; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R.; Retnoningrum, Debbie Sofie; Rachmawati, Heni

    2016-01-01

    A lectin-like protein of unknown function designated as LSMT was recently discovered in the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The protein shares high structural similarity to HA-33 from Clostridium botulinum (HA33) and Ricin-B-like lectin from the mushroom Clitocybe nebularis (CNL), which have been developed as drug carrier and anti-cancer, respectively. These homologous proteins display the ability to penetrate the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer, and are beneficial for oral administration. As the characteristics of LSMT are unknown, a structural study in silico was performed to assess its potential pharmaceutical application. The study suggested potential binding to target ligands such as HA-33 and CNL although the nature, specificity, capacity, mode, and strength may differ. Further molecular docking experiments suggest that interactions between the LSMT and tested ligands may take place. This finding indicates the possible use of the LSMT protein, initiating new research on its use for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27110510

  19. Comparison of the effect of two types of whole mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Sakura; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kamada, Takeo; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Han, Kyu-Ho; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-10-01

    The effects of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus; white, WM; brown, BM) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats were investigated in terms of the physical characteristics of animals and by bacterial and HPLC analyses of cecal contents. Short-chain fatty acid levels were found to be significantly higher in the WM group than in the BM and the control (CN) groups; coliform bacteria levels in the BM group were significantly lower than those in the CN group, with the WM group inducing an apparent but insignificant decrease in coliforms. Anaerobe levels in the WM group were significantly higher than those in the CN group and, compared with the CN group, the BM and WM groups exhibited significantly increased feces weight and cecum weight, respectively. These results indicate that the mushroom powders, and in particular the WM powder, have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment in rats.

  20. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagye, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hildén, Kristiina; Kües, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wösten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the “button mushroom” forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics. PMID:23045686

  1. Deciphering the ability of Agaricus bisporus var. burnettii to produce mushrooms at high temperature (25 °C).

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Navarro, Pilar; Spataro, Cathy; Ferrer, Nathalie; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-12-01

    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is cultivated almost worldwide. Its cultivation is standardized and a temperature of 16-19 °C is needed during the fruiting period. The development of A. bisporus cultivars able to fruit at higher temperature (FHT) represents a promising alternative to reduce energy costs during cultivation in hot countries as well as in temperate countries during the hot season. A. bisporus var. burnettii is able to fruit at 25 °C. Understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie such a thermo-tolerance is a prerequisite to further development of breeding strains. The foundation of the FHT ability of the var. burnettii was dissected using a combination of candidate gene approaches and genetic tools. Transcript profiling of A. bisporus var. burnettii at two developmental stages (primordium P and sporophore SP) under two fruit-producing temperature conditions (17 °C and 25 °C) were established by cDNA-AFLP. The expression patterns were more similar within the same stage at the two different temperatures rather than between stages under the same temperature. Only one transcript-derived fragment (TDF) sequence differentially expressed between temperatures was recovered but it could not be further characterized. Twenty-nine TDF sequences differentially expressed between development stages were obtained. The phenotypic assessment of an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus×A. bisporus var. burnettii progeny demonstrated the complex inheritance of the FHT trait. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the number of fruit bodies yielded at 25 °C were found on LG II and LG VI. Two functional candidate genes known to be potentially involved in A. bisporus thermo-tolerance, a heat shock protein (HSP70) gene and a gene coding for a para-aminobenzoic acid synthase (PABA), were found in the vicinity of the QTL on LG II. Several positional candidate genes have been also identified in the confidence interval of the QTL on LG VI and are

  2. Abr1, a Transposon-Like Element in the Genome of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    1999-01-01

    A 300-bp repetitive element was found in the genome of the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, and designated Abr1. It is present in ∼15 copies per haploid genome in the commercial strain Horst U1. Analysis of seven copies showed 89 to 97% sequence identity. The repeat has features typical of class II transposons (i.e., terminal inverted repeats, subterminal repeats, and a target site duplication of 7 bp). The latter shows a consensus sequence. When used as probe on Southern blots, Abr1 identifies relatively little variation within traditional and present-day commercial strains, indicating that most strains are identical or have a common origin. In contrast to these cultivars, high variation is found among field-collected strains. Furthermore, a remarkable difference in copy numbers of Abr1 was found between A. bisporus isolates with a secondarily homothallic life cycle and those with a heterothallic life cycle. Abr1 is a type II transposon not previously reported in basidiomycetes and appears to be useful for the identification of strains within the species A. bisporus. PMID:10427018

  3. Accumulation of recalcitrant xylan in mushroom-compost is due to a lack of xylan substituent removing enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitris; Xing, Lia; van Zandvoort, Marc A M J; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-11-05

    The ability of Agaricus bisporus to degrade xylan in wheat straw based compost during mushroom formation is unclear. In this paper, xylan was extracted from the compost with water, 1M and 4M alkali. Over the phases analyzed, the remaining xylan was increasingly substituted with (4-O-methyl-)glucuronic acid and arabinosyl residues, both one and two arabinosyl residues per xylosyl residue remained. In the 1M and 4M KOH soluble solids of spent compost, 33 and 49 out of 100 xylosyl residues, respectively, were substituted. The accumulation of glucuronic acid substituents matched with the analysis that the two A. bisporus genes encoding for α-glucuronidase activity (both GH115) were not expressed in the A. bisporus mycelium in the compost during fruiting. Also, in a maximum likelihood tree it was shown that it is not likely that A. bisporus possesses genes encoding for the activity to remove arabinose from xylosyl residues having two arabinosyl residues.

  4. Dose rate effect of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and browning of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, M; D'Aprano, M B; Lacroix, M

    1999-07-01

    To enhance the shelf life of edible mature mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionizing treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I(-)) and 32 kGy/h (I(+)). Both I(+) and I(-) showed a 2 and 4 day shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I(-). Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I(-) contained more phenols than I(+) and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The fluctuation of the precursors of glutaminyl-4-hydroxyaniline (GHB) was less in I(-) than in I(+). The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analyzed via catechol oxidase, dopa oxidase, and tyrosine hydroxylase substrates, were found to be significantly lowered (p = 0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I(+). Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I(+), contrasting with its lower phenols concentration. The observation of mushrooms' cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I(-) than in I(+). It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I(+) was caused by both the decompartmentation of vacuolar phenol and the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning I(+) than in I(-).

  5. NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus: biochemical and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Kersten, M A; Müller, Y; Baars, J J; Op den Camp, H J; van der Drift, C; Van Griensven, L J; Visser, J; Schaap, P J

    1999-04-01

    The NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) of Agaricus bisporus, a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism, was purified to homogeneity. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme is 474 kDa comprising four subunits of 116 kDa. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is about 7.0. Km values for ammonium, 2-oxoglutarate, NADH, glutamate and NAD+ were 6.5, 3.5, 0.06, 37.1 and 0.046 mM, respectively. The enzyme is specific for NAD(H). The gene encoding this enzyme (gdhB) was isolated from an A. bisporus H39 recombinant lambda phage library. The deduced amino acid sequence specifies a 1029-amino acid protein with a deduced molecular mass of 115,463 Da, which displays a significant degree of similarity with NAD-GDH of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. The ORF is interrupted by fifteen introns. Northern analysis combined with enzyme activity measurements suggest that NAD-GDH from A. bisporus is regulated by the nitrogen source. NAD-GDH levels in mycelium grown on glutamate were higher than NAD-GDH levels in mycelium grown on ammonium as a nitrogen source. Combined with the kinetic parameters, these results suggest a catabolic role for NAD-GDH. However, upon addition of ammonium to the culture transcription of the gene is not repressed as strongly as that of the gene encoding NADP-GDH (gdhA). To date, tetrameric NAD-GDHs with large subunits, and their corresponding genes, have only been isolated from a few species. This enzyme represents the first NAD-GDH of basidiomycete origin to be purified and is the first such enzyme from basidiomycetes whose sequence has been determined.

  6. Efficient immobilization of mushroom tyrosinase utilizing whole cells from Agaricus bisporus and its application for degradation of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Markus; Boll, Stefan; Kossuch, Jan; Bielecki, Julia; Uhl, Stefan; Kleiner, Beatrice; Wichmann, Rolf

    2014-06-15

    A simple and efficient procedure for preparation and immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme was developed utilizing whole cells from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, without the need for enzyme purification. Tyrosinase activity in the cell preparation remained constant during storage at 21 °C for at least six months. The cells were entrapped in chitosan and alginate matrix capsules and characterized with respect to their resulting tyrosinase activity. A modification of the alginate with colloidal silica enhanced the activity due to retention of both cells and tyrosinase from fractured cells, which otherwise leached from matrix capsules. The observed activity was similar to the activity that was obtained with immobilized isolated tyrosinase in the same material. Mushroom cells in water were susceptible to rapid inactivation, whereas the immobilized cells maintained 73% of their initial activity after 30 days of storage in water. Application in repeated batch experiments resulted in almost 100% conversion of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) for 11 days, under stirring conditions, and 50-60% conversion after 20 days, without stirring under continuous usage. The results represent the longest yet reported application of immobilized tyrosinase for degradation of BPA in environmental water samples.

  7. The effect of process parameters and microstructural changes on a new convenience food - quick-frozen paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-Wen; Chang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2015-03-01

    The technology of quick-freezing paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was studied and optimized. The best microwave pretreatment condition for 1 cm slices, regarding color protection, was 5.4 W/g, for 55, 55-60 and 60 s for mushrooms with 3, 4 and 5 cm diameter caps respectively. For a batch of paste (668.2-1034.6 g), the process parameters considered were oil content (46.6-63.4 g), water content (381-562.6 g) and flour content (166-334 g) with a constant additional content of 30 g starch, 9 g baking powder, 2.6 g carrageenan, 30 g salt and 3 g pepper. These parameters were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design. The optimal levels of the major paste components were 300 g flour, 432.5 g water and 50 g oil. The freezing time and sensory acceptability for paste-coated Agaricus bisporus(PCAB) under the optimized conditions were 7.49 min and 6.2 respectively. The freezing curves of PCAB were established at different temperatures and the freezing rates were calculated to find the freezing characteristics. In addition, the cell structure of PCAB, frozen at -75 °C, the lowest freezing temperature, and studied using transmission electron microscopy, was similar in quality to that of fresh Agaricus bisporus. The results suggested that Agaricus bisporus can be quick-frozen with a paste coating to produce an acceptable and nutritious convenience food.

  8. Fine-scale genetic analyses reveal unexpected spatial-temporal heterogeneity in two natural populations of the commercial mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianping; Desmerger, Christophe; Callac, Philippe

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the fine-scale genetic variation of the commercial mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, over 2 years at two sites in France. One site was a meadow fertilized with horse manure and disturbed regularly by humans; the other was a Monterey cypress forest free of human disturbance. Altogether, 50 mushrooms were collected and analysed for mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation marked by RFLPs and multilocus enzyme electrophoretic polymorphisms. Population samples from these two sites were genetically different and both sites contained high levels of genetic diversity. No identical genotypes were found at either site between the 2 years and there was little evidence for extensive vegetative clonality for this species. Contrary to expectations, very limited evidence of pseudohomothallic reproduction was found. Results from tests of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and genotypic equilibrium showed that outcrossing and recombination have played significant roles in both populations. The results demonstrated spatial-temporal genetic heterogeneity of A. bisporus in natural populations.

  9. Effect of ultrasound combined with malic acid on the activity and conformation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Junping; Zhong, Junzhen; Chen, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) plays an important role in the browning of vegetables, fruits and edible fungi. The effects of ultrasound, malic acid, and their combination on the activity and conformation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) PPO were studied. The activity of PPO decreased gradually with the increasing of malic acid concentrations (5-60mM). Neither medium concentrations (10, 20, 30mM) malic acid nor individual ultrasound (25kHz, 55.48W/cm(2)) treatment could remarkably inactivate PPO. However, the inactivation during their combination was more significant than the sum of ultrasound inactivation and malic acid inactivation. The inactivation kinetics of PPO followed a first-order kinetics under the combination of ultrasound and malic acid. The conformation of combination treated PPO was changed, which was reflected in the decrease of α-helix, increase of β-sheet contents and disruption of the tertiary structure. Results of molecular microstructure showed that ultrasound broke large molecular groups of PPO into small ones. Moreover, combined treatment disrupted the microstructure of PPO and molecules were connected together.

  10. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies.

  11. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 – 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost. PMID:24031271

  12. Agaricus bisporus and related Agaricus species on lignocellulose: production of manganese peroxidase and multicopper oxidases.

    PubMed

    Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkelä, Miia R; Lankinen, Pauliina; Lundell, Taina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnological, microbiological, and genetic studies of Agaricus species other than A. bisporus, the white button mushroom, have been limited so far. To expand the knowledge in the genus Agaricus, six novel wild-type isolates of Agaricus spp. were studied on their nutritional demands for enzyme production and mycelial growth. All the selected Agaricus species produced extracellular manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activities in semi-solid rye bran cultures. Moderate MnP activities were measured for A. bisporus, A. bernardii and A. campestris. The highest laccase activities were obtained for A. bisporus and A. campestris. On soy medium, the highest mycelial tyrosinase activity was determined for A. bernardii. For A. bisporus, addition of copper caused no increase in laccase or tyrosinase activities on soy or malt extract media. Hyphal growth rate of the isolates was studied on lignocellulose amended agar plates. Fastest growth was obtained for A. bisporus on wheat bran and birch leaf litter agar. Except for A. bernardii, hyphal growth rates correlated well with MnP and laccase production levels between Agaricus species. Molecular taxonomy of the novel Agaricus spp. positioned them to distinct phylogenetic clusters with species-level identity. In conclusion, our data point to the importance of both MnP and multicopper enzymes in Agaricus spp. while growing on lignocelluloses.

  13. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (<0.3%). SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp) proved the best application method to remove PAH, mainly BaP, and detoxify the multi-polluted soil.

  14. Safety assessment of the post-harvest treatment of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Simon, R R; Borzelleca, J F; DeLuca, H F; Weaver, C M

    2013-06-01

    Wild mushrooms are an excellent source of vitamin D. The presence of vitamin D in mushrooms is attributed to sunlight exposure, which catalyzes the conversion of fungal ergosterol to vitamin D2 via a series of photochemical/thermal reactions. Mushroom growers now incorporate UV light treatments during processing to produce mushrooms with levels of vitamin D that compare to those in wild mushrooms. Presented herein is a comprehensive review of information relevant to the safety of introducing vitamin D mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, to the food supply. Historical reference to the use of UV light for production of vitamin D is discussed, and studies evaluating the nutritional value and safety of vitamin D mushrooms are reviewed. Traditional safety evaluation practices for food additives are not applicable to whole foods; therefore, the application of substantial equivalence and history-of-safe-use is presented. It was demonstrated that vitamin D in mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, are equivalent to vitamin D in mushrooms exposed to sunlight, and that UV light has a long-history of safe use for production of vitamin D in food. Vitamin D mushrooms produced using UV light technologies were therefore considered safe and suitable for introduction to the marketplace.

  15. Effects of UV-C treatment and cold storage on ergosterol and vitamin D2 contents in different parts of white and brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Ruixiang; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting; Lei, Jing; Wang, Zhidong

    2016-11-01

    Effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0kJ/m(2)) and cold storage on ergosterol and vitamin D2 content in different parts of white and brown button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated. UV-C treatment did not significantly affect ergosterol content in the caps and stems of the two mushrooms, but ergosterol content increased significantly during 14days cold storage. Vitamin D2 content in the caps and stems of two mushrooms significantly increased as UV-C dose increased, and 2.0kJ/m(2) UV-C showed the best result. During cold storage, vitamin D2 content in the caps of the two mushrooms decreased from day 1 to day 7, and then kept stable until day 14, but vitamin D2 content in the stems of brown mushrooms kept increasing for the whole 14days period. UV-C could increase vitamin D2 contents in both caps and stems of white and brown mushrooms without significantly affecting ergosterol content.

  16. Agaricus bisporus genome sequence: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Richard W; Challen, Michael P; Burton, Kerry S

    2013-06-01

    The genomes of two isolates of Agaricus bisporus have been sequenced recently. This soil-inhabiting fungus has a wide geographical distribution in nature and it is also cultivated in an industrialized indoor process ($4.7bn annual worldwide value) to produce edible mushrooms. Previously this lignocellulosic fungus has resisted precise econutritional classification, i.e. into white- or brown-rot decomposers. The generation of the genome sequence and transcriptomic analyses has revealed a new classification, 'humicolous', for species adapted to grow in humic-rich, partially decomposed leaf material. The Agaricus biporus genomes contain a collection of polysaccharide and lignin-degrading genes and more interestingly an expanded number of genes (relative to other lignocellulosic fungi) that enhance degradation of lignin derivatives, i.e. heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases. A motif that is hypothesized to be a promoter element in the humicolous adaptation suite is present in a large number of genes specifically up-regulated when the mycelium is grown on humic-rich substrate. The genome sequence of A. bisporus offers a platform to explore fungal biology in carbon-rich soil environments and terrestrial cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

  17. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Ji; Chen, Hai-Yan; Fan, Lin-Lin; Jiao, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Qi-He; Jiao, Ying-Chun

    2015-09-25

    With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg) prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p < 0.05). With such excellent activities, we purified the polysaccharide and analyzed its molecular weight (120 kDa) as well as monosaccharide components (glucose, fructose and mannose). This study indicated that wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses.

  18. First Preliminary Report on Isolation and Characterization of Novel Acinetobacter spp. in Casing Soil Used for Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, D K

    2011-01-01

    Despite evaluation of large number of agroindustrial wastes for their use as casing material for Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach cultivation, scant attention has been given to the importance of biological properties of casing materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the bacterial flora in casing layer, namely, Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Spent Mushroom Substrate/spent compost (SMS/SC) (FYM+SC, 3 : 1) and FYM and Vermi Compost (VC) (FYM+VC, 3 : 1), employing partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Available data showed a significant variety of organisms that included Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas of the γ-proteobacteria, that were the most frequently encountered genera. This is the first preliminary report on the microbial diversity of casing soils and demonstrates the presence of Acinetobacter spp. that has not been previously described in casing material.

  19. First Preliminary Report on Isolation and Characterization of Novel Acinetobacter spp. in Casing Soil Used for Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Despite evaluation of large number of agroindustrial wastes for their use as casing material for Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach cultivation, scant attention has been given to the importance of biological properties of casing materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the bacterial flora in casing layer, namely, Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Spent Mushroom Substrate/spent compost (SMS/SC) (FYM+SC, 3 : 1) and FYM and Vermi Compost (VC) (FYM+VC, 3 : 1), employing partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Available data showed a significant variety of organisms that included Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas of the γ-proteobacteria, that were the most frequently encountered genera. This is the first preliminary report on the microbial diversity of casing soils and demonstrates the presence of Acinetobacter spp. that has not been previously described in casing material. PMID:22007222

  20. Direct immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme from natural mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on D-sorbitol cinnamic ester.

    PubMed

    Marín-Zamora, María Elisa; Rojas-Melgarejo, Francisco; García-Cánovas, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Pedro Antonio

    2006-11-10

    Mushroom tyrosinase was immobilized from an extract onto the totally cinnamoylated derivative of D-sorbitol by direct adsorption as a result of the intense hydrophobic interactions that took place. The immobilization pH value and mass of lyophilized mushrooms were important parameters that affected the immobilization efficiency, while the immobilization time and immobilization support concentration were not important in this respect. The extracted/immobilized enzyme could best be measured above pH 3.5 and the optimum measuring temperature was 55 degrees C. The apparent Michaelis constant using 4-tert-butylcatechol as substrate was 0.38+/-0.02 mM, which was lower than for the soluble enzyme from Sigma (1.41+/-0.20 mM). Immobilization stabilized the extracted enzyme against thermal inactivation and made it less susceptible to activity loss during storage. The operational stability was higher than in the case of the tyrosinase supplied by Sigma and immobilized on the same support. The results show that the use of p-nitrophenol as enzyme-inhibiting substrate during enzyme extraction and immobilization made the use of ascorbic acid unnecessary and is a suitable method for extracting and immobilizing the tyrosinase enzyme, providing good enzymatic activity and stability.

  1. Development of algorithms for detection of mechanical injury on white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, A. A.; O'Donnell, C. P.

    2009-05-01

    White mushrooms were subjected to mechanical injury by controlled shaking in a plastic box at 400 rpm for different times (0, 60, 120, 300 and 600 s). Immediately after shaking, hyperspectral images were obtained using two pushbroom line-scanning hyperspectral imaging instruments, one operating in the wavelength range of 400 - 1000 nm with spectroscopic resolution of 5 nm, the other operating in the wavelength range of 950 - 1700 nm with spectroscopic resolution of 7 nm. Different spectral and spatial pretreatments were investigated to reduce the effect of sample curvature on hyperspectral data. Algorithms based on Chemometric techniques (Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) and image processing methods (masking, thresholding, morphological operations) were developed for pixel classification in hyperspectral images. In addition, correlation analysis, spectral angle mapping and scaled difference of sample spectra were investigated and compared with the chemometric approaches.

  2. Aggregation and conformational change of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase subjected to thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Wei; Zou, Liqiang; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Hu, Xiuting; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the activity, conformation and microstructure of mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO) subjected to thermal treatment. The inactivation of PPO can be achieved by high temperature-short time or mild temperature-long time treatment. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra suggested that heating process induced the rearrangement of secondary structure and the disruption of tertiary structure. Red shifts of fluorescence spectra showed positive correlations with the inactivation rate of PPO. There were significant differences in the conformation and molecular microstructure among PPO samples with the same relative activity, which were obtained by treating PPO at 45, 55 and 65°C for different times. In summary, PPO molecules were deformed at mild temperature, while higher temperature induced the formation of large aggregates. PPO with the same relative activity might exist in different forms.

  3. Development and growth of fruit bodies and crops of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Straatsma, Gerben; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2013-10-01

    We studied the appearance of fruit body primordia, the growth of individual fruit bodies and the development of the consecutive flushes of the crop. Relative growth, measured as cap expansion, was not constant. It started extremely rapidly, and slowed down to an exponential rate with diameter doubling of 1.7 d until fruit bodies showed maturation by veil breaking. Initially many outgrowing primordia were arrested, indicating nutritional competition. After reaching 10 mm diameter, no growth arrest occurred; all growing individuals, whether relatively large or small, showed an exponential increase of both cap diameter and biomass, until veil breaking. Biomass doubled in 0.8 d. Exponential growth indicates the absence of competition. Apparently there exist differential nutritional requirements for early growth and for later, continuing growth. Flushing was studied applying different picking sizes. An ordinary flushing pattern occurred at an immature picking size of 8 mm diameter (picking mushrooms once a day with a diameter above 8 mm). The smallest picking size yielded the highest number of mushrooms picked, confirming the competition and arrested growth of outgrowing primordia: competition seems less if outgrowing primordia are removed early. The flush duration (i.e. between the first and last picking moments) was not affected by picking size. At small picking size, the subsequent flushes were not fully separated in time but overlapped. Within 2 d after picking the first individuals of the first flush, primordia for the second flush started outgrowth. Our work supports the view that the acquisition of nutrients by the mycelium is demand rather than supply driven. For formation and early outgrowth of primordia, indications were found for an alternation of local and global control, at least in the casing layer. All these data combined, we postulate that flushing is the consequence of the depletion of some unknown specific nutrition required by outgrowing

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian; Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich; Rompel, Annette

    2014-02-01

    Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24] · 22H2O as a co-crystallization agent.

  5. Impact on Vitamin D2, Vitamin D4 and Agaritine in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms after Artificial and Natural Solar UV Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Urbain, Paul; Valverde, Juan; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-09-01

    Commercial mushroom production can expose mushrooms post-harvest to UV light for purposes of vitamin D2 enrichment by converting the naturally occurring provitamin D2 (ergosterol). The objectives of the present study were to artificially simulate solar UV-B doses occurring naturally in Central Europe and to investigate vitamin D2 and vitamin D4 production in sliced Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms) and to analyse and compare the agaritine content of naturally and artificially UV-irradiated mushrooms. Agaritine was measured for safety aspects even though there is no rationale for a link between UV light exposure and agaritine content. The artificial UV-B dose of 0.53 J/cm(2) raised the vitamin D2 content to significantly (P < 0.001) higher levels of 67.1 ± 9.9 μg/g dry weight (DW) than sun exposure (3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry DW). We observed a positive correlation between vitamin D4 and vitamin D2 production (r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.001) after artificial UV irradiation, with vitamin D4 levels ranging from 0 to 20.9 μg/g DW. The agaritine content varied widely but remained within normal ranges in all samples. Irrespective of the irradiation source, agaritine dropped dramatically in conjunction with all UV-B doses both artificial and natural solar, probably due to its known instability. The biological action of vitamin D from UV-exposed mushrooms reflects the activity of these two major vitamin D analogues (D2, D4). Vitamin D4 should be analysed and agaritine disregarded in future studies of UV-exposed mushrooms.

  6. Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Yield-Related Components and Oligogenic Control of the Cap Color of the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Anne; Rousseau, Thierry; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    As in other crops, yield is an important trait to be selected for in edible mushrooms, but its inheritance is poorly understood. Therefore, we have investigated the complex genetic architecture of yield-related traits in Agaricus bisporus through the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), using second-generation hybrid progeny derived from a cross between a wild strain and a commercial cultivar. Yield, average weight per mushroom, number of fruiting bodies per m2, earliness, and cap color were evaluated in two independent experiments. A total of 23 QTL were detected for 7 yield-related traits. These QTL together explained between 21% (two-flushes yield) and 59% (earliness) of the phenotypic variation. Fifteen QTL (65%) were consistent between the two experiments. Four regions underlying significant QTL controlling yield, average weight, and number were detected on linkage groups II, III, IV, and X, suggesting a pleiotropic effect or tight linkage. Up to six QTL were identified for earliness. The PPC1 locus, together with two additional genomic regions, explained up to 90% of the phenotypic variation of the cap color. Alleles from the wild parent showed beneficial effects for some yield traits, suggesting that the wild germ plasm is a valuable source of variation for several agronomic traits. Our results constitute a key step toward marker-assisted selection and provide a solid foundation to go further into the biological mechanisms controlling productive traits in the button mushroom. PMID:22267676

  7. Production of a protease inhibitor from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus and its statistical optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Vishvakarma, Reena; Mishra, Abha

    2017-01-31

    The production of a protease inhibitor from Agaricus bisporus through solid state fermentation was studied. The purpose was to produce protease inhibitor from natural, cheap and readily available carbon and nitrogen sources. Solid state fermentation enhanced the mycelia growth and also gave a higher yield of the product. Further, fungal growth and other production parameters were statistically optimized. The specificity of the inhibitor was tested and was effective against trypsin. Screening of significant factors (wheat bran, cyanobacterial biomass, initial pH, temperature, incubation period, and moisture content and inoculum size) was done using Plackett-Burman Design. Central Composite Design was used to determine the optimized values of the significant variables which were found to be temperature (27.5 °C), incubation time (156 hrs.), cyanobacterial biomass (1 g) and moisture content (50%) and gave a statistical yield of 980 PIU/g which was 25.6% higher than experimental yield (780 PIU/g). The inhibitor was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE cellulose chromatography (yield 43.89% and 0.21% respectively) and subjected to Reversed-phase HPLC to validate its identity. Since protease inhibitors act against proteases, finding ample therapeutic roles; the isolated protease inhibitor from A. bisporus can also be a probable medicinal agent after its further characterization.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase

    SciTech Connect

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian; Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich; Rompel, Annette

    2014-01-23

    Polyphenol oxidase 4 (PPO4) from the natural source A. bisporus was crystallized in its latent precursor form (pro-tyrosinase; Ser2–Thr565) using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a crystallization additive. Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a co-crystallization agent.

  9. Vitamin D mushrooms: comparison of the composition of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) treated postharvest with UVB light or sunlight.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ryan R; Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Munro, Ian C

    2011-08-24

    This study compared the compositional changes in mushrooms exposed to sunlight with those occurring after commercial ultraviolet (UV) light processing. Button mushrooms (75 kg) were processed in the presence or absence of UVB light; a third group was exposed to direct sunlight. Mushroom composition was evaluated using chemical analyses. Vitamin D concentrations were 5, 410, and 374 μg/100 g (dw) in control, UVB, and sunlight groups, respectively. On a dry weight basis, no significant changes in vitamin C, folate, vitamins B(6), vitamin B(5), riboflavin, niacin, amino acids, fatty acids, ergosterol, or agaritine were observed following UVB processing. Sunlight exposure resulted in a 26% loss of riboflavin, evidence of folate oxidation, and unexplained increases in ergosterol (9.5%). It was concluded that compositional effects of UVB light are limited to changes in vitamin D and show no detrimental changes relative to natural sunlight exposure and, therefore, provide important information relevant to the suitability and safety of UVB light technology for vitamin D enhanced mushrooms.

  10. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple time-of-flight with MS(E) technology used for qualitative analysis of non-volatile oxidation markers in sliced packed mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus).

    PubMed

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-02-05

    61 different non-volatile compounds were determined in Agaricus Bisporus sliced mushrooms using UHPLC/Q-TOF with MS(E) technology. Both positive and negative electrospray ionization were applied. Chemical profile of three parts of mushroom was created: cap, gills and stipe. The analysed mushrooms were oxidized to identify the non-volatile markers in their parts. MarkerLynx(®) was proposed as a powerful tool to distinguish mushrooms purchased in different countries (Spain and Portugal) by determining their non-volatile markers. Some metabolites were identified. Surprisingly a mix of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) was detected in cap and gills of mushrooms. Whole mushrooms were considered as vegetable resistant to migration from packaging compounds. Additionally migration tests were performed to determine the source of migrating compounds.

  11. Suppression of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes and their Encoding Genes in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) by CaCl2 and Citric Acid.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zia Ullah; Jiayin, Li; Khan, Nasir Mehmood; Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Yansheng; Feng, Simin; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2017-03-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were harvested and treated with a solution of 1.5% CaCl2 + 0.5% citric acid and stored for 16 days at 12 °C. The effects of this treatment on firmness, weight, color, cell wall compositions (cellulose and chitin) and cell wall degrading enzymes (cel1ulase, beta-1, 3 glucanase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonialyase) were investigated during post-harvest storage. The expressions of major genes (Cel1, Glu1, Chi1 and PAL1) involved in cell wall degradation during post-harvest storage were also monitored. The results revealed that the post-harvest chemical treatment maintained better firmness, weight, color and inhibited cellulase, beta-1, 3 glucanase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonialyase activities. These findings showed that the down-regulation of cell wall degrading enzymes is a possible mechanism that delays the softening of button mushrooms by the application of combined chemical treatment.

  12. Microbial biomass in compost during colonization of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Vos, Aurin M; Heijboer, Amber; Boschker, Henricus T S; Bonnet, Barbara; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2017-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol N-acetylglucosamine g(-1) compost in the absence of A. bisporus (negative control). A similar increase was found in the presence of this mushroom forming fungus. The fungal phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) marker C18:2ω6, indicative of the living fraction of the fungal biomass, decreased from 575 to 280 nmol g(-1) compost in the negative control. In contrast, it increased to 1200 nmol g(-1) compost in the presence of A. bisporus. Laccase activity was absent throughout culturing in the negative control, while it correlated with the fungal PLFA marker in the presence of A. bisporus. PLFA was also used to quantify living bacterial biomass. In the negative control, the bacterial markers remained constant at 3000-3200 nmol PLFA g(-1) compost. In contrast, they decreased to 850 nmol g(-1) compost during vegetative growth of A. bisporus, implying that bacterial biomass decreased from 17.7 to 4.7 mg g(-1) compost. The relative amount of the Gram positive associated PLFA markers a15:0 and a17:0 and the Gram negative PLFA associated markers cy17:0 and cy19:0 increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting that Gram negative bacteria are more suppressed by A. bisporus. Together, these data indicate that fungal biomass can make up 6.8% of the compost after A. bisporus colonization, 57% of which being dead. Moreover, results show that A. bisporus impacts biomass and composition of bacteria in compost.

  13. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction, Purification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Zhou, Xinghai

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABP) were extracted by complex enzyme-assisted extraction methodology. The following were optimal conditions for the extraction of crude ABP: complex enzyme amount, 2.2%; temperature, 62°C; time, 3 h; and pH, 4. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude ABP was 6.87%. The crude ABP was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one fraction-namely, ABP-1-was produced. The ABP-1 contained 93.67% carbohydrate, 1.46% protein, and 0.62% uronic acid. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. The antioxidant activities of ABP-1 were investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, its ferric-reducing activity power, and the reducing power assay. At a concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, ABP-1 seemed to possess good free radical scavenging activity, with a scavenging value of about 56%. The results indicate that ABP-1 has good antioxidant activity.

  14. Cloning, expression, and characterization of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase from Agaricus bisporus 02, a thermotolerant mushroom strain.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li-Xin; Shen, Yue-Mao; Song, Si-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The pabS gene of Agaricus bisporus 02 encoding a putative PABA synthase was cloned, and then the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 under the control of the T7 promoter. The enzyme with an N-terminal GST tag or His tag, designated GST-AbADCS or His-AbADCS, was purified with glutathione Sepharose 4B or Ni Sepharose 6 Fast Flow. The enzyme was an aminodeoxychorismate synthase, and it was necessary to add with an aminodeoxychorismate lyase for synthesizing PABA. AbADCS has maximum activity at a temperature of approximately 25°C and pH 8.0. Magnesium or manganese ions were necessary for the enzymatic activity. The Michaelis-Menten constant for chorismate was 0.12 mM, and 2.55 mM for glutamine. H2O2 did distinct damage on the activity of the enzyme, which could be slightly recovered by Hsp20. Sulfydryl reagents could remarkably promote its activity, suggesting that cysteine residues are essential for catalytic function.

  15. Analysis of Inbreeding Depression in Agaricus Bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J.

    1995-01-01

    Inbreeding depression was observed in the commercial button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, by examining two laboratory populations. The outbred population consisted of 20 compatible pairings, 10 homokaryons with each of the homokaryons Ag1-1 and Ag89-65. The inbred population consisted of 104 backcrosses (among which 52 were expected to be sexually compatible) obtained from the pairings of two progenitor homokaryons, Ag1-1 and Ag89-65, with 52 progeny homokaryons derived from the mating between Ag1-1 and Ag89-65. The eight fitness components examined for these two populations were successful matings as identified by the analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, positive mycelial interaction in these successful matings, heterokaryon growth rate, primordium formation by the successful matings, fertile fruiting body formation, time to first break, average number of fruiting bodies per square foot, and average weight per fruiting body. The outcrossed population showed a significant advantage over the inbred population in three of eight fitness components. Two pairs of traits were significantly correlated. The multiplicative fitness ratio of the inbred to the outcrossed population was 0.18. The relevance of inbreeding depression to the evolution of fungal mating systems and to mushroom breeding is discussed. PMID:8536962

  16. [Formation of flavor of dry champignons (Agaricus bisporus)].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Medvedeva, I B

    2010-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds of dry champignons (Agaricus bisporus L.) were identified using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 56 compounds were identified. It was found that the flavor of dry mushrooms was formed by the volatile compounds produced as a result of enzymatic and oxidative conversion of unsaturated fatty acids as well as in the Maillard reaction. Unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight carbon atoms determined the mushroom note of the product. The specific aroma of dry mushrooms was determined by a complex composition of substituted sulfur-, oxygen-, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds as well as by aliphatic carbonyl compounds and methional. It was found that the concentrations of volatile carbonylic and heterocyclic compounds increased after the addition of a mixture of amino acids to mushrooms before drying. As a result, the intensity of the aroma of dry mushrooms increased.

  17. Absence of induced resistance in Agaricus bisporus against Lecanicillium fungicola.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Roeland L; Schrier, Niek; Kalkhove, Stefanie I C; Lugones, Luis G; Baars, Johan J P; Zijlstra, Carolien; de Weerdt, Marjanne; Wösten, Han A B; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2013-03-01

    Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease and is an important problem in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. Little is known about the defense of mushrooms against pathogens in general and L. fungicola in particular. In plants and animals, a first attack by a pathogen often induces a systemic response that results in an acquired resistance to subsequent attacks by the same pathogen. The development of functionally similar responses in these two eukaryotic kingdoms indicates that they are important to all multi-cellular organisms. We investigated if such responses also occur in the interaction between the white button mushroom and L. fungicola. A first infection of mushrooms of the commercial A. bisporus strain Sylvan A15 by L. fungicola did not induce systemic resistance against a subsequent infection. Similar results were obtained with the A. bisporus strain MES01497, which was demonstrated to be more resistant to dry bubble disease. Apparently, fruiting bodies of A. bisporus do not express induced resistance against L. fungicola.

  18. Enhancement of antioxidant properties and increase of content of vitamin D2 and non-volatile components in fresh button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (higher Basidiomycetes) by γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shu-Yao; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Huang, Shih-Jeng

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a popular culinary-medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, and γ-irradiation could extend its shelf life. Our objective was to study the content of vitamin D2 and the taste components and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts from A. bisporus with various doses of γ-irradiation. After irradiation, the vitamin D2 content of 5-10 kGy irradiated mushrooms was in the range of 5.22-7.90 µg/g, higher than that of the unirradiated control (2.24 µg/g). For all treatments, the total content of soluble sugars and polyols ranged from 113 to 142 mg/g, and the monosodium glutamate-like components ranged from 6.57 to 13.50 mg/g, among which the 2.5 kGy irradiated sample has the highest content of flavor 5'-nucleotide. About antioxidant properties, 10 kGy irradiated samples exhibited lower EC50 values than did other samples. EC50 values were less than 5 mg/mL for ethanolic extracts. Total phenols were the major antioxidant components and the total content was 13.24-22.78 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Based on the results obtained, γ-irradiation could be used to improve the vitamin D2 content and intensity of umami taste in fresh mushrooms. In addition, γ-irradiation not only maintained the antioxidant properties of mushrooms but also enhanced the antioxidant properties to some extent.

  19. Brown mushroom symptom expression following infection of an Agaricus bisporus crop with MVX associated dsRNAs.

    PubMed

    Fleming-Archibald, Caoimhe; Ruggiero, Angela; Grogan, Helen M

    2015-12-01

    Mushroom Virus X (MVX) is associated with a range of symptoms observed in mushroom crops. The most prominent symptom in Ireland is the occurrence of 'brown' or 'off-white' mushrooms in white strain crops. The browning symptoms are associated with the presence of four low molecular weight dsRNAs: MVX(0.6), MVX(0.8), MVX(1.8) and MVX(2.0), however viral dsRNAs also occur in non-symptomatic mushrooms. Three virus-infected mushroom cultures containing MVX(1.8) and MVX(2.0) were used to infect experimental crops at different rates and at different times in the crop cycle to test the effect on symptom expression. Mushroom colour was measured by chromometer, and the ΔE value calculated. RT-PCR was used to test for the presence of MVX(1.8) dsRNA in harvested mushrooms. Results indicate that following infection, browning symptom expression is variable both within and between crops. Control mushrooms from 1st and 2nd flush had ΔE values of 7-12, with most being <10. In contrast, 1st flush mushrooms from virus infected treatments had ΔE values of 6-25, with most being >10 while 2nd flush mushrooms had ΔE values similar to controls. Only mushrooms with ΔE > 15 appeared visibly brown or off colour. The transient and inconsistent nature of MVX-associated browning symptoms is discussed.

  20. Mitochondrial Haplotype Influences Mycelial Growth of Agaricus bisporus Heterokaryons

    PubMed Central

    De La Bastide, P. Y.; Sonnenberg, A.; Van Griensven, L.; Anderson, J. B.; Horgen, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of mitochondrial haplotype on growth of the common button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Ten pairs of heterokaryon strains, each pair having the same nuclear genome but different mitochondrial genomes, were produced by controlled crosses among a group of homokaryons of both wild and commercial origins. Seven genetically distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were evaluated in different nuclear backgrounds. The growth of heterokaryon pairs differing only in their mtDNA haplotypes was compared by measuring mycelial radial growth rate on solid complete yeast medium (CYM) and compost extract medium and by measuring mycelial dry weight accumulation in liquid CYM. All A. bisporus strains were incubated at temperatures similar to those utilized in commercial production facilities (18, 22, and 26(deg)C). Statistically significant differences were detected in 8 of the 10 heterokaryon pairs evaluated for one or two of the three growth parameters measured. Some heterokaryon pairs showed differences in a single growth parameter at all three temperatures of incubation, suggesting a temperature-independent difference. Others showed differences at only a single temperature, suggesting a temperature-dependent difference. The influence of some mtDNA haplotypes on growth was dependent on the nuclear genetic background. Our results show that mtDNA haplotype can influence growth of A. bisporus heterokaryons in some nuclear backgrounds. These observations demonstrate the importance of including a number of mitochondrial genotypes and evaluating different nuclear-mitochondrial combinations of A. bisporus in strain improvement programs. PMID:16535683

  1. Production of recombinant Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Lezzi, Chiara; Bleve, Gianluca; Spagnolo, Stefano; Perrotta, Carla; Grieco, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase is able to oxidize various phenolic compounds, thus being an enzyme of great importance for a number of biotechnological applications. The tyrosinase-coding PPO2 gene was isolated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using total RNA extracted from the mushroom fruit bodies as template. The gene was sequenced and cloned into pYES2 plasmid, and the resulting pY-PPO2 recombinant vector was then used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by enzymatic activity staining with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) indicated that the recombinant tyrosinase is biologically active. The recombinant enzyme was overexpressed and biochemically characterized, showing that the catalytic constants of the recombinant tyrosinase were higher than those obtained when a commercial tyrosinase was used, for all the tested substrates. The present study describes the recombinant production of A. bisporus tyrosinase in active form. The produced enzyme has similar properties to the one produced in the native A. bisporus host, and its expression in S. cerevisiae provides good potential for protein engineering and functional studies of this important enzyme.

  2. Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, Carlos; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Pesciaroli, Lorena; Yunta, Felipe; Crognale, Silvia; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    Different applications of spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS), a widespread agro-industrial waste, were investigated with respect to the remediation of a historically polluted soil with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). In one treatment, the waste was sterilized (SSAS) prior to its application in order to assess its ability to biostimulate, as an organic amendment, the resident soil microbiota and ensuing contaminant degradation. For the other treatments, two bioaugmentation approaches were investigated; the first involved the use of the waste itself and thus implied the application of A. bisporus and the inherent microbiota of the waste. In the second treatment, SAS was sterilized and inoculated again with the fungus to assess its ability to act as a fungal carrier. All these treatments were compared with natural attenuation in terms of their impact on soil heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacteria, fungal growth, biodiversity of soil microbiota and ability to affect PAH bioavailability and ensuing degradation and detoxification. Results clearly showed that historically PAH contaminated soil was not amenable to natural attenuation. Conversely, the addition of sterilized spent A. bisporus substrate to the soil stimulated resident soil bacteria with ensuing high removals of 3-ring PAH. Both augmentation treatments were more effective in removing highly condensed PAH, some of which known to possess a significant carcinogenic activity. Regardless of the mode of application, the present results strongly support the adequacy of SAS for environmental remediation purposes and open the way to an attractive recycling option of this waste.

  3. Physiologic response of Agaricus subrufescens using different casing materials and practices applied in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Zied, Diego Cunha; Rinker, Danny Lee

    2013-01-01

    Casing materials and practices used in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus were evaluated in the cultivation of Agaricus subrufescens, using the best techniques for optimization of production, including the possibility of re-casing of the compost for the production of a second crop of mushroom. Casing based on peat moss, loam soil or coir was compared to casing material mixed with or without spawn-run compost. Based on the results, we conclude that the casing layer used in the cultivation of A. subrufescens should not necessarily be the same as that used in the cultivation of A. bisporus. For the tested strain cultivated with loam soil as casing layer, the ruffling technique is highly superior to CACing and should be pursued in further research. The re-casing of compost in new cycles showed good results suggesting that the currently used compost could be improved.

  4. Chemical and ultrastructural studies of lignocellulose biodegradation during Agaricus bisporus cultivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Hexiang; Liu, Qinghong; Ng, TziBun

    2014-01-01

    During Agaricus bisporus cultivation, lignocellulose degradation is the result of the activity of both the mushroom and microbial communities developed during the composting. To investigate the lignocellulose degradation in detail from the beginning to the end of the process, the functional groups of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin have been studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the morphological changes of lignocelluloses were elucidated with scanning electron microscopy. The aperture of lignin and cellulose increased to enable the mycelia of A. bisporus to penetrate into the medium and to degrade lignocelluloses in a more direct way. The chemical structure changes implied a preferential use of lignin that could make for better use of cellulose to boost growth of A. bisporus. Changes in chemical structure together with ultrastructural changes induced by the microbial flora during cultivation substrate production by the composting substrate are important in promoting the utilization of lignocelluloses by A. bisporus.

  5. Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom protects against increase in gut permeability ex vivo and up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 and 2 in hyperthermally-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Tebo; Dunshea, Frank Rowland; Howell, Kate; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Rivera, Leni Rose; Furness, John Barton; Ng, Ken

    2014-06-24

    Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p < 0.05) ileum Isc and Ge during heat stress to 1.74 and 1.91 fold, respectively, indicating protection from heat stress-induced mucosal permeability increase. The expression of ileum glutathione peroxidase (GPx-) 1 and 2 mRNAs were up-regulated (p < 0.05) by 1.90 and 1.87-fold, respectively, for non-heat stress rats on the Se-enriched diet relative to the control. The interplay between heat stress and dietary Se is complex. For rats on the control diet, heat stress alone increased ileum expression of GPx-1 (2.33-fold) and GPx-2 (2.23-fold) relative to thermoneutral conditions. For rats on the Se-enriched diet, heat stress increased (p < 0.05) GPx-1 expression only. Rats on Se-enriched + α-tocopherol diet exhibited increased expression of both genes (p < 0.05). Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress.

  6. Effects of polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus on alcoholic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Canbek, Mediha; van Griensven, Leo J L D; Yamac, Mustafa; Senturk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazım; Oglakcı, Aysegul; Turgak, Ozge; Kanbak, Gungor

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the curative effects of crude polysaccharides (PSs) from mushrooms on the symptoms of alcoholic liver injury were investigated. PSs from Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus fruiting bodies were administered by gavage at levels of 100 mg per kg body weight per day for 7 d after the onset of the disease. The caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity of the liver tissues of sacrificed rats, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were determined. In addition, light and transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies were performed for histopathological and cytological evaluations on liver sections. PSs from A. brasiliensis decreased ALT level and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the outer membrane integrity; microscopic examinations also revealed normal hepatocytes and tissue. On the basis of our data, it can be argued that crude PSs from Agaricus brasiliensis have therapeutic potential for alcoholic liver injury.

  7. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmation of the sensory scent features of the most commonly consumed Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus subrufescens exhibiting anticancerous traits.

    PubMed

    Győrfi, Júlia; Geösel, András; Kiss, Mária; Nemes, Katalin; Csóka, Mariann; Korány, Kornél

    2013-02-01

    In Hungary, fairly little is known about Agaricus subrufescens Peck (formerly called Agaricus blazei Murrill), which is cultivated on an industrial scale in the Far East. Nevertheless, this mushroom species exerts a curative influence and might become a new pillar of cancer research and antitumorous therapy. The present study gives a detailed discussion on the compositional differences of the scent components of A. subrufescens and its close relative Agaricus bisporus based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements, subsequent to Likens-Nickerson simultaneous distillation-extraction.

  8. Determination of Zinc(II) Ions Released into Artificial Digestive Juices from Culinary-Medicinal Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetidae), Biomass of In Vitro Cultures Using an Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Method.

    PubMed

    Kala, Katarzyna; Muszynska, Bozena; Zajac, Magdalena; Krezalek, Remigiusz; Opoka, Wlodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is one of those microelements that are essential for the proper functioning of the human body and must be supplemented in our food at a daily dose of 15 mg. It is well known that mushrooms accumulate elements; thus, in order to determine the extent of accumulation and the level of zinc released from mushrooms, in vitro cultures of Agaricus bisporus were established. The cultures were run on a modified Oddoux medium (a control culture) as well as on the same medium with the addition of zinc hydroaspartate (100 and 200 mg/L) and zinc sulfate (87.23 and 174.47 mg/L). These compounds were chosen to help estimate which form, organic or inorganic, results in a better assimilation of zinc(II) ions by biomass. As the next step, the level of zinc(II) ions released from the lyophilized biomass of in vitro cultures to the digestive juices, under thermal conditions of the human body (37°C), was determined. For this purpose, artificial digestive juices, imitating the composition of human digestive juices, were used. For determination of zinc(II) ions in the digestive tract, an anodic stripping voltammetry method was employed. The amount of zinc released into artificial saliva over 1 minute varied from 0.15 mg/100 g d.w. in the control culture to 2.35 mg/100 g d.w. in the biomass in the medium to which 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate had been added. Values were higher in gastric juice and depended on incubation time (2.66 to 30.63 mg/100 g d.w.). In intestinal juice, the highest value of the released zinc grew to 24.20 mg/100 g d.w. (biomass of A. bisporus in vitro cultures in medium with the addition of 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate). Total average amount of zinc released into artificial digestive juices was the highest (56.26 mg/100 g d.w.) from A. bisporus biomass of in vitro cultures in the medium to which 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate had been added.

  9. Developments in breeding of Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus: progress made and technical and legal hurdles to take.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Baars, Johan J P; Gao, Wei; Visser, Richard G F

    2017-03-01

    True breeding of button mushrooms has hardly been done in the last decades, despite this species being one of the most cultivated mushrooms worldwide. Research done in the last 20 years has identified and characterised new germplasm and improved our understanding of the genetic base for some traits. A substantial collection of wild-collected strains is now available and partly characterised for a number of important traits such as disease resistance and yield. Most of the variations found in a number of important agronomic traits have a considerable heritability and are thus useful for breeding. Genetic marker technology has also developed considerably for this mushrooms in the last decade and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for important agronomic traits. This progress has, except for one example, not resulted so far into new commercially varieties. One of the reasons lies in the typical life cycle of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus which hampers breeding. Joint investment is needed to solve technical problems in breeding. Special attention is needed for the protection of new varieties. Due to its typical life cycle, it is very easy to generate so called "look-a-likes" from protected cultivars by screening fertile single spore cultures. A consensus has been reached within the mushroom (breeding) industry to consider this method as the generation of essentially derived varieties as defined in plant breeding.

  10. Chemical characterisation and speciation of organic selenium in cultivated selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Tebo; Callahan, Damien L; Dunshea, Frank R; Doronila, Augustine; Kolev, Spas D; Ng, Ken

    2013-12-15

    The selenium concentration in Agaricus bisporus cultivated in growth compost irrigated with sodium selenite solution increased by 28- and 43-fold compared to the control mushroom irrigated solely with water. Selenium contents of mushroom proteins increased from 13.8 to 60.1 and 14.1 to 137 μgSe/g in caps and stalks from control and selenised mushrooms, respectively. Selenocystine (SeCys; detected as [SeCys]2 dimer), selenomethionine (SeMet), and methyl-selenocysteine (MeSeCys) were separated, identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry from water solubilised and acetone precipitated proteins, and significant increases were observed for the selenised mushrooms. The maximum selenoamino acids concentration in caps and stalks of control/selenised mushrooms was 4.16/9.65 μg/g dried weight (DW) for SeCys, 0.08/0.58 μg/g DW for SeMet, and 0.031/0.10 μg/g DW for MeSeCys, respectively. The most notable result was the much higher levels of SeCys accumulated by A. bisporus compared to SeMet and MeSeCys, for both control and selenised A. bisporus.

  11. Agaricus bisporus attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Park, Jae Ho; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom, WBM) is widely consumed in most countries and is reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, little is known regarding its effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which are related to dysfunction of intestinal immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBMs in an animal model of DSS-induced colitis. Male, 4-week-old ICR mice (n=10 per group) were fed a normal diet with or without 10% WBM for 4 weeks, and colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. WBMs prevented DSS-induced shortening of colon length (P=.033) and diminished diarrhea (P=.049) and gross bleeding (P=.001), resulting in a decreased disease activity index. Results of histological analysis showed that WBMs suppressed mucosal damage. In addition, WBMs attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity (P=.012) and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (P=.020) in the colon segment. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role for the WBM as an immunomodulator that can prevent and/or treat ulcerative colitis.

  12. Diversity in the ability of Agaricus bisporus wild isolates to fruit at high temperature (25°C).

    PubMed

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Callac, Philippe; Navarro-Rodriguez, Anna-Maria; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-11-01

    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus commercially cultivated requires 16-19 °C during the fruiting period. Wild strains are also present in natural habitat, and in light of their wide range of geographic distribution reported, from boreal region to tropical region, questions on the development adaptation to temperature arose. Isolates from various geographic areas were screened for their ability to fruit at higher temperature (FHT ability) than commercial cultivars. The FHT trait discriminated at the varietal rank. Agaricus bisporus var. eurotetrasporus was unable to develop any sporophores whilst A. bisporus var. burnettii adapted perfectly to 25 °C for fruiting, suggesting that the FHT ability is a fixed trait in these varieties. In contrast, FHT ability of A. bisporus var. bisporus appeared variable and correlated neither with climate/microclimate nor with habitat. However, FHT ability taken as a whole appeared higher in North American populations than in European ones. Some A. bisporus var. bisporus isolates revealed a good potential for cultivation at 25 °C.

  13. Elemental distribution in selected Agaricus and Rhizina mushrooms in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S B; Pienaar, D H; Haripersad, K

    2006-01-01

    The levels of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, lead, chromium and cadmium in four prevalent mushroom species in South Africa, namely two edible Agaricus bisporus species, one inedible Agaricus xanthodermus species and a poisonous type mushroom, Rezhina undulata are reported. Analytical results from the open vessel and microwave digestion approaches were compared. While higher levels of Ca and Mg were found in the edible types, the inedible and poisonous type mushrooms had relatively high levels of manganese, chromium, cadmium and lead. Agaricus xanthodermus had Ca (204), Mg (660), Fe (306), Mn (30), Cr (16.2), Pb (50.6) and Cd (29.5) mg kg(-1) by dry weight, while Rhizina undulata, which grows on dead wood recorded Ca (121), Mg (517), Fe (130), Mn (30.7), Cr (32.1), Pb (49.5) and Cd (20) mg kg(-1) by dry weight.

  14. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle.

    PubMed

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, Edita; Heck, Albert J R; Hildén, Kristiina S; Kabel, Mirjam A; Mäkelä, Miia R; Altelaar, Maarten A F; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-08-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass. Relatively little is known about how A. bisporus grows in the controlled environment in commercial production facilities and utilizes its substrate. Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we showed that changes in plant biomass degradation by A. bisporus occur throughout its life cycle. Ligninolytic genes were only highly expressed during the spawning stage day 16. In contrast, (hemi-)cellulolytic genes were highly expressed at the first flush, whereas low expression was observed at the second flush. The essential role for many highly expressed plant biomass degrading genes was supported by exo-proteome analysis. Our data also support a model of sequential lignocellulose degradation by wood-decaying fungi proposed in previous studies, concluding that lignin is degraded at the initial stage of growth in compost and is not modified after the spawning stage. The observed differences in gene expression involved in (hemi-)cellulose degradation between the first and second flushes could partially explain the reduction in the number of mushrooms during the second flush.

  15. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  16. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 guards against Pseudomonas tolaasii brown-blotch lesions on the surface of post-harvest Agaricus bisporus supermarket mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas tolaasii is a problematic pathogen of cultured mushrooms, forming dark brown ‘blotches’ on mushroom surfaces and causing spoilage during crop growth and post-harvest . Treating P. tolaasii infection is difficult, as other, commensal bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida are necessary for mushroom growth, so treatments must be relatively specific. Results We have found that P. tolaasii is susceptible to predation in vitro by the δ-proteobacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. This effect also occurred in funga, where B. bacteriovorus was administered to post-harvest mushroom caps before and after administration of the P. tolaasii pathogen. A significant, visible improvement in blotch appearance, after incubation, was observed on administration of Bdellovibrio. A significant reduction in viable P. tolaasii cell numbers, recovered from the mushroom tissue, was detected. This was accompanied by a more marked reduction in blotch severity on Bdellovibrio administration. We found that there was in some cases an accompanying overgrowth of presumed-commensal, non-Pseudomonas bacteria on post-harvest mushroom caps after Bdellovibrio-treatment. These bacteria were identified (by 16SrRNA gene sequencing) as Enterobacter species, which were seemingly resistant to predation. We visualised predatory interactions occuring between B. bacteriovorus and P. tolaasii on the post-harvest mushroom cap surface by Scanning Electron Microscopy, seeing predatory invasion of P. tolaasii by B. bacteriovorus in funga. This anti-P. tolaasii effect worked well in post-harvest supermarket mushrooms, thus Bdellovibrio was not affected by any pre-treatment of mushrooms for commercial/consumer purposes. Conclusions The soil-dwelling B. bacteriovorus HD100 preys upon and kills P. tolaasii, on mushroom surfaces, and could therefore be applied to prevent spoilage in post-harvest situations where mushrooms are stored and packaged for sale. PMID:24946855

  17. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activity studies on three Agaricus species with fatty acid compositions and iron contents: a comparative study on the three most edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Duru, Mehmet Emin; Kivrak, Seyda; Mercan-Doğan, Nazime; Türkoglu, Aziz; Özler, Mehmet Ali

    2011-06-01

    The fatty acids of Agaricus essettei, Agaricus bitorquis and Agaricus bisporus were investigated by using GC and GC-MS. The dominant fatty acids were found to be linoleic (61.82-67.29%) and palmitic (12.67-14.71%) acids among the 13 fatty acids detected in the oils. Total unsaturation for the oils was calculated as 77.50%, 77.44%, and 79.72%, respectively. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were also studied. The ethyl acetate extract of Agaricus bitorquis showed the highest activity in β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH(·) and ABTS(·)(+) assays, while the hexane extract of Agaricus bisporus exhibited the best metal chelating activity. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Agaricus bitorquis and the hexane extract of Agaricus essettei showed meaningful butyrylcholinesterase activity being close to that of galantamine. The extracts were found to be effective on Gram (+) bacteria, especially against Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. In conclusion, Agaricus bitorquis and Agaricus essettei demonstrated higher iron content, and better antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities than those of Agaricus bisporus commonly consumed mushroom. Hence, Agaricus species, particularly Agaricus bitorquis might be useful as antioxidant agents and moderate anticholinesterase agents, and their extracts will probably be used for development of dietary foods, food products and additives.

  18. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments.

  19. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Ronald P.; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments. PMID:26237450

  20. Changes in non-volatile taste components of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during different stages of freeze drying and freeze drying combined with microwave vacuum drying.

    PubMed

    Pei, Fei; Shi, Ying; Gao, Xingyang; Wu, Fangning; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Yang, Wenjian; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Fangmei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-15

    Button mushroom slices were dehydrated using freeze drying (FD) or FD combined with microwave vacuum drying (FMVD), and the non-volatile component profiles were studied. The results showed that the level of non-volatile components in button mushroom firstly increased during sublimation of FD/FMVD process and then fell during desorption in FD process and MVD in FMVD process. Compared to FD products, the contents of soluble sugars and polyols in FMVD products were relatively low, whereas the contents of total free amino acids were significantly higher, close to the level of fresh mushroom. However, there was no significant difference in the contents of 5'-nucleotides and organic acids between FD and FMVD products. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values for FD and FMVD products did not differ from fresh, indicating that both drying methods could effectively preserve MSG (monosodium glutamate)-like components in button mushroom.

  1. Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Bacteriophages, Sanitizers, and UV Light Treatments To Control Listeria monocytogenes on Sliced Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Murray, Kayla; Wu, Fan; Aktar, Rafia; Namvar, Azadeh; Warriner, Keith

    2015-06-01

    The following reports on a comparative study on the efficacy of different decontamination technologies to decrease Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto white sliced mushrooms and assesses the fate of residual levels during posttreatment storage under aerobic conditions at 8 °C. The treatments were chemical (hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, ozonated water, electrolyzed water, chitosan, lactic acid), biological (Listeria bacteriophages), and physical (UV-C, UV-hydrogen peroxide). None of the treatments achieved >1.2 log CFU reduction in L. monocytogenes levels; bacteriophages at a multiplicity of infection of 100 and 3% (vol/vol) hydrogen peroxide were the most effective of the treatments tested. However, growth of residual L. monocytogenes during posttreatment storage attained levels equal to or greater than levels in the nontreated controls. The growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited on mushrooms treated with chitosan, electrolyzed water, peroxyacetic acid, or UV. Yet, L. monocytogenes inoculated onto mushrooms and treated with UV-hydrogen peroxide decreased during posttreatment storage, through a combination of sublethal injury and dehydration of the mushroom surface. Although mushrooms treated with UV-hydrogen peroxide became darker during storage, the samples were visually acceptable relative to controls. In conclusion, of the treatments evaluated, UV-hydrogen peroxide holds promise to control L. monocytogenes on mushroom surfaces.

  2. Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose, xylose, and arabinose, while smaller amounts of galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and mannose are also present. Results In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were identified and their expression was studied in different growth stages of A. bisporus. We correlated the expression of genes encoding plant and fungal polysaccharide modifying enzymes identified in the A. bisporus genome to the soluble carbohydrates and the composition of mycelium grown compost, casing layer and fruiting bodies. Conclusions The compost grown vegetative mycelium of A. bisporus consumes a wide variety of monosaccharides. However, in fruiting bodies only hexose catabolism occurs, and no accumulation of other sugars was observed. This suggests that only hexoses or their conversion products are transported from the vegetative mycelium to the fruiting body, while the other sugars likely provide energy for growth and maintenance of the vegetative mycelium. Clear correlations were found between expression of the genes and composition of carbohydrates. Genes encoding plant cell wall polysaccharide degrading enzymes were mainly expressed in compost-grown mycelium, and largely absent in fruiting bodies. In contrast, genes encoding fungal cell wall polysaccharide modifying enzymes were expressed in both fruiting bodies and vegetative mycelium, but different gene sets were expressed in these samples. PMID:24074284

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of the interactions between Agaricus bisporus and Lecanicillium fungicola.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Andy M; Collopy, Patrick D; Thomas, D John; Sergeant, Martin R; Costa, Ana M S B; Barker, Gary L A; Mills, Peter R; Challen, Michael P; Foster, Gary D

    2013-06-01

    Agaricus bisporus is susceptible to a number of diseases, particularly those caused by fungi, with Lecanicillium fungicola being the most serious. Control of this disease is important for the security of crop production, however given the lack of knowledge about fungal-fungal interactions, such disease control is rather limited. Exploiting the recently released genome sequence of A. bisporus, here we report studies simultaneously investigating both the host and the pathogen, focussing on transcriptional changes associated with the cap spotting lesions typically seen in this interaction. Forward-suppressive subtractive hybridisation (SSH) analysis identified 68 A. bisporus unigenes induced during infection. Chitin deacetylase showed the strongest response, with almost 1000-fold up-regulation during infection, so was targeted for down-regulation by silencing to see if it was involved in defence against L. fungicola. Transgenic lines were made expressing hairpin RNAi constructs, however no changes in susceptibility to L. fungicola were observed. Amongst the other up-regulated genes there were none with readily apparent roles in resisting infection in this susceptible interaction. Reverse-SSH identified 72 unigenes from A. bisporus showing reduced expression, including two tyrosinases, several genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and a hydrophobin. The forward-SSH analysis of infected mushrooms also yielded 64 unigenes which were not of A. bisporus origin and thus derived from L. fungicola. An EST analysis of infection-mimicking conditions generated an additional 623 unigenes from L. fungicola including several oxidoreductases, cell wall degrading enzymes, ABC and MFS transporter proteins and various other genes believed to play roles in other pathosystems. Together, this analysis shows how both the pathogen and the host modify their gene expression during an infection-interaction, shedding some light on the disease process, although we note that some 40% of unigenes

  4. Effects of spawn, supplement and phase II compost additions and time of re-casing second break compost on mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) yield and biological efficiency.

    PubMed

    Royse, Daniel J; Chalupa, William

    2009-11-01

    Three cropping experiments (0710, 0803 and 0805) were conducted to determine the effect of adding spawn, various levels of delayed release nutrient, and phase II compost to 2nd break mushroom compost (2BkC) on mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE). We also investigated the effect of delaying time of re-casing non-supplemented and supplemented 2BkC on mushroom yields and BEs. The addition of 14.6% spawn to nutrient-supplemented 2BkC (w.w./d.w) increased yield by 11.1% over the control (no spawn) but did not affect BE. The addition of delayed release supplements to 2BkC increased maximum yields by 29-54%, depending on the treatment. Substitution of 15% phase II compost in 2BkC (15/85) did not significantly affect mushroom yields. However, use of 15% phase II compost in 2BkC increased the response of the mixture to delayed release supplement. Yield response to increasing levels of supplement was greater in the 15/85 mixture compared to 100% 2BkC. Yields also increased as time of re-casing was delayed up to 10 days. Mushroom yields increased approximately 2.1% for each day re-casing was delayed. Overall yields were generally higher from commercial 2BkC compared to 2BkC originating from the Penn State Mushroom Research Center (MRC) probably due to nitrogen (N) content of the 2BkC. Nitrogen content in commercial 2BkC (Crop 0805) was 3% while N content in 2BkC from Crops 0710 and 0803 was 2.2% and 2.1%, respectively. By optimizing supplement levels and adding 15% phase II compost to commercial 2BkC, or by delaying casing by 5-10 days, it was possible to obtain BEs that were equivalent to supplemented phase II compost.

  5. Uptake and transformation of arsenic during the reproductive life stage of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris.

    PubMed

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2016-11-01

    Fruiting bodies from the Agaricus genus have been found to contain non-toxic arsenobetaine (AB) as a major compound. It is unknown whether AB is formed during the vegetative or reproductive life stages of the fungus, or by the surrounding microbial community, but AB's structural similarity to glycine betaine has led to the hypothesis that AB may be adventitiously accumulated as an osmolyte. To investigate the potential formation of AB during the reproductive life stage of Agaricus species, growth substrate and fungi were collected during the commercial growth of Agaricus bisporus and analyzed for arsenic speciation using HPLC-ICP-MS. AB was found to be the major arsenic compound in the fungus at the earliest growth stage of fruiting (the primordium). The growth substrate mainly contained arsenate (As(V)). The distribution of arsenic in an A. bisporus primordium grown on As(V) treated substrate, and in a mature Agaricus campestris fruiting body collected from arsenic contaminated mine tailings, was mapped using two dimensional XAS imaging. The primordium and stalk of the mature fruiting body were both found to be growing around pockets of substrate material containing higher As concentrations, and AB was found exclusively in the fungal tissues. In the mature A. campestris the highest proportion of AB was found in the cap, supporting the AB as an osmolyte hypothesis. The results have allowed us to pinpoint the fungus life stage at which AB formation takes place, namely reproduction, which provides a direction for further research.

  6. Fungicide sensitivity of Trichoderma spp. from Agaricus bisporus farms in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Kosanović, Dejana; Potočnik, Ivana; Vukojević, Jelena; Stajić, Mirjana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Todorović, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould disease, induce great losses in Agaricus bisporus farms. Fungicides are widely used to control mushroom diseases although green mould control is encumbered with difficulties. The aims of this study were, therefore, to research in vitro toxicity of several commercial fungicides to Trichoderma isolates originating from Serbian and Bosnia-Herzegovina farms, and to evaluate the effects of pH and light on their growth. The majority of isolates demonstrated optimal growth at pH 5.0, and the rest at pH 6.0. A few isolates also grew well at pH 7. The weakest mycelial growth was noted at pH 8.0-9.0. Generally, light had an inhibitory effect on the growth of tested isolates. The isolates showed the highest susceptibility to chlorothalonil and carbendazim (ED50 less than 1 mg L(-1)), and were less sensitive to iprodione (ED50 ranged 0.84-6.72 mg L(-1)), weakly resistant to thiophanate-methyl (ED50 = 3.75-24.13 mg L(-1)), and resistant to trifloxystrobin (ED50 = 10.25-178.23 mg L(-1)). Considering the toxicity of fungicides to A. bisporus, carbendazim showed the best selective toxicity (0.02), iprodione and chlorothalonil moderate (0.16), and thiophanate-methyl the lowest (1.24), while trifloxystrobin toxicity to A. bisporus was not tested because of its inefficiency against Trichoderma isolates.

  7. A Retrospective Study in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diabetic Risk Factor Response to Daily Consumption of Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushrooms).

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mona S; Mehrotra, Anita; Beelman, Robert B; Nadkarni, Girish; Wang, Lingzhi; Cai, Weijing; Goh, Boon Cher; Kalaras, Michael D; Uribarri, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Adults with metabolic syndrome from different race/ethnicities are often predisposed to developing type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, growing evidence suggests that healthy diets and lifestyle choices can significantly slow or prevent progression to T2D. This poorly understood relationship to healthy dietary patterns and prevention of T2D motivated us to conduct a retrospective analysis to determine the potential impact of a minor dietary lifestyle change (daily mushroom consumption) on known T2D risk factors in racially diverse adults with confirmed features of the metabolic syndrome. Retrospectively, we studied 37 subjects who had participated in a dietary intervention focused on vitamin D bioavailability from white button mushrooms (WBM). All 37 had previously completed a 16-week study where they consumed 100 g of WBM daily and were then followed-up for one month during which no mushrooms were consumed. We analyzed differences in serum risk factors from baseline to 16-week, and from baseline to one-month follow-up. Measurement of serum diabetic risk factors included inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant component naturally rich in mushrooms, ergothioneine. Significant beneficial health effects were observed at 16-week with the doubling of ergothioneine from baseline, increases in the antioxidant marker ORAC (oxygen radical absorption capacity) and anti-inflammatory hormone, adiponectin and significant decreases in serum oxidative stress inducing factors, carboxymethyllysine (CML) and methylglyoxal (MG), but no change in the lipid oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane, leptin or measures of insulin resistance or glucose metabolism. We conclude that WBM contain a variety of compounds with potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant health benefits that can occur with frequent consumption over time in adults predisposed to T2D. Well-controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify the specific mushroom components

  8. Relationship between Yield Components and Partial Resistance to Lecanicillium fungicola in the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, Assessed by Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Anne; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Dry bubble, caused by Lecanicillium fungicola, is one of the most detrimental diseases affecting button mushroom cultivation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that breeding for resistance to this pathogen is quite challenging due to its quantitative inheritance. A second-generation hybrid progeny derived from an intervarietal cross between a wild strain and a commercial cultivar was characterized for L. fungicola resistance under artificial inoculation in three independent experiments. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) was used to determine the locations, numbers, and effects of genomic regions associated with dry-bubble resistance. Four traits related to resistance were analyzed. Two to four QTL were detected per trait, depending on the experiment. Two genomic regions, on linkage group X (LGX) and LGVIII, were consistently detected in the three experiments. The genomic region on LGX was detected for three of the four variables studied. The total phenotypic variance accounted for by all QTL ranged from 19.3% to 42.1% over all traits in all experiments. For most of the QTL, the favorable allele for resistance came from the wild parent, but for some QTL, the allele that contributed to a higher level of resistance was carried by the cultivar. Comparative mapping with QTL for yield-related traits revealed five colocations between resistance and yield component loci, suggesting that the resistance results from both genetic factors and fitness expression. The consequences for mushroom breeding programs are discussed. PMID:22247161

  9. Relationship between yield components and partial resistance to Lecanicillium fungicola in the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, assessed by quantitative trait locus mapping.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rodier, Anne; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2012-04-01

    Dry bubble, caused by Lecanicillium fungicola, is one of the most detrimental diseases affecting button mushroom cultivation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that breeding for resistance to this pathogen is quite challenging due to its quantitative inheritance. A second-generation hybrid progeny derived from an intervarietal cross between a wild strain and a commercial cultivar was characterized for L. fungicola resistance under artificial inoculation in three independent experiments. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) was used to determine the locations, numbers, and effects of genomic regions associated with dry-bubble resistance. Four traits related to resistance were analyzed. Two to four QTL were detected per trait, depending on the experiment. Two genomic regions, on linkage group X (LGX) and LGVIII, were consistently detected in the three experiments. The genomic region on LGX was detected for three of the four variables studied. The total phenotypic variance accounted for by all QTL ranged from 19.3% to 42.1% over all traits in all experiments. For most of the QTL, the favorable allele for resistance came from the wild parent, but for some QTL, the allele that contributed to a higher level of resistance was carried by the cultivar. Comparative mapping with QTL for yield-related traits revealed five colocations between resistance and yield component loci, suggesting that the resistance results from both genetic factors and fitness expression. The consequences for mushroom breeding programs are discussed.

  10. Cell water balance of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) during its post-harvest lifetime studied by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Donker, H C; Van As, H

    1999-04-19

    A combination of quantitative water density and T2 MRI and changes therein observed after infiltration with 'invisible' Gd-DTPA solution was used to study cell water balances, cell water potentials and cell integrity. This method was applied to reveal the evolution and mechanism of redistribution of water in harvested mushrooms. Even when mushrooms did not lose water during the storage period, a redistribution of water was observed from stipe to cap and gills. When the storage condition resulted in a net loss of water, the stipe lost more water than the cap. The water density in the gill increased, probably due to development of spores. Deterioration effects (i.e. leakage of cells, decrease in osmotic water potential) were found in the outer stipe. They were not found in the cap, even at prolonged storage at 293 K and R.H.=70%. The changes in osmotic potential were partly accounted for by changes in the mannitol concentration. Changes in membrane permeability were also indicated. Cells in the cap had a constant low membrane (water) permeability. They developed a decreasing osmotic potential (more negative), whereas the osmotic potential in the outer stipe increased, together with the permeability of cells.

  11. Vitamin D2-Enriched Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Improves Memory in Both Wild Type and APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Louise; Kersaitis, Cindy; Macaulay, Stuart Lance; Münch, Gerald; Niedermayer, Garry; Nigro, Julie; Payne, Matthew; Sheean, Paul; Vallotton, Pascal; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Bird, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widespread, affecting over 30% of adult Australians, and increasing up to 80% for at-risk groups including the elderly (age>65). The role for Vitamin D in development of the central nervous system is supported by the association between Vitamin D deficiency and incidence of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A reported positive relationship between Vitamin D status and cognitive performance suggests that restoring Vitamin D status might provide a cognitive benefit to those with Vitamin D deficiency. Mushrooms are a rich source of ergosterol, which can be converted to Vitamin D2 by treatment with UV light, presenting a new and convenient dietary source of Vitamin D2. We hypothesised that Vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (VDM) could prevent the cognitive and pathological abnormalities associated with dementia. Two month old wild type (B6C3) and AD transgenic (APPSwe/PS1dE9) mice were fed a diet either deficient in Vitamin D2 or a diet which was supplemented with VDM, containing 1±0.2 µg/kg (∼54 IU/kg) vitamin D2, for 7 months. Effects of the dietary intervention on memory were assessed pre- and post-feeding. Brain sections were evaluated for amyloid β (Aβ) plaque loads and inflammation biomarkers using immuno-histochemical methods. Plasma vitamin D metabolites, Aβ40, Aβ42, calcium, protein and cholesterol were measured using biochemical assays. Compared with mice on the control diet, VDM-fed wild type and AD transgenic mice displayed improved learning and memory, had significantly reduced amyloid plaque load and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and elevated interleukin-10 in the brain. The results suggest that VDM might provide a dietary source of Vitamin D2 and other bioactives for preventing memory-impairment in dementia. This study supports the need for a randomised clinical trial to determine whether or not VDM consumption can benefit cognitive performance in the wider population. PMID

  12. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  13. Extraction optimization and bioactivity of exopolysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yong; Mao, Jian; Meng, Xiangyong

    2013-02-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of EPS produced by Agaricus bisporus MJ-0811 in submerged culture. The optimal levels for ethanol concentration (85%, v/v), pH (8) and precipitation time (22 h) were determined, and EPS production was estimated at 2.71 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 2.69 g/L. In addition, the antioxidant activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the hypoglycemic activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its effects on body weights and blood glucose of diabetic mice. The study suggests that EPS has beneficial antioxidant activities (hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, superoxide radical-scavenging activities) in vitro, anti-diabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic mice. The EPS from A. bisporus may be a novel resource of natural antioxidants and anti-diabetic agents for use in the functional food or medicine.

  14. Agaricus bisporus compost improves the potential of Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid for copper accumulation.

    PubMed

    Magdziak, Z; Mleczek, M; Gąsecka, M; Drzewiecka, K; Kaczmarek, Z; Siwulski, M; Goliński, P

    2016-08-02

    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of spent mushroom compost (SMC) from the production of Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) to stimulate the growth and efficiency of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid. Roots, shoots and leaves were analysed in terms of total Cu content and selected biometric parameters. Due to the absence of information regarding the physiological response of the studied plant, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), phenolic compounds and salicylic acid (SA) contents were investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness (usefulness) of SMC in promoting the growth and stimulation of Cu accumulation by the studied Salix taxon. The highest Cu content in roots and shoots was found at the 10% SMC addition (507±22 and 380±11 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while there was a reduction of the content in leaves and young shoots (109±8 and 124±7 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively). In terms of physiological response, lowered secretion of LMWOAs, biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and SA, as well as accumulation of soluble sugars in Salix leaves was observed with SMC addition. Simultaneously, an elevation of the total phenolic content in leaves of plants cultivated with SMC was observed, considered as antioxidant biomolecules.

  15. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase in an aqueous extract from Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Gouzi, Hicham; Depagne, Christophe; Coradin, Thibaud

    2012-01-11

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in an aqueous extract from mushroom Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach was studied, using pyrocatechol as a substrate. Optimal conditions for enzymatic studies were determined to be pH 7.0 and 35-40 °C. The kinetics of PPO-catalyzed oxidation of pyrocatechol followed the Haldane model with an optimum substrate concentration of 20 mM. Thermal inactivation of PPO was examined in more detail between 50 and 73 °C and in relation to exposure time. Obtained monophasic kinetics were adequately described by a first-order model, with significant inactivation occurring with increasing temperature (less than 10% preserved activity after 6 min at 65 °C). Arrhenius plot determination and calculated thermodynamic parameters suggest that the PPO in aqueous extract from Agaricus bisporus mushroom is a structurally robust yet temperature-sensitive biocatalyst whose inactivation process is mainly entropy-driven.

  16. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the in vitro induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells. Methods Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR. Results Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis (= blazei) were found to contain (1→6),(1→4)-linked α-glucan, (1→6)-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of 1H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. A. brasiliensis showed a higher content of β-glucan, while A. bisporus presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of A. brasiliensis extract. Conclusions The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis show major differences in composition: A. bisporus shows high mannogalactan content whereas A. brasiliensis has mostly β-glucan. Semi

  17. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost.

  18. Effect of microwave blanching on the quality of frozen Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Bernaś, Emilia; Jaworska, Grażyna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of microwave blanching on the levels of selected quality parameters in frozen Agaricus bisporus. Before freezing, mushrooms underwent one of the following treatments: blanching in water; blanching in a solution of sodium metabisulphite and citric acid; microwaving for 5 min; and combined blanching (first in water, then in a microwave oven). Products were freeze stored for 8 months at -25 ℃. Frozen storage resulted in decreased levels of vitamin B1, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of 10-49%, as well as an increase in polyphenol oxidase activity compared with products immediately after freezing. The values for most colour parameters and whiteness intensity decreased, while cream, yellow, brown and grey saturation increased. There was a considerable deterioration in sensory quality, particularly colour. Microwave-blanched products had significantly higher dry matter, ash, vitamin B1 and B2 content than the remaining products as well as half the polyphenol oxidase activity. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were highest in the product blanched in the sodium metabisulphite solution, followed by the microwave-blanched product. Compared with the product blanched using sodium metabisulphite, microwave-blanched mushrooms showed slightly greater darkening but were superior in flavour and aroma.

  19. Effect of Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Extracts, Obtained by Pressurized Water Extraction, on the Expression of Cholesterol Homeostasis Related Genes by Low-Density Array.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Marín, Francisco Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Culinary-medicinal mushrooms are able to lower blood cholesterol levels in animal models by different mechanisms. They might impair the endogenous cholesterol synthesis and exogenous cholesterol absorption during digestion. Mushroom extracts, obtained using pressurized water extractions (PWE) from Agaricus bisporus basidiomes, supplemented or not supplemented with selenium, were applied to HepG2 cell cultures to study the expression of 19 genes related to cholesterol homeostasis by low-density arrays (LDA). Only the PWE fractions obtained at 25°C showed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitory activity. Besides the enzymatic inhibition, PWE extracts may downregulate some of the key genes involved in the cholesterol homeostasis, such as the squalene synthase gene (FDFT1), since its mRNA expression falls by one third of its initial value. In summary, A. bisporus extracts may also modulate biological cholesterol levels by molecular mechanisms further than the enzymatic way previously reported.

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater against CCl₄-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiafu; Ou, Yixin; Yew, Tai Wai David; Liu, Jingna; Leng, Bo; Lin, Zhichao; Su, Yi; Zhuang, Yuanhong; Lin, Jiaofen; Li, Xiumin; Xue, Yu; Pan, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    During the industrial production of canned mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), a large quantity of wastewater is produced. In this study, the wastewater generated during the canning of mushroom was analyzed. From this wastewater, four polysaccharide components (Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001, and Abap1002) with hepatic-protective activity were isolated by ultrafiltration, DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-200 size-exclusion chromatography. Results of ultraviolet spectra analysis and molecular weight determination showed that Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001 and Abap1002 were uniform with average molecular weights of 336, 12.8, 330 and 15.8kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition analysis using gas chromatography (GC) showed that the four fractions were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed that the isolated fractions were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. Additionally, the potential hepatoprotective activities of these polysaccharides against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in mice were studied. Notably, Abnp1002 and Abap1002 could lower the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in serum in a dose dependent manner and reduce the hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, as well as inflammatory infiltration. These results indicate that these two polysaccharides had protective effects on acute hepatic injury induced by CCl4 in mice and suggest that the polysaccharides extracted from A. bisporus industrial wastewater might have potential in therapeutics of acute hepatic injury.

  1. Regulation of three genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes of Trichoderma aggressivum during interaction with Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Abubaker, Kamal S; Sjaarda, Calvin; Castle, Alan J

    2013-06-01

    Members of the genus Trichoderma are very effective competitors of a variety of fungi. Cell-wall-degrading enzymes, including proteinases, glucanases, and chitinases, are commonly secreted as part of the competitive process. Trichoderma aggressivum is the causative agent of green mould disease of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The structures of 3 T. aggressivum genes, prb1 encoding a proteinase, ech42 encoding an endochitinase, and a β-glucanase gene, were determined. Promoter elements in the prb1 and ech42 genes suggested that transcription is regulated by carbon and nitrogen levels and by stress. Both genes had mycoparasitism-related elements indicating potential roles for the protein products in competition. The promoter of the β-glucanase gene contained CreA and AreA binding sites indicative of catabolite regulation but contained no mycoparasitism elements. Transcription of the 3 genes was measured in mixed cultures of T. aggressivum and A. bisporus. Two A. bisporus strains, U1, which is sensitive to green mould disease, and SB65, which shows some resistance, were used in co-cultivation tests to assess possible roles of the genes in disease production and severity. prb1 and ech42 were coordinately upregulated after 5 days, whereas β-glucanase transcription was upregulated from day 0 with both Agaricus strains. Upregulation was much less pronounced in mixed cultures of T. aggressivum with the resistant strain, SB65, than with the sensitive strain, U1. These observations suggested that the proteins encoded by these genes have roles in both nutrition and in severity of green mould disease.

  2. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    PubMed Central

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M.; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus’ mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  3. Conservation of genetic linkage with map expansion in distantly related crosses of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Callac, P; Desmerger, C; Kerrigan, R W; Imbernon, M

    1997-01-15

    A previous map of the genome of a hybrid strain which had European parents belonging to the secondarily homothallic fungus Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus appeared to be unusually compact, with a particularly recombophobic segment in the central part of chromosome I. A new map of this segment was constructed based on allelic segregations among 103 homokaryotic offspring of an A. bisporus hybrid between a European parent of the var. bisporus and a Californian parent of the heterothallic var. burnettii. Markers completely linked on the previous map were distributed along 28 cM in the new map. These results suggest that the greater recombination rate could be correlated with the outbreeding behaviour of the var. burnettii.

  4. The antibrowning agent sulfite inactivates Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase through covalent modification of the copper-B site.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Gruppen, Harry; Sforza, Stefano; van Berkel, Willem J H; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2013-12-01

    Sulfite salts are widely used as antibrowning agents in food processing. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism by which sulfite prevents enzymatic browning has remained unknown. Here, we show that sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) irreversibly blocks the active site of tyrosinase from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, and that the competitive inhibitors tropolone and kojic acid protect the enzyme from NaHSO3 inactivation. LC-MS analysis of pepsin digests of NaHSO3 -treated tyrosinase revealed two peptides showing a neutral loss corresponding to the mass of SO3 upon MS(2) fragmentation. These peptides were found to be homologous peptides containing two of the three histidine residues that form the copper-B-binding site of mushroom tyrosinase isoform PPO3 and mushroom tyrosinase isoform PPO4, which were both present in the tyrosinase preparation used. Peptides showing this neutral loss behavior were not found in the untreated control. Comparison of the effects of NaHSO3 on apo-tyrosinase and holo-tyrosinase indicated that inactivation is facilitated by the active site copper ions. These data provide compelling evidence that inactivation of mushroom tyrosinase by NaHSO3 occurs through covalent modification of a single amino-acid residue, probably via addition of HSO3(-) to one of the copper-coordinating histidines in the copper-B site of the enzyme.

  5. Cytotoxic effect of Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus β-D-glucans on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Ruthes, Andrea Caroline; Cadena, Silvia Maria Suter Correia; Acco, Alexandra; Gorin, Philip Albert James; Iacomini, Marcello

    2013-07-01

    The cytotoxic activity of β-D-glucans isolated from Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus fruiting bodies was evaluated on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). NMR and methylation analysis suggest that these β-d-glucans were composed of a linear (1→6)-linked and a branched (1→3), (1→6)-linked backbone, respectively. They both decreased cell viability at concentrations of up to 100 μg mL(-1), as shown by MTT assay. The amount of LDH released and the analysis of cell morphology corroborated these values and also showed that the β-D-glucan of L. rufus was more cytotoxic to HepG2 cells than that of A. bisporus. The treatment of HepG2 cells with L. rufus and A. bisporus β-D-glucans at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1) for 24h promoted an increase of cytochrome c release and a decrease of ATP content, suggesting that these polysaccharides could promote cell death by apoptosis. Both β-D-glucans were tested against murine primary hepatocytes at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1). The results suggest that the L. rufus β-d-glucan was as cytotoxic for hepatocytes as for HepG2 cells, whereas the A. bisporus β-D-glucan, under the same conditions, was cytotoxic only for HepG2 cells, suggesting cell selectivity. These results open new possibilities for use of mushroom β-D-glucans in cancer therapy.

  6. PCR-Based Genotyping of Epidemic and Preepidemic Trichoderma Isolates Associated with Green Mold of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Romaine, C. P.; Tan, Q.; Schlagnhaufer, B.; Ospina-Giraldo, M. D.; Royse, D. J.; Huff, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    We used randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR to estimate genetic variation among isolates of Trichoderma associated with green mold on the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Of 83 isolates examined, 66 were sampled during the recent green mold epidemic, while the remaining 17 isolates were collected just prior to the epidemic and date back to the 1950s. Trichoderma harzianum biotype 4 was identified by RAPD analysis as the cause of almost 90% of the epidemic-related episodes of green mold occurring in the major commercial mushroom-growing region in North America. Biotype 4 was more closely allied to T. harzianum biotype 2, the predominant pathogenic genotype in Europe, than to the less pathogenic biotype 1 and Trichoderma atroviride (formerly T. harzianum biotype 3). No variation in the RAPD patterns was observed among the isolates within biotype 2 or 4, suggesting that the two pathogenic biotypes were populations containing single clones. Considerable genetic variation, however, was noted among isolates of biotype 1 and T. atroviride from Europe. Biotype 4 was not represented by the preepidemic isolates of Trichoderma as determined by RAPD markers and PCR amplification of an arbitrary DNA sequence unique to the genomes of biotypes 2 and 4. Our findings suggest that the onset of the green mold epidemic in North America resulted from the recent introduction of a highly virulent genotype of the pathogen into cultivated mushrooms. PMID:10347059

  7. Functional analysis of Agaricus bisporus serine proteinase 1 reveals roles in utilization of humic rich substrates and adaptation to the leaf‐litter ecological niche

    PubMed Central

    Heneghan, Mary N.; Burns, Claire; Costa, Ana M. S. B.; Burton, Kerry S.; Challen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Agaricus bisporus is a secondary decomposer fungus and an excellent model for the adaptation, persistence and growth of fungi in humic‐rich environments such as soils of temperate woodland and pastures. The A. bisporus serine proteinase SPR1 is induced by humic acids and is highly expressed during growth on compost. Three Spr1 gene silencing cassettes were constructed around sense, antisense and non‐translatable‐stop strategies (pGRsensehph, pGRantihph and pGRstophph). Transformation of A. bisporus with these cassettes generated cultures showing a reduction in extracellular proteinase activity as demonstrated by the reduction, or abolition, of a clearing zone on plate‐based bioassays. These lines were then assessed by detailed enzyme assay, RT‐qPCR and fruiting. Serine proteinase activity in liquid cultures was reduced in 83% of transformants. RT‐qPCR showed reduced Spr1 mRNA levels in all transformants analysed, and these correlated with reduced enzyme activity. When fruiting was induced, highly‐silenced transformant AS5 failed to colonize the compost, whilst for those that did colonize the compost, 60% gave a reduction in mushroom yield. Transcriptional, biochemical and developmental observations, demonstrate that SPR1 has an important role in nutrient acquisition in compost and that SPR1 is a key enzyme in the adaptation of Agaricus to the humic‐rich ecological niche formed during biomass degradation. PMID:27113919

  8. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  9. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey’s test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06. PMID:24688503

  10. The Agaricus bisporus cox1 gene: the longest mitochondrial gene and the largest reservoir of mitochondrial group i introns.

    PubMed

    Férandon, Cyril; Moukha, Serge; Callac, Philippe; Benedetto, Jean-Pierre; Castroviejo, Michel; Barroso, Gérard

    2010-11-18

    In eukaryotes, introns are located in nuclear and organelle genes from several kingdoms. Large introns (up to 5 kbp) are frequent in mitochondrial genomes of plant and fungi but scarce in Metazoa, even if these organisms are grouped with fungi among the Opisthokonts. Mitochondrial introns are classified in two groups (I and II) according to their RNA secondary structure involved in the intron self-splicing mechanism. Most of these mitochondrial group I introns carry a "Homing Endonuclease Gene" (heg) encoding a DNA endonuclease acting in transfer and site-specific integration ("homing") and allowing intron spreading and gain after lateral transfer even between species from different kingdoms. Opposed to this gain mechanism, is another which implies that introns, which would have been abundant in the ancestral genes, would mainly evolve by loss. The importance of both mechanisms (loss and gain) is matter of debate. Here we report the sequence of the cox1 gene of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. This gene is both the longest mitochondrial gene (29,902 nt) and the largest group I intron reservoir reported to date with 18 group I and 1 group II. An exhaustive analysis of the group I introns available in cox1 genes shows that they are mobile genetic elements whose numerous events of loss and gain by lateral transfer combine to explain their wide and patchy distribution extending over several kingdoms. An overview of intron distribution, together with the high frequency of eroded heg, suggests that they are evolving towards loss. In this landscape of eroded and lost intron sequences, the A. bisporus cox1 gene exhibits a peculiar dynamics of intron keeping and catching, leading to the largest collection of mitochondrial group I introns reported to date in a Eukaryote.

  11. The Agaricus bisporus cox1 Gene: The Longest Mitochondrial Gene and the Largest Reservoir of Mitochondrial Group I Introns

    PubMed Central

    Férandon, Cyril; Moukha, Serge; Callac, Philippe; Benedetto, Jean-Pierre; Castroviejo, Michel; Barroso, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, introns are located in nuclear and organelle genes from several kingdoms. Large introns (up to 5 kbp) are frequent in mitochondrial genomes of plant and fungi but scarce in Metazoa, even if these organisms are grouped with fungi among the Opisthokonts. Mitochondrial introns are classified in two groups (I and II) according to their RNA secondary structure involved in the intron self-splicing mechanism. Most of these mitochondrial group I introns carry a “Homing Endonuclease Gene” (heg) encoding a DNA endonuclease acting in transfer and site-specific integration (“homing”) and allowing intron spreading and gain after lateral transfer even between species from different kingdoms. Opposed to this gain mechanism, is another which implies that introns, which would have been abundant in the ancestral genes, would mainly evolve by loss. The importance of both mechanisms (loss and gain) is matter of debate. Here we report the sequence of the cox1 gene of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. This gene is both the longest mitochondrial gene (29,902 nt) and the largest group I intron reservoir reported to date with 18 group I and 1 group II. An exhaustive analysis of the group I introns available in cox1 genes shows that they are mobile genetic elements whose numerous events of loss and gain by lateral transfer combine to explain their wide and patchy distribution extending over several kingdoms. An overview of intron distribution, together with the high frequency of eroded heg, suggests that they are evolving towards loss. In this landscape of eroded and lost intron sequences, the A. bisporus cox1 gene exhibits a peculiar dynamics of intron keeping and catching, leading to the largest collection of mitochondrial group I introns reported to date in a Eukaryote. PMID:21124976

  12. Two-component signal transduction in Agaricus bisporus: a comparative genomic analysis with other basidiomycetes through the web-based tool BASID2CS.

    PubMed

    Lavín, José L; García-Yoldi, Alberto; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Oguiza, José A

    2013-06-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are signal transduction mechanisms present in many eukaryotes, including fungi that play essential roles in the regulation of several cellular functions and responses. In this study, we carry out a genomic analysis of the TCS proteins in two varieties of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The genomes of both A. bisporus varieties contain eight genes coding for TCS proteins, which include four hybrid Histidine Kinases (HKs), a single histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) protein and three Response Regulators (RRs). Comparison of the TCS proteins among A. bisporus and the sequenced basidiomycetes showed a conserved core complement of five TCS proteins including the Tco1/Nik1 hybrid HK, HPt protein and Ssk1, Skn7 and Rim15-like RRs. In addition, Dual-HKs, unusual hybrid HKs with 2 HK and 2 RR domains, are absent in A. bisporus and are limited to various species of basidiomycetes. Differential expression analysis showed no significant up- or down-regulation of the Agaricus TCS genes in the conditions/tissue analyzed with the exception of the Skn7-like RR gene (Agabi_varbisH97_2|198669) that is significantly up-regulated on compost compared to cultured mycelia. Furthermore, the pipeline web server BASID2CS (http://bioinformatics.unavarra.es:1000/B2CS/BASID2CS.htm) has been specifically designed for the identification, classification and functional annotation of putative TCS proteins from any predicted proteome of basidiomycetes using a combination of several bioinformatic approaches.

  13. Karyological evidence for meiosis in the three different types of life cycles existing in Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Kamzolkina, Olga V; Volkova, Vera N; Kozlova, Maria V; Pancheva, Elena V; Dyakov, Yuri T; Callac, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    In Agaricus bisporus all cytological studies performed until now concerned the pseudohomothallic and bisporic var. bisporus. In the past 12 y two tetrasporic varieties have been described, the heterothallic var. burnettii and the homothallic var. eurotetrasporus. Our aim was to compare the behavior of the nuclei in the vegetative and reproductive cells of the three varieties with light microscopy (Feulgen and DAPI staining) and transmission electron microscopy. Most of the vegetative cells contained 3-5 nuclei in the three varieties. Nuclear migrations through the septum were detected. In the basidia relative locations of nuclei and vacuoles, meiotic spindle alignments, relative content of nuclear DNA and synaptonemal complexes were measured or observed. From the observation of numerous asynchronous second division of meiosis within basidia of var. bisporus and var. burnettii a new hypothesis emerges to explain the nonrandom distribution of the four meiotic products in the two spores of the bisporic basidia. Karyogamy and meiosis similarly occurred in the three varieties. In the case of A. bisporus var. eurotetrasporus this implies that the reproductive mode is sexual and therefore homothallic in the strict sense. The three different types of life cycles are described.

  14. Packed bed column studies on lead(II) removal from industrial wastewater by modified Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Long, Yunchuan; Lei, Daiyin; Ni, Jiangxia; Ren, Zhuolin; Chen, Can; Xu, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus showed best performance in removing Pb(II) with a biosorption capacity of 86.4 mg g(-1) after modification with NaOH. In this work, the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater has been conducted in column mode. The metal removal was dependent on the flow rate, initial metal concentration, and bed height. The experimental data obtained from the biosorption process was successfully correlated with the Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. Five biosorption-desorption cycles yielded 95.34%, 92.27%, 90.13%, 86.75%, and 81.52% regeneration, respectively. Pb(II) could be effectively removed from industrial wastewater; some metal ions and organics were also removed concomitantly, and the obtained effluent had characteristics of better quality. The results confirmed that modified A. bisporus could be applied for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater in a continuous column process.

  15. The 135 kbp mitochondrial genome of Agaricus bisporus is the largest known eukaryotic reservoir of group I introns and plasmid-related sequences.

    PubMed

    Férandon, Cyril; Xu, Jianping; Barroso, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    At 135,005 nt, the mitochondrial genome in Agaricus bisporus represents the largest fungal mitochondrial genome sequenced to date. Its large size is mainly due to the presence of mobile genetic elements, including a total of 43 group I introns, three group II introns, and five DNA fragments that show sequence similarity to linear invertron-like plasmids. The introns are distributed in eight of the 15 protein coding genes. These introns contain a total of 61,092 nt (∼45.3% of the whole mitochondrial genome) and include representatives of most of the group I introns so far found in mitochondrial genomes of Basidiomycota. The plasmid-like sequences include 6730 nt total representing 5.0% of the genome. These sequences showed high-level similarities to two different mitochondrial plasmids reported for basidiomycete mushrooms: the autonomously replicating pEM in Agaricus bitorquis and the integrated linear plasmid sequences in Agrocybe aegerita and Moniliophthora perniciosa. Moreover, the plasmid-related sequences are located within or adjacent to two large (4559 nt) inverted repeats containing also two sets of mitochondrial tRNA genes. Our analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that horizontal DNA transfer has played a significant role in the evolution of the A. bisporus mitochondrial genome.

  16. Agaricus blazei production on non-composted substrates based on sunflower seed hulls and spent oyster mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    González Matute, R; Figlas, D; Curvetto, N

    2011-06-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is usually cultivated using the same biphasic composting method employed for A. bisporus. Because cultivation of A. blazei on traditional A. bisporus composts poses some disadvantages, non-composted substrates were studied for A. blazei cultivation. Mycelial growth rate and productive performance of A. blazei were evaluated on substrates containing sunflower seed hulls, Pleurotus spp. spent mushroom substrate, or their combination, in the absence or in the presence of different supplements (vermicompost, peat or brewery residues). Substrates were prepared by initially soaking them and then they were sterilized (1 atm for 120 min). In addition, each substrate's degradation was measured after cultivation by obtaining the lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, organic matter, total fiber, ash, carbon and nitrogen contents before spawn-run and at the end of two flushes of A. blazei. The cultivation of A. blazei on non-composted substrates is possible and with a low rate of contamination when using the spent mushroom substrate as the main component or combined 50:50 with sunflower seed hulls. In addition, the best yields were obtained on those substrates containing spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate with supplements and those mixtures with sunflower seed hulls and vermicompost. These yields were similar to those reported on composted substrates. Substrate changes in composition measured at the end of two flushes indicate that the lignin-hemicellulose fraction was preferentially used and that the substrates exhibiting the best yield showed greater biodegradation of lignin-hemicellulose fraction than the others did.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Meire C N; Jesus, João P F; Vieira, Fabrício R; Viana, Sthefany R F; Spoto, Marta H F; Minhoni, Marli T A

    2014-05-14

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobalt-60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220 kGy, with dose rate of 0.740 kGy h-1, according to the treatments proposed. Subsequently, the control (unirradiated) and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value, because they presented high protein and fiber contents and low ethereal extract content; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms.

  18. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing.

  19. Phenotypic variation of Pseudomonas putida and P. tolaasii affects attachment to Agaricus bisporus mycelium.

    PubMed

    Rainey, P B

    1991-12-01

    The effect of phenotypic variation on attachment of Pseudomonas tolaasii and P. putida to Agaricus bisporus mycelium was investigated. Quantitative studies demonstrated the ability of each isolate to attach rapidly and firmly to A. bisporus mycelium and significant differences in attachment of wild-type and phenotypic variant strains were observed. This was most pronounced in P. tolaasii, where the percentage attachment of the wild-type form was always greater than that of the phenotypic variant. The medium upon which the bacteria were cultured, prior to conducting an attachment assay, had a significant effect on their ability to attach. Attachment of the wild-type form of P. putida was enhanced when the assay was performed in the presence of CaCl2, suggesting the involvement of electrostatic forces. No correlation was observed between bacterial hydrophobicity and ability to attach to A. bisporus mycelium. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the results obtained from the quantitative studies and provided further evidence for marked differences in the ability of the pseudomonads to attach to mycelium. Fibrillar structures and amorphous material were frequently associated with attached cells and appeared to anchor bacteria to each other and to the hyphal surface. A time-course study of attachment using transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of uneven fibrillar material on the surface of cells. This material stained positive for polysaccharide and may be involved in ensuring rapid, firm attachment of the cells.

  20. An expanded genetic linkage map of an intervarietal Agaricus bisporus var. bisporusxA. bisporus var. burnettii hybrid based on AFLP, SSR and CAPS markers sheds light on the recombination behaviour of the species.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Spataro, Cathy; Cathalot, Vincent; Monllor, Sarah; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2010-03-01

    A genetic linkage map for the edible basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus was constructed from 118 haploid homokaryons derived from an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus x A. bisporus var. burnettii hybrid. Two hundred and thirty-one AFLP, 21 SSR, 68 CAPS markers together with the MAT, BSN, PPC1 loci and one allozyme locus (ADH) were evenly spread over 13 linkage groups corresponding to the chromosomes of A. bisporus. The map covers 1156cM, with an average marker spacing of 3.9cM and encompasses nearly the whole genome. The average number of crossovers per chromosome per individual is 0.86. Normal recombination over the entire genome occurs in the heterothallic variety, burnettii, contrary to the homothallic variety, bisporus, which showed adaptive genome-wide suppressed recombination. This first comprehensive genetic linkage map for A. bisporus provides foundations for quantitative trait analyses and breeding programme monitoring, as well as genome organisation studies.

  1. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility.

  2. Effects of heavy metals on production of thiol compounds and antioxidant enzymes in Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Song, Peng; Gu, Wenbo; Yang, Zhirong

    2011-09-01

    In a pre-experiment, Agaricus bisporus mycelia grown in PDL medium were found to have a substantial ability to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals. In the study, we investigated changes in the contents of soluble protein and thiol compounds as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes caused by copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium (nitrate salts) in mycelia of A. bisporus during short-and long-term exposure. Results showed that high-level metal concentrations significantly decrease the contents of soluble protein after long-term exposure, Cu and Zn concentrations significantly increase the thiol compounds levels after long-term exposure, while high-level Cd significantly decrease thiol compounds after long-term exposure. Additionally, SOD activities were significantly increased after long-term exposure to metals, especially to Cd. The CAT activities were enhanced after long-term exposure to low-level Cu and high-level Zn, and enhanced after short-and long-term exposure to high-level Pb. The POD activities were significantly increased after long-term exposure to metals, and increased after short-term exposure to Cd and high-level Pb.

  3. Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus increases expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase-1 and expression of glutathione peroxidase-2 in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Tebo; Howell, Kate; Dunshea, Frank R; Ng, Ken

    2014-03-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus on cytosolic gluthathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), gastrointestinal specific glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2), thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) and selenoprotein P (SeP) mRNA expression and GPx-1 enzyme activity in rat colon was examined. Rats were fed for 5weeks with control diet (0.15μg Se/g feed) or Se-enriched diet fortified with selenised mushroom (1μg Se/g feed). The mRNA expression levels were found to be significantly (P<0.01) up-regulated by 1.65-fold and 2.3-fold for GPx-1 and GPx-2, respectively, but were not significantly different for TrxR-1 and SeP between the 2 diet treatments. The up-regulation of GPx-1 mRNA expression was consistent with GPX-1 activity level, which was significantly (P<0.05) increased by 1.77-fold in rats fed with the Se-enriched diet compared to the control diet. The results showed that selenised A. bisporus can positively increase GPx-1 and GPx-2 gene expression and GPx-1 enzyme activity in rat colon.

  4. Optimization of the Liquid Culture Medium Composition to Obtain the Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus Rich in Essential Minerals.

    PubMed

    Krakowska, Agata; Reczyński, Witold; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2016-09-01

    Agaricus bisporus species (J.E. Lange) Imbach one of the most popular Basidiomycota species was chosen for the research because of its dietary and medicinal value. The presented herein studies included determination of essential mineral accumulation level in the mycelium of A. bisporus, cultivated on liquid cultures in the medium supplemented with addition of the chosen metals' salts. Quantitative analyses of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Fe in liquid cultures made it possible to determine the relationship between accumulation of the selected mineral in A. bisporus mycelium and the culture conditions. Monitoring of the liquid cultures and determination of the elements' concentrations in mycelium of A. bisporus were performed using the flame technique of AAS method. Concentration of Zn in the mycelium, maintained in the medium with the addition of its salt, was in a very wide range from 95.9 to 4462.0 mg/g DW. In the analyzed A. bisporus mycelium, cultured in the medium enriched with copper salt, this metal concentration changed from 89.79 to 7491.50 mg/g DW; considering Mg in liquid cultured mycelium (medium with Mg addition), its concentration has changed from 0.32 to 10.55 mg/g DW. The medium enriched with iron salts has led to bioaccumulation of Fe in mycelia of A. bisporus. Determined Fe concentration was in the range from 0.62 to 161.28 mg/g DW. The proposed method of liquid A. bisporus culturing on medium enriched with the selected macro- and microelements in proper concentrations ratio have led to obtaining maximal growth of biomass, characterized by high efficiency of the mineral accumulation. As a result, a dietary component of increased nutritive value was obtained.

  5. Characterization of single spore isolates of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach using conventional and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manju; Suman, B C; Gupta, Dharmesh

    2014-10-01

    Strains A-15, S11, S-140, and U3 of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach, were used as parent strains for raising single spore homokaryotic isolates. Out of total 1,642 single spore isolates, only 36 single spore isolates were homokaryons and exhibited slow mycelial growth rate (≤2.0 mm/day) and appressed colony morphology. All these SSIs failed to produce pinheads in Petri plates even after 65 days of incubation, whereas the strandy slow growing SSIs along with parent strains were able to form the fructification in petriplates after 30 days. Out of 24, six ISSR primers, exhibited scorable bands. In the ISSR fingerprints, single spore isolates, homokaryons, lacked amplification products at multiple loci; they grow slowly and all of them had appressed types of colony morphology. The study revealed losses of ISSR polymorphic patterns in non-fertile homokaryotic single spore isolates compared to the parental control or fertile heterokaryotic single spore isolates.

  6. Bsn-t alleles from french field strains of agaricus bisporus

    PubMed

    Callac; Hocquart; Imbernon; Desmerger; Olivier

    1998-06-01

    In the Agaricus bisporus desert population in California, the dominant Bsn-t allele determines the production of tetrasporic basidia and homokaryotic spores (n) that characterize a heterothallic life cycle. Strains belonging to a French population have the Bsn-b/b genotype that results in bisporic basidia that produce heterokaryotic spores (n + n) which characterize a pseudohomothallic life cycle. More recombination occurs in the tetrasporic population than in the bisporic population. In France, tetrasporic strains are rare. For two such isolates, Bs 261 and Bs 423, we determined the life cycle, the heritability of the tetrasporic trait, the amount of variation in the recombination rate, and the haploid fruiting ability. We found that (i) Bs 261 was heterothallic, (ii) Bs 423 was homokaryotic and homothallic, (iii) Bs 261 was Bsn-t/b, (iv) recombination on a segment of chromosome I depended on the genotype at BSN, (v) some of the homokaryotic offspring of Bs 261 and all of the progeny of Bs 423 were able to fruit, (vi) Bs 261 and Bs 423 were closely related, and (vii) Bs 423 was partially intersterile with other strains of the species.

  7. Bsn-t Alleles from French Field Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Callac, Philippe; Hocquart, Sophie; Imbernon, Micheline; Desmerger, Christophe; Olivier, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    In the Agaricus bisporus desert population in California, the dominant Bsn-t allele determines the production of tetrasporic basidia and homokaryotic spores (n) that characterize a heterothallic life cycle. Strains belonging to a French population have the Bsn-b/b genotype that results in bisporic basidia that produce heterokaryotic spores (n + n) which characterize a pseudohomothallic life cycle. More recombination occurs in the tetrasporic population than in the bisporic population. In France, tetrasporic strains are rare. For two such isolates, Bs 261 and Bs 423, we determined the life cycle, the heritability of the tetrasporic trait, the amount of variation in the recombination rate, and the haploid fruiting ability. We found that (i) Bs 261 was heterothallic, (ii) Bs 423 was homokaryotic and homothallic, (iii) Bs 261 was Bsn-t/b, (iv) recombination on a segment of chromosome I depended on the genotype at BSN, (v) some of the homokaryotic offspring of Bs 261 and all of the progeny of Bs 423 were able to fruit, (vi) Bs 261 and Bs 423 were closely related, and (vii) Bs 423 was partially intersterile with other strains of the species. PMID:9603821

  8. Agaricus bisporus and its in vitro culture as a source of indole compounds released into artificial digestive juices.

    PubMed

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Kała, Katarzyna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Krakowska, Agata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2016-05-15

    The popularity of Agaricus bisporus results not only from the quality of the flavors, but also from the content of many substances of therapeutic properties. This paper presents a study on RP-HPLC determination of the content of indole compounds released from the lyophilized biomass from in vitro cultures of A. bisporus into artificial digestive juices at 37°C. A. bisporus in vitro cultures were grown on media enriched with zinc salts. The release of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan and l-tryptophan was found in the greatest number of samples. The content of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan in the investigated samples ranged from 86.62 to 531 mg/100g d.w. The amount of l-tryptophan was determined within the range of 1.63-4.68 mg/100g d.w. and for melatonin 0.43-0.64 mg/100g d.w. It was demonstrated for the first time that in vitro cultures of A. bisporus release indole compounds in conditions simulating the human digestive tract.

  9. Evidence for outcrossing via the Buller phenomenon in a substrate simultaneously inoculated with spores and mycelium of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Callac, Philippe; Spataro, Cathy; Caille, Aurélie; Imbernon, Micheline

    2006-04-01

    In Agaricus bisporus, traditional cultivars and most of the wild populations belong to A. bisporus var. bisporus, which has a predominantly pseudohomothallic life cycle in which most meiospores are heterokaryons (n + n). A lower proportion of homokaryotic (n) meiospores, which typify the heterothallic life cycle, also are produced. In wild populations, pseudohomothallism was thought previously to play a major role, but recent analyses have found that significant outcrossing also may occur. We inoculated a standard substrate for A. bisporus cultivation simultaneously with homokaryotic mycelium from one parent and spores from a second parent. Culture trays produced numerous sporocarps that could theoretically have resulted from five different reproductive modes (pseudohomothallism, selfing or outcrossing via heterothallism, and selfing or outcrossing via the Buller phenomenon [i.e., between a homokaryon and a heterokaryon]). Most or all of the sporocarps resulted from outcrossing between the inoculated homokaryon and the inoculated heterokaryotic spores (or mycelia that grew from them). These data broaden our understanding of population dynamics under field conditions and provide an outcrossing method that could be used in commercial breeding programs.

  10. Evidence for Outcrossing via the Buller Phenomenon in a Substrate Simultaneously Inoculated with Spores and Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Callac, Philippe; Spataro, Cathy; Caille, Aurélie; Imbernon, Micheline

    2006-01-01

    In Agaricus bisporus, traditional cultivars and most of the wild populations belong to A. bisporus var. bisporus, which has a predominantly pseudohomothallic life cycle in which most meiospores are heterokaryons (n + n). A lower proportion of homokaryotic (n) meiospores, which typify the heterothallic life cycle, also are produced. In wild populations, pseudohomothallism was thought previously to play a major role, but recent analyses have found that significant outcrossing also may occur. We inoculated a standard substrate for A. bisporus cultivation simultaneously with homokaryotic mycelium from one parent and spores from a second parent. Culture trays produced numerous sporocarps that could theoretically have resulted from five different reproductive modes (pseudohomothallism, selfing or outcrossing via heterothallism, and selfing or outcrossing via the Buller phenomenon [i.e., between a homokaryon and a heterokaryon]). Most or all of the sporocarps resulted from outcrossing between the inoculated homokaryon and the inoculated heterokaryotic spores (or mycelia that grew from them). These data broaden our understanding of population dynamics under field conditions and provide an outcrossing method that could be used in commercial breeding programs. PMID:16597931

  11. Determination of Chemical Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds in the Brazilian Mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus

    PubMed Central

    Orsine, JV Costa; Novaes, MRCG; Asquieri, E Ramirez; Cañete, R

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom has been widely studied because of its high nutritional value and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Agaricus sylvaticus and quantify their total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was performed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and total polyphenol content was assessed by colorimetric method. Observation also noted the great antioxidant potential of aqueous, alcoholic and ethereal extracts (14.6%, 75.6% and 14.6%, respectively) of the Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom, highlighting the alcoholic extract, which demonstrates the extraordinary benefits of this mushroom in the diet, since antioxidants prevent premature ageing and various types of cancer. PMID:25303248

  12. White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) (WBM) constitute 90 percent of the total mushrooms consumed in the United States; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well studied...

  13. In vitro supplementation with white button mushroom promotes maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) constitute 90 percent of the total mushroom market in the US; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well-studied. Furthermore, littl...

  14. Nuclear migration and mitochondrial inheritance in the mushroom agaricus bitorquis.

    PubMed

    Hintz, W; Anderson, J B; Horgen, P A

    1988-05-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used as genetic markers for following mitochondrial inheritance in the mushroom Agaricus bitorquis. In many basidiomycetes, bilateral nuclear migration between paired homokaryotic mycelia gives rise to two discrete dikaryons which have identical nuclei but different cytoplasms. Although nuclear migration is rare in A. bitorquis, unidirectional nuclear migration occurred when a nuclear donating strain (8-1), was paired with a nuclear recipient strain (34-2). The dikaryon recovered over the nuclear recipient mate (Dik D) contained nuclei from both parents but only mitochondria from the recipient mate; thus nuclei of 8-1, but not mitochondria, migrated through the resident hyphae of 34-2 following hyphal anastomosis. The two mitochondrial types present in a dikaryon recovered at the junction of the two cultures (Dik A) segregated during vegetative growth. Dikaryotic cells having the 34-2 mitochondrial type grew faster than cells with the 8-1 mitochondrial type. Fruitbodies, derived from a mixed population of cells having the same nuclear components but different cytoplasms, were chimeric for mitochondrial type. The transmission of mitochondria was biased in favor of the 8-1 type in the spore progeny of the chimeric fruitbody. Protoplasts of dikaryon (Dik D), which contained both nuclear types but only the 34-2 mitochondrial type, were regenerated and homokaryons containing the 8-1 nuclear type and the 34-2 mitochondrial type were recovered.

  15. Optimization of chemical sulfation, structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of Agaricus bisporus fucogalactan.

    PubMed

    Román, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-08-01

    A fucogalactan (E) was isolated from aqueous extract of Agaricus bisporus. The monosaccharide composition, methylation, and NMR analyses showed it is constituted by a (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp main-chain, partially methylated at O-3, and partially substituted at O-2 by non-reducing end-units of α-l-Fucp or α-d-Galp. HPSEC analysis showed it had Mw of 1.28×10(4)gmol(-1). The polysaccharide was sulfated modifying reaction time, molar ratio of sulfation agent to hydroxyl group on the polysaccharide (ηClSO3H/OH ratio), and ratio of total reaction volume to weight of sample (VT/w ratio; μLmg(-1)). The degree of substitution (DS) was evaluated for all sulfated derivatives. The sulfated fucogalactan with the highest DS value (2.83) had the best anticoagulant activity on Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Protrombin Time (PT) assays. This sulfated fucogalactan, named E100, was obtained with the optimal conditions of ηClSO3H/OH ratio of 18, VT/w ratio of 100, in 6h of reaction. The results showed that E100 produces a linear increment of APTT for concentrations of 15-45μgmL(-1), whereas PT was almost constant between 20 and 400μgmL(-1), suggesting an anticoagulant activity via inhibition of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. NMR and methylation analyses showed that α-d-Galp units of the main chain were greatly sulfated on 2-O-, 3-O-, and 4-O-positions.

  16. Identification of Resistance to Wet Bubble Disease and Genetic Diversity in Wild and Cultivated Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yongping; Wang, Xinxin; Li, Dan; Liu, Yuan; Song, Bing; Zhang, Chunlan; Wang, Qi; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhang, Zhiwu; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of wet bubble disease (WBD) caused by Mycogone perniciosa are increasing across the world and seriously affecting the yield of Agaricus bisporus. However, highly WBD-resistant strains are rare. Here, we tested 28 A. bisporus strains for WBD resistance by inoculating M. perniciosa spore suspension on casing soil, and assessed genetic diversity of these strains using 17 new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed in this study. We found that 10 wild strains originating from the Tibetan Plateau in China were highly WBD-resistant strains, and 13 cultivated strains from six countries were highly susceptible strains. A total of 88 alleles were detected in these 28 strains, and the observed number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8. Cluster and genetic structure analysis results revealed the wild resources from China have a relatively high level of genetic diversity and occur at low level of gene flow and introgression with cultivated strains. Moreover, the wild strains from China potentially have the consensus ancestral genotypes different from the cultivated strains and evolved independently. Therefore, the highly WBD-resistant wild strains from China and newly developed SSR markers could be used as novel sources for WBD-resistant breeding and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of WBD-resistant gene of A. bisporus. PMID:27669211

  17. Production of Agaricus bisporus on substrates pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum and supplemented at casing with protein-rich supplements.

    PubMed

    Coello-Castillo, M M; Sánchez, J E; Royse, D J

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on substrates pre-colonized by Scytalidiumthermophilum (St), a thermophilic fungus known to enhance yields of Ab and increase selectivity of the substrate. The radial extension rate (RER) of the mycelium of three strains of St and their influence on the growth of a brown strain of Ab were evaluated. We also determined the time required for colonization of pangola grass by St in a compost pile and the influence of three protein-rich supplements on yield of Ab on pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) colonized by St. RER of St ranged from 10.1mm/d on grass to 18.9 mm/d on potato dextrose yeast extract agar, with significant differences among substrates and among strains. Ab grew faster on substrate colonized for 1, 2, or 3 days by St (RER of 3.31, 3.29, 3.23 mm/d, respectively) compared to non-colonized substrate (1.85 mm/d). Ab was cultivated on substrate samples selected daily from the St-inoculated pile, with biological efficiencies (BE) ranging from 4% (day 0) to 73.9% (day 2). Protein-rich supplements (soybean, black beans and cowpeas) added at casing significantly stimulated mushroom yield on St-colonized substrate compared to the non-supplemented control. BE varied from 26.1% on substrate non-supplemented to 73.1% on compost supplemented with ground soybean. There were no significant differences in mushroom yield observed among supplements evaluated.

  18. Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis (1→6)-β-D-glucans show immunostimulatory activity on human THP-1 derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Alquini, Giovana; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Iacomini, Marcello; Wichers, Harry J; Van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2013-04-15

    The (1→6)-β-D-glucans from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis were purified to evaluate their effects on the innate immune system. THP-1 macrophages were used to investigate the induction of the expression of TNF-α, IL1β, and COX-2 by RT-PCR. The purification of the polysaccharides gave rise to fractions containing 96-98% of glucose. The samples were analyzed by GC-MS, HPSEC and (13)C NMR, which confirmed the presence of homogeneous (1→6)-β-D-glucans. The β-glucans were incubated with THP-1 derived macrophages, for 3 h and 6 h to evaluate their effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Both β-glucans stimulated the expression of such genes as much as the pro-inflammatory control (LPS). When the cells were incubated with LPS+β-glucan, a significant inhibition of the expression of IL-1β and COX-2 was observed for both treatments after 3 h of incubation. By the results, we conclude that the (1→6)-β-D-glucans present an immunostimulatory activity when administered to THP-1 derived macrophages.

  19. Advances in structure-function relationships of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus - investigation on heat-induced conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Ioniţă, Elena; Aprodu, Iuliana; Stănciuc, Nicoleta; Râpeanu, Gabriela; Bahrim, Gabriela

    2014-08-01

    A combination of fluorescence spectroscopic measurements, inactivation kinetics and in silico prediction was used in the present study to investigate the heat induced behaviour of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. The phase diagram indicated the existence of at least two distinct species induced by the temperature increase up to 75°C. Regardless of calcium ion presence, the fluorescence intensity results suggest that tyrosinase tends to form aggregates after 10min at 75°C. The quenching experiments using acrylamide and iodide demonstrate a more flexible conformation of tyrosinase at higher temperature. Detailed insights into tyrosinase structure after performing molecular dynamics simulations, suggest important structural rearrangements of the protein with the temperature increase. The copper coordinating His(94) residue was predicted to be involved in salt bridge formation with Glu(98), therefore causing significant alteration of the substrate binding site with increasing temperature. These significant changes in tyrosinase structure at temperatures over 60°C might lead to enzyme inactivation.

  20. Transcription analysis of pyranose dehydrogenase from the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus and characterization of the recombinantly expressed enzyme.

    PubMed

    Gonaus, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens

    2016-03-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a litter degrading basidiomycete commonly found in humic-rich environments. It is used as model organism and cultivated in large scale for food industry. Due to its ecological niche it produces a variety of enzymes for detoxification and degradation of humified plant litter. One of these, pyranose dehydrogenase, is thought to play a role in detoxification and lignocellulose degradation. It is a member of the glucose-methanol-choline family of flavin-dependent enzymes and oxidizes a wide range of sugars with concomitant reduction of electron acceptors like quinones. In this work, transcription of pdh in A. bisporus was investigated with real-time PCR revealing influence of the carbon source on pdh expression levels. The gene was isolated and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. Characterization of the recombinant enzyme showed a higher affinity towards disaccharides compared to other tested pyranose dehydrogenases from related Agariceae. Homology modeling and sequence alignments indicated that two loops of high sequence variability at substrate access site could play an important role in modulating these substrate specificities.

  1. Environmental regulation of reproductive phase change in Agaricus bisporus by 1-octen-3-ol, temperature and CO₂.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Daniel C; Herman, Bram; Noble, Ralph; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Sreenivasaprasad, S; Burton, Kerry S

    2013-06-01

    Reproductive phase change from vegetative mycelium to the initiation of fruiting in Agaricus bisporus is regulated in large part by the sensing of environmental conditions. A model is proposed in which three separate environmental factors exert control at different stages of the reproductive developmental process change. The eight carbon volatile 1-octen-3-ol controls the early differentiation from vegetative hyphae to multicellular knots; temperature reduction is essential for the later differentiation of primodia; and carbon dioxide level exerts quantitative control on the number of fruiting bodies developed. Analysis of transcriptomic changes during the reproductive phase change was carried out with initiation-specific microarrays, and the newly published A. bisporus genome was used to analyse the promoter regions of differentially regulated genes. Our studies have shown there to be both early and late initiation responses relating to sensing of eight carbon volatiles and temperature respectively. A subset of 45 genes was transcriptionally regulated during the reproductive phase change which exhibited a range of functions including cell structure, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, and sensing and signalling. Three gene clusters linking increased transcription with developmental stage were identified. Analysis of promoter regions revealed cluster-specific conserved motifs indicative of co-ordinated regulation of transcription.

  2. Induction of lcc2 expression and activity by Agaricus bisporus provides defence against Trichoderma aggressivum toxic extracts.

    PubMed

    Sjaarda, Calvin P; Abubaker, Kamal S; Castle, Alan J

    2015-11-01

    Laccases are used by fungi for several functions including defence responses to stresses associated with attack by other fungi. Laccase activity changes and the induction of two laccase genes, lcc1 and lcc2, in Agaricus bisporus were measured in response to toxic extracts of medium in which Trichoderma aggressivum, the cause of green mould disease, was grown. A strain of A. bisporus that shows resistance to the extracts showed higher basal levels and greater enzymatic activity after extract exposure than did a sensitive strain. Furthermore, pre-incubation of T. aggressivum extract with laccases reduced toxicity. Faster induction and greater numbers of lcc2 transcripts in response to the extract were noted in the resistant strain than in the sensitive strain. The timing and increase in lcc2 transcript abundance mirrored changes in total laccase activity. No correlation between resistance and lcc1 transcription was apparent. Transcript abundance in transformants with a siRNA construct homologous to both genes varied widely. A strong negative correlation between transcript abundance and sensitivity of the transformant to toxic extract was observed in plate assays. These results indicated that laccase activity and in particular that encoded by lcc2 contributes to toxin metabolism and by extension green mould disease resistance.

  3. Induction of lcc2 expression and activity by Agaricus bisporus provides defence against Trichoderma aggressivum toxic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sjaarda, Calvin P; Abubaker, Kamal S; Castle, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are used by fungi for several functions including defence responses to stresses associated with attack by other fungi. Laccase activity changes and the induction of two laccase genes, lcc1 and lcc2, in Agaricus bisporus were measured in response to toxic extracts of medium in which Trichoderma aggressivum, the cause of green mould disease, was grown. A strain of A. bisporus that shows resistance to the extracts showed higher basal levels and greater enzymatic activity after extract exposure than did a sensitive strain. Furthermore, pre-incubation of T. aggressivum extract with laccases reduced toxicity. Faster induction and greater numbers of lcc2 transcripts in response to the extract were noted in the resistant strain than in the sensitive strain. The timing and increase in lcc2 transcript abundance mirrored changes in total laccase activity. No correlation between resistance and lcc1 transcription was apparent. Transcript abundance in transformants with a siRNA construct homologous to both genes varied widely. A strong negative correlation between transcript abundance and sensitivity of the transformant to toxic extract was observed in plate assays. These results indicated that laccase activity and in particular that encoded by lcc2 contributes to toxin metabolism and by extension green mould disease resistance. PMID:25824278

  4. Mitochondrial inheritance and the detection of non-parental mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in crosses of Agaricus bisporus homokaryons.

    PubMed

    de la Bastide, Paul Y; Horgen, Paul A

    2003-04-01

    This study evaluates mtDNA transmission in Agaricus bisporus, as well as the occurrence of non-parental haplotypes in heterokaryons produced by controlled crosses. Sixteen crosses were performed with blended liquid cultures, using different combinations of 13 homokaryotic strains. For each cross, different mtDNA haplotypes were present in each homokaryon. Heterokaryons generated from these crosses were subject to genetic analysis with RFLP markers to identify (i). karyotic status, (ii). mtDNA haplotype, and (iii). the occurrence of non-parental mtDNA haplotypes. These analyses generally supported the occurrence of uniparental mitochondrial (mt) inheritance in A. bisporus, with one mtDNA haplotype usually favoured in the new heterokaryon. The preponderance of one mtDNA haplotype in a new heterokaryon did not necessarily show a correlation with a greater mycelial growth rate for the parent homokaryon possessing that haplotype. Mixed mtDNA haplotypes and non-parental haplotypes were also identified in the heterokaryons from some crosses. Evidence for the occurrence of two mtDNA haplotypes in one heterokaryotic mycelium was observed in 8 of 16 crosses, suggesting the maintenance of true heteroplasmons after three successive subculturing steps. Non-parental mtDNA haplotypes were seen in heterokaryons produced from 7 of 16 crosses. The mating protocol described can be utilized to generate novel mtDNA haplotypes for strain improvement and the development of strain-specific markers. Mechanisms of mt selection and inheritance are discussed.

  5. Agaricus bisporus powder improved cutaneous mucosal and serum immune parameters and up-regulated intestinal cytokines gene expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Khodadadian Zou, Hassan; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate immunomodulatory effects of Agaricus bisporus, white bottom mushroom powder (WBMP) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed on different levels of WBMP (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) for 8 weeks and at the end of feeding trial, skin mucus immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity), cytokines gene expression (TNF-alpha, IL1b, IL8) in intestine as well as serum non-specific immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and ACH50) were measured. The results showed significant dose dependent increase of skin mucus immune parameters in carps fed WBMP (P < 0.05). While, no significant difference was observed between 0.5% WBMP and control group (P > 0.05). In case of serum non-specific immune parameters, except lysozyme activity, other parameters (Ig total and ACH50) were significantly affected by dietary inclusion of WBMP (P < 0.05). Also, evaluation of cytokines gene expression in the intestine of carps revealed remarkable up-regulation of TNF-alpha in fish fed 2% WBMP supplemented diet compared other treatment (P < 0.05). Likewise, IL1b gene expression was significantly increased in 1 and 2% WBMP treatments compared to the 0.5% WBMP and control groups (P < 0.05). IL8 gene expression was not affected by inclusion of WBMP in carp diet (P > 0.05). Furthermore, feeding on WBMP supplemented diet significantly improved growth performance (P < 0.05). These results indicated that WBMP can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture.

  6. The intraspecific variability of mitochondrial genes of Agaricus bisporus reveals an extensive group I intron mobility combined with low nucleotide substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Jalalzadeh, Banafsheh; Saré, Idy Carras; Férandon, Cyril; Callac, Philippe; Farsi, Mohammad; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Barroso, Gérard

    2015-02-01

    Intraspecific mitochondrial variability was studied in ten strains of A. bisporus var. bisporus, in a strain representative of A. bisporus var. eurotetrasporus and in a strain of the closely related species Agaricus devoniensis. In A. bisporus, the cox1 gene is the richest in group I introns harboring homing endonuclease genes (heg). This study led to identify group I introns as the main source of cox1 gene polymorphism. Among the studied introns, two groups were distinguished according to the heg they contained. One group harbored heg maintained putatively functional. The other group was composed of eroded heg sequences that appeared to evolve toward their elimination. Low nucleotide substitution rates were found in both types of intronic sequences. This feature was also shared by all types of studied mitochondrial sequences, not only intronic but also genic and intergenic ones, when compared with nuclear sequences. Hence, the intraspecific evolution of A. bisporus mitochondrial genome appears characterized by both an important mobility (presence/absence) of large group I introns and by low nt substitution rates. This stringent conservation of mitochondrial sequences, when compared with their nuclear counterparts, appears irrespective of their apparent functionality and contrasts to what is widely accepted in fungal sequence evolution. This strengthens the usefulness of mtDNA sequences to get clues on intraspecific evolution.

  7. A novel homothallic variety of Agaricus bisporus comprises rare tetrasporic isolates from Europe.

    PubMed

    Callac, Philippe; Jacobé de Haut, Isabelle; Imbernon, Micheline; Guinberteau, Jacques; Desmerger, Christophe; Theochari, Ioanna

    2003-01-01

    Among 400 wild specimens of A. bisporus collected in Europe, only three were tetrasporic. In the case of two of them from France, a previous study showed that one was homokaryotic and hypothetically belonged to a homothallic entity while the other was heterokaryotic and possibly resulted from hybridization between a member of this entity and a classical bisporic strain. A third tetrasporic specimen recently was discovered in Greece. Morphological and genetic comparisons, using alloenzymatic markers, molecular markers and ITS polymorphisms, reveal that this third specimen is homokaryotic and belongs, with the homokaryotic specimen from France, to the same entity. Dissimilarity analysis confirms the hybrid origin of the heterokaryotic specimen. Varietal status is proposed for this homothallic, highly homogeneous entity, and A. bisporus var. eurotetrasporus is described. This novel variety clearly differs from var. bisporus by its tetrasporic basidia and from var. burnettii by its longer spores. It has a complex story because it can interbreed with var. bisporus and shares the same habitat; however, because of its homothallic life cycle and its partial intersterility, it is probably in the process of speciation.

  8. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms.

  9. Sulfation of fucogalactan from Agaricus bisporus: Different patterns in the chemical structure and their effects on anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Román Ochoa, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    A fucogalactan from Agaricus bisporus was sulfated by two methodologies based on an optimized sulfation method. The direct action of chlorosulfonic acid and SO3-pyridine complex over the sulfation reaction and its effects on anticoagulant activity were evaluated. The products of chemical sulfations were two sulfated fucogalactans named E100 and ESL respectively. Clotting assays (APTT, PT and TT) showed that both sulfated polysaccharides have anticoagulant activity, and that ESL was more potent compared to E100. The FXa, T and FXIIa activities in the presence of the sulfated polysaccharides were determined. The better anticoagulant activity of ESL could be related to anti-FXIIa activity and also probably to its higher bioavailability. The HPSEC analysis showed similar Mw of 1.08×10(4)gmol(-1) and 1.00×10(4)gmol(-1) for E100 and ESL respectively. NMR and methylation analyses indicated a heterogeneous sulfation pattern for E100, whereas ESL showed conserved unsulfated (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp residues in the main-chain and a more homogeneous sulfation pattern. The DS values of ESL and E100 were 1.0 and 2.8 respectively, indicating that the sulfation pattern is more important for the anticoagulant activity than the amount of sulfate.

  10. The Medicinal Values of Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Fu, Zhiming; Han, Chunchao

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM), a mushroom native to Brazil, is a basidiomycete brown fungus, which is popularly known as “Cogumelo do Sol” in Brazil or “Himematsutake” in Japan, and there has been a prominent increase in the use of ABM for therapeutic and medicinal purposes. ABM is useful against a variety of diseases like cancer, tumor, chronic hepatitis, diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and so on. In this review, we demonstrated various pharmacological effects of ABM, so that we can use different effects of ABM against different diseases and provide reference for the study of ABM in the future. PMID:24288568

  11. Capacity for colonization and degradation of horse manure and wheat-straw-based compost by different strains of Agaricus subrufescens during the first two weeks of cultivation.

    PubMed

    Farnet, Anne-Marie; Qasemian, Leila; Peter-Valence, Frédérique; Ruaudel, Florence; Savoie, Jean Michel; Ferré, Elisée

    2013-03-01

    The potential of Agaricus subrufescens strains to colonize and transform horse manure and wheat-straw-based mushroom compost under the physico-chemical conditions typically used for Agaricus bisporus was assessed. Lignocellulolytic activities, H2O2 production and substrate transformation (assessed via CP/MAS NMR of (13)C) for certain A. subrufescens strains were similar or even greater than those obtained for an A. bisporus strain used as control. Moreover, the functional diversity of the microbial communities of the substrate was not altered by the growth of A. subrufescens after 2weeks. These findings obtained with mesocosms simulating the incubation phase of the mushroom production process hold promise for the improvement of cultivation of this tropical Agaricus species on European standard mushroom compost.

  12. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-12-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of γ-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  13. Insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity of Agaricus campestris (mushroom).

    PubMed

    Gray, A M; Flatt, P R

    1998-05-01

    Agaricus campestris (mushroom) has been documented as a traditional treatment for diabetes. Here the administration of mushroom in the diet (62.5 g/kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/l) countered the hyperglycaemia of streptozotocin-diabetic mice. An aqueous extract of mushroom (1 mg/ml) stimulated 2-deoxyglucose transport (2.0-fold), glucose oxidation (1.5-fold) and incorporation of glucose into glycogen (1.8-fold) in mouse abdominal muscle. In acute 20 min tests, 0.25-1 mg/ml aqueous extract of mushroom evoked a stepwise 3.5- to 4.6-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from the BRIN-BD11 pancreatic B-cell line. This effect was abolished by 0.5 mM diazoxide and prior exposure to extract did not affect subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion by 10 mM L-alanine, thereby negating a detrimental effect on cell viability. The effect of extract was potentiated by 16.7 mM glucose, L-alanine (10 mM) and IBMX (1 mM), and a depolarising concentration of KCl (25 mM) did not augment the insulin-releasing activity of mushroom. Activity of the extract was found to be heat stable, acetone soluble and unaltered by exposure to alkali, but decreased with exposure to acid. Dialysis to remove components with molecular mass < 2000 Da caused a 40% reduction in activity. Sequential extraction with solvents revealed insulin-releasing activity to be greatest in polar fractions. Lack of haemagglutinin activity with extract activity indicated that activity was unlikely to be due to a lectin-mediated event. These results demonstrate the presence of antihyperglycaemic, insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity in A. campestris.

  14. Does the Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom have properties that affect the immune system? An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristiane Urcina Joanna Oliveira; Cordova, Cláudio Olavo de Almeida; Nóbrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the use of mushrooms for therapeutic and medicinal purposes, in particular, use of the species Agaricus blazei Murrill, a basidiomycota of Brazilian origin. The objective of this study was to identify scientific evidence regarding the influence of A. blazei Murrill on the immune system. We undertook an integrative review of indexed publications published between 2000 and 2009, using the following question as a guideline: "What evidence can be found in the literature regarding the influence of A. blazei Murrill on the immune system?" Fourteen studies verified that there is in vitro and in vivo research demonstrating this mushroom's influence on the immune system. All research was characterized as evidence level 7 (preclinical study [animals/in vitro]). The research shows that A. blazei Murrill functions through bioactive compounds via mechanisms that are not yet entirely clear, although it has been shown that they promote action on the innate and adaptive immunological response, activation of the complement system, and synthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and even aid in diapedesis. Despite broad scientific evidence demonstrating relevant immunomodulatory properties of A. blazei Murrill, randomized clinical trials with human subjects are still needed in order for the mushroom to be put into clinical practice.

  15. Nutritional supplementation with the mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus reduces oxidative stress in children with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Marcela S; Sá, Luana A; Vasconcelos, Amanda S; Moreira, Danilo R; Laurindo, Paula SOC; Ribeiro, Danielle RG; Santos, Rogério S; Guzzo, Paulo; Dolabela, Maria F; Percario, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The involvement of free radicals and oxidative stress in HIV infection has been extensively studied, and the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in animal studies have been demonstrated. However, few studies have demonstrated a benefit in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus, a mushroom rich in antioxidants, on the oxidative profile of children born with HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: The sample included 24 children (both boys and girls) between two and eight years of age, of whom 10 were HIV positive and received supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus for a three-month period, and 14 were HIV negative and received no supplementation. At the beginning and conclusion of the study, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite and nitrate (NN), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and the antioxidant capacity of inhibition of diphenyl-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) free radicals were analyzed. RESULTS: Before supplementation, significantly higher values of TBARS and NN, but decreased values of DPPH, were observed in infected subjects when compared with HIV-negative subjects. After supplementation, a reduction of TBARS and NN values and an increase in DPPH and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were observed in HIV-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in HIV infection, with the participation of NN synthesis. Additionally, supplementation reversed oxidative alterations and improved antioxidant defense in infected individuals, and may become a complementary strategy in the treatment of these patients. PMID:25371688

  16. Characterization studies on cadmium-mycophosphatin from the mushroom Agaricus macrosporus

    SciTech Connect

    Meisch, H.U.; Schmitt, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    A low molecular weight Cd-binding phosphoglycoprotein, cadmium-mycophosphatin, has been isolated from the mushroom Agaricus macrosporus. This protein has a molecular weight of 12,000 dalton and contains no sulfur but a high amount of acid amino acids (Glu, Asp), and carbohydrates (glucose, galactose). Cadmium-mycophosphatin has an isoelectric point less than pH 2, binds cadmium with a dissociation constant of K/sub D/ = 1.59 x 10 M (pK/sub D/ = 6.8) and is saturated with 13.5 mole Cd/mole, all Cd-binding sites being equivalent. It is suggested that Cd is bound by phosphoserine groups, similar relations being known from calcium-binding proteins in animals. From A. macrosporus four other low-molecular weight glycoproteins have been isolated which contain sulfur and bind cadmium and copper. The biological significance of these Cd-binding proteins is discussed.

  17. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gori, L.; Lombardo, G.

    2008-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and antimutagenic properties, although the biological pathways and chemical substances involved in its pharmacological activities are still not clear. The polysaccharides phytocomplex is thought to be responsible for its immunostimulant and antitumor properties, probably through an opsonizing biochemical pathway. Clinical studies are positive confirmations, but we are still at the beginning, and there are perplexing concerns especially relative to the content of agaritine. Argantine is a well-known carcinogenic and toxic substance in animals, that must be completely and fully evaluated. PMID:18317543

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and alkaline extracts from mushrooms (Agaricus blazei Murill).

    PubMed

    Padilha, Marina M; Avila, Ana A L; Sousa, Pergentino J C; Cardoso, Luis Gustavo V; Perazzo, Fábio F; Carvalho, José Carlos T

    2009-04-01

    The effects of aqueous and alkaline extracts from Agaricus blazei Murill, an edible mushroom used as folk medicine in Brazil, Japan, and China to treat several illnesses, were investigated on the basis of the inflammatory process induced by different agents. Oral administration of A. blazei extracts marginally inhibited the edema induced by nystatin. In contrast, when complete Freund's adjuvant was used as the inflammatory stimulus, both extracts were able to inhibit this process significantly (P < .05, analysis of variance followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post hoc test), although it inhibited the granulomatous tissue induction moderately. These extracts were able to decrease the ulcer wounds induced by stress. Also, administration of extracts inhibited neutrophil migration to the exudates present in the peritoneal cavity after carrageenin injection. Therefore, it is possible that A. blazei extracts can be useful in inflammatory diseases because of activation of the immune system and its cells induced by the presence of polysaccharides such as beta-glucans.

  19. Evidence for PPC1, a determinant of the pilei-pellis color of Agaricus bisporus fruitbodies.

    PubMed

    Callac, P; Moquet, F; Imbernon, M; Guedes-Lafargue, M R; Mamoun, M; Olivier, J M

    1998-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic basis of mushroom cap color. In first generation hybrids between a brown isolate and the white commercial hybrid U 1, the white trait was recessive. Color was determined using color meter technology in second generation hybrids obtained by crossing the homokaryotic progeny of a first generation hybrid with a homokaryon from U 1. Statistical analysis revealed a bimodal distribution describing two classes of white and not-white hybrids. We postulate that a recessive allele at a single locus (PPC1) encodes the white pilei-pellis color. Joint segregation analyses indicated that PPC1 was linked to the ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) locus. Through the analysis of the heterokaryotic progeny of the first generation hybrid, a recombination model is proposed in which PPC1 is located between the centromere and the ADH locus.

  20. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction to obtain mycosterols from Agaricus bisporus L. by response surface methodology and comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction.

    PubMed

    Heleno, Sandrina A; Diz, Patrícia; Prieto, M A; Barros, Lillian; Rodrigues, Alírio; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-15

    Ergosterol, a molecule with high commercial value, is the most abundant mycosterol in Agaricus bisporus L. To replace common conventional extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet), the present study reports the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for ergosterol. After preliminary tests, the results showed that solvents, time and ultrasound power altered the extraction efficiency. Using response surface methodology, models were developed to investigate the favourable experimental conditions that maximize the extraction efficiency. All statistical criteria demonstrated the validity of the proposed models. Overall, ultrasound-assisted extraction with ethanol at 375 W during 15 min proved to be as efficient as the Soxhlet extraction, yielding 671.5 ± 0.5mg ergosterol/100 g dw. However, with n-hexane extracts with higher purity (mg ergosterol/g extract) were obtained. Finally, it was proposed for the removal of the saponification step, which simplifies the extraction process and makes it more feasible for its industrial transference.

  1. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  2. Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase inhibited by apigenin: Multi-spectroscopic analyses and computational docking simulation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Lei; Zou, Liqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-15

    It has been revealed that some polyphenols can prevent enzymatic browning caused by polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Apigenin, widely distributed in many fruits and vegetables, is an important bioactive flavonoid compound. In this study, apigenin exhibited a strong inhibitory activity against PPO, and some reagents had synergistic effect with apigenin on inhibiting PPO. Apigenin inhibited PPO activity reversibly in a mixed-type manner. The fact that inactivation rate constant (k) of PPO increased while activation energy (Ea) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) decreased indicated that the thermosensitivity and stability of PPO decreased. The conformational changes of PPO were revealed by fluorescence emission spectra and circular dichroism. Atomic force microscopy observation suggested that the dimension of PPO molecules was larger after interacting with apigenin. Moreover, computational docking simulation indicated that apigenin bound to PPO and inserted into the hydrophobic cavity of PPO to interact with some amino acid residues.

  3. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals and humans show decrements in motor control, cognition, and brain function during normal aging, partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent studies have identified a number of fruits and vegetables, whose phytochemical make-up contains potent antioxidant ...

  4. Agaricicola taiwanensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium isolated from the edible mushroom Agaricus blazei.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Arun, A B; Chen, Wen-Ming; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D; Kämpfer, P; Young, Li-Sen; Lin, Shih-Yao; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2010-09-01

    A Gram-negative, beige-pigmented, aerobic, motile, club-shaped bacterium, designated strain CC-SBABM117(T), was isolated from the stipe of the edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the strain shared <93 % similarity with the type strains of species in the genera Pannonibacter, Methylopila, Nesiotobacter and Stappia. The organism was unable to produce acid from carbohydrates, but utilized a number of organic acids and amino acids. Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the major respiratory quinone and C(18 : 1) ω 7c, C(19 : 0) cyclo ω 8c, C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 0) were the predominant fatty acids. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of strain CC-SBABM117(T) was 62.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain CC-SBABM117(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Agaricicola taiwanensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Agaricicola taiwanensis is CC-SBABM117(T) (=BCRC 17964(T) =CCM 7684(T)).

  5. Hypolipidemic effect of the edible mushroom Agaricus blazei in rats subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Aline M; Ribeiro, Gustavo M; Cunha, Aureliano C; Silva, Lorena S; dos Santos, Rinaldo C; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo E

    2014-03-01

    The effects of Agaricus blazei intake on the lipid profile of animals fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were evaluated. Thirty-two female Fisher rats were divided into four groups and given the standard AIN-93 M diet (C), this diet + 1 % A. blazei (CAb), a hypercholesterolemic diet with 25 % soybean oil and 1 % cholesterol (H) or this diet + 1 % A. blazei (HAb) for 6 weeks. Food intake, weight gain, liver and serum lipid profiles, activity of aminotransferases [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], and creatinine and urea levels as well as abdominal fat weight were measured. Histological analysis of kidney and liver tissue was also performed. The HAb group had a higher food intake, but a lower weight gain as compared to group H. This resulted in a significant decrease in abdominal fat weight, to values close to those of groups C and CAb. Supplementing the hypercholesterolemic diet with A. blazei promoted a significant reduction in total and non-HDL cholesterol, as well as in the atherogenic index, as compared to group H, and this effect was more pronounced in the serum. There was no hepatotoxic effect caused by the supplementation of the diets with the mushroom. We conclude that in our experimental model and in the concentration used, A. blazei was effective in improving the lipid profile of the animals.

  6. Screening for in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of the mushroom Agaricus blazei.

    PubMed

    Ziliotto, Liane; Pinheiro, Fabriciano; Barbisan, Luís Fernando; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the in vitro antitumor activity of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on human cancer cell lines as well as its potential anticancer activity in a model of rat colon carcinogenesis. The in vitro anticancer analysis was performed using 9 human cancer cell lines incubated with organic and aqueous extracts of A. blazei. Antitumor activity was observed with the dichloromethane/methanol and hexanic extracts of A. blazei at 250 mu g/ml for all cancer cell lines tested. No antiproliferative/cytotoxic activities were detected for the aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, or n-butanolic extracts. In the in vivo analysis, crude A. blazei was given orally after carcinogen treatment in a rat medium-term study (20 weeks) of colon carcinogenesis using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as biomarker. Male Wistar rats were given dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and then were fed A. blazei at 5% in the diet until Week 20. ACF were scored for number and crypt multiplicity. A. blazei intake did not suppress ACF development or crypt multiplicity induced by DMH. No differences in tumor incidence in the colon were observed among the DMH-treated groups. Our results indicate that employing A. blazei in the diet does not have a suppressive effect on colon carcinogenesis.

  7. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers issued from pyrosequencing technology for the medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Cabannes, Delphine; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2012-09-01

    The recently described procedure of microsatellite-enriched library pyrosequencing was used to isolate microsatellite loci in the gourmet and medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens. Three hundred and five candidate loci containing at least one simple sequence repeats (SSR) locus and for which primers design was successful, were obtained. From a subset of 95 loci, 35 operational and polymorphic SSR markers were developed and characterized on a sample of 14 A. subrufescens genotypes from diverse origins. These SubSSR markers each displayed from two to 10 alleles with an average of 4.66 alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.71. Several multiplex combinations can be set up, making it possible to genotype up to six markers easily and simultaneously. Cross-amplification in some closely congeneric species was successful for a subset of loci. The 35 microsatellite markers developed here provide a highly valuable molecular tool to study genetic diversity and reproductive biology of A. subrufescens.

  8. Assessment of arsenic bioaccessibility in raw and cooked edible mushrooms by a PBET method.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Llorens-Muñoz, Mariona; Funes-Collado, Virginia; Sahuquillo, Àngels; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports arsenic analysis in Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus before and after being cooked. Furthermore, arsenic in raw and cooked mushroom was determined in the gastric and gastrointestinal bioaccessible fractions obtained after simulating human digestion by means of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Several certified reference materials (SRM 1568a, SRM 1570a, CRM 7503-a, BC211 and IPE-120) were analysed to evaluate the proposed methods. Total arsenic content was 1393, 181 and 335μgAskg(-1) for L. edodes, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, respectively, and decreased by between 53% and 71% in boiled mushroom and less than 11% in griddled mushroom. High bioaccessibility was observed in raw, boiled and griddled mushroom, ranging from 74% to 89% and from 80% to 100% for gastric and gastrointestinal extracts, respectively, suggesting the need to consider the potential health risk of consumption of the mushrooms analysed.

  9. Cadmium and lead bioavailability and their effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation by spent mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, C; Jiménez-Ayuso, N; Frutos, I; Gárate, A; Eymar, E

    2013-12-01

    Bioremediation of mixed metal-organic soil pollution constitutes a difficult task in different ecosystems all around the world. The aims of this work are to determine the capacity of two spent mushroom substrates (Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus) to immobilize Cd and Pb, to assess the effect of these metals on laccase activity, and to determine the potential of spent A. bisporus substrate to biodegrade four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene, when those toxic heavy metals Cd and Pb are present. According to adsorption isotherms, spent P. ostreatus and A. bisporus substrates showed a high Pb and Cd adsorption capacity. Pb and Cd interactions with crude laccase enzyme extracts from spent P. ostreatus and A. bisporus substrates showed Cd and Pb enzyme inhibition; however, laccase activity of A. bisporus presented lower inhibition. Spent A. bisporus substrate polluted with PAH and Cd or Pb was able to biodegrade PAH, although both metals decrease the biodegradation rate. Spent A. bisporus substrate contained a microbiological consortium able to oxidize PAH with high ionization potential. Cd and Pb were immobilized during the bioremediation process by spent A. bisporus substrate. Consequently, spent A. bisporus substrate was adequate as a multi-polluted soil bioremediator.

  10. Cloning and characterization of laccase DNA from the Royal Sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto-Akanuma, Akiko; Akanuma, Satoshi; Motoi, Masuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Ohno, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    Laccase isozymes have been identified in several fungi. We report the cloning of 4 laccase genes from the medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis. The lac1 gene contained a 1560-base pair (bp) open reading frame (ORF) encoding 520 amino acids that was interrupted with 14 introns in genomic DNA. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated a multicopper oxidase signature 1 and 2 multicopper oxidase signature 2. The lac2 gene contained a 1566-bp ORF encoding 522 amino acids that was interrupted with 13 introns in genomic DNA. A number of different nucleotides were observed in whole regions containing the substitution of amino acid residues (lac2a and lac2b). The partial DNA fragments of lac3 and lac4 genes were subcloned using the semi-random two-step polymerase chain reaction method. The lac3 and lac4 genes contained coding sequences with a 1575-bp ORF encoding 525 amino acids and a 1584-bp ORF encoding 528 amino acids, respectively. However, the whole complementary DNA fragment of both laccases could not be amplified with polymerase chain reaction against the complementary DNA library; therefore, introns were deduced based on the GT-AG rule and multiple alignment of laccases from other fungi, which showed high identity. All laccases from A. brasiliensis conserved the fungal laccase signature sequence and suggest 2 subfamilies according to the location of introns and phylogenetic analysis. The genes lac2 and lac4 had a high degree of identity, and the lac2a gene was located upstream of the lac4 gene.

  11. Enzyme activity of extracellular protein induced in Trichoderma asperellum and T. longibrachiatum by substrates based on Agaricus bisporus and Phymatotrichopsis omnivora.

    PubMed

    Guigón-López, Cesar; Guerrero-Prieto, Víctor; Lanzuise, Stefania; Lorito, Matteo

    2014-02-01

    Antagonistic Trichoderma spp. are used throughout the world for the biological control of soil-borne plant diseases. This approach has stimulated an on-going search for more efficient mycoparasitic strains with a high potential for producing extracellular lytic enzymes. This study compares the production of lytic enzymes by native strains of Trichoderma asperellum and Trichoderma longibrachiatum on substrates of differing complexity. The quantity of protein induced by Agaricus bisporus-based medium was higher than that induced by Phymatotrichopsis omnivora-based medium. In P. omnivora medium, T. asperellum exhibited higher chitinolytic and β-1,3-glucanolytic activities than T. longibrachiatum. The enzyme profile was related to the previously reported ability of these strains to inhibit the growth of several soil-borne plant pathogens. NAGase production was similar among the tested indigenous strains of T. longibrachiatum; T479 and T359 produced more endochitinase, T479 produced more glucanase, and T341 and T359 produced more β-1,3-glucanase. The detected variations in glucanase and β-1,3-glucanase activities suggest that the production of these enzymes is strongly influenced by the substrate. Strains T397 and T359 exhibited xylanase activity, which triggers defence mechanisms in plants. Thus, these strains may utilise an additional mechanism of biocontrol.

  12. Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells Is Not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens.

    PubMed

    Wilbers, Ruud H P; Westerhof, Lotte B; van de Velde, Jan; Smant, Geert; van Raaij, Debbie R; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Bakker, Jaap; Schots, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC's cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation. The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) because CLR binding is Ca(2+) dependent, and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells; however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydrate containing adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines.

  13. Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells Is Not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

    PubMed Central

    Wilbers, Ruud H. P.; Westerhof, Lotte B.; van de Velde, Jan; Smant, Geert; van Raaij, Debbie R.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Bakker, Jaap; Schots, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC’s cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation. The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) because CLR binding is Ca2+ dependent, and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells; however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydrate containing adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines. PMID:27920777

  14. Commonly consumed and specialty dietary mushrooms reduce cellular proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Keith R; Brophy, Sara K

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, over one million women will be newly diagnosed with breast cancer in the next year. Moreover, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the USA. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that consumption of dietary mushrooms can protect against breast cancer. In this study, we tested and compared the ability of five commonly consumed or specialty mushrooms to modulate cell number balance in the cancer process using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hot water extracts (80°C for 2 h) of maitake (MT, Grifola frondosa), crimini (CRIM, Agaricus bisporus), portabella (PORT, Agaricus bisporus), oyster (OYS, Pleurotus ostreatus) and white button (WB, Agaricus bisporus) mushrooms or water alone (5% v/v) were incubated for 24 h with MCF-7 cells. Cellular proliferation determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced up to 33% by all mushrooms, with MT and OYS being the most effective. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction, an often used mitochondrion-dependent marker of proliferation, was unchanged although decreased (P > 0.05) by 15% with OYS extract. Lactate dehydrogenase release, as a marker of necrosis, was significantly increased after incubation with MT but not with other test mushrooms. Furthermore, MT extract significantly increased apoptosis, or programmed cell death, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl end labeling method, whereas other test mushrooms displayed trends of ∼15%. The total numbers of cells per flask, determined by hemacytometry, were not different from control cultures. Overall, all test mushrooms significantly suppressed cellular proliferation, with MT further significantly inducing apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. This suggests that both common and specialty mushrooms may be chemoprotective against breast cancer.

  15. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  16. Characterization of phytase activity from cultivated edible mushrooms and their production substrates.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Patrick D; Royse, Daniel J

    2004-12-15

    Phytase is used commercially to maximize phytic acid degradation and to decrease phosphorus levels in poultry and swine manure. To determine phytase content in edible mushrooms, basidiomata of Agaricus bisporus and three specialty mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus cornucopiae) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were surveyed. Enzyme activity ranged from 0.046 to 0.074 unit/g of tissue for four A. bisporus types (closed and open whites and closed and open browns) grown at The Pennsylvania State University's Mushroom Test Demonstration Facility (MTDF). The addition of various nutrient supplements to phase II mushroom production substrate did not alter phytase activity in A. bisporus. Portabella mushrooms (open brown) obtained from a commercial farm had significantly higher levels of phytase activity (0.211 unit/g of tissue) compared to A. bisporus grown at the MTDF. Of the specialty mushrooms surveyed, maitake (G. frondosa) had 20% higher phytase activity (0.287 unit/g of tissue) than commercial portabella mushrooms. The yellow oyster mushroom (P. cornucopiae) ranked second in level of phytase activity (0.213 unit/g of tissue). Shiitake (L. edodes) contained the least amount of phytase in basidiomata (0.107 unit/g of tissue). Post-crop steam treatment (60 degrees C, 24 h) of SMS reduced phytase activity from 0.074 to 0.018 unit/g. Phytase was partially purified from commercially grown portabella basidiomata 314-fold with an estimated molecular mass of 531 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The optimum pH for activity was 5.5, but appreciable phytase activity was observed over the range of pH 5.0-8.0. Partially purified A. bisporus phytase was inactivated following a 10-min incubation at > or =60 degrees C.

  17. Furlough Mushrooms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  18. Study on vitamin D₂ stability in dried mushrooms during drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Sławińska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Korona, Marta; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Stachniuk, Anna

    2016-05-15

    The main objective of this work was to determine the stability of vitamin D2 in dried mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes during storage, as well as to examine the possibility of inducing vitamin D2 production in dried mushrooms by UVB irradiation. After 1.5 year storage of dried mushrooms, the level of vitamin D2 in button mushrooms was found to be 6.90 μg/g dw, which is a 48.32% of initial level of vitamin D2. In the case of dried oyster and shiitake mushrooms there was a decrease to the level of 66.90% and 68.40%, respectively. It was determined that dried mushrooms can produce ergocalciferol under UVB irradiation. The highest content of vitamin D2 was observed in A. bisporus. Freeze-dried A. bisporus contained from 42.08 to 119.21 μg/g dw and hot-air dried mushrooms contained from 21.51 to 81.17 μg/g dw vitamin D2.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 5329, a White Line-Inducing Principle-Producing Bioindicator for the Mushroom Pathogen Pseudomonas tolaasii

    PubMed Central

    Rokni-Zadeh, Hassan; Zarrineh, Peyman

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, the causative agent of Agaricus bisporus brown blotch disease, can be identified by the white line reaction, occurring upon confrontation of the tolaasin-producing mushroom pathogen with “Pseudomonas reactans,” producing the lipopeptide white line-inducing principle (WLIP). The draft genome sequence of the WLIP-producing indicator Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LMG 5329 is reported here. PMID:23887909

  20. Purification and Characterization of Melanogenic Enzyme Tyrosinase from Button Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ayesha S.; Ali, Sharique A.

    2014-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it's taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19 U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95 kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimum values are pH 7.0 and temperature 35°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933 mM. This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications. PMID:25197562

  1. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  2. Evaluation of residue risk and toxicity of different treatments with diazinon insecticide applied to mushroom crops.

    PubMed

    Navarro, María J; Merino, Llanos; Gea, Francisco J

    2017-03-04

    This work describes the phytotoxic effect of different doses of diazinon and different application times on Agaricus bisporus mycelium, and determines the residue levels in mushrooms from the first three flushes. Mushroom cultivation is a widespread commercial activity throughout the world. The application of insecticide diazinon to the compost or casing layer is a common practice to control two mushroom pests, the phorid Megaselia halterata and the sciarid Lycoriella auripila. Application to the compost does not result in any appreciable fall in yield or quality, and does not delay the harvest time. In contrast, application to the casing led to a slight fall (6.2%) in production and a smaller number of mushrooms although they are larger in size. Residue levels of more than 0.01 ppm are detected in many of the samples analyzed, and raising the question whether the product should continue to be used in mushroom cultivation in the conditions in which it is currently applied.

  3. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  4. A review on antifungal activity of mushroom (basidiomycetes) extracts and isolated compounds.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Dias, Joana; Teixeira, Vânia; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The present review reports the antifungal activity of mushroom extracts and isolated compounds including high (e.g. peptides and proteins) and low (e.g. sesquiterpenes and other terpenes, steroids, organic acids, acylcyclopentenediones and quinolines) molecular weight compounds. Most of the studies available on literature focused on screening of antifungal activity of mushroom extracts, rather than of isolated compounds. Data indicate that mushroom extracts are mainly tested against different Candida species, while mushroom compounds are mostly tested upon other fungi. Therefore, the potential of these compounds might be more useful in food industry than in clinics. Oudemansiella canarii and Agaricus bisporus methanolic extracts proved to be the most active mushroom extracts against Candida spp. Grifolin, isolated from Albatrellus dispansus, seemed to be the most active compound against phytopathogenic fungi. Further studies should be performed in order to better understand the mechanism of action of this and other antifungal compounds as well as safety issues.

  5. Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetidae), Derived Polysaccharides Exert Immunomodulatory Activities In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Fang, Leilei; Zhang, Yanqing; Xie, Junbo; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Huan; Wei, Weilu; Li, Yingrui

    2016-01-01

    The royal sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis is a widely consumed mushroom around the world. In this study, the immunoregulatory potential of A. brasiliensis polysaccharides was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, the polysaccharides remarkably increased the spleen and thymus indexes in mice, and this effect was influenced significantly by age (the adult and the juvenile). The spleen index increased by 27.28% in adult mice treated with the polysaccharides, whereas the increase in juvenile mice was just 12.59% at the dose of 150 mg·kg-1·d-1. Moreover, the effect of the polysaccharides on the thymus and spleen indexes in adult mice was obvious both in males and females. The carbon clearance ability (phagocytic index) was improved with increasing doses, (32.81% at 120 mg·kg-1·d-1, and 38.34% at 150 mg·kg-1·d-1) in mice treated with the polysaccharides. In vitro, the polysaccharides increased the RAW264.7 cell proliferation with 34.78% at 25 µg/mL and 26.78% at 50 µg/mL. Furthermore, the polysaccharides also promoted mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation 88 (MYD88), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) in the cells, indicating that the polysaccharides induce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by stimulating TLR4/MyD88 and TLR4/TRIF pathways. In conclusion, these results suggest that A. brasiliensis polysaccharides induce a very promising immunostimulation effect in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, it should be explored as a novel natural functional food additive.

  6. Extraction of lycopene from tomato sauce with mushrooms (Agaricus brasiliensis), determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cristiane Schüler; Miguel, Obdulio G; Eugênia, Balbi Maria; Penteado, Patrícia Teixeira Padilha Da Silva; Haracemiv, Sonia Maria Chaves

    2009-01-01

    Lycopene belongs to the subgroup of non-oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties that are comparatively more powerful than the majority of plasma carotenoids. When foodstuffs containing lycopene are processed, the cell wall breaks down during the thermal process--thus enabling the extraction of lycopene from chromoplasts, improving their bioavailability. Edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis stands out given its medicinal properties and antioxidant potential when used to treat heart diseases and to prevent cancer. Given the interest in lycopene-rich foods, the purpose of the present study was to determine the lycopene present in different types of tomato sauce with A. brasiliensis and/or its extract by high-performance liquid chromatography. The type of solvent (dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol) to remove water from the tomato sauce was tested before the extraction of carotenoids. Lycopene determination in tomato sauces, in tomatoes and in the A. brasiliensis extract was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography. Findings show that when tomato sauce and raw materials underwent heat treatment, the type of treatment did not interfere with carotenoid and lycopene bioavailability--indicating that those sauces have a significant concentration of carotenoids and, in particular, their content in the lycopene proportion compared with total carotenoids.

  7. The Agaricus blazei-Based Mushroom Extract, Andosan™, Protects against Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the A/J Min/+ Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Dag M.; Tangen, Jon M.; Haugen, Mads H.; Mirlashari, Mohammad R.; Paulsen, Jan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The novel A/J Min/+ mouse, which is a model for human Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), develops spontaneously multiple adenocarcinomas in the colon as well as in the small intestine. Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) is an edible Basidiomycetes mushroom that has been used in traditional medicine against cancer and other diseases. The mushroom contains immunomodulating β-glucans and is shown to have antitumor effects in murine cancer models. Andosan™ is a water extract based on AbM (82%), but it also contains the medicinal Basidiomycetes mushrooms Hericeum erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. Methods and findings Tap water with 10% Andosan™ was provided as the only drinking water for 15 or 22 weeks to A/J Min/+ mice and A/J wild-type mice (one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) difference), which then were exsanguinated and their intestines preserved in formaldehyde and the serum frozen. The intestines were examined blindly by microscopy and also stained for the tumor-associated protease, legumain. Serum cytokines (pro- and anti-inflammatory, Th1-, Th2 -and Th17 type) were measured by Luminex multiplex analysis. Andosan™ treated A/J Min/+ mice had a significantly lower number of adenocarcinomas in the intestines, as well as a 60% significantly reduced intestinal tumor load (number of tumors x size) compared to control. There was also reduced legumain expression in intestines from Andosan™ treated animals. Moreover, Andosan™ had a significant cytotoxic effect correlating with apoptosis on the human cancer colon cell line, Caco-2, in vitro. When examining serum from both A/J Min/+ and wild type mice, there was a significant increase in anti-tumor Th1 type and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the Andosan™ treated mice. Conclusions The results from this mouse model for colorectal cancer shows significant protection of orally administered Andosan™ against development of intestinal cancer. This is supported by the finding of less legumain in intestines

  8. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world.

  9. Visible and near-infrared calibrations for quality assessment of fresh phase I and II mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) compost.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H S S; Kilpatrick, M; Lyons, G; Sturgeon, S; Archer, J; Moore, S; Cheung, L; Finegan, K

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that visible and near-infrared spectra (Vis-NIR) of dry and milled compost can be used for generating partial least squares (PLS) calibrations of phase II compost parameters including ammonia, nitrogen dry matter (NDM), dry matter (DM), pH, conductivity, carbon, microbial population, and potential productivity. The objective of this study was to develop robust calibrations for some of the key parameters from the spectra of fresh phase I and II composts. Samples of substrates from six commercial production yards were obtained during winter and summer months of 2000-2004 to monitor changes in quality and were analyzed for the test factors. Vis-NIR reflectance measurements of fresh samples (740) were made over the range of 400-2500 nm. After mathematical pretreatments, PLS calibrations of the key parameters were developed using the NIR (1100-2500 nm) and visible and NIR (400-2500 nm) regions and subsequently validated using an independent sample set of 123 phase I and II samples obtained during 2004-2005. The phase I and II standard errors of laboratory measurements of ammonia, pH, conductivity, DM, NDM, and ash were lower than the standard error of predictions of the same parameters, respectively, by the best NIR or Vis-NIR models. The degree of precision for some of the calibrations, especially ammonia, NDM, and DM, is suitable for composters to monitor changes in quality parameters during production. The laboratory measurement errors for phase I samples were greater than those of the phase II samples, except for ash, due to a higher degree of heterogeneity in the substrate. The calibrations, especially for pH, conductivity, and ash, need to be improved with new sample sets. A major advantage of NIR spectroscopy is the ability to assess substrate quality for a range of target parameters simultaneously, within a few hours of receiving the samples. The main drawbacks are the expensive instrumentation, expertise, and training necessary for operating the spectrometer and a dedicated chemometrician required for maintaining the equations compared to the reference methods.

  10. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Moinard, Magalie; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Shouxian; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Zhao, Ruilin; Hyde, Kevin D; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n) of the heterokaryotic (n+n) parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated.

  11. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Moinard, Magalie; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Shouxian; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Zhao, Ruilin; Hyde, Kevin D.; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n) of the heterokaryotic (n+n) parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated. PMID:27228131

  12. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Vimala, R; Das, Nilanjana

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q(max) 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q(max) 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  13. Nutritional values and antioxidant potential of some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Boda, Rouf Hamza; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Ganie, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Bilal Ahmad; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Mushrooms are considered rich in proteins, carbohydrates and other nutrients. The present study was carried out to evaluate some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley for their protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. The highest protein content was found in Boletus edulis (2.20g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (1.80g), Pleurotus ostreatus (1.68g), Morchella esculenta (1.62g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (1.6g). Carbohydrate content also showed variation in all the five tested edible mushroom species, the highest carbohydrate content observed in Boletus edulis (6.0g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (4.85g), Pleurotus ostreatus (4.30g), Morchella esculenta (4.25g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (3.35g) respectively. Similar results were observed for lipid content. The present study was also investigated for the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of mushroom species by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent, which were compared with standard antioxidant Catechin.

  14. [DNA quantification in nuclei of cultivated mushroom with DAPI staining].

    PubMed

    Pancheva, E V; Volkova, V N; Kamzolkina, O V

    2004-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach is actively cultivated amphithallic basidiomycete, in which various strains are primary homothallic, heterothallic or secondary homothallic. Countings of relative nuclear DNA content by means of DAPI stain and its comparison in different strains can help to understand the mushroom's life cycle features. The authors for the first time observed change of nuclear phases in basidia of A. bisporus strains with different types of life cycle and revealed that DNA content in diploid nuclei is about 1.3 times higher than in haploid ones. The method is highly sensitive and can be used for quantitative measurings of nuclear DNA even in objects with nuclei of about 1 mkm in diameter.

  15. Determination of Glutathione, Selenium, and Malondialdehyde in Different Edible Mushroom Species.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Hacer; Coteli, Ebru; Karatas, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and selenium was determined by using the fluorescence spectrophotometer in eight different species of edible mushrooms. Brittlegill mushroom (Russula delica), meadow mushroom (Agaricus campestris), dryad's saddle mushroom (Polyporus squamosus), white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Pleurotus spp., ink mushroom (Coprinus atramentarius), ebekari mushroom (slimy) (Elazığ local) and çaşır mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) (Tunceli local) were used for analysis. The amounts of GSH, GSSG, Se, and MDA with GSH/GSSG ratio in the eight different species of edible mushrooms were observed in between 269.10 ± 16.94-1554.83 ± 58.12 μg/g; 23.55 ± 1.89-841.90 ± 20.03 μg/g; 15.06 ± 1.56-82.10 ± 3.84 μg/g; 5.46 ± 0.50-27.45 ± 2.58 μg/g wet weight and 0.32-41.35, respectively. There is a weak correlation (R (2) = 0.389) between MDA and Se, on the other hand, the correlation (R (2) = 0.831) between GSH/GSSG ratio and selenium in mushrooms are reasonable well. In a similar manner, there is a weak correlation (R (2) = 0551) between GSH/GSSG and MDA ratios in mushrooms. It was found that these edible mushroom species are good source of glutathione (GSH, GSSG), and selenium (Se) in terms of quantities obtained; therefore, it can be said that mushrooms are a rich source of antioxidants.

  16. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps.

  17. Mushrooms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Mushrooms KidsHealth > For Teens > Mushrooms Print A A A ... Mushrooms en español Setas alucinógenas What Are Hallucinogenic Mushrooms? We think of mushrooms as a food. But ...

  18. Effects of the mushroom-volatile 1-octen-3-ol on dry bubble disease.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Roeland L; Kalkhove, Stefanie I C; Lugones, Luis G; Baars, Johan J P; Wösten, Han A B; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2013-06-01

    Dry bubble disease caused by Lecanicillium fungicola is a persistent problem in the cultivation of the white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Because control is hampered by chemicals becoming less effective, new ways to control dry bubble disease are urgently required. 1-Octen-3-ol is a volatile that is produced by A. bisporus and many other fungi. In A. bisporus, it has been implicated in self-inhibition of fruiting body formation while it was shown to inhibit spore germination in ascomycetes. Here, we show that 1-octen-3-ol inhibits germination of L. fungicola and that enhanced levels of 1-octen-3-ol can effectively control the malady. In addition, application of 1-octen-3-ol stimulates growth of bacterial populations in the casing and of Pseudomonas spp. specifically. Pseudomonas spp. and other bacteria have been demonstrated to play part in both the onset of mushroom formation in A. bisporus, as well as the inhibition of L. fungicola spore germination. A potential role of 1-octen-3-ol in the ecology of L. fungicola is discussed.

  19. Mushrooms

    MedlinePlus

    ... kinds of mushrooms contain substances that can cause hallucinations. Hallucinogenic mushrooms contain psilocybin and psilocyn . These substances, ... higher doses or stronger mushrooms can bring on hallucinations, anxiety, paranoia, and nervousness. The person may have ...

  20. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C)

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna

    2015-01-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  2. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Mattila, P; Könkö, K; Eurola, M; Pihlava, J M; Astola, J; Vahteristo, L; Hietaniemi, V; Kumpulainen, J; Valtonen, M; Piironen, V

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se), vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(12), C, D, folates, and niacin), and certain phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, and phenolic acids) in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Selenium, toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and other mineral elements were analyzed by ETAAS, ICP-MS, and ICP methods, respectively; vitamins were detected by microbiological methods (folates, niacin, and vitamin B(12)) or HPLC methods (other vitamins), and phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (flavonoids) or GC--MS methods (lignans and phenolic acids). Cultivated mushrooms were found to be good sources of vitamin B(2), niacin, and folates, with contents varying in the ranges 1.8--5.1, 31--65, and 0.30--0.64 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), respectively. Compared with vegetables, mushrooms proved to be a good source of many mineral elements, e.g., the contents of K, P, Zn, and Cu varied in the ranges 26.7--47.3 g/kg, 8.7--13.9 g/kg, 47--92 mg/kg, and 5.2--35 mg/kg dw, respectively. A. bisporus/brown contained large amounts of Se (3.2 mg/kg dw) and the levels of Cd were quite high in L. edodes (1.2 mg/kg dw). No flavonoids or lignans were found in the mushrooms analyzed. In addition, the phenolic acid contents were very low.

  3. The Effects of Light Intensity, Casing Layers, and Layering Styles on Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) Cultivation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Adanacioglu, Neşe; Boztok, Kaya; Akdeniz, Ramazan Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of light intensity, casing layers, and layering styles on the production of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis in Turkey. The experiments were designed in split-split plots and replicated twice. Three different light intensities-I1, 350 lux; I2, 450 lux; and I3, 750 lux-were used in main plots as environmental factors. A mixture of 4 different casing layers- peat (100%), peat-perlite (75%:25%), peat-clinoptilolite (75%:25%), and peat-perlite-clinoptilolite (60%:20%:20%)-were used at split plots and at split plots. S1, a flat, 3-cm casing layer; S2, a flat, 5-cm casing layer; and S3, casing soil ridges 10 cm wide × 4 cm high, 10 cm apart, were deposited on top of 1-cm overall soil casing layers. At the end of the harvest phase, the total yield was estimated per 100 kg of substrate. Biological efficiency (percentage) was determined from the fresh weight of the mushrooms and the dry weight of the compost at the end of the harvesting period. The highest total yield (7.2 kg/100 kg compost) and biological efficiency (27.63%) were achieved from I2 × peat-perlite-clinoptilolite × S2 treatment. Influence of light intensity, casing layer, layering style, and their interaction in treatments with color values (L*, a*, b*, chroma*, and hue*) also were examined. It has been shown that within color values, chroma* (saturation) values of mushroom caps were affected by light intensity, casing layer, and layering style treatments and light intensity × casing layer treatments and the brightness of mushroom caps tended to increase as light intensity increased.

  4. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hetland, Geir; Johnson, Egil; Lyberg, Torstein; Kvalheim, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer. Other scientists and we have examined whether there is scientific evidence behind such postulations. Agaricus blazei M is rich in the immunomodulating polysaccharides, β-glucans, and has been shown to have antitumor, anti-infection, and antiallergic/-asthmatic properties in mouse models, in addition to anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease patients. These effects are mediated through the mushroom's stimulation of innate immune cells, such as monocytes, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and the amelioration of a skewed Th1/Th2 balance and inflammation. PMID:21912538

  5. Modelling the effect of the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials used as casing layers on the production parameters of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Arturo; Emilio Pardo, J; de Juan, J Arturo; Zied, Diego Cunha

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research was to show the mathematical data obtained through the correlations found between the physical and chemical characteristics of casing layers and the final mushrooms' properties. For this purpose, 8 casing layers were used: soil, soil + peat moss, soil + black peat, soil + composted pine bark, soil + coconut fibre pith, soil + wood fibre, soil + composted vine shoots and, finally, the casing of La Rioja subjected to the ruffling practice. The conclusion that interplays in the fructification process with only the physical and chemical characteristics of casing are complicated was drawn. The mathematical data obtained in earliness could be explained in non-ruffled cultivation. The variability observed for the mushroom weight and the mushroom diameter variables could be explained in both ruffled and non-ruffled cultivations. Finally, the properties of the final quality of mushrooms were established by regression analysis.

  6. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor.

  7. An extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates monocyte-derived dendritic cells to cytokine and chemokine production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Førland, D T; Johnson, E; Tryggestad, A M A; Lyberg, T; Hetland, G

    2010-03-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM), which has been used in traditional medicine against a range of diseases and possess immunomodulating properties, probably due to its high content of beta-glucans. Others and we have demonstrated stimulatory effects of extracts of this mushroom on different immune cells. Dendritic cells are major directors of immune function. We wanted to examine the effect of AbM stimulation on signal substance release from monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). After 6d incubation with IL-4 and GM-CSF, the cells were true MDDC. Then the cells were further incubated with up to 10% of the AbM-based extract, AndoSan, LPS (0.5 microg/ml) or PBS control. We found that the AbM extract promoted dose-dependent increased levels of IL-8, G-CSF, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and MIP-1beta, in that order. The synthesis of IL-2, IL-8 and IFNgamma were similar for the AbM extract and LPS. However, AndoSan induced a 10- to 2-fold higher production than did LPS of G-CSF, TNFalpha and IL-1beta, respectively. AbM did not induce increased synthesis of Th2 or anti-inflammatory cytokines or the Th1 cytokine IL-12. We conclude that stimulation of MDDC with an AbM-based extract resulted in increased production of proinflammatory, chemotactic and some Th1-type cytokines in vitro.

  8. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of silver in wild Agaricus campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Falandysz, J.; Danisiewicz, D.

    1995-07-01

    Silver is an element naturally occurring in small concentrations in different environmental sites. However, many anthropogenic sources of silver led to contamination of this element in soil surfaces, pastures, and coastal marine areas in different parts of the world. Estimates are that 40% of the 1.15x10{sup 4}t of silver produced annually worldwide, will escape into the environment. Due to municipal waste discharge and/or industrial effluents with high silver concentrations, 100 x above the background level have been reported in invertebrate species from polluted marine areas. The meta-stabile radioisotope, {sup 110m}Ag, is a main component of the liquid effluents from nuclear facilities under normal operating conditions. The presence of {sup 111}Ag and {sup 110m}Ag also has been widely found throughout Europe in the 1986 Chernobyl fallout. Silver ions are environmentally harmful. High toxic effects have been observed at low concentrations, especially in aquatic species. Species of lower fungi as well as the mushroom Agaricus bisporus are know to bioaccumulate high concentrations of silver when grown on an artificially enriched substrate. This study looks at the relationship between the silver content of soil and bioconcentration potential of wild Agaricus campestris from sites under different use and with different concentrations of heavy metals. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Heat-stable components of wood ear mushroom, Auricularia polytricha (higher Basidiomycetes), inhibit in vitro activity of beta secretase (BACE1).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Sheean, Paul; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Head, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of mushrooms has been linked with protection against dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), by several biological pathways including inhibiting beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is responsible for releasing toxic β-amyloid peptide in the brain. We have investigated the capacity of several medicinal mushroom species-Auricularia polytricha (wood ear mushroom), Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom), Flammulina velutipes (winter or enoki mushroom), and Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom)-in the regulation of BACE1. Mushrooms were subjected to a generic food-compatible processing method to detect process-stable or process-modified products; the effects of processing were interpreted to infer the chemical classes associated with bioactivity. We have shown previously that in addition to enzyme inhibition, in the presence of the BACE1 proenzyme, heteropolymeric species such as heparin can activate BACE1 by modulating access to the catalytic site. We observed both inhibitory and activating components of the various mushrooms. Only BACE1 inhibitory species were detected in unprocessed and processed forms of A. polytricha, whereas the dominant extracted species from A. bisporus, F. velutipes, and L. edodese were activators of BACE1. It is not known whether activating species were masking the presence of inhibitory species in A. bisporus, F. velutipes, and L. edodes. Inhibitory species were attributed to hispidin-derived polyphenols, whereas activating species were attributed to soluble polysaccharides and possibly low-mass Maillard products produced during processing. Larger molecular BACE1-activating species are unlikely to be bioavailable to brain in contrast with possible brain bioavailability of smaller, lipophilic hispidins.

  10. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Heather L; Haron, Mona H; Pugh, Nirmal D; Zhang, Jin; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-10-12

    Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present within edible and medicinal mushrooms substantially contribute to the innate immune stimulating potential of these mushrooms. Whole mushrooms from thirteen types of edible fungi and individual parts from Agaricus bisporus were analyzed for in vitro macrophage activation as well as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) content, cell load, and community composition. Substantial variation between samples was observed in macrophage activation (over 500-fold), total bacterial load (over 200-fold), and LPS content (over 10 million-fold). Both LPS content (ρ = 0.832, p < 0.0001) and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.701, p < 0.0001) correlated significantly with macrophage activation in the whole mushroom extracts. Extract activity was negated by treatment with NaOH, conditions that inactivate LPS and other bacterial components. Significant correlations between macrophage activation and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.723, p = 0.0001) and LPS content (ρ = 0.951, p < 0.0001) were also observed between different tissues of Agaricus bisporus. Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium were the most prevalent genera identified in the different tissue parts and these taxa were significantly correlated with in vitro macrophage activation (ρ = 0.697, p < 0.0001 and ρ = 0.659, p = 0.0001, respectively). These results indicate that components derived from mushroom associated bacteria contribute substantially to the innate immune enhancing activity exhibited by mushrooms and may result in similar therapeutic actions as reported for ingestion of bacterial preparations such as probiotics.

  11. Effect of an extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on expression of cytokines and calprotectin in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Førland, D T; Johnson, E; Saetre, L; Lyberg, T; Lygren, I; Hetland, G

    2011-01-01

    An immunomodulatory extract (AndoSan™) based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) has shown to reduce blood cytokine levels in healthy volunteers after 12 days' ingestion, pointing to an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim was to study whether AndoSan™ had similar effects on cytokines in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Calprotectin, a marker for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), was also measured. Patients with CD (n = 11) and with UC (n = 10) consumed 60 ml/day of AndoSan™. Patient blood plasma was harvested before and after 6 h LPS (1 ng/ml) stimulation ex vivo. Plasma and faecal calprotectin levels were analysed using ELISA and 17 cytokines [IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12 (Th1), IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 (Th2), IL-7, IL-17, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, MIP-1β, MCP-1, G-CSF, GM-CSF and IL-10] by multiplex assay. After 12 days' ingestion of AndoSan™, baseline plasma cytokine levels in UC was reduced for MCP-1 (40%) and in LPS-stimulated blood for MIP-1β (78%), IL-6 (44%), IL-1β (41%), IL-8 (30%), G-CSF (29%), MCP-1 (18%) and GM-CSF (17%). There were corresponding reductions in CD: IL-2 (100%), IL-17 (55%) and IL-8 (29%) and for IL-1β (35%), MIP-1β (30%), MCP-1 (22%), IL-8 (18%), IL-17 (17%) and G-CSF (14%), respectively. Baseline concentrations for the 17 cytokines in the UC and CD patient groups were largely similar. Faecal calprotectin was reduced in the UC group. Ingestion of an AbM-based medicinal mushroom by patients with IBD resulted in interesting anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated by declined levels of pathogenic cytokines in blood and calprotectin in faeces.

  12. Agaricus subrufescens: A review.

    PubMed

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Ruilin; Callac, Philippe; Moukha, Serge; Férandon, Cyril; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Hyde, Kevin D

    2012-04-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have currently become a hot issue due to their various therapeutic properties. Of these, Agaricus subrufescens, also known as the "almond mushroom", has long been valued by many societies (i.e., Brazil, China, France, and USA). Since its discovery in 1893, this mushroom has been cultivated throughout the world, especially in Brazil where several strains of A. subrufescens have been developed and used as health food and alternative medicine. This article presents up-to-date information on this mushroom including its taxonomy and health promoting benefits. Medicinal properties of A. subrufescens are emphasized in several studies which are reviewed here. In addition, safety issues concerning the use of this fungus will be discussed.

  13. Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 causes discoloration and pitting of mushroom caps due to the production of antifungal metabolites.

    PubMed

    Henkels, Marcella D; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Shaffer, Brenda T; Goebel, Neal C; Burlinson, Peter; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Bentley, Michael A; Rangel, Lorena I; Davis, Edward W; Thomashow, Linda S; Zabriskie, T Mark; Preston, Gail M; Loper, Joyce E

    2014-07-01

    Bacteria in the diverse Pseudomonas fluorescens group include rhizosphere inhabitants known for their antifungal metabolite production and biological control of plant disease, such as Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, and mushroom pathogens, such as Pseudomonas tolaasii. Here, we report that strain Pf-5 causes brown, sunken lesions on peeled caps of the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) that resemble brown blotch symptoms caused by P. tolaasii. Strain Pf-5 produces six known antifungal metabolites under the control of the GacS/GacA signal transduction system. A gacA mutant produces none of these metabolites and did not cause lesions on mushroom caps. Mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of the antifungal metabolites 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin caused less-severe symptoms than wild-type Pf-5 on peeled mushroom caps, whereas mutants deficient in the production of lipopeptide orfamide A caused similar symptoms to wild-type Pf-5. Purified pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol mimicked the symptoms caused by Pf-5. Both compounds were isolated from mushroom tissue inoculated with Pf-5, providing direct evidence for their in situ production by the bacterium. Although the lipopeptide tolaasin is responsible for brown blotch of mushroom caused by P. tolaasii, P. protegens Pf-5 caused brown blotch-like symptoms on peeled mushroom caps through a lipopeptide-independent mechanism involving the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin.

  14. Antioxidant capacity of several Iranian, wild and cultivated strains of the button mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Tajalli, Faezeh; Malekzadeh, Khalil; Soltanian, Hadi; Janpoor, Javad; Rezaeian, Sharareh; Pourianfar, Hamid R.

    2015-01-01

    The white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, is the most commonly grown mushroom in Iran; however, there is a significant shortage of research on its antioxidant activity and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts from four cultivated strains and four Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)-identified, Iranian wild isolates of A. bisporus. Evaluations were made for total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. Overall, results showed that all the wild isolates exhibited significantly lower DPPH-derived EC50, compared to the cultivated strains (p < 0.05). A relatively high relationship was observed between total phenols and flavonoids or anthocyanins (r2 > 0.60). However, these constituents could not statistically differentiate the group of wild samples from the cultivated ones, and there was low correlation with the DPPH-derived EC50s (r2 < 0.40). In conclusion, comparisons showed that wild isolate 4 and cultivated strains A15 and H1 had higher antioxidant capacity than the others (p < 0.05). This result identifies these mushrooms as good candidates for further investigation. PMID:26413059

  15. Antioxidant properties and electrochemical behavior of cultivated commercial Indian edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Babu, Dandamudi Rajesh; Rao, G Nageswara

    2013-04-01

    Methanolic extracts of cap and stipe of commercially obtained mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Hypsizygus ulmarius, and Calocybe indica were analyzed for their antioxidant activity in different chemical systems including reducing power, free radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), superoxide scavenging, peroxide scavenging, metal chelating activities and electrochemical behavior. Scavenging effects on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were moderate (43.5-59.0%) at 1.5 mg/ml. Chelating effects on ferrous ions were moderate to excellent (40.6-96.1%) at 20 mg/ml. At 12 mg/ml, the reducing powers were excellent (2.54-1.71). FRAP results were in the range 2.15-0.98 at 16 mg/ml. The ability to scavenge H2O2 was moderate to excellent (48.9-97.7%) at 1.5 mg/ml. At 10 mg/ml, Agaricus bisporus cap proved to be better at scavenging superoxide radicals than others. Similar electrochemical responses of all extracts suggested similar electroactive chemical composition. The total phenols in the extracts ranged from 14.73-26.72 mg/g.The total flavonoid content ranged from 1.12-2.17 μg/g.

  16. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  17. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  18. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  19. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  20. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  1. Agaricus subrufescens: A review

    PubMed Central

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Ruilin; Callac, Philippe; Moukha, Serge; Férandon, Cyril; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have currently become a hot issue due to their various therapeutic properties. Of these, Agaricus subrufescens, also known as the “almond mushroom”, has long been valued by many societies (i.e., Brazil, China, France, and USA). Since its discovery in 1893, this mushroom has been cultivated throughout the world, especially in Brazil where several strains of A. subrufescens have been developed and used as health food and alternative medicine. This article presents up-to-date information on this mushroom including its taxonomy and health promoting benefits. Medicinal properties of A. subrufescens are emphasized in several studies which are reviewed here. In addition, safety issues concerning the use of this fungus will be discussed. PMID:23961172

  2. Compatibility of ammonia suppressants used in poultry litter with mushroom compost preparation and production.

    PubMed

    González-Matute, Ramiro; Rinker, Danny Lee

    2006-09-01

    Ammonia suppressants are applied to chicken litter to decrease ammonia levels. And mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) producers use poultry litter to increase the nitrogen in the compost. To determine the influence of ammonia suppressants used in poultry litter on compost preparation and mushroom production, four mushroom crops were cultivated from compost prepared using litter treated with PLT, Barn Fresh and Impact-P at 25.22 kg/100 m2, 40 kg/100 m2, and 0.49 kg/100 m2, respectively, during the poultry production process. In general, no significant differences (P>0.05) were noted between treatments for total nitrogen, ammonia, pH, EC, ash, and moisture when compost or the headspace air was sampled during compost preparation throughout all stages. Nor were mushroom yields or counts significantly affected (P>0.05) by the presence of ammonia suppressants in the poultry litter. Thus, the mushroom industry can confidently use poultry litter amended with PLT, Impact-P, and Barn Fresh when used at the recommended rates.

  3. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest.

    PubMed

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life.

  4. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  5. Microbacterium agarici sp. nov., Microbacterium humi sp. nov. and Microbacterium pseudoresistens sp. nov., isolated from the base of the mushroom Agaricus blazei.

    PubMed

    Young, C-C; Busse, H-J; Langer, S; Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Schumann, P; Arun, A B; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D; Kämpfer, P

    2010-04-01

    Three Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria (strains CC-SBCK-209( T), CC-12309(T) and CC-5209(T)) were isolated from the stalk of the edible mushroom Agaricus blazei grown in the laboratory. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that all three isolates clearly belonged to the genus Microbacterium. Strains CC-SBCK-209( T) and CC-12309(T) were most related closely to the type strain of Microbacterium halotolerans (95.9 and 96.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). These two novel strains shared 97.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Levels of similarity to the type strains of all other recognized Microbacterium species were lower than 95.5 %. The third strain (CC-5209( T)) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain of Microbacterium resistens (97.6 %); levels of similarity to the type strains of all other recognized Microbacterium species were lower than 96 %. The quinone systems of strains CC-SBCK-209(T), CC-12309(T) and CC-5209(T) consisted of MK-11/MK-12, MK-11/MK-10 and MK-13 as major compounds, respectively. All three strains contained ornithine in their peptidoglycan. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown glycolipid. The polyamine pattern consisted of spermidine and spermine as predominant components. Fatty acid profiles (anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0 ) as major components) supported the affiliation of all three strains to the genus Microbacterium. The results of physiological and biochemical tests and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments allowed the clear phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strains CC-SBCK-209(T) and CC-12309( T) from M. halotolerans and other closely related Microbacterium species. Strain CC-5209(T) could be differentiated clearly from M. resistens both genotypically and phenotypically. Based on these data, the novel strains are considered to represent three novel species of the genus Microbacterium. The names

  6. Primary mechanism of apoptosis induction in a leukemia cell line by fraction FA-2-b-ss prepared from the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill.

    PubMed

    Gao, L; Sun, Y; Chen, C; Xi, Y; Wang, J; Wang, Z

    2007-11-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill is a native Brazilian mushroom which functions primarily as an anticancer substance in transplanted mouse tumors. However, the mechanism underlying this function of A. blazei Murill remains obscure. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of fraction FA-2-b-ss, an RNA-protein complex isolated from A. blazei Murill, on human leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro. Typical apoptotic characteristics were determined by morphological methods using DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The growth suppressive effect of fraction FA-2-b-ss on HL-60 cells in vitro occurred in a dose- (5-80 microg/mL) and time-dependent (24-96 h) manner. The proliferation of HL-60 cells (1 x 10(5) cells/mL) treated with 40 microg/mL of fraction FA-2-b-ss for 24-96 h and with 5-80 microg/mL for 96 h resulted in inhibitory rates ranging from 8 to 54.5%, and from 4.9 to 86.3%, respectively. Both telomerase activity determined by TRAP-ELISA and mRNA expression of the caspase-3 gene detected by RT-PCR were increased in HL-60 cells during fraction FA-2-b-ss treatment. The rate of apoptosis correlated negatively with the decrease of telomerase activity (r = 0.926, P < 0.05), but correlated positively with caspase-3 mRNA expression (r = 0.926, P < 0.05). These data show that fraction FA-2-b-ss can induce HL-60 cell apoptosis and that the combined effect of down-regulation of telomerase activity and up-regulation of mRNA expression of the caspase-3 gene could be the primary mechanism of induction of apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that fraction FA-2-b-ss could be of interest for the clinical treatment of acute leukemia.

  7. Characterization of pseudomonads isolated from decaying sporocarps of oyster mushroom.

    PubMed

    Sajben, Eniko; Manczinger, László; Nagy, Adrienn; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2011-05-20

    Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the most extensively cultivated mushrooms in the world; however, the success of cultivation often depends on the proliferation of different bacterial pathogens. Pseudomonas tolaasii is thought as the major cause of brown blotch disease of Agaricus bisporus and yellowing of Pleurotus ostreatus. In this study we examined the pathogenicity and assessed the industrial damage causing effect of 41 Pseudomonas strains isolated from deformed, yellowing oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus) sporocarps. Identification of the isolates at species level by the partial sequence analysis of the hypervariable region of the rpoB gene revealed nine Pseudomonas sps. We analyzed the presence of the tolaasin gene-cluster, the production of fluorescent pigments, the oxidase- and nitrite reductase activities, the growth at restrictive temperatures and the carbon source utilizing abilities of each strain. Complex lipopeptide production (including tolaasin) was examined with thin layer chromatography and a novel in vitro necrosis-test was developed and evaluated for the investigation of the pathogenic effect of Pseudomonas strains. Our results underline the importance of extracellular enzyme production in the sporocarp decaying process. Strong correlations were found between the secretion of trypsin-like proteases and lipases and the necrotic effect of these bacteria. All the results clearly established that besides Ps. tolaasii, Ps. fluorescens biovar V strains were pathogenic to P. ostreatus and cause serious losses during mushroom production. Our results underline the importance of extracellular enzyme production in the sporocarp decaying process, especially the trypsin-like proteases and lipases.

  8. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    PubMed Central

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  9. Immunomodulatory effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-based mushroom extract AndoSan in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized, double blinded clinical study.

    PubMed

    Tangen, Jon-Magnus; Tierens, Anne; Caers, Jo; Binsfeld, Marilene; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Trøseid, Anne-Marie Siebke; Wang, Junbai; Tjønnfjord, Geir Erland; Hetland, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients) or placebo (21 patients). Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR) genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021.

  10. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-Based Mushroom Extract AndoSan in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing High Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Double Blinded Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Tierens, Anne; Caers, Jo; Binsfeld, Marilene; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Trøseid, Anne-Marie Siebke; Wang, Junbai; Tjønnfjord, Geir Erland; Hetland, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients) or placebo (21 patients). Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR) genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021. PMID:25664323

  11. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Shimizu, Nobuo; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values. PMID:24233028

  12. Headspace-Solid-Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography as Analytical Methodology for the Determination of Volatiles in Wild Mushrooms and Evaluation of Modifications Occurring during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Rosaria; De Grazia, Selenia; Grasso, Elisa; Trozzi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms are sources of food, medicines, and agricultural means. Not much is reported in the literature about wild species of the Mediterranean flora, although many of them are traditionally collected for human consumption. The knowledge of their chemical constituents could represent a valid tool for both taxonomic and physiological characterizations. In this work, a headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with GC-MS and GC-FID was developed to evaluate the volatile profiles of ten wild mushroom species collected in South Italy. In addition, in order to evaluate the potential of this analytical methodology for true quantitation of volatiles, samples of the cultivated species Agaricus bisporus were analyzed. The choice of this mushroom was dictated by its ease of availability in the food market, due to the consistent amounts required for SPME method development. For calibration of the main volatile compounds, the standard addition method was chosen. Finally, the assessed volatile composition of A. bisporus was monitored in order to evaluate compositional changes occurring during storage, which represents a relevant issue for such a wide consumption edible product. PMID:25945282

  13. Headspace-Solid-Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography as Analytical Methodology for the Determination of Volatiles in Wild Mushrooms and Evaluation of Modifications Occurring during Storage.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rosaria; De Grazia, Selenia; Grasso, Elisa; Trozzi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms are sources of food, medicines, and agricultural means. Not much is reported in the literature about wild species of the Mediterranean flora, although many of them are traditionally collected for human consumption. The knowledge of their chemical constituents could represent a valid tool for both taxonomic and physiological characterizations. In this work, a headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with GC-MS and GC-FID was developed to evaluate the volatile profiles of ten wild mushroom species collected in South Italy. In addition, in order to evaluate the potential of this analytical methodology for true quantitation of volatiles, samples of the cultivated species Agaricus bisporus were analyzed. The choice of this mushroom was dictated by its ease of availability in the food market, due to the consistent amounts required for SPME method development. For calibration of the main volatile compounds, the standard addition method was chosen. Finally, the assessed volatile composition of A. bisporus was monitored in order to evaluate compositional changes occurring during storage, which represents a relevant issue for such a wide consumption edible product.

  14. Drying kinetics and characteristics of combined infrared-vacuum drying of button mushroom slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Jafarianlari, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Infrared-vacuum drying characteristics of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) were evaluated in a combined dryer system. The effects of drying parameters, including infrared radiation power (150-375 W), system pressure (5-15 kPa) and time (0-160 min) on the drying kinetics and characteristics of button mushroom slices were investigated. Both the infrared lamp power and vacuum pressure influenced the drying time of button mushroom slices. The rate constants of the nine different kinetic's models for thin layer drying were established by nonlinear regression analysis of the experimental data which were found to be affected mainly by the infrared power level while system pressure had a little effect on the moisture ratios. The regression results showed that the Page model satisfactorily described the drying behavior of button mushroom slices with highest R value and lowest SE values. The effective moisture diffusivity increases as power increases and range between 0.83 and 2.33 × 10-9 m2/s. The rise in infrared power has a negative effect on the ΔE and with increasing in infrared radiation power it was increased.

  15. Alternative to peat for Agaricus brasiliensis yield.

    PubMed

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; da Silveira, Adriano Reis; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Linde, Giani Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Casing layer is one of the most important components of Agaricus spp. production and it directly affects mushroom productivity, size and mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential raw materials as a casing layer and their effect on Agaricus brasiliensis productivity. Raw materials from Brazil with potential use were selected and characterized, and the most promising ones were tested as casing layers for mushroom yield. Evaluated raw materials included lime schist, vermiculite, eucalyptus sawdust, sand, São Paulo peat, Santa Catarina peat, subsoil and charcoal. Particle size, porosity and water absorption in relation to mushroom yield for casing layers were determined. Lime schist, an alternate casing layer to peat, is presented and the effects of the casing layer on the mushroom yield are discussed.

  16. Spore behaviors reveal a category of mating-competent infertile heterokaryons in the offspring of the medicinal fungus Agaricus subrufescens.

    PubMed

    Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Moinard, Magalie; Souza Dias, Eustáquio; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Strain breeding is much less advanced in the edible and medicinal species Agaricus subrufescens than in Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom. Both species have a unifactorial system of sexual incompatibility, a mating type locus tightly linked to a centromere, and basidia producing both homokaryotic (n) and heterokaryotic (n + n) spores. In A. bisporus, breeding is mainly based on direct selection among the heterokaryotic offspring and on hybridization between homokaryotic offspring. The parental heterozygosity is highly maintained in the heterokaryotic offspring due to suppression of recombination and preferential pairing in the spores of nuclei, each one per second meiotic divisions; such "non-sister nuclei" heterokaryons are fertile. In A. subrufescens, recent studies revealed that recombination is not suppressed and that nuclei from the same second meiotic division can also be paired in a spore that give rise to a "sister nuclei" heterokaryon in which the nuclei bear the same mating type allele. The objective of the present work was to investigate the potential function of the different categories of spores in A. subrufescens and their possible use in a genetic breeding program. Using eight co-dominant molecular markers, we found that half of the offspring of the A. subrufescens strain WC837 were heterokaryotic, one quarter of them being sister nuclei heterokaryons. These heterokaryons were infertile and behaved like homokaryons, being even able to cross between each other. In contrast, non-sister nuclei heterokaryons could fruit but inconsistently due to inbreeding depression. Potential roles of these two categories of heterokaryons in nature and consequences for strain breeding are discussed.

  17. Beta-glucan extracted from the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei prevents the genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; Bellini, Marilanda Ferreira; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

    2009-01-01

    The mushroom Agaricus blazei is studied for its nutraceutical potential and as a medicinal supplement. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemoprotective effect of beta-glucan extracted from the mushroom A. blazei against DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), using the comet assay (genotoxicity) and micronucleus assay with cytokinesis block (mutagenicity) in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). To elucidate the possible beta-glucan mechanism of action, desmutagenesis or bioantimutagenesis types, three treatment protocols were tested: simultaneous, pre-treatment, and presimultaneous. The results showed that beta-glucan does not exert genotoxic or mutagenic effect, but that it does protect against DNA damage caused by B[a]P in every protocol tested. The data suggest that beta-glucan acts through binding to B[a]P or the capture of free radicals produced during its activation. On the other hand, the pre-treatment results also suggest the possibility that beta-glucan modulates cell metabolism.

  18. Assessment of the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the wild edible mushroom Agaricus lanipes (F.H. Møller & Jul. Schäff.) Hlaváček.

    PubMed

    Kaygusuz, Oğuzhan; Kaygusuz, Meruyert; Dodurga, Yavuz; Seçme, Mücahit; Herken, Emine Nur; Gezer, Kutret

    2017-02-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the wild edible mushroom Agaricus lanipes, and also to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential and possible apoptotic effect against the A549 lung cancer cell line in in vitro conditions. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, lipid hydroperoxides, and total free -SH levels of A. lanipes were found to be 4.55 mg T/g, 14.6 mg GA equivalent/g, 3.10 mg H2O2 equivalent/g, 2.25 mg H2O2 equivalent/g, and 1.90 µmol/g, respectively. The methanolic extract of A. lanipes had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against seven tested microorganism strains. It also had high anti-proliferative potency and strong pro-apoptotic effects, and this mushroom used as a daily nutrient could be a source for new drug developments and treatment in cancer therapies, and could be a guide for studies in this area.

  19. Rapid evaluation technique to differentiate mushroom disease-related moulds by detecting microbial volatile organic compounds using HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Radványi, Dalma; Gere, Attila; Jókai, Zsuzsa; Fodor, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyse microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) of mushroom disease-related microorganisms. Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillum fungicola var. fungicola, and Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum species, which are typically harmful in mushroom cultivation, were examined, and Agaricus bisporus (bisporic button mushroom) was also examined as a control. For internal standard, a mixture of alkanes was used; these were introduced as the memory effect of primed septa in the vial seal. Several different marker compounds were found in each sample, which enabled us to distinguish the different moulds and the mushroom mycelium from each other. Monitoring of marker compounds enabled us to investigate the behaviour of moulds. The records of the temporal pattern changes were used to produce partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models that enabled determination of the exact time of contamination (the infection time of the media). Using these evaluation techniques, the presence of mushroom disease-related fungi can be easily detected and monitored via their emitted MVOCs.

  20. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    PubMed Central

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  1. Modulation of hepatocarcinogenesis in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treated Balb/c mice by mushroom extracts.

    PubMed

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Verma, Shalini; Kumar, Ashok; Bharty, Rahul Kumar; Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Ranjan Kumar; Huzar Futty Beejan, Priya; Kyung-Sun, Kang; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2016-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of edible mushrooms from Mauritius, namely Pleurotus sajor-caju and Agaricus bisporus was evaluated using an N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis Balb/c mice model. Mushroom extracts restored normal weight in MNU treated mice over a 3 month supplementation period. Blood parameter analyses indicated a clear modulation of hemoglobin concentration, leukocyte, platelet, lymphocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and eosinophil counts in MNU-induced mice (p < 0.05). Mushroom extract supplementation effectively reduced oxidative damage in MNU-primed mice, which was marked by a significant decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05) and a concomitant increase in the enzymatic antioxidant levels, primarily catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and peroxidase, and FRAP values (p < 0.05). DNA protective effects of the extracts were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, where, the MNU-DNA interaction, as evidenced by an intense peak at 1254 cm(-1), was normalized. The findings demonstrate hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and anti-carcinogenic effects and suggest the use of mushrooms as potential dietary prophylactics in cancer chemoprevention.

  2. Popular species of edible mushrooms as a good source of zinc to be released to artificial digestive juices.

    PubMed

    Zajac, M; Muszynska, B; Kala, K; Sikora, A; Opoka, W

    2015-10-01

    Because fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms accumulate elements very effectively, in this study for the first time we aimed at determining the degree of the release of zinc(II) ions to artificial digestive juices imitating the human gastrointestinal tract from freeze-dried popular edible mushroom fruiting bodies, such as Agaricus bisporus, Boletus badius and Cantharellus cibarius. For the analysis, anodic stripping voltammetry method was used. The amount of zinc released to artificial saliva within 1 minute ranged from 0.03 to 1.14 mg/100 g d.w. In gastric juice, the amounts were higher and ranged from 0.75 to 2.07 mg/100 g d.w. depending on the incubation time. After incubation of the freeze-dried edible mushroom fruiting bodies for 1 minute in artificial saliva, 15 in artificial gastric juice and then 150 minutes in artificial intestinal juice, it was found that the concentration of the released zinc in artificial intestinal juice was the highest and amounted to 6.44 mg/100 g d.w. The total average amount of zinc released from Boletus badius was the highest and this was estimated at 4.13 mg/100 g d.w. For the remaining two investigated species of A. bisporus and C. cibarius, the total amounts of zinc released into artificial digestive juices were only slightly lower and were estimated at 2.23 and 3.29 mg/100 g d.w. on average, respectively. It was demonstrated for the first time that mushrooms release zinc to artificial digestive juices imitating conditions in the human digestive tract and are a good source of this element.

  3. Storage temperature and UV-irradiation influence on the ergosterol content in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; García-Lafuente, Ana; Guillamón, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Ergosterol (5,7,22-ergostatrien-3β-ol) and ergosteryl derivatives from different genera of edible mushrooms were separated and quantified by an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The technique allowed a rapid separation of free ergosterol and two ergosteryl derivatives occurring in mushrooms. The ergosterol content varied considerably depending on the fungus. Thus, the species Agaricus bisporus and Hygrophorus marzuolus presented high quantities of ergosterol (6.4-6.8 mg/g, dry matter) followed by Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe gambosa, Lentinus edodes, and Boletus edulis (3.3-4.0mg/g). In contrast, other species, such as Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus and Craterellus cornucopioides, contained significantly lower ergosterol amounts (0.2-0.4 mg/g). Two ergosteryl derivatives were found in mushrooms and also the content depended on the fungus. The stability of ergosterol, in terms of the formation of ergosterol peroxide, was evaluated under different storage temperatures and UV radiation. The lower the temperature (-20°C) and the radiation time (10 min), the lower ergosterol oxidation was observed.

  4. Characterization of Species of Cladobotryum which Cause Cobweb Disease in Edible Mushrooms Grown in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Back, Chang-Gi; Lee, Chang-Yun; Seo, Geon-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Four Cladobotryum isolates were collected from four different commercially grown mushroom types infected with cobweb disease in Cheongdo-gun and Chilgok-gun of Gyeongbuk Province, Korea in 2010. The isolates were identified as C. mycophilum from Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii, C. varium from Flammulina velutipes and Hypsizygus marmoreus. The cultural characteristics of the four isolates were investigated using potato dextrose agar (PDA) media under nine different temperatures ranging from 5~32℃. Rapid growth of the isolates to colony diameters of 47~82 mm was observed at conditions of 18~22℃. No growth was observed at 32℃. C. mycophilum produced a yellowish red pigment while C. varium produced a cream colored pigment after cultivation for 25 days on PDA. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and partial 28S rDNA from the four isolates confirmed they were C. mycophilum and C. varium. Cross pathogenicity tests revealed that the two isolates of C. mycophilum were highly pathogenic toward three mushroom types, but not toward H. marmoreus. The two isolates of C. varium were less pathogenic than those of C. mycophilum, but were pathogenic toward all mushroom types evaluated. PMID:23115512

  5. White button mushroom phytochemicals inhibit aromatase activity and breast cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Grube, B J; Eng, E T; Kao, Y C; Kwon, A; Chen, S

    2001-12-01

    Estrogen is a major factor in the development of breast cancer. In situ estrogen production by aromatase/estrogen synthetase in breast cancer plays a dominant role in tumor proliferation. Because natural compounds such as flavones and isoflavones have been shown to be inhibitors of aromatase, it is thought that vegetables that contain these phytochemicals can inhibit aromatase activity and suppress breast cancer cell proliferation. Heat-stable extracts were prepared from vegetables and screened for their ability to inhibit aromatase activity in a human placental microsome assay. The white button mushroom (species Agaricus bisporus) suppressed aromatase activity dose dependently. Enzyme kinetics demonstrated mixed inhibition, suggesting the presence of multiple inhibitors or more than one inhibitory mechanism. "In cell" aromatase activity and cell proliferation were measured using MCF-7aro, an aromatase-transfected breast cancer cell line. Phytochemicals in the mushroom aqueous extract inhibited aromatase activity and proliferation of MCF-7aro cells. These results suggest that diets high in mushrooms may modulate the aromatase activity and function in chemoprevention in postmenopausal women by reducing the in situ production of estrogen.

  6. Inoculation of Scytalidium thermophilum in Button Mushroom Compost and Its Effect on Yield

    PubMed Central

    Straatsma, Gerben; Olijnsma, Tineke W.; Gerrits, Jan P. G.; Amsing, Jos G. M.; Op Den Camp, Huub J. M.; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    1994-01-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum isolates in culture, as well as the endogenous strain(s) in mushroom compost, were inactivated at 70°C. This temperature was used to pasteurize composts for experiments. Of nine thermophilic fungal species, only S. thermophilum and Myriococcum thermophilum grew well on pasteurized compost in test tubes. The effect of both species on the crop yield of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms was studied. In solid-state fermentation rooms called tunnels, compost was pasteurized and inoculated. After incubation, the inoculated organisms were reisolated and counted, showing their successful colonization. The yield of mushrooms on inoculated composts was almost twice that on the pasteurized control. This result demonstrates the effectiveness of S. thermophilum in compost preparation. Inoculation is not necessary for traditional compost preparation. Naturally occurring strains of S. thermophilum, present in ingredients, readily colonize compost during preparation. Inoculation may be vital if compost is pretreated at a high temperature in tunnels. This finding is of relevance for the environmentally controlled production of high-yielding compost. PMID:16349366

  7. Assessment of heavy metals in some wild edible mushrooms collected from Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fangkun; Qu, Li; Fan, Wenxiu; Qiao, Meiying; Hao, Hailing; Wang, Xuejing

    2011-08-01

    Eight heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in 14 different wild-growing edible mushroom species (Coprinus comatus, Voluariella volvacea, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Hericium erinaceus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lenfinus edodes, Collybia velutipes, Agaricus bisporus, Russula albida, Clitocybe conglobata, Pleurotus eryngii, Lepista sordida, and Pleurotus ostreatus) collected from Yunnan province, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The ranges of element concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were 6.8-31.9, 42.9-94.3, 67.5-843, 13.5-113, 0.06-0.58, 10.7-42.7, 0.76-5.1, and 0.67-12.9 mg/kg, respectively. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of zinc, cadmium, and lead in some edible mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits. The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  8. Evaluating the addition of activated carbon to heat-treated mushroom casing for grain-based and compost-based substrates.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Mark A; Heinemann, P H; Walker, P N; Demirci, A; Romaine, C P

    2009-10-01

    Two substrates, a non-composted grain spawn substrate and a traditional composted substrate, each covered with peat-based casing that contained varying amounts of activated carbon (AC) and each receiving different heat-treatment durations, were tested for Agaricus bisporus mushroom production. The amounts of AC were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% v/v, and the heat treatments were 0, 60, and 180 min at 121 degrees C and 103.4 kPa. Overall, the addition of AC up to 10-15% of casing for a grain spawn substrate increased mushroom yield. However, the addition of AC to the casing for compost substrates had no significant effect on yield, whereas heat-treating the casing increased yield. The onset of fruiting was retarded in grain spawn treatments not receiving AC with heat-treatment durations of 60 and 180 min, whereas this effect was not as apparent for the compost substrates. On average, mushroom yield was greater for the grain spawn substrate (366 g) than for compost substrate (287 g). For grain spawn substrate, the results show that the addition of AC ranging from 5% to 10% was adequate for maximum mushroom production.

  9. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested

  10. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    PubMed

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms.

  11. Effect of an extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei murill on release of cytokines, chemokines and leukocyte growth factors in human blood ex vivo and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E; Førland, D T; Saetre, L; Bernardshaw, S V; Lyberg, T; Hetland, G

    2009-03-01

    An immunostimulatory extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) has been shown to stimulate mononuclear phagocytes in vitro to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, and to protect against lethal peritonitis in mice. The present aim was to study the effect of AbM on release of several cytokines in human whole blood both after stimulation ex vivo and in vivo after oral intake over several days in healthy volunteers. The 17 signal substances examined were; T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-12], T helper 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), pleiotropic (IL-7, IL-17), pro-inflammatory [IL-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (mainly produced by Th1 cells)]--and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, chemokines [IL-8, macrophage inhibitory protein (MIP)-1beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1] and leukocyte growth factors [granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor]. After stimulation of whole blood ex vivo with 0.5-5.0% of a mushroom extract, AndoSan mainly containing AbM, there was a dose-dependent increase in all the cytokines studied, ranging from two to 399-fold (TNF-alpha). However, in vivo in the eight volunteers who completed the daily intake (60 ml) of this AbM extract for 12 days, a significant reduction was observed in levels of IL-1beta (97%), TNF-alpha (84%), IL-17 (50%) and IL-2 (46%). Although not significant, there was a trend towards reduced levels for IL-8, IFN-gamma and G-CSF, whilst those of the remaining nine cytokines tested, were unaltered. The discrepant results on cytokine release ex vivo and in vivo may partly be explained by the antioxidant activity of AbM in vivo and limited absorption of its large, complex and bioactive beta-glucans across the intestinal mucosa to the reticuloendothelial system and blood.

  12. Bioactive and Structural Metabolites of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia Species Causal Agents of Cultivated Mushrooms Diseases1

    PubMed Central

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A–E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi—including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.—chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined. PMID:19787100

  13. Bioactive and structural metabolites of pseudomonas and burkholderia species causal agents of cultivated mushrooms diseases.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-05-09

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A-E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi-including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.-chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined.

  14. Production of o-diphenols by immobilized mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Marín-Zamora, María Elisa; Rojas-Melgarejo, Francisco; García-Cánovas, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Pedro Antonio

    2009-01-15

    The o-diphenols 4-tert-butyl-catechol, 4-methyl-catechol, 4-methoxy-catechol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were produced from the corresponding monophenols (4-tert-butyl-phenol, 4-methyl-phenol, 4-methoxy-phenol, p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) using immobilized mushroom tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. In all cases the yield was R(diphenol)> or =88-96%, which, according to the literature, is the highest yield so far, obtained using tyrosinase. The reaction was carried out in 0.5M borate buffer pH 9.0 which was used to minimize the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase by complexing the o-diphenols generated. Hydroxylamine and ascorbic acid were also present in the reaction medium, the former being used to reduce mettyrosinase to deoxytyrosinase, closing the catalytic cycle, and the latter to reduce the o-quinone produced to o-diphenol. Inactivation of the tyrosinase by ascorbic acid was also minimized due to the formation of an ascorbic acid-borate complex. Concentrations of the o-diphenolic compounds obtained at several reaction times were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The experimental results are discussed.

  15. Extract of medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill enhances the non-specific and adaptive immune activities in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei-Ya; Wu, Ming-Fanf; Liao, Nien-Chieh; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Liu, Jia-You; Huang, Yi-Ping; Chang, Chuan-Hsun; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) is traditionally used against a wide range of conditions such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, foot-and-mouth disease and chronic hepatitis C infection. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of AbM. For the non-specific immune response experiments, a total of 40 female BALB/c mice were divided into control (group 1) and experimental (groups 2-4) groups of 10 animals each. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were orally-administered high (819 mg/kg), medium (273 mg/kg) and low (136.5 mg/kg) doses of AbM daily for six weeks and then six parameters related to non-specific immune response were detected. For the adaptive immune response experiments, 40 female mice were similarly divided into four groups. After six weeks of treatment, animals were immunized with the OVA immunogen. Two weeks later, splenocytes and sera were collected. Four parameters related to adaptive immune response were evaluated. We found that feeding mice with AbM extract increased the IgG level in serum, promoted phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages and elevated the activity of Natural killer cells. We also found that the highest dose of AbM increased interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels in splenocytes and that a medium dose increased interferon-γ. The levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) were reduced or unchanged. T-helper type 1 cytokine levels were increased. AbM increased the humoral immune response and also affected the cellular immune response. These results provide evidence that AbM can modulate innate and adaptive immunity.

  16. The anti-tumorigenic mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill enhances IL-1β production and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsung-Teng; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D; Wu, Yi-Hui; Ko, Yun-Fei; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) has been reported to possess immune activity against tumors and infections through stimulation of mononuclear phagocytes. Recently, AbM extract was shown to induce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in human monocytes. IL-1β is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by activated macrophages and monocytes and its secretion is strictly controlled by the inflammasome. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of AbM water extracts on the regulation of IL-1β production and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human THP-1 macrophages. The NLRP3 inflammasome consists of an NLRP3 receptor, an adaptor protein called ASC, and the inflammatory protease, caspase-1. Typically, stimulation of immune cells with microbial products results in production of pro-IL-1β, but a second stress-related signal activates the inflammasome and caspase-1, leading to processing and secretion of IL-1β. Our results show that AbM enhances transcription of IL-1β and triggers NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in human THP-1 macrophages. AbM-mediated IL-1β secretion was markedly reduced in macrophages deficient in NLRP3 and ASC, demonstrating that the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for AbM-induced IL-1β secretion. In addition, caspase-1 was activated and involved in proteolytic cleavage and secretion of IL-1β in AbM-treated macrophages. AbM-mediated IL-1β secretion also decreased in cells treated with cathepsin B inhibitor, suggesting that AbM can induce the release of cathepsin B. Furthermore, our data show that AbM-induced inflammasome activation requires the release of ATP, binding of extracellular ATP to the purinergic receptor P2X(7), the generation of reactive oxygen species, and efflux of potassium. Taken together, these findings reveal that AbM activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via multiple mechanisms, resulting in the secretion of IL-1β.

  17. Effect of a Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSan™, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Therkelsen, Stig Palm; Hetland, Geir; Lyberg, Torstein; Lygren, Idar; Johnson, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingestion of AndoSan™, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects because of reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with ulcerative colitis. In this randomized single-blinded placebo controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSan™ also resulted in clinical effects. Methods and Findings 50 patients with symptomatic ulcerative colitis were block-randomized and blinded for oral daily intake of AndoSan™ or placebo for the 21 days’ experimental period. The patients reported scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL) at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSan™ group (n = 24) symptoms improved from baseline (day 0) to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI) of 5.88 (4.92–6.83), 4.71 (3.90–5.52) (p = 0.002) and 4.50 (3.70–5.30) (p = 0.001). Corresponding improved mean scores (±SD) for total fatigue were 16.6 (5.59), 14.1 (4.50) (p = 0.001) and 15.1 (4.09) (p = 0.023). These scores in the placebo group (n = 26) were not improved. When comparing the two study groups using mixed model statistics, we found significant better scores for the AndoSan™-patients. HRQoL for dimensions bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health improved in the AndoSan™ group. There were no alterations in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin. Conclusions Beneficiary effects on symptoms, fatigue and HRQoL from AndoSan™ consumption were demonstrated in this per-protocol study, supporting its use as a supplement to conventional medication for patients with mild to moderate symptoms from ulcerative colitis. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSan™ in this study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01496053 PMID:26933886

  18. Effect of the Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSanTM, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Hetland, Geir; Lyberg, Torstein; Lygren, Idar; Johnson, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingestion of AndoSanTM, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). In this randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSanTM also resulted in clinical effects. Methods and Findings 50 patients with symptomatic CD were randomized for oral daily consumption of AndoSanTM or placebo for a 21-day experimental period, in this per-protocol study. Patients reported validated scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL) at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSanTM group (n = 25) symptoms improved from baseline (day 0) to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI) of 5.52 (4.64–6.40), 4.48 (3.69–5.27) and 4.08 (3.22–4.94) (p<0,001). We found significant improvements in symptom score for both genders in the AndoSanTM group, and no significant changes in the placebo (n = 25) group. There were however no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.106), although a marginal effect in symptom score for men (p = 0.054). There were comparable improvements in physical, mental and total fatigue for both groups. HRQoL versus baseline were at day 21 improved for bodily pain and vitality in the AndoSanTM group and for vitality and social functioning in the placebo group. No crucial changes in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin were detected. Conclusions The results from this single-blinded randomized clinical trial shows significant improvement on symptoms, for both genders, in the AndoSanTM group, but no significant differences between the study groups. The results on fatigue, HRQoL, fecal calprotectin and blood samples were quite similar compared with placebo. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSanTM. CD patients with

  19. A phylogenetic reconstruction and emendation of Agaricus section Duploannulatae.

    PubMed

    Challen, Michael P; Kerrigan, Richard W; Callac, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Agaricus section Duploannulatae comprises the group of species allied with A. bisporus and A. bitorquis. Disagreement exists in the literature regarding the composition of this group. We used DNA sequence data from the ITS segments of the nuclear ribosomal DNA region, in a sample of European and North American isolates, to identify characters shared by this group, to further delimit species-level taxa within the section, and to develop a phylogenetic hypothesis. Shared polymorphisms that suggest a natural limit for section Duploannulatae were found. ITS1 data were assessed using parsimony, distance and maximum likelihood methods of phylogeny. The section Duploannulatae comprised six robust clades. Five clades corresponded to well characterized species from the temperate Northern Hemisphere (A. bisporus, A. subfloccosus, A. bitorquis, A. vaporarius, A. cupressicola). The sixth clade encompassed an A. devoniensis complex. Species concepts, nomenclature, and relationships are discussed and compared with prior reports.

  20. Inactivation of human pathogens during phase II composting of manure-based mushroom growth substrate.

    PubMed

    Weil, Jennifer D; Cutter, Catherine N; Beelman, Robert B; LaBorde, Luke F

    2013-08-01

    Commercial production of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) requires a specialized growth substrate prepared from composted agricultural by-products. Because horse and poultry manures are widely used in substrate formulations, there is a need to determine the extent to which the composting process is capable of eliminating human pathogens. In this study, partially composted substrate was inoculated with a pathogen cocktail (log 10⁶ to 10⁸ CFU/g) containing Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. Pathogen and indicator-organism reductions were followed at temperatures that typically occurred during a standard 6-day phase II pasteurization and conditioning procedure. Controlled-temperature water bath studies at 48.8, 54.4, and 60°C demonstrated complete destruction of the three pathogens after 36.0, 8.0, and 0.5 h, respectively. Destruction of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 at 54.4°C occurred more slowly than E. coli, total coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and Salmonella. Microbial reductions that occurred during a standard 6-day phase II pasteurization and conditioning treatment were studied in a small-scale mushroom production research facility. After phase II composting, E. coli, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae were below detectable levels, and inoculated pathogens were not detected by direct plating or by enrichment. The results of this study show that a phase II composting process can be an effective control measure for eliminating risks associated with the use of composted animal manures during mushroom production. Growers are encouraged to validate and verify their own composting processes through periodic microbial testing for pathogens and to conduct studies to assure uniform distribution of substrate temperatures during phase II.

  1. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in a small-scale mushroom production facility.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Prema; Murugesan, Latha; Knabel, Stephen J; Verghese, Bindhu; Chikthimmah, Naveen; Laborde, Luke F

    2013-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significant concern to the agricultural and food processing industry because of its ability to grow and persist in cool and moist environments and its association with listeriosis, a disease with a very high mortality rate. Although there have been no listeriosis outbreaks attributed to fresh mushrooms in the United States, retail surveys and recalls are evidence that L. monocytogenes contamination of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) can occur. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in a small-scale mushroom production facility on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in the United States. Of 184 samples taken from five production zones within the facility, 29 (15.8%) samples were positive for Listeria spp. Among the Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua was most prevalent (10.3%) followed by L. welshimeri (3.3%), L. monocytogenes (1.6%), and L. grayi (0.5%). L. monocytogenes was recovered only from the phase I raw material composting area. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were confirmed and serotyped by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the three L. monocytogenes isolates to those serotypes or lineages frequently encountered in listeriosis infections was determined by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing using six virulence genes, namely, prfA, inlB, inlC, dal, clpP, and lisR. The phylogenetic positions of the three isolates in the dendrogram prepared with data from other isolates of L. monocytogenes showed that all isolates were grouped with serotype 4a, lineage IIIA. To date, this serotype has rarely been reported in foodborne disease outbreaks.

  2. Alternative medicine safety: Agaricus blazei and propolis.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, Kenji; Nakamoto, Takaaki

    2011-08-01

    All medicines pose a potential health risk, be they Eastern or Western medicines. Newly developed Western drugs must undergo rigorous testing to ensure their efficacy and safety, while with Eastern drugs, safety has generally been established because of their long histories of safe usage as traditional medicines. The regulation of Western medicines is much stronger than that of Eastern medicines, partly as pure chemicals are used and their effects and side effects are more likely to be acute. Eastern medicines consist of multiple components, generally extracted from a single or several plants or other natural sources, and their effects are not so acute, with delayed onset of side effects. However, the chronic usage of many Eastern medicines may result in the gradual accumulation of toxic compounds in the body. For example, Agaricus blazei extracts have been used as alternative medicines for cancer, but contain the known carcinogen agaritine (this carcinogen is also present in Agaricus bisporus). To ensure the safety of this alternative medicine, agaritine should be removed or its content reduced if the extract is to be taken chronically. Clearly, the safety of not only pure medicines, but also alternative medicines and daily foods, should be carefully controlled.

  3. Agaricus blazei Murill as an efficient hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Dbass, Abeer M; Al-Daihan, Sooad K; Bhat, Ramesa Shafi

    2012-07-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill is one of the very popular edible medicinal mushrooms. The present study investigated the protective effect of this biologically active mushroom on the tissue peroxidative damage and abnormal antioxidant levels in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighting (120-150 g) were categorized into five groups. The first group served as the normal control, the second and the third groups were treated with Agaricus blazei Mushroom extract and carbon tetrachloride dose, respectively. Fourth group (protective group) was first treated with Agaricus blazei Mushroom extract followed by carbon tetrachloride treatment and fifth (therapeutic group) with carbon tetrachloride first followed by Agaricus blazei Mushroom treatment. The wet fruiting bodies of mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, crushed and suspended in distilled water was administered orally to the treated groups of male albino rats. The activities of various enzymes (aspartate and alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase), levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E) and level of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) were determined in the serum of all the experimental animals. Decrease in all the enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidant, along with an increase in the lipid peroxidative index (malondialdehyde) was found in all the carbon tetrachloride treated rats as compared with normal controls. Also increase level of non-enzymatic antioxidant along with the decrease level in malondialdehyde was found in all experimental animals which were treated with Agaricus blazei Mushroom extract as compared with normal controls. The findings indicate that the extract of Agaricus blazei Murill can protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats and is an efficient hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury.

  4. DGGE and T-RFLP analysis of bacterial succession during mushroom compost production and sequence-aided T-RFLP profile of mature compost.

    PubMed

    Székely, Anna J; Sipos, Rita; Berta, Brigitta; Vajna, Balázs; Hajdú, Csaba; Márialigeti, Károly

    2009-04-01

    The amount of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) harvested from compost is largely affected by the microbial processes taking place during composting and the microbes inhabiting the mature compost. In this study, the microbial changes during the stages of this specific composting process were monitored, and the dominant bacteria of the mature compost were identified to reveal the microbiological background of the favorable properties of the heat-treated phase II mushroom compost. 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA)-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) molecular fingerprinting methods were used to track the succession of microbial communities in summer and winter composting cycles. DNA from individual DGGE bands were reamplified and subjected to sequence analysis. Principal component analysis of fingerprints of the composting processes showed intensive changes in bacterial community during the 22-day procedure. Peak temperature samples grouped together and were dominated by Thermus thermophilus. Mature compost patterns were almost identical by both methods (DGGE, T-RFLP). To get an in-depth analysis of the mature compost bacterial community, the sequence data from cultivation of the bacteria and cloning of environmental 16S rDNA were uniquely coupled with the output of the environmental T-RFLP fingerprints (sequence-aided T-RFLP). This method revealed the dominance of a supposedly cellulose-degrading consortium composed of phylotypes related to Pseudoxanthomonas, Thermobifida, and Thermomonospora.

  5. Effect of Purified Mushroom Tyrosinase on Melanin Content and Melanogenic Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ayesha S.

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway. The present investigation is based on an effect of purified mushroom tyrosinase of Agaricus bisporus on B16F10 melanocytes for the melanin production via blocking pigment cell machinery. Using B16F10 melanocytes showed that the stimulation of melanogenesis by purified tyrosinase is due to increased tyrosinase absorption. Cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B16F10 melanocytes were increased by purified tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that cellular tyrosinase levels were enhanced after treatment with purified tyrosinase for 48 hours. Furthermore, tyrosinase induced phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. The purified tyrosinase-mediated increase of tyrosinase activity was significantly attenuated by H89, LY294002, Ro-32-0432, and PD98059, cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors. The results indicate that purified tyrosinase can be used as contestant for the treatment of vitiligous skin conditions. PMID:27699070

  6. Potato and mushroom polyphenol oxidase activities are differently modulated by natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; van Herk, Teunie; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Janssen, Renske H; Narh, Deborah L; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-08

    Enzymatic browning is a major quality issue in fruit and vegetable processing and can be counteracted by different natural inhibitors. Often, model systems containing a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) are used to screen for new inhibitors. To investigate the impact of the source of PPO on the outcome of such screening, this study compared the effect of 60 plant extracts on the activity of PPO from mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus , AbPPO) and PPO from potato ( Solanum tuberosum , StPPO). Some plant extracts had different effects on the two PPOs: an extract that inhibited one PPO could be an activator for the other. As an example of this, the mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) extract was investigated in more detail. In the presence of mate extract, oxygen consumption by AbPPO was found to be reduced >5-fold compared to a control reaction, whereas that of StPPO was increased >9-fold. RP-UHPLC-MS analysis showed that the mate extract contained a mixture of phenolic compounds and saponins. Upon incubation of mate extract with StPPO, phenolic compounds disappeared completely and saponins remained. Flash chromatography was used to separate saponins and phenolic compounds. It was found that the phenolic fraction was mainly responsible for inhibition of AbPPO and activation of StPPO. Activation of StPPO was probably caused by activation of latent StPPO by chlorogenic acid quinones.

  7. The effect of some osmolytes on the activity and stability of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Gheibi, N; Saboury, A A; Haghbeen, K; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A

    2006-09-01

    The thermodynamical stability and remained activity of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) from Agaricus bisporus in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, stored at two temperatures of 4 and 40 degrees C were investigated in the presence of three different amino acids (His, Phe and Asp) and also trehalose as osmolytes, for comparing with the results obtained in the absence of any additive. Kinetics of inactivation obey the first order law. Inactivation rate constant (kinact) value is the best parameter describing effect of osmolytes on kinetic stability of the enzyme. Trehalose and His have the smallest value of kinact (0.7x10(-4) s-1) in comparison with their absence (2.5x10(-4) s-1). Moreover, to obtain effect of these four osmolytes on thermodynamical stability of the enzyme, protein denaturation by dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and thermal scanning was investigated. Sigmoidal denaturation curves were analysed according to the two states model of Pace theory to find the Gibbs free energy change of denaturation process in aqueous solution at room temperature, as a very good thermodynamic criterion indicating stability of the protein. Although His, Phe and Asp induced constriction of MT tertiary structure, its secondary structure had not any change and the result was a chemical and thermal stabilization of MT. The enzyme shows a proper coincidence of thermodynamic and structural changes with the presence of trehalose. Thus, among the four osmolytes, trehalose is an exceptional protein stabilizer.

  8. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) Immune Response in Mice by an Extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

  9. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) immune response in mice by an extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) mushroom.

    PubMed

    Ike, Kazunori; Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4(+) spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator.

  10. Genetically Closely Related but Phenotypically Divergent Trichoderma Species Cause Green Mold Disease in Oyster Mushroom Farms Worldwide▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Bissett, John; Zafari, Doustmorad; Hatvani, Lóránt; Manczinger, László; Woo, Sheri; Lorito, Matteo; Kredics, László; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide commercial production of the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus is currently threatened by massive attacks of green mold disease. Using an integrated approach to species recognition comprising analyses of morphological and physiological characters and application of the genealogical concordance of multiple phylogenetic markers (internal transcribed spacer 1 [ITS1] and ITS2 sequences; partial sequences of tef1 and chi18-5), we determined that the causal agents of this disease were two genetically closely related, but phenotypically strongly different, species of Trichoderma, which have been recently described as Trichoderma pleurotum and Trichoderma pleuroticola. They belong to the Harzianum clade of Hypocrea/Trichoderma which also includes Trichoderma aggressivum, the causative agent of green mold disease of Agaricus. Both species have been found on cultivated Pleurotus and its substratum in Europe, Iran, and South Korea, but T. pleuroticola has also been isolated from soil and wood in Canada, the United States, Europe, Iran, and New Zealand. T. pleuroticola displays pachybasium-like morphological characteristics typical of its neighbors in the Harzianum clade, whereas T. pleurotum is characterized by a gliocladium-like conidiophore morphology which is uncharacteristic of the Harzianum clade. Phenotype MicroArrays revealed the generally impaired growth of T. pleurotum on numerous carbon sources readily assimilated by T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum. In contrast, the Phenotype MicroArray profile of T. pleuroticola is very similar to that of T. aggressivum, which is suggestive of a close genetic relationship. In vitro confrontation reactions with Agaricus bisporus revealed that the antagonistic potential of the two new species against this mushroom is perhaps equal to T. aggressivum. The P. ostreatus confrontation assays showed that T. pleuroticola has the highest affinity to overgrow mushroom mycelium among the green mold species. We conclude that

  11. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered.

  12. Spent mushroom substrates as component of growing media for germination and growth of horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Paredes, C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Bustamante, M A; Moral, R

    2009-09-01

    This research work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in the production of horticultural seedlings replacing part of the peat in the growing media. Three vegetable species with different salt sensitivities, the less sensitive being tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Muchamiel), the moderately salt-sensitive being courgette (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Afrodite F1) and the most salt-sensitive being pepper (Capsicum annum L. var. Lamuyo F1) were grown in 12 media containing SMS of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (SMS-AB) and Pleurotus ostreatus (SMS-PO)) or a mixture of both 50% (v/v) (SMS-50), as well as peat in various ratios. The proportions of each residue in the mixtures elaborated with peat were 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% v/v residue. A substrate of 100% peat was used as control. The experiment was arranged in a completely-randomised design with two replicates per treatment under greenhouse conditions. Prior to sowing, some physical, physico-chemical and chemical properties of the growing media were determined and seed germination and fresh weight of seedling were also measured. In most of the cases, the addition of SMS to the growing media produced an increase in the pH values, salt contents, macro and micronutrient concentrations and a decrease in the water holding capacity contents in comparison to peat, whereas great differences were found in the air capacity values between SMS-based substrates and peat. Up to 75% SMS can be used in mixtures with peat for seed germination of the plant species studied. Regarding the most suitable SMS-based substrates for plant growth, any substrate could be used for tomato seedling production. However, all SMS-AB-based substrates and the media containing low dose of SMS-PO and SMS-50 were adequate for growth of courgette and pepper.

  13. Latent and active abPPO4 mushroom tyrosinase cocrystallized with hexatungstotellurate(VI) in a single crystal

    PubMed Central

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian; Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich; Rompel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosinases, bifunctional metalloenzymes, catalyze the oxidation of monophenols and o-diphenols to o-quinones, the precursor compounds of the brown-coloured pigment melanin. In eukaryotic organisms, tyrosinases are expressed as latent zymogens that have to be proteolytically cleaved in order to form highly active enzymes. This activation mechanism, known as the tyrosinase maturation process, has scientific and industrial significance with respect to biochemical and technical applications of the enzyme. Here, not only the first crystal structure of the mushroom tyrosinase abPPO4 is presented in its active form (Ser2–Ser383) and in its 21 kDa heavier latent form (Ser2–Thr545), but furthermore the simultaneous presence of both forms within one single-crystal structure is shown. This allows for a simple approach to investigate the transition between these two forms. Isoform abPPO4 was isolated and extensively purified from the natural source (Agaricus bisporus), which contains a total of six polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). The enzyme formed crystals (diffracting to a resolution of 2.76 Å) owing to the employment of the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt (Na6[TeW6O24]·22H2O) as a cocrystallization agent. Two of these disc-shaped Anderson-type polyoxoanions [TeW6O24]6− separate two asymmetric units comprising one crystallographic heterodimer of abPPO4, thus resulting in very interesting crystal packing. PMID:25195745

  14. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Alena G.; Wright, Kirsten M.; Zwickey, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor. These mushrooms were selected based on the body of research performed on mushroom immunology in an oncology model. First, this article focuses on how mushrooms modify cytokines within specific cancer models and on how those cytokines affect the disease process. Second, this article examines the direct effect of mushrooms on cancer. Finally, this article presents an analysis of how mushrooms interact with chemotherapeutic agents, including their effects on its efficacy and on the myelosuppression that results from it. For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms. Preliminary research in humans is also available and is promising for treatment. PMID:26770080

  15. Open-Label Study of the Influence of Food Containing the Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (Higher Basidiomycetes), on the Quality of Life of Healthy Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Masuro; Motoi, Akitomo; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Ohno, Naohito

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an open-label study in which food containing Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 was consumed continuously for 12 weeks. A questionnaire for subjective evaluation of the efficacy of this food (hereafter, subjective evaluation questionnaire) revealed significant improvements compared with before its intake; there were improvements in the scores of the amounts of hair loss and gray hair, fatigue and general malaise, eye strain, shoulder stiffness, coldness of extremities, difficulty staying awake during the day, and ease of getting out of bed. These findings suggest that intake of food containing A. brasiliensis KA21 results in the above-mentioned subjectively evaluated improvements, and the possibility that A. brasiliensis KA21 improves the body's immunity. Moreover, no issues regarding the safety of the test food were found.

  16. Toxic mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tegzes, John H; Puschner, Birgit

    2002-03-01

    Poisonous mushrooms contain toxins that are as diverse as the mushrooms themselves. Clinical syndromes often involve multiple organ systems, and progression of clinical signs is often directly related to the quantity eaten. Diagnostic detection of the toxins is rarely an option; rather, diagnosis is based on a history of possible exposure and identification of mushroom species in the stomach contents and environment. Treatments are usually based on clinical signs, as most mushroom toxins are without an antidote. There are exceptions, however, and prompt identification of mushroom species involved is vital whenever possible. Collection of the toxicologic minimum database and gastrointestinal decontamination are important in all cases where mushroom ingestion is suspected.

  17. Reishi Mushroom

    MedlinePlus

    ... stress and preventing fatigue. In combination with other herbs, reishi mushroom is used to treat prostate cancer. ... Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressureReishi mushroom might lower blood pressure. Taking it along with ...

  18. Antigenotoxic Properties of Agaricus blazei against Hydrogen Peroxide in Human Peripheral Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Borozan, Sunčica; Topalović, Dijana; Ciptasari, Ummi; Bajić, Vladan

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Agaricus blazei mushroom in its dried and powdered mycelial form was evaluated for its antigenotoxic properties for the first time. Antigenotoxic effects in human peripheral blood cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage were examined in pretreatment and posttreatment protocol by comet assay. The results showed better antigenotoxic properties of Agaricus blazei on the interventional level, respectively, after treatment. Agaricus blazei in concentration of 250 μg/mL after treatment was most efficient in regard to its action against DNA damage. The evaluation of repair kinetics showed decrease in H2O2 induced DNA damage 15 min after the application of A. blazei, reaching the maximum potency after 30 min. Analysis of antioxidant properties of Agaricus blazei revealed strong •OH scavenging properties and moderate reducing power, while its DPPH scavenging ability was weak. In regard to our findings, we can conclude that our preliminary results demonstrated antigenotoxic properties of Agaricus blazei and its strong •OH scavenging ability. Mechanisms underlying its properties should be further evaluated in in vivo studies. PMID:28316757

  19. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  20. Prediction of potential mushroom yield by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy using fresh phase II compost.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H S S; Kilpatrick, M; Lyons, G

    2005-08-01

    Potential mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) yield of phase II compost is determined by interactions of key quality parameters including dry matter, nitrogen dry matter, ammonia, pH, conductivity, thermophilic microorganisms, C : N ratio, fiber fractions, ash, and certain minerals. This study was aimed at generating robust visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) calibrations for predicting potential yield, using spectra from fresh phase II compost. Four compost comparative trials were carried out during the winter and summer months of 2001-2003, under controlled experimental conditions employing six commercially prepared composts, with eight replicate (8 bag) plots per treatment (48 x 8 = 384). The substrates were prepared by windrow or bunker phase I, followed by phase II production. The fresh samples were scanned for Vis-NIR (400-2498 nm) spectra, averaged, transformed, and regressed against the recorded yield by employing a modified partial least squares algorithm. The best calibration model generated from the database explained 84% of yield variation within the data set with a standard error of calibration of 13.75 kg/tonne of fresh compost. The model was successfully tested for robustness with yield results obtained from a validation trial, carried out under similar experimental conditions in early 2004, and the standard error of prediction was 18.21 kg/tonne, which was slightly higher than the mean experimental error (17.94 kg/tonne) of the trial. The accuracy of the model is acceptable for estimating potential yield by classifying phase II substrate as poor (180-220 kg), medium (220-260 kg), and high (260-300 kg) yielding compost. The yield prediction model is being transferred to a new instrument based at Loughgall for routine evaluation of commercial phase II samples.

  1. Stabilisation of spent mushroom substrate for application as a plant growth-promoting organic amendment.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana S; Tatti, Enrico; Abram, Florence; Wilson, Jude; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2017-03-23

    Over three million tonnes of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced in Europe every year as a by-product of the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The management of SMS has become an increasing challenge for the mushroom production industry, and finding environmentally and economically sustainable solutions for this organic residue is, therefore, highly desirable. Due to its physical properties and nutrient content, SMS has great potential to be employed in agricultural and horticultural sectors, and further contribute to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as peat. However, SMS is often regarded as not being stable and/or mature, which hampers its wide use for crop production. Here, we demonstrate the stabilisation of SMS and its subsequent use as organic fertiliser and partial peat replacement in horticulture. The stabilisation was performed in a laboratory-scale composting system, with controlled temperature and aeration. Physical and chemical parameters were monitored during composting and provided information on the progress of the process. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content was found to be the most reliable parameter to predict SMS stability. In situ oxygen consumption indicated the main composting phases, reflecting major changes in microbial activity. The structure of the bacterial community was also found to be a potential predictor of stability, as the compositional changes followed the composting progress. By contrast, the fungal community did not present clear successional process along the experiment. Maturity and quality of the stabilised SMS were assessed in a horticultural growing trial. When used as the sole fertiliser source, SMS was able to support Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) growth and significantly improved grass yield with a concentration-dependent response, increasing grass biomass up to 300%, when compared to the untreated control. In summary, the results indicated that the method employed was efficient in

  2. Mercury content in mushroom species in the Cordoba area

    SciTech Connect

    Zurera, G.; Rincon, F.; Arcos, F.; Pozo-Lora, R.

    1986-05-01

    Numerous investigations have established that fish is the food which shows the highest levels of mercury, thus being the most hazardous for humans. Recently much research has been carried out in several places of Europe on the high capacity of mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals. It has been noticed that the various species differ in their tendency to accumulate heavy metals. Two genera in which mercury accumulation was very marked are Agaricus and Lycoperdon. It is suggested that members of the genus Agaricus could be used as indicator organisms in the study of mercury pollution. The object of the present paper is to provide data on the levels of mercury contents in mushroom species collected in the Cordoba area (Spain).

  3. Constituents of cultivated Agaricus blazei.

    PubMed

    Ueguchi, Yumi; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazunari

    2011-04-01

    Two phenylhexane derivatives (1, 2), benzoylergostane (3), N-benzoyl-L-leucine methyl ester (4), two known ergostanes, and highly degraded incisterol were isolated from fruit bodies of Agaricus blazei. Compound 3 exhibited strong cytotoxicity toward HepG2 cells (IC(50) = 6.0 ± 0.33 μM).

  4. Novel analgesic triglycerides from cultures of Agaricus macrosporus and other basidiomycetes as selective inhibitors of neurolysin.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Marc; Hellwig, Veronika; Mayer-Bartschmid, Anke; Denzer, Dirk; Wiese, Burkhard; Burkhardt, Nils

    2005-12-01

    The agaricoglycerides are a new class of fungal secondary metabolites that constitute esters of chlorinated 4-hydroxy benzoic acid and glycerol. They are produced in cultures of the edible mushroom, Agaricus macrosporus, and several other basidiomycetes of the genera Agaricus, Hypholoma, Psathyrella and Stropharia. The main active principle, agaricoglyceride A, showed strong activities against neurolysin, a protease involved in the regulation of dynorphin and neurotensin metabolism (IC50 = 200 nM), and even exhibited moderate analgesic in vivo activities in an in vivo model. Agaricoglyceride monoacetates (IC50 = 50 nM) showed even stronger in vitro activities. Several further co-metabolites with weaker or lacking bioactivities were also obtained and characterized. Among those were further agaricoglyceride derivatives, as well as further chlorinated phenol derivatives such as the new compound, agaricic ester. The characteristics of the producer organisms, the isolation of bioactive metabolites from cultures of A. macrosporus, their biological activities, and preliminary results on their occurrence in basidiomycetes, are described.

  5. Endotoxin contamination of Agaricus blazei Murrill extract enhances murine immunologic responses and inhibits the growth of sarcoma 180 implants in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Masumoto, Junya

    2010-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill, a native mushroom of Brazil, has been reported to be an immunoreactant with anti-tumor effect. There are many reports on the anti-tumor effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill; however, the precise mechanism of its effect is not fully understood. In this study, we tried to confirm the anti-tumor effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill against Sarcoma 180 cells in a mouse model and found that an inhibitory effect on tumor growth was induced by peritoneal injection of a freeze-dried, hot water extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (FAG). We noted that there were differences among each sample in terms of anti-tumor activity. We hypothesized that this was because some contaminants of FAG were affecting the anti-tumor activity. We evaluated cytokine secretion from mouse peritoneal cells incubated with FAG. While high interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α secretions were observed in response to crude FAG, they were dramatically decreased by the removal of endotoxin from the FAG using an endotoxin-specific polymyxin B-conjugated affinity column. The reductions were synergistically recovered by adding an amount of lipopolysaccharide equivalent to the amount of contaminated endotoxin. Thus, these data suggest that the contaminated endotoxin of Agaricus blazei Murrill may act as an immunomodulator of anti-tumor activity.

  6. Structural Characterization of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from the Fruiting Bodies of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinzhe; Zhang, Anqiang; Ru, Qiaomei; Dong, Dandan; Sun, Peilong

    2014-01-01

    An edible fungal polysaccharide termed as ABP was obtained by extraction with hot water, and followed successive chromatographic purification using DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Sephacryl S-300 High-Resolution column. A symmetrical peak was obtained on high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with an average molecular weight of 5.17 × 104 Da, which was named ABP, and its main components were d-glucose and d-mannose. Based on the study of methylation analysis, along with FT-IR, GC, GC-MS, 1D 1H and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (H-HCOSY, TOCSY, HMQC, and NOESY), its chemical structure was featured with a repeating unit (1→6) linking β-d-Glcp as the main backbone with (1→4)-linked α-d-Manp units. The structure of the mainly repeating units of ABP was established as: →6)-β-D-Glucp-(1→4)-α-D-Manp(1→6)-β-D-Glucp-(1→6)-β-D-Glucp-(1→ PMID:24406732

  7. Lack of chemoprevention of dietary Agaricus blazei against rat colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    PubMed

    Ziliotto, L; Barbisan, L F; Rodrigues, M A M

    2008-06-01

    The mushroom Agaricus blazei (Ab) has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including cancer. No information is available on its possible protective effects on the development of colon cancer. The potential blocking effect of Ab intake on the initiation stage of colon carcinogenesis was investigated in a short-term (4-week) bioassay using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as biomarker. Male Wistar rats were given four subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg/kg bw, twice a week), during 2 weeks to induce ACF. The diet containing Ab at 5% was given 2 weeks before and during carcinogen treatment to investigate the potential beneficial effects of this edible mushroom on DMH-induced ACF. All groups were killed at the end of the fourth week. The colons were analyzed for ACF formation in 1% methylene blue whole-mount preparations and for cell proliferation in histological sections immunohistochemically stained for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). All DMH-treated rats developed ACF mainly in the middle and distal colon. Agaricus blazei intake at 5% did not alter the number of ACF induced by DMH or the PCNA indices in the colonic mucosa. Thus, the results of the present study did not confirm a chemopreventive activity of Ab on the initiation stage of rat colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 108 CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 108 CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation. PMID:24031404

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Antioxidant Potential of Coastal Dune Mushroom Species from the Southwest of France.

    PubMed

    Smolskaite, Lina; Talou, Thierry; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-01-01

    Numerous mushroom species are used as food and for medicinal purposes; however, many species that may contain bioactive compounds remain underinvestigated. In this study, the antioxidant properties of extracts sequentially isolated with cyclohexane, dichloromethane, and methanol from 25 costal dune mushroom species collected in the southwestern region of France were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and Folin-Ciocalteu-determined total phenolic content. Overall, the antioxidant potential of dried mushrooms was assessed using integrated antioxidant scores. The highest antioxidant capacity values were demonstrated by the Cortinarius infractus, Agaricus coniferarum, A. menieri, and A. freirei species. These results may foster further studies of the selected mushroom species to valorize their nutritional and medicinal properties.

  10. Ethnomycological studies of edible and medicinal mushrooms in the Mount Cameroon region (Cameroon, Africa).

    PubMed

    Kinge, Tonjock R; Tabi, Ebai M; Mih, Afui M; Enow, Egbe A; Njouonkou, L; Nji, T M

    2011-01-01

    Inhabitants of the Mount Cameroon region depend on the forest resources of the region for their livelihood, including the diverse use of macrofungi. With the increasing loss of forest due to exploitation and urbanization, they are liable to rapidly lose their indigenous knowledge of the forest resources, especially of mushrooms. An ethnomycological survey was conducted with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge of mushrooms as a prelude to conservation efforts. We also sought to assess the mycophilic and mycophobic tendencies of the inhabitants. It was revealed that traditionally, mushrooms were used as food, medicine, for mythological purposes, for aesthetics, and some poisonous species were also recorded. At least 15 different species were identified to be edible among the Bakweri people. Species used for ethnomedicine among the Bakweris belonged to several genera, including Termitomyces, Auricularia, Agaricus, Daldinia, Dictyophora, Pleurotus, Russula, Trametes, Chlorophyllum, and Ganoderma. Mushrooms were used as love charms, for dispelling evil spirits, and as part of cultural festivals.

  11. Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Gu, Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong

    2014-01-15

    Five species of dried mushrooms are commercially available in China, namely Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus eryngii, and Coprinus comatus, and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. Trehalose (12.23-301.63mg/g) and mannitol (12.37-152.11mg/g) were considered as the major mushroom sugar/polyol in the five test species. The total free amino acid levels ranged from 4.09 to 22.73mg/g. MSG-like components contents ranged from 0.97 to 4.99mg/g. 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.68mg/g in P. eryngii to 3.79mg/g in C. comatus. Fumaric acid (96.11mg/g) in P. cystidiosus were significantly higher compared with the other mushrooms, and citric acid (113.13mg/g), as the highest of any organic acid among the five mushrooms, were found in A. blazei. Equivalent umami concentrations values in these five test mushrooms ranged from 11.19 to 88.37g/100g dry weight. A. blazei, C.comatus and A. cylindracea possessed highly strong umami taste.

  12. Evaluation of Ten Wild Nigerian Mushrooms for Amylase and Cellulase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard

    2011-01-01

    Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25℃, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ≤ 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively. PMID:22783085

  13. Do spawn storage conditions influence the colonization capacity of a wheat-straw-based substrate by Agaricus subrufescens?

    PubMed

    Farnet, Anne-Marie; Qasemian, Leila; Peter-Valence, Frédérique; Ruaudel, Florence; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Roussos, Sevastianos; Gaime-Perraud, Isabelle; Ziarelli, Fabio; Ferré, Élisée

    2014-01-01

    Storage conditions of the spawn of edible fungi are of major importance to facilitate the production of mushrooms. Here, standard storage conditions at 10°C or 15°C were used and the potential of colonization of standard European compost by the tropical species Agaricus subrufescens was assessed during the spawn running phase. Two lignocellulolytic activities, laccase and CMC-cellulase, were enhanced after storage compared to control as well as substrate transformation, as described by the aromaticity ratio and a humification ratio calculated from NMR data. This result indicates that mycelium growth probably occurred during storage at 10 or 15°C, leading to a larger amount of biomass in the inoculum. Moreover, the microbial functional diversity of the substrate was favored, showing that the electivity of the substrate was maintained. Thus, these findings indicate that recommendations for the mushroom producers can be established for A. subrufescens cultivation under European standard conditions.

  14. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dried powder formulations of Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Andreia A J; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Dueñas, Montserrat; Barros, Lillian; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2013-06-15

    Several mushroom species have been pointed out as sources of antioxidant compounds, in addition to their important nutritional value. Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes are among the most studied species all over the world, but those studies focused on their fruiting bodies instead of other presentations, such as powdered preparations, used as supplements. In the present work the chemical composition (nutrients and bioactive compounds) and antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) of dried powder formulations of the mentioned mushroom species (APF and LPF, respectively) were evaluated. Powder formulations of both species revealed the presence of essential nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, they present a low fat content (<2g/100g) and can be used in low-calorie diets, just like the mushrooms fruiting bodies. APF showed higher antioxidant activity and higher content of tocopherols and phenolic compounds (124 and 770 μg/100g, respectively) than LPF (32 and 690 μg/100g). Both formulations could be used as antioxidant sources to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress.

  15. [Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].

    PubMed

    Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

    1997-09-30

    Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice.

  16. Structure of Agaricus spp. fucogalactans and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties.

    PubMed

    Komura, Dirce L; Carbonero, Elaine R; Gracher, Ana Helena P; Baggio, Cristiane H; Freitas, Cristina S; Marcon, Rodrigo; Santos, Adair R S; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2010-08-01

    Fucogalactans from Agaricus brasiliensis (EPF-Ab) and A. bisporus var. hortensis (EPF-Ah) were prepared via by aqueous extraction and a purification procedure. EPF-Ab had M(w) 19.4 x 10(3)g/mol and EPF-Ah M(w) 31.1 x 10(3)g/mol. EPF-Ab had a (1-->6)-linked alpha-D-Galp main-chain partially substituted in O-2 by non-reducing end-units of alpha-L-Fucp. EPF-Ah had a similar main-chain with O-2 substitution, but was partially methylated at HO-3, as well as having 2.5% non-reducing end-units of beta-D-Gal. In mice, EPF-Ab gave 39% antinociceptive inhibition (ID(50)>100mg/kg) and no anti-inflammatory activity. EPF-Ah also gave an inhibition of 39% at ID(50) 0.33 mg/kg and also inhibited by 61% (ID(50) 5.0mg/kg) total cell migration and by 32% peritoneal capillary permeability, which is related to the anti-inflammatory effect. The small differences in chemical structure in these polysaccharides thus modified their biological activities.

  17. Characterization, feasibility and optimization of Agaricus subrufescens growth based on chemical elements on casing layer

    PubMed Central

    Cunha Zied, D.; Pardo-Giménez, A.; de Almeida Minhoni, M.T.; Villas Boas, R.L.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-González, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze yields, biological efficiency, earliness (expressed as days to first harvest), and precociousness and establish models for the mushroom growing according to these parameters. The experiment followed a double factorial design with four sources of calcium (calcitic limestone, calcitic limestone + gypsum, dolomitic limestone and dolomitic limestone + gypsum) and 2 application times (25 days before casing and at the moment of casing), with 4 replicates for each treatment. Different calcium sources influenced differently Agaricus subrufescens production, especially as regards earliness, which showed significantly higher values when dolomitic limestone with gypsum was applied. Yield and biological efficiency were negatively correlated with H + AL, organic matter and Mg amount. Furthermore, earliness was positively correlated with H + Al, organic matter, and the amount of Mg and Fe. Finally, negative correlations were observed between precociousness and the amount of Ca, SB (sum of base), CEC (cation exchange capacity) and V% (percentage of base saturation). The models presented in this work are extremely important for predicting the agronomic performance of Agaricus subrufescens on the basis of chemical analysis provided by the casing soil. PMID:23961195

  18. Effect of cultivation practices on the β-glucan content of Agaricus subrufescens basidiocarps.

    PubMed

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Pardo Giménez, Arturo; Pardo González, Jose Emilio; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Carvalho, Maiara Andrade; Minhoni, Marli Teixeira de Almeida

    2014-01-08

    The present work aimed to assess the effect of the following treatments on the medicinal potential (β-glucan content) and agronomical performance (yield) of Agaricus subrufescens: five different fungal strains, three cultivation substrates (compost), four casing layers, and four cultivation environments. Two experiments were performed, and the results indicate that the greatest contribution to the variation in β-glucan content was the strain (35.8%), followed by the casing layer (34.5%), the cultivation environment (15.7%), and the type of compost (9.9%). On the other hand the variation in yield was affected most by the cultivation environment (82.1%), followed by the strain (81.3%), casing layer (49.1%), and compost type (15.2%). These findings underscore the importance of developing a production protocol that employs specific cultivation practices for improving mushroom yield as well as β-glucan content.

  19. Chemical, enzymatic and cellular antioxidant activity studies of Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    PubMed

    Hakime-Silva, Ricardo A; Vellosa, José C R; Khalil, Najeh M; Khalil, Omar A K; Brunetti, Iguatemy L; Oliveira, Olga M M F

    2013-09-01

    Mushrooms possess nutritional and medicinal properties that have long been used for human health preservation and that have been considered by researchers as possible sources of free radical scavengers. In this work, the antioxidant properties of water extracts from Agaricus blazei Murill, produced by maceration and decoction, are demonstrated in vitro. Resistance to oxidation is demonstrated through three mechanisms: i) inhibition of enzymatic oxidative process, with 100% inhibition of HRP (horseradish peroxidase) and MPO (myeloperoxidase); ii) inhibition of cellular oxidative stress, with 80% inhibition of the oxidative burst of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs); and iii) direct action over reactive species, with 62% and 87% suppression of HOCl and superoxide anion radical (O2• -), respectively. From the data, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of A. blazei has significant antioxidant activity, indicating its possible application for nutraceutical and medicinal purposes.

  20. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications.

    PubMed

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p < 0.001). Cadmium concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of our studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed.

  1. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 10(8) CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 10(8) CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation.

  2. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health.

  3. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Širić, Ivan; Humar, Miha; Kasap, Ante; Kos, Ivica; Mioč, Boro; Pohleven, Franc

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals cause serious problems in the environment, and they can be accumulated in organisms, especially in the higher fungi. The concentration of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg in 10 species of edible mushrooms in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia was therefore determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis based on concentrations of the aforementioned metals in the fruiting bodies. The contents of nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, and mercury in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms were obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The highest concentrations of Ni (3.62 mg kg(-1)), Cr (3.01 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (2.67 mg kg(-1)) were determined in Agaricus campestris. The highest concentration of Pb (1.67 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Macrolepiota procera, and the highest concentration of Hg (2.39 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Boletus edulis. The concentration of all heavy metals significantly differed (p < 0.001) between examined saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. Considering anatomical part of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably higher concentration of the analyzed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bioconcentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bioexclusors of Ni, Cr, and Pb and bioaccumulators of Cd and Hg. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals revealed great phenotypic similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation.

  4. Mycelial antineoplastic activity of Agaricus blazei.

    PubMed

    Bertéli, Míria Benetati Delgado; Umeo, Suzana Harue; Bertéli, André; do Valle, Juliana Silveira; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2014-08-01

    Basidiocarp of Agaricus blazei (=Agaricus brasiliensis; =Agaricus subrufescens) is used as teas or capsules due to its antineoplastic effect but there are few reports of using mycelium for this purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antineoplastic activity on sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice of two forms of preparation of the mycelium from two A. blazei strains grown in culture medium with different concentrations of isolated soy protein. Mycelia were grown in Pontecorvo medium with different concentrations of isolated soybean protein (ISP). Mycelial hot water extract, moistened mycelial powder, hot water extract of green tea, Ifosfamida(®) (ifosfamide drug), and saline solution were administered daily by gavage in mice with sarcoma 180 cells to evaluate antineoplastic activity. It was concluded that antineoplastic activity was the same for both strains, except when used as moistened mycelial powder, which rules out the use of mycelial powder in capsules. Mycelial hot water extract had high antineoplastic activity with lower metabolic demand on the spleen and maintenance of normal blood parameters. Mycelial growth in different ISP concentrations had the same antineoplastic activity. Also the vegetative mycelium was as effective as the basidiocarp for sarcoma 180 tumor inhibition. Green tea was as effective as mycelial hot water extract.

  5. Agaricus blazei Murill enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by NFκB-mediated increase of intracellular doxorubicin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that the Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) mushroom, which primarily consists of polysaccharides, possesses anti-tumor activities. However, the mechanisms by which ABM inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma growth remain unknown. Our study demonstrates that ABM acts as an enhancer to sensitize doxorubicin (Dox)-mediated apoptotic signaling, and this sensitization can be achieved by enhancing intracellular Dox accumulation via the inhibition of NFκB activity. These findings suggest that ABM, when combined with low doses of Dox, has the potential to provide more efficient therapeutic effects against drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000-2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. & Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption.

  7. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species.

  8. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. Results The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. Conclusions A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in

  9. Microsatellites in the Genome of the Edible Mushroom, Volvariella volvacea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Hong; Bao, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Using bioinformatics software and database, we have characterized the microsatellite pattern in the V. volvacea genome and compared it with microsatellite patterns found in the genomes of four other edible fungi: Coprinopsis cinerea, Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Pleurotus ostreatus. A total of 1346 microsatellites have been identified, with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motif. The relative abundance of microsatellites was lower in coding regions with 21 No./Mb. However, the microsatellites in the V. volvacea gene models showed a greater tendency to be located in the CDS regions. There was also a higher preponderance of trinucleotide repeats, especially in the kinase genes, which implied a possible role in phenotypic variation. Among the five fungal genomes, microsatellite abundance appeared to be unrelated to genome size. Furthermore, the short motifs (mono- to tri-nucleotides) outnumbered other categories although these differed in proportion. Data analysis indicated a possible relationship between the most frequent microsatellite types and the genetic distance between the five fungal genomes. PMID:24575404

  10. Mushroom Use by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

  11. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  12. Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Solak, Mehmet Halil; Cetinkaya, Serap

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Al, Ca, Mg, and K in Agaricus campestris, Agrocybe cylindracea, Collybia dryophila, Helvella leucopus, Russula delica, Tricholoma auratum, Amanita ovoidea, Melanoleuca excissa, Rhizopogon roseolus, Russula chloroides, Volvoriella gloiocephala, Lyophyllum decastes, Morcella angusticeps, Morchella esculenta and Morcella eximia collected from Isparta, Mugla, and Osmaniye provinces (Turkey) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion. The intake of heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A. cylindracea and H. leucopus (for Cd) for the consumer.

  13. Nutritional composition of two wild mushrooms consumed by the tribals of the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    Sudheep, Naga M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the nutritional qualities of two wild mushrooms (Agaricus abruptibulbus and Termitomyces globulus) commonly consumed by the tribals of Kaiga forests of the Western Ghats of India. Both mushrooms composed of high quantity of crude protein, crude fibre, calorific value and low quantity of crude lipid. Potassium and selenium contents were high, while sodium, calcium and phosphorus contents were low. Except for three essential amino acids (EAAs: leucine, tyrosine and lysine), the rest of the amino acids in both mushrooms were comparable to soybean and wheat. Based on the EAA standards of FAO-WHO, these mushrooms composed of high quantity of threonine, isoleucine and histidine. The EAA score of isoleucine in cooked A. abruptibulbus and threonine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, histidine and sulphur amino acids in cooked T. globulus were substantially high. Oleic acid constitutes a major unsaturated fatty acid in these mushrooms, which was significantly increased in cooked A. abruptibulbus. Cooking also increased the ratio of TUFA/TSFA in A. abruptibulbus, while it was opposite in T. globulus. Cooking significantly increased the linoleic acid in A. abruptibulbus and eicosadienoic acid in T. globulus. PMID:24999438

  14. Evaluation of Agaricus blazei in vivo for antigenotoxic, anticarcinogenic, phagocytic and immunomodulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Priscila Lumi; Prado, Carolina Kato; Mauro, Mariana de Oliveira; Carreira, Clísia Mara; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; Dichi, Jane Bandeira; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano

    2011-04-01

    The development of various types of cancer results from the interaction among endogenous, environmental and hormonal factors, where the most notable of these factors is diet. The aim of the present study was to determine the antigenotoxic, anticarcinogenic, phagocytic and immunomodulatory activities of Agaricus blazei. The test antigenotoxicity (Comet Assay) and anticarcinogenic (Test of Aberrant Crypt Foci) assess changes in DNA and/or intestinal mucosa that correlate to cancer development. Tests of phagocytosis in the spleen and differential count in blood cells allow the inference of modulation of the immune system as well as to propose a way of eliminating cells with DNA damage. Supplementation with the mushroom was carried out under pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment, post-treatment and pre-treatment+continuous conditions. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the mushroom did not have genotoxic activity but showed antigenotoxic activity. Supplementation caused an increase in the number of monocytes and in phagocytic activity, suggesting that supplementation increases a proliferation of monocytes, consequently increasing phagocytic capacity especially in the groups pre-treatment, simultaneous and pre-treatment+continuous. The data suggest that A. blazei could act as a functional food capable of promoting immunomodulation which can account for the destruction of cells with DNA alterations that correlate with the development of cancer, since this mushroom was demonstrated to have a preventive effect against pre-neoplastic colorectal lesions evaluated by the aberrant crypt foci assay. According to these results and the literature, it is believed that supplementation with A. blazei can be an efficient method for the prevention of cancer as well as possibly being an important coadjuvant treatment in chemotherapy.

  15. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    PubMed

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia.

  16. Contents of metals in some wild mushrooms: its impact in human health.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Hasan Hüseyin; Sanda, Murad Aydin; Uyanöz, Refik; Oztürk, Celaleddin; Cetin, Ummühan

    2006-04-01

    The concentrations of 7 metals (lead, cadmium, manganese, copper, nickel, silver, and chromium) were determined in 32 different species of wild mushrooms. The mushroom samples, which have been using for food and some medical purposes, were collected from Konya, an Inner Anatolian region of Turkey. The highest metal concentrations were determined as 39 mg/kg Pb and 3.72 mg/kg Cd in Trichaptum abietinum, 467 mg/kg Mn in Panaeolus sphinctrinus, 326 mg/kg Cu in Trametes versicolor, 69.4 mg/kg Ni in Helvella spadicea, 6.97 mg/kg Ag in Agaricus campestris, and 84.5 mg/kg Cr in Phellinus igniarius. The maximum contents are 1.52, 2.22, and 60.2 mg/kg in Pleurotus eryngii (for Pb), Amanita vaginata (for Cd), and Helvella leucomelana (for Cu), respectively. These results were compared according to the WHO/FAO standard.

  17. The mushroom message.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M

    1992-04-28

    A basic law of ecology is that living things are tightly dependent on one another, often in ways that are not easy to imagine. Who, for example, would have predicted that when the last dodo was killed in 1675, that death would lead to the slow extermination of the tambalocoque tree, whose fruits germinate only after passing through the dodo's digestive system? Now no natural strands of tambalocoque younger than 300 years can be found. Or who would have predicted that clear-cutting tropical rainforests would so significantly alter local weather patterns that the tropical rainforest biome itself and its vast diversity of life might not survive? Such interactions are worth noting because of the possible ramifications of a phenomenon that ecologists have just begun to document. Mushrooms worldwide appear to be in a catastrophic state of decline. Throughout Europe, in countries with terrains as diverse as Holland, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and England, wild mushrooms are becoming increasingly difficult to find. Those fungi that are found are significantly smaller than those found years ago. Preliminary data suggest that the same troubling situation is occurring throughout North American as well. The decline has been so precipitous that biologists have begun to refer to it as a mass extinction. The 2 obvious explanations for the demise of the mushrooms--habitat destruction and overpicking of edible types by an ever growing human population--have been ruled out. Sophisticated sampling schemes designed by ecologists control for the fact that there is less land available for wild mushrooms; they have been declining at a rate that far exceeds the rate at which land is being developed. The fact that the decline has affected both edible and inedible mushrooms equally indicates that humans hunting for tasty treats are not the main cause of the problem. The loss of wild mushrooms worldwide might not seem like that big a deal, but the consequences may well be grave

  18. Agaricus blazei hot water extract shows anti quorum sensing activity in the nosocomial human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Soković, Marina; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Nikolić, Miloš; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2014-04-03

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  19. A new species of Agaricus section Minores from China

    PubMed Central

    Mao-Qiang, He; Rui-Lin, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus gemloides sp. nov. is characterised by its reddish brown fibrillose squamose on the pileus, relatively slender basidiome and broader basidiospores. In this article, it is introduced based on its distinguished morphological features and molecular phylogenetic position. PMID:26807303

  20. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects.

  1. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly. PMID:16136207

  2. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  3. Mercury in edible mushrooms and underlying soil: bioconcentration factors and toxicological risk.

    PubMed

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2009-10-01

    Wild growing mushrooms are a popular delicacy in many countries, but some species accumulate high levels of toxic heavy metals, e.g., mercury, both in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of mercury in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Total concentrations of mercury were determined by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique using a gold disc as the working electrode in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The mushrooms were collected from different sites in the province of Lugo (NW Spain). The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean mercury concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) were found in Boletus pinophilus (6.9 in H and 4.5 in RFB), Agaricus macrosporus (5.1 in H and 3.7 in RFB), Lepista nuda (5.1 in H and 3.1 in RFB) and Boletus aereus (4.6 in H and 3.3 in RFB), while the lowest was found in Agrocybe cylindrica (0.34 in H and 0.26 in RFB) and Fistulina hepatica (0.30 in H and 0.22 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated mercury (BCF>1) in relation to the underlying soils. There were no statistically significant differences between the mercury levels in the hymenophore and in the rest of the fruiting body. The total mercury concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of the majority of the studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as mercury content is concerned, although the species B.pinophilus, A.macrosporus, L.nuda and B.aereus should be consumed in low amounts.

  4. Shiitake Mushroom Dermatitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Mathew Paul; Chung, Stella; Handler, Marc Zachary; Handler, Nancy Stefanie; Handler, Glenn A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis.

  5. Mushrooms and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Varma, Amit; Gaur, K J B S; Bhatia, Payal

    2011-11-01

    The mushrooms are probably one of the oldest consumption of mankind having mythological and spiritual significance apart from being a great delicacy. Its poisoning is a common yet poorly recognised. There are more than 2000 varieties which are edible, and nearly 80 varieties are non-edible (or poisonous) type. Not only they resemble some of the edible types, they even grow long with them. Most of the toxic events go unnoticed, yet, sometimes it may be life threatening as some mushrooms are one of the most toxic fungi known to manking. Awareness is pobably the only prevention.

  6. New and rare taxa in Agaricus section Bivelares (Duploannulati).

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Richard W; Callac, Philippe; Parra, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing field and laboratory studies have led to our recognition of new taxa in Agaricus section Bivelares, a recent combination and now the earliest synonym and correct name of section Duploannulati. Agaricus cupressophilus and A. tlaxcalensis, in the new Agaricus subsection Cupressorum, and A. agrinferus, A. devoniensis subsp. bridghamii, and A. subsubensis in Agaricus subsection Hortenses, are described. Agaricus subfloccosus is lectotypified. Phylogeny reconstruction methods with ITS1+2 DNA sequences were used to determine appropriate placements of the new taxa. Collectively these new taxa and phylogenetic associations represent a substantial augmentation and clarification of our knowledge of section Bivelares; described, sequenced species-level taxa in the northern hemisphere are increased from six to 10, a distinct subsectional lineage is revealed and infraspecific resolution within A. devoniensis is improved. An anomalous ITS1+2 sequence is documented in one collection of A. subsubensis. Preliminary data on another novel member of Bivelares from France also are provided. Several of these taxa are rare, highlighting opportunities and challenges for documenting biodiversity in this group. Additional comments on related taxa treated in recent publications are also provided.

  7. Evidence for amphithallism and broad geographical hybridization potential among Agaricus subrufescens isolates from Brazil, France, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thongklang, Naritsada; Hoang, Eric; Rodriguez Estrada, Alma E; Sysouphanthong, Phongeun; Moinard, Magalie; Hyde, Kevin D; Kerrigan, Richard W; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Callac, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Agaricus subrufescens is a cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. Its known geographical distribution encompasses the Americas, Europe, Oceania, and Asia. The objective of this study was to assess mating compatibility and interfertility of strains originating from Brazil, France, and Thailand. Progeny of each strain were analyed with codominant molecular markers. Multilocus genotype tests revealed that the three strains were amphithallic with percentages of heterokaryotic single spore progenies of 75% for the Thai strain and around 40% for the Brazilian and French strains. In mating tests A. subrufescens had a multiallelic unifactorial system of sexual incompatibility. The three parent strains were interfertile based on experimental pairings of single-spore isolates, the recovery of hybrid heterokaryons from compatible matings, and the ability of hybrids to produce mushrooms and fertile spores. This biological approach supports the inclusion of the European strains within the species and the extension of the geographical distribution range to Asia. Our data should help to develop breeding strategies and to better manage and exploit the diversity existing in A. subrufescens.

  8. Agaricus blazei Murrill and inflammatory mediators in elderly women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lima, C U J O; Souza, V C; Morita, M C; Chiarello, M D; Karnikowski, M G de Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    There is scientific evidence to suggest that the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill (AbM) has immunomodulatory effects on cytokine synthesis, both in vitro and in vivo. This study was the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to investigate these purported actions in elderly women. The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of AbM intake on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in community-living seniors. The sample consisted of 57 elderly females who were carriers or homozygous for the majority allele of functional polymorphisms for the chosen cytokines. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive placebo (n = 29) or AbM dry extract (n = 28), 900 mg/day for 60 days. Body mass index, abdominal girth, body composition, blood pressure and cytokine (IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) levels were measured, and food intake was assessed as a possible confounder. Analysis of these parameters showed the sample was characterized by overweight and excess adiposity. After the study period, no changes from baseline were detectable for any parameter in either group. In this study, AbM extract had no modulating effect on IL-6, IFN-γ or TNF-α levels in elderly females.

  9. Lack of carcinogenicity of lyophilized Agaricus blazei Murill in a F344 rat two year bioassay.

    PubMed

    Lee, I P; Kang, B H; Roh, J K; Kim, J R

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill has antimutagenic, antioxidant, immunostimulatory and antitumorigenic activities, and is increasingly consumed as a health food worldwide. We undertook the present study to evaluate the chronic toxicity and oncogenicity of A. blazei Murill in F344 rats. To establish a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), four treatment groups of 100 rats each (50 males and 50 females) were fed a powder diet containing lyophilized A. blazei aqueous extract at 0, 6250, 12,500, and 25,000 ppm for up to 2 years. During this period, there was no remarkable change in mean body weight, body weight gain, hematologic or serum chemistry parameters, or absolute or relative organ weights in control or treatment groups. Mortality in male treatment groups (26%, 16%, and 30%), however, was significantly lower than in controls (48%). Histopathological studies showed no increased incidence of tumors in any treatment group, and total tumor incidence across all groups was comparable to historical data. In conclusion, an A. blazei Murill lyophilized powder diet even at 25,000 ppm (1176 mg/kgb x w x /day for male rats and 1518 mg/kgb.w./day for female rats) resulted in no remarkable carcinogenic effects in F344 rats over a 2-year period. Therefore, the dietary NOAEL is 25,000 ppm.

  10. Agarol, an ergosterol derivative from Agaricus blazei, induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takamitsu; Kawai, Junya; Ouchi, Kenji; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Osima, Yoshiteru; Hidemi, Rikiishi

    2016-04-01

    Agaricus blazei (A. blazei) is a mushroom with many biological effects and active ingredients. We purified a tumoricidal substance from A. blazei, an ergosterol derivative, and named it 'Agarol'. Cytotoxic effects of Agarol were determined by the MTT assay using A549, MKN45, HSC-3, and HSC-4 human carcinoma cell lines treated with Agarol. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondria membrane potential (∆ψm) were also determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to quantify the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Agarol predominantly induced apoptosis in two p53-wild cell lines (A549 and MKN45) compared to the other p53-mutant cell lines (HSC-3 and HSC-4). Further mechanistic studies revealed that induction of apoptosis is associated with increased generation of ROS, reduced ∆ψm, release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to the cytosol, upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2. Caspase-3 activities did not increase, and z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor, did not inhibit the Agarol-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that Agarol induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human carcinoma cells through a mitochondrial pathway. The in vivo anticancer activity of Agarol was confirmed in a xenograft murine model. This study suggests a molecular mechanism by which Agarol induces apoptosis in human carcinoma cells and indicates the potential use of Agarol as an anticancer agent.

  11. Identification of cadmium-induced Agaricus blazei genes through suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liling; Li, Haibo; Wei, Hailong; Wu, Xueqian; Ke, Leqin

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious environmental pollutants. Filamentous fungi are very promising organisms for controlling and reducing the amount of heavy metals released by human and industrial activities. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in Cd accumulation and tolerance of filamentous fungi are not fully understood. Agaricus blazei Murrill, an edible mushroom with medicinal properties, demonstrates high tolerance for heavy metals, especially Cd. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of A. blazei after Cd exposure, we constructed a forward subtractive library that represents cadmium-induced genes in A. blazei under 4 ppm Cd stress for 14 days using suppression subtractive hybridization combined with mirror orientation selection. Differential screening allowed us to identify 39 upregulated genes, 26 of which are involved in metabolism, protein fate, cellular transport, transport facilitation and transport routes, cell rescue, defense and virulence, transcription, and the action of proteins with a binding function, and 13 are encoding hypothetical proteins with unknown functions. Induction of six A. blazei genes after Cd exposure was further confirmed by RT-qPCR. The cDNAs isolated in this study contribute to our understanding of genes involved in the biochemical pathways that participate in the response of filamentous fungi to Cd exposure.

  12. Analysis of several heavy metals in wild edible mushrooms from regions of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Qiu, Guan-Zhou

    2009-08-01

    The metal (Cu, Ni, Cd, Hg, As, Pb) contents in wild edible mushrooms collected from three different sites in China were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. A total of 11 species was studied, five being from the urban area and six from rural areas in China. The As content ranged from 0.44 to 1.48 mg/kg. The highest As content was seen in Macrolepiota crustosa from the urban area, and the lowest in Russula virescens from rural areas. A high Ni concentration (1.35 mg/kg) was found in Calvatia craniiformis from the urban area. The lowest Ni level was 0.11 mg/kg, for the species R. virescens and Cantharellus cibarius. The Cu content ranged from 39.0 to 181.5 mg/kg. The highest Cu content was seen in Agaricus silvaticus and the lowest in C. cibarius. The Pb content ranged from 1.9 to 10.8 mg/kg. The highest Pb value was found in C. craniiformis. The Cd content ranged from 0.4 to 91.8 mg/kg. The highest Cd value was found in M. crustosa. The Hg content ranged from 0.28 to 3.92 mg/kg. The highest Hg level was found in Agaricus species. The levels of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, and Hg in the studied mushroom species from urban area can be considered high. The metal-to-metal correlation analysis supported they were the same source of contamination. High automobile traffic was identified as the most likely source of the contamination. Based upon the present safety standards, consumption of those mushrooms that grow in the polluted urban area should be avoided.

  13. Fatty Acid Composition of Different Collections of Coprinoid Mushrooms (Agaricomycetes) and Their Nutritional and Medicinal Values.

    PubMed

    Badalyan, Susanna M

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the free fatty acid (FA) composition of ethanol extracts obtained from mycelia of 30 genetically identified strains of 18 species of coprinoid mushrooms (CMs) or coprini belonging to clades Coprinellus (C. bisporus, C. curtus, C. disseminatus, C. domesticus, C. ellisii, C.flocculosus, C. micaceus, C. aff radians I, C. aff radians II, C. aff radians III, C. xanthothrix, Coprinellus sp. 4), Coprinopsis (C. cinerea, C. cothurnata, C. gonophylla, C. lagopides, C. maysoidispora, C. strossmayeri), and Coprinus (C. comatus) were evaluated using gas chromatography. Two unsaturated (lineolic, oleic) and 3 saturated (palmitic, stearic, myristic) FAs were detected in the tested mycelial samples. Amounts of unsaturated FAs prevailed over saturated FAs. Lineolic and palmitic acids were detected in all the species in high quantities (up to 64.73% and 53.82%, respectively). All 5 FAs were found in the Coprinus clade (family Agaricaceae) as opposed to the Coprinellus and Coprinopsis clades (family Psathyrellaceae). Based on the unsaturated and saturated FA content, the species from the clade Coprinellus were different from Coprinopsis species and C. comatus. The obtained data confirm that palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids are predominant in mushrooms, including coprini. The presence of large amounts of unsaturated FAs in the tested coprini make them an option for further studies to formulate novel mushroom-based dietary supplements and nutriceuticals.

  14. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality.

  15. Nanofiltration of polysaccharides from Agaricus subrufescens.

    PubMed

    Camelini, C M; Rezzadori, K; Benedetti, S; Proner, M C; Fogaça, L; Azambuja, A A; Giachini, A J; Rossi, M J; Petrus, J C C

    2013-12-01

    A simplified submerged airlift cultivation was established for the production of biomass from Agaricus subrufescens. In this work, soluble polysaccharides extracted from fungal mycelium, fruiting bodies, and the residual culture media were concentrated by nanofiltration. Total and high molar mass polysaccharides and soluble solids were determined in the concentrate for the three extracts. Additionally, the permeate flow, the influences of temperature and pressure, and the resistance to the permeate flow during filtration were also evaluated. Ayield of 5.5 g/L of biomass with 35%glucose conversion was obtained when 0.5 g/L of initial inoculum was employed. Average specific speed of growth was 0.4/day, with biomass productivity of about 0.76 g/(L day). Nanofiltration has yielded polysaccharide increases of 85, 82, and 92% in the extracts from fruiting bodies, mycelium, and liquid media, respectively. A reduction in the permeate flow was observed during filtration, and it was compensated by higher pressures and temperatures. The higher resistance to the permeate flux was caused by polarization due to concentration (polarized gel layer), reaching values of 88% for the culture media. Maximal resistance caused by the membrane reached values of 40% for the extract from the fruiting bodies. On the other hand, resistance caused by fouling was responsible for less than 3.5%. In conclusion, nanofiltration is efficient to concentrate these functional compounds extracted from A. subrufescens and can, therefore, be applied in different biotechnological areas.

  16. Quantification of Water-Soluble Metabolites in Medicinal Mushrooms Using Proton NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Chien, Shih-Chang; Mishchuk, Darya O; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-01-01

    The water-soluble metabolites in 5 mushrooms were identified and quantified using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and software for targeted metabolite detection and quantification. In total, 35 compounds were found in Agaricus brasiliensis, 25 in Taiwanofungus camphoratus, 23 in Ganoderma lucidum (Taiwan) and Lentinus edodes, and 16 in G. lucidum (China). Total amounts of all identified metabolites in A. brasiliensis, T. camphoratus, G. lucidum, G. lucidum (China), and L. edodes were 149,950.51, 12,834.18, 9,549.09, 2,788.41, and 111,726.51 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. These metabolites were categorized into 4 groups: free amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and nucleosides. Carbohydrates were the most abundant metabolites among all 4 groups, with mannitol having the highest concentration among all analyzed metabolites (848-94,104 mg/kg dry weight). Principal components analysis (PCA) showed obvious distinction among the metabolites of the 5 different kinds of mushrooms analyzed in this study. Thus PCA could provide an optional analytical way of identifying and recognizing the compositions of flavor products. Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrate that NMRbased metabolomics is a powerful tool for differentiating between various medicinal mushrooms.

  17. Lead, cadmium and mercury contents and bioaccumulation potential of wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Širić, Ivan; Kasap, Ante; Bedeković, Dalibor; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-03-04

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) contents in ten species of edible mushrooms in Trakošćan, Croatia were determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis. The caps and stipes of the fruiting bodies were analysed separately. The analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The greatest mean lead concentrations of 1.91 and 1.60 mg kg (-1) were determined in caps and stipes of Macrolepiota procera. The greatest mean concentrations of cadmium (3.23 and 2.24 mg kg(-1)) were determined in caps and stipes of Agaricus campestris and of mercury (2.56 and 2.35 mg kg(-1)) in Boletus edulis. In terms of the anatomical parts of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably greater concentration of the analysed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bio-concentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bio-accumulators of Cd and Hg. On the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals, great similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation was obtained by cluster analysis.

  18. Effects of treating old rats with an aqueous Agaricus blazei extract on oxidative and functional parameters of the brain tissue and brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis B; Soares, Andréia A; de Oliveira, Andrea Luiza; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane M; Bracht, Adelar

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and increased oxidative stress is a striking phenomenon in the brain of aged individuals. For this reason there has been a constant search for drugs and natural products able to prevent or at least to mitigate these problems. In the present study the effects of an aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei, a medicinal mushroom, on the oxidative state and on the functionality of mitochondria from the brain of old rats (21 months) were conducted. The extract was administered intragastrically during 21 days at doses of 200 mg/kg. The administration of the A. blazei extract was protective to the brain of old rats against oxidative stress by decreasing the lipid peroxidation levels and the reactive oxygen species content and by increasing the nonenzymic and enzymic antioxidant capacities. Administration of the A. blazei extract also increased the activity of several mitochondrial respiratory enzymes and, depending on the substrate, the mitochondrial coupled respiration.

  19. Effects of Treating Old Rats with an Aqueous Agaricus blazei Extract on Oxidative and Functional Parameters of the Brain Tissue and Brain Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis B.; Soares, Andréia A.; de Oliveira, Andrea Luiza; Fernando Comar, Jurandir; Peralta, Rosane M.; Bracht, Adelar

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and increased oxidative stress is a striking phenomenon in the brain of aged individuals. For this reason there has been a constant search for drugs and natural products able to prevent or at least to mitigate these problems. In the present study the effects of an aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei, a medicinal mushroom, on the oxidative state and on the functionality of mitochondria from the brain of old rats (21 months) were conducted. The extract was administered intragastrically during 21 days at doses of 200 mg/kg. The administration of the A. blazei extract was protective to the brain of old rats against oxidative stress by decreasing the lipid peroxidation levels and the reactive oxygen species content and by increasing the nonenzymic and enzymic antioxidant capacities. Administration of the A. blazei extract also increased the activity of several mitochondrial respiratory enzymes and, depending on the substrate, the mitochondrial coupled respiration. PMID:24876914

  20. Agaricus blazei extract attenuates rotenone-induced apoptosis through its mitochondrial protective and antioxidant properties in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh Gobi, Veerappan; Rajasankar, Srinivasagam; Ramkumar, Muthu; Dhanalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Chidambaram, Ranganathan

    2016-09-20

    The present study was aimed to find out the effect of Agaricus blazei mushroom extract against rotenone-induced cellular model. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are divided into four experimental groups (control, rotenone (100 nM), A. blazei (5 μg/ml) + rotenone (100 nM), and A. blazei alone treated) based on MTT assay, cells were allowed to measure the ROS, TBARS levels, and antioxidants activities. Finally, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP) and expressions of apoptotic proteins were also analyzed. Pre-treatment with A. blazei significantly enhanced cell viability, attenuated rotenone-induced ROS, MMP, and apoptosis. Our results indicated that anti-apoptotic properties of this natural compound due to its antioxidant and mitochondrial protective function protect rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Therefore, it may be concluded that A. blazei can be further developed as a promising drug for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD).

  1. Immunomodulatory properties of medicinal mushrooms: differential effects of water and ethanol extracts on NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Jing; Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Martel, Jan; Ojcius, David M; Ko, Yun-Fei; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D

    2016-10-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used for centuries in Asian countries owing to their beneficial effects on health and longevity. Previous studies have reported that a single medicinal mushroom may produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune cells, depending on conditions, but the factors responsible for this apparent dichotomy remain obscure. We show here that water and ethanol extracts of cultured mycelium from various species (Agaricus blazei Murrill, Antrodia cinnamomea, Ganoderma lucidum and Hirsutella sinensis) produce opposite effects on NK cells. Water extracts enhance NK cell cytotoxic activity against cancer cells, whereas ethanol extracts inhibit cytotoxicity. Water extracts stimulate the expression and production of cytolytic proteins (perforin and granulysin) and NKG2D/NCR cell surface receptors, and activate intracellular signaling kinases (ERK, JNK and p38). In contrast, ethanol extracts inhibit expression of cytolytic and cell surface receptors. Our results suggest that the mode of extraction of medicinal mushrooms may determine the nature of the immunomodulatory effects produced on immune cells, presumably owing to the differential solubility of stimulatory and inhibitory mediators. These findings have important implications for the preparation of medicinal mushrooms to prevent and treat human diseases.

  2. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  6. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  7. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  8. [Factors determining students' knowledge on wild mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian; Cisoń-Apanasewicz, Urszula; Potok, Halina; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted among students of university schools in Nowy Sacz, Biała Podlaska and Zamość to determine the guidelines of mushroom poisoning prevention. The study included 580 people. The dependence of knowledge about mushrooms from the place of origin of students, frequency of participation in mushrooming, preferred sources of information about mushrooms, major of study and self-competence in discsriminating of mushrooms was determined. Mushrooms gathered nearly 80% of respondents. Residents of large cities more often that those living in villages and small towns have difficulites in distinguishing the edible and poisonous mushrooms. People often participating in mushrooming retain proper habits during the harvesting and processing of mushrooms. Irrational ways of distinguishing edible mushrooms from poisonous are often rejected by inexperienced people than by frequently gathering mushrooms. Nearly 20% of respondents, regardless of their own experience and self-assessment of their competence in discriminating mushrooms belive that after culinary preparation can by safely consume even deadly poisonous species. The primary source of knowledge on mushrooms for the majority of responents are parents. There was no correlation between the preferred source of information about mushrooms and belief in the myths about them. Knowledge on the mushrooms of medical students (nursing, emergency medical service) is not greater than students other courses.

  9. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  10. Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katherine M.; Horst, Ronald L.; Koszewski, Nicholas J.; Simon, Ryan R.

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2–7.0 and 22.5–35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D4 content was more than twice that of D2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49–16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D4 coeluted with D3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D2 in mushrooms and using D3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D3 and D4. PMID:22870201

  11. Characterization of blood beta-1,3-glucan and anti-beta-glucan antibody in hemodialysis patients using culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (Agaricomycetideae).

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Yoshida, Masaharu; Nakabayashi, Iwao; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Miura, Noriko N; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    Beta-glucan is a major component of fungal cell walls and shows various immunopharmacological activities including antitumor activity. Previously, we detected anti-beta-glucan antibody in human sera. Anti-beta-glucan antibody participates in the immune response to fungal cell wall beta-glucan. Patients on dialysis are at high risk of infection including fungal infections. We examined the plasma beta-glucan level and the titer of anti-beta-glucan antibody in dialysis patients. We measured plasma beta-1,3-glucan concentrations with the limulus G test and anti-beta-glucan antibody titers by ELISA with Candida beta-glucan-coated plates. We also examined the influence of the period of dialysis and the kind of dialysis membrane. The patients were positive for beta-1,3-glucan in their plasma. The anti-beta-glucan antibody titer was lower in the dialysis patients than in healthy volunteers. Long-term dialysis patients showed lower anti-beta-glucan antibody titers than short-term dialysis patients. No significant difference was found between the kinds of dialysis membrane. The titer of anti-beta-glucan antibody as recognition molecule of beta-glucan was low in dialysis patients compared with healthy volunteers. This is likely to be one factor explaining the sensitivity to infection of the dialysis patients. An appropriate application of culinary-medicinal mushroom such as Agaricus brasiliensis has potential for the prevention of fungal infection in dialysis patients.

  12. The Protective Effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill, Submerged Culture Using the Optimized Medium Composition, on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Wenyu; Han, Chunchao; Xu, Xin; Li, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM), an edible mushroom native to Brazil, is widely used for nonprescript and medicinal purposes. Alcohol liver disease (ALD) is considered as a leading cause for a liver injury in modern dietary life, which can be developed by a prolonged or large intake of alcohol. In this study, the medium composition of ABM was optimized using response surface methodology for maximum mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The model predicts to gain a maximal mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide at 1.047 g/100 mL, and 0.367 g/100 mL, respectively, when the potato is 29.88 g/100 mL, the glucose is 1.01 g/100 mL, and the bran is 1.02 g/100 mL. The verified experiments showed that the model was significantly consistent with the model prediction and that the trends of mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide were predicted by artificial neural network. After that, the optimized medium was used for the submerged culture of ABM. Then, alcohol-induced liver injury in mice model was used to examine the protective effect of ABM cultured using the optimized medium on the liver. And the hepatic histopathological observations showed that ABM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. PMID:25114908

  13. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Marcelo Betti; França, Cristiane Miranda; Esquerdo, Kamilla F.; Lara, Marx A. N.; Wadt, Nilsa S. Y.; Bach, Erna E.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom) on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1) induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received commercial chow; and diabetic group that received chow with A. sylvaticus. Weight, food, and water consumption were measured every two days. Blood glucose levels were measured twice a week. After 30 days, the animals were euthanized and blood was collected for the analysis of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea. The pancreas was processed for microscopic analysis. A. sylvaticus modulated the levels of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea to levels similar to those found in the controls and led to compensatory hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans. A. sylvaticus is potentially beneficial in the control of type 1 diabetes, and it may also prevent pancreas damage. PMID:24971142

  14. Influence of drying methods over in vitro antitumoral effects of exopolysaccharides produced by Agaricus blazei LPB 03 on submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M B A; Habu, S; de Lima, M A; Thomaz-Soccol, V; Soccol, C R

    2011-03-01

    Agaricus blazei is a mushroom that belongs to the Brazilian biodiversity and is considered as an important producer of bioactive compounds beneficial to human health. Studies have demonstrated that these compounds present immuno-modulatory, antioxidant and antitumor properties. In order to compare the most used method for fungal polysaccharide drying, lyophilization with other industrial-scale methods, the aim of this work was to submit A. blazei LPB 03 polysaccharide extracts to vaucum, spray and freeze drying, and evaluate the maintenance of its antitumoral effects in vitro. Exopolysaccharides produced by A. blazei LPB 03 on submerged fermentation were extracted with ethanol and submitted to drying processes. The efficiency represents the water content that was removed during the drying process. The resultant dried products showed water content around 3% and water activity less than 0.380, preventing therefore the growth of microorganisms and reactions of chemical degradation. Exopolysaccharide extracts dried by vacuum and spray dryer did not showed any significant cytotoxic effect on cell viability of Wistar mice macrophages. Content of total sugars and protein decrease after drying, nevertheless, 20 mg/ml of exopolysaccharides dried by spray dryer reached 33% of inhibition rate over Ehrlich tumor cells in vitro.

  15. Effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill extract on HT-29 human colon cancer cells in SCID mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Fang; Chen, Yung-Liang; Lee, Mei-Hui; Shih, Yung-Luen; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Yang, Su-Tso; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2011-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) popularly known as 'Cogumelo do Sol' in Brazil, or 'Himematsutake' in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses and is now considered one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. This study is the first tumor growth model to evaluate the amelioratory effect of ABM extract using HT-29 human colon cancer cells in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Forty SCID mice were inoculated with HT-29 cells to induce tumor formation and were then divided into four groups. All the four groups (control, low, medium and high concentration treatment) of mice were separately orally administered 0 mg, 1.125 mg, 4.5 mg or 45 mg ABM extract daily. After six weeks of treatment, 8 out of the 40 mice had not survived including one mouse which scored +++ (tumor up to 15 mm diameter) and four mice which scored ++++ (tumor over 15 mm diameter) in the control group and three mice which scored ++++ on the low-dose ABM treatment. After high- or medium-dose treatment, all ten mice in each group survived. The oral administration of ABM does not prevent tumor growth, as shown by increased tumor mass, but compared with the control group, the tumor mass seems to grow more slowly depending on the ABM dose.

  16. The protective effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill, submerged culture using the optimized medium composition, on alcohol-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Wenyu; Han, Chunchao; Xu, Xin; Li, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM), an edible mushroom native to Brazil, is widely used for nonprescript and medicinal purposes. Alcohol liver disease (ALD) is considered as a leading cause for a liver injury in modern dietary life, which can be developed by a prolonged or large intake of alcohol. In this study, the medium composition of ABM was optimized using response surface methodology for maximum mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The model predicts to gain a maximal mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide at 1.047 g/100 mL, and 0.367 g/100 mL, respectively, when the potato is 29.88 g/100 mL, the glucose is 1.01 g/100 mL, and the bran is 1.02 g/100 mL. The verified experiments showed that the model was significantly consistent with the model prediction and that the trends of mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide were predicted by artificial neural network. After that, the optimized medium was used for the submerged culture of ABM. Then, alcohol-induced liver injury in mice model was used to examine the protective effect of ABM cultured using the optimized medium on the liver. And the hepatic histopathological observations showed that ABM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage.

  17. Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?

    PubMed

    Guillén, J; Baeza, A

    2014-07-01

    Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored.

  18. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Yu-Kai; Yu, Hui-Tzu; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) contain several bioactive components such as lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and ergothioneine. This article reports the results of 49 samples, including 9 fruiting bodies, 39 mycelia, and 1 vegetative cell, of 35 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from 18 genera: Agaricus, Agrocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Cyathus, Daedalia, Flammulina, Fomes, Ganoderma, Grifola, Laetiporus, Lentinus, Morchella, Ophiocordyceps, Pleurotus, Trametes, Tremella, and Verpa. The results show that Cyathus striatus strain 978 contained the highest amount of lovastatin (995.66 mg/kg) in mycelia. Among fruiting bodies, 6 samples contained a high amount of GABA (274.86-822.45 mg/kg), whereas among mycelia, contents of GABA in 27 samples ranged from 215.36 to 2811.85 mg/kg. Among mycelia, Pleurotus cornucopiae strain 1101 contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (3482.09 mg/kg). Overall, these 3 bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and the results obtained might be related to their beneficial effects.

  19. Nutrient compositions of culinary-medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) are a food with high nutritional value. This article summarizes the results of proximate composition studies of 38 fruiting bodies and 19 mycelia of 32 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Antrodia, Auricularia, Boletus, Clitocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Trametes, Dictyophora, Flammulina, Ganoderma, Grifola, Hericium, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Sparassis, Termitomyces, Tremella, and Tricholoma. Based on the proximate composition, most fruiting bodies and mycelia are low in fat and rich in protein and dietary fiber (DF); however, some are rich in soluble polysaccharides and others are rich in crude fiber. Due to the high amount of DF present, the energy provided by 100 g of dry fruiting bodies and mycelia is 46.96-292.37 kcal and 195.84-373.22 kcal, respectively. The energy (100 g) is classified into four levels: first level of >300 kcal, second level of 200-300 kcal, third level of 100-200 kcal, and fourth level of <100 kcal. Most fruiting bodies are listed in the third level; nine mycelia are listed in the first level and ten in the second level. Overall, the information about the proximate composition and energy are of great interest for fruiting bodies and mycelia to be used as foods or food-flavoring materials or in the formulation of health foods.

  20. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  1. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  2. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  3. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  5. An alternative medicine, Agaricus blazei, may have induced severe hepatic dysfunction in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Toru; Ando, Masashi; Katsumata, Noriyuki

    2006-12-01

    We report three cases of patients with advanced cancer who showed severe hepatic damage, and two of whom died of fulminant hepatitis. All the patients were taking Agaricus blazei (Himematsutake) extract, one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicines among Japanese cancer patients. In one patient, liver functions recovered gradually after she stopped taking the Agaricus blazei, but she restarted taking it, which resulted in deterioration of the liver function again. The other patients who were admitted for severe liver damage had started taking the Agaricus blazei several days before admission. Although several other factors cannot be completely ruled out as the causes of liver damage, a strong causal relationship between the Agaricus blazei extract and liver damage was suggested and, at least, taking the Agaricus blazei extract made the clinical decision-making process much more complicated. Doctors who are aware of their patients taking the extract may accept it probably because they believe there is no harm in a complementary and alternative medicine. When unexpected liver damage is documented, however, doctors should consider the use of the Agaricus blazei extract as one of its causal factors. It is necessary to evaluate many modes of complementary and alternative medicines, including the Agaricus blazei extract, in rigorous, scientifically designed and peer-reviewed clinical trials.

  6. Agaricus section Arvenses: three new species in highland subtropical Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yang; Zhu, Guo-S; Callac, Philippe; Hyde, Kevin-D; Parra, Luis-A; Chen, Jie; Yang, Tong-J; Huang, Wan-B; Gong, Guang-L; Liu, Zuo-Y

    2015-03-01

    Agaricus is a genus of saprobic basidiomycetes with more than 400 species recognized worldwide, with about 50 species known in China. Our objective was to investigate three new species of section Arvenses in highland subtropical Southwest China. Agaricus guizhouensis is a new species characterized by a white pileus with yellowish squamules, small ellipsoid spores and cheilocystidia with yellowish-brown pigments; another new species, Agaricus longistipes is recognized by its slender stipe, and its elongate-ellipsoid basidiospores; the third new one, Agaricus megalocarpus is remarkable by its large size and its pileus surface covered with fine brown squamules. It is firstly reported for Guizhou Province that Agaricus abruptibulbus, Agaricus flocculosipes, and Agaricus subrufescens are illustrated. Two probable new species require further studying. A phylogenetic analyses of rDNA-ITS sequence data belonging to section Arvenses showed that the section Arvenses is monophyletic and can be subdivided in five branches, the branch of A. subrufescens and four clades (A-D). The eight species from highland subtropical Southwest China were distributed in all five branches, indicating that this highland is at the climatic crossroads. The white pileus trait and the potential interest are discussed. These data suggest a potential species richness that remains to be discovered.

  7. Quantum mushroom billiards

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Alex H.; Betcke, Timo

    2007-12-15

    We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes (quantum states) of the mushroom billiard proposed by L. A. Bunimovich [Chaos 11, 802 (2001)]. The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy (1.7%). We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly regular modes. Our model explains our observed density of such superpositions dying as E{sup -1/3} (E is the eigenvalue). We compare eigenvalue spacing distributions against Random Matrix Theory expectations, using 16 000 odd modes (an order of magnitude more than any existing study). We outline new variants of mesh-free boundary collocation methods which enable us to achieve high accuracy and high mode numbers ({approx}10{sup 5}) orders of magnitude faster than with competing methods.

  8. Agaricus section Xanthodermatei: a phylogenetic reconstruction with commentary on taxa.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Richard W; Callac, Philippe; Guinberteau, Jacques; Challen, Michael P; Parra, Luis A

    2005-01-01

    Agaricus section Xanthodermatei comprises a group of species allied to A. xanthodermus and generally characterized by basidiomata having phenolic odors, transiently yellowing discolorations in some parts of the basidiome, Schaeffer's reaction negative, and mild to substantial toxicity. The section has a global distribution, while most included species have distributions restricted to regions of single continents. Using specimens and cultures from Europe, North America, and Hawaii, we analyzed DNA sequences from the ITS1+2 region of the nuclear rDNA to identify and characterize phylogenetically distinct entities and to construct a hypothesis of relationships, both among members of the section and with representative taxa from other sections of the genus. 61 sequences from affiliated taxa, plus 20 from six (or seven) other sections of Agaricus, and one Micropsalliota sequence, were evaluated under distance, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. We recognized 21 discrete entities in Xanthodermatei, including 14 established species and 7 new ones, three of which are described elsewhere. Four species from California, New Mexico, and France deserve further study before they are described. Type studies of American taxa are particularly emphasized, and a lectotype is designated for A. californicus. Section Xanthodermatei formed a single clade in most analyses, indicating that the traditional sectional characters noted above are good unifying characters that appear to have arisen only once within Agaricus. Deep divisions within the sequence-derived structure of the section could be interpreted as subsections in Xanthodermatei; however, various considerations led us to refrain from proposing new supraspecific taxa. The nearest neighbors of section Xanthodermatei are putatively in section Duploannulati.

  9. Mushroom keratoplasty in pediatric patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Busin, Massimo; Beltz, Jacqueline; Scorcia, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the outcome of mushroom keratoplasty for the treatment of full thickness corneal disease in pediatric patients with healthy endothelium. Methods A retrospective analysis of pediatric patients who underwent mushroom keratoplasty. The medical records of pediatric patients suffering from full thickness corneal stromal disease with normal endothelium who underwent mushroom keratoplasty at our Institution were included. A two-piece donor graft consisting of a large anterior stromal lamella (9.0 mm in diameter and ±250 μm in thickness) and a small posterior lamella (5–6.5 mm in diameter) including deep stroma and endothelium, prepared with the aid of a microkeratome had been transplanted in all cases. Ophthalmic examination including slit lamp examination, best corrected visual acuity, and corneal topography was performed preoperatively and at each postoperative visit on all patients. The endothelial cells were assessed by specular microscopy in these patients. Results Six eyes of six patients (five males and one female) were included. The mean age was 9.3 years (range 5–15 years). Average follow-up was 17.8 months (range 9–48 months). There were no early or late complications recorded. All corneas were clear at the last follow up visit. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was worse than 20/70 in all six eyes. Postoperatively, four eyes achieved BCVA of 20/40 or better. Endothelial cell loss (n eyes = 3 averaged 24% (range 19–31%). The mean endothelial cell loss was 24% (range 19–31%) among these patients. Conclusions Microkeratome assisted mushroom keratoplasty is a viable surgical option for pediatric eyes with full thickness corneal stromal disease and healthy endothelium. Mushroom keratoplasty combines the refractive advantage of a large penetrating keratoplasty with the survival advantage of a small penetrating keratoplasty. Furthermore, mushroom keratoplasty exhibits the mechanical advantage of a shaped

  10. Modern aspects of mushroom culture technology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C

    2004-06-01

    The production and culture of new species of mushrooms is increasing. The breeding of new strains has significantly improved, allowing the use of strains with high yield and resistance to diseases, increasing productivity and diminishing the use of chemicals for pest control. The improvement and development of modern technologies, such as computerized control, automated mushroom harvesting, preparation of compost, production of mushrooms in a non-composted substrate, and new methods of substrate sterilization and spawn preparation, will increase the productivity of mushroom culture. All these aspects are crucial for the production of mushrooms with better flavor, appearance, texture, nutritional qualities, and medicinal properties at low cost. Mushroom culture is a biotechnological process that recycles ligninocellulosic wastes, since mushrooms are food for human consumption and the spent substrate can be used in different ways.

  11. Bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J; Barrett, M

    2015-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been described in mushrooms workers caused by exposure to mushroom or fungal spores in the compost used to grow mushrooms. We describe two mushroom workers who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian proteins found in poultry manure which was used in producing mushroom compost. Both workers were employed in the compost production area. Both presented with typical features of HP. Both workers had negative serological and precipitin studies to Apergillus fumigatus, Saccarhopolyspora rectivirgula and thermophilic actinomycetes but had positive responses to poultry antibodies. Neither was exposed to mushroom spores. Both workers required initial therapy with corticosteroids. Relocation with avoidance of further exposure resulted in complete cure in one worker and change in work practice with the use of personal protections equipment resulted in the second workerclinical stabilisation. These are the first reported cases of bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

  12. The extreme xerophilic mould Xeromyces bisporus--growth and competition at various water activities.

    PubMed

    Leong, Su-Lin L; Pettersson, Olga Vinnere; Rice, Therese; Hocking, Ailsa D; Schnürer, Johan

    2011-01-31

    Little is known about the mould, Xeromyces bisporus, unique in its strong xerophilicity and ability to grow at water activity (a(w)) 0.62, lower than for any other known organism. The linear growth rates of one fast and one slow-growing strain of X. bisporus were assessed at 20, 25, 30 and 37 °C on solid agar media containing a mixture of glucose and fructose to reduce a(w) to 0.94, 0.88, 0.84, 0.80, 0.76 and 0.66. Growth rates of xerophilic species closely related to X. bisporus, viz. Chrysosporium inops, C. xerophilum and Monascus eremophilus, were also assessed. Optimal conditions for growth of both X. bisporus strains were approx. 0.84 a(w) and 30°C, despite FRR 2347 growing two- to five-fold faster than CBS 185.75. X. bisporus FRR 2347 even grew well at 0.66 a(w) (0.48 mm/day). C. inops and C. xerophilum were more tolerant of high a(w) than X. bisporus, and could be differentiated from each other based on: the faster growth of C. xerophilum; its preference for temperatures ≥ 30 °C and a(w) ≥ 0.94 (c.f.≤ 25 °C and ~0.88 a(w) for C. inops); and its ability to grow at 0.66 a(w), which is the lowest a(w) reported to date for this species. M. eremophilus grew slowly (max. 0.4mm/day) even in its optimal conditions of ~0.88 a(w) and 25 °C. To investigate the competitive characteristics of X. bisporus at low a(w), both X. bisporus strains were grown in dual-culture with xerotolerant species Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium roqueforti, and xerophilic species A. penicillioides, C. inops, C. xerophilum and Eurotium chevalieri, on glucose-fructose agar plates at 0.94, 0.84, 0.80 and 0.76 a(w) and at 25 °C. Growth rates and types of interactions were assessed. Excretion of inhibitory substances acting over a long-range was not observed by any species; inhibitors acting over a short-range that temporarily slowed competitors' growth or produced a protective zone around the colony were occasionally observed for A. penicillioides, C. inops and C. xerophilum

  13. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  14. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  15. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  16. Leishmanicidal activity of the Agaricus blazei Murill in different Leishmania species.

    PubMed

    Valadares, Diogo G; Duarte, Mariana C; Oliveira, Jamil S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Leite, João Paulo V; Santoro, Marcelo M; Régis, Wiliam C B; Tavares, Carlos A P; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2011-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance underlines the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of an Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom extract as compared to different Leishmania species and stages. The water extract proved to be effective against promastigote and amastigote-like stages of Leishmania amazonensis, L. chagasi, and L. major, with IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) values of 67.5, 65.8, and 56.8 μg/mL for promastigotes, and 115.4, 112.3, and 108.4 μg/mL for amastigotes-like respectively. The infectivity of the three Leishmania species before and after treatment with the water extract was analyzed, and it could be observed that 82%, 57%, and 73% of the macrophages were infected with L. amazonensis, L. major, and L. chagasi, respectively. However, when parasites were pre-incubated with the water extract, and later used to infect macrophages, they were able to infect only 12.7%, 24.5%, and 19.7% of the phagocytic cells for L. amazonensis, L. chagasi, and L. major, respectively. In other experiments, macrophages were infected with L. amazonensis, L. chagasi, or L. major, and later treated with the aforementioned extract, presented reductions of 84.4%, 79.6%, and 85.3% in the parasite burden after treatment. A confocal microscopy revealed the loss of the viability of the parasites within the infected macrophages after treatment with the water extract. The applied extract presented a low cytotoxicity in murine macrophages and a null hemolytic activity in type O(+) human red blood cells. No nitric oxide (NO) production, nor inducible nitric oxide syntase expression, could be observed in macrophages after stimulation with the water extract, suggesting that biological activity may be due to direct mechanisms other than macrophage activation by means of NO production. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the A

  17. Mushrooms and Health Summit Proceedings123

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M.; Milner, John A.; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B.; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T.; Castlebury, Lisa A.; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Haytowitz, David B.; Hubbard, Van S.; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S.; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D.; Woteki, Catherine E.; Wu, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9–10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

  18. Medicinal mushrooms: Towards a new horizon

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshpurkar, A.; Rai, G.; Jain, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The arising awareness about functional food has created a boom in this new millennium. Mushrooms are widely consumed by the people due to their nutritive and medicinal properties. Belonging to taxonomic category of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes, these mushrooms possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. They are also one of the richest source of anticancer and immunomodulating agents. Thus these novel myochemicals from these mushrooms are the wave of future. PMID:22228952

  19. Therapy of myeloma in vivo using marine phospholipid in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill as an immune respond activator.

    PubMed

    Murakawa, Kentaro; Fukunaga, Kenji; Tanouchi, Masatoshi; Hosokawa, Masashi; Hossain, Zakir; Takahashi, Koretaro

    2007-01-01

    Mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murill) extract has been reported to possess antitumor effects through immune activation. Here, we investigated the beneficial effects of combining A. blazei extract with marine phospholipids in comparison to A. blazei extract alone on myeloma sp2 tumor suppression when orally administrated. The experimental groups designed for sp2 tumor bearing BALB/c nu/nu mice were drinks of: (1)control; (2)1.0 mg/mL squid phospholipid liposome alone; (3)0.5 mg/mL A. blazei Murill water extract alone; (4)1.0 mg/mL squid phospholipid liposome with 0.5 mg/mL A. blazei Murill water extract in the form of those simple mixture; and (5)1.0 mg/mL squid phospholipid liposome with 0.5 mg/mL A. blazei Murill water extract partially encapsulated. Orally administrated volumes amounted to approximately 5 mL per day per mouse for all groups. A. blazei Murill water extract alone and squid phospholipid alone served groups show moderate tumor suppression with total administrations of approximately 105 mg/mouse for squid phospholipid through out the experimental term. When both A. blazei Murill water extract and squid phospholipid were administrated simultaneously in a simple mixture form, promotional effect on cancer tumor suppression was observed. And when A. blazei Murill water extract was partially encapsulated in the squid phospholipid liposomes with total administrations being 105 mg/mouse for squid phospholipid, effect on cancer tumor suppression was more pronounced. Though there was no statistically significant difference in tumor sizes between the simple mixture form administrated group i.e. group (4) and the partially encapsulated form administrated group i.e. group (5), the tumor vanished mouse was seen in the partially encapsulated form administrated group. Thus it was concluded that combinational administration of the A. blazei Murill water extract and the marine phospholipid may be useful in myeloma sp2 therapy.

  20. Effects of catalysts on liquefaction of Agaricus versicolor (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical liquefaction process is used for producing energy from biomass. The common reaction conditions for supercritical liquefaction process are the 240-380 °C temperature range and 5-20 Mpa pressure values range. Agaricus versicolor (L.) was liquefied by acetone in an autoclave (75 mL) under high pressure with (aluminium oxide and calcium hydroxide) and without catalyst at 290 °C for producing bio-oil. The products of liquefaction (bio-oil) were analysed and characterized using various methods including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. GC-MS identified 27 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 290 °C.

  1. Long-term ¹³⁷Cs activity monitoring of mushrooms in forest ecosystems of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Škrkal, J; Rulík, P; Fantínová, K; Burianová, J; Helebrant, J

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on results of activity mass concentration analyses performed in various forest mushrooms in the Czech Republic within 1986 and 2011. The estimated effective half-life of (137)Cs and its environmental half-life (i.e. the effective half-life minus the effect of physical decay) were found to be 5.6 ± 0.6 and 6.9 ± 0.7 y, respectively. Non-homogeneity in (137)Cs surface contamination over the country's territory and fungus species-based (137)Cs accumulation capacity then account for a span of up to 4 orders of magnitude in activity mass concentrations measured each year after the Chernobyl accident. The highest geometric activity mass concentration (Bq kg(-1) of dry weight) means of (137)Cs (obtained from samples between years 2004 and 2011) were measured in Suillaceae (1050 Bq kg(-1)) and Boletus badius (930 Bq kg(-1)), the lowest in Agaricus (1 Bq kg(-1)). The geometric mean of all mushrooms amounted to 230 Bq kg(-1), being 440 Bq kg(-1) in Boletales, 150 Bq kg(-1) in Russulales and 21 Bq kg(-1) in Agaricales. Geometric standard deviation levels were generally high. The highest Cs accumulation capacity was observed in Boletales (namely in Suillaceae), while the lowest in Agaricales, being over 3 orders of magnitude lower than in Suillaceae.

  2. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  3. In vivo growth-inhibition of Sarcoma 180 by an alpha-(1-->4)-glucan-beta-(1-->6)-glucan-protein complex polysaccharide obtained from Agaricus blazei Murill.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Maria Leônia Costa; Bezerra, Daniel Pereira; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; de Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; Mesquita, Rodney de Oliveira; Lima, Michael Will; Soares, Sandra de Aguiar; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras

    2009-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill, a native mushroom of Brazil, has been widely consumed in different parts of the world due to its anticancer potential. This effect is generally attributed to its polysaccharides; however, the precise structure of these has not been fully characterized. To better understand the relationship between polysaccharide structures and antitumor activity, we investigated the effect of the intraperitoneally (i.p.) or orally (p.o.) administered alpha-(1-->4)-glucan-beta-(1-->6)-glucan-protein complex polysaccharide from A. blazei alone or in association with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in tumor growth using Sarcoma 180 transplanted mice. Hematological, biochemical, and histopathological analyses were performed in order to evaluate the toxicological aspects of the polysaccharide treatment. The polysaccharide had no direct cytotoxic action on tumor cells in vitro. However, the polysaccharide showed strong in vivo antitumor effect. Thus, the tumor growth-inhibitory effect of the polysaccharide is apparently due to host-mediated mechanisms. The histopathological analysis suggests that the liver and the kidney were not affected by polysaccharide treatment. Neither enzymatic activity of transaminases (AST and ALT) nor urea levels were significantly altered. In hematological analysis, leucopeny was observed after 5-FU treatment, but this effect was prevented when the treatment was associated with the polysaccharide. In conclusion, this polysaccharide probably could explain the ethnopharmacological use of this mushroom in the treatment of cancer.

  4. Effects of the continuous administration of an Agaricus blazei extract to rats on oxidative parameters of the brain and liver during aging.

    PubMed

    de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis B; Soares, Andréia A; Natali, Maria R M; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane M; Bracht, Adelar

    2014-11-13

    An investigation of the effects of an aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei, a medicinal mushroom, on the oxidative state of the brain and liver of rats during aging (7 to 23 months) was conducted. The treatment consisted in the daily intragastric administration of 50 mg/kg of the extract. The A. blazei treatment tended to maintain the ROS contents of the brain and liver at lower levels, but a significant difference was found only at the age of 23 months and in the brain. The TBARS levels in the brain were maintained at lower levels by the A. blazei treatment during the whole aging process with a specially pronounced difference at the age of 12 months. The total antioxidant capacity in the brain was higher in treated rats only at the age of 12 months. Compared with previous studies in which old rats (21 months) were treated during a short period of 21 days with 200 mg/kg, the effects of the A. blazei extract in the present study tended to be less pronounced. The results also indicate that the long and constant treatment presented a tendency of becoming less effective at ages above 12 months.

  5. Influence of Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei extracts on the prevention of oxidation and retention of tocopherols in soybean oil in an accelerated storage test.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Carolina; Jorge, Neuza

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the methanol extracts of mushrooms Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the retention of tocopherols in soybean oil, when subjected to an accelerated storage test. The following treatments were subjected to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 15 days: Control (soybean oil without antioxidants), TBHQ (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of TBHQ), BHT (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of BHT), L. edodes (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of L. edodes extract) and A. blazei (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of A. blazei extract). The samples were analyzed for tocopherols naturally present in soybean oil and mass gain. The results showed, the time required to reach a 0.5% increase in mass was 13 days for TBHQ and 15 days for A. blazei. The content of tocopherols for TBHQ was 457.50 mg/kg and the A. blazei, 477.20 mg/kg.

  6. Control of fluidic environments by mushrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressaire, Emilie; Santoso, Junius; Yamada, Lisa; Roper, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    Thousands of fungal species rely on mushrooms for spore release and dispersal. Long distance spore dispersal by wind is instrumental to maintain genetic diversity and to the spread of pathogenic species. The conventional view is that fungi enjoy little control over the mechanism of dispersal. A spore falling from the mushroom cap can only hope to be picked up by a favorable airflow and carried away from the gap between the mushroom cap and the ground. We show that fungi actively manipulate their local fluidic environment by altering the buoyancy of the air surrounding the mushroom using a combination of water vapor and active cooling. This manipulation allows spore escape and dispersal from caps that may be spaced a few millimeters above the ground, or apart from each other. Through high speed videography, scaling analysis and indirect measurements, we reveal the fluid mechanics of spore escape, and how they are controlled by the biophysical properties of the mushroom.

  7. New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

  8. [Mercury content of mushrooms (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Seeger, R

    1976-01-01

    The mercury content of 236 species of wild mushrooms was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. Of each species several samples--altogether 616--were tested. The mercury content was between 0.04 and 21.60 mg/kg dry weight, equivalent to 0.002 and 3.090 mg/kg fresh weight. The mercury content was clearly species-dependent. Mercury-rich species particularly were found in Tricholomataceae, Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae, whereas in Boletaceae, Amanitaceae and Russulaceae mercury-rich species were rather rare. There was a considerable variability within species, too; hence, other factors, yet unknown, must also determine the mercury content. Geographical influences were not demonstrable. All mushrooms grown on wood had a very low mercury content. Storing over several years did not diminish the mercury content of dried mushrooms. The highest mercury content was found in a poisonous mushroom, but on the average, poisonous mushrooms contained less mercury than edible ones.

  9. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death. Methods THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to follow the cell differentiation by cell cycle shifts after staining with propidium iodide, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation with JC-1, and occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species after incubation with hydroethidine. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to evaluate the cellular effects of the different treatments. Results P. linteus polysaccharide extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis of THP-1 cells within 24 h, while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused differentiation into macrophages. A pure P. linteus polysaccharide had no effect. Apoptosis was inhibited by preincubating THP-1 cells with human serum. The principal component analysis revealed that P. linteus, A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts increased reactive oxygen species production. Both A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while this was increased by P. linteus polysaccharide extracts. Conclusions P. linteus polysaccharide extracts caused apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused these cells to differentiate into macrophages. The protective effects of human serum suggested that P. linteus polysaccharide extract induced apoptosis by extrinsic pathway, i.e. by binding to the TRAIL receptor. The mitochondrial membrane potential together with reactive oxygen species

  10. Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

  11. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, HuiPing; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2−/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that Agaricus brasiliensis extract may be beneficial to reducing bilirubin level without causing hepatotoxicity in neonatal jaundice. PMID:25883968

  12. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuwatari, Yasushi; Okumura, Ko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Furukawa, Mai; Ohno, Naohito; Mori, Kazu; Gao, Ming; Motoi, Masuro

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food. PMID:18604247

  13. Photoprotective and Antimutagenic Activity of Agaricus subrufescens Basidiocarp Extracts.

    PubMed

    da Costa, M C D; Regina, M; Cilião Filho, M; Linde, G A; do Valle, J S; Paccola-Meirelles, L D; Colauto, N B

    2015-10-01

    The photoprotective and antimutagenic activity of opened and closed basidiocarps of Agaricus subrufescens (=A. blazei; =A. brasiliensis) obtained by different extraction methods were evaluated on Aspergillus nidulans conidia submitted to ultraviolet (UV) light. The aqueous extracts were obtained by three extraction methods: maceration, infusion, and decoction, at two different extraction times. The extracts of A. subrufescens did not present toxicity for A. nidulans conidia. A suspension of A. nidulans conidia was submitted to extracts before and after the exposure to UV light. All basidiocarp extracts, regardless of the extraction method or development stage, protected A. nidulans conidia against the damaging effects of the mutagenic agent. The antimutagenic and photoprotective activity was strengthened with extracts obtained by 168-h maceration, followed by 24-h maceration and 60-min infusion and, at last, by 30-min infusion. Although the extracts presented protector effect as well as recoverer effect to the action of UV light, the preventive effect was more evident. Differences in the biological activity in function of the different development stages were detected with greater antimutagenic and photoprotective activity for the opened basidiocarps. However, the extraction method is the most important factor to be considered when compared to the basidiocarp development stage to obtain better antimutagenic and photoprotective activity of A. subrufescens basidiocarps.

  14. Sexuality and Genetic Identity in the Agaricus Section Arvenses

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Bado, Leo; Noble, Ralph; Challen, Mike; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Elliott, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Twelve wild collections and one commercial strain were used to characterize breeding systems and to develop molecular identities in the Arvenses section of the genus Agaricus, which includes the “horse mushroom” A. arvensis. Two morphotypes were identified based on macro- and micromorphological features. However, not all collections could be delimited by conventional taxonomic characters. Sequencing of the small subunit intergenic spacer (ITS) region (368 to 370 bp) of the rRNA genes clearly resolved the 13 collections into two clusters consistent with the identified morphotypes. Single-spore progenies and mating type testers were established and used to test intra- and interstock compatibility. The two compatibility groups identified were consistent with ITS clusters. Compatibility group I stocks readily interbred within the constraints of a unifactorial heterothallic system with a multiallelic mating type factor. Compatibility group II had a more restricted breeding pattern, and interactions were difficult to predict on the basis of mating type. Morphological data, ITS sequences, and the ability to interbreed suggest that these collections are part of a complex of interrelated species. Single-spore, homokaryotic isolates from both compatibility groups were able to fruit in compost culture, and two of the collections may represent natural homokaryotic fruiting. We conclude that species from the section Arvenses have versatile unifactorial heterothallic life cycles that permit both interbreeding and homokaryotic fruiting. PMID:10653743

  15. Chaga mushroom-induced oxalate nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuko; Seta, Koichi; Ogawa, Yayoi; Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Taguchi, Takashi; Yahata, Kensei

    2014-06-01

    Chaga mushrooms have been used in folk and botanical medicine as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones. A 72-year-old Japanese female had been diagnosed with liver cancer 1 year prior to presenting at our department. She underwent hepatectomy of the left lobe 3 months later. Chaga mushroom powder (4 - 5 teaspoons per day) had been ingested for the past 6 months for liver cancer. Renal function decreased and hemodialysis was initiated. Renal biopsy specimens showed diffuse tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Oxalate crystals were detected in the tubular lumina and urinary sediment and oxalate nephropathy was diagnosed. Chaga mushrooms contain extremely high oxalate concentrations. This is the first report of a case of oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of Chaga mushrooms.

  16. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan.

  17. Evaluation of adjuvant activity of fractions derived from Agaricus blazei, when in association with the recombinant LiHyp1 protein, to protect against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Pereira, Nathália Cristina; Régis, Wiliam César Bento; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; de Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; da Silva, Alanna Gomes; Martins, Vivian Tamietti; Duarte, Mariana Costa; de Souza, José Roberto Rodrigues; Lage, Paula Sousa; Schneider, Mônica Santos; Melo, Maria Norma; Soto, Manuel; Soares, Sandra Aguiar; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective prophylactic strategies to prevent leishmaniasis has become a high priority. No less important than the choice of an antigen, the association of an appropriate adjuvant is necessary to achieve a successful vaccination, as the majority of the tested antigens contain limited immunogenic properties, and need to be supplemented with immune response adjuvants in order to boost their immunogenicity. However, few effective adjuvants that can be used against leishmaniasis exist on the market today; therefore, it is possible to speculate that the research aiming to identify new adjuvants could be considered relevant. Recently, Agaricus blazei extracts have proved to be useful in enhancing the immune response to DNA vaccines against some diseases. This was based on the Th1 adjuvant activity of the polysaccharide-rich fractions from this mushroom. In this context, the present study evaluated purified fractions derived from Agaricus blazei as Th1 adjuvants through in vitro assays of their immune stimulation of spleen cells derived from naive BALB/c mice. Two of the tested six fractions (namely F2 and F4) were characterized as polysaccharide-rich fractions, and were able to induce high levels of IFN-γ, and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in the spleen cells. The efficacy of adjuvant action against L. infantum was evaluated in BALB/c mice, with these fractions being administered together with a recombinant antigen, LiHyp1, which was previously evaluated as a vaccine candidate, associated with saponin, against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The associations between LiHyp1/F2 and LiHyp1/F4 were able to induce an in vivo Th1 response, which was primed by high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF, by low levels of IL-4 and IL-10; as well as by a predominance of IgG2a antibodies in the vaccinated animals. After infection, the immune profile was maintained, and the vaccines proved to be effective against L. infantum. The immune stimulatory effects in the

  18. A novel orellanine containing mushroom Cortinarius armillatus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dahai; Tang, Shusheng; Healy, Rosanne A; Imerman, Paula M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2016-05-01

    Orellanine (3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine-1,1'-dioxide) is a tetrahydroxylated di-N-oxidized bipyridine compound. The toxin, present in certain species of Cortinarius mushrooms, is structurally similar to herbicides Paraquat and Diquat. Cortinarius orellanus and Cortinarius rubellus are the major orellanine-containing mushrooms. Cortinarius mushrooms are widely reported in Europe where they have caused human poisoning and deaths through accidental ingestion of the poisonous species mistaken for the edible ones. In North America, Cortinarius orellanosus mushroom poisoning was recently reported to cause renal failure in a Michigan patient. Cortinarius mushroom poisoning is characterized by delayed acute renal failure, with some cases progressing to end-stage kidney disease. There is debate whether other Cortinarius mushroom contain orellanine or not, especially in North America. Currently, there are no veterinary diagnostic laboratories in North America with established test methods for detection and quantitation of orellanine. We have developed two diagnostic test methods based on HPLC and LC-MSMS for identification and quantitation of orellanine in mushrooms. Using these methods, we have identified Cortinarius armillatus as a novel orellanine-containing mushroom in North America. The mean toxin concentration of 145 ug/g was <1% of that of the more toxic C. rubellus. The HPLC method can detect orellanine at 17 μg g(-1) while the LC-MSMS method is almost 2000 times more sensitive and can detect orellanine at 30 ng g(-1). Both tests are quantitative, selective and are now available for veterinary diagnostic applications.

  19. Arsenic and its compounds in mushrooms: A review.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Rizal, Leela M

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the detail concentration of arsenic in some species of mushrooms as well as organic and inorganic forms of arsenic in the substrates where wild and cultivated edible mushrooms grow. We also briefly review the molecular forms of arsenic in mushrooms. There is still a lack of experimental data from the environment for a variety of species from different habitats and for different levels of geogenic arsenic in soil. This information will be useful for mushrooms consumers, nutritionists, and food regulatory agencies by describing ways to minimize arsenic content in edible mushrooms and arsenic intake from mushroom meals.

  20. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Pei; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-07-20

    Many mushrooms have been used as foods and medicines for a long time. Mushrooms contain polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Studies show that mushrooms possess various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic properties, therefore, mushrooms have attracted increasing attention in recent years, and could be developed into functional food or medicines for prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the bioactivities and health benefits of mushrooms, and could be useful for full utilization of mushrooms.

  1. Chemical analysis of Agaricus blazei polysaccharides and effect of the polysaccharides on IL-1beta mRNA expression in skin of burn wound-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Sui, ZhiFu; Yang, RongYa; Liu, Biao; Gu, TingMin; Zhao, Zhili; Shi, Dongfang; Chang, DongQing

    2010-08-01

    Agaricus blazei polysaccharides were analyzed by GC-MS. Results indicated that the polysaccharides contained glucose (93.87%), mannose (3.54%), and arabinose (2.25%). The compositional analysis was completed by the methylation data. These data indicated that Agaricus blazei polysaccharides are glucans. Compared to model rats, rats fed with Agaricus blazei polysaccharides showed a decrease of ratio of IL-1beta/beta-actin and IL-1beta level in skin of burn wound. Recovery rate of wound skin increased with increasing dose of polysaccharides. The results indicated that Agaricus blazei polysaccharides could be useful in promote burn wound healing.

  2. Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care. PMID:23833447

  3. Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

  4. Toxicological profiles of poisonous, edible, and medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-09-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use.

  5. Muscarinic toxicity among family members after consumption of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care.

  6. Antiobesity properties of mushroom polysaccharides – A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms are widely consumed for their nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported health-promoting properties of bioactive mushroom polysaccharides, this presentation will survey the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) and reported antiobesity ...

  7. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking of aryl hydrazines and hydrazides for anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Vikrantsinh M; Agrawal, Satyam K; Saxena, Ajit K; Garg, Divita; Gopimohan, C; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2010-03-01

    Aryl hydrazine and hydrazide analogues were synthesized based on p-tolyl hydrazine, isolated as a breakdown product of a secondary metabolite from the mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, and tested to be highly active molecule than 5-fluorouracil in in vitro anticancer studies. The synthesized analogues were tested for anticancer activity using NCI protocol. Anolgues 12 and 15 emerged as molecules with significant in vitro anticancer activity. Molecular docking study revealed the binding orientations of aryl hydrazines and hydrazides analogues in the active sites of thymidylate synthase.

  8. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  9. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  10. Bcl-2 and caspase-3 are major regulators in Agaricus blazei-induced human leukemic U937 cell apoptosis through dephoshorylation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng-Yun; Moon, Dong-Oh; Choi, Yung Hyun; Lee, Jae-Dong; Kim, Gi-Young

    2007-08-01

    Agaricus blazei is a medicinal mushroom that possesses antimetastatic, antitumor, antimutagenic, and immunostimulating effects. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in A. blazei-mediated apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study, to elucidate the role of the Bcl-2 in A. blazei-mediated apoptosis, U937 cells were transfected with either empty vector (U937/vec) or vector containing cDNA encoding full-length Bcl-2 (U937/Bcl-2). As compared with U937/vec, U937/Bcl-2 cells exhibited a 4-fold greater expression of Bcl-2. Treatment of U937/vec with 1.0-4.0 mg/ml of A. blazei extract (ABE) for 24 h resulted in a significant induction of morphologic features indicative of apoptosis. In contrast, U937/Bcl-2 exposed to the same ABE treatment only exhibited a slight induction of apoptotic features. ABE-induced apoptosis was accompanied by downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-2 and Bcl-2, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP). Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 was associated with significantly induced expression of antiapoptotic proteins, such as cIAP-2 and Bcl-2, but not XIAP. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 also reduced caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage in ABE treated U937 cells. Furthermore, treatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk was sufficient to restore cell viability following ABE treatment. This increase in viability was ascribed to downregulation of caspase-3 and blockage of PARP and PLC-gamma cleavage. ABE also triggered the downregulation of Akt, and combined treatment with LY294002 (an inhibitor of Akt) significantly decreased cell viability. The results indicated that major regulators of ABE-induced apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells are Bcl-2 and caspase-3, which are associated with dephosphorylation of the Akt signal pathway.

  11. Molecular detection of poisonous mushrooms in different matrices.

    PubMed

    Epis, Sara; Matinato, Caterina; Gentili, Gabriella; Varotto, Fabio; Bandi, Claudio; Sassera, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Amanita phalloides, Lepiota cristata, Lepiota brunneoincarnata and Inocybe asterospora are among the most important species responsible of mushroom poisoning in northern Italy. A real time PCR method for the identification of samples containing DNA from each of these species was developed. To test specificity all protocols were applied on DNA extracted from various mushroom species; sensitivity was assessed performing serial dilutions on all samples; versatility of the protocols was evaluated performing tests on DNA extracted from different matrices. The protocols showed high sensitivity (32 ng dried mushroom), high specificity and sensitive detection of DNA extracted from difficult samples, including pasta with mushroom, cooked mushrooms and gastric aspirates.

  12. The Unexplored Anticaries Potential of Shiitake Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Avinash, J.; Vinay, S.; Jha, Kunal; Das, Diptajit; Goutham, B. S.; Kumar, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    Keeping an eye the escalating costs of dental services, the treatment cost of the consequences of dental caries can be reduced to manageable proportions by preventive measures aimed at decreasing the prevalence. One such measure is by increasing the consumption of caries preventive foods. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a healthy food but also as a caries preventive food. The most common type of mushroom, Lentinula edodes also called as shiitake, is studied in-depth for its oral health benefits. The cultivation of shiitake dates way back to 1100 A.D. during the rule of Sung dynasty which is replaced by more modern and efficient sawdust substrate log cultures lately. Shiitake mushroom extract can be isolated in various forms such as freeze dried, oil, and ethyl acetate extracts. Various biologically active compounds such as erythritol, copalic acid, adenosine, carvacrol, and many more are responsible for this mushroom's antimicrobial activity. Anticariogenicity can be attributed to the induction of the detachment of cariogenic microorganisms from hydroxyapatite, changes in cell surface hydrophobicity, bactericidal activity, and disruption of signal transduction in Streptococcus mutans as proved through various in vivo and in vitro studies. Apart from these benefits, it has tremendous potential to be used as an antioxidant, anticancer, antigingivitis, antifungal, and antiviral agent. The one and only known adverse reaction due to shiitake mushroom consumption is the eruption of pruritic erythematous papules termed as shiitake dermatitis. This review highlights the unexplored anticaries potential of one such useful bioactive metabolite-shiitake mushroom. PMID:28082791

  13. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songhai; Li, Feng; Jia, Shaoyi; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Lv, Zesheng; Liu, Yong

    2014-03-15

    Three polysaccharides (ABMP-F, ABMP-V, ABMP-A) were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill via methods such as freeze drying, vacuum drying and air drying, respectively. Their chemical compositions were examined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of assay for hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and assay for Fe(2+)-chelating ability. Results showed that the three ABMPs have different physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Compared with air drying and vacuum drying methods, freeze drying method resulted to ABMP with higher neutral sugar, polysaccharide yield, uronic acid content, and stronger antioxidant abilities of hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating. As a result, Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides are natural antioxidant and freeze drying method serves as a good choice for the preparation of such polysaccharides and should be used to produce antioxidants for food industry.

  14. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

  15. Effects of agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but nothing is known about soil aggregation and the microbial community structure of the stimulated zone, particularly the communities that can bind to soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus li...

  16. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  17. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  18. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Two Wild Edible Mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Suat; Uzun, Yusuf; Demirel, Kenan; Bayramoglu, Mahire; Kiziltas, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antiradical activities in methanol extracts of two edible mushrooms from Turkey, Agaricus urinascens (Jul. Schäff. & F.H. Møller) Singer and Volvopluteus gloiocephala (DC.) Vizzini, Contu & Justo, as well as to examine trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Cd, Pb), minerals (Mg, Ca, K, Na) and vitamin C content. The levels of trace elements and minerals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Vitamin C and antioxidant properties were measured with a spectrophotometer. According to the results, total antioxidant activity and phenolic and flavonoid contents of A. urinascens and V. gloiocephala were 67.53 ± 2.54 mM ascorbic acid/g and 31.68 ± 2.27 mM ascorbic acid/g, 6.88 ± 0.31 mg GA/g and 5.22 ± 0.53 mg GA/g, and 3.80 ± 0.04 mg QE/g and 2.60 ± 0.20 mg QE/g, respectively. The findings of this study indicated that methanol extract of A. urinascens has a significant antioxidant activity and contents of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds. However, V. gloiocephala contains high levels of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Na, whereas A. urinascens contains higher levels of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn than that of V. gloiocephala. Some trace elements that are in the compound of macrofungi may contribute the antioxidant capacity of macrofungi. A. urinascens has the ability to accumulate some heavy metals that prevent environmental metal pollution and can be used as a biomonitor. A. urinascens is expected to be used as an antioxidant in future studies of experimental animal models, against free radicals generated in response to oxidative stress.

  19. Micronized coal solves mushroom grower's boiler headaches

    SciTech Connect

    Reason, J.

    1984-03-01

    A brief account is given of a Utah mushroom grower who has replaced two underfeed stoker-fired boilers requiring 7 attendants by an ultra-fine pulverised coal-fired system. The coal is ground in a proprietary rotary grinder to 80% through a 325-mesh screen. Information is presented on the mill and the special refractory burners required.

  20. [Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Attema-de Jonge, M E; Portier, C B; Franssen, E J F

    2007-12-29

    Two young men, 25 and 32 years old, presented with severe automutilation by knife wounds after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms. The first patient had also used cocaine, cannabis and alcohol, while the second patient had only used the hallucinogenic mushrooms. Both patients were treated symptomatically and survived despite their severe stab wounds. Psilocybin-containing mushrooms are used as mind-altering drugs. These drugs may sometimes induce 'bad trips', a psychotic reaction accompanied by fear, panic, and dangerous behaviour, especially when used in combination with other drugs and alcohol or by psychiatrically unstable patients. During a bad trip, patients may hurt themselves. Because the duration of the psychotic and sympathicomimetic effects of psilocybin after ingestion of mushrooms is short (up to 6 h), and since psilocin itself causes no permanent organ toxicity, the treatment of psilocybin intoxication is only symptomatic. The diagnosis ofpsilocybin intoxication is hampered by the lack of routinely available, rapid and sensitive, analytical methods for the quantification ofpsilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin.

  1. Cultivable microbiome of fresh white button mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, W; Korsten, L

    2017-02-01

    Microbial dynamics on commercially grown white button mushrooms is of importance in terms of food safety assurance and quality control. The purpose of this study was to establish the microbial profile of fresh white button mushrooms. The total microbial load was determined through standard viable counts. Presence and isolation of Gram-negative bacteria including coagulase-positive Staphylococci were performed using a selective enrichment approach. Dominant and presumptive organisms were confirmed using molecular methods. Total mushroom microbial counts ranged from 5·2 to 12·4 log CFU per g, with the genus Pseudomonas being most frequently isolated (45·37% of all isolations). In total, 91 different microbial species were isolated and identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry, PCR and sequencing. Considering current food safety guidelines in South Africa for ready-to-eat fresh produce, coliform counts exceeded the guidance specifications for fresh fruit and vegetables. Based on our research and similar studies, it is proposed that specifications for microbial loads on fresh, healthy mushrooms reflect a more natural microbiome at the point-of-harvest and point-of-sale.

  2. [Acute renal failure after intake of mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Rojas Feria, P; González Rodríguez, J D; Canalejo González, D; Sánchez Moreno, A; Cabrera, R; Martín Govantes, J

    2008-01-01

    The picking and consumption of wild mushrooms is a frequent practice in our region and may lead to accidental poisoning when confused with edible mushrooms. We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy who, following the ingestion of a poisonous mushroom, presented with uncontrollable vomiting and subsequent hepatic, haematological and renal failure some hours later. The patient required haemodialysis. The clinical course, laboratory findings and renal histology, which showed tubular necrosis with basal membrane preserved and lymphocytic interstitial infiltrate, confirmed the diagnosis of a severe mixed syndrome. The patient evolved favourably after the poisoning, recovering renal and liver function. In any case of acute renal failure of unknown cause in children, it would be necessary to rule out ingestion of mushrooms, since the patient could benefit from early treatment with haemoperfusion and thus prevent the deterioration of the renal function and other organs. In our patient, haemoperfusion was not carried out due to the lengthy period of latency since the ingestion of the toxic substance until diagnosis.

  3. Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

  4. Amelioration of skewed Th1/Th2 balance in tumor-bearing and asthma-induced mice by oral administration of Agaricus blazei extracts.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Hiroaki; Kato, Hanano; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kumazawa, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    We showed in a previous study that hot-water extracts of Agaricus blazei (Agaricus extracts) had anti-tumor activity to Meth A fibrosarcoma, but it remains unclear whether the Agaricus extracts ameliorate the skewed balance of type-1 T helper (Th1) and type-2 T helper (Th2) cells. We examined whether Agaricus extracts effect the skewed Th1/Th2 balance in tumor-bearing and asthma-induced mice. When Meth A-bearing mice were given orally either Agaricus extracts or water once a day starting 5 days after tumor implantation, spleen T cells, prepared from tumor-bearing mice treated with Agaricus extracts, in response to anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody produced significantly higher levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) than that of controls. The mRNA expression of IFN-gamma-inducing protein 10 and the frequency of CD69(+) or CD49d(+) cells, among activated T cells infiltrated into tumors, significantly increased in Agaricus-treated mice, compared with those of tumor-controls. In asthma-induced mice, treatment with the Agaricus extracts caused significant downregulation of OVA-specific antibody responses of IgG1 and IgE but not of IgG2a, and significantly decreased total cell numbers, levels of interleukin 5, and eosinophil numbers in bronchial alveolar lavage fluids. IFN-gamma production by anti-CD3-stimulated spleen cells, obtained from Agaricus-treated mice, significantly increased. Our results strongly suggest that oral administration of Agaricus extracts ameliorates the Th1/Th2 balance from the Th2-skewed conditions.

  5. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  6. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  7. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

  8. Fine Structure of Sticky Sets in Mushroom Billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A.

    2013-12-01

    We consider sticky sets in the phase space of circular mushroom billiards, which are referred to in physics literature as MUPOs (marginally unstable periodic orbits). An exact description of the set of parameters (widths of the mushrooms' stems) without or with a finite set of MUPOs is given. It is shown that there exist a continuum of MUPOless parameters. We also estimate from above a number of MUPOs which exist for widths of the mushroom's stem which correspond to rational numbers and present a simple approach for finding mushroom billiards without MUPOs.

  9. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    PubMed Central

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  10. Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life.

    PubMed

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the "Food of the Gods." For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an "elixir of life." They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  11. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    PubMed

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  12. [The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions].

    PubMed

    Gamundi, R; Valdivia, M

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative views of the Kombucha mushroom, a popular remedy in Asia, are expressed. The Kombucha mushroom, used for centuries, is believed to have antibiotic tendencies and to strengthen the immune and metabolic systems. Studies show that the tea, made from fermented fungus, has high levels of B vitamins. Caution should be used during fermentation because exposing the fungus to sunlight may adversely affect the process. The mold in which the fungus grows may contain aspergillus, a fungal infection which may be fatal to HIV-positive persons. The tea is being commercialized as a stimulant of the immune system but is unpopular in the U.S. due to its toxicity risks. Public awareness messages must convey the danger of overstimulating the immune system of HIV-positive patients, whose immune systems are already overstimulated. Furthermore, the process of fermentation may encourage the growth of other organisms which produce medical complications in HIV-positive patients.

  13. Mushroom Bezoar Causing Small Bowel Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Hamzah, Azhar Amir; Keow, Chin Kim; Syazri, Azreen; Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain; Khan, Amer Hayat; Khan, Yusra Habib; Adnan

    2017-03-01

    A bezoar is a concretion of foreign or indigestible matter in the alimentary canal and is usual cause of gastric obstruction. Bezoars can become fragmented and migrate downward leading to intestinal obstruction. Diagnosis of phytobezoar has become challenging in clinical practice due to lack of patient history and inability of patient to correlate preceding events with the episode of bowel obstruction. Bezoar associated small bowel obstruction rarely occurs and is usually found in patients with history of gastrointestinal surgery. Very few cases are reported of small bowel obstruction due to bezoar in healthy population without prior illness or surgery. We present a case of small bowel obstruction due to mushroom bezoar in a 62-year patient with no past history of medical illness or gastric surgery. Enterotomy was performed and a whole piece of undigested mushroom measuring 5 x 3 cm was successfully removed.

  14. Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

  15. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits.

  16. Total contents of arsenic and associated health risks in edible mushrooms, mushroom supplements and growth substrates from Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2014-11-01

    The levels of arsenic (As) in the main commercial species of mushrooms present in Galicia, in their growth substrates, and mushroom supplements have been analysed by ICP-MS, with the intention of assessing potential health risks involved with their consumption. The mean concentrations of As in wild and cultivated mushrooms was 0.27mg/kg dw, in mushroom supplements 0.40mg/kg dw, in soils 5.10mg/kg dw, and in growth substrate 0.51mg/kg dw. No significant differences were observed between species, although the species Lactarius deliciosus possessed a slightly more elevated mean concentration (at 0.49mg/kg dw) than the other species investigated. In soils, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed according to geographic origin. Levels in mushroom supplements, although low, were higher than in wild or cultivated mushrooms. Measured arsenic levels were within the normal range in samples analysed in unpolluted areas. Because of the low As concentrations found in fungi and mushroom supplements from Galicia, and considering the relatively small inclusion of these foods in people's diet, it can be concluded that there is no toxicological risk of arsenic associated with the consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed or at the dosages indicated for mushroom supplements.

  17. Anti-diabetic activity of beta-glucans and their enzymatically hydrolyzed oligosaccharides from Agaricus blazei.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yea-Woon; Kim, Ki-Hoon; Choi, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2005-04-01

    Beta-glucans were prepared from Agaricus blazei Murill by repeated extraction with hot water. The average molecular weights of beta-glucans were 30-50 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. Oligosaccharides (AO), derived from hydrolyzing beta-glucans with an endo-beta-(1-->6)-glucanase from Bacillus megaterium, were mainly di- and tri-saccharides. Though beta-glucans and AO both showed anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertriglyceridemic, anti-hypercholesterolemic, and anti-arteriosclerotic activity indicating overall anti-diabetic activity in diabetic rats, AO had about twice the activity of beta-glucans with respect to anti-diabetic activity.

  18. Determination of Listeria monocytogenes Growth during Mushroom Production and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Guillas, Floriane; Jordan, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if its numbers do not exceed 100 CFU/g throughout the shelf-life of the food. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Challenge studies to determine the ability of a food to support growth of L. monocytogenes are essential as predictive modelling often overestimates the growth ability of L. monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to determine if growth of L. monocytogenes was supported during the production and distribution of mushrooms. A three-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated onto three independent batches of whole mushrooms, sliced mushrooms, mushroom casing and mushroom substrate at a concentration of about 100–1000 CFU/g. The batches were incubated at potential abuse temperatures, as a worst case scenario, and at intervals during storage L. monocytogenes numbers, % moisture and pH were determined. The results showed that the sliced and whole mushrooms had the ability to support growth, while mushroom casing allowed survival but did not support growth. Mushroom substrate showed a rich background microflora that grew on Listeria selective media and this hindered enumeration of L. monocytogenes. In the case of this study, Combase predictions were not always accurate, indicating that challenge studies may be a necessary part of growth determination of L. monocytogenes. PMID:28239137

  19. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  20. Turmeric bioprocessed with Shiitake mushroom mycelia protects mice against salmonellosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracts of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes and the spice tumeric (Curcuma longa) have both been reported to have health-promoting properties. The present study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of a bioprocessed Lentinus edodes liquid mushroom mycelia culture supplemented with turmeric ...

  1. Amatoxin-containing mushroom (Lepiota brunneoincarnata) familial poisoning.

    PubMed

    Varvenne, David; Retornaz, Karine; Metge, Prune; De Haro, Luc; Minodier, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Serious to fatal toxicity may occur with amanitin-containing mushrooms ingestions. A Lepiota brunneoincarnata familial poisoning with hepatic toxicity is reported. In such poisonings, acute gastroenteritis may be firstly misdiagnosed leading to delay in preventing liver dysfunction by silibinin or penicillin G. Mushroom picking finally requires experience and caution.

  2. [The toxicological aspects of poisonings by psilocybine-containing mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Babakhanian, R V; Bushuev, E S; Kazankov, S P; Kostyrko, T A

    1997-01-01

    Cases involving the investigation of psylocybin-containing mushrooms became more frequent in forensic chemical and criminological expert evaluation in recent years. The authors present the data on the main chemical factors contained in these mushrooms, on the mechanism of their toxic effect, clinical picture of poisoning, and methods of chemical and toxicological analysis.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  4. Mycophagous rove beetles highlight diverse mushrooms in the Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chenyang; Leschen, Richard A B; Hibbett, David S; Xia, Fangyuan; Huang, Diying

    2017-03-16

    Agaricomycetes, or mushrooms, are familiar, conspicuous and morphologically diverse Fungi. Most Agaricomycete fruiting bodies are ephemeral, and their fossil record is limited. Here we report diverse gilled mushrooms (Agaricales) and mycophagous rove beetles (Staphylinidae) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, the latter belonging to Oxyporinae, modern members of which exhibit an obligate association with soft-textured mushrooms. The discovery of four mushroom forms, most with a complete intact cap containing distinct gills and a stalk, suggests evolutionary stasis of body form for ∼99 Myr and highlights the palaeodiversity of Agaricomycetes. The mouthparts of early oxyporines, including enlarged mandibles and greatly enlarged apical labial palpomeres with dense specialized sensory organs, match those of modern taxa and suggest that they had a mushroom feeding biology. Diverse and morphologically specialized oxyporines from the Early Cretaceous suggests the existence of diverse Agaricomycetes and a specialized trophic interaction and ecological community structure by this early date.

  5. Identification of Amanita mushrooms by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dezhang; Liu, Gang; Song, Dingshan; Liu, Jian-hong; Zhou, Yilan; Ou, Jiaming; Sun, Shizhong

    2006-09-01

    Amanita is one of cosmopolitan genera of basidiomycetes. This genus contains some of the most poisonous toadstools, as well as several species of the most favorite edible mushrooms. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of the fruiting bodies of wild growing Amanita mushrooms. The results show that the mushrooms exhibit characteristic spectra, whose strong absorption bands appear at about 1655, 1076, and 1040 cm -1. The vibrational spectra indicate that the main compositions of the Amanita mushrooms are proteins and polysaccharides. The observed spectral differences might be used to discriminate different species of Amanita. It is showed that FTIR spectroscopic method is a valuable tool for rapid and nondestructive identification of Amanita mushrooms.

  6. Mycophagous rove beetles highlight diverse mushrooms in the Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chenyang; Leschen, Richard A. B.; Hibbett, David S; Xia, Fangyuan; Huang, Diying

    2017-01-01

    Agaricomycetes, or mushrooms, are familiar, conspicuous and morphologically diverse Fungi. Most Agaricomycete fruiting bodies are ephemeral, and their fossil record is limited. Here we report diverse gilled mushrooms (Agaricales) and mycophagous rove beetles (Staphylinidae) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, the latter belonging to Oxyporinae, modern members of which exhibit an obligate association with soft-textured mushrooms. The discovery of four mushroom forms, most with a complete intact cap containing distinct gills and a stalk, suggests evolutionary stasis of body form for ∼99 Myr and highlights the palaeodiversity of Agaricomycetes. The mouthparts of early oxyporines, including enlarged mandibles and greatly enlarged apical labial palpomeres with dense specialized sensory organs, match those of modern taxa and suggest that they had a mushroom feeding biology. Diverse and morphologically specialized oxyporines from the Early Cretaceous suggests the existence of diverse Agaricomycetes and a specialized trophic interaction and ecological community structure by this early date. PMID:28300055

  7. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). Additionally, based on the calculated daily intake rates of trace elements determined it can be concluded that occasional consumption of fruiting bodies of L. aurantiacum, X. badius, L. deliciosus, B. edulis, C. cibarius and S. luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors.

  8. 76 FR 12704 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People... preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from the PRC. See Notice of Amendment of Final Determination of Sales...

  9. 77 FR 13264 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering... Federal Register the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (``mushrooms'') from the...

  10. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms... the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India.\\1\\ We...

  11. 78 FR 15683 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the... Co., Ltd. should be equated with Zhejiang Iceman Group Co., Ltd. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms...

  12. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of... merchandise subject to the order is certain preserved mushrooms. The product is currently classified under...

  13. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's... antidumping duty orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant...

  14. Effect of Agaricus blazei Murill on the Pulmonary Tissue of Animals with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; de Mello, Rodrigo Noronha; Bona, Sílvia; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Porawski, Marilene; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc François; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Agaricus blazei Muril (A. Blazei) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We used 25 Wistar rats, and DM was induced by injecting streptozotocin (70 mg/Kg i.p.). Agaricus blazei Muril was administered daily starting 40 days after disease onset. A. Blazei was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipoperoxidation (LPO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in the pulmonary tissue, as well as the presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), through immunohistochemistry. An anatomopathologic study was also performed. Phytochemical screening of A. Blazei detected the presence of alkaloids and saponins. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hipoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Pulmonary LPO increased in diabetic animals (0.43 ± 0.09; P < .001) as compared to the control group (0.18 ± 0.02), followed by a reduction in the A. Blazei-treated group (0.33 ± 0.04; P < .05). iNOS was found increased in the lung in diabetic rats and reduced in the A. Blazei-treated group. The pulmonary tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. The A. Blazei treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery. PMID:20585363

  15. Effects of extraction methods on the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Feng; Liu, Yong; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Wu, Songhai

    2013-11-01

    Five polysaccharides were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) through different extraction methods including hot water extraction, single enzyme extraction (pectinase, cellulase or papain) and compound enzymes extraction (cellulase:pectinase:papain). Their characteristics such as the polysaccharide yield, polysaccharide content, protein content, infrared spectra were determined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical, DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical and reducing power. The results showed that five extracts exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with other methods, the compound enzymes extraction method was found to present the highest polysaccharides yield (17.44%). Moreover, compound enzymes extracts exhibited the strongest reducing power and highest scavenging rates on hydroxyl radicals, DPPH radicals and ABTS radicals. On the contrary, hot water extraction method had the lowest polysaccharides yield of 11.95%, whose extracts also exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities. Overall, the available data obtained in vitro models suggested that ABM extracts were natural antioxidants and compound enzymes extraction was an appropriate, mild and effective extracting method for obtaining the polysaccharide extracts from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM).

  16. A low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Niu, Y C; Liu, J C; Zhao, X M; Wu, X X

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the low molecular weight polysaccharide extracts from Agaricus blazei are potential antitumor agents or adjuvant in tumor treatment. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of LMPAB, a low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei, and the molecular mechanisms of its antitumor activity. The antitumor effect of LMPAB was examined using mouse sarcoma 180 (S180) xenograft models. Antiangiogenic effect of LMPAB was determined by chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis and Matrigel-induced neovascularization in vivo models. The mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Tumor inhibitory rates in the S180 xenograft models were 9.7, 23.9, and 33.0%, respectively, after administration of LMPAB at dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. LMPAB also inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM model and Matrigel-induced neovascularization in C57BL/6 mice. The mRNA and protein levels of VEGF in tumor tissues were significantly down-regulated in the BALB/c mice received LMPAB treatment. Furthermore, significant down-regulation of serum VEGF levels was also observed in the mice. Our data suggest that LMPAB might be a promising agent for tumor therapy, and the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects of LMPAB may be related with down-regulation of VEGF.

  17. Effect of Agaricus blazei Murill on the pulmonary tissue of animals with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; de Mello, Rodrigo Noronha; Bona, Sílvia; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Porawski, Marilene; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc François; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Agaricus blazei Muril (A. Blazei) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We used 25 Wistar rats, and DM was induced by injecting streptozotocin (70 mg/Kg i.p.). Agaricus blazei Muril was administered daily starting 40 days after disease onset. A. Blazei was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipoperoxidation (LPO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in the pulmonary tissue, as well as the presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), through immunohistochemistry. An anatomopathologic study was also performed. Phytochemical screening of A. Blazei detected the presence of alkaloids and saponins. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hipoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Pulmonary LPO increased in diabetic animals (0.43 +/- 0.09; P < .001) as compared to the control group (0.18 +/- 0.02), followed by a reduction in the A. Blazei-treated group (0.33 +/- 0.04; P < .05). iNOS was found increased in the lung in diabetic rats and reduced in the A. Blazei-treated group. The pulmonary tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. The A. Blazei treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery.

  18. Wild mushroom poisoning in north India: case series with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2014-12-01

    Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome.

  19. Wild Mushroom Poisoning in North India: Case Series with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K.; Chawla, Yogesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome. PMID:25755582

  20. [Poisoning with selected mushrooms with neurotropic and hallucinogenic effect].

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Beata; Ferenc, Tomasz; Kusowska, Joanna; Ciećwierz, Julita; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Picking mushrooms, especially in summer and autumn, is still very popular in Poland. Despite raising awareness of poisonous mushrooms in the Polish society, year after year hospitals treat many patients diagnosed with poisoning with the most common toxic species of mushroom found in our country. Furthermore, growing interest in hallucinogenic mushrooms among young people has become a serious medical problem of our time. Websites make it incredibly easy for people to obtain information on the morphology and appearance of mushrooms with psychoactive properties, which leads inexperienced pickers to misidentification, resulting frequently in a fatal outcome. The article explores the subject of poisoning with the most common mushrooms with neurotropic effects, these are: Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Inocybe rubescens, Clitocybe dealbata, Clitocybe rivulosa and Psilocybe semilanceata. Toxins found in these species show symptoms that affect the central nervous system, parasympathetic system as well as the gastro-intestinal system. The effects of poisoning in the mushroom species mentioned above are mild in general, liver and kidney damage occur rarely, but the symptoms depend on both the dosage of the consumed toxins and individual susceptibility. In most cases the treatment is of symptomatic nature. There is no specific treatment. Medical procedures mainly involve induced gastrolavage--stomach pumping (providing that the patient is conscious), prescription of active carbon as well as replacement of lost body fluids and electrolytes. If the muscarinic symptoms prevail it is generally advised to dose atropine. Patients showing the signs of hyperactivity receive tranquilizers or narcoleptics to eliminate psychotic symptoms.

  1. Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Hansen, Lars; Li, Yongsheng; Gomez, Robert S.; Ito, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils found in annelids and in all arthropod groups except crustaceans. First explicitly identified in 1850, the mushroom bodies differ in size and complexity between taxa, as well as between different castes of a single species of social insect. These differences led some early biologists to suggest that the mushroom bodies endow an arthropod with intelligence or the ability to execute voluntary actions, as opposed to innate behaviors. Recent physiological studies and mutant analyses have led to divergent interpretations. One interpretation is that the mushroom bodies conditionally relay to higher protocerebral centers information about sensory stimuli and the context in which they occur. Another interpretation is that they play a central role in learning and memory. Anatomical studies suggest that arthropod mushroom bodies are predominately associated with olfactory pathways except in phylogenetically basal insects. The prominent olfactory input to the mushroom body calyces in more recent insect orders is an acquired character. An overview of the history of research on the mushroom bodies, as well as comparative and evolutionary considerations, provides a conceptual framework for discussing the roles of these neuropils. PMID:10454370

  2. Radiocaesium and natural gamma emitters in mushrooms collected in Spain.

    PubMed

    Baeza, Antonio; Hernández, Santiago; Guillén, Fco Javier; Moreno, Gabriel; Manjón, José Luis; Pascual, Rosario

    2004-01-05

    Mushrooms can accumulate heavy metals in general, including radionuclides found in the nature. However, little attention has been paid to the radioactive content of mushrooms collected in Spain and the dose for the population due to their ingestion. To address this, we analysed the contents of 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra and 7Be present in different species of mushrooms, according to their genus and nutritional mechanism. We observed that mycorrhizal mushrooms accumulate 137Cs more than saprophytes, and vice versa for 7Be. 40K and 226Ra are accumulated to the same degree by the two groups of mushrooms. We estimated the dose due to ingestion of mushrooms in Spain to be 2 microSv/year, and the contribution of 40K and 226Ra to be generally greater than that of 137Cs. The contribution of 137Cs to the dose was calculated by taking into account the results of an experiment carried out under the controlled laboratory conditions, which showed that approximately 98% of 134Cs was associated with the readily digestible fraction of the mushrooms.

  3. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas.

  4. New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Sook; Jang, Yoon-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2007-12-15

    The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated along with the known compounds, phelligridins D (4), E (5), and G (6). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. These compounds exhibited significant scavenging activity against the ABTS radical cation and DPPH radical, and showed moderate activity against the superoxide radical anion.

  5. The agaricoglyceride of royal sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (higher basidiomycetes) is anti-inflammatory and reverses diabetic glycemia in the liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haitao; Han, Chunchao; Sun, Yan; Qi, Xiaodan; Shi, Yan; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Chunjing

    2013-01-01

    The agaricoglyceride is a new fungal secondary metabolite that constitutes esters of chlorinated 4-hydroxy benzoic acid and glycerol. The objective of this study was to explore whether the administration of agaricoglyceride could correct hepatic glycemic metabolism dysfunction by attenuating inflammation in the liver. The effects of agaricoglycerides on tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, vascular endothelial growth factor-α, interleukin-17, insulin secretion, adiponectin, leptin, hepatic glycogen, nuclear factor-κB activation, and total antioxidant activity were studied respectively. We demonstrated that administration of agaricoglycerides alleviated glycemic metabolism dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress in mice. These data indicate that agaricoglyceride supplementation could restrain metabolic dysfunction through suppressing the nuclear factor-κB pathway as well as decreasing the levels of inflammatory cytokines and total antioxidant activities.

  6. Effects of selenium-enriched Agaricus blazei Murill on liver metabolic dysfunction in mice, a comparison with selenium-deficient Agaricus blazei Murill and sodium selenite.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Yang, Shaolong; Sun, Lei; Jiang, Yan-Fang; Zhu, Li-Ying

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of Se-enriched Agaricus blazei Murill (Se-AbM) on liver injury in mice induced by acute alcohol administration. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg body weight (BW)) by gavage every 12 h for a total of 3 doses. Se-AbM was administrated before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) level, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) level, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) level, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) level, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Se-AbM administration markedly (p < 005) decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels, hepatic IL-1β and TNF-α levels, as well as PMN infiltration and the expression of ICAM-1, COX-2, iNOS, and NF-κB compared with alcohol administration. In conclusion, we observed that Se-AbM supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure.

  7. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    PubMed Central

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into

  8. Purinergic effects of a hydroalcoholic Agaricus brasiliensis (A. blazei) extract on liver functions.