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Sample records for agarwal iit kanpur

  1. Assessment of personal exposure to inhalable indoor and outdoor particulate matter for student residents of an academic campus (IIT-Kanpur).

    PubMed

    Devi, J Jai; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, S N; Ujinwal, Kamal K

    2009-12-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter can have significant harmful effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system. These effects vary with number, size, and chemical composition of particulate matter, which vary significantly with space and time. The Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur (IITK), Kanpur, India, is a relatively clean academic campus in the northwest of a heavily polluted city, Kanpur. The major objectives of the study were to evaluate total exposure of fine and coarse fractions of PM(10) to a typical IITK student resident in different indoor microenvironments within the campus; to evaluate personal exposure to student residents during outdoor trips; and to evaluate personal exposure to a typical student resident carrying out routine activities. In order to account for all the sources of particulate matter exposure, measurements on several different days during the pre-monsoon season were carried out in the most common indoor microenvironments in the campus and during outdoor trips outside the campus. A 15-channel optical particle counter (model 1.108, GRIMM) was used to measure continuous real-time particle size distribution from 0.3 to 20 microm diameter. Using this instrument, exposure for 1 h at different indoor microenvironments was determined. Both the effects of location and activity, which, in turn, account for specific indoor sources and number of occupants, respectively, were carefully evaluated. Re-suspension of particles due to movement of people was found to be a major source of coarse particulate matter exposure. On the other hand, combustion sources led to elevated fine particulate levels. Chalk dust was found to be the major source of fine particulate matter in classrooms. Similar results on other sources of particulate matter are discussed in the paper. To assess the personal average size resolved particulate exposure on a student making a day trip outside the campus, study trips to most common public places in the city in a

  2. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in the Agarwals: Utility of founder mutations in CAPN3 gene

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Satish V.; Chaudhari, Chetan R.; Dastur, Rashna S.; Gaitonde, Pradnya S.; Yadav, Jayendra G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Diagnostic evaluation of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) involves specialized studies on muscle biopsy and mutation analysis. Mutation screening is the gold standard for diagnosis but is difficult as the gene is large and multiple mutations are known. This study evaluates the utility of two known founder mutations as a first-line diagnostic test for LGMD2A in the Agarwals. Materials and Methods: The Agarwals with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) phenotype were analyzed for two founder alleles (intron 18/exon 19 c.2051-1G>T and exon 22 c.2338G>C). Asymptomatic first-degree relatives of patients with genetically confirmed mutations and desirous of counseling were screened for founder mutations. Results: Founder alleles were detected in 26 out of 29 subjects with LGMD phenotype (89%). The most common genotype observed was homozygous for exon 22 c.2338 G>C mutation followed by compound heterozygosity. Single founder allele was identified in two. Single allele was detected in two of the five asymptomatic relatives. Conclusion: Eighty-nine percent of the Agarwals having LGMD phenotype have LGMD2A resulting from founder mutations. Founder allele analysis can be utilized as the initial noninvasive diagnostic step for index cases, carrier detection, and counseling. PMID:27011640

  3. Web-Based Online Public Access Catalogues of IIT Libraries in India: An Evaluative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhusudhan, Margam; Aggarwal, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to examine the various features and components of web-based online public access catalogues (OPACs) of IIT libraries in India with the help of a specially designed evaluation checklist. Design/methodology/approach: The various features of the web-based OPACs in six IIT libraries (IIT Delhi, IIT Bombay, IIT…

  4. Applying DER-CAM for IIT Microgrid Explansion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Li, Zuyi; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Chen

    2016-04-19

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an economic and environmental model of customer DER adoption. This model has been in development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2000. The objective of the model is to find optimal DER investments while minimizing total energy costs or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or achieving a weighted objective that simultaneously considers both criteria. The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Microgrid project started in August 2008, and the majority of the project was completed in May 2013. IIT Microgrid, funded mostly by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as State and philanthropic contributions, empowers the campus consumers with the objective of establishing a smart microgrid that is highly reliable, economically viable, environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient, and resilient in extreme circumstances with a self-healing capability. In this project, we apply DER-CAM to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid. First, the load data, environmental data, utility data, and technology data for the IIT Microgrid are gathered and organized to follow the DER-CAM input requirements. Then, DERCAM is applied to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid for different cases, where different objectives in DER-CAM and different utility conditions are tested. Case 1 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with fixed utility rates and 100% electric utility availability. Case 2 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with real-time utility rates and 4 emergency weeks when the IIT Microgrid does not have access to the electric utility grid and has to operate in island mode. In Case 3, the utility rates are restored to fixed values and 100% electric utility availability is assumed, but a weighted multi-objective (Obj: a × costs + b × CO2 emissions, where a and b are weights for cost minimization and CO2 emissions minimization) is utilized to

  5. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING - IIT RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a process that uses electromagnetic energy generated by radio waves to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. An RFH system developed by the IIT Research Institute ...

  6. A large waterborne viral hepatitis E epidemic in Kanpur, India.

    PubMed Central

    Naik, S. R.; Aggarwal, R.; Salunke, P. N.; Mehrotra, N. N.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 the largest epidemic of viral hepatitis E yet reported occurred in Kanpur (population, 2.1 million), India. The incidence of icteric hepatitis from December 1990 to April 1991 among the inhabitants of 420 randomly sampled houses in seven of the city's 50 wards was 3.76% (138 out of 3666 individuals), i.e., an estimated 79,091 persons in the city as a whole were affected. The attack rate was higher for males than females (5.3% versus 3.3%; P = 0.013) and for adults than children aged < 10 years (4.26% versus 1.29%; P = 0.0006). The incidence of hepatitis was higher in those city wards that were supplied with drinking-water consisting of a mixture of river Ganges and tubewell water than in those wards supplied only with tubewell water (5.6% versus 1.2%; P = 10(-6)). In the mixed-water areas, the incidence decreased as the drinking-water source changed from only tap to both tap and handpump, to only handpump (7.8%, 6.8%, and 4.3% respectively; P = 0.023). None of the sera collected from 41 hepatitis patients during the epidemic showed evidence of hepatitis virus A or B. There were two peaks in the epidemic (in February and April 1991). The first peak was probably caused by faecal contamination of river water, indicated by water analysis data, and the second, by inadequate chlorination of water in a reservoir. There was no evidence of secondary intrafamilial spread. PMID:1464145

  7. Genetic analysis of interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT): evidence for a key role for MHC and apoptosis related genes and pathways.

    PubMed

    Hasham, Alia; Zhang, Weijia; Lotay, Vaneet; Haggerty, Shannon; Stefan, Mihaela; Concepcion, Erlinda; Dieterich, Douglas T; Tomer, Yaron

    2013-08-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) have become increasingly recognized as a complication of interferon-alpha (IFNα) therapy in patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Interferon-induced thyroiditis (IIT) can manifest as clinical thyroiditis in approximately 15% of HCV patients receiving IFNα and subclinical thyroiditis in up to 40% of patients, possibly resulting in either dose reduction or discontinuation of IFNα treatment. However, the exact mechanisms that lead to the development of IIT are unknown and may include IFNα-mediated immune-recruitment as well as direct toxic effects on thyroid follicular cells. We hypothesized that IIT develops in genetically predisposed individuals whose threshold for developing thyroiditis is lowered by IFNα. Therefore, our aim was to identify the susceptibility genes for IIT. We used a genomic convergence approach combining genetic association data with transcriptome analysis of genes upregulated by IFNα. Integrating results of genetic association, transcriptome data, pathway, and haplotype analyses enabled the identification of 3 putative loci, SP100/110/140 (2q37.1), HLA (6p21.3), and TAP1 (6p21.3) that may be involved in the pathogenesis of IIT. Immune-regulation and apoptosis emerged as the predominant mechanisms underlying the etiology of IIT.

  8. SPIE's School Outreach Activity Program (SOAP) by IIT Madras SPIE Student Chapter: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikivayi, Lavanya; Kalikivayi, V.; Udayakumar, K.; Ganesan, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    One of the important aspects of SPIE is "Community Support and Outreach Education", which should raise awareness and interest in optics and photonics among the targeted communities and school children. Hence as part of SPIE IIT Madras student chapter, we carried out SPIE SOAP, a `School Outreach Activity Program'. Two types of schools were identified, one a high socio-economic status school and the other a low socio-economic status school having a majority of poor children. Optics related scientific experiments were demonstrated in these schools followed by oral quiz session to the students to assess the level of their knowledge before and after the experiments. We also clubbed this activity with "Vision Screening" and distribution of free spectacles for those children who live below poverty line. Out of the 415 children screened, 60.84% eyes were having normal vision, while 39.16% were found to have refractive errors (Myopia 35.78% and Hyperopia 3.38%) where some of them could not even read the board. Treatable eye diseases were also found in 0.72% of the children. The entire activity is been discussed and documented in this paper.

  9. Exploring teleimpedance and tactile feedback for intuitive control of the Pisa/IIT SoftHand.

    PubMed

    Ajoudani, Arash; Godfrey, Sasha B; Bianchi, Matteo; Catalano, Manuel G; Grioli, Giorgio; Tsagarakis, Nikos; Bicchi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a teleimpedance controller with tactile feedback for more intuitive control of the Pisa/IIT SoftHand. With the aim to realize a robust, efficient and low-cost hand prosthesis design, the SoftHand is developed based on the motor control principle of synergies, through which the immense complexity of the hand is simplified into distinct motor patterns. Due to the built-in flexibility of the hand joints, as the SoftHand grasps, it follows a synergistic path while allowing grasping of objects of various shapes using only a single motor. The DC motor of the hand incorporates a novel teleimpedance control in which the user's postural and stiffness synergy references are tracked in real-time. In addition, for intuitive control of the hand, two tactile interfaces are developed. The first interface (mechanotactile) exploits a disturbance observer which estimates the interaction forces in contact with the grasped object. Estimated interaction forces are then converted and applied to the upper arm of the user via a custom made pressure cuff. The second interface employs vibrotactile feedback based on surface irregularities and acceleration signals and is used to provide the user with information about the surface properties of the object as well as detection of object slippage while grasping. Grasp robustness and intuitiveness of hand control were evaluated in two sets of experiments. Results suggest that incorporating the aforementioned haptic feedback strategies, together with user-driven compliance of the hand, facilitate execution of safe and stable grasps, while suggesting that a low-cost, robust hand employing hardware-based synergies might be a good alternative to traditional myoelectric prostheses.

  10. Effects of particulate air pollution on the respiratory health of subjects who live in three areas in Kanpur, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Kumar, V Narendra; Katiyar, Subodh K; Sharma, Richa; Shukla, Bhanu P; Sengupta, Babu

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the relationship between daily changes in respiratory health and particulate levels with diameters of (a) less than 10 microm (PM10) and (b) less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in Kanpur, India. The subjects (N = 91) were recruited from 3 areas in Kanpur: (1) Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur), which was a relatively clean area; (b) Vikas Nagar, a typical commercial area; and (c) finally, the residential area of Juhilal Colony. All subjects resided near to air quality monitoring sites. Air quality and peak expiratory flow rate samplings were conducted for 39 d. Once during the sampling period, lung-function tests (i.e., forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity) were performed on each subject. Subjects who resided at the clean site performed at predicted (i.e., acceptable) values more often than did subjects who lived at the remaining 2 sites. Subjects who lived at all 3 sites demonstrated a substantial average deficit in baseline forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values. The authors used a statistical model to estimate that an increase of 100 microg/m3 of the pollutant PM10 could reduce the mean peak expiratory flow rate of an individual by approximately 3.2 l/min.

  11. Refractive Index and Absorption Attribution of Highly Absorbing Brown Carbon Aerosols from an Urban Indian City-Kanpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamjad, P. M.; Tripathi, S. N.; Thamban, Navaneeth M.; Vreeland, Heidi

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence Earth’s radiative balance, having both warming and cooling effects. Though many aerosols reflect radiation, carbonaceous aerosols such as black carbon and certain organic carbon species known as brown carbon have the potential to warm the atmosphere by absorbing light. Black carbon absorbs light over the entire solar spectrum whereas brown carbon absorbs near-UV wavelengths and, to a lesser extent, visible light. In developing countries, such as India, where combustion sources are prolific, the influence of brown carbon on absorption may be significant. In order to better characterize brown carbon, we present experimental and modeled absorption properties of submicron aerosols measured in an urban Indian city (Kanpur). Brown carbon here is found to be fivefold more absorbing at 365 nm wavelength compared to previous studies. Results suggest ~30% of total absorption in Kanpur is attributed to brown carbon, with primary organic aerosols contributing more than secondary organics. We report the spectral brown carbon refractive indices along with an experimentally constrained estimate of the influence of aerosol mixing state on absorption. We conclude that brown carbon in Kanpur is highly absorbing in nature and that the mixing state plays an important role in light absorption from volatile species.

  12. Refractive Index and Absorption Attribution of Highly Absorbing Brown Carbon Aerosols from an Urban Indian City-Kanpur.

    PubMed

    Shamjad, P M; Tripathi, S N; Thamban, Navaneeth M; Vreeland, Heidi

    2016-11-24

    Atmospheric aerosols influence Earth's radiative balance, having both warming and cooling effects. Though many aerosols reflect radiation, carbonaceous aerosols such as black carbon and certain organic carbon species known as brown carbon have the potential to warm the atmosphere by absorbing light. Black carbon absorbs light over the entire solar spectrum whereas brown carbon absorbs near-UV wavelengths and, to a lesser extent, visible light. In developing countries, such as India, where combustion sources are prolific, the influence of brown carbon on absorption may be significant. In order to better characterize brown carbon, we present experimental and modeled absorption properties of submicron aerosols measured in an urban Indian city (Kanpur). Brown carbon here is found to be fivefold more absorbing at 365 nm wavelength compared to previous studies. Results suggest ~30% of total absorption in Kanpur is attributed to brown carbon, with primary organic aerosols contributing more than secondary organics. We report the spectral brown carbon refractive indices along with an experimentally constrained estimate of the influence of aerosol mixing state on absorption. We conclude that brown carbon in Kanpur is highly absorbing in nature and that the mixing state plays an important role in light absorption from volatile species.

  13. Refractive Index and Absorption Attribution of Highly Absorbing Brown Carbon Aerosols from an Urban Indian City-Kanpur

    PubMed Central

    Shamjad, P. M.; Tripathi, S. N.; Thamban, Navaneeth M.; Vreeland, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence Earth’s radiative balance, having both warming and cooling effects. Though many aerosols reflect radiation, carbonaceous aerosols such as black carbon and certain organic carbon species known as brown carbon have the potential to warm the atmosphere by absorbing light. Black carbon absorbs light over the entire solar spectrum whereas brown carbon absorbs near-UV wavelengths and, to a lesser extent, visible light. In developing countries, such as India, where combustion sources are prolific, the influence of brown carbon on absorption may be significant. In order to better characterize brown carbon, we present experimental and modeled absorption properties of submicron aerosols measured in an urban Indian city (Kanpur). Brown carbon here is found to be fivefold more absorbing at 365 nm wavelength compared to previous studies. Results suggest ~30% of total absorption in Kanpur is attributed to brown carbon, with primary organic aerosols contributing more than secondary organics. We report the spectral brown carbon refractive indices along with an experimentally constrained estimate of the influence of aerosol mixing state on absorption. We conclude that brown carbon in Kanpur is highly absorbing in nature and that the mixing state plays an important role in light absorption from volatile species. PMID:27883083

  14. Aerosol Properties and Radiative Forcing over Kanpur during Severe Aerosol Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Sinha, P. R.; Vinoj, V.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Tripathi, S. N.; Misra, Amit; Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols over India exhibit large spatio-temporal fluctuation driven by the local monsoon system, emission rates and seasonally-changed air masses. The northern part of India is well-known for its high aerosol loading throughout the year due to anthropogenic emissions, dust influence and biomass burning. On certain circumstances and, under favorable weather conditions, the aerosol load can be severe, causing significant health concerns and climate implications. The present work analyzes the aerosol episode (AE) days and examines the modification in aerosol properties and radiative forcing during the period 2001-2010 based on Kanpur-AERONET sun photometer data. As AEs are considered the days having daily-mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) above the decadal mean + 1 STD (standard deviation); the threshold value is defined at 0.928. The results identify 277 out of 2095 days (13.2%) of AEs over Kanpur, which are most frequently observed during post-monsoon (78 cases, 18.6%) and monsoon (76, 14.7%) seasons due to biomass-burning episodes and dust influence, respectively. On the other hand, the AEs in winter and pre-monsoon are lower in both absolute and percentage values (65, 12.5% and 58, 9.1%, respectively). The modification in aerosol properties on the AE days is strongly related to season. Thus, in post-monsoon and winter the AEs are associated with enhanced presence of fine-mode aerosols and Black Carbon from anthropogenic pollution and any kind of burning, while in pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons they are mostly associated with transported dust. Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) calculated using SBDART shows much more surface (~-69 to -97 Wm-2) and Top of Atmosphere cooling (-20 to -30 Wm-2) as well as atmospheric heating (~43 to 71 Wm-2) during the AE days compared to seasonal means. These forcing values are mainly controlled by the higher AODs and the modified aerosol characteristics (Angstrom α, SSA) during the AE days in each season and may cause

  15. Assessment of exposure to chemical agents and ergonomic stressors in tanneries in Kanpur, India.

    PubMed

    Ory, F G; Rahman, F U; Katagade, V; Shukla, A; Burdorf, A

    1997-10-01

    In developing countries qualitative assessment of exposure at the workplace may be an essential tool in evaluating hazardous working conditions. This survey reports on qualitative assessment of exposure to chemicals, dust, and ergonomic stressors among 298 workers in 15 tanneries in Kanpur, India. In general, chemical exposure and dermal exposure were highest among beamhouse workers, less for workers involved in dry finishing activities, and lowest for those performing the wet finishing of hides. Dermal exposure was rated as high to very high during beamhouse activities, reflecting direct contact with wet hides and manual handling of hides in soak tanks. Relevant dust exposure was observed only during dry finishing activities. Most workers experienced severe postural load due to working in trunk flexion and rotation for more than 50% of their daily work time. In addition, manual materials handling with loads over 20 kg frequently occurred. The size of the tannery, in general a reflection of state of technology, showed no systematic influence on exposure profiles. The survey suggested that mechanization of material transfer and application of trolleys reduced the work time with trunk flexion and rotation and implied less manual lifting. The presence of local exhaust ventilation in large tanneries seemed to reduce the chemical exposure. This survey has demonstrated the importance of rapid appraisal techniques for evaluating hazardous conditions at the workplace. In developing countries this approach may facilitate occupational hygiene research and practice.

  16. Retention of fly ash-derived copper in sediments of the Pandu River near Kanpur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Chander, D. V.; Venkobachar, C.; Raymahashay, B. C.

    1994-10-01

    A coal-based thermal power plant is situated on the bank of the Pandu River, which is a tributary to the Ganges near Kanpur. River sediments downstream from the ash pond outfall are contaminated by fly ash. In order to establish the role of soils and sediments in retaining fly ash-derived heavy metals, copper was investigated as a model metal. A maximum concentration of 70 ppm Cu could be leached from the fly ash, confirming that it is a major source of this metal. Soil samples and river sediments were examined for Cu adsorption in the natural state as well as after treatment with H2O2, EDTA, and H2O2 followed by EDTA. The organic fraction of the samples was determined, and it had a major control on removal of Cu from a solution with 10-4 M initial concentration. Further characterization of organic matter indicated that with reference to natural samples, the humic acid fraction had a copper enrichment factor in the range 9.1 15.1. The factor for fulvic acids, in contrast, was between 3.5 and 5.5. This leads to the conclusion that river deposits rich in humic acids would withstand relatively high metal loads. Only when the metal input exceeds the maximum retention potential, would the metal be fractionated into the aqueous phase and act as a potential biocide.

  17. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2011-09-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent.

  18. Region-specific deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Kanpur city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Anbazhagan; Bajaj, Ketan; Dutta, Nairwita; R Moustafa, Sayed S.; N Al-Arifi, Nassir S.

    2017-02-01

    A seismic hazard map of Kanpur city has been developed considering the region-specific seismotectonic parameters within a 500-km radius by deterministic and probabilistic approaches. The maximum probable earthquake magnitude ( M max) for each seismic source has been estimated by considering the regional rupture characteristics method and has been compared with the maximum magnitude observed ({M_{max }^{ {obs}}} ), M_{max }^{ {obs}} +0.5 and Kijko method. The best suitable ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) were selected from 27 applicable GMPEs based on the `efficacy test'. Furthermore, different weight factors were assigned to different M max values and the selected GMPE to calculate the final hazard value. Peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration at 0.2 and 1 s were estimated and mapped for worst-case scenario and 2 and 10% probability of exceedance for 50 years. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) showed a variation from 0.04 to 0.36 g for DSHA, from 0.02 to 0.32 g and 0.092 to 0.1525 g for 2 and 10% probability in 50 years, respectively. A normalised site-specific design spectrum has been developed considering three vulnerable sources based on deaggregation at the city center and the results are compared with the recent 2011 Sikkim and 2015 Nepal earthquakes, and the Indian seismic code IS 1893.

  19. Respiratory disease in relation to outdoor air pollution in Kanpur, India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Schindler, Martin; Sharma, Mukesh; Behera, Sailesh N; Katiyar, Kamlesh; Dikshit, Onkar

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of outdoor air pollution on respiratory disease in Kanpur, India, based on data from 2006. Exposure to air pollution is represented by annual emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from 11 source categories, established as a geographic information system (GIS)-based emission inventory in 2 km × 2 km grid. Respiratory disease is represented by number of patients who visited specialist pulmonary hospital with symptoms of respiratory disease. The results showed that (1) the main sources of air pollution are industries, domestic fuel burning, and vehicles; (2) the emissions of PM per grid are strongly correlated to the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x); and (3) there is a strong correlation between visits to a hospital due to respiratory disease and emission strength in the area of residence. These results clearly indicate that appropriate health and environmental monitoring, actions to reduce emissions to air, and further studies that would allow assessing the development in health status are necessary.

  20. Study of MODIS derived AOD at three different locations in the Indo Gangetic Plain: Kanpur, Gandhi College and Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhry, P.; Misra, A.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2012-10-01

    Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, onboard Terra and Aqua, have been observing the Earth since start of 2000 and mid 2002, respectively. The present study provides a comparison of Collection 5 (C005), aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved by MODIS, with AERONET-observed AOD over Kanpur (an urban site), Gandhi College (a rural site) and Nainital (a relatively clean site) in the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP). The results show that at Kanpur, MODIS retrievals are well within the prelaunch uncertainty ± 0.05 ±0.15 τ, and a good correlation (R2 > 0.7 for both Terra and Aqua). Nainital also shows good retrieval (R2 > 0.8 for Terra and R2 > 0.68 for Aqua), as more than 66% of total collocations are within the prelaunch uncertainty. However, it is seen that there is significant overestimation in this case, especially in the months of winter. Gandhi College poses a challenge to MODIS retrieval, as here <57% of MODIS-retrieved AOD values lay within the prelaunch uncertainty and the correlation is very poor (R2 ~ 0.5 for Aqua and R2 ~ 0.4 for Terra); also there is persistent underestimation in this case. Small value of slope shows that assumed model results in underestimation, and large intercept values for the linear regression fit show that errors due to surface reflectance are high here. Our comparison shows that MODIS retrieval works well over Kanpur, and Nainital with winter as an exception. However, MODIS retrieval is poor for Gandhi College which is a rural area. The aerosol properties at Kanpur are currently used as representative of the entire subcontinent in the MODIS C005 algorithm, which is not an accurate assumption. The large variability in land use and climate over India makes it a site too complex for a single aerosol model to be used over the entire area. Therefore further study with as many sites as possible over the Indian subcontinent would help provide more realistic modeling for the Indian subcontinent.

  1. Variability and Trends of Aerosol Properties over Kanpur, Northern India using AERONET Data (2001-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.; Singh, Ramesh.P.; Gautam, Ritesh; Sharma, Manish; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic aerosols over northern India play an important role in influencing the regional radiation budget, causing climate implications to the overall hydrological cycle of South Asia. In the context of regional climate change and air quality, we discuss aerosol loading variability and trends at Kanpur AERONET station located in the central part of the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), during the last decade (2001-10). Ground-based radiometric measurements show an overall increase in column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) on a yearly basis. This upward trend is mainly due to a sustained increase in the seasonal/monthly averaged AOD during the winter (Dec-Feb) and post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) seasons (dominated by anthropogenic emissions). In contrast, a neutral to weak declining trend is observed during late pre-monsoon (Mar-May) and monsoon (Jun-Sep) months, mainly influenced by inter-annual variations of dust outbreaks. A general decrease in coarse-mode aerosols associated with variable dust activity is observed, whereas the statistically significant increasing post-monsoon/winter AOD is reflected in a shift of the columnar size distribution towards relatively larger particles in the accumulation mode. Overall, the present study provides an insight into the pronounced seasonal behavior in aerosol loading trends and, in general, is in agreement with that associating the findings with those recently reported by satellite observations (MODIS and MISR) over northern India. Our results further suggest that anthropogenic emissions (due mainly to fossil-fuel and biomass combustion) over the IGP have continued to increase in the last decade.

  2. Feeding practices and early childhood caries: a cross-sectional study of preschool children in kanpur district, India.

    PubMed

    Prakasha Shrutha, Santhebachalli; Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Giri, Kolli Yada; Alam, Sarwar

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children's health, development, and wellbeing. The objective of this study was to assess the caries experience in 3-5-year-old children and to evaluate the relationship with their mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene habits in Kanpur. Method. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 2000 (974 boys and 1026 girls) children aged 3-5 years from a random sample of preschools in Kanpur district, India. Dental caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria. A pretested questionnaire with 9 questions was used for collecting information regarding mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices. Chi-square test (χ (2)) and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 48% with mean dmft of 2.03 ± 2.99. Boys (57%) were affected more than girls (43%) which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Caries prevalence was high and statistically significant (P < 0.05) among those who were breast fed for longer duration, during nighttime, those falling asleep with bottle, and those fed with additional sugar in milk. Conclusion. Determining the role of feeding practices on early childhood caries can help in the development of appropriate oral health promotion strategies.

  3. Elevated aerosol layers and their radiative impact over Kanpur during monsoon onset period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Chandan; Tripathi, S. N.; Mishra, A. K.; Goel, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    Accurate information about aerosol vertical distribution is needed to reduce uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on atmospheric dynamics. The present study deals with synergistic analyses of aerosol vertical distribution and aerosol optical depth (AOD) with meteorological variables using multisatellite and ground-based remote sensors over Kanpur in central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Micro-Pulse Lidar Network-derived aerosol vertical extinction (σ) profiles are analyzed to quantify the interannual and daytime variations during monsoon onset period (May-June) for 2009-2011. The mean aerosol profile is broadly categorized into two layers viz., a surface layer (SL) extending up to 1.5 km (where σ decreased exponentially with height) and an elevated aerosol layer (EAL) extending between 1.5 and 5.5 km. The increase in total columnar aerosol loading is associated with relatively higher increase in contribution from EAL loading than that from SL. The mean contributions of EALs are about 60%, 51%, and 50% to total columnar AOD during 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. We observe distinct parabolic EALs during early morning and late evening but uniformly mixed EALs during midday. The interannual and daytime variations of EALs are mainly influenced by long-range transport and convective capacity of the local emissions, respectively. Radiative flux analysis shows that clear-sky incoming solar radiation at surface is reduced with increase in AOD, which indicates significant cooling at surface. Collocated analysis of atmospheric temperature and aerosol loading reveals that increase in AOD not only resulted in surface dimming but also reduced the temperature (˜2-3°C) of lower troposphere (below 3 km altitude). Radiative transfer simulations indicate that the reduction of incoming solar radiation at surface is mainly due to increased absorption by EALs (with increase in total AOD). The observed cooling in lower troposphere in high aerosol loading

  4. Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08: A potential microbial strain for high rate hydrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Namita; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar; Huntemann, Marcel; Deshpande, Shweta; Han, James; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Szeto, Ernest; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Chertkov, Olga; Daligault, Hajnalka; Davenport, Karen; Gu, Wei; Munk, Christine; Zhang, Xiaojing; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Xu, Yan; Quintana, Beverly; Reitenga, Krista; Kunde, Yulia; Green, Lance; Erkkila, Tracy; Han, Cliff; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Lang, Elke; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; Das, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08 belongs to Phylum: Proteobacteria, Class: Gammaproteobacteria, Order: Enterobacteriales, Family: Enterobacteriaceae. The organism was isolated from the leaves of a local plant near the Kharagpur railway station, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. It has been extensively studied for fermentative hydrogen production because of its high hydrogen yield. For further enhancement of hydrogen production by strain development, complete genome sequence analysis was carried out. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome was linear, 4.67 Mbp long and had a GC content of 56.01%. The genome properties encode 4,393 protein-coding and 179 RNA genes. Additionally, a putative pathway of hydrogen production was suggested based on the presence of formate hydrogen lyase complex and other related genes identified in the genome. Thus, in the present study we describe the specific properties of the organism and the generation, annotation and analysis of its genome sequence as well as discuss the putative pathway of hydrogen production by this organism. PMID:24976892

  5. Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08: A potential microbial strain for high rate hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Namita; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar; Huntemann, Marcel; Deshpande, Shweta; Han, James; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Szeto, Ernest; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Chertkov, Olga; Daligault, Hajnalka; Davenport, Karen; Gu, Wei; Munk, Christine; Zhang, Xiaojing; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Xu, Yan; Quintana, Beverly; Reitenga, Krista; Kunde, Yulia; Green, Lance; Erkkila, Tracy; Han, Cliff; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Lang, Elke; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; Das, Debabrata

    2013-12-20

    Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08 belongs to Phylum: Proteobacteria, Class: Gammaproteobacteria, Order: Enterobacteriales, Family: Enterobacteriaceae. The organism was isolated from the leaves of a local plant near the Kharagpur railway station, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. It has been extensively studied for fermentative hydrogen production because of its high hydrogen yield. For further enhancement of hydrogen production by strain development, complete genome sequence analysis was carried out. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome was linear, 4.67 Mbp long and had a GC content of 56.01%. The genome properties encode 4,393 protein-coding and 179 RNA genes. Additionally, a putative pathway of hydrogen production was suggested based on the presence of formate hydrogen lyase complex and other related genes identified in the genome. Thus, in the present study we describe the specific properties of the organism and the generation, annotation and analysis of its genome sequence as well as discuss the putative pathway of hydrogen production by this organism.

  6. Sub-micron particle number size distributions characteristics at an urban location, Kanpur, in the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanawade, V. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bhattu, Deepika; Shamjad, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present long-term measurements of sub-micron particle number size distributions (PNSDs) conducted at an urban location, Kanpur, in India, from September 2007 to July 2011. The mean Aitken mode (NAIT), accumulation mode (NACCU), the total particle (NTOT), and black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were 12.4 × 103 cm- 3, 18.9 × 103 cm- 3, 31.9 × 103 cm- 3, and 7.96 μg m- 3, respectively, within the observed range at other urban locations worldwide, but much higher than those reported at urban sites in the developed nations. The total particle volume concentration appears to be dominated mainly by the accumulation mode particles, except during the monsoon months, perhaps due to efficient wet deposition of accumulation mode particles by precipitation. At Kanpur, the diurnal variation of particle number concentrations was very distinct, with highest during morning and late evening hours, and lowest during the afternoon hours. This behavior could be attributed to the large primary emissions of aerosol particles and temporal evolution of the planetary boundary layer. A distinct seasonal variation in the total particle number and BC mass concentrations was observed, with the maximum in winter and minimum during the rainy season, however, the Aitken mode particles did not show a clear seasonal fluctuation. The ratio of Aitken to accumulation mode particles, NAIT/NACCU, was varied from 0.1 to 14.2, with maximum during April to September months, probably suggesting the importance of new particle formation processes and subsequent particle growth. This finding suggests that dedicated long-term measurements of PNSDs (from a few nanometer to one micron) are required to systematically characterize new particle formation over the Indian subcontinent that has been largely unstudied so far. Contrarily, the low NAIT/NACCU during post-monsoon and winter indicated the dominance of biomass/biofuel burning aerosol emissions at this site.

  7. Prevalence of vero toxic Escherichia coli in fecal samples of domestic as well as wild ruminants in Mathura districts and Kanpur zoo

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Raghavendra Prasad; Jain, Udit; Bist, Basanti; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was planned to reveal the prevalence of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in fecal samples of domestic and wild ruminants in Mathura district and Kanpur zoo. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 fecal samples comprising 60 each of cattle, buffalo, sheep and deer from Mathura districts and Kanpur zoo were screened for the presence of E. coli and VTEC genes positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Result: Out of 240 fecal samples, 212 E. coli strains were obtained. All the E. coli isolates were screened by PCR to detect virulence genes stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA. Of these, 25 isolates were identified as VTEC. The prevalence of VTEC in cattle, buffalo, sheep and deer was found 13.4% (8/60), 13.4% (8/60), 6.67% (4/60) and 8.33% (5/60), respectively. Conclusion: stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA genes were prevalent in VTEC isolates from feces of cattle, buffalo, sheep and deer population of Mathura districts and Kanpur zoo. The presence of VTEC isolates in this region may pose a threat to public health. PMID:27051188

  8. Composition and source apportionment of PM1 at urban site Kanpur in India using PMF coupled with CBPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pragati; Chakraborty, Abhishek; Mandariya, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-09-01

    This study addresses the three major questions: (1) what are the emission sources of PM1 which are affecting the study area; (2) where do these emission sources come from; and (3) is there any temporal variation in the emission sources. To address these issues, two advanced statistical methods are described in this paper. Identification of emission sources was performed by EPA PMF (v 5.0) and to understand the temporal variability, sampling was done for three winter seasons 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2011-12 within Kanpur city. To identify the possible source directions, Conditional Bivariate Probability function (CBPF) was used. The average PM1 concentration was higher in 2008-09 followed by 2011-12 and 2009-10 winter seasons. 2008-09 winter showed sources such as secondary sources mixed with power plant emission (42.8%), industrial emission (32.3%), coal combustion, brick kilns and vehicular emission (13.2%) and residual oil combustion and road dust (11.7%). The major contributors during winter season 2009-10 were secondary sources (33.1%), biomass burning (23.3%), heavy oil combustion (13%), vehicular emission mixed with crustal dust (11.3%), leather tanning industries (10.3%), industrial emission (4%), coal combustion and brick kilns (3.4%) and solid waste burning and incineration (1.5%) compared to secondary sources mixed with biomass burning (42.3%), industrial emission and crustal dust (35.1%) and vehicular emission and brick kilns (22.6%) during 2011-12 winter season. PMF model revealed that secondary sources were the main contributors for all the three winter seasons followed by biomass burning and power plant emission. The results of CBPF analysis agreed well with the locations of known local point sources., e.g. in the case of industrial emissions, the maximum probability was in the direction between NES direction where almost all the major industries are located in and around Kanpur while in the opposite direction the probability of biomass burning was high

  9. Lead isotopes and trace metal ratios of aerosols as tracers of Pb pollution sources in Kanpur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Indra; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida; Paul, Debajyoti; Tyagi, Swati; Sengupta, Deep

    2015-04-01

    The anthropogenic flux of Pb in the Earth's surface is almost an order of magnitude higher than its corresponding natural flux [1]. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb- isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, an industrial city in northern India. The Pb concentration in the airborne particulate matter varies between 14-216 ng/m3, while the other heavy metals vary by factor of 10 or less, e.g. Cd=0.3-3 ng/m3, As=0.4-3.5 ng/m3, Zn=36-161 ng/m3, and Cu=3-22 ng/m3. The 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/207Pb vary between 1.112 - 1.129, 2.123-2.141, and 2.409-2.424 respectively, and are highly correlated with each other (R2>0.9). Pb isotopes and trace metal data reveals that coal combustion is the major source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere, with limited contribution from mining and smelting processes. We further conclude that combination of Pb isotope ratios and V/Pb ratios are powerful tracers for Pb source apportionment studies, which is otherwise difficult to differentiate based only on Pb systematics [1] Sen and Peucker-Ehrenbrink (2012), Environ. Sci. Technol.(46), 8601-8609

  10. Groundwater Contaminated with Hexavalent Chromium [Cr (VI)]: A Health Survey and Clinical Examination of Community Inhabitants (Kanpur, India)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priti; Bihari, Vipin; Agarwal, Sudhir K.; Verma, Vipin; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N.; Pangtey, Balram S.; Mathur, Neeraj; Singh, Kunwar Pal; Srivastava, Mithlesh; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2012-01-01

    Background We assessed the health effects of hexavalent chromium groundwater contamination (from tanneries and chrome sulfate manufacturing) in Kanpur, India. Methods The health status of residents living in areas with high Cr (VI) groundwater contamination (N = 186) were compared to residents with similar social and demographic features living in communities having no elevated Cr (VI) levels (N = 230). Subjects were recruited at health camps in both the areas. Health status was evaluated with health questionnaires, spirometry and blood hematology measures. Cr (VI) was measured in groundwater samples by diphenylcarbazide reagent method. Results Residents from communities with known Cr (VI) contamination had more self-reports of digestive and dermatological disorders and hematological abnormalities. GI distress was reported in 39.2% vs. 17.2% males (AOR = 3.1) and 39.3% vs. 21% females (AOR = 2.44); skin abnormalities in 24.5% vs. 9.2% males (AOR = 3.48) and 25% vs. 4.9% females (AOR = 6.57). Residents from affected communities had greater RBCs (among 30.7% males and 46.1% females), lower MCVs (among 62.8% males) and less platelets (among 68% males and 72% females) than matched controls. There were no differences in leucocytes count and spirometry parameters. Conclusions Living in communities with Cr (VI) groundwater is associated with gastrointestinal and dermatological complaints and abnormal hematological function. Limitations of this study include small sample size and the lack of long term follow-up. PMID:23112863

  11. Investigation of levels in ambient air near sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Kanpur, India, and risk assessment due to inhalation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Anubha; Upadhyay, Kritika; Chakraborty, Mrinmoy

    2016-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds listed as persistent organic pollutant and have been banned for use under Stockholm Convention (1972). They were used primarily in transformers and capacitors, paint, flame retardants, plasticizers, and lubricants. PCBs can be emitted through the primary and secondary sources into the atmosphere, undergo long-range atmospheric transport, and hence have been detected worldwide. Reported levels in ambient air are generally higher in urban areas. Active sampling of ambient air was conducted in Kanpur, a densely populated and industrialized city in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, for detection of 32 priority PCBs, with the aim to determine the concentration in gas/particle phase and assess exposure risk. More than 50 % of PCBs were detected in air. Occurrence in particles was dominated by heavier congeners, and levels in gas phase were below detection. Levels determined in this study are lower than the levels in Coastal areas of India but are at par with other Asian countries where majority of sites chosen for sampling were urban industrial areas. Human health risk estimates through air inhalation pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR). The study found lower concentrations of PCBs than guideline values and low health risk estimates through inhalation within acceptable levels, indicating a minimum risk to the adults due to exposure to PCBs present in ambient air in Kanpur.

  12. Study of MPLNET-Derived Aerosol Climatology over Kanpur, India, and Validation of CALIPSO Level 2 Version 3 Backscatter and Extinction Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Amit; Tripathi, S. N.; Kaul, D. S.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2012-01-01

    The level 2 aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles from the NASA Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) at Kanpur, India, have been studied from May 2009 to September 2010. Monthly averaged extinction profiles from MPLNET shows high extinction values near the surface during October March. Higher extinction values at altitudes of 24 km are observed from April to June, a period marked by frequent dust episodes. Version 3 level 2 Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aerosol profile products have been compared with corresponding data from MPLNET over Kanpur for the above-mentioned period. Out of the available backscatter profiles, the16 profiles used in this study have time differences less than 3 h and distances less than 130 km. Among these profiles, four cases show good comparison above 400 m with R2 greater than 0.7. Comparison with AERONET data shows that the aerosol type is properly identified by the CALIOP algorithm. Cloud contamination is a possible source of error in the remaining cases of poor comparison. Another source of error is the improper backscatter-to-extinction ratio, which further affects the accuracy of extinction coefficient retrieval.

  13. Geo-Accumulation Indices of Heavy Metals in Soil and Groundwater of Kanpur, India Under Long Term Irrigation of Tannery Effluent.

    PubMed

    Dotaniya, M L; Meena, V D; Rajendiran, S; Coumar, M Vassanda; Saha, J K; Kundu, S; Patra, A K

    2016-11-22

    Soil and groundwater from long-term (>50 years) tannery effluent irrigated areas of Kanpur were analyzed and significant buildup of heavy metals such as Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn, and As in the range of 252-972, 23-30, 2.3-14.1, 23.7-58.8, 138-338 and 6.8-11 mg kg(-1), respectively in soil was found. Few groundwater samples in the effluent irrigated areas also exhibited high Cr concentration above the permissible limit of United States Environmental Protection Agency. The tannery effluents contained 1.53-57.3 ppm Cr, 0-0.12 ppm Ni, 0-0.02 ppm Cd, 0-0.07 ppm Pb, 0-0.48 ppm Zn and 0-0.03 ppm As. The Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) revealed that soil samples were unpolluted to moderately polluted with Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and As; moderately polluted in case of Cd; and heavily to extremely polluted by Cr.

  14. IIT Kharagpur at TREC 2008 Blog Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-25

    other advertisements. We did a DFS traversal of the HTML tree and calculated the ratio for the whole set of nodes. After this is done the second step...starts from the body tag and goes down the tree in breadth first fashion. We do a hill climbing search to find the node with the highest text to link...from Internet Movie Databases plot summaries while the subjective sentences are from Rotten Tomatoes review snippets. Minekey Opinion Dataset We were

  15. Integrated Advanced Energy Systems Research at IIT

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Arastoopour

    2010-09-30

    This report consists of Two research projects; Sustainable Buildings and Hydrogen Storage. Sustainable Building Part includes: Wind and the self powered built environment by professor P. Land and his research group and experimental and computational works by professor D. Rempfer and his research group. Hydrogen Storage part includes: Hydrogen Storage Using Mg-Mixed Metal Hydrides by professor H. Arastoopour and his research team and Carbon Nanostructure as Hydrogen Storage Material by professor J. Prakash and his research team.

  16. The Architecture of the IIT-MRH Stroke Consultant

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Howard; Curt, Carol L.; Kozar, Barbara K.; Hier, Daniel B.; Evens, Martha W.

    1985-01-01

    There are three major issues discussed in this paper. First, we discuss a high speed blackboard-like architecture for an expert system that makes no restrictions on the nature or number of components in the system. We also discuss how the principles of cognitive psychology could be used as a basis for user interface design. Since most expert systems, circa 1985, are large programs, we also discuss some of the software engineering issues used to build the stroke consultant.

  17. Critical Problems in Very Large Scale Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-31

    Overview 2 2 Circuits 2 3 Processing Elements 3 4 Comimunicat ions Topology and Routing Algorithms 4 5 Systems Software 5 6 Algorithms 6 7 Applications...methods to semiconductors, they are decomposing the field calculation into a part due to charged particles, a part due to dopant ions , and a part due to...Internal Memoranda [51] Anant Agarwal. Li . iits to network performance, or, moderate dimensions are better. To appear as a MIT VLSI Memo. L52] Anant

  18. Fate of IIT B52 Antiform Agent Across the Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Process

    SciTech Connect

    Calloway, T.B.

    2001-07-10

    The primary objective of these experiments was to determine the fate (partitioning) of the antifoam agent across the precipitation, concentration and washing cycles. A secondary objective of this experiment was to determine if insoluble aluminum formed during the STTP process.

  19. Optical properties of alloys based on II-S and II-Te chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Nor, P. E. Nagibina, I. Yu.; Karpova, E. O.

    2015-03-15

    Spectroscopic studies of binary and multicomponent semiconductors of the CdS-CdTe, CdS-ZnTe, and ZnS-CdTe systems are performed. They result in confirmation of the formation of substitutional alloys in these systems (in addition to the results of X-ray diffractometry studies), and the chemical composition of the surface as well as the most important characteristic of semiconductors, theelectron work function, the frequencies of strongest luminescence (impurity and band-to band), the emission maxima, and the possibilities of predicting luminescence properties are determined. Recommendations concerning the use of fabricated materials of definite composition as phosphors are given.

  20. Comparison of Dow Corning 544 antifoam to IIT747 antifoam in the 1/240 SRAT

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.C.

    2000-05-12

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility requested that the Immobilization Technology Section compare the relative foaming tendencies of sludge simulant during simulated Chemical Processing Cell operations (HLW-DWPF-TTR-99-0012). Dow Corning 544 antifoam, currently used in DWPF, was compared to a new antifoam formulation developed at the Illinois Institute of Technology. A task plan was written and approved. The task plan deliverables included a recommendation on the choice of antifoam, an evaluation of the influence of solids concentration on foaming, an evaluation on the effect of boil-up rate on foaming, an estimate of the mass of steam stripped to remove 90 percent of the mercury, and a determination of the fate of mercury. Additional parameters to be investigated during experimentation included the maximum foam height observed, hydrogen generation rates, and nitrite destruction rates.

  1. Raman spectroscopic detection of the T-Hg II-T base pair and the ionic characteristics of mercury.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Tomomi; Miura, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hideo; Dairaku, Takenori; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Takuya; Kondo, Yoshinori; Benda, Ladislav; Sychrovsky, Vladimír; Bour, Petr; Okamoto, Itaru; Ono, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Developing applications for metal-mediated base pairs (metallo-base-pair) has recently become a high-priority area in nucleic acid research, and physicochemical analyses are important for designing and fine-tuning molecular devices using metallo-base-pairs. In this study, we characterized the Hg(II)-mediated T-T (T-Hg(II)-T) base pair by Raman spectroscopy, which revealed the unique physical and chemical properties of Hg(II). A characteristic Raman marker band at 1586 cm(-1) was observed and assigned to the C4=O4 stretching mode. We confirmed the assignment by the isotopic shift ((18)O-labeling at O4) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The unusually low wavenumber of the C4=O4 stretching suggested that the bond order of the C4=O4 bond reduced from its canonical value. This reduction of the bond order can be explained if the enolate-like structure (N3=C4-O4(-)) is involved as a resonance contributor in the thymine ring of the T-Hg(II)-T pair. This resonance includes the N-Hg(II)-bonded state (Hg(II)-N3-C4=O4) and the N-Hg(II)-dissociated state (Hg(II+) N3=C4-O4(-)), and the latter contributor reduced the bond order of N-Hg(II). Consequently, the Hg(II) nucleus in the T-Hg(II)-T pair exhibited a cationic character. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis supports the interpretations of the Raman experiments.

  2. Mask pattern recovery by level set method based inverse inspection technology (IIT) and its application on defect auto disposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Hyung; Chung, Paul D. H.; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Cho, Han Ku; Pang, Linyong; Peng, Danping; Tolani, Vikram; Cecil, Tom; Kim, David; Baik, KiHo

    2009-10-01

    At the most advanced technology nodes, such as 32nm and 22nm, aggressive OPC and Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) are required. However, their use results in significantly increased mask complexity, making mask defect disposition more challenging than ever. This paper describes how mask patterns can first be recovered from the inspection images by applying patented algorithms using Level Set Methods. The mask pattern recovery step is then followed by aerial/wafer image simulation, the results of which can be plugged into an automated mask defect disposition system based on aerial/wafer image. The disposition criteria are primarily based on wafer-plane CD variance. The system also connects to a post-OPC lithography verification tool that can provide gauges and CD specs, thereby enabling them to be used in mask defect disposition as well. Results on both programmed defects and production defects collected at Samsung mask shop are presented to show the accuracy and consistency of using the Level Set Methods and aerial/wafer image based automated mask disposition.

  3. Cell scientist to watch - Arun Shukla.

    PubMed

    2017-02-15

    Arun Shukla received his master's degree in Biotechnology from the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, and joined the lab of Nobel laureate Hartmut Michel at the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics in Frankfurt, Germany, for his PhD. He then moved to the United States for his postdoctoral work with Robert Lefkowitz at Duke University (Durham, NC) in a very close collaboration with Brian Kobilka (Stanford University, CA). Arun became an Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine at Duke University in 2011, before returning to India in April 2014 as an Assistant Professor at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Kanpur as a Wellcome Trust DBT India Alliance Intermediate Fellow. His research is centred on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and he applies molecular, cellular and structural biology methods to understand the signalling and activation pathways of GPCRs.

  4. Affirmative Action in Higher Education in India: Targeting, Catch Up, and Mismatch at IIT-Delhi. NBER Working Paper No. 17727

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisancho Robles, Veronica C.; Krishna, Kala

    2012-01-01

    Affirmative action policies in higher education are used in many countries to try to socially advance historically disadvantaged minorities. Although the underlying social objectives of these policies are rarely criticized, there is intense debate over the actual impact of such preferences in higher education on educational performance and labor…

  5. Error analysis of tomographic reconstructions in the absence of projection data.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Snehlata; Munshi, Prabhat

    2015-06-13

    Error estimates for tomographic reconstructions (using Fourier transform-based algorithm) are available for cases where projection data are available. These data are used for reconstructions with different filter functions and the reliability of these reconstructions can be checked as per guidelines of those error estimates. There are cases where projection data are large (in gigabytes or terabytes) so storage of these data becomes an issue. It leads to storing of only the reconstructed images. Error estimation in such cases is presented here. Second-level projection data are calculated from the given reconstructed images ('first-level' images). These 'second-level' data are now used to generate 'second-level' reconstructed images. Different filter functions are employed to check the fidelity of these 'second-level' images. This inference is extended to first-level images in view of the characteristics of the convolution operator. This approach is validated with experimental data obtained by the X-ray micro-CT scanner installed at IIT Kanpur. Five specimens (of same material) have been scanned. Data are available in this case thus we have performed a comparative error estimate analysis for the 'first-level' reconstructions (data obtained from CT machine) and second-level reconstructions (data generated from first-level reconstructions). We observe that both approaches show similar outcome. It indicates that error estimates can also be applied to images when data are not available.

  6. Annual trends in occurrence of submicron particles in ambient air and health risk posed by particle bound metals.

    PubMed

    Izhar, Saifi; Goel, Anubha; Chakraborty, Abhishek; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-03-01

    Risk analysis is highly important in toxicology and public health studies. Health risk related to exposure to toxic metals of PM1 was assessed. Concentrations of 13 heavy metals, adsorbed to submicron particulate matter PM1 were experimentally examined but only 12 metals were found at detectable levels inside IIT Kanpur campus in 2008-2009 for all months excluding June and October. A total of 90 samples collected for 8 h sampling time by a single stage round nozzle, grease impaction substrate based impactor type PM1 sampler were analysed by ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry). Results showed daily average PM1 concentration is 102.46 ± 35.9 μg/m(3) and metal concentration followed the trend: Ca > Fe > Mg > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Ni > Se > Cd > V > As. Contamination level assessment using geo-accumulation index showed Ca, Fe and Mg exhibited non contamination whereas metals like Cr, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ni and Cu exhibited ranges from moderate to extreme contamination. Ingestion is found to be the major exposure pathway for heavy metals. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment for Pb, Cd and Cr (HI > 1) signified strong chances of adverse impact on children whereas adults are well under safe limit. Cancer Risk for adults and children followed the same decreasing order, Cr(VI)>Cd > Ni > As > Pb. It was found to be higher than permissible limits (10(-6)) for adults and children both.

  7. Measurement of personal and integrated exposure to particulate matter and co-pollutant gases: a panel study.

    PubMed

    Devi, J Jai; Gupta, Tarun; Jat, Rajmal; Tripathi, S N

    2013-03-01

    Personal exposure measurement can serve as an effective tool to understand the effect of exposure to air pollutants. Alternatively, exposure assessment using pollutant concentrations in different microenvironments and accurate time-activity information for the subjects can provide good information regarding human integrated exposure. A panel of 18 healthy students of Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur in the age group of 18 to 30 years participated in the personal exposure measurements for particulate matter, CO, NO(2) and VOC during post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. Overall, 432 h person exposure data was collected in this study. The major sources of particulate and gaseous co-pollutants were identified. These directly obtained personal exposure values were then compared to the indirectly estimated integrated exposure values. Personal and integrated exposures gave statistically similar results. Through this study, we have shown that integrated exposure values could closely estimate the personal exposure values for particulate matter that can significantly reduce time and cost involved in personal exposure studies. The lung parameters for all the subjects measured during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons showed statistically significant reduction during pre-monsoon. This was attributed to the high levels of coarse particles during pre-monsoon.

  8. An Investigation on the Sensitivity of the Parameters of Urban Flood Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, A. B.; Lohani, B.; Jain, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global climatic change has triggered weather patterns which lead to heavy and sudden rainfall in different parts of world. The impact of heavy rainfall is severe especially on urban areas in the form of urban flooding. In order to understand the effect of heavy rainfall induced flooding, it is necessary to model the entire flooding scenario more accurately, which is now becoming possible with the availability of high resolution airborne LiDAR data and other real time observations. However, there is not much understanding on the optimal use of these data and on the effect of other parameters on the performance of the flood model. This study aims at developing understanding on these issues. In view of the above discussion, the aim of this study is to (i) understand that how the use of high resolution LiDAR data improves the performance of urban flood model, and (ii) understand the sensitivity of various hydrological parameters on urban flood modelling. In this study, modelling of flooding in urban areas due to heavy rainfall is carried out considering Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur, India as the study site. The existing model MIKE FLOOD, which is accepted by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is used along with the high resolution airborne LiDAR data. Once the model is setup it is made to run by changing the parameters such as resolution of Digital Surface Model (DSM), manning's roughness, initial losses, catchment description, concentration time, runoff reduction factor. In order to realize this, the results obtained from the model are compared with the field observations. The parametric study carried out in this work demonstrates that the selection of catchment description plays a very important role in urban flood modelling. Results also show the significant impact of resolution of DSM, initial losses and concentration time on urban flood model. This study will help in understanding the effect of various parameters that should be part of a

  9. Online Islamic Organizations and Measuring Web Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 55 BIBLIOGRAPHY Agarwal, Ritu, and Viswanath Venkatesh . “Assessing a firm’s...2002, Agarwal and Venkatesh 2002 and Kim et al 2003). While the traditional metrics can still be useful indicators of a websites’ general...business (Agarwal and Venkatesh 2002 and Palmer 2002). Usability centers on a customer’s online experience and satisfaction. Since the website is the

  10. Development of a Dynamic Downscaling strategy for Ganga Basin and Investigation of the Hydrological Pattern C. Chaudhuri, R Srivastava, and S N Tripathi Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, C.; Srivastava, R.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Climate and hydrological cycle of any region interact with each other in a highly complex and non-linear fashion. India has a unique weather distribution over her geography, generated due the interaction of the synoptic scale atmospheric flow, diversity of local topography, vegetation, climatic conditions, and high population density, etc. . In regional scale hydrological modeling, this interaction between the large scale climate and local scale hydrological cycle is considered as one of the major driving factors. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a numerical weather prediction and atmospheric simulation system designed to resolve this interaction at regional scale. We study the state of climatic condition as well hydrological cycle over the Ganga basin during long term simulation using WRF. A single domain with a resolution of 27 km was used to cover the whole of India and the region of interest and validation is the entire Ganga basin. Model is integrated for year 2010. We investigated the impact of different data sets of SST (Final Analysis FNL and Real-time Global RTG), input files prepared from FNL and Climate Forecast System reanalysis (CFSR), parameterizations (convective, microphysical, boundary layer, radiation and land surface), domain size, domain resolution and number of vertical levels on the simulation of near surface meteorological fields and identified the combination that "best" reproduces the observed characteristics of near surface atmospheric variables. The best configuration is used to time integrate 3 years (2008-2010) of which 2008 was weak drought, 2009 was a massive drought and 2010 was a normal monsoon year. We performed the downscaling for these years with three configurations: (1) one continuous time integration with single initialization, (2) single initialization but with 3-D nudging with relaxation of PBL, (3) same as 2 but with spectral nudging relaxation.The spatial patterns of rainfall are compared with TRMM 3B42v7 daily data. Error analysis of precipitation, surface temperature, humidity, surface pressure and the regional wind patterns indicates reasonably well simulation quality. This study reveals the power of WRF in resolving the climatic and hydrological interactions which is one of the backbone of accurate forecasting ability of WRF. The rainfall distributions at the middle Indo-Gangetic plane, along the foothills of Himalaya, and over some portion of Tibetian Plateau show significant correlation when compared with the TRMM. Seasonal pattern hydrological variables like rainfall, surface runoff and soil moisture is stronger over the Indo-Gangetic plain when compared with the distributions at the foothills of Himalaya. The model generates expected regional variations and seasonal patterns in all hydrological fields like surface runoff, baseflow, soil moisture distribution and soil temperature. The dynamical downscaling relaxed with spectral nudging outperforms the interpolation of climatic variables over space and time. This fact in turn indicates the suitability of WRF in the study of hydrological cycle over a data sparse region and which may include the effect of potential climate change on it.

  11. Differences in Investigator-Initiated Trials between Japan and Other Countries: Analyses of Clinical Trials Sponsored by Academia and Government in the ClinicalTrials.gov Registry and in the Three Japanese Registries

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the amendment of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan in 2003 researchers were permitted to begin investigator-initiated trials (IITs). In subsequent years, however, the number of IITs remained low. In other countries in Asia as well as in Europe, North America, and South Africa, the number of IITs has increased over the past decade. The differences in the characteristics of IITs between Japan and other countries are unknown. Some studies have analyzed the characteristics of all clinical trials according to registry databases, but there has been less research focusing on IITs. Aims The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of IITs in the ClinicalTrials.gov registry and in the three Japanese registries, to identify differences in IITs between Japan and other countries. Methods Using Thomson Reuters Pharma™, trials sponsored by academia and government as IITs in 2010 and registered in ClinicalTrials.gov were identified. IITs from 2004 to 2012 in Japan were identified in the three Japanese registries: the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry, the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center Clinical Trials Information, and the Japan Medical Association Center for Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Registry. Characterization was made of the trial purposes, phases, participants, masking, arms, design, controls, and other data. Results New and revised IITs registered in ClinicalTrials.gov during 2010 averaged about 40% of all sponsor-identified trials. IITs were nearly all early-phase studies with small numbers of participants. A total of 56 Japanese IITs were found over a period of 8 years, and these were also almost nearly all early-phase studies with small numbers of participants. Conclusion There appear to be no great differences between Japan and other countries in terms of characteristics of IITs. These results should prompt a new review of the IIT environment in Japan. PMID:26848574

  12. New Theories for Erosion-Corrosion: ASSERT Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    regressions; b) identification of the portion of the spectrum that is consistent with the Kramers- Kronig relations following the method presented by...Agarwal et al.;^A c) Regression of the measurement model to the part of the spectrum found to be consistent with the Kramers- Kronig relations. The...structure was identified following the method presented by Agarwal et al.2 2. The portion of the spectrum that is consistent with the Kramers- Kronig

  13. Construction of 3-D Terrain Models from BIG Data Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-14

    support for dynamically updating the model using the submitted corrections, and using periodic re- computations though an automated system for managing the...NUMBER Pankaj Agarwal Pankaj K. Agarwal, Thomas Moelhave 665502 c. THIS PAGE The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated...needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection

  14. Modeling and Analyzing Terrain Data Acquired by Modern Mapping Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-22

    Edelsbrunner, J. Harer, and Y. Wang, Extreme elevation on a 2-manifold, Discrete Comput. Geom., 36 (2006), 553–572. [4] P. K. Agarwal, R . Klein, C...A Review,” in Surveys on Computational Geometry: Twenty Years Later (J. Goodman, J. Pach, and R . Pollack, eds.), American Mathematical Society...by point sets in space,” Discrete Appl. Math., 156 (2008), 42–54. [14] P. K. Agarwal, R . Klein, C. Knauer, S. Langerman, P. Morin, M. Sharir, and M

  15. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This Part

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Technology/Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation/Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 12. Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, Washington 13. IIT Research Institute,...

  16. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This Part

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Technology/Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation/Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 12. Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, Washington 13. IIT Research Institute,...

  17. A Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Functional Measurement Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Theuns, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information Integration Theory (IIT) is concerned with how people combine information into an overall judgment. A method is hereby presented to perform Functional Measurement (FM) experiments, the methodological counterpart of IIT, on the Web. In a comparison of Web-based FM experiments, face-to-face experiments, and computer-based experiments in…

  18. Design and Development of an Institutional Repository at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutradhar, B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe how an institutional repository (IR) was set up, using open source software, at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Kharagpur. Members of the IIT can publish their research documents in the IR for online access as well as digital preservation. Material in this IR includes instructional materials, records, data sets,…

  19. Peers, Regulators, and Professions: The Influence of Organizations in Intensive Insulin Therapy Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Thomas R.; Gadd, Cynthia S.

    2011-01-01

    Following the landmark Leuven study in 2001, health care organizations implemented intensive insulin therapy (IIT) as the standard of care for critically ill patients. However, a recent meta-analysis showed no mortality benefit and an increased safety risk for patients treated with IIT. IIT affects labor and capital decisions related to nurses, physicians, pharmacists, managers, laboratory personnel, and informatics staff. The expenditure of labor and capital to provide IIT without corresponding outcome improvements suggests the adoption of IIT produces inefficiency in hospitals. In sociology and organizational studies, the tendency for organizations to become more similar without necessarily becoming more efficient is called institutional isomorphism. Institutional isomorphism examines the pressure organizations encounter from peers, regulators, and professions through mimetic, coercive, and normative mechanisms, respectively. To enhance their prospects of survival, organizations establish and maintain legitimacy by adopting socially acceptable approaches to work endorsed by successful peer organizations, regulatory agencies, and professional societies. In this paper, the authors describe how organizational influence—through the Leuven study, the Joint Commission, and professional organizations—played a role in the widespread adoption of IIT. Divergence from institutionalized forms may explain variation in IIT studies following Leuven. Healthcare researchers, practitioners, and managers should consider organizational influence when implementing large scale clinical activities. PMID:19369854

  20. Immunoregulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    provided by Dr. R. G. Webster, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN. The polymers L-Glutamic acid6O:L-Alanine 3O:L-TyrosinelO (GAT) and (L...I-\\-- / Ipfll< - ((/t fi’, i III Ii//I! ll I/it lPKI Ii//t heI (Rc b/Ccli// i /I/it i- intrzIc i n iIc ito 0 p fIN - 1I!IiI e n ’c m it d \\m t\\ u

  1. Computer Search Center Statistics on Users and Data Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schipma, Peter B.

    1974-01-01

    Statistics gathered over five years of operation by the IIT Research Institute's Computer Search Center are summarized for profile terms and lists, use of truncation modes, use of logic operators, some characteristics of CA Condensates, etc. (Author/JB)

  2. Illinois Institute of Technology Report: IITB52 Antifoamer for Alternative Salt Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.

    2001-06-27

    The attached report is a summary of the work performed by Dr. Darsh Wasan, Dr. Alex Nikolov, and their researchers at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) during FY01. IIT developed the IITB52 antifoam for SRTC in FY00 to minimize the foam produced during precipitation, washing and concentration of cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate precipitate. The IITB52 antifoam has been very successful during continuous processing (prototypical of plant operation). However, there were several key issues where SRTC needed the experience and knowledge of IIT to resolve. As a result a subcontract was set up with Dr. Wasan and Dr. Alex Nikolov during FY01. This subcontract requested IIT to perform the basic research necessary to understand the foaming mechanism and explain the effectiveness of the IITB52 antifoam agent in the Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP).

  3. 24 CFR 3280.207 - Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Technology Research Institute (IIT) Report, “Development of Mobile Home Fire Test Methods to Judge the Fire-Safe Performance of Foam Plastic Sheathing and Cavity Insulation, IITRI Fire and Safety...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.207 - Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Technology Research Institute (IIT) Report, “Development of Mobile Home Fire Test Methods to Judge the Fire-Safe Performance of Foam Plastic Sheathing and Cavity Insulation, IITRI Fire and Safety...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.207 - Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Technology Research Institute (IIT) Report, “Development of Mobile Home Fire Test Methods to Judge the Fire-Safe Performance of Foam Plastic Sheathing and Cavity Insulation, IITRI Fire and Safety...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.207 - Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Technology Research Institute (IIT) Report, “Development of Mobile Home Fire Test Methods to Judge the Fire-Safe Performance of Foam Plastic Sheathing and Cavity Insulation, IITRI Fire and Safety...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.207 - Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Technology Research Institute (IIT) Report, “Development of Mobile Home Fire Test Methods to Judge the Fire-Safe Performance of Foam Plastic Sheathing and Cavity Insulation, IITRI Fire and Safety...

  8. Changing Patterns in Illinois' School Tort Immunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Shelley B.

    1979-01-01

    It appears that Illinois law no longer grants full parental immunity to school districts and their employees. Available from IIT/Chicago-Kent College of Law, 77 South Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606; single copies $5.00. (Author)

  9. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  10. PARTICIPATION IN HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    White, Christopher

    2012-12-20

    This grant funded experimental and theoretical activities in elementary particles physics at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The experiments in which IIT faculty collaborated included the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, the MINOS experiment, the Double Chooz experiment, and FNAL E871 - HyperCP experiment. Funds were used to support summer salary for faculty, salary for postdocs, and general support for graduate and undergraduate students. Funds were also used for travel expenses related to these projects and general supplies.

  11. A Mesoscale Analysis of Column-Integrated Aerosol Properties in Northern India During the TIGERZ 2008 Pre-Monsoon Period and a Comparison to MODIS Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Tripathi, S. N.; Eck, T. F.; Newcomb, W. W.; Slutsker, I.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Wang, S.-H.; Singh, R. P.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of the northern Indian subcontinent produces anthropogenic pollution from urban, industrial and rural combustion sources nearly continuously and is affected by convection-induced winds driving desert and alluvial dust into the atmosphere during the premonsoon period. Within the IGP, the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) project initiated the TIGERZ measurement campaign in May 2008 with an intensive operational period from May 1 to June 23, 2008. Mesoscale spatial variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD, tau) measurements at 500mn was assessed at sites around Kanpur, India, with averages ranging from 0.31 to 0.89 for spatial variability study (SVS) deployments. Sites located downwind from the city of Kanpur indicated slightly higher average aerosol optical depth (delta Tau(sub 500)=0.03-0.09). In addition, SVS AOD area-averages were compared to the long-tenn Kanpur AERONET site data: Four SVS area-averages were within +/- 1 cr of the climatological mean of the Kanpur site, while one SVS was within 2sigma below climatology. For a SVS case using AERONET inversions, the 440-870mn Angstrom exponent of approximately 0.38, the 440-870mn absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) of 1.15-1.53, and the sphericity parameter near zero suggested the occurrence of large, strongly absorbing, non-spherical aerosols over Kanpur (e.g., mixed black carbon and dust) as well as stronger absorption downwind of Kanpur. Furthermore, the 3km and lOkm Terra and Aqua MODIS C005 aerosol retrieval algorithms at tau(sub 550) were compared to the TIGERZ data set. Although MODIS retrievals at higher quality levels were comparable to the MODIS retrieval uncertainty, the total number of MODIS matchups (N) were reduced with subsequent quality levels (N=25, QA>=0; N=9,QA>=l; N=6, QA>=2; N=1, QA=3) over Kanpur during the premonsoon primarily due to the semi-bright surface, complex aerosol mixture and cloud-contaminated pixels. The TIGERZ 2008 data set provided a unique

  12. Intensive insulin therapy for preventing postoperative infection in patients with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jin-ping; Song, Ying-lun; Zhao, Qi-huang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the effect of intensive insulin therapy (IIT) for preventing postoperative infection in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: In total, 88 patients with TBI were randomly divided into 2 groups, 44 in each group. One group (group ITT) received IIT and the other group (group CIT) received conventional insulin therapy (CIT). This study was conducted between February 2013 and January 2016. Outcomes included infection rate, mortality, and neurological outcome (measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS]). Results: A total of 81 patients completed the study. IIT showed greater efficacy than CIT, with a decreased infection rate in the IIT group compared to the CIT group (31.9% vs 52.3%, P = 0.03), and also a reduced duration of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) (IIT group, 4.5 ± 2.1 days vs CIT group, 5.7 ± 2.8 days, P = 0.02). In addition, a significant difference in scores on the GOS scale was observed between the 2 groups (P = 0.04). The mortality rates in hospital and at the 26-week follow-up were similar between the 2 groups. Conclusion: IIT leads to a reduced infection rate, shorter stays in ICU, and improved neurological outcome. PMID:28353579

  13. Use Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Technology acceptance is posited to be influenced by a variety of factors, including individual differences, social influences, beliefs, attitudes and situational influences (Agarwal, 2000; Teo, 2009a). A majority of the conceptualisations of technology acceptance have drawn on theories and models from social psychology, notably the theory of…

  14. Institute for Brain and Neural Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-06

    data. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN), pages 308–313. Agarwal, S., Awan, A., and Roth , D. (2004...University of Edinburgh, Scotland . Guyon, I., Weston, J., Barnhill, S., and Vapnik, V. (2002). Gene selection for cancer classification using support

  15. An Analysis of Dyadic Relationships between Administrators and Employees Working Virtually in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of virtual teams has become a common practice for organizations across all industries nationally and internationally (Carmel & Agarwal, 2001; Hertel, Geister, & Konradt, 2005; Martins, Gilson, & Maynard, 2004; McDonough, Kahn, & Barczak, 2001). Institutions of higher education are also embracing the use of virtual teams…

  16. The Value of Applied Research: Retrieval Practice Improves Classroom Learning and Recommendations from a Teacher, a Principal, and a Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Pooja K.; Bain, Patrice M.; Chamberlain, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the course of a 5-year applied research project with more than 1,400 middle school students, evidence from a number of studies revealed that retrieval practice in authentic classroom settings improves long-term learning (Agarwal et al. 2009; McDaniel et al., "Journal of Educational Psychology" 103:399-414, 2011; McDaniel et al.…

  17. Larval development of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) an endoparasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The encyrtid koinobiont endoparasitoid Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal) is an imported biological control agent being released in Florida against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. The eggs and early larvae were found free-floating within the hemocoel. Larvae...

  18. In Rural India, an Ambitious Academic Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    A few miles outside the town of Puri, in the eastern Indian state of Orissa, lies Beladala, a farming village of thatch-roofed homes. Beladala and 17 other villages, comprising farms, homesteads, and pastures, are slated to be acquired by Anil Agarwal, a metals-and-mining mogul whose company, Vedanta Resources, has made the 53-year-old…

  19. Influence of Parental Encouragement towards Health Care of Their Wards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sophia, R. Grace; Veliappan, A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore how parents are encouraging towards health care of their wards. A "Survey Method" was used in the present study. A standardized "Agarwal Parental Encouragement Scale (APES)" was used to collect information from the students. The sample consists of thousand and ninety five higher…

  20. Compressive Oversampling for Robust Data Transmission in Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Systems, 2006. [17] K. Srinivasan, M. Kazandjieva, S. Agarwal, and P. Levis , “The -factor: measuring wireless link burstiness,” in ACM Conference on...Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks (WWSN), 2007. [20] D. Schmidt, M. Berning , and N. Wehn, “Error Correction in Single-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks-A

  1. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    inizde w rates of typhoid fever several fold highier than Alexandria, BDypt? 4. ) Wat is the off icay of the formulation consistinig of gelatinwle...and D.A. Agarwal. 1972. Controlled field trials of oral killed typid vacci•es to India . It J Epi.,miol 1:39-43. 3. Cvjetanovic, B., and K. Usawa

  2. High Temperature Silicides and Refractory Alloys Symposium Held in Boston, Massachusetts on November 29 -December 2, 1993. Volume 322

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-02

    297 Gaurav Agarwal, Wen-yi Lin, and Robert F. Speyer PART V: RECENT ADVANCES IN REFRACTORY ALLOYS AND PROCESSING THE PROPERTIES AND...Jackson PART VIII: APPLICATIONS OF REFRACTORY ALLOYS *PROCESSING, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGH- TEMPERATURE NIOBIUM ALLOYS ...Potential higher fracture toughness at operating temperatures o Alloying may be extensively employed to improve mechanical properties "o Thcinnodrnas•kally

  3. Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults. Roberta R Holt1, Karan Agarwal1, Xuequi Li2, Eleni Melliou3, Theresa Pedersen1, Selina Wang2, Dan Flynn2, Prokopios Magiatis3, John W Newman1,4 1Department of Nutrition, and 2UC Davis ...

  4. Environmental triggers of thyroiditis: hepatitis C and interferon-α.

    PubMed

    Menconi, F; Hasham, A; Tomer, Y

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are postulated to develop as a result of a complex interplay between several genetic and environmental influences. The pathogenesis of AITD is still not clearly defined. However, among the implicated triggers (e.g. iodine, infections, medications), more recent data confirmed strong associations of AITD with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and interferon-α (IFNα) therapy. Moreover, it is likely that HCV and IFN act in synergism to trigger AITD in patients. Indeed, approximately 40% of HCV patients develop either clinical or subclinical disease while receiving IFNα. Interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) can manifest as non-autoimmune thyroiditis (presenting as destructive thyroiditis, or non-autoimmune hypothyroidism), or autoimmune thyroiditis [presenting with clinical features of Graves' disease (GD) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)]. Although not yet clearly understood, it is thought that IFNα can induce thyroiditis via both immune stimulatory and direct toxic effects on the thyroid. In view of the high frequency of IIT, routine screening and surveillance of HCV patients receiving IFNα is recommended to avoid the complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias, associated with thyrotoxicosis. In summary, IIT is a common clinical problem that can be readily diagnosed with routine thyroid function screening of HCV patients receiving IFN. The treatment of IIT consists of the standard therapy for differing clinical manifestations of IIT such as GD, HT, or destructive thyroiditis. However, anti-thyroid medications are not recommended in this setting since they can potentially be hepatotoxic.

  5. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 2, Task 3, Testing of process improvement concepts: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This final report, Volume 2, on ``Process Improvement Concepts`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). Results of work on electroseparation of shale oil and fines conducted by IIT is included in this report, as well as work conducted by IGT to evaluate the restricted pipe discharge system. The work was conducted as part of the overall program on ``Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales.``

  6. The interactive image tool: adding structure to images.

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, P.; Mather, R.; Dev, P.

    1995-01-01

    The interactive image format and tool were developed by the Stanford University Medical Media and Information Technologies (SUMMIT) group to allow medical educators to add interactive annotations and outlines to medical cross-sections, gross dissections, and clinical images. The interactive image tool (IIT) format offers a general specification for adding structural information to images. The IIT format has been used to create rich databases of image/structure information which are employed in educational software created at SUMMIT. These databases consist of information which is re-usable in other applications as well as a standalone image database. Future extensions to the IIT format will provide a means to organize information based on the structure of that information rather than on the arbitrary or haphazard links of current hypertext and hypermedia information networks. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8563335

  7. Thyroid iodine content measured by x-ray fluorescence in amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Leger, A.F.; Fragu, P.; Rougier, P.; Laurent, M.F.; Tubiana, M.; Savole, J.C.

    1983-07-01

    Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis (IiT) is characterized by (a) a low radioiodine uptake, increased by exogenous TSH, and (b) a spontaneous evolution towards cure within a few months. An hypothetical pathogenesis of IiT is an initial inflation in the stores of thyroid hormones during iodine excess, followed by their sudden discharge into the circulation. Thyroid iodine content was measured by fluorescent scanning in 10 patients with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis and in various control groups. Results were found to be high at the onset of the disease and to decrease during its course. The data agree with the hypothetical pathogenesis. Furthermore they may permit exclusion of a painless subacute thyroiditis, which is the main differential diagnosis of IiT.

  8. Glycemic Control in the Burn Intensive Care Unit: Focus on the Role of Anemia in Glucose Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Elizabeth A.; Mora, Alejandra G.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Wolf, Steven E.; Wade, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Glycemic control with intensive insulin therapy (IIT) has received widespread adoption secondary to findings of improved clinical outcomes and survival in the burn population. Severe burn as a model for trauma is characterized by a hypermetabolic state, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. In this article, we review the findings of a burn center research facility in terms of understanding glucose management. The conferred benefits from IIT, our findings of poor outcomes associated with glycemic variability, advantages from preserved diurnal variation of glucose and insulin, and impacts of glucometer error and hematocrit correction factor are discussed. We conclude with direction for further study and the need for a reliable continuous glucose monitoring system. Such efforts will further the endeavor for achieving adequate glycemic control in order to assess the efficacy of target ranges and use of IIT. PMID:20144386

  9. Three-pathway electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled-cavity optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fu-Chuan; Gao, Ming; Du, Chunguang; Jing, Qing-Li; Long, Gui-Lu

    2015-05-04

    Recently Qu and Agarwal [Phys. Rev. A 22, 031802 (2013)] found a three-pathway electromagnetically induced absorption (TEIA) phenomenon within a mechanically coupled two-cavity system, where there exist a sharp EIA dip in the broad electromagnetically induced transparency peak in the transmission spectrum. In this work, we study the response of a probe light in a pair of directly coupled microcavities with one mechanical mode. We find that in addition to the sharp TEIA dip within a broad EIT window as found by Qu and Agarwal, three-pathway electromagnetically induced transparency (TEIT) within the broad EIT window could also exist under certain conditions. We give explicit physical explanations and detailed calculations. Our results provide a method for controlling transition between TEIA and TEIT in coupled optomechanical systems, and reveal the multiple pathways interference is versatile for controlling light.

  10. Network algorithmics and the emergence of information integration in cortical models.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Andre; Barbosa, Valmir C

    2011-07-01

    An information-theoretic framework known as integrated information theory (IIT) has been introduced recently for the study of the emergence of consciousness in the brain [D. Balduzzi and G. Tononi, PLoS Comput. Biol. 4, e1000091 (2008)]. IIT purports that this phenomenon is to be equated with the generation of information by the brain surpassing the information that the brain's constituents already generate independently of one another. IIT is not fully plausible in its modeling assumptions nor is it testable due to severe combinatorial growth embedded in its key definitions. Here we introduce an alternative to IIT which, while inspired in similar information-theoretic principles, seeks to address some of IIT's shortcomings to some extent. Our alternative framework uses the same network-algorithmic cortical model we introduced earlier [A. Nathan and V. C. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. E 81, 021916 (2010)] and, to allow for somewhat improved testability relative to IIT, adopts the well-known notions of information gain and total correlation applied to a set of variables representing the reachability of neurons by messages in the model's dynamics. We argue that these two quantities relate to each other in such a way that can be used to quantify the system's efficiency in generating information beyond that which does not depend on integration. We give computational results on our cortical model and on variants thereof that are either structurally random in the sense of an Erdős-Rényi random directed graph or structurally deterministic. We have found that our cortical model stands out with respect to the others in the sense that many of its instances are capable of integrating information more efficiently than most of those others' instances.

  11. Streak Camera Performance with Large-Format CCD Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R A; Andrews, D S; Bell, P M; Griffith, R L; McDonald, J W; Torres, P III; Vergel de Dios, G

    2003-07-08

    The ICF program at Livermore has a large inventory of optical streak cameras that were built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras include micro-channel plate image-intensifier tubes (IIT) that provide signal amplification and early lens-coupled CCD readouts. Today, these cameras are still very functional, but some replacement parts such as the original streak tube, CCD, and IIT are scarce and obsolete. This article describes recent efforts to improve the performance of these cameras using today's advanced CCD readout technologies. Very sensitive, large-format CCD arrays with efficient fiber-optic input faceplates are now available for direct coupling with the streak tube. Measurements of camera performance characteristics including linearity, spatial and temporal resolution, line-spread function, contrast transfer ratio (CTR), and dynamic range have been made for several different camera configurations: CCD coupled directly to the streak tube, CCD directly coupled to the IIT, and the original configuration with a smaller CCD lens coupled to the IIT output. Spatial resolution (limiting visual) with and without the IIT is 8 and 20 lp/mm, respectively, for photocathode current density up to 25% of the Child-Langmuir (C-L) space-charge limit. Temporal resolution (fwhm) deteriorates by about 20% when the cathode current density reaches 10% of the C-L space charge limit. Streak tube operation with large average tube current was observed by illuminating the entire slit region through a Ronchi ruling and measuring the CTR. Sensitivity (CCD electrons per streak tube photoelectron) for the various configurations ranged from 7.5 to 2,700 with read noise of 7.5 to 10.5 electrons. Optimum spatial resolution is achieved when the IIT is removed. Maximum dynamic range requires a configuration where a single photoelectron from the photocathode produces a signal that is 3 to 5 times the read noise.

  12. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran’s Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran’s intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. Methods: This study assessed the factors associated with Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001–2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals. Results: The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn’t have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. Conclusions: In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26156931

  13. Effects of intensive insulin therapy combined with low molecular weight heparin anticoagulant therapy on severe pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    DU, JUN-DONG; ZHENG, XI; HUANG, ZHI-QIANG; CAI, SHOU-WANG; TAN, JING-WANG; LI, ZHAN-LIANG; YAO, YONG-MING; JIAO, HUA-BO; YIN, HUI-NAN; ZHU, ZI-MAN

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the effects of intensive insulin therapy (IIT) combined with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) anticoagulant therapy on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 134 patients with SAP that received treatment between June 2008 and June 2012 were divided randomly into groups A (control; n=33), B (IIT; n=33), C (LMWH; n=34) and D (IIT + LMWH; n=34). Group A were treated routinely. Group B received continuous pumped insulin, as well as the routine treatment, to maintain the blood sugar level between 4.4 and 6.1 mmol/l. Group C received a subcutaneous injection of LMWH every 12 h in addition to the routine treatment. Group D received IIT + LMWH and the routine treatment. The white blood cell count, hemodiastase, serum albumin, arterial partial pressure of oxygen and prothrombin time were recorded prior to treatment and 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after the initiation of treatment. The intestinal function recovery time, incidence rate of multiple organ failure (MOF), length of hospitalization and fatality rates were observed. IIT + LMWH noticeably increased the white blood cell count, hemodiastase level, serum albumin level and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen in the patients with SAP (P<0.05). It markedly shortened the intestinal recovery time and the length of stay and reduced the incidence rate of MOF, the surgery rate and the fatality rate (P<0.05). It did not aggravate the hemorrhagic tendency of SAP (P>0.05). IIT + LMWH had a noticeably improved clinical curative effect on SAP compared with that of the other treatments. PMID:24944612

  14. Trial, Adoption, Usage and Diffusion of Social Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    respondents: a) mavenism, b) susceptibility to interpersonal influence, c) social desirability bias, and five factors of the Neuroticism Extroversion...88ABW-2012-1754 5.0 REFERENCES Agarwal, R. and Prasad, J., 1998, ―A Conceptual and Operational Definition of Personal Innovativeness in the Domain...Baseball CNN Cable News Network NPR National Public Radio NGB National Guard Bureau NEO-PPI Neuroticism Extroversion Openness-Psychological Personality Inventory

  15. Laser Hazards Bibliography - November 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    W., and Schmidt, I., Protection against photic damage in retinitis pigmentosa , Adv Exp Med Biol, 77: 233-247 (1977). 2. Agarwal, L. P., and Malik, S...Laser Exposure imits ...................... 180 C. Optical Radiation Hazards - General Reviews...... 181 D. Retinal Burns from Lasers...radiation, Soy J Quantum Electron, 8: 552 (1978). 3. Anonymous, Use of various types of quantium generators in retinal diseases, Oftalmol Zh, 33(5): 323-324

  16. Autonomic Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    L. L.; Goldszmidt, G. S .; Harper, R. E.; Krishnakumar, S . M.; Pruett, G.; &Yassur, B.A. “Management of Application Complexes in Multitier...03] Agarwal, M.; Bhat, V.; Liu, H.; Matossian, V.; Putty, V.; Schmidt, C.; Zhang, G.; Zhen, L.; Parashar, M.; Rutgers, Khargharia, B.; & Hariri, S ...New York, NY: ACM Press, 2005. [Bantz 03] Bantz, D. F.; Bisdikian, C.; Challener, D.; Karidis, J. P.; Mastrianni, S .; Mohindra, A.; Shea, D. G

  17. Wigner function and Schroedinger equation in phase-space representation

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Mlodawski, Krzysztof

    2005-05-15

    We discuss a family of quasidistributions (s-ordered Wigner functions of Agarwal and Wolf [Phys. Rev. D 2, 2161 (1970); Phys. Rev. D 2, 2187 (1970); Phys. Rev. D 2, 2206 (1970)]) and its connection to the so-called phase space representation of the Schroedinger equation. It turns out that although Wigner functions satisfy the Schroedinger equation in phase space, they have a completely different interpretation.

  18. Influence of Partial Coherence on Light Transmission and on Image Formation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    characterization of light beams generated by Schell - model sources whose intensity distribution and degree of coherence are both Gaussian was found; it bears a...E. WOLF: "Radiation from Anisotropic Gaussian Schell - Model Sources" [Opt. Lett., 7, 256-258 (1982)]. 15. A. STARIKOV and E. WOLF: "Coherent-Miode...Representation of Gaussian Schell - Model Sources and of Their Radiation Fields" [J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 72, 923-928 (1982)]. 16. G.S. AGARWAL, A.T. FRIBERG

  19. Scintillating Track Image Camera-SCITIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Akira; Asai, Jyunkichi; Ieiri, Masaharu; Iwata, Soma; Kadowaki, Tetsuhito; Kurosawa, Maki; Nagae, Tomohumi; Nakai, Kozi

    2004-04-01

    A new type of track detector, scintillating track image camera (SCITIC) has been developed. Scintillating track images of particles in a scintillator are focused by an optical lens system on a photocathode on image intesifier tube (IIT). The image signals are amplified by an IIT-cascade and stored by a CCD camera. The performance of the detector has been tested with cosmic-ray muons and with pion- and proton-beams from the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron. Data of the test experiments have shown promising features of SCITIC as a triggerable track detector with a variety of possibilities.

  20. Two theories of consciousness: Semantic pointer competition vs. information integration.

    PubMed

    Thagard, Paul; Stewart, Terrence C

    2014-11-01

    Consciousness results from three mechanisms: representation by firing patterns in neural populations, binding of representations into more complex representations called semantic pointers, and competition among semantic pointers to capture the most important aspects of an organism's current state. We contrast the semantic pointer competition (SPC) theory of consciousness with the hypothesis that consciousness is the capacity of a system to integrate information (IIT). We describe computer simulations to show that SPC surpasses IIT in providing better explanations of key aspects of consciousness: qualitative features, onset and cessation, shifts in experiences, differences in kinds across different organisms, unity and diversity, and storage and retrieval.

  1. Surface Physics and Chemistry of Electrical Contact Phenomena.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    multiprogrammer. Typical \\ Auger traces covering a 50-1300- eV range were directly digi- tized with an energy increment of 0.65 eV . Computerized VL, -vL- 2...covering a 50 to 1300 eV range were directly digitized. Computerized values of peak to peak heights and concentrations of the various elements were... Rabinowicz and P. Chan, Electrical Contacts 1979 (I.I.T. Chicago), 123 (1979). 11. J.L. Johnson and O.S. Taylor, Electrical Contacts 1979 (I.I.T. Chicago

  2. Molecular Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance: Founder Mutation in a Community from India.

    PubMed

    Bijarnia-Mahay, Sunita; Movva, Sireesha; Gupta, Neerja; Sharma, Deepak; Puri, Ratna D; Kotecha, Udhaya; Saxena, Renu; Kabra, Madhulika; Mohan, Neelam; Verma, Ishwar C

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a difficult-to-confirm diagnosis, requiring either invasive liver biopsy-enzyme assay or potentially hazardous fructose challenge test or expensive molecular genetic analysis. Therefore, worldwide there has been a trend towards finding "common mutations" in distinct ethnic groups to simplify the process of diagnosis. The nonspecific presentation of the disease often leads to diagnostic confusion with other metabolic liver disorders such as glycogenoses, galactosemia, and tyrosinemia. This leads to much delay in diagnosis with consequent harm to the patient.We report mutations in the ALDOB gene, from eleven Indian patients, seven of whom belong to the Agarwal community. Six patients from the Agarwal community and two non-Agarwal patients harbored one novel mutation, c.324+1G>A (five homozygous and one heterozygous), in the ALDOB gene. Haplotyping performed in families confirmed a founder effect. The community has been known to harbor founder mutations in other genes such as the MLC1, PANK2, and CAPN3 genes, thus providing another evidence for a founder effect in the community in case of HFI. This may pave the path for a simpler and quicker test at least for this community in India. In addition to the founder mutation, we report four other novel mutations, c.112+1delG, c.380-1G>A, c.677G>A, and c.689delA, and a previously reported mutation, c.1013C>T, in the cohort from India.

  3. Global Emerging Sciences and Technology Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    University of New South Wales (68), City University of Hong Kong (80), Hong Kong Polytechnic (89), and University of South Australia (99). The biggest...Univ., Nanyang Tech. Univ., City Univ. of Hong Kong, Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tsinghua Univ., Osaka Univ., Yonsei Univ. (Korea), Tohoku Univ., Nagoya...in a broad 51-100 range: City Univ. of Hong Kong, Indian Inst. of Tech. Bombay, Indian Inst. of Tech. Delhi, Indian Inst. of Tech. Kanpur, Kyoto

  4. Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosol over Indo-Gangetic Basin during 2005-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) is one of the largest river basin in the world, it extends 2000 km in length along NW - SE and has 400 km width, in north the basin is bounded by towering Himalaya. High Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is observed over the IGB throughout the year. The Himalaya restricts the transport of aerosols across Tibet and China. The aerosol loading in IGB gets enhanced during pre-monsoon season (April-June) every year due to major dust storms, originated from western arid and Desert regions. To study the variability of aerosol over the IGB we have used ground based Kanpur and Gandhi college Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra level-3 AOD products for the years 2005-2009. An increase in both satellite-derived as well as ground observed aerosol loading during 2005-2009 has been found over major cities located in the IGB. The correlation coefficients between Kanpur AERONET and MISR data are found to be 0.70, 0.36 0.82, in contrast the correlation coefficients between Kanpur AERONET and MODIS 0.49, 0.68, and 0.43, respectively during summer, winter and monsoon seasons. The AOD estimation using MISR is found to be close to AERONET data during summer and monsoon seasons, in contrast MODIS estimation is better during winter season. Keywords: Aerosols, AERONET, MISR, MODIS, Indo-Gangetic Basin. Validation of level 3 MISR and MODIS AOD over Kanpur using quality assured level 2 AERONET AOD, at 550 nm, during the summer (April-June, 2005-2009) winter (Nov.-Feb., 2005-2009) and monsoon season (July-October, 2005-2009).

  5. Lead isotopic fingerprinting of aerosols to characterize the sources of atmospheric lead in an industrial city of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Indra S.; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Paul, Debajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic Pb in the environment is primarily sourced from combustion of fossil fuel and high-temperature industries such as smelters. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in the environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb-isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, a large city in northern part of India. The study shows that the PM10 aerosols had elevated concentration of Cd, Pb, Zn, As, and Cu in the Kanpur area, however their concentrations are well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit. Lead isotopic and trace metal data reveal industrial emission as the plausible source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere in Kanpur. However, Pb isotopic compositions of potential source end-members are required to fully evaluate Pb contamination in India over time. This is the first study that characterizes the isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb in an Indian city after leaded gasoline was phased out by 2000.

  6. Characterization and Low-Dimensional Modeling of Urban Fluid Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-06

    Institute of Technology 3300 South Federal Street Chicago , IL 60616 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...layers in the IIT environmental wind tunnel. Master’s thesis, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago , IL, 1974. A. Hagishima, J. Tanimoto, and K

  7. Perfect Power Prototype for Illinois Institute of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2014-09-30

    Starting in October 2008, Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), in collaboration with over 20 participating members, led an extensive effort to develop, demonstrate, promote, and commercialize a microgrid system and offer supporting technologies that will achieve Perfect Power at the main campus of IIT. A Perfect Power system, as defined by the Galvin Electricity Initiative (GEI), is a system that cannot fail to meet the electric needs of the individual end-user. The Principle Investigator of this Perfect Power project was Dr. Mohammad Shahidehpour, Director of the Robert W. Galvin Center for Electricity Innovation at IIT. There were six overall objectives of the Perfect Power project: (1) Demonstrate the higher reliability introduced by the microgrid system at IIT; (2) Demonstrate the economics of microgrid operations; (3) Allow for a decrease of fifty percent (50%) of grid electricity load; (4) Create a permanent twenty percent (20%) decrease in peak load from 2007 level; (5) Defer planned substation through load reduction; (6) Offer a distribution system design that can be replicated in urban communities.

  8. Capturing, Codifying and Scoring Complex Data for Innovative, Computer-Based Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecht, Richard M.

    The Microsoft Certification Program (MCP) includes many new computer-based item types, based on complex cases involving the Windows 2000 (registered) operating system. This Innovative Item Technology (IIT) has presented challenges beyond traditional psychometric considerations such as capturing and storing the relevant response data from…

  9. Toward an Information and Instructional Technology Research Framework for Learning and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David W. L.; Wong, Philip S. K.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines fruitful areas of information and instructional technology (IIT) in education research: pedagogy of online environments; simulation, visualization, and modeling; mind-tools or cognitive tools; assessment tools; wireless computing; tools for learning communities; tools for project work and authentic tasks; integration of media, tools, and…

  10. Quench Press Hardening with Low Copper Plating. Management and Operation of the DoD Instrumented Factory for Gears

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    S) AND ADDRESS(ES) IIT Research Institute INFAC 10 West 35th Street Chicago, IL 60616 8 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 01-008 9. SPONSORING...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Unclassified Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13 . ABSTRACT (Maximum... 8 Experimentation

  11. Developing Behavioral Metrics for Decision-Making in Marine Corps Small-Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Infantry Immersion Trainer .........48  d.  Lessons Learned from Second Visit to IIT ............................67  5.  Subject Matter Expert...103  ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.  The historical and evolving viewpoints of assessment, curriculum, and learning theory (From Shepard...assessments with regard to curriculum, function, and learning theory . Figure 1. The historical and evolving viewpoints of assessment, curriculum

  12. Conjoint Analysis of Values of Reserve Component Attributes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    28. 2% of the respsmdisst. uzzsfte euq ~oleyMe provides - supergusmmal incessoft wth ik to amet regular household onpeanes. Others will ase the income...te Li k( 1. 0. Fstintie~ td tcces.-o-’% to lithe prngrnni as crrv’iitly described were tab~ulated htj vikch of 1 2 age -tace g rnup’l atid 1w -ce

  13. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Assessment of Satellite Concepts and Aviation Spectrum Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    will be available to all :-112,-S. t is also assumed that zhe sata iite navigation systcm, if GPS, will nave evolved aid imrprove(i to became toe pzime...1575.42 MHz; the total GPS system, with its dual frequency precision tanging capability, utilizes a total orf s,;hg,-y gt over 40 alz (+10.23 MALz centered

  14. The Right to Special Education in Illinois--Something Old and Something New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, David P.

    1979-01-01

    Should provide the Illinois practitioner with a working knowledge of the rights of his or her client and, more importantly, with an awareness of the available remedies by which to vindicate those rights. Available from IIT/Chicago-Kent College of Law, 77 South Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606; single copies $5.00. (Author/IRT)

  15. User’s Guide to the SOLAR Semantic Analysis File

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-30

    ur^ was nbetber it voald be pos?ifcle tc cull tt-i best analysts frcs? t^h^ iit*»iatQi;e# acca ^tlnq all tnnor*tical...the Stanford Research Institute project currently providing direct support to the SDC SUR prcjoct. M APPIL 147 5 14 SYST£ P1 DEVELOPMENT

  16. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Fifth technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this work is to convert our `learning gas-solid-liquid` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid, and particulate phases. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values.

  17. Comparison between a novel and conventional artificial pancreas for perioperative glycemic control using a closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Maeda, Hiromichi; Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Hirano, Kenichi; Asano, Takuji; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-01

    This clinical study aimed to compare a novel and conventional artificial pancreas (AP) used in surgical patients for perioperative glycemic control, with respect to usability, blood glucose measurements, and glycemic control characteristics. From July in 2010 to March in 2015, 177 patients underwent perioperative glycemic control using a novel AP. Among them, 166 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Intensive insulin therapy (IIT) targeting a blood glucose range of 80-110 mg/dL was implemented in 82 patients (49 %), and the remaining 84 patients (51 %) received a less-intensive regime of insulin therapy. Data were collected prospectively and were reviewed or analyzed retrospectively. A comparison study of 324 patients undergoing IIT for glycemic control using a novel (n = 82) or conventional AP (n = 242) was conducted retrospectively. All patients had no hypoglycemia. The comparison study revealed no significant differences in perioperative mean blood glucose level, achievement rates for target blood glucose range, and variability in blood glucose level achieved with IIT between the novel AP and conventional AP groups. The usability, performance with respect to blood glucose measurement, and glycemic control characteristics of IIT were comparable between novel and conventional AP systems. However, the novel AP was easier to manipulate than the conventional AP due to its smaller size, lower weight, and shorter time for preparation. In the near future, this novel AP system might be accepted worldwide as a safe and useful device for use in perioperative glycemic control.

  18. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, R-QUAT-10, 10/07/1975

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... 1'111' i>ltH!IIt'! i, I(),\\ic tl! fi ... lt, Tn'alt,t! I'ffhll'II1 \\1t"ltid I"'~ hI' di,l'Il

  19. Rapid Prototyping: State of the Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-23

    Manufacturing ( DCM ) is the name given to 3D Systems’ OptoForm technology. OptoForm was a French company that 3D acquired in early 2001. Subsequently...discussion. Kolisch, S., IIT Research Institute, Program Manager, Mobile Parts Hospital, Personal discussion. Sova, B., Boeing Phantom Works, St. Louis, MO

  20. Web-Based Course Management and Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandal, Chittaranjan; Sinha, Vijay Luxmi; Reade, Christopher M. P.

    2004-01-01

    The architecture of a web-based course management tool that has been developed at IIT [Indian Institute of Technology], Kharagpur and which manages the submission of assignments is discussed. Both the distributed architecture used for data storage and the client-server architecture supporting the web interface are described. Further developments…

  1. Educational and Commercial Utilization of a Chemical Information Center. Biannual Summary, June 25, 1968 to June 25, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Eugene S.; And Others

    The design, implementation and operation of the Computer Search Center of IIT Research Institute, an information center to educate and link industry and academic institutions to chemical and other scientific information systems, is described. Format conversion, profile input, search and output programs developed over a two-year period are detailed…

  2. Characterization of Long SiAION Ceramic Tubes for Gun Barrel Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    MS 404 M HOLTUS MS 301 M WOLFE MS 307 S MINGLEDORF MS 504 J GASTON MS 301 W GSTATTENBAUER MS 304 J CRIDER MS 306 2055 BOULDERS RD... MANE DEPT ENGR IV H T HAHN LOS ANGELES CA 90024-1597 1 IIT RESEARCH CTR D ROSE 201 MILL ST ROME NY 13440-6916 1 MICHIGAN ST

  3. Modeling Electromagnetic Effects in MMICs for T/R Modules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    547-550, 1986. 64 Rizzoli, Vittorio, Cecchetti, Claudio, and Lipparini, Alessandro , .Frequency Conversion in General Nonlinear Multiport Devices," IEEE...Fig. 5. Current- voltae relationships for RCA device BISI2-3A as A cak-ulated by the analytical equaUons 2’ 91512-3A -20- lrm PULSE; P IItIII5[ SLtOAD

  4. Verification and Validation of AI Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Carnap atid Bar-H[illel [t I] showed that a formial anialoguie of Shannon ’s In formation mneasure 1(q) =- q, log2(qj,) provides a nlatLiral explication...Functional (Correctness of Programs." Proceedings of the Seventh ACN1 S.vinposium on Principles of Pro- gramnhing Languages, 1,980) IIt IR. ( Carnap

  5. Rapid Expansion Strains Elite Indian Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2009-01-01

    In India's beleaguered higher-education system, the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) stand apart. The seven institutions have turned out some of the world's finest engineers and computer scientists, eagerly recruited by top graduate schools in the United States. Many of the institutes' graduates have gone on to become the chief executives of…

  6. Institute for Defense Analyses Tactical Warfare (TACWAR) Model. Program Maintenance Manual. Part II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-06

    AK41ACI . donagod TEMPI EP AA(IAC) - tota AJC (ttlIItIA/ 10 + EP E Figure 52. FOwcato AWRRuieAR O44 TEMP AKIACI AK(*PA I ENTER NUC I NLC YYES of bep ...Missile Range New Mexico 88002 Commxandant, U.S. Army War College Carlisle Barracks Pennsylvania 17013 Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Systems

  7. Vane Flow Direction Sensor for Blast Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-07

    APPLICATIONS INTL CORP IIT RESEARCH INSTITUTE ATTN: K SITES ATTN: DOCUMENTS LIBRARY SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTL CORP KAMAN SCIENCES CORP ATTN: TECHNICAL...UBRARY ATTN: L MENTE ATTN: W PLOWS ATTN: LIBRARY SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTL CORP KAMAN SCIENCE§ CORP ATTN: J MCRARY ATTN: B KINSLOW SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

  8. Automated Serials Control at the Indian Institutes of Technology: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Tapas Kumar; Panda, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the functional attributes of the automated serials control systems of the libraries in seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and provide a comparative analysis. Design/methodology/approach: Features of the serials control modules of the library management systems (LMSs) in use in the…

  9. Quest for Teaching Experimental Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakshmi, B. Samrajya; Rao, B. Venkateswara

    2013-01-01

    In Andhra Pradesh, India, chemical experimenting in under graduate college labs by students is neglected because most of the intermediate (10+1 and 10+2) students concentrate on writing competitive exams like EAMCET (Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test), IIT JEE (Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Test), AIEEE (All India…

  10. Immersive Simulation for Marine Corps Small Unit Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    auditory, and olfactory stimuli. The IIT exposes the young Marine to the environment of indigenous sights, sounds and smells to practice small...comprehensive market survey of the technology space – but will not actually advance the technology. The Institute for Creative Technologies (ICT

  11. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M.; Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T.; Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  12. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, KEY-KILL BRAND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-19

    ... SPACE SPRAY f IIt'$ "".1'.'/.1"" Frll"I,;If"d i.' l'll' .1dJlJ ,tt.~ I. i ..... l \\ tit, I' \\ , ()t dd'lIt ',h,,(H' ,). t, l'" 1, 1, If • ... IIdn~"d on it II', l.,tlc'l 'n IV tH~ uhf,l,ned ttlfo,'tit! ...

  13. Mobile Learning on Campus: Balancing on the Cutting Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    As soon as the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) announced last May that it would be giving all 400 incoming freshmen Apple iPads, a lively debate broke out online at TUAW.com (The Unofficial Apple Weblog) between people who saw it as a marketing gimmick to attract students and others who believed it was an honest attempt to implement a new…

  14. NPS-PASCAL. A Microcomputer-based Implementation of the PASCAL Programming Language.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    LI 1T ’?l’,DFL L IT T?’~’ U 7 SUE LIT 󈨎’,LLSI LIT 󈨏’.-(kS1 LIT TI’,G L T ’’ LOD’Q LIT 𔄁R’, LOLI LIT 󈨓’RDVi IIT ’e ’,?V LIT ’I ?DVS LIT -2

  15. Prime Contractors | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    2015-2018 Efficacy and Intermediate Endpoint Biomarkers: The Research Institute of Fox Chase Cancer Center SRI International IIT Research Institute University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical College of Wisconsin University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Weill Medical College of Cornell University Toxicology and Pharmacology Testing: SRI International Southern Research Institute |

  16. UG311, An Oncofetal Marker Lost with Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    i~iit,• S... -{ $. .. .. ,, . .. .. . . .... . .. . ... . >FIGURE THE IGF AXIS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF PROSTATE CANCER. Christopher W...19. 55. Chan, J.M., Stampfer , M.J., Giovannucci, E., Gann, P.H., et al. 1998, Science, 279, 563. 56. Wolk, A., Mantzoros, C.S., Andersson, S.O

  17. 78 FR 54490 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ..., Inc. (State/One-Stop). Batesville, AR......... 08/13/13 08/08/13 82969 GE Healthcare IITS USA Corp Seattle, WA 08/13/13 08/08/13 HHS Divsion (State/One- Stop). 82970 Trek Bicycles (State/One- Waterloo, WI.... (State/One- Stop). 82972 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Indianapolis, IN....... 08/13/13 08/09/13...

  18. Interferon induced thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Tomer, Yaron; Menconi, Francesca

    2009-12-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) is used for the treatment of various disorders, most notable chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. One of the commonest side effects of IFNalpha therapy is thyroiditis, with up to 40% of HCV patients on IFNalpha developing clinical or subclinical disease. In some cases interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) may result in severe symptomatology necessitating discontinuation of therapy. IIT can manifest as clinical autoimmune thyroiditis, presenting with symptoms of classical Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease, or as non-autoimmune thyroiditis. Non-autoimmune thyroiditis can manifest as destructive thyroiditis, with early thyrotoxicosis and later hypothyroidism, or as non-autoimmune hypothyroidism. While the epidemiology and clinical presentation of IIT have been well characterized the mechanisms causing IIT are still poorly understood. It is likely that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) itself plays a role in the disease, as the association between HCV infection and thyroiditis is well established. It is believed that IFNalpha induces thyroiditis by both immune stimulatory effects and by direct effects on the thyroid. Early detection and therapy of this condition are important in order to avoid complications of thyroid disease such as cardiac arrhythmias.

  19. Photothermal Spectroscopy Using a Pyroelectric Thin Film Detector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-16

    FRD-fi34 291 PHOTOTHERNAL SPECTROSCOPYIJ SING A PYROELECTRIC THIN- I/IT, F FILM DETECTOR(J) INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORP I SAN JOSE CALIF SAN...Coufal N01-1C01 9, PERFORMING3 ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK International Business Machines Corp. AE OKUI UBR San Jose

  20. Game Theory, Power Games, and Linear Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    C E ~~ I. REPORT NU M B E R ~~~GOVT ACCL ~ SION NO. P IN S C A T A L ~~~~N M U~~k Fiiial .:_ i ____~~ ~)4. IiT L L (and Soht i t Z e) L f lI

  1. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *South...

  2. Beyond bone mineral density, FRAX-based tailor-made intervention thresholds for therapeutic decision in subjects on glucocorticoid

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shan-Fu; Chen, Jia-Feng; Chen, Yin-Chou; Lai, Han-Ming; Ko, Chi-Hua; Chiu, Wen-Chan; Su, Fu-Mei; Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Su, Ben Yu-Jih; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Cheng, Tien-Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis and confers a substantial risk for future fractures. Several recent guidelines for GIOP management have recommended the use of intervention thresholds to direct pharmacological therapy in those at high risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of subjects on a glucocorticoid (GC) and to implement the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)-based intervention threshold for therapeutic decision-making. This was a cohort substudy of a nationwide osteoporosis screening program conducted in Taiwan from 2008 to 2011. All participants were requested to complete a questionnaire including FRAX elements, and antiosteoporosis medication (AOM) history was assessed before bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. GC users were recruited as the study group. Controls comprised randomly selected age- and sex-matched non-GC users. Individual intervention threshold (IIT) was set at individual-specific FRAX probability of a major osteoporotic fracture, relative to subjects with prior fractures. The characteristics and calculated IIT of all participants were analyzed. A total of 8704 participants were enrolled, including GC users (n = 807) and controls (n = 7897). There was no significant difference in BMD between GC users and controls. Clinical fracture risks, including previous fracture, parental hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis, and secondary osteoporosis were higher in GC users than in controls. GC users had a higher 10-year probability of either major or hip fracture than controls. The proportion of GC users with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture above IIT was higher than in controls (75.0% vs 10.6%; P < 0.001). Only 20.3% of GC users and 30.5% of controls whose fracture risk was above IIT reported taking AOM. These findings suggest that more GC users should receive active intervention based on IIT, regardless of BMD

  3. Beyond bone mineral density, FRAX-based tailor-made intervention thresholds for therapeutic decision in subjects on glucocorticoid: A nationwide osteoporosis survey.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan-Fu; Chen, Jia-Feng; Chen, Yin-Chou; Lai, Han-Ming; Ko, Chi-Hua; Chiu, Wen-Chan; Su, Fu-Mei; Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Su, Ben Yu-Jih; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Cheng, Tien-Tsai

    2017-02-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis and confers a substantial risk for future fractures. Several recent guidelines for GIOP management have recommended the use of intervention thresholds to direct pharmacological therapy in those at high risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of subjects on a glucocorticoid (GC) and to implement the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)-based intervention threshold for therapeutic decision-making.This was a cohort substudy of a nationwide osteoporosis screening program conducted in Taiwan from 2008 to 2011. All participants were requested to complete a questionnaire including FRAX elements, and antiosteoporosis medication (AOM) history was assessed before bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. GC users were recruited as the study group. Controls comprised randomly selected age- and sex-matched non-GC users. Individual intervention threshold (IIT) was set at individual-specific FRAX probability of a major osteoporotic fracture, relative to subjects with prior fractures. The characteristics and calculated IIT of all participants were analyzed.A total of 8704 participants were enrolled, including GC users (n = 807) and controls (n = 7897). There was no significant difference in BMD between GC users and controls. Clinical fracture risks, including previous fracture, parental hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis, and secondary osteoporosis were higher in GC users than in controls. GC users had a higher 10-year probability of either major or hip fracture than controls. The proportion of GC users with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture above IIT was higher than in controls (75.0% vs 10.6%; P < 0.001). Only 20.3% of GC users and 30.5% of controls whose fracture risk was above IIT reported taking AOM.These findings suggest that more GC users should receive active intervention based on IIT, regardless of BMD. However

  4. Network algorithmics and the emergence of information integration in cortical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Andre; Barbosa, Valmir C.

    2011-07-01

    An information-theoretic framework known as integrated information theory (IIT) has been introduced recently for the study of the emergence of consciousness in the brain [D. Balduzzi and G. Tononi, PLoS Comput. Biol.1553-734X10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000091 4, e1000091 (2008)]. IIT purports that this phenomenon is to be equated with the generation of information by the brain surpassing the information that the brain’s constituents already generate independently of one another. IIT is not fully plausible in its modeling assumptions nor is it testable due to severe combinatorial growth embedded in its key definitions. Here we introduce an alternative to IIT which, while inspired in similar information-theoretic principles, seeks to address some of IIT’s shortcomings to some extent. Our alternative framework uses the same network-algorithmic cortical model we introduced earlier [A. Nathan and V. C. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.81.021916 81, 021916 (2010)] and, to allow for somewhat improved testability relative to IIT, adopts the well-known notions of information gain and total correlation applied to a set of variables representing the reachability of neurons by messages in the model’s dynamics. We argue that these two quantities relate to each other in such a way that can be used to quantify the system’s efficiency in generating information beyond that which does not depend on integration. We give computational results on our cortical model and on variants thereof that are either structurally random in the sense of an Erdős-Rényi random directed graph or structurally deterministic. We have found that our cortical model stands out with respect to the others in the sense that many of its instances are capable of integrating information more efficiently than most of those others’ instances.

  5. Intense interval training in healthy older adults increases skeletal muscle [(3)H]ouabain-binding site content and elevates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α2 isoform abundance in Type II fibers.

    PubMed

    Wyckelsma, Victoria L; Levinger, Itamar; Murphy, Robyn M; Petersen, Aaron C; Perry, Ben D; Hedges, Christopher P; Anderson, Mitchell J; McKenna, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Young adults typically adapt to intense exercise training with an increased skeletal muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) content, concomitant with reduced extracellular potassium concentration [K(+)] during exercise and enhanced exercise performance. Whether these changes with longitudinal training occur in older adults is unknown and was investigated here. Fifteen older adults (69.4 ± 3.5 years, mean ± SD) were randomized to either 12 weeks of intense interval training (4 × 4 min at 90-95% peak heart rate), 3 days/week (IIT, n = 8); or no exercise controls (n = 7). Before and after training, participants completed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test until a rating of perceived exertion of 17 (very hard) on a 20-point scale was attained, with measures of antecubital venous [K(+)]v Participants underwent a resting muscle biopsy prior to and at 48-72 h following the final training session. After IIT, the peak exercise work rate (25%), oxygen uptake (16%) and heart rate (6%) were increased (P < 0.05). After IIT, the peak exercise plasma [K(+)]v tended to rise (P = 0.07), while the rise in plasma [K(+)]v relative to work performed (nmol.L(-1)J(-1)) was unchanged. Muscle NKA content increased by 11% after IIT (P < 0.05). Single fiber measurements, increased in NKA α2 isoform in Type II fibers after IIT (30%, P < 0.05), with no changes to the other isoforms in single fibers or homogenate. Thus, intense exercise training in older adults induced an upregulation of muscle NKA, with a fiber-specific increase in NKA α2 abundance in Type II fibers, coincident with increased muscle NKA content and enhanced exercise performance.

  6. Stem cell transplantation in children: how to design a new study.

    PubMed

    Corbacioglu, S

    2008-06-01

    In contrast to adults, 50% or more of medicines used in children have never been actually studied in the paediatric population in the European Union community (EU). Under the impression that compliance with good clinical practice (GCP) requirements will lead to an improved quality of clinical trials, the ratification of the EU Directive 2001/20/EG now imposes the same GCP regulations demanded for commercial clinical trials on non-commercial trials or so-called investigator-initiated trials (IITs). Although it is desirable that all clinical trials comply with ICH-GCP, ensuring that an IIT conforms creates a significant burden for the principal investigator, turning an IIT into a substantial logistic, administrative and financial enterprise. This can only be achieved with a multidisciplinary approach, including physicians, statisticians, data managers, administrators and others. In particular, 'treatment optimization studies'--the most important clinical trials in paediatric oncology--are affected by this new law, potentially resulting in significant delays in the implementation of new and innovative treatment strategies in the paediatric population. This significant drawback was not foreseen but is now recognized and lead to measures to improve the situation for both non-commercial and paediatric clinical trials. Draft guidance on 'specific modalities for non-commercial trials', posted for comment last October, attempts to redress some of the research-crippling problems caused by the initial legislation; however, major problems remain. The EU regulation (EC) no. 1901/2006 'on medicinal products for paediatric use' was enacted in January 2007. This new regulation is a promising step in the right direction, as it will facilitate the development and accessibility of medicinal products specifically for use in children. To adapt to and benefit from this new situation and encourage IIT, a coordinated approach of high expertise is necessary to support and guide the novice

  7. Anthropometry and Prevalence of Common Health Problems among School Going Children in Surathkal, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Airody, Sathyajith Karanth; Mahale, Ramnath; SR, Ravikiran; Shetty, Suresh; Rao, Aarathi R

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To measure the anthropometric data of school children and to compare with the CDC and Agarwal centile Growth charts. The prevalence of thinness, stunting, overweight and obesity were estimated. Children were also screened for hypertension, refractory errors, dental problems, skin disease and other abnormalities. Design: Study was conducted in November in a central school in Surathkal, Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India. All children from nursery up to 10th standard were screened. Materials and Methods: Weight and Height were measured using standard equipment and plotted on CDC and Agarwal Charts. BMI was calculated and plotted on both charts. Blood Pressure (BP) was taken using mercury sphygmomanometer by a trained nurse. Vision was tested using Snellens chart by refractionist. Dental evaluation was done by dentist. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test and Student’s unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. A statistical package SPSS version 17.0 were used. p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Total 755 children were screened. Among these 392 (51.9%) were females and 363 (48.1%) were males. Eighty five (11.3%) children had short stature and 283 (37.5%) had under nutrition when plotted on CDC chart. Values were lower when plotted on Agarwal charts. Thinness was more prevalent than obesity and overweight. Majority were normotensive though hypertension was noted in 6(0.8%) children and prehypertension in 14(1.9%).112 children (16.3%) had undetected refractory error. Common skin disease noted was T.Versicolor in 27 children. Common dental problem noted was Caries teeth (22.9%). Conclusion: Weight and height were below the CDC centile charts. Under nutrition was more prevalent than overweight and obesity. Majority were normotensive. High prevalence of undetected refractory error and caries teeth were noted. Prevalence of skin disease was low. PMID:25653997

  8. Reliability, usefulness, and validity of the 30-15 Intermittent Ice Test in young elite ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Lefebvre, Benjamin; Laursen, Paul B; Ahmaidi, Said

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, usefulness, and validity of the 30-15 Intermittent Ice Test (30-15(IIT)) in 17 young elite ice hockey players. For the reliability and usefulness study, players performed the 30-15(IIT) 7 days apart. For the validity study, data derived from the first 30-15(IIT) were compared with those obtained from the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15(IFT), the running version of this test used as a reference marker for its ability to assess cardiovascular fitness in the field, that is, VO₂peak). Maximal speed, heart rate at exhaustion (HR(peak)) and postexercise blood-lactate levels ([La](b)) were collected for all tests, whereas submaximal HR was taken at stages 4 and 8 (HR(stage4) and HR(stage8)) during the 30-15(IIT). All intra-class correlation coefficients were >0.94. Coefficients of variation were 1.6% (90% CI, 1.3-2.3), 1.7% (1.3-2.8), 1.4% (1.0-2.2), and 0.7% (0.5-1.1) for maximal skating speed, HR(stage4), HR(stage8), and HR(peak), respectively. Correlations between maximal velocities and HR(peak) obtained for the 30-15(IIT) vs. 30-15(IFT) were very large (r = 0.72) and large (r = 0.61), respectively. Maximal skating speed was also largely correlated to estimated VO₂peak (r = 0.71). There was however no correlation for [La](b) values between both tests (r = 0.42). These results highlight the specificity of the on-ice 30-15(IIT) and show it to be a reliable and valid test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in young elite players. Coaches could interpret a change in performance of at least 2 stages, or a change in submaximal HR of more than 8% (≈8 b·min⁻¹) during the eighth stage to be a meaningful change in skating fitness.

  9. Critical Problems in Very Large Scale Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Chua, C.A. Desoer and E.S. Kuh, Linear and m Nonlinear Circuits , McGraw-Hill, 1987, sect. 4.3. 12. P. Penfield, Jr., R. Spence, and S. Duinker, Tel...SIGPLAN 󈨝 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation, 1989. D. L. Standley and J. L. Wyatt, Jr., " Circuit Design Criteria for...State Circuits , April 1989. Also MIT VLSI Memo No. 88-480, October 1988. * S. Owicki and A. Agarwal, "Evaluating the Performance of Software Cache

  10. Photoabsorption of Molecules at Corrugated Thin Metal Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Opt. Commun. 13, 311 (1975); I. Pockrand and H. Raether, Appl. Opt. 16, 1784 (1977). 8. D . Sarid , Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981). 9. G. S. Agarwal...configuration of our problem is shown in Fig. 1, where the molecule of dipole moment p is located at z = d above a thin metal (Ag) film bounded by :wo...free molecule. 4 In the presence of the substrate film, Eq. (4) then becomes a() - A IEz( d ,W)1 2 2 M 2 (5) (W-W M) + I-M /2) where E z( d ,w) is now

  11. Surface-plasmon dispersion relation for the inhomogeneous charge-density medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsh, O. K.; Agarwal, B. K.

    1989-04-01

    The surface-plasmon dispersion relation is derived for the plane-bounded electron gas when there is an inhomogeneous charge-density distribution in the plasma. The hydrodynamical model is used. Both cphi and dcphi/dx are taken to be continuous at the surface of the slab, where cphi is the scalar potential. The dispersion relation is compared with the theoretical works of Stern and Ferrell and of Harsh and Agarwal. It is also compared with the observations of Kunz. A dispersion relation for the volume-plasmon oscillations is derived which resembles the well-known relation of Bohm and Pines.

  12. Carbon Flux Free-Fair-Use Data from the FLUXNET Synthesis Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    Flux and meteorological data, collected world‐wide, are submitted to this central database at www.fluxdata.org. These data are: a) checked for quality; b) gaps are filled; c) valueadded products, like ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration, are produced; and d) daily and annual sums, or averages, are computed [Agarwal et al., 2010]. The resulting datasets are available through this site for data synthesis. This page provides information about the FLUXNET synthesis datasets, the sites that contributed data, how to use the datasets, and the synthesis efforts using the datasets.

  13. A Unified Model of Program Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    distribution of Mark Hill’s Dinero cache simulator. To work with the simulator, these traces were at the byte level. The second set of ATUM traces were...been used in much of Agarwal’s published research. The Dinero set of ATUM traces will be referred to as DIN while the MIT ATUM traces will be referred...input spice DLX SPICE circuit simulation tex DLX Common TeX within man pages as input These traces, like the Dinero ATUM traces described previously

  14. Vacuum-induced Stark shifts for quantum logic using a collective system in a high-quality dispersive cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Gabris, A.; Agarwal, G.S.

    2005-05-15

    A collective system of atoms in a high-quality cavity can be described by a nonlinear interaction which arises due to the Lamb shift of the energy levels due to the cavity vacuum [Agarwal et al., Phys. Rev. A 56, 2249 (1997)]. We show how this collective interaction can be used to perform quantum logic. In particular we produce schemes to realize controlled-NOT gates not only for two-qubit but also for three-qubit systems. We also discuss realizations of Toffoli gates. Our effective Hamiltonian is also realized in other systems such as trapped ions or magnetic molecules.

  15. Dental Videographic Analysis using Digital Age Media

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Karan; Parmar, Siddharaj; Jhawar, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives This study was to evaluate a new method of smile analysis using videographic and photographic softwares (as in this study Photoshop Elements X, Windows Movie Maker 2012) as primary assessment tools and to develop an index for malocclusion and treatment plan that could be used in assessing severity of maloc-clussion. How to cite this article Agarwal A, Seth K, Parmar S, Jhawar R. Dental Videographic Analysis using Digital Age Media. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):355-363. PMID:28127169

  16. Bianchi type-I universe in Lyra manifold with quadratic equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şen, R.; Aygün, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we have solved Einstein field equations for Bianchi type I universe model in Lyra manifold with quadratic equation of state (EoS) p = ap(t)2 - ρ(t). Where α ≠0 is an important constant. Cosmic pressure, density and displacement vector (β2) are related with α constant. In this study β2 is a decreasing function of time and behaves like a cosmological constant. These solutions agree with the studies of Halford, Pradhan and Singh, Aygün et al., Agarwal et al., Yadav and Haque as well as SN Ia observations.

  17. Numerical Techniques for Solving Nonlinear Instability Problems in Smokeless Tactical Solid Rocket Motors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    irepared for: 0 Air Force Rocket Propulsion L-abx)ratory I) irector of Science and Technology ILL -Nir force Systems CommandIdwards ,Air F-orce );ajse...34%onloirui’i viil% ,o’, to )i I 1\\i <ii kit ’,tio, nod( I - Boj riors,’ AI KI 1 1 ’ 77 4 6o, I oils 197,77. pe rt LArbat ion t k’Chfli, t" duot ha...i % t (i I[1Itit’, thI e il t ii I ilo %i~ avdIit u rli ie (iit Il lv 4 1)sito’ s hatrp , t r ia ngtulaIr, shoi(c k - t pe wave torma I 1g. 1 1 I h

  18. A study of fuzzy logic ensemble system performance on face recognition problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova, A.; Lipinskiy, L.

    2017-02-01

    Some problems are difficult to solve by using a single intelligent information technology (IIT). The ensemble of the various data mining (DM) techniques is a set of models which are able to solve the problem by itself, but the combination of which allows increasing the efficiency of the system as a whole. Using the IIT ensembles can improve the reliability and efficiency of the final decision, since it emphasizes on the diversity of its components. The new method of the intellectual informational technology ensemble design is considered in this paper. It is based on the fuzzy logic and is designed to solve the classification and regression problems. The ensemble consists of several data mining algorithms: artificial neural network, support vector machine and decision trees. These algorithms and their ensemble have been tested by solving the face recognition problems. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection.

  19. Auroral Data Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-31

    irg I fit v i oiiltiii 11lte 11w vIlILti huh,1 tv I ll IIIIIII! Ilkkiii ~ l haw g t iit .11 Iili I i 111 flt iiarg illjr ol ’ iit I d it d �,11f1...Hnirch, 0172, 1)7.1, ) aitihara et (it, 14~111,ta it a ah tl~ im Indica ted mtha the inagnaiiode ol A amide c t (it 19/1)/im a~e presented Wit o~ dene...tile Same at allota lies bill has .Io4.ah littl 00oipollen I ol ie IM NI pla th(le donii nintI role Ii deteruiini ig thle 11, kow poneit il thle 1\\1

  20. Computer Modeling and Experimental Validation of Losses in a Strip Geometry Explosive Magnetic Flux Compression Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    SHT.EQ.a.0) THEN VOL2-11.8 ELSE TRAPA -ATA#4(SHT/TPTL) __ IHIT-BASE/TAN ( TRAPA ) LHT-TPTL-111HT AI-ItIIT4ASEI A2-LHTSSBASE VOL2-TPT*(Al-A2) END IF L1*SORT...IME E POS (I) x 0ý’ XLIMI-TPTh*lE8ii .1w IF (X.LE.4.IMI) Th4EN BASE-TPPW/2.8 SBASE-TPTU1𔃼. 8 IN SHT*BASE-SBASE TRAPA -ATAN (SHT4rP1L) IllIT-BASE/TAN... TRAPA ) LHTa(TPTL- ItIIT)* slE1 CALU- (LHT+X) STAN ( TRAPA ) % tJ(I)-CALUslE-03*2.S %. ELSE UC I) TPPW*IE-182 END IF TItMEuTIE+1 .8 69 1Z, * q

  1. Aerosol Properties over the Indo-Gangetic Plain: A Mesoscale Perspective from the TIGERZ Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Tripathi, Sachchida; Eck, Thomas F.; Newcomb, W. Wayne; Slutsker, Ilya; Dickerson, Russell R.; Thompson, Anne M.; Mattoo, Shana; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Singh, Remesh P.; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Schafer, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    High aerosol loading over the northern Indian subcontinent can result in poor air quality leading to human health consequences and climate perturbations. The international 2008 TIGERZ experiment intensive operational period (IOP) was conducted in the Indo \\Gangetic Plain (IGP) around the industrial city of Kanpur (26.51degN, 80.23deg E), India, during the premonsoon (April-June). Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometers performed frequent measurements of aerosol properties at temporary sites distributed within an area covering 50 sq km around Kanpur to characterize pollution and dust in a region where complex aerosol mixtures and semi \\bright surface effects complicate satellite retrieval algorithms. TIGERZ IOP Sun photometers quantified aerosol optical depth (AOD) increases up to 0.10 within and downwind of the city, with urban emissions accounting for 10 C20% of the IGP aerosol loading on deployment days. TIGERZ IOP area \\averaged volume size distribution and single scattering albedo retrievals indicated spatially homogeneous, uniformly sized, spectrally absorbing pollution and dust particles. Aerosol absorption and size relationships were used to categorize black carbon and dust as dominant absorbers and to identify a third category in which both black carbon and dust dominate absorption.Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD retrievals with the lowest quality assurance (QA > or = 0) flags were biased high with respect to TIGERZ IOP area \\averaged measurements. MODIS AOD retrievals with QA 0 had moderate correlation (R(sup 2) = 0.52-69) with the Kanpur AERONET site, whereas retrievals with QA > 0 were limited in number. Mesoscale \\distributed Sun photometers quantified temporal and spatial variability of aerosol properties, and these results were used to validate satellite retrievals.

  2. Meteorological, atmospheric and climatic perturbations during major dust storms over Indo-Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvan; Kumar, Sanjay; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Singh, Ramesh P.; Singh, Rajeev K.; Mishra, Amit K.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Singh, Abhay K.

    2015-06-01

    During the pre-monsoon season (April-June), the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) suffers from frequent and intense dust storms originated from the arid and desert regions of southwest Asia (Iran, Afghanistan), Arabia and Thar desert blanketing IGB and Himalayan foothills. The present study examines the columnar and vertical aerosol characteristics and estimates the shortwave (0.25-4.0 μm) aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and atmospheric heating rates over Kanpur, central IGB, during three intense dust-storm events in the pre-monsoon season of 2010. MODIS images, meteorological and AERONET observations clearly show that all the dust storms either originated from the Thar desert or transported over, under favorable meteorological conditions (low pressure and strong surface winds) affecting nearly the whole IGB and modifying the aerosol loading and characteristics (Ångström exponent, single scattering albedo, size distribution and refractive index). CALIPSO observations reveal the presence of high-altitude (up to 3-5 km) dust plumes that strongly modify the vertical aerosol profile and are transported over Himalayan foothills with serious climate implications (atmospheric warming, enhanced melting of glaciers). Shortwave ARF calculations over Kanpur using SBDART model show large negative forcing values at the surface (-93.27, -101.60 and -66.71 W m-2) during the intense dusty days, associated with planetary (top of atmosphere) cooling (-18.16, -40.95, -29.58 W m-2) and significant atmospheric heating (75.11, 60.65, 37.13 W m-2), which is translated to average heating rates of 1.57, 1.41 and 0.78 K day-1, respectively in the lower atmosphere (below ∼3.5 km). The ARF estimates are in satisfactory agreement with the AERONET ARF retrievals over Kanpur.

  3. From the Phenomenology to the Mechanisms of Consciousness: Integrated Information Theory 3.0

    PubMed Central

    Tononi, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness 3.0, which incorporates several advances over previous formulations. IIT starts from phenomenological axioms: information says that each experience is specific – it is what it is by how it differs from alternative experiences; integration says that it is unified – irreducible to non-interdependent components; exclusion says that it has unique borders and a particular spatio-temporal grain. These axioms are formalized into postulates that prescribe how physical mechanisms, such as neurons or logic gates, must be configured to generate experience (phenomenology). The postulates are used to define intrinsic information as “differences that make a difference” within a system, and integrated information as information specified by a whole that cannot be reduced to that specified by its parts. By applying the postulates both at the level of individual mechanisms and at the level of systems of mechanisms, IIT arrives at an identity: an experience is a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS, a constellation of concepts in qualia space), and the set of elements that generates it constitutes a complex. According to IIT, a MICS specifies the quality of an experience and integrated information ΦMax its quantity. From the theory follow several results, including: a system of mechanisms may condense into a major complex and non-overlapping minor complexes; the concepts that specify the quality of an experience are always about the complex itself and relate only indirectly to the external environment; anatomical connectivity influences complexes and associated MICS; a complex can generate a MICS even if its elements are inactive; simple systems can be minimally conscious; complicated systems can be unconscious; there can be true “zombies” – unconscious feed-forward systems that are functionally equivalent to conscious complexes. PMID:24811198

  4. Warranties in Defense Acquisition: The Concept, the Context, and the Congress.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    issue of Social Security, as an example, and should be established to minimize the protracted debate over Foreign and Defense policy. 3. Consider...the Federal budget is expended in entitlement programs. [37] These are social or welfare type expenditures like social 57 57... S- security benefits...Iit &a meert the canditions spurt/md in - clase 11 and applying warranties when appropiate %.40 1"’y -, "’ . *.t Incme itiv =, fixed price type m

  5. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium (6th) Held in San Diego, California on September 11-13, 1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    have been implemented. The results are shown in Fig. 12. They are surely not satifactory yet for most "real world" applications. The poor quality of the... HOTEL AND COUNTRY CLUB SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA SEPTEMBER 11-13, 1979 ADAGE, INC 1079 Commonwealth Ave Boston, Massachusetts 02194 George A. Baker Sales... Hotel Circle North San Diego, California 92180 Keith Blomstrom Marketing Representative Peter Jensen Systems Engineer 545 IIT RESEARCH INSTITUTE. 10

  6. An Extension of the Two-Parameter Logistic Model to the Multidimensional Latent Space.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    COVERED An Extension of the Two-Parameter". ’.’.Technic al Report Logistic Model to the Multidimensional Latent Space. A PERFORMING ORG . REPORT NUMBER...rh’t.f (if 𔃾 avil T’,i i t rriinin;v, 1.1 iara O~ff Lc" 𔃾iit Ni ’iat’rm *1!ip’r’ii (75) * U. tr Feirce ’I’ it R?-inurr- .! ibor ic~ry m ifitton

  7. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, IN THE PINK CERAMIC ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    dJ~ " " ~ 1 I i 'J ') r 4 i i :',' • J V'J I~ ','" J" .1 j ~1]l()H ',lH)dflH': "ll;U S j lJ 0 i " 1 N 3 \\ V j 11 Ii d l' I - ii H UI j' ',\\Hn ',' " f'HJ! )(11' : " I'J I 1 ,',! iit' l' r--J i ~ "\\ , ...

  8. Lee Kuan Yew: An Analysis of his National Security Strategy and Statecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    serve a period of national mrhtary service, after whrch they were placed mto the reserves ’ Such unrversal m&ary servrce was designed not only to create...natronal mterests I-Its pohcy of promotmg regronal cooperatton complemented hrs economtc programs by openmg up markets The net result of this pragmatrc...concerns were economrc Instead of developmg a common market wnh Malaysra as provrded m therr separatmn agreement, economrc competrhon between the two

  9. Diverse in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to dealing with his fellow students at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Warner, a 21-year-old aerospace engineering major, says the fact that he comes from a group of farmers known as the Pallar community means nothing. But when it comes to his enrollment status as a student at IIT, it makes all the difference in the world.…

  10. Assessment of Initial Technical Training for USAF Supply Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Statement of the Problem .I.t.. . . . . . .. .. Research Ob~ective .... .................. Research Hypo)thieses. ....... . .. .. ............... 16...Recommendatxons for Future Research ........... .. 73 Additional Data Analysis ........... ............ 73 Study of Same Population ..... ............ 74...thi5 research pLoeect was to report the perceptiLons of 1’dxed States Air Force suppl’y officers regaLdi:ng the adequacy of their IIt ai techrncat

  11. Quality evaluation of investigator-initiated trials using post-approval cancer drugs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shunsuke; Hosoi, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Jun

    2017-03-07

    Investigator-initiated trials (IITs) are important aspects of medical research and have contributed substantially to modern oncology. IITs using post-approval drugs have been conducted by domestic institutions in Japan. Data from this study were obtained by all IITs registered clinical trials for five cancers (lung, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, and breast cancer) using drugs approved from 1999 to 2009 in Japan. The Kaplan-Meier method, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to estimate time to enrolment completion (TTEC) and time to enrolment per patient (TTEP). Of 1,222 trials eligible for analysis, 465 trials (38%) completed enrolment to the studies, and 203 trials (17%) published results. In the distribution according to trial phase, 98 (8%) were phase I, 1,058 (87%) were phase I/II + II, and 66 (5%) were phase II/III + III. The accrual achievement and publication rates were higher in late-phase than in early-phase trials. The median TTEC was 1,387 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1,302 to 1,472). The median TTEP was 38.5 days (95% CI, 34.5 to 42.5). The median TTEC and TTEP were significantly different in each trial phase (P < 0.01), funding source (P < 0.01), and publication status (median TTEC published trials vs. unpublished trial; 720 days vs. 1,672 days, median TTEP; 16 days vs. 55.8 days; P < 0.001). Many IITs using approved cancer drugs have been conducted; however, the quality of the clinical trials was low in terms of accrual achievement, publication rate, and time to publication of trial results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. New Perspectives on Contingency Corps Force Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    documnent mazy not bd reead f01 open POISIlcAtif 020 it has been deand by te Wrptiflts na mIits Ofcea gov~erntment Mpfcy. NEW PERSPECTIVES ON...would then be feasible without the previous layers of traditional infrastructure.6 Airborne, air-assault, mechanized , armor, or light infantry...responsibility (AOR) within the past two years. Force projection offers our President an effective instrument of national power. The recent successes by these

  13. From the phenomenology to the mechanisms of consciousness: Integrated Information Theory 3.0.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness 3.0, which incorporates several advances over previous formulations. IIT starts from phenomenological axioms: information says that each experience is specific--it is what it is by how it differs from alternative experiences; integration says that it is unified--irreducible to non-interdependent components; exclusion says that it has unique borders and a particular spatio-temporal grain. These axioms are formalized into postulates that prescribe how physical mechanisms, such as neurons or logic gates, must be configured to generate experience (phenomenology). The postulates are used to define intrinsic information as "differences that make a difference" within a system, and integrated information as information specified by a whole that cannot be reduced to that specified by its parts. By applying the postulates both at the level of individual mechanisms and at the level of systems of mechanisms, IIT arrives at an identity: an experience is a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS, a constellation of concepts in qualia space), and the set of elements that generates it constitutes a complex. According to IIT, a MICS specifies the quality of an experience and integrated information ΦMax its quantity. From the theory follow several results, including: a system of mechanisms may condense into a major complex and non-overlapping minor complexes; the concepts that specify the quality of an experience are always about the complex itself and relate only indirectly to the external environment; anatomical connectivity influences complexes and associated MICS; a complex can generate a MICS even if its elements are inactive; simple systems can be minimally conscious; complicated systems can be unconscious; there can be true "zombies"--unconscious feed-forward systems that are functionally equivalent to conscious complexes.

  14. Oxide Films RF Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    different stabilities and properties . Certain applications, such as integrated dielectrics or photoelectrochemical cells, require thin films of TiO2 that...interesting dielectric properties . Another is that the (001) plane of anatase TiO2 is one of the two main layers stacked along the (100) direction in...Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES .bDib ibuUl I U 1 iited 14. ABSTRACT TiO2 films were grown using a reactive molecular beam epitaxy system

  15. National Dam Inspection Program. Long Ridge Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA- 01022, PennDER I.D. Number 52-185), Delaware River Basin, Branch of Hornbecks Creek, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Erosbionobsre blong thuies usreamdem- attention. The deficiency is the result of inadequate slope pro- tection along portions of the upstream embankment...8217iftitift i~iIit tin’i. Hm’i inati 30f’? Vb~f 01,’,tlti’ ilA%9i~iittt Nnlint i~ LAUFRAnu Io PICK$fuumtpnntINdi.ig’iy anyttf’i r iud h~i.~.lIi i .u* i

  16. Laboratory Scale Antifoam Studies for the STTPB Process

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration, and washing steps. Conclusions are if air entrainment in the slurry is carefully avoided, little or no foam will be generated during normal operations during precipitation, concentration, and washing of the precipitate. Three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration and washing steps. In all cases little or no foam formed during normal operations of precipitation, concentration and washing. Foam was produced by purposely-introducing gas sub-surface into the slurry. Once produced, the IIT B52 antifoam was effective in defoaming the slurry. In separate foam column tests, all antifoam/defoam agents were effective in mitigating foam formation and in defoaming a foamed 10 wt % insoluble solids slurry. Based on the results in this report as well as foam column studies at IIT, it is recommended that IIT B52 antifoam at the 1000 ppmV level be used in subsequent STTPB work where foaming is a concern. This study indicates that the addition of antifoam agent hinders the recovery of NaTPB during washing. Washing precipitate with no antifoam agent added had the highest level of NaTPB recovery, but had the shortest overall washing time ({approximately}19 hours) compared to 26-28 hours for antifoam runs. The solubilities of the three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were measured in a 4.7 M sodium salt solution. The Surfynol DF-110D defoamer was essentially insoluble while the two IIT antifoamers; Particle Modifier (PM) and B52 were soluble to at least the 2000 ppmV level.

  17. Psychological Sciences Division 1979 Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    assembly and con-Sternberg, RIJ (’inira,iing conceptions. iit intelligence and their trot variations in test-performance programs. Ini- educaional ...University of influence the readers’s perception of the subject Arzona, January 1979 matter by having them identify the topics of pas - sages which varied in...were identified. An engage- completed during the pas year ment model or outcome calculator was developed which provides a rapid estimate of air strike

  18. A General Purpose Ionospheric Ray Tracing Procedure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    PUBUC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED i IIt ii 11 UNCLASSIFIED DST0O A U S T R A L I A SURVEILLANCE RESEARCH LABORATORY ZDMC QUAIrrY High Frequency Radar ...tol = tolerance (Kms) at each step of raytracing (a value of * * l.d-6 is sufficient in most cases) * * CHARACTER * * cha - ’y’ if magnetic fields...Director, Surveillance Research Laboratory 1 Chief High Frequency Radar Division 1 Research Leader, Jindalee Operational Radar Network 1 Head, Radar

  19. Use of automatic door closers improves fire safety.

    PubMed

    Waterman, T E

    1979-01-01

    In a series of 16 full-scale fire tests, investigators at the IIT Research Institute have concluded that automatic door control in the room of fire origin can significantly reduce the spread of toxic smoke and gases. The researchers also investigated the effects of sprinkler actuation, and the functional relationship between sprinklers and automatic door closers. This report presents the results of the study, and presents recommendations for health-care facilities.

  20. Metabolic control and educational status in children with type 1 diabetes: effects of a summer camp and intensive insulin treatment.

    PubMed

    Karagüzel, G; Bircan, I; Erişir, S; Bundak, R

    2005-12-01

    Our aim was to evaluate prospectively, in our diabetic patients, the impacts of a summer camp and intensive insulin treatment (IIT) on both metabolic control and disease-related educational level. Twenty-five patients participated in a 7-day-long summer camp. Before the camp, all patients were on therapy with short-acting human insulin (SAI) and intermediate-acting insulin (IAI) twice daily. On arrival, their insulin therapy regimen was changed by IIT including either SAI or rapid-acting insulin analogue (RAI) three times before meals supplemented by IAI at bedtime. Following the camp, all participants were given IIT with RAI plus IAI. Frequency of hypoglycaemia, insulin dose, body mass index (BMI) and glycohaemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were assessed at pre-camp and post-camp controls. To evaluate the effectiveness of camp-assisted education, all participants were regularly tested. We observed significant elevations in total daily dose of insulin and BMI at months 3 and 6 when compared with the pre-camp values but, by month 12, they were not significantly different from precamp values. The mean HbA(1c) level decreased significantly at months 6 and 12. Severe hypoglycaemic episodes and ketoacidosis were not detected during the camp and the following year. Significant improvements in knowledge about diabetes and self-management were determined at the end of the camp, after 6 and 12 months. Camp-assisted IIT with RAI improved metabolic control of diabetic children. Additionally, camp-assisted education has a positive effect on disease-related educational level and self-management.

  1. KBSA Project Management Assistant. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    Technical Report July 1967 KBSA PROJECT MANAGEMENT ASSISTANT Kestrel Institute Richard J0illi9, Wolfgang Polak, Peter Ladkin and Li-Mel Gilham APPROVED FOR...lieediuig im1provemuemit v" 1.:!, * (i~f suich alimel Mt sagi-;1 imuplie’. t~wll nr" forI thi’. P, \\ !oA to pil~vile ait 1"’ 1-’ I Iser Iit lrIfhIe

  2. Relocation of the 146th Tactical Airlift Wing of the California Air National Guard. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    I orc Dear Msgt Black: We have received the Notice of tic 4vt or the 146th Tactical willk be .. orths.roAirlift Wing’s Base Relocation EI/Ihstime we...y tap e age i y from •-.!ýiý:iit!- ip d sina i g ar la dsw o l to prevent the agency from Comments on Technical Aula e deftne those to be protected

  3. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, BEST 4 SERVIS BRAND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... hm .... (I'TI')~ 1'" 1I"f .lppl\\ dUt",,, t, ~,t·d ' "d ... fll!f~ .• , " II\\'· !!I.tTt·!!,ti I)" :In! \\I ..... fief! hI. pr·.dl.:' 'o. .1!1·.t~ f· ,·d .,!'" I· ... lld.: plallt .... t· ... ! IIT.II;' '1 ...

  4. Spall Ring Diameter and Paths of Peripheral Spall Particles from Shaped Charge Jet Perforation of Armor Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    effects for vulnerability calculations, do not fulfill this request since thoy do not lend themselves to correlation NY- with the dynamic history of the...bctw•net thek Iit ing and trailing p.,rtiunv of tdh )cte. d1/dt wies bwt•n L ?.. d 10.4 Nu/nto . ote- I•’vg scatter in spall dizmter. MV: w w w w w

  5. Recovery of Energy from Solid Waste at Army Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    airborne bacteria and viruses) and fire. Modern plant designs include an air hood near the shredder to prevent a dangerous concentration of dust near the...34, VA 23801 Sacramento T tA OhCAlTT: Library, Rsoei8307 IAO ATIM: DRXMC-D (2) ATTN: Chief. SPrED - R 83iit 0 r, NJ Ob4l)N hiFeatD Ft Bel-air, JA eIi

  6. Pascagoula Harbor, Mississippi. Feasibility Report on Improvement of the Federal Deep-Draft Navigation Channel. Volume 2. Technical Appendices. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    about half the time as the pipeline work, it would be logical for that work to begin about the middle of the period so all construction would finish ...d co)uld 𔃾’ -I to -rilch a plan i t c t C , . vy -;i- .: i m ’i, end o Iit coton . -p m -w 1u d ’if n;i ii 1 1in, ne, f e eco an .. i gil im 7" i

  7. Molecular identification of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates of subgroup IB associated with mosaic disease of eggplant in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Susheel; Gautam, Karmveer Kumar; Raj, Shri Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Association of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) with severe mosaic disease of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) collected from Lucknow and Kanpur, India was initially detected by host reaction and serological assay and confirmed by RT-PCR employing coat protein gene specific primers. Further, molecular identification of the virus isolates was done by cloning and sequence analysis of the complete RNA3 genome. Based on 97-99 % identities and phylogenetic relationships, the virus isolates infecting eggplant were identified as members of CMV subgroup IB.

  8. Regional behaviour of atmospheric aerosols over Indo-Gangetic Basin during pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S.; Singh, A. K.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospherics aerosols play a vital role in the field of study of Earth's radiation budget and their impact on climate change. The present study was carried out for the study of variation of aerosol characteristics during pre-monsoon season 2011 at different locations, (a) Jaipur (26.900 N, 75.900E), (b) Kanpur (26.40 N, 80.40 E) and (c) Gandhi College, Ballia (25.8° N, 84.2°E) over Indo Gangetic Basin (IGB) using AERONET level 1.5 data. Various interesting results are discussed in present paper in terms of aerosol optical and radiative properties.

  9. Intercomparison of MODIS, MISR, OMI, and CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals for four locations on the Indo-Gangetic plains and validation against AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Humera; Alam, Khan; Chishtie, Farrukh; Bibi, Samina; Shahid, Imran; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    This study provides an intercomparison of aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) instrumentation over Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur between 2007 and 2013, with validation against AOD observations from the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Both MODIS Deep Blue (MODISDB) and MODIS Standard (MODISSTD) products were compared with the AERONET products. The MODISSTD-AERONET comparisons revealed a high degree of correlation for the four investigated sites at Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur, the MODISDB-AERONET comparisons revealed even better correlations, and the MISR-AERONET comparisons also indicated strong correlations, as did the OMI-AERONET comparisons, while the CALIPSO-AERONET comparisons revealed only poor correlations due to the limited number of data points available. We also computed figures for root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean bias (RMB). Using AERONET data to validate MODISSTD, MODISDB, MISR, OMI, and CALIPSO data revealed that MODISSTD data was more accurate over vegetated locations than over un-vegetated locations, while MISR data was more accurate over areas close to the ocean than over other areas. The MISR instrument performed better than the other instruments over Karachi and Kanpur, while the MODISSTD AOD retrievals were better than those from the other instruments over Lahore and Jaipur. We also computed the expected error bounds (EEBs) for both MODIS retrievals and found that MODISSTD consistently outperformed MODISDB in all of the investigated areas. High AOD values were observed by the MODISSTD, MODISDB, MISR, and OMI instruments during the summer months (April-August); these ranged from 0.32 to 0.78, possibly due to human activity and biomass burning. In

  10. Using category theory to assess the relationship between consciousness and integrated information theory.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Taguchi, Shigeru; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-06-01

    One of the most mysterious phenomena in science is the nature of conscious experience. Due to its subjective nature, a reductionist approach is having a hard time in addressing some fundamental questions about consciousness. These questions are squarely and quantitatively tackled by a recently developed theoretical framework, called integrated information theory (IIT) of consciousness. In particular, IIT proposes that a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS) is identical to conscious experience. However, there has been no principled way to assess the claimed identity. Here, we propose to apply a mathematical formalism, category theory, to assess the proposed identity and suggest that it is important to consider if there exists a proper translation between the domain of conscious experience and that of the MICS. If such translation exists, we postulate that questions in one domain can be answered in the other domain; very difficult questions in the domain of consciousness can be resolved in the domain of mathematics. We claim that it is possible to empirically test if such a functor exists, by using a combination of neuroscientific and computational approaches. Our general, principled and empirical framework allows us to assess the relationship between the domain of consciousness and the domain of mathematical structures, including those suggested by IIT.

  11. Neurobiological differences in mental rotation and instrument interpretation in airline pilots

    PubMed Central

    Sladky, Ronald; Stepniczka, Irene; Boland, Edzard; Tik, Martin; Lamm, Claus; Hoffmann, André; Buch, Jan-Philipp; Niedermeier, Dominik; Field, Joris; Windischberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Airline pilots and similar professions require reliable spatial cognition abilities, such as mental imagery of static and moving three-dimensional objects in space. A well-known task to investigate these skills is the Shepard and Metzler mental rotation task (SMT), which is also frequently used during pre-assessment of pilot candidates. Despite the intuitive relationship between real-life spatial cognition and SMT, several studies have challenged its predictive value. Here we report on a novel instrument interpretation task (IIT) based on a realistic attitude indicator used in modern aircrafts that was designed to bridge the gap between the abstract SMT and a cockpit environment. We investigated 18 professional airline pilots using fMRI. No significant correlation was found between SMT and IIT task accuracies. Contrasting both tasks revealed higher activation in the fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, and medial precuneus for IIT, whereas SMT elicited significantly stronger activation in pre- and supplementary motor areas, as well as lateral precuneus and superior parietal lobe. Our results show that SMT skills per se are not sufficient to predict task accuracy during (close to) real-life instrument interpretation. While there is a substantial overlap of activation across the task conditions, we found that there are important differences between instrument interpretation and non-aviation based mental rotation. PMID:27323913

  12. Development of dense gas dispersion model for emergency preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Manju; Panwar, T. S.; Singh, M. P.

    Mathematical models are recognized as important tools for providing quantitative assessment of the consequences of the accidental release of hazardous materials. In several accidental release situations, denser-than-air vapour clouds are formed which exhibit dispersion behaviour markedly different from that observed for passive atmospheric pollutants. The present work undertakes the development and validation of conceptually simple and computationally efficient dense gas dispersion models which could be used for emergency response. Here, IIT Heavy Gas Models I and II have been developed for instantaneous and continuous releases, respectively, of dense toxic materials in the atmosphere. Sensitivity tests have been performed to determine the various empirical coefficients which are found to be quite different than those used in the earlier studies. Particular emphasis has been laid on model validation by comparing their performance against relevant field trial data (Thorney Island, Burro Series and Maplin Sands Trials) as well as with other models. On the basis of statistical evaluation, a good performance of the model has been established. The performance of the IIT Heavy Gas Model is close to the model showing the best performance amongst 11-14 other models developed in various countries. Using the IIT Heavy Gas Model, the Safe distance/vulnerable zones can be easily estimated for different meteorological and release conditions for the storage of various hazardous chemicals.

  13. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. ); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. ); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. )

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  14. Establishing isothermal contact at a known temperature under thermal equilibrium in elevated temperature instrumented indentation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X. D.; Alvarez, C. L. M.; Jennett, N. M.

    2017-02-01

    Instrumented indentation testing (IIT) at elevated temperatures has proved to be a useful tool to study plastic and elastic deformation and understand the performance of material components at (or nearer to) the actual temperatures experienced in-service. The value of elevated temperature IIT data, however, depends on the ability not only to achieve a stable, isothermal indentation contact at thermal equilibrium when taking data, but to be able to assign a valid temperature to that contact (and so to the data). The most common method found in the current literature is to use the calculated thermal drift rate as an indicator, but this approach has never been properly validated. This study proves that using the thermal drift rate to determine isothermal contact may lead to large errors in the determination of the real contact temperature. Instead, a more sensitive and validated method is demonstrated, based upon using the indenter tip and the tip heater control thermocouple as a reproducible and calibrated contact temperature sensor. A simple calibration procedure is described, along with step by step guidance to establish an isothermal contact at a known temperature under thermal equilibrium when conducting elevated temperature IIT experiments.

  15. Restructuring consciousness –the psychedelic state in light of integrated information theory

    PubMed Central

    Gallimore, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    The psychological state elicited by the classic psychedelics drugs, such as LSD and psilocybin, is one of the most fascinating and yet least understood states of consciousness. However, with the advent of modern functional neuroimaging techniques, the effect of these drugs on neural activity is now being revealed, although many of the varied phenomenological features of the psychedelic state remain challenging to explain. Integrated information theory (IIT) is one of the foremost contemporary theories of consciousness, providing a mathematical formalization of both the quantity and quality of conscious experience. This theory can be applied to all known states of consciousness, including the psychedelic state. Using the results of functional neuroimaging data on the psychedelic state, the effects of psychedelic drugs on both the level and structure of consciousness can be explained in terms of the conceptual framework of IIT. This new IIT-based model of the psychedelic state provides an explanation for many of its phenomenological features, including unconstrained cognition, alterations in the structure and meaning of concepts and a sense of expanded awareness. This model also suggests that whilst cognitive flexibility, creativity, and imagination are enhanced during the psychedelic state, this occurs at the expense of cause-effect information, as well as degrading the brain's ability to organize, categorize, and differentiate the constituents of conscious experience. Furthermore, the model generates specific predictions that can be tested using a combination of functional imaging techniques, as has been applied to the study of levels of consciousness during anesthesia and following brain injury. PMID:26124719

  16. Integrated, Multidisciplinary and Technology-Enhanced Science Education: The Next Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary science education at all levels presents several critical pedagogical and social challenges to educators and learners alike. Among these challenges are the widening Intergenerational Information Technology (IIT) divide and the need for a comprehensive and balanced multidisciplinary training. In the past few years, it has become clear that one significant hurdle impedes the efforts to integrate information technology in the classroom – the Intergenerational IT divide. The IIT gap reflects a different growing misalignment between providers and recipients of the science and technology educational content in terms of the expected vs. supplied, needed vs. perceived and contextual vs. abstract specialized learning. The common K-12 teacher or college instructor is much less familiar with, and slower to adapt to, the new ether of communication and novel IT resources. The transfer and blending of data, research challenges and methodologies between diverse areas of science is also critical in motivating wider spectra of students, demonstrating cross-disciplinary methodological concepts and synergies, as well as for engaging students in research projects. This article discusses the problems faced by modern science educators and suggests some methods and vision for coping with the increasing IIT divide and the social need to train “complete” and broadly educated citizens. PMID:21552453

  17. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mumbai, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pramod; Venkataraman, Chandra

    Atmospheric particulate PAH concentrations were measured at two locations in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India. Total PAH concentrations (seven compounds) at Saki Naka and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) were 38.8 and 24.5 ng m -3. Pyrene and benz(a)anthracene+chrysene were abundant at both sites while benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(k)fluoranthene were abundant, in addition, at the IIT site. The large amount of pyrene in the ambient samples in Mumbai is likely from cooking-fuel combustion (animal manure, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas) in addition to vehicular emissions. Pyrene and chrysene are also emitted from industrial oil burning while the low concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene indicate that wood burning is not a significant source. At the IIT site, primarily vehicular emissions along with cooking fuel emissions are the likely contributors while industrial oil burning is an additional contributor at Saki Naka, accounting for the higher concentrations of pyrene and chrysene/benz(a)anthracene. In urban areas vehicular emissions are likely to be the primary contributor to PAH concentrations with additional local contributors like cooking fuel or industrial emissions.

  18. Restructuring consciousness -the psychedelic state in light of integrated information theory.

    PubMed

    Gallimore, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    The psychological state elicited by the classic psychedelics drugs, such as LSD and psilocybin, is one of the most fascinating and yet least understood states of consciousness. However, with the advent of modern functional neuroimaging techniques, the effect of these drugs on neural activity is now being revealed, although many of the varied phenomenological features of the psychedelic state remain challenging to explain. Integrated information theory (IIT) is one of the foremost contemporary theories of consciousness, providing a mathematical formalization of both the quantity and quality of conscious experience. This theory can be applied to all known states of consciousness, including the psychedelic state. Using the results of functional neuroimaging data on the psychedelic state, the effects of psychedelic drugs on both the level and structure of consciousness can be explained in terms of the conceptual framework of IIT. This new IIT-based model of the psychedelic state provides an explanation for many of its phenomenological features, including unconstrained cognition, alterations in the structure and meaning of concepts and a sense of expanded awareness. This model also suggests that whilst cognitive flexibility, creativity, and imagination are enhanced during the psychedelic state, this occurs at the expense of cause-effect information, as well as degrading the brain's ability to organize, categorize, and differentiate the constituents of conscious experience. Furthermore, the model generates specific predictions that can be tested using a combination of functional imaging techniques, as has been applied to the study of levels of consciousness during anesthesia and following brain injury.

  19. Comparison of Streak Tube Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R A; Andrews, D S; Bell, P M; Griffiths, R L; Huey, A W; McDonald, J W; de Dios, G V

    2004-11-04

    The performance of four streak tubes in six streak camera configurations is reported. Evaluations were made as part of a search for a streak tube to replace the obsolete RCA C73435 used in the ICF Program's optical streak cameras. Characteristics measured include linearity, spatial and temporal resolution, line-spread function, contrast transfer ratio (CTR), and dynamic range. Tubes evaluated are the RCA C73435, Photonis P510, Photek ST-Y, and Hamamatsu N8059. The RCA C73435 was evaluated in three camera configurations: large format CCD coupled directly to the streak tube, CCD directly coupled to an image intensifier tube (IIT), and the original configuration with a smaller CCD lens coupled to the IIT output. The Photonis and Photek tubes were characterized in configurations where they were directly coupled to large format CCDs. Optimum spatial resolution is achieved when the IIT is removed. Maximum dynamic range requires a configuration where a single photoelectron from the photocathode produces a signal that is {approx}5 times the CCD read noise. The Photonis P510 tube with the E2V CCD forms a well-optimized streak camera system.

  20. Additions to the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae (Chalcidoidea) of India with new distribution and host records for some species

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, A.; V, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India have not been surveyed in depth and hosts are not known for most of the species as the methods of collections used are passive and do not yield firsthand information on the hosts. Based on our ongoing surveys on the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India, we report here new distribution and host records for some species. New information Acmopolynema campylurum Xu and Lin, Litus cynipseus Haliday, Omyomymar glabrum Lin and Chiappini and Platystethynium Ogloblin (Mymaridae), and Rhytidothorax purpureiscutellum (Girault) (Encyrtidae) are reported for the first time from India. Anagyrus aquilonaris (Noyes and Hayat) is recorded as new to Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya. Paraphaenodiscus indicus Singh and Agarwal and Paraphaenodiscus monawari Bhuiya are recorded from south India for the first time, the latter on a new host, Pulvinaria polygonata. Chorizococcus sorghi Williams (Pseudococcidae) is reported as a host for Cryptanusia ajmerensis (Fatma & Shafee), for which no hosts are hitherto known and the male of Cryptanusia is documented for the first time. Aclerda sp. is recorded as a new host for Neastymachus axillaris Singh, Agarwal and Basha. PMID:26069438

  1. Molecular support for the recognition of the Mycoblastus fucatus group as the new genus Violella (Tephromelataceae, Lecanorales)

    PubMed Central

    SPRIBILLE, Toby; GOFFINET, Bernard; KLUG, Barbara; MUGGIA, Lucia; OBERMAYER, Walter; MAYRHOFER, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    The crustose lichen genus Mycoblastus in the Northern Hemisphere includes eight recognized species sharing large, simple ascospores produced 1–2 per ascus in strongly pigmented biatorine apothecia. The monophyly of Mycoblastus and the relationship of its various species to Tephromelataceae have never been studied in detail. Data from ITS rDNA and the genes coding for translation elongation factor 1-α and DNA replication licensing factor mini-chromosome maintenance complex 7 support the distinctness of Mycoblastus s. str. from the core of the Tephromelataceae, but recover M. fucatus and an undescribed Asian species as strongly supported within the latter group. We propose accommodating these two species in a new genus, Violella, which is characterized by its brownish inner ascospore walls, Fucatus-violet hymenial pigment granules and secondary chemistry, and discuss the position of Violella relative to Calvitimela and Tephromela. We describe the new species Violella wangii T. Sprib. & Goffinet to accommodate a new species with roccellic acid from Bhutan, China, India and the Russian Far East. We also exclude Mycoblastus indicus Awasthi & Agarwal from the genus Mycoblastus and propose for it the new combination Malmidea indica (Awasthi & Agarwal) Hafellner & T. Sprib. PMID:22936837

  2. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam.

  3. Dynamical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over IG region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish; Singh, Ramesh P.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic (IG) region are primarily dependent on the geographical settings and meteorological conditions. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out over three different cities i.e. Kanpur, Greater Noida and Amritsar during 2010-2013. Level-3 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) terra daily global grid product with spatial resolution of 1° × 1° shows the mean AOD at 500 nm wavelength value of 0.73, 0.70 and 0.67 with the standard deviation of 0.43, 0.39 and 0.36 respectively over Amritsar, Greater Noida and Kanpur. Our detailed analysis shows characteristic behavior of aerosols from west to east in the IG region depending upon the proximity of desert regions of Arabia. We have observed large influx of dusts from the Thar desert and Arabia peninsula during pre-monsoon season (April-June), highly affecting Amritsar which is close to the desert region.

  4. Climatological Aspects of the Optical Properties of Fine/Coarse Mode Aerosol Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Sinyuk, A.; Pinker, R. T.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Chatenet, B.; Li, Z.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S.N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Dubovik O.; O'Neill, N. T.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, P.; Xia, X.

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol mixtures composed of coarse mode desert dust combined with fine mode combustion generated aerosols (from fossil fuel and biomass burning sources) were investigated at three locations that are in and/or downwind of major global aerosol emission source regions. Multiyear monitoring data at Aerosol Robotic Network sites in Beijing (central eastern China), Kanpur (Indo-Gangetic Plain, northern India), and Ilorin (Nigeria, Sudanian zone of West Africa) were utilized to study the climatological characteristics of aerosol optical properties. Multiyear climatological averages of spectral single scattering albedo (SSA) versus fine mode fraction (FMF) of aerosol optical depth at 675 nm at all three sites exhibited relatively linear trends up to 50% FMF. This suggests the possibility that external linear mixing of both fine and coarse mode components (weighted by FMF) dominates the SSA variation, where the SSA of each component remains relatively constant for this range of FMF only. However, it is likely that a combination of other factors is also involved in determining the dynamics of SSA as a function of FMF, such as fine mode particles adhering to coarse mode dust. The spectral variation of the climatological averaged aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) was nearly linear in logarithmic coordinates over the wavelength range of 440-870 nm for both the Kanpur and Ilorin sites. However, at two sites in China (Beijing and Xianghe), a distinct nonlinearity in spectral AAOD in logarithmic space was observed, suggesting the possibility of anomalously strong absorption in coarse mode aerosols increasing the 870 nm AAOD.

  5. Molecular characterization of a first begomovirus associated with lentil (Lens culinaris) from India.

    PubMed

    Naimuddin, K; Akram, M; Agnihotri, A K

    A disease of lentil with symptoms of distortion, mottling and chlorosis in the leaves, shortening of internodes and excessive branching was noticed in lentil at Kanpur, India, during 2012-2014. Results of polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction employed to detect suspected RNA and DNA viruses indicated involvement of a geminivirus, which was further characterized by sequencing of full genome amplified by rolling circle amplification. Analysis of full length DNA-A revealed 96.4-96.7% nucleotide similarity with bitter gourd yellow vein virus (BGYVV) isolates and tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) isolate. As per the recent revision of begomovirus species demarcation criteria, if a new virus isolate shares ≥91% nt sequence identity with any other isolate of an existing species, it should be treated as an isolate of that species, even if it is <91% identical to all other isolates from that species. This made BGYVV an isolate of ToLCNDV and resulted in the de-recognizing of the BGGYV. Hence, the present virus has been named as a strain of ToLCNDV and designated as Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-Lentil-[India:Kanpur:Lentil:2014] with the acronym as ToLCNDV-Lentil-[IN:Knp:Len:14]. This is the first report of a begomovirus found associated with a disease in lentil from India.

  6. Pediatric Palatal Fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tayyeb S; Ajaz, Tarannum; Agarwal, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Fibroma is one of the most common soft tissue benign tumors of the oral cavity. These masses represent hyperplasias instead of true neoplasm, which develop due to irritation to the mucosal tissue resulting in proliferation of the cells. Although so common in the oral cavity, its occurrence on the palate is rare, mainly due to fewer chances of trauma. Here, we report a case of palatal fibroma in a child diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and histological features. The case represents an extremely rare occurrence as unusual trauma due to thumb sucking seemed to be the only apparent traumatic factor in the palatal region. How to cite this article Mishra R, Khan TS, Ajaz T, Agarwal M. Pediatric Palatal Fibroma. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017; 10(1):96-98. PMID:28377663

  7. Breastfeeding: Nature’s Safety Net

    PubMed Central

    Ghousia, S; Konde, Sapna; Raj, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Breastfeeding is a natural safety-net for the first few months in order to give the child a fairer start to life. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry recognizes the distinct nutritional advantages of human milk for infants and endorsed the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the promotion of breastfeeding. It therefore calls for increase in need to negotiate the roles and responsibilities of pediatric dentists to eliminate the existing gaps in preventive care and anticipatory guidance. The objective of this evidence-based review is to explore the beneficial roles of breastfeeding in orofacial growth and development and endorse the same through anticipatory guidance. How to cite this article: Agarwal M, Ghousia S, Konde S, Raj S. Breastfeeding: Nature’s Safety Net. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):49-53. PMID:25206134

  8. GB277: preview Women 2000. ILO exmaines progress, looks ahead to Beijing + 5.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    In the special Symposium on Decent Work for Women, conducted during the Governing Body meeting, the challenge of eliminating gender-based discrimination in the workplace was highlighted. Among the topics discussed were rights-based and development-based approaches; progress and gaps in decent work for men and women; promoting women workers' rights; a gender perspective on poverty, employment and social protection; management development and entrepreneurship for women; and gender in crisis response and reconstructions. This paper presents excerpts of the addresses of key speakers: Juan Somavia, International Labor Organization Director-General; Angela Kin, Special Advisor to the UN on Gender Issues and the Advancement of Women; and Bina Agarwal, Professor of Economics at the University of Delhi. In general, the speakers identified existing obstacles to gender equality, and propose initiatives and actions for the future.

  9. Mandibular Dentigerous Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Bindu; Sharma, Sunil; Agarwal, Prateek; Bhamboo, Amit; Rastogi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst. It is characterized by a unilocular radiolucent lesion that encloses permanent tooth buds or, under certain circumstances, displaced tooth buds. Buccal bony expansion and a missing tooth is the most common clinical feature. Various treatment modalities have been mentioned in the literature for management of dentigerous cysts. This article presents a left mandibular dentigerous cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Marsupialization was the treatment of choice and a denturelike space maintainer was provided. Long-term follow-up revealed good healing of the bony lesion. How to cite this article Bhardwaj B, Sharma S, Chitlangia P, Agarwal P, Bhamboo A, Rastogi K. Mandibular Dentigerous Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3): 281-284. PMID:27843264

  10. RAS one-equation turbulence model with non-singular eddy-viscosity coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Agarwal, R. K.; Siikonen, T.

    2016-02-01

    A simplified consistency formulation for Pk/ε (production to dissipation ratio) is devised to obtain a non-singular Cμ (coefficient of eddy-viscosity) in the explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model of Gatski and Speziale. The coefficient Cμ depends non-linearly on both rotational/irrotational strains and is used in the framework of an improved RAS (Rahman-Agarwal-Siikonen) one-equation turbulence model to calculate a few well-documented turbulent flows, yielding predictions in good agreement with the direct numerical simulation and experimental data. The strain-dependent Cμ assists the RAS model in constructing the coefficients and functions such as to benefit complex flows with non-equilibrium turbulence. Comparisons with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model and the shear stress transport k-ω model demonstrate that Cμ improves the response of RAS model to non-equilibrium effects.

  11. Attenuation correction factors for cylindrical, disc and box geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Chhavi; Poi, Sanhita; Mhatre, Amol; Goswami, A.; Gathibandhe, M.

    2009-08-01

    In the present study, attenuation correction factors have been experimentally determined for samples having cylindrical, disc and box geometry and compared with the attenuation correction factors calculated by Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) method [ C. Agarwal, S. Poi, A. Goswami, M. Gathibandhe, R.A. Agrawal, Nucl. Instr. and. Meth. A 597 (2008) 198] and with the near-field and far-field formulations available in literature. It has been observed that the near-field formulae, although said to be applicable at close sample-detector geometry, does not work at very close sample-detector configuration. The advantage of the HMC method is that it is found to be valid for all sample-detector geometries.

  12. Analysis and modeling of flicker noise in lateral asymmetric channel MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Harshit; Kushwaha, Pragya; Gupta, Chetan; Khandelwal, Sourabh; Hu, Chenming; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, flicker noise behavior of lateral non-uniformly doped MOSFET is studied using impedance field method. Our study shows that Klaassen Prins (KP) method, which forms the basis of noise model in MOSFETs, underestimates flicker noise in such devices. The same KP method overestimates thermal noise by 2-3 orders of magnitude in similar devices as demonstrated in Roy et al. (2007). This apparent discrepancy between thermal and flicker noise behavior lies in origin of these noises, which leads to opposite trend of local noise power spectral density vs doping. We have modeled the physics behind such behavior, which also explain the trends observed in the measurements (Agarwal et al., 2015).

  13. Informed Consent for Braces

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Rathore, Nidhi; Rathee, Pooja; Agarwal, Deepesh; Mathur, Nikunj

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influence of law on the orthodontic profession has greatly increased in the last few decades. Dental law has emerged today as a full-fedged specialty dealing with a variety of areas, like professional negligence, doctor-patient contracts, consumer protection laws, ethics, general and special health legislations and practice regulatory mechanisms. This article highlights the concept of informed consent which is based on the premise that each individual has a right to make decisions concerning his health, disease and treatment. How to cite this article: Jharwal V, Trehan M, Rathore N, Rathee P, Agarwal D, Mathur N. Informed Consent for Braces. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):105-108. PMID:25356009

  14. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient’s compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73. PMID:27274159

  15. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition.

    PubMed

    Patil, Raju Umaji; Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient's compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73.

  16. Oscillation criteria for a class of second-order Emden-Fowler delay dynamic equations on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhenlai; Sun, Shurong; Shi, Bao

    2007-10-01

    By means of Riccati transformation technique, we establish some new oscillation criteria for the second-order Emden-Fowler delay dynamic equationsx[Delta][Delta](t)+p(t)x[gamma]([tau](t))=0 on a time scale ; here [gamma] is a quotient of odd positive integers with p(t) real-valued positive rd-continuous functions defined on . To the best of our knowledge nothing is known regarding the qualitative behavior of these equations on time scales. Our results in this paper not only extend the results given in [R.P. Agarwal, M. Bohner, S.H. Saker, Oscillation of second-order delay dynamic equations, Can. Appl. Math. Q. 13 (1) (2005) 1-18] but also unify the oscillation of the second-order Emden-Fowler delay differential equation and the second-order Emden-Fowler delay difference equation.

  17. State-projective scheme for generating pair coherent states in traveling-wave optical fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Mimih, Jihane; Birrittella, Richard

    2011-08-15

    The pair coherent states of a two-mode quantized electromagnetic field introduced by Agarwal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 827 (1986)] have yet to be generated in the laboratory. The states can mathematically be obtained from a product of ordinary coherent states via projection onto a subspace wherein identical photon number states of each mode are paired. We propose a scheme by which this projection can be engineered. The scheme requires relatively weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, the ability to perform a displacement operation on a beam mode, and photon detection ability able to distinguish between zero and any other number of photons. These requirements can be fulfilled with currently available technology or technology that is on the horizon.

  18. Determination of flow-regime boundaries for cohesive particles. Final report, September 20, 1988--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, T.M.; Findlay, J.G.; Arastoopour, H.; Gidaspow, D.

    1992-10-01

    Cohesive particles (Geldart Group C powders) are fine particles generally less than 30 microns in size. Interparticle forces are large relative to inertial forces in these particles, and cause clumping, sticking, and channeling when attempts are made to fluidize them. These solids do not flow easily through pipes, and bridge extremely easily. The objectives of the work in this program were (1) to develop a hydrodynamic model which can be applied to cohesive solids, and (2) to obtain data in a large-scale (30-cm-diameter) riser to test the model. The work was divided into six tasks: Task 1. Preparation of a Project Work Plan; Task 2. Hydrodynamic Model Development; Task 3. Determination of Rheological Properties for Incorporation into the Model; Task 4. Small-Scale Flow Tests; Task 5. Large-Scale Flow Tests; and Task 6. Comparison of Model With Data. The work was conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) in collaboration with the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). This work combined the expertise of IIT in model development, with the large-scale experimental capabilities of IGT. IIT researchers developed the hydrodynamic model in the program, while the large-scale data were generated by IGT. Following the preparation of the Project Work Plan in Task 1, work was started on the development of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to enable the behavior of cohesive solids in a dilute-phase riser to be simulated. In Task 2, two hydrodynamic models were developed based on the kinetic theory model of granular flow. The models were used to predict data presented in the literature, as well as data generated in Task 5 of this study. In Task 3, rheological data on cohesive oil shale with an average particle size of approximately 12 microns was obtained using a unique device called a cohetester.

  19. Clinical Impact of Sample Interference on Intensive Insulin Therapy in Severely Burned Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nam K.; Godwin, Zachary R.; Bockhold, Jennifer C.; Passerini, Anthony G.; Cheng, Julian; Ingemason, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Severely burned patients benefit from intensive insulin therapy (IIT) for tight glycemic control (TGC). We evaluated the clinical impact of automatic correction of hematocrit and ascorbic acid interference for bedside glucose monitoring performance in critically ill burn patients. Methods The performance of two point-of-care glucose monitoring systems (GMS): (a) GMS1, an autocorrecting device, and (b) GMS2, a non-correcting device were compared. Sixty remnant arterial blood samples were collected in a prospective observational study to evaluate hematocrit and ascorbic acid effects on GMS1 vs. GMS2 accuracy paired against a plasma glucose reference. Next we enrolled 12 patients in a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive IIT targeting a TGC interval of 111–151 mg/dL and guided by either GMS1 or GMS2. GMS bias, mean insulin rate, and glycemic variability were calculated. Results In the prospective study, GMS1 results were similar to plasma glucose results (mean bias: −0.75[4.0] mg/dL, n=60, P=0.214). GMS2 results significantly differed from paired plasma glucose results (mean bias: −5.66[18.7] mg/dL, n=60, P=0.048). Ascorbic acid therapy elicited significant GMS2 performance bias (29.2[27.2], P<0.001). RCT results reported lower mean bias (P<0.001), glycemic variability (P<0.05), mean insulin rate (P<0.001), and frequency of hypoglycemia (P<0.001) in the GMS1 group than the GMS2 group. Conclusions Anemia and high dose ascorbic acid therapy negatively impact GMS accuracy and TGC in burn patients. Automatic correction of confounding factors improves glycemic control. Further studies are warranted to determine outcomes associated with accurate glucose monitoring during IIT. PMID:23884048

  20. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of Clarias batrachus (Pisces: Siluriformes) in the Indomalayan region.

    PubMed

    Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Kar, Pradip Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Revision of monozoic cestodes (Caryophyllidea) parasitic in commercially important walking catfish Clarias batrachus (L.) in tropical Asia (Indomalayan zoogeographical region) was carried out, based on the evaluation of newly collected material from India, Indonesia, and Thailand, as well as a study of type specimens. Instead of the 59 nominal taxa of 15 genera from 3 caryophyllidean families previously described, only 8 species of the Lytocestidae are considered to be valid: Bovienia indica (Niyogi, Gupta and Agarwal, 1982) n. comb.; Bovienia raipurensis (Satpute and Agarwal, 1980) Mackiewicz, 1994; Bovienia serialis (Bovien, 1926) Fuhrmann, 1931; Djombangia penetrans Bovien, 1926; Lucknowia microcephala (Bovien, 1926) n. comb.; Lytocestus indicus (Moghe, 1925) Woodland 1926; Pseudocaryophyllaeus ritai Gupta and Singh, 1983; and Pseudocaryophyllaeus tenuicollis (Bovien, 1926) n. comb. All valid species are redescribed and SEM photomicrographs of their scolices and photomicrographs of their eggs are provided for the first time. Crescentovitus Murhar, 1963, Heeradevina Srivastav and Khare, 2005, Pseudobatrachus Pathak and Srivastav, 2005, Pseudobilobulata Srivastav and Lohia, 2002, Pseudoclariasis Pathak, 2002, and Pseudoinverta Pathak, 2002 are invalidated and 50 nominal species are newly synonymized, including 4 species described from other fish hosts. Taxonomic status of the remaining caryophyllidean taxa reported from C. batrachus (at least 6 taxa) could not be clarified because of the unavailability of their original descriptions. A key to identification of caryophyllidean tapeworms parasitic in C. batrachus is provided. To avoid current inflation of descriptions of invalid taxa, researchers are strongly encouraged to work only with well-fixed material; damaged, decomposed, or strongly flattened specimens should not be used for taxonomic studies, and type specimens must always be deposited in internationally recognized collections.

  1. The question of women and environment in the Sudan: inquiries into eco-feminism and feminist environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Nageeb, S A

    1994-12-01

    This article discusses a theoretical framework suggested by Agarwal on eco-feminism in the context of Sudan and the Kordofam region of Sudan. The paper focuses specifically on one aspect of eco-feminism that is discussed by Shiva (1988). Eco-feminism is the link between the domination and suppression of women and the domination and exploitation of nature. Women are identified with nature, while men are closer to culture, which places women in an inferior position. Because of the link of women with nature, women have a vested interest in restructuring the domination of nature. Feminism and environmentalism both reflect egalitarian and nonhierarchical systems. This analysis tests whether women are the central actors of environment and whether women's and environmental interests can be advanced simultaneously. The Indian experience reflects the class and gender process that results in loss of knowledge and livelihoods among poor rural women. The impact is related to the interaction between ideology and political and economic power. Grass-roots resistance to environmental degradation is strong, and women are engaged due to threats to survival. Sudanese women's role, position, status, and relation to the environment is shaped by the patriarchal order, class, ethnicity, and the sexual division of labor. The Shiva concepts apply to Sudan and the Kordofan region. The marginalization of traditional farming and pastoralism has pushed the growing population into marginal environmental zones. The focus on cash-oriented development, political instability, and insufficient and corrupt bureaucracies have aggravated the environmental crisis. Social inequality has increased. Shiva's theories do not fit Sudanese society and Agarwal's perspective is too general. Some Sudanese women have accumulated wealth, commercial interests, and exploited land.

  2. Fixed point theorems for generalized contractions in ordered metric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Regan, Donal; Petrusel, Adrian

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some fixed point results for self-generalized contractions in ordered metric spaces. Our results generalize and extend some recent results of A.C.M. Ran, M.C. Reurings [A.C.M. Ran, MEC. Reurings, A fixed point theorem in partially ordered sets and some applications to matrix equations, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 132 (2004) 1435-1443], J.J. Nieto, R. Rodríguez-López [J.J. Nieto, R. Rodríguez-López, Contractive mapping theorems in partially ordered sets and applications to ordinary differential equations, Order 22 (2005) 223-239; J.J. Nieto, R. Rodríguez-López, Existence and uniqueness of fixed points in partially ordered sets and applications to ordinary differential equations, Acta Math. Sin. (Engl. Ser.) 23 (2007) 2205-2212], J.J. Nieto, R.L. Pouso, R. Rodríguez-López [J.J. Nieto, R.L. Pouso, R. Rodríguez-López, Fixed point theorem theorems in ordered abstract sets, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 135 (2007) 2505-2517], A. Petrusel, I.A. Rus [A. Petrusel, I.A. Rus, Fixed point theorems in ordered L-spaces, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 134 (2006) 411-418] and R.P. Agarwal, M.A. El-Gebeily, D. O'Regan [R.P. Agarwal, M.A. El-Gebeily, D. O'Regan, Generalized contractions in partially ordered metric spaces, Appl. Anal., in press]. As applications, existence and uniqueness results for Fredholm and Volterra type integral equations are given.

  3. Pre-monsoon aerosol characteristics over the Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to climatic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Tiwari, S.; Devara, P. C. S.; Bisht, D. S.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Tripathi, S. N.; Goloub, P.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-05-01

    Sun/sky radiometer observations over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) region during pre-monsoon (from April-June 2009) have been processed to analyze various aerosol characteristics in the central and eastern IGB region, represented by Kanpur and Gandhi College, respectively, and their impacts on climate in terms of radiative forcing. Monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD at 500 nm) and corresponding Angstrom Exponent (AE at 440-870 nm, given within the brackets) was observed to be about 0.50 (0.49) and 0.51 (0.65) in April, 0.65 (0.74) and 0.67 (0.91) in May and 0.69 (0.45) and 0.77 (0.71) in June at Kanpur and Gandhi College, respectively. Results show a positive gradient in AOD and AE from central to eastern IGB region with the advancement of the pre-monsoon, which may be caused due to diverse geographical location of the stations having different meteorological conditions and emission sources. Relatively lower SSA was observed at the eastern IGB (0.89) than the central IGB (0.92) region during the period, which suggests relative dominance of absorbing aerosols at the eastern IGB as compared to central IGB region. The absorbing aerosol optical properties over the station suggest that the atmospheric absorption over central IGB region is mainly due to dominance of coarse-mode dust particles; however, absorption over eastern IGB region is mainly due to dominance of fine-particle pollution. The derived properties from sun/sky radiometer during pre-monsoon period are used in a radiative-transfer model to estimate aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface over the IGB region. Relatively large TOA and surface cooling was observed at the eastern IGB as compared to the central IGB region. This translates into large heating of the atmosphere ranging from 0.45 to 0.55 K day-1 at Kanpur and from 0.45 to 0.59 K day-1 at Gandhi College.

  4. Chemical PM2.5 Speciation in Major Cities Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark; Liu, Yang; Martins, Vanderlei; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall

    2016-04-01

    We examined the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) across 13 globally dispersed urban locations (including Atlanta, Buenos Aires, Beijing, Manila, and Dhaka), as part of the Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN). At each site sampling was conducted over 4 to 24 months for the years 2013 to 2015. Analysis of filter samples revealed that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammonium sulfate ranged from 2 μg m-3 (Ilorin) to 17 μg m-3 (Kanpur). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 μg m-3 (Atlanta) to 6.7 μg m-3 (Kanpur). Effective black carbon ranged from 0.4 μg m-3 (Atlanta) to 5 μg m-3 (Dhaka and Kanpur). The all-site mean values of major PM2.5 constituents were ammonium sulfate (20 ± 10 %), crustal material (12 ± 6.5%), effective black carbon (10 ± 7.4 %), ammonium nitrate (3.7 ± 2.5%), sea salt (2.2 ± 1.5%), trace element oxides (0.9 ± 0.7 %), water (7.2 ± 3.0%) and residue materials (44 ± 24%). Based on the evaluation with collocated studies we treated residue material as mostly organic. Major ions generally agreed well with previous studies at the same urban locations (e.g. sulfate fractions agreed within 4% for eight out of 11 collocation comparisons). Enhanced crustal material (CM) concentrations with high Zn:Al ratios at large cities (e.g. Hanoi, Dhaka, Manila) imply significant anthropogenic CM contributions that deserve more attention. Detailed chemical speciation also aided our characterization of site-specific PM2.5 water retention. The expected water contribution to aerosols was calculated via the hygroscopicity parameter for each filter. Hourly PM2.5 at specified relative humidity (35%) was inferred from nephelometer measurements of light scatter at ambient relative humidity and 9-day filter measurements of PM2.5 mass. Our PM2.5 estimates compared favorably with a beta attenuation monitor (BAM) at the nearby US embassy in Beijing, with a coefficient of variation

  5. New and Innovative Library Services: Moving with Web 2.0 / Library 2.0 Technology, a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, H. K.; Pathak, S. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2010-10-01

    We give an overview and definition of Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 technology, especially addressing how it changes access to collections for users. We also describe its unlimited possibilities. The various components of Library 2.0 viz blogs, wikis, RSS, instant messaging, social networking, podcasting, and tagging are briefly summarized. Initiatives at three special information centers and libraries (IUCAA — Astronomy and Astrophysics; IIT — Science and Technology; and NIV — Viral Diseases) are described. We conclude with a futuristic view of Library 2.0.

  6. Development of a Multileaf Collimator for Proton Radiotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    40 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 x (ram) Fig. 3: Energy deposition in water by a 200 MeV pencil proton beam ( top ) and by a 6 cm x 6 cm field of the same...iit I S B Figure 12: TOP - Theta and Phi distribution for all particles in the MLC and water...distributions in addition to the number of secondaries produced. Figure 18 ( top ) shows the energy deposited in water by a 250 MeV 5 x 5 cm2 proton beam. The

  7. Growing the Peace: Military Civic Action in the Third World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Accession For NHS GRA&I DTIC TAB 13 Una8nnounced JU6tIrifcatio- F - -y-- aV !3~iit y CodesAv la - lltr odes "o. 71Vii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Peace appears to be...7 o Interruption - f Western access to vital resources. o Gradual loss of U.S. military basing and access rights. o Expanded threats to sea lines of...the underlying causes ,:, f conflict in the Third World by promoting economic development and the growth of democratic political insttution3. o Support

  8. Species of the Mississippi River Headwaters Reservoirs Region.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    34"t-lr l-tlS.-.tSls ISL FL, IC( I’lt sill t IS ?U»S ’F »ILL "»L> Jb ISfcFS »Llll >’ HL Jt -It» LF »lilt W-PROTECTED...lip 10» ID COMMON N«M| SClfNTI’IC Nl»tl »INfct 1 •• Ii,t, >1NOI is ItlTt *|<MMMft NQIt» ON lulli WOI’VN*TI0* L- t ouui

  9. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium (4th) held in New Orleans, Louisiana on 21-22 June, 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    Institute PIPE DETAILING AND FABRICATION SYSTEMS G.P. Putnam , IIT Research Institute APPENDIX A: AGENDA...produce cost effective solu- problems. I I T R E S E A R C H I N S T I T U T E 11 REFERENCES 1. G. P. Putnam , “The REAPS Program -- A Concept for...April 5-7, 1972. Labus, T.J. and Hilaris , J.A., “An Experimental Investigation of an Underwater High Pressure Water Jet Metal Cutting Tool,” Naval

  10. Microgrids and distributed generation systems: Control, operation, coordination and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Liang

    Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) which include distributed generations (DGs), distributed energy storage systems, and adjustable loads are key components in microgrid operations. A microgrid is a small electric power system integrated with on-site DERs to serve all or some portion of the local load and connected to the utility grid through the point of common coupling (PCC). Microgrids can operate in both grid-connected mode and island mode. The structure and components of hierarchical control for a microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) are discussed and analyzed. Case studies would address the reliable and economic operation of IIT microgrid. The simulation results of IIT microgrid operation demonstrate that the hierarchical control and the coordination strategy of distributed energy resources (DERs) is an effective way of optimizing the economic operation and the reliability of microgrids. The benefits and challenges of DC microgrids are addressed with a DC model for the IIT microgrid. We presented the hierarchical control strategy including the primary, secondary, and tertiary controls for economic operation and the resilience of a DC microgrid. The simulation results verify that the proposed coordinated strategy is an effective way of ensuring the resilient response of DC microgrids to emergencies and optimizing their economic operation at steady state. The concept and prototype of a community microgrid that interconnecting multiple microgrids in a community are proposed. Two works are conducted. For the coordination, novel three-level hierarchical coordination strategy to coordinate the optimal power exchanges among neighboring microgrids is proposed. For the planning, a multi-microgrid interconnection planning framework using probabilistic minimal cut-set (MCS) based iterative methodology is proposed for enhancing the economic, resilience, and reliability signals in multi-microgrid operations. The implementation of high-reliability microgrids

  11. An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Using Hand-Held Computers for Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-30

    wEt ________ S, r V .. = lrny. ntO i 3, owrl. S.1 Sly96, or ato h b * - - m, Applya Wa dom toy- n E-4 Adoption of BASIC language BASK lagaeue idlfo...These Memtory Modules can quintuple the HP.41C’s memnory. x). ei, 1,y., V a. I/it. r . +. - X. +, LN. H.MS1. CHS. Each module contains an additional 64... R -A28 973 AN EVALUATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF USING HAND-HELD - COMPUTERS FOR TARINING(U) BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABS OH L D FRANCIS ET AL. 30 MAY 82 TDI

  12. Warsaw Pact: The Question of Cohesion. Phase II, Volume 1. The Greater Socialist Army: Integration and Reliability,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    management , justifiably described as an "alliance of a new type," denies national control over national armed forces to Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East...i on o! i **I al I I;t a rmed for ces n c oal IIt i on wa rfa r- of a ’’new t vpo . VI I. T h management of thle problem of pol It icalI relI abi I I...tv i n the Wars;aw Pact is, both an extension of domestic policies for managing the ethnic factor and a continuation of domestic HISTORICAL

  13. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  14. The 20TH Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: Building a Generation of Robotists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-26

    the obstacle must have at least six feet of driving space for the vehicles. Figure 5: Lawrence Technological University - vuLTUre 2.0, on the...3 Hosei Active 2012 865 9:28 4 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Reagle V 765 6:56 5 Lawrence Technological University vuLTUre 2.0 6...Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay IIT Bombay 1044.00 7 U.S. Naval Academy Robo-Goat 1041.67 8 Lawrence Technological University vuLTUre 2 1033.67

  15. Atmospheric Electricity Hazards Analytical Model Development and Application. Volume I. Lightning Environment Modeling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    plipi t said dra,)wirqs, Spe,71iiCatiO.n., Or 0?: Ur C&,-1:a, ir , not t() be Z qarded huy ivliu;? :zo - or thrseas 1.n arv ai2f licen ;1in,! L.ne...znlo.: roturn ii, re.:-- ired byisctr: (.ot2idLoat on ., cur aj,:t’a~ :4tos or (-,i~.It ~s~: ca~t~~t SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF T-IS PAGE (Wher Dot. F...Frequency spectra of the electric fields of 5 large bipolar pulses between 15 and 45 km normalized to 50 km. Solid lines represent the first return

  16. User’s Guide - Seismic Hazard Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    SAM CLEMENTE PALOS VERDE NEVPORT- INGLEVOOD ROSE CANYON ELSINORE WITTIER SAN JACINTO COYOTE CREEK SUPERSTITION PT SUPERSTITION HILL IMPERIAL UAIINCI SAN...PT2 124.9 , 40.35 PT3 125.32 ,40.4 Figure A-30. F&ult reaurrenco. A-35 6 m 100.000 r4 1 .0100,, *14 a IIt 94 04 .01 Fault -MONO LAKE &HILTON Maximum...CA NAVFACENGCOM WESTDIV / CO, SAN BRUNO, CA PWC / PENSACOLA, FL PWC / GREAT LAKES , IL PWC / CO, PEARL HARBOR, HI NWC / CO, FPO AP PWC / CO, SAN DIEGO

  17. DOE/NASA SIMS Prototype Solar System, no. 4. Part 1: Market analysis. Part 2: Modular manufacturing cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The findings of the IIT Research Institute (IITRI) market study of the SIMS Prototype System 4, a hot water (DHW) system are documented. The feasibility of prepackaging currently available solar heating components into modular subsystems for site assembly is addressed. A documented design and installation procedure and a performance test report were prepared. The potential markets and applications for this particular system in the nonfederal market are profiled by assessing the needs and requirements of potential users and specifiers, by characterizing the nature of the market and the competitive environment, by identifying the barriers to commercial acceptance, and by estimating the size of the potential market.

  18. Modes of Political Participation in Revolutionary Cuba,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    less dizectly almud at inluncn the selection of gpverinental prA~..onl and/or the actins they take." Hoever, as Salisbury (1975) points out, Iis Is an...As a LeInmIst pat, the PCC is a cadre party; mwership is hihly selective and lIited to a Mry all portion of the ppation. Indeed, the Cuban party...8217f- 4_- ..... ... . .. ......... ... . .... -- - - 15 HoRe r, the FCC’s unique method of selecting party mmbers don provide the ross populace with at

  19. Response to Absorber-Focus Coil Preliminary Safety ReviewPanel

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Giles; Baynham, Elwyn; Black, Edgar; Bradshaw, Tom; Cummings, Mary Anne; Green, Michael A.; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Ivanyushenkov,Yury; Lau, Wing; Zisman, Michael S.

    2004-07-21

    In this document we provide responses to the various issues raised in the report of the Preliminary Safety Review Panel (see http://mice.iit.edu/mnp/MICE0069.pdf). In some cases we have made design changes in response to the Panels suggestions. In other cases, we have chosen not to do so. In a few cases, we indicate our plans, although the tasks have not yet been completed. For simplicity, the responses are organized along the same lines as those of the Panel Report.

  20. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences, Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    Ten male albino rats of the Walter Reed strain and two cats were used. Core temperature was recorded either by; 1) inse’ting a rectal Yellow...in chronic animals) has been submitted for publication. ♦•■ 1030 *üiitäia&i!.,a(« tea ^!iÄtte,iMaü .^^.^..^.^*^.^^., mmw mm*mm fmmfm wiWi|!^ipiW!l...4-pyridinemethanol-14c phosphate was purified and studied after oral administration to both male and female albino ICR mice. WR 180,409-^C«HC1

  1. Investigation of Behaviorally Modified Rats for Use in Explosives Detection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Albino male rats were equipped with four chronic indwelling brain electrodes, three .of which were clectroencephia~ograph 1- I iGI pick-off electrodes...tilperanth. signal-the detectioen. Phrased elififfrevutl’. it--hou,,1w I bepea-dale ha claisssc~liv seernditiot flh- test -niajecti tea an-, ticip1ate thle...Iit -ire i- c% i IIvIiei-s Ithat a ik l* ant. Is v ’iietfesisI rat call -tin ie fos ir ss 1,𔃻.,1 riessI,- ill it- iiait sr I vii- I lrtilllls’lut- tea

  2. SSPARAMA: A Nonlinear, Wave Optics Multipulse (and CW) Steady-State Propagation Code with Adaptive Coordinates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-10

    MADEIR, AND U[IItC1I1 aperture as the pulse under study begins to propagate. The solution to Eq. (8) il ob- tained subject to the energy...Herrmann of Lincoln Laboratory, who studied the propagation of a CW infinite Gauuian with a C-2 diameter of 70 cm. The absorption coefficient was 0.07 km -1...mnitiazatin rure coline with a call to UTUT tsore vio alerue untity calcult aeamed. int * The call to DNC aomppes the urie trno ofi Eq. (6) and then he

  3. New Generation Methods for Spur, Helical, and Spiral-Bevel Gears.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Helical , and Spiral -Bevel Gears F.L. Litvin and W.-J. Tsung University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, Illinois J.J. Coy and R.F. Handschuh Propulsion...SPUR, HELICAL ,f B IDistribt 0!7n/ AND SPIRAL -BEVEL GEARS Av:! iit Codes F.L. Litvin and W.-J. Tsung i University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago...Ohio and( C.-B.P. Tsay National Chiao Tung University Taiwan, Republic of China SUMMARY New methods for generating spur, helical , and spiral --bevel

  4. FAA Lightning Protection Study: Lightning-Induced Transients on Buried Shielded Transmission Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    the use of the impedance transfer functions for a coaxial cable, as developed In Appendix B. As shown in the Appendix B, Ex PP’> Zee ext + Zel Int E x p...Laboratory. Kirtland AFB, New Mexico , May 1966. (9) Ref. 5, P. 33. 100) Sunde, E.D., Earth Conduction Effects In Transmission Systems, Dover Publications...Therefore, by superposition, E -PWP> Zee Iext+Z el Int (0.37) ExIP p< Zielx+Zii Iit (B.38) Notice that A rnA Therefore e - Ze Zei 60 For solid conductors (p

  5. Combat Service Support Mission Area Materiel Plan (CSS MAMP) User’s Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-30

    tb. vb, u91_tb. vb.u92-tb. vb; print fS5_dcv,vb.#96_dcv. vb. 97_dev, vb. #98_dcv, vb, 3 #8fI9_dcv. vb, #90_dcv. vb. #91 _dev~vb, #92_dcv, vbj U print...break - 31 Iit wkpkg_ titloE32.323 - then lot break - 32 if wkpkg~titloE33,333 - " then lot break - 33 print whpkg~titl@El, break]. column 64. vbj ~f fIf

  6. In situ spectroscopic study of the plastic deformation of amorphous silicon under nonhydrostatic conditions induced by indentation

    DOE PAGES

    Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Michaels, C. A.; Bradby, Jodie E.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Indentation-induced plastic deformation of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films was studied by in situ Raman imaging of the deformed contact region of an indented sample, employing a Raman spectroscopy-enhanced instrumented indentation technique (IIT). The occurrence and evolving spatial distribution of changes in the a-Si structure caused by processes, such as polyamorphization and crystallization, induced by indentation loading were observed. Furthermore, the obtained experimental results are linked with previously published work on the plastic deformation of a-Si under hydrostatic compression and shear deformation to establish a model for the deformation behavior of a-Si under indentation loading.

  7. In situ spectroscopic study of the plastic deformation of amorphous silicon under nonhydrostatic conditions induced by indentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Michaels, C. A.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Haberl, Bianca; Cook, Robert F.

    2015-12-17

    Indentation-induced plastic deformation of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films was studied by in situ Raman imaging of the deformed contact region of an indented sample, employing a Raman spectroscopy-enhanced instrumented indentation technique (IIT). The occurrence and evolving spatial distribution of changes in the a-Si structure caused by processes, such as polyamorphization and crystallization, induced by indentation loading were observed. Furthermore, the obtained experimental results are linked with previously published work on the plastic deformation of a-Si under hydrostatic compression and shear deformation to establish a model for the deformation behavior of a-Si under indentation loading.

  8. Flood Protection, Section 4, Ohio River, Southwest Jefferson County, Kentucky. Local Flood Protection Project. Supplement Number 6.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    in BaCAaTIG 0s VMS room", so AS MGM, To MBNOVB wantm PDOPic AMA. COMCMOAL room. ALL ovum as gm. ANRU ur mai mmma OR DMANt myn VAR cta mamma 0000a A...A62 4 ’ S.?3 ’O45 4 3,6S - - - aAGNsw~t -PIITCT -7- t gqrt Sll L M IIT Al IQ. a * ~~L. G. 4 It. AND SOUTH C21L SELL. WILL ii MEWAI3 AS NPOUS , OVUM 3

  9. International Aviation (Selected Articles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-25

    cts cf electr-nics, specil dsig equipm,--,ent, and 11i ig-at-itude escape and fire control systems, cc --Imp Ie tir ,,z tha230 scient -ific research...Iigh-tl-iessness. DEVELOFHE1TS h ,TEST EQUI FMEIT Breakthroughs and developments in flight testing areintIzonnh tIed e:i.. .. .. ... J hIIt te .... I -2...co’mirOnly used ai-e pulse, st~ j doblepulse, dou"le step, and i,ult: -le step (Suc, a., - I2D af,~r tL±E selection of iteasureen . au _Lw~ 1, _L a ndU

  10. [Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, a pioneer in medical historiography].

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Amanda; Nicolini, Gabriel Baptista

    2007-01-01

    I(It? This?) presents the general characteristics of the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, which contributed for the emergence of the field of medicine history in Brazil by inciting bibliographic production on the subject. The purpose of our analysis is to foster research on the history of medicine and of the sciences. From the description of the editorial aspects of the journal one can have an idea of how the research field was organized between 1940 and 1960. The periodical also allows for an overview of the exchange occurring between Brazilian and foreign historian physicians at that time.

  11. Communication Satellites, 1958-1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    eeclilig o/ the( IFEL. V*ol. 78. No. 7 JOul /III nciiien/110 ( olih cIc e, koilRurl /iClccOnIIIInIit aticcni’ . 1FF19). (’Olterensce PIN 1lCatjon NO...Satellite Communications (April tiolis (April 1989). 1989). Plemel. R. A.. R. Rothery. and L. James , "Design of a 14/12 GHz Edelson. B. and,-A. Werth. "SPADE...at 11/14 GHz," International Con- ence (March 1990). ference on Communications: ICC 󈨐 (June 1976). Navas, M. J. and G. E. Prescott , "An Algorithm

  12. Ablative Acceleration of Planar Targets to High Velocities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-30

    N RIPI UNCLASSIFIED NRL-MR4747 M DEEEMIEEEE - 11111.25 -4 IIt8 AM I () "I’ R I 1 " 11) ŕ t IAI4 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE ("o Date E.te...Ebrahim, C. Joshi , D.M. Villeneuve, N.H. Burnett, and M.C. Richardson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1996 (1979). 17. C.M. Armstrong, B.H. Ripin, F.C. Young, R ...E. Storm Dr. T . Spieziali INRS Energie Dr. A. Glass Case Postale 1020 Varennes, Quebec TRW Corp. Attn: Dr. T . Johnston 1 Space Park Dr. R . Decoste

  13. Neck Injury in Advanced Military Aircraft Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    vertebrae 20 Extra vertebrae 8 Spina bifida 49 Total 101 Aberrations of posture Scoliosis 95 Curvatures straightened out 89 Hyperkyfosis /-lordosis 35 Total...iito trdiologcl I%~I;T I I l, x I lead1,I ittlk 6,lrtire degeidiet’veI clii[g\\ i I I dmie aniita thoird hRlpo piesetitediija deal of auhi~ Ievia spina ...34 t" y tpes T, s octi rnur s iro enýs L -5 A, i te I a lo i g ul sit tlt 1 I Iconm 13.lroonbo 14. Syna Bifida 15. Spinal Canal Steo fss 16

  14. Investigation of Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulator/Demodulator Compatability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    AGO. C UAX a THE MAXIMUM IIPUT TO T1E SYLLABIC FILTER C URIN - THE RINI".J INPUT TO THE SYLLABIC FILTER C DELTAN * THE CURRENT STEP SIZ C ALPHA * THE...CALCULAl NA A MAIIJI STM SIZEl i to I - 1.914IDT. a IT * IDa Ia UJ URIN IF iIT .EO. 1) U UMAXDELTA - %ETA 2 DELTA # (I. - BETA) a V SUM * SUN9 + DELTAto...tile rani~re allowel by the ri, t TATO snu SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF AG’hnD.rln D~AT FILI ITI

  15. Application of Adaptive Grids in Solving the Partial Differential Equations Governing Fluid Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    UNIVERSITY Department of Aerospace Engineering and Computational Fluid Dynamics Institute 1-u-.- o -’ MSyI, p9te-mubye 1 1984..." C..*. ".-V44 far pubilo releaSS...1 * ;~vibuionunlimit~d. E’G7 APPLICATION- O ADPIEGISINSLIG.y’ R E...30R(M (AYIC) Prepared for 9 T I C3 OF 2’&.f V ’.r 7- o D7T c AFOSR Grant-83-0l6 7 This ishi’., ~~~ . . .~ 0 Distribuition L~ual Iited. KATTHIW 3. KE

  16. Theory of Semiconducting Superlattices and Microstructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    the prefent model, by Faulkn~er (RM. 3), by B.- End and Jaros (Ref. 16), by Ltiet ci. (LNIX) (Re. 1S), and by Gil et cl. (Ref. 17). The zero of energy is...fiadsc valetnce are met. an impurity such ats ScA, front caaluan-N.V cain appear tol .., t as if it t aa :ro m hnaii (froaa tie vivwpoant of.10111...rather dif.’.rcnt character front the shaIlw lcvelI or Ohe G.’,’ . P, conduction:: band :1:1inunt. (Re,’call that CaP ha, . n iit’Iirect h:an! gap

  17. Application of speckle dynamics for studying metabolic activity of cell cultures with herpes virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, A. P.; Bakharev, A. A.; Malygin, A. S.; Mikhaylova, J. A.; Borodin, E. M.; Poryvayeva, A. P.; Glinskikh, N. P.

    2014-05-01

    The report considers the results of the experiments in which digital values of light intensity I and the image area correlation index η values were recorded on a real-time basis for one or two days. Three cell cultures with viruses along with intact cultures were investigated. High correlation of dependence of η values on time t values was demonstrated for three cultures. The η=η(t) and I=I(t) dependences for cells with and without viruses differ considerably. It was shown that the presence of viruses could be determined as early as ten minutes after measurements were started.

  18. An Evaluation of an All Commuted Ration Ashore/a La Carte System for the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    34 -- o ca 4) cr -~ > - L NOCz~ fD ~ D ~ ~ . m _3 -D(JoLlf-)fCO 4- 0 00 m 0L 0* w~0) -- - N - N C % CO ’ 0 𔃺 < 2 E < > C 11> wo wC q P( LPnr- qocq 4U...IG..ATiTUft( of illS’ UA 4I.kIG[IIT S~fC[(Al. ST Id.,..kG p.IICC C..JMIG& $, fd .*UMi OF #oo0 SIIVlCa off CCI SDINST 11103.1 14

  19. A Plan for the Evaluation of Leadership Training in the United States Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Parent, the evaluative, rule enforcing state; Adult , the rational, decision making state; and, Child, the emotional 64 i state. In the healthy individual...for example, a Parent addressing Child as stimulus would receive Child addressing Parent response. If the transaction is crossed, e.g. Adult to Adult ...followed in the eight monograph of the series. Its objective was to 81 t -a 2~ IL 4c CL 9 w0 0 e~ z- 5- ~0~ z oWE *as. wW W e InW 1 WIg w -00 o w hIIt

  20. Integrated information theory of consciousness: an updated account.

    PubMed

    Tononi, G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an updated account of integrated information theory of consciousness (IIT) and some of its implications. IIT stems from thought experiments that lead to phenomenological axioms and ontological postulates. The information axiom asserts that every experience is one out of many, i.e. specific - it is what it is by differing in its particular way from a large repertoire of alternatives. The integration axiom asserts that each experience is one, i.e. unified - it cannot be reduced to independent components. The exclusion axiom asserts that every experience is definite - it is limited to particular things and not others and flows at a particular speed and resolution. IIT formalizes these intuitions with three postulates. The information postulate states that only "differences that make a difference" from the intrinsic perspective of a system matter: a mechanism generates cause-effect information if its present state has specific past causes and specific future effects within a system. The integration postulate states that only information that is irreducible matters: mechanisms generate integrated information only to the extent that the information they generate cannot be partitioned into that generated within independent components. The exclusion postulate states that only maxima of integrated information matter: a mechanism specifies only one maximally irreducible set of past causes and future effects - a concept. A complex is a set of elements specifying a maximally irreducible constellation of concepts, where the maximum is evaluated at the optimal spatio-temporal scale. Its concepts specify a maximally integrated conceptual information structure or quale, which is identical with an experience. Finally, changes in information integration upon exposure to the environment reflect a system's ability to match the causal structure of the world. After introducing an updated definition of information integration and related quantities, the article

  1. Soviet Civil Defense Public Instruction and Training Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    SlIC I tLir. I t is lig-t that the groi it I- Ii f K- Vi i (It’ inlto tlirLt t-a , lIIt. f i rnt t o t race the11, It- t r tonl t I L gi o an111 1d...to w! Li a pain -kill1er; two types o f ’’anti -rad iat ion’’ tab) Lts in tic ree containe rs ; a con ta inler of ant i-nausea tab lets; a contLa iner

  2. Cast Double Base Propellants: Process Mechanics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-02-01

    thc rate of dilatation, of the casting powder and its .’ate of penetration by casting liquid, 2. 2. To measure the rate of dilatation of the...powders a)d fini.shed charges, 2.4. To dctcrminc the r,ate of solution of the casti)g owdcr in thc castino llquid, 2.5. To measturc the chrngo iu...O aad humidity cabiact ( sect a t 20OC. , 5 5 --c lat:v* hCum-’IitY) fo t ea,t 24 hours befo-re coiiencin-g the test. The gralcz L-u-o thc ):) mo,,sur

  3. Application of Superplastic Steels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    fit(. 1 -1 1 Ili - I I, in I I ’i I% I%% d f-F itrl !( It- rct Ii ined I hvir -ri,-, illa I flit Ili. and dri)( int I, 1111( I 1 111 , Ill it fli ... 1 -11 11;1(1 d(+ illd rt., r -t 1 1 i/cd lift, It linc _-,r:imcd rut I tirt I fit- 1;! 11 ;111! _" h , It I I. ’I) I t 0 1 1 1 1 f , 1. I, I ii;t t r

  4. USAF Warrior Studies. Condensed Analysis of the Air Force (9th) in the European Theater of Operations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    c(’\\petiitit 151 to the( ktilllit ill fte eairliest possible stlago:- of O pera Twit ( )VJ, RI.A)RI ), ( 2) io .(-r% Re And supply Al its. it% iitAlly...Ninth Air Fo)rte fighters tileseoixd cri(Iritmu5 And04 granltiilk IV C55 irt aind Ilthr prfimailv defcnsive o) pera - tilon "were .I11Iimici iii tasor...Ihitrninig ’]It- tI(-\\ l’’ titu (tf ill( iitiiclt pubh( W(ei .tnt gre.itl% fcrc itallin or "tie b-ih b i the Ninth Air I:rkc h atd rcmi licit the st.ig(-s

  5. Wideband Communications Equipment, Ground Radio Communication, Space Comm Systems Equipment. 304X0/X4/X6 Training Requirements Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    FIDEBANR COMUNI CATIONS EQUIPMENT (, CROUND RADIO COMMUKI1CATIO( i SPA CE COM Slm YS TEM-S EQUIPMENT (o~g 1,77, Pe -Y MA 199uI0-- f "’l -L CY- Y...MPAt* F . 1 iQ ,ATC/$JK 6 IIQ ATG/7fTOK -q 1-HQ t$/DPT 7 HqAA/DPA1TI 1 HQ AC/LCA 1 HQNMAC/$CL ’ ~1 1 . MQ, PACAULa M IC4i A ut AC/DTTAT - 7 1, IItAC...23 TRAINING RECOMMENDATIONS Acso o Purpose ......................................... 26 Ac-i- F -- General Training Recommendations

  6. Storage of Residual Fuel Oil in Underground Unlined Rock Caverns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Francaise des Petroles BP, Elf Union, Shell Francaise, and Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (Total). The company and its subsidiaries were formed with...DEC 80 D C BANKS UNCLASSIFIED WES/NP/S4.-8O-19 ti. LE VEL MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-80-19 31 STORAGE OF RESIDUAL FUEL OIL IN UNDERGROUND UNLINED ROCK...Ruimaia.~ indl a riiirI( le ol Air in1 wi r’ hve en coIit’Icted to enc1ouraige muiliriershnpl I[I the i 5kRM. 1) By Innf t-Ii .fi’ I ’I.]%- I "W

  7. Propagation in Striated Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    6W R~U IJIM9RS 735 State Street /i)l X 450 I - ONT ROLLING3 OFFICE N AMI. AN D A011ES Washington, D.C. 2030 86__ _____ UNCLASSIFIED ASSIFrICAO ATION...ION~fA N Approved for public releasb; distribution unlimited. 77 _ __ _ __ _ _ _____ FRI_ _ __ __ _ fIIT0Nq 𔃻 F -tOt lII 1"hl- .p This work sponsored...distribution functions of stria-tion sizes. For reasonable distributions, a similar DD trM1473 Itt1ITI, N Or I NOV A% 15 OnSOLrlr. UNCLASSI FIED St CuFnI Y

  8. Institute Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann; Steadman, Jackie; Little, Sally; Underwood, Debra; Blackman, Mack; Simonds, Judy

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study conducted by the MSFC working group on Institutes in 1995 on the structure, organization and business arrangements of Institutes at a time when the agency was considering establishing science institutes. Thirteen institutes, ten science centers associated with the state of Georgia, Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and IIT Research Institute (IITRI), and general data on failed institutes were utilized to form this report. The report covers the working group's findings on institute mission, structure, director, board of directors/advisors, the working environment, research arrangements, intellectual property rights, business management, institute funding, and metrics.

  9. Genotypic study of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli isolates from deer by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Raghavendra Prasad; Jain, Udit; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to study the genotypes of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in fecal samples of deer due to its public health significance. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 fecal samples of deer were taken from Mathura district and Kanpur Zoo and screened for VTEC genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: All fecal samples were positive for E. coli. All the E. coli isolates were screened by PCR to detect virulence genes stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA. Of these, 15 isolates were found positive for VTEC having one or more genes in different combinations. Conclusion: Genes such as stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA were prevalent in VTEC isolates from feces of deer. The presence of VTEC isolates having virulent genes may pose a threat to public health. PMID:27651685

  10. Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.; Ring, Amanda; Ritchie, Yvonne; Stone, Emily; Walsh, Ainsley; Akoshile, Clement; Anh, Nguyen Xuan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Brook, Jeff; Qonitan, Fatimah D.; Dong, Jinlu; Griffith, Derek; He, Kebin; Holben, Brent N.; Kahn, Ralph; Lagrosas, Nofel; Lestari, Puji; Ma, Zongwei; Misra, Amit; Norford, Leslie K.; Quel, Eduardo J.; Salam, Abdus; Schichtel, Bret; Segev, Lior; Tripathi, Sachchida; Wang, Chien; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yuxuan; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark D.; Liu, Yang; Vanderlei Martins, J.; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall V.

    2016-08-01

    The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN) is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM2.5, with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD).We have examined the chemical composition of PM2.5 at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US) National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2-26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM2.5 constituents across all sites (relative contribution ± SD) are ammoniated sulfate (20 % ± 11 %), crustal material (13.4 % ± 9.9 %), equivalent black carbon (11.9 % ± 8.4 %), ammonium nitrate (4.7 % ± 3.0 %), sea salt (2.3 % ± 1.6 %), trace element oxides (1.0 % ± 1.1 %), water (7.2 % ± 3.3 %) at 35 % RH, and residual matter (40 % ± 24 %).Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1 µg m-3 (Buenos Aires, Argentina) to 17 µg m-3 (Kanpur, India in the dry season). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave, in summer) to 6.8 µg m-3 (Kanpur, dry season). Equivalent black carbon ranged from 0.7 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave) to over 8 µg m-3 (Dhaka, Bangladesh and Kanpur

  11. Mixing state of aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Radiative forcing and heating rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R.; Ramachandran, S.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols are a major atmospheric variable which perturb the Earth-atmosphere radiation balance by absorbing and scattering the solar and terrestrial radiation. Aerosols are produced by natural and anthropogenic processes. The presence of different types of aerosol over a location and aerosols transported from long-range can give rise to different mixing states because of aging and interaction among the different aerosol species. Knowledge of the mixing state of aerosols is important for an accurate assessment of aerosols in climate forcing, as assumptions regarding the mixing state of aerosol and its effect on optical properties can give rise to uncertainties in modeling their direct and indirect effects [1]. Seasonal variations in mixing states of aerosols over an urban (Kanpur) and a rural location (Gandhi College) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are determined using the measured and modeled aerosol optical properties, and the impact of aerosol mixing state on aerosol radiative forcing are investigated. IGP is one of the most populated and polluted river basins in the world, rich in fertile lands and agricultural production. Kanpur is an urban, industrial and densely populated city, and has several large/small scale industries and vehicles, while Gandhi College in IGP is a rural village, located southeast of Kanpur. Aerosol optical properties obtained from Aerosol Robotic Network sun/sky radiometers [2] over these two environmentally distinct locations in Indo-Gangetic Plain are used in the study, along with aerosol vertical profiles obtained from CALIPSO (Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) lidar observations. Probable mixing state of aerosols is determined utilizing the aerosol optical properties viz., aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter. The coated-sphere Mie calculation requires the refractive index of core and shell species, and the radius of core and shell particles. Core to shell radius

  12. Identification of aerosol types over Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to optical properties and associated radiative forcing.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Srivastava, A K; Singh, A K; Singh, Sachchidanand

    2015-08-01

    The aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) are a mixture of sulfate, dust, black carbon, and other soluble and insoluble components. It is a challenge not only to identify these various aerosol types, but also to assess the optical and radiative implications of these components. In the present study, appropriate thresholds for fine-mode fraction and single-scattering albedo have been used to first identify the aerosol types over IGB. Four major aerosol types may be identified as polluted dust (PD), polluted continental (PC), black carbon-enriched (BCE), and organic carbon-enriched (OCE). Further, the implications of these different types of aerosols on optical properties and radiative forcing have been studied. The aerosol products derived from CIMEL sun/sky radiometer measurements, deployed under Aerosol Robotic Network program of NASA, USA were used from four different sites Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur, spread over Pakistan and Northern India. PD is the most dominant aerosol type at Karachi and Jaipur, contributing more than 50% of all the aerosol types. OCE, on the other hand, contributes only about 12-15% at all the stations except at Kanpur where its contribution is ∼38%. The spectral dependence of AOD was relatively low for PD aerosol type, with the lowest AE values (<0.5); whereas, large spectral dependence in AOD was observed for the remaining aerosol types, with the highest AE values (>1.0). SSA was found to be the highest for OCE (>0.9) and the lowest for BCE (<0.9) type aerosols, with drastically different spectral variability. The direct aerosol radiative forcing at the surface and in the atmosphere was found to be the maximum at Lahore among all the four stations in the IGB.

  13. Bioconcentration and phytotoxicity of chromium in Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kumkum; Gupta, Kiran; Rai, Upendra Nath

    2009-07-01

    Physico-chemical parameter and metal concentration in effluents of two industries i.e. Tannery industry, Jajmau, Kanpur and Electroplating industry, Scooter India Limited (SIL), Lucknow were determined to assess the toxicity of chromium. Metal accumulation in Eichhomia crassipes growing in these contaminated sites were also determined. For laboratory toxicity testing the plants were exposed to nutrient solution containing Cr concentration ranging from 0.01-10 microg ml(-1) for 24-96 hr. Accumulation of chromium was observed to be dependent on its concentration and time of exposure and was greater in roots (789.3 mg g(-1) d.wt.) than in leaves (335.6 mg g(-1) d.wt.) after 96 hrat 10 microg ml(-1) concentration. Under field conditions the accumulation of Cr was 1258 and 733.3 in roots and 94 and 53 microg g(-1) d.wt. in leaves of E. crassipes growing in Jajmau, Kanpur tanning industry and SIL effluents, respectively. It was found that lower doses (0.01-0.1 microg ml(-1)) of chromium had stimulatory effect on various metabolic activities in plants including chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll, protein, nitrate reductase and mitotic index. Whereas higher doses of chromium had inhibitory effect. The carotenoid content and number of micronuclei was found directly proportional to the concentration of chromium and increased with increase in concentration of chromium to which plants were exposed. It may be concluded from the present study that E. crassipes is tolerant to the elevated Cr concentration as there is no inhibition of chlorophyll and carotenoid up to 0.1 microg ml(-1) at 24 and 48 hr exhibiting phytotoxicity at higher concentration. Therefore, E. crassipes may be used as bioassay for biomonitoring and control of Cr pollution in the environment.

  14. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: I-Impact of Wolbachia Infection on the Fitness of Triple- and Double-Infected Strains of Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongjing; Zheng, Xiaoying; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito species Aedes albopictus is a major vector of the human diseases dengue and chikungunya. Due to the lack of efficient and sustainable methods to control this mosquito species, there is an increasing interest in developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) and the incompatible insect technique (IIT), separately or in combination, as population suppression approaches. Ae. albopictus is naturally double-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. A new triple Wolbachia-infected strain (i.e., a strain infected with wAlbA, wAlbB, and wPip), known as HC and expressing strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in appropriate matings, was recently developed. In the present study, we compared several fitness traits of three Ae. albopictus strains (triple-infected, double-infected and uninfected), all of which were of the same genetic background (“Guangzhou City, China”) and were reared under the same conditions. Investigation of egg-hatching rate, survival of pupae and adults, sex ratio, duration of larval stages (development time from L1 to pupation), time to emergence (development time from L1 to adult emergence), wing length, female fecundity and adult longevity indicated that the presence of Wolbachia had only a minimal effect on host fitness. Based on this evidence, the HC strain is currently under consideration for mass rearing and application in a combined SIT-IIT strategy to control natural populations of Ae. albopictus in mainland China. PMID:25849812

  15. Performance evaluation of digital phase-locked loops for advanced deep space transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. M.; Hinedi, S. M.; Yeh, H.-G.; Kyriacou, C.

    1994-01-01

    The performances of the digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) for the advanced deep-space transponders (ADT's) are investigated. DPLL's considered in this article are derived from the analog phase-locked loop, which is currently employed by the NASA standard deep space transponder, using S-domain to Z-domain mapping techniques. Three mappings are used to develop digital approximations of the standard deep space analog phase-locked loop, namely the bilinear transformation (BT), impulse invariant transformation (IIT), and step invariant transformation (SIT) techniques. The performance in terms of the closed loop phase and magnitude responses, carrier tracking jitter, and response of the loop to the phase offset (the difference between in incoming phase and reference phase) is evaluated for each digital approximation. Theoretical results of the carrier tracking jitter for command-on and command-off cases are then validated by computer simulation. Both theoretical and computer simulation results show that at high sampling frequency, the DPLL's approximated by all three transformations have the same tracking jitter. However, at low sampling frequency, the digital approximation using BT outperforms the others. The minimum sampling frequency for adequate tracking performance is determined for each digital approximation of the analog loop. In addition, computer simulation shows that the DPLL developed by BT provides faster response to the phase offset than IIT and SIT.

  16. Seasonality and interspecies differences in particle/gas partitioning of PAHs observed by the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galarneau, Elisabeth; Bidleman, Terry F.; Blanchard, Pierrette

    This study presents partitioning data from eight locations in the Laurentian Great Lakes region collected by the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN) over periods ranging from 1 to 6 years. Particle/gas partitioning varies sufficiently between sites in the Great Lakes region to preclude the use of a uniform temperature dependence for its description. Site-specific parameters for describing partitioning as a function of inverse temperature are presented. Relationships between partitioning of appreciably semivolatile PAHs and saturated vapour pressure at Chicago (IIT) and Sturgeon Point (STP) demonstrate that anthracene, benz[a]anthracene and retene behave differently than phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene+triphenylene. Possible reasons for these differences include interspecies variations in the fraction of atmospherically non-exchangeable, though analytically extractable, PAHs on particles and differences in soot-air partition coefficients as they relate to saturated vapour pressure. The observed interspecies differences are not consistent with sampling artefacts such as filter adsorption or sorbent breakthrough. At IIT, but not at STP, values of the slope of the relationship between the log partition coefficient and log vapour pressure vary in a manner opposing the annual temperature cycle. A comparison of partitioning calculated by a combined absorption/adsorption model shows good predictability at Chicago but underestimates values at a rural site (Eagle Harbor, EGH) by an order of magnitude.

  17. Rheological Modifier Testing with DWPF Process Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2004-02-01

    Rheological modification agents were tested on simulated SRAT and SME products to determine if a suitable agent could be found for the DWPF process slurries. The agents tested were dispersants that lower the rheological properties of slurries by preventing agglomerization. Dolapix CE64, an ethylene glycol, and Disperse-Ayd W28, a polyacrylate, were the most effective dispersants tested. Further evaluation and testing should be performed on Dolapix CE64 and Disperse-Ayd W28 to determine if implementation is possible in DWPF. The initial phase of future work will include optimization of the rheology modifier by the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and development of a maximum concentration limit for the rheology modifiers. IIT has been commissioned to evaluate the properties of these chemicals to determine if the chemical makeup can be optimized to enhance the properties of these modifiers. An initial concentration limit based upon the DWPF flammability limit and other constraints should be calculated to determine the potential downstream impacts.

  18. Cooperative Security in Northeast Asia. A China-Japan-South Korea Coalition Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    ciIIt t11,1I1111tj. i f i X liii 1, l ilt " C I iil 1i i k. ,/ v ’Iw l I 5 ) I tI1 433 1ct I i 2I 9t0 I tŕ 111i tk, I im 4Ii -I Ii I I I wolc t-11cs...mucilil’A Ian~l’d .([ill% (fIml 0 11c,( I( X wRI INi f\\, 1 ,l\\\\ I I") I\\ IOII. .S(ARI V 1 I RI.\\ I \\ 1 I I’ v Mi I I ()Ii l( 1,~v~ 31v 2 Five. [𔃻F IRIANG...Ihis IIl\\ x III(-(\\%.IN(4) 1\\md 111111c I )R I.Ic \\ j.l a 221211 It pt" j)Ssl%.21)1. 12 ( )( [INt 22’ )IIt Illol c it )I22 2(21)(1’. 111112 DI~ ’itii

  19. Combining the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique: I-impact of wolbachia infection on the fitness of triple- and double-infected strains of Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongjing; Zheng, Xiaoying; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito species Aedes albopictus is a major vector of the human diseases dengue and chikungunya. Due to the lack of efficient and sustainable methods to control this mosquito species, there is an increasing interest in developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) and the incompatible insect technique (IIT), separately or in combination, as population suppression approaches. Ae. albopictus is naturally double-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. A new triple Wolbachia-infected strain (i.e., a strain infected with wAlbA, wAlbB, and wPip), known as HC and expressing strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in appropriate matings, was recently developed. In the present study, we compared several fitness traits of three Ae. albopictus strains (triple-infected, double-infected and uninfected), all of which were of the same genetic background ("Guangzhou City, China") and were reared under the same conditions. Investigation of egg-hatching rate, survival of pupae and adults, sex ratio, duration of larval stages (development time from L1 to pupation), time to emergence (development time from L1 to adult emergence), wing length, female fecundity and adult longevity indicated that the presence of Wolbachia had only a minimal effect on host fitness. Based on this evidence, the HC strain is currently under consideration for mass rearing and application in a combined SIT-IIT strategy to control natural populations of Ae. albopictus in mainland China.

  20. Interferon-induced thyroiditis during treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kozielewicz, Dorota; Halota, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders affect between 5% and 15% of patients treated with IFNα and RBV for chronic hepatitis C. Women and patients with thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) found before the treatment are at risk of developing the disorders (46.1% vs. 5.4%). The spectrum of IFNα-induced thyroiditis (IIT) includes two groups. Disorders with an autoimmune background are: presence of thyroid autoantibodies without clinical disease, Hashimoto's disease and Graves' disease. The second group comprises diseases caused by the direct toxic effect of IFNα on the thyroid gland, i.e. destructive thyroiditis and non-autoimmune hypothyroidism. Thyroid diseases are not an absolute contraindication for IFNα and RBV therapy. In patients diagnosed with thyroid dysfunction, before the antiviral therapy it is necessary to achieve euthyreosis. Thyroid function disorders may occur at any moment of the therapy. The earliest have been observed in the 4th week of treatment, and the latest 12 months after its termination. During the therapy, in order to diagnose IIT early, it is recommended to determine TSH level every 2-3 months depending on the presence of TPOAb before the treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of thyroid function disorders should be conducted in co-operation with an endocrinologist.

  1. Sensing the messengers of creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, G.

    1986-05-01

    The Space Telescope, to be taken by the SS into orbit, represents NASA's most ambitious project yet. The ST will have an 8-ft mirror, and unaided, will detect objects as faint as magnitude 27-28, while simultaneously allowing 24 hr viewing. ST components such as the photomultiplier tube (PMT), the image intensifier tube (IIT) and the image photon counting system (IPCS) are discussed in detail together with other applications derived from these components. The PMT is comprised of a photosensitive cathode deposited on a collector face, an amplifier and an anode, all enclosed in an evacuated glass envelope. A photon arriving at the cathode triggers the release of electrons which pass into the amplifier; this light is multiplied up to 10 million times. While the PMT is a quantifier, the IIT is an imager, building its image through photon signal amplification over multiple channels, each corresponding to a specific element of the image. The IPCS has been employed by the British (as their contribution to the ST) to detect star companions and planetary systems among the 2,000 nearby stars. Other significant undertakings which incorporate these techniques include gamma ray observation, star mapping and investigation of both the sun and sea.

  2. Acid-base and Electrochemical Properties of Manganese meso(ortho- and meta-ethylpyridyl)porphyrins: Potentiometric, Spectrophotometric and Spectroelectrochemical Study of Protolytic and Redox Equilibria

    PubMed Central

    Weitner, Tin; Budimir, Ana; Batinić-Haberle, Ines

    2013-01-01

    The difference in electrostatics and reduction potentials between manganese ortho-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP) and manganese meta-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-3-PyP) is a challenging topic, particularly because of the high likelihood for their clinical development. Hence, a detailed study of the protolytic and electrochemical speciation of MnII–IVTE-2-PyP and MnII-IVTE-3-PyP in a broad pH range has been performed using the combined spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods. The results reveal that in aqueous solutions within the pH range ~2–13 the following species exist: (H2O)MnIITE-m-PyP4+, (HO)MnIITE-m-PyP3+, (H2O)2MnIIITE-m-PyP5+, (H2O)(HO)MnIIITE-m-PyP4+, (H2O)(O=)MnIIITE-m-PyP3+, (H2O)(O=)MnIVTE-m-PyP4+ and (HO)(O=)MnIVTE-m-PyP3+ (m = 2, 3). All the protolytic equilibrium constants that include the accessible species as well as the thermodynamic parameters for each particular protolytic equilibrium have been determined. The corresponding formal reduction potentials related to the reduction of the above species and the thermodynamic parameters describing the accessible reduction couples were calculated as well. PMID:21052598

  3. Consciousness: here, there and everywhere?

    PubMed

    Tononi, Giulio; Koch, Christof

    2015-05-19

    The science of consciousness has made great strides by focusing on the behavioural and neuronal correlates of experience. However, while such correlates are important for progress to occur, they are not enough if we are to understand even basic facts, for example, why the cerebral cortex gives rise to consciousness but the cerebellum does not, though it has even more neurons and appears to be just as complicated. Moreover, correlates are of little help in many instances where we would like to know if consciousness is present: patients with a few remaining islands of functioning cortex, preterm infants, non-mammalian species and machines that are rapidly outperforming people at driving, recognizing faces and objects, and answering difficult questions. To address these issues, we need not only more data but also a theory of consciousness-one that says what experience is and what type of physical systems can have it. Integrated information theory (IIT) does so by starting from experience itself via five phenomenological axioms: intrinsic existence, composition, information, integration and exclusion. From these it derives five postulates about the properties required of physical mechanisms to support consciousness. The theory provides a principled account of both the quantity and the quality of an individual experience (a quale), and a calculus to evaluate whether or not a particular physical system is conscious and of what. Moreover, IIT can explain a range of clinical and laboratory findings, makes a number of testable predictions and extrapolates to a number of problematic conditions. The theory holds that consciousness is a fundamental property possessed by physical systems having specific causal properties. It predicts that consciousness is graded, is common among biological organisms and can occur in some very simple systems. Conversely, it predicts that feed-forward networks, even complex ones, are not conscious, nor are aggregates such as groups of individuals

  4. Consciousness: here, there and everywhere?

    PubMed Central

    Tononi, Giulio; Koch, Christof

    2015-01-01

    The science of consciousness has made great strides by focusing on the behavioural and neuronal correlates of experience. However, while such correlates are important for progress to occur, they are not enough if we are to understand even basic facts, for example, why the cerebral cortex gives rise to consciousness but the cerebellum does not, though it has even more neurons and appears to be just as complicated. Moreover, correlates are of little help in many instances where we would like to know if consciousness is present: patients with a few remaining islands of functioning cortex, preterm infants, non-mammalian species and machines that are rapidly outperforming people at driving, recognizing faces and objects, and answering difficult questions. To address these issues, we need not only more data but also a theory of consciousness—one that says what experience is and what type of physical systems can have it. Integrated information theory (IIT) does so by starting from experience itself via five phenomenological axioms: intrinsic existence, composition, information, integration and exclusion. From these it derives five postulates about the properties required of physical mechanisms to support consciousness. The theory provides a principled account of both the quantity and the quality of an individual experience (a quale), and a calculus to evaluate whether or not a particular physical system is conscious and of what. Moreover, IIT can explain a range of clinical and laboratory findings, makes a number of testable predictions and extrapolates to a number of problematic conditions. The theory holds that consciousness is a fundamental property possessed by physical systems having specific causal properties. It predicts that consciousness is graded, is common among biological organisms and can occur in some very simple systems. Conversely, it predicts that feed-forward networks, even complex ones, are not conscious, nor are aggregates such as groups of

  5. Geometry of PDE's. IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prástaro, Agostino

    2008-02-01

    Following our previous results on this subject [R.P. Agarwal, A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. III(I): Webs on PDE's and integral bordism groups. The general theory, Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 17 (2007) 239-266; R.P. Agarwal, A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. III(II): Webs on PDE's and integral bordism groups. Applications to Riemannian geometry PDE's, Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 17 (2007) 267-285; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's and Mechanics, World Scientific, Singapore, 1996; A. Prástaro, Quantum and integral (co)bordism in partial differential equations, Acta Appl. Math. (5) (3) (1998) 243-302; A. Prástaro, (Co)bordism groups in PDE's, Acta Appl. Math. 59 (2) (1999) 111-201; A. Prástaro, Quantized Partial Differential Equations, World Scientific Publishing Co, Singapore, 2004, 500 pp.; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. I: Integral bordism groups in PDE's, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 319 (2006) 547-566; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. II: Variational PDE's and integral bordism groups, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 321 (2006) 930-948; A. Prástaro, Th.M. Rassias, Ulam stability in geometry of PDE's, Nonlinear Funct. Anal. Appl. 8 (2) (2003) 259-278; I. Stakgold, Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics, I, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1967; I. Stakgold, Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics, II, Collier-MacMillan, Canada, Ltd, Toronto, Ontario, 1968], integral bordism groups of the Navier-Stokes equation are calculated for smooth, singular and weak solutions, respectively. Then a characterization of global solutions is made on this ground. Enough conditions to assure existence of global smooth solutions are given and related to nullity of integral characteristic numbers of the boundaries. Stability of global solutions are related to some characteristic numbers of the space-like Cauchy dataE Global solutions of variational problems constrained by (NS) are classified by means of suitable integral bordism groups too.

  6. Distribution, metabolism and excretion of a synthetic androgen 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone, a potential male-contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Pramod Vishwanath; Arumugam, Ramamani; Willman, Mark; Ge, Ren-Shan; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Kumar, Narender

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic androgen 7alpha-Methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) has a potential for therapeutic use in 'androgen replacement therapy' for hypogonadal men or as a hormonal male-contraceptive in normal men. Its tissue distribution, excretion and metabolic enzyme(s) have not been reported. Therefore, the present study tested the distribution and excretion of MENT in Sprague-Dawley rats castrated 24h prior to the injection of tritium-labeled MENT ((3)H-MENT). Rats were euthanized at different time intervals after dosing, and the amount of radioactivity in various tissues/organs was measured following combustion in a Packard oxidizer. The radioactivity (% injected dose) was highest in the duodenal contents in the first 30min of injection. Specific uptake of the steroid was observed in target tissues such as ventral prostate and seminal vesicles at 6h, while in other tissues radioactivity equilibrated with blood. Liver and duodenum maintained high radioactivity throughout, as these organs were actively involved in the metabolism and excretion of most drugs. The excretion of (3)H-MENT was investigated after subcutaneous injection of (3)H-MENT into male rats housed in metabolic cages. Urine and feces were collected at different time intervals (up to 72h) following injection. Results showed that the radioactivity was excreted via feces and urine in equal amounts by 30h. Aiming to identify enzyme(s) involved in the MENT metabolism, we performed in vitro metabolism of (3)H-MENT using rat and human liver microsomes, cytosol and recombinant cytochrome P(450) (CYP) isozymes. The metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three putative metabolites (in accordance with the report of Agarwal and Monder [Agarwal AK, Monder C. In vitro metabolism of 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone by rat liver, prostate, and epididymis. Endocrinology 1988;123:2187-93]), [i] 3-hydroxylated MENT by both rat and human liver cytosol; [ii] 16alpha-hydroxylated MENT (a polar metabolite

  7. Interim Feasibility Assessment Method for Solar Heating and Cooling of Army Buildings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    I •«. MfkTER/ft* (MM/n1) o «» mutn/n* IT» H/**) B SI ft. MTCR/d* |IStli«/mt) SM». «Mm/fl’ ISO «*/*«’) COLLECTOM AMA; A «OOfl’lMni’l ■ 2000...ine»’i c sooott’izram’i 0 4000f«’lS72«iit) 1 1 1 1 ,, 0 90 100 ISO 200 2S0 »10s STORAGE MASS-POUNDS WATER Figure 10. I (Ted t)f...the sum of the capital cost and the present worth of fuel, i.e., LCC, =CC1 +PWC = 4548 + 9.93 X A 7316-11.2 c X A +4.8X lO𔃾 A 2 c c = - 2768

  8. Water Resources Development in Louisiana 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    34:cciliitnu M ’iii’ aMLlax loi -lcItIlldIti (11 it il~cx Ill tHeCA lIke ci raic hiCenl:T Ilie \\lixxIIxxppi ( )limchital Rixcf,. Ill peit’ xcontinlued klii,, axA...nhaIriccmcn1tiot thc cnx, rornntI. I h1C NIudCJ\\ ad ohtaiticd permits loi imricnicrmir miipto\\cinctilt nitiated Ii 19𔄃 1 ic Bocul Rioxcr anid I rihulta[ICI...viiiir i Slit! - , tauc ’ tin (atne Riter, the gates muI~st be elosed it) IitI[ict \\uithti. pret ciii back\\w ;i Iltmdfitig: eon-ttsequetlv, f’lttofriinde

  9. Exploratory Study of the Potential Effects of Exposure to Sonic Boom on Human Health. Volume 1. Sonic Boom Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    63 SPARKS 621 10.46 0.80 0.0 35. 3 0.19v, 64 VERDI 73 0.68 0.80 0.0 23 4 ,.01,3 65 WADSWORTH 730 10.70 0.80 0.0 35. 4 (..󈧇 67 HAKER 1168 1.47 0.80...Q. , HAKER 1168 10.68 0.82 3584.1 5.6 4 48 H Ft y 7190 51.23 0.83 3563.1 iY.4 7.I 3 o9 LUNi 694 %.51 0.81 3631.5 32.6 .. , II)t. 109889 󈧕.86 100

  10. Operational Procedures for Powering Up, Powering Down, and Configuring the Qualification Model of the FLTSATCOM Satellite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    distribution is unlimited 91-04962 9 ] 091i~ii iit tllI~li111 I1[l ~91ll Best Ava ilable Copy UNCLASSIFIED SECU R IY CLASS CfCA T,O % 0 , TH S PAGE F , A p...ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) Monterey, California 93943-5000 Monterey, California 93943-5000 Ba N:’\\P O1 r , T i’ J’FP-CE S- BOL 9 P R E’ENT...CONFIGURING THE QUALIFICATION MODEL OF THE FLTSATCOMI SATELLITE LAW SON, Jr. H.______ O~_ 1TO1 / ~ v R D4 DAE OF REPORT Iear, Month, Day) 5 PA:, C ),NT

  11. Global exponential stability and dissipativity of generalized neural networks with time-varying delay signals.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, R; Samidurai, R; Cao, Jinde; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Alsaadi, Fuad E

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the problems of exponential stability and dissipativity of generalized neural networks (GNNs) with time-varying delay signals. By constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (LKFs) with triple integral terms that contain more advantages of the state vectors of the neural networks, and the upper bound on the time-varying delay signals are formulated. We employ a new integral inequality technique (IIT), free-matrix-based (FMB) integral inequality approach, and Wirtinger double integral inequality (WDII) technique together with the reciprocally convex combination (RCC) approach to bound the time derivative of the LKFs. An improved exponential stability and strictly (Q,S,R)-γ-dissipative conditions of the addressed systems are represented by the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, four interesting numerical examples are developed to verify the usefulness of the proposed method with a practical application to a biological network.

  12. GPU linear and non-linear Poisson–Boltzmann solver module for DelPhi

    PubMed Central

    Colmenares, José; Ortiz, Jesús; Rocchia, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Summary: In this work, we present a CUDA-based GPU implementation of a Poisson–Boltzmann equation solver, in both the linear and non-linear versions, using double precision. A finite difference scheme is adopted and made suitable for the GPU architecture. The resulting code was interfaced with the electrostatics software for biomolecules DelPhi, which is widely used in the computational biology community. The algorithm has been implemented using CUDA and tested over a few representative cases of biological interest. Details of the implementation and performance test results are illustrated. A speedup of ∼10 times was achieved both in the linear and non-linear cases. Availability and implementation: The module is open-source and available at http://www.electrostaticszone.eu/index.php/downloads. Contact: walter.rocchia@iit.it Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online PMID:24292939

  13. Annual research plan, 1983-84. [Organic compounds derived from fossil substances

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-01

    The National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) resulted from efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE) to ensure the continuity of the unique energy research capabilities that had been developed at the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) over the past 65 years. This was accomplished by a Cooperative Agreement between DOE and IIT Research Institute (IITRI). The agreement to operate NIPER for the five fiscal years 1984-88 became effective October 1, 1983. The NIPER Annual Research Plan for 1983-84 consists of eight projects in the Base Program and 13 projects in the Optional Program. A sampling of potential Work for Others projects is also presented. The Base Program consists of five EOR and three Fundamental Petroleum Chemistry projects. The Optional Program has three EOR projects, one Unconventional Gas Recovery project, five APT projects, and four Advanced Utilization Research projects.

  14. Structuring and electric conductivity of polymer composites pyrolysed at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneli, J. N.; Natriashvili, T. M.; Zaikov, G. E.

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of mixes of phenolformaldehide and epoxy resins at presence of some silicon organic compounds and fiber glasses annealed in vacuum and hydrogen media the new conductive monolithic materials have been created. There were investigated the conductive, magnetic and some other properties of these materials. It is established experimentally that the obtained products are characterized by semiconducting properties, the level of conductivity of which are regulated by selection of technological conditions. The density and mobility of charge carriers increase at increasing of annealing temperature up to definite levels. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and charge mobility describe by Mott formulas. It is established that at annealing free radicals and other paramagnetic centers are formed. Iit is proposed that charge transport between conducting clusters provides by mechanism of charge jumping with alternative longevity of the jump.

  15. On the Instability of the Flow in an Oscillating Tank of Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    lIh pwm rs- inl (V we olt!ain at zemoth oIe<r a pair of lini~tr equalhi ois /’,,. for. Vhe ,on’, i>isle t\\Y 44f ll,•,s tluations yi0els 1B• = - I -l +I...Reynolds number R by R= oa. We see that the terms proportional to sint in (2.13) do not contribute to (5.1) which is therefore the generalization of the...the stahilIitY of thle b asic state( calli oil lx’ h e dletcr- mitned by solving (5. 1) no merically. Vke do iiot, piursiue t.hat calcu lat io li nT

  16. Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator Development to Improve Soldier Shooting Skills with the M16A3 Rifle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    101 ( ot SF11.! its CIP 1(2024 IVf SFC TEI IHISTI ID! 123 DIE SCLIO TIC SFC lID 1121 IDE 00 LDE SE4 SEE030 IDE (SFI), .Y TIGET I Cl? V1 115110 $TE SID...DUFFSl IF Slots IDE SIC CI? I’D fill ID0E 1255 :IS EYCl. IT loVE ltI 101 EDC 10 119 iIT040 VATTI DIE BUFFER IF Slots IS ODD SIT SFC HIMTJ I if0 0SET Dit...Of BUFFER lED. LDA (SFB( ,T CLC $?I EVIL :SET UP Fot :50 STOPOFF II III. CLC IDC SIB L1 -10 ADDITIOE OF 119111 i5! SPIT ABC 0! PAL ICC GITIO :OFFSET

  17. Assessment of Tactical Sonobuoy Computer Programs for Environmental Software Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    liLiAf U c I 4)(jtjt)1 Dcn’iit I~tionU1S 1: f\\ ’’n ;accdl [positionsl N iitoi ll Tin)L-dnpejenlt x U2i ’ itL ati ornial x 1,-p’ii ndih’ norma ~a N Nia...8217ASJ)A 4- 4-4-4 PATTERN 0S1\\ 0-1 4± + 0 44S - -49 22 I.fil i) -I I,,, - . o’ I :I ili tN, of I)etection Im. SccwlriiI I I S APA 7 I~~~~ L1 II I( I7

  18. Technical evaluation report for the demonstration of radio frequency soil decontamination at Site S-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, C.R.; Blanchard, C.F.; Whitt, L.H.

    1995-04-01

    The Air Force`s Armstrong Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, has supported the research and development of Radio Frequency Soil Decontamination. Radio frequency soil decontamination is essentially a heat-assisted soil vapor extraction process. Site S-1 at Kelly Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, was selected for the demonstration of two patented techniques. The site is a former sump that collected spills and surface run-off from a waste petroleum, oils, and lubricants and solvent storage and transfer area. In 1993, a technique developed by the IIT Research Institute using an array of electrodes placed in the soil was demonstrated. In 1994, a technique developed by KAI Technologies, Inc. using a single applicator placed in a vertical borehole was demonstrated. Approximately 120 tons of soil were heated during each demonstration to a temperature of about 150 degrees Celsius.

  19. Iris recognition based on robust principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karn, Pradeep; He, Xiao Hai; Yang, Shuai; Wu, Xiao Hong

    2014-11-01

    Iris images acquired under different conditions often suffer from blur, occlusion due to eyelids and eyelashes, specular reflection, and other artifacts. Existing iris recognition systems do not perform well on these types of images. To overcome these problems, we propose an iris recognition method based on robust principal component analysis. The proposed method decomposes all training images into a low-rank matrix and a sparse error matrix, where the low-rank matrix is used for feature extraction. The sparsity concentration index approach is then applied to validate the recognition result. Experimental results using CASIA V4 and IIT Delhi V1iris image databases showed that the proposed method achieved competitive performances in both recognition accuracy and computational efficiency.

  20. Magnetic Detection and Tracking of Military Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czipott, Peter V.; Perry, Alexander R.; Whitecotton, Brian R.; Dalichaouch, Yacine; Walsh, David O.

    2002-02-01

    Under the Next Generation Scatterable Mines (NGSM) program led by the U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC (Technical Agent Tank-automotive and Armaments Command - Army Research, Development and Engineering Center) and as a subcontractor to IITRI (IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology) Research Institute), Quantum Magnetics (QM) has participated in several rounds of field experiments in magnetic detection and tracking of military vehicles. Field data were acquired by three generations of magnetoresistive (MR) magnetic tensor gradiometers and analyzed by QM and Vista Clara. Successive gradiometer design generations mark a path to meeting NGSM form factor constraints. Magnetic gradiometry can detect and unambiguously locate magnetic targets, even in magnetically contaminated environments, as shown by results presented below.

  1. Air Force Senior Executive Appraisal System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    rini1gl lev-clv pefre dmrb.dring thle first half of [lte training sess-ion. lilne addedir inpuiit arnd wiis* of rorinn irn biriel h\\ the tiprvrsisor...8217. lccv’c’tr. wlieili".ii lce- ellcr’kelIPIA44-1i IIIV -iCoie- 4#1 ic icc % Icecbardi c’inibcers i gyraiv’r h iid lbirfi’ lpoi iit s. a split lid occurre-d...nti go’ cccrally coo ci c rec I a on iog icc eioii r cit the- boiard, we- sitrc i gli stiggi’sI that (n’r "hi.e t, toy-’’ ic S/ce’) JW r-ccocalli .c

  2. The holographic recording in photopolymer by excitation forbidden singlet-triplet transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelkovnikov, V. V.; Pen, E. F.; Russkich, V. V.; Vasiliev, E. V.; Kovalevsky, V. I.

    2006-05-01

    The possibility and features of the holographic recording by excitation of the forbidden singlet-triplet transitions are considered in the report. The experimental demonstration of the hologram recording on forbidden transition is carried out in thick photopolymer material sensitized by Erithrozine dye. The single hologram with diffraction efficiency DE=50% and 16 angle multiplexing hologram were recorded by irradiation of the low intensity He-Ne laser (632 nm) at high concentration of the sensitizing dye and at high optical density in allowed absorption band of dye. The growth of DE of transition hologram depending on the Kr+(647 nm) laser irradiation intensity of was studied. The observed linear dependence of the maximal rate of DE growth on the intensity of recording irradiation was explained by two steps-two photon excitation (T I<--S 0, T II<--T I) of the dye in the photopolymer samples.

  3. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 2, Number 2. April-June 1977,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    roac iu of a sto rm , there is hardly any visible or severe radio noise warning of the existence of strong t ie l (I s with in the clouds , as...Sciences Section , National Scietice Foundation , and file Atmospheri c Sciences Program Code 465 of the Ot’fi ce of Naval I I...it i f l u c a m u i m o n files an t I f i n u e — s l u a r i n g s r s t eu i u and 21 t e r m n u m i a l s : m l l f i e th i m i f o 11

  4. Evaporation of a Thickened Agent Simulant from Oak and Hickory Leaves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    APPENDIX A4 018 11 (189 09 -04 -48 O 1 LineA # 1 7 Microsoft FR()rRAH17 v3.31 Auqju:4 1985 1 1514 Tf(tkTU(NW 5.0) 6i0 f0 7000 1 1515 C 1 151V I((IT C0. 1...8217,Fl0.7,2X 1690 &,’GRAMS’/) 1691 1110 FORMAT(%1 ,*52XIVAPORATION dISTORY OF TESI DROPLE rT MEASURED AND T 1692 &I4EORETICAL’/) 169ý) 1111 FORMATe’H0,6X...GM$/SQ MEIER ON OAK/TOP SURrACE WINDSPEED 2.4 MPH, AIR TEMPERATURE 60 DEG F., RELATIVE HUMIDITY 39% EVA2ORAIION HISTORY L TESI DROPLET MEASURED AND

  5. Direct Initiation of Detonation by Non-Ideal Blast Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    S !iI 45 10 - B2RP O D J. - CLOUD -- -- WUINDY 0.1 i IG 1:Shoek Overpressures .I. $* 1 rg Sgci1,.d 4R&iits 46 1 100 HUANG i...Chou 56 NURNG i-CNOU aoo ATM~ E:-1.163)e 10 - joules EA1 aqmxIo~ joual V S CEL’UME VIUE 41:03 ie;t giin u gadCo 57 1;. U, V V K _____________________ I I...14U m S R ............ URUN MAP AL L IIGR , " fC’ ,la l 4< 1 67 10 - bA FOR¶ RUN& B91oi FOR ~FRUN RUNIS 11~,51 I-10010-1 .21 j).1 00ty sI tits.~ Rm , I

  6. Annotated Bibliography of USAARL (United States Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory) Technical and Letter Reports, 1 June 1963 - 30 April 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    repr.si’nt d pot tial hazard I or personnel while airc rat t art . on t IiC ground. h Ibis study was conducted to ascerta in if rot at ing blades could he... art ii u ti tr IiW 1 ns tr lCt o r , v thI t -ri ) 11 1s i s Onl it t oI 1 t LI I Ip I c t 1i011 to o1 i (IIt v I~l imag i [I,, Sv st ItL Coll 1 o tt...compared for the amount of real-ear sound attenuation they provide. The H-132/A[C, a "state-of-the- art " device, was superior to all of the other eight

  7. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program. Summary of 1984 progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotosky, J. E.

    1985-07-01

    A long-term program is being conducted to monitor for possible effects from the operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer-reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982; studies were initiated in late summer of that year. Currently, 16 general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in the ELF Communications System are being examined. During 1984, the Program continued and extended those major activities initiated in 1983, consisting of site selection, the characterization of critical study aspects, and, to a lesser degree, the validation of assumptions made in the original proposals. Progress is summarized for the 11 projects that comprise the Program as well as for the support activities of IIT Research Institute.

  8. Office of Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1989 annual report, Power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-01

    The annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) is devoted to the activities performed during 1989. The report is published in two separate parts. This document, NUREG-1272, Vol. 4, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC's Operations Center. This report also compiles the status of staff actions resulting from previous Incident Investigation Team (IIT) reports. 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Background Study of Intact Stability Standards for Dynamically Supported Craft. Volume I - VI. Categorized Bibliographies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    Important to Program to Program I - ,.upporting Material REFERENCE EVAI.UATION AND SUBJEI ICT INDEX U) C01Q 4) H a Hal UL0 U .J [,1 -i4 L) I-4 I.,.-4 H...1111 iit eIIIi * I.C.eil vu ’ ict I tes 1 1, I% . l / 1 . ASIJ I 10-tI10 it) 1. Retiumuk-.i : yott Kimm aua iv; t . I .e Serf I o I I Lilt ACVS. VI "A...o -Ist I c . ofI l’tlztI o o i1 MAY o I Sbt i ps" , liv 1ll r - elt . SNAREVtA I AA , May 196 . Set’ BOLIt N(u. n (18. tfiOt*RN~FR "Flid-DlYth,1i~t c

  10. Technology transfer to a developing nation, Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, C. A.; Uccetta, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental project is reported which was undertaken. to determine if selected types of technology developed for the aerospace program during the past decade are relevant to specific industrial problems of a developing nation and to test whether a structured program could facilitate the transfer of relevant technologies. The Korea Institute of Science and Technology and the IIT Research Institute were selected as the active transfer agents to participate in the program. The pilot project was based upon the approach to the transfer of domestic technology developed by the NASA Technology Utilization Division and utilized the extensive data and technical resources available through the Space Agency and its contractors. This pilot project has helped to clarify some aspects of the international technology transfer process and to upgrade Korean technological capabilities.

  11. Experimental study of wave impact on the nearshore structures during extreme coastal floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Venkatachalam; Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim; Rodin, Artem; Didenkulov, Oleg; Sergeeva, Anna; Nair Vishnu, Reghunathan; Sundar, Vallam; Annamalaisamy Sannasiraj, Sannasi

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics of strongly nonlinear waves in the coastal zone and their impact on coasts during flash floods and tsunami. For this we use analytical theory of strongly nonlinear wave propagation along the slope and compare it with the data of experiments carried out in shallow water flume of IIT Madras (72 m long, 2 m wide and up to 2 m deep). Different kinds of waves like elongated solitons, N-waves are simulated and its run-up and impact force on the idealized structure on the slope are evaluated. Different numerical models (CLAWPACK, pseudospectral code for solving nonlinear evolutional equations and FNPT model) areused to describe strongly nonlinear waves along the slope. Results of numerical simulations are compared with predictions of analytical theory and with the data of experiments. The results presented here are the preliminary results obtained within DST - RFBR joint project "Impact of waterborne debris on the nearshore structures during extreme coastal floods".

  12. Analytic Determination of Interference Thresholds for Microwave Landing System Equipment and TACAN/DME Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    J). Ocr E 0) 9’ (A .4J A ~ . -4 S.-4 4 W A w 14 10 ~4oU0 0 H 4j’ 4) r r410w Sctcion 2 FAA-RD-80-89 E-4 0 -4 .3 i I 0~~ 0 aCoco I. w CAt IIt 1 00 0 f...modulation, Essential data is included in function nreamhles. It is decodeA by all user aircraft. Basic and auxiliary data are time- multiplexed with...lunction Expanded Aperture) Aperture) Conmunity J*lo1 20 30 13imuth a w .4’ .04 OCR * 0.1’ 9 1 1’ 1.5" 2’ REevatioon CN4N .05’ .05’ .05’ 0. 1’ * 0.56 N/A N/A

  13. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-11-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries' paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as "Quantum dots," "Carbon nanotubes," "Atomic force microscopy," and "Scanning electron microscopy," while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion.

  14. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C.; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-11-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries' paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as "Quantum dots," "Carbon nanotubes," "Atomic force microscopy," and "Scanning electron microscopy," while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion.

  15. Measuring Integrated Information from the Decoding Perspective.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi; Yanagawa, Toru; Fujii, Naotaka; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the capacity to integrate information in the brain is a prerequisite for consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness provides a mathematical approach to quantifying the information integrated in a system, called integrated information, Φ. Integrated information is defined theoretically as the amount of information a system generates as a whole, above and beyond the amount of information its parts independently generate. IIT predicts that the amount of integrated information in the brain should reflect levels of consciousness. Empirical evaluation of this theory requires computing integrated information from neural data acquired from experiments, although difficulties with using the original measure Φ precludes such computations. Although some practical measures have been previously proposed, we found that these measures fail to satisfy the theoretical requirements as a measure of integrated information. Measures of integrated information should satisfy the lower and upper bounds as follows: The lower bound of integrated information should be 0 and is equal to 0 when the system does not generate information (no information) or when the system comprises independent parts (no integration). The upper bound of integrated information is the amount of information generated by the whole system. Here we derive the novel practical measure Φ* by introducing a concept of mismatched decoding developed from information theory. We show that Φ* is properly bounded from below and above, as required, as a measure of integrated information. We derive the analytical expression of Φ* under the Gaussian assumption, which makes it readily applicable to experimental data. Our novel measure Φ* can generally be used as a measure of integrated information in research on consciousness, and also as a tool for network analysis on diverse areas of biology.

  16. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Labbé, Pierrick; Lebon, Cyrille; Weill, Mylène; Moretti, Riccardo; Marini, Francesca; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Calvitti, Maurizio; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy) and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to identify the

  17. Measuring Integrated Information from the Decoding Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi; Yanagawa, Toru; Fujii, Naotaka; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the capacity to integrate information in the brain is a prerequisite for consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness provides a mathematical approach to quantifying the information integrated in a system, called integrated information, Φ. Integrated information is defined theoretically as the amount of information a system generates as a whole, above and beyond the amount of information its parts independently generate. IIT predicts that the amount of integrated information in the brain should reflect levels of consciousness. Empirical evaluation of this theory requires computing integrated information from neural data acquired from experiments, although difficulties with using the original measure Φ precludes such computations. Although some practical measures have been previously proposed, we found that these measures fail to satisfy the theoretical requirements as a measure of integrated information. Measures of integrated information should satisfy the lower and upper bounds as follows: The lower bound of integrated information should be 0 and is equal to 0 when the system does not generate information (no information) or when the system comprises independent parts (no integration). The upper bound of integrated information is the amount of information generated by the whole system. Here we derive the novel practical measure Φ* by introducing a concept of mismatched decoding developed from information theory. We show that Φ* is properly bounded from below and above, as required, as a measure of integrated information. We derive the analytical expression of Φ* under the Gaussian assumption, which makes it readily applicable to experimental data. Our novel measure Φ* can generally be used as a measure of integrated information in research on consciousness, and also as a tool for network analysis on diverse areas of biology. PMID:26796119

  18. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Atyame, Célestine M; Labbé, Pierrick; Lebon, Cyrille; Weill, Mylène; Moretti, Riccardo; Marini, Francesca; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Calvitti, Maurizio; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy) and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to identify the

  19. [Use of a retainer bar in lower full dentures].

    PubMed

    Rignon-Bret, J M; Pompignoli, M

    1989-12-01

    In subtotal mandibular edentations, the roots of remaining anterior teeth might be used to enhance the retention of a full denture in building a contramucosal retention bar. Based on a case-report, the authors present the fabrication in five clinical and laboratory sequences, of a maxillary full denture combined with a lower full denture and a retainer bar joining two cuspids. First sequence: Clinical. It mainly concerns: 1) Preparation and impression of the two cuspids for receiving the two posts on which the retention bar will be fixed. 2) The primary plaster impression of the soft tissues. In the laboratory, the coping are directly cast with gold without a core, topped with resin. The individual mandibular impression tray (IIT) presents two windows opposite the two preparations through which the tops of the two copings are showing. Second sequence: Clinical. If the maxillary impression is a classical one, the mandibular impression is peculiar and original. Overall, this provides a reliable working model on which the dental technician will be able to build, the entire prosthesis, not only the retainer bar but also the full denture. This is done in two stages: 1) Secondary impression of the soft tissues with copings in place. 2) Indexing of the copings to the impression tray with acrylic resin, pressing firmly on the rims of the IIT and simultaneously, on the tops of the copings to take into account the different depression of the tissues. In the laboratory, both impressions are boxed and cast, with in place.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Atyame, Célestine M; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands.

  1. Wolbachia-Based Population Control Strategy Targeting Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes Proves Efficient under Semi-Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Cattel, Julien; Lebon, Cyrille; Flores, Olivier; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Weill, Mylène; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Tortosa, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In mosquitoes, the maternally inherited bacterial Wolbachia induce a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). This property can be used to reduce the density of mosquito field populations through inundative releases of incompatible males in order to sterilize females (Incompatible Insect Technique, or IIT, strategy). We have previously constructed the LR[wPip(Is)] line representing a good candidate for controlling field populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean. The main purpose of the present study was to fill the gap between laboratory experiments and field implementation, i.e. assessing mating competitiveness of these incompatible males under semi-field conditions. In a first set of experiments, we analyzed crossing relationships between LR[wPip(Is)] males and La Réunion field females collected as larvae in 19 distinct localities throughout the island. This investigation revealed total embryonic mortality, confirming the strong sterilizing capacity of LR[wPip(Is)] males. Subsequently, mating competitiveness of LR[wPip(Is)] males was assessed under semi-field conditions in the presence of field males and females from La Réunion. Confrontations were carried out in April and December using different ratios of LR[wPip(Is)] to field males. The results indicated that the LR[wPip(Is)] males successfully compete with field males in mating with field females, displaying even higher competitiveness than field males in April. Our results support the implementation of small-scale field tests in order to assess the feasibility of IIT against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the islands of southwestern Indian Ocean where this mosquito species is a proven competent vector for human pathogens. PMID:25768841

  2. Aerosol radiative forcing over the Indo-Gangetic plains during major dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Anup K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Chauhan, S. S.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Singh, Ramesh P.; Singh, Risal

    Indo-Gangetic (IG) alluvial plains, one of the largest river basins in the world, suffers from the long range transport of mineral dust from the western arid and desert regions of Africa, Arabia and Rajasthan during the summer (pre-monsoon season, April-June). These dust storms influence the aerosol optical depth (AOD) across the IG plains. The Kanpur AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) station and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) data show pronounced effect on the aerosol optical properties and aerosol size distribution during major dust storm events over the IG plains that have significant effect on the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). The multi-band AOD, from AERONET and MODIS, show contrasting changes in wavelength dependency over dust affected regions. A time collocated (±30 min) validation of AERONET AOD with MODIS Terra (level 2 swath product) over Kanpur, at a common wavelength of 550 nm for the period 2001-2005 show moderate correlation ( R2˜0.6) during the summer season. The average surface forcing is found to change by -23 W m -2 during dust events and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing change by -11 W m -2 as compared to the non-dusty clear-sky days. A strong correlation is found between AOD at 500 nm and the ARF. At surface, the correlation coefficient between AOD and ARF is found to be high ( R2=0.925) and is found to be moderate ( R2=0.628) at the TOA. The slope of the regression line gives the aerosol forcing efficiency at 500 nm of about -46±2.6 W m -2 and -17±2.5 W m -2 at the surface and the TOA, respectively. The ARF is found to increase with the advance of the dry season in conjunction with the gradual rise in AOD (at 500 nm) from April (0.4-0.5) to June (0.6-0.7) over the IG plains.

  3. A Wintertime Aerosol Model for the Ganga Basin, Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2006-05-01

    An aerosol model has been developed using mass size distributions of various chemical components measured at Kanpur (an urban location in the Ganga basin, GB, in Northern India) and applied to estimate the radiative effects of the aerosols over the entire GB during the winter season for the first time. The number size distribution of various species was derived from the measured mass concentration and the optical properties were calculated using OPAC model. The anthropogenic contribution to the total extinction was found to be more than 90%. The relative contribution of various species to the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 0.5 μm are in the following order, (NH2)2SO4 (AS, 37%), nitrate (N, 28%), other salts (S, mainly NaCl and KCl, 19%), dust (9%) and black carbon, BC (7%). Contribution of AS, N, S to the observed AOD decreases with wavelength and that of dust increases with wavelength, whereas, BC contribution remains almost same. The extinction coefficient strongly depends on the relative humidity (RH), as the scattering by fine mode fraction (contributing 88% to the total extinction) is enhanced at high ambient RH. The spectral variation of absorption coefficient indicates that the most likely source of BC (as BC is the dominant absorbing species) in this region is fossil- fuel. The spectral variation of single scattering albedo (SSA) in the fine and coarse mode fractions and that of asymmetry parameter suggests that the internal mixing is more likely scenario, although the possibility of external mixing can not be ruled out. If the RH is lowered by ~20%, BC contribution to the AOD increases by ~3.5%, which implies that the RH is a strong controlling factor of the aerosol forcing. The mean shortwave clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface forcing over Kanpur are -13±3 and -43±8 W m-2. Extending the TOA and surface efficiency over the entire GB, the mean TOA and surface forcing become -9±3 and -25±10 W m-2. This results in high atmospheric

  4. Survival of the rhizosphere-competent biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI2650 in the soil and phytosphere.

    PubMed

    Nautlyal, C Shekhar; Johri, J K; Singh, H B

    2002-07-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI2650 was isolated after screening 360 bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown in fungal-disease-suppressive field soil. The strain was selected because of its high rhizosphere competence and ability to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola, and Pythium sp. under in vitro conditions. Survival and colonization of NBRI2650 in the phytosphere of chickpea, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon seculentum Mill.) were monitored using a chromosomally located rifampicin-marked mutant P. fluorescens NBRI2650R. The strain showed variable ability to invade and survive in the phytosphere of different plants. Chickpea was used as a tester plant for further work, as it was not invaded by NBRI2650R. The interaction between NBRI2650R and F oxysporum fsp. ciceri was studied by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The lysis of the fungal cell wall by NBRI2650R was clearly demonstrated. Treatment of the chickpea seeds with NBRI2650R in prerelease experiments in the greenhouse using disease-conducive field soils from Jhansi and Kanpur resulted in increased plant growth and did not result in any perturbation of the indigenous microbial community that inhabited the rhizosphere of chickpea compared with nonbacterized seeds. Direct fermentation of diluted NBRI2650R on vermiculite without the need of expensive fermentors offers a reliable process for manufacturing bacterial inoculants in developing countries. Under field conditions, the horizontal and vertical movement of NBRI2650R was restricted to 30 and 60 cm, respectively, and the strain could not survive in the field during the 7 months before the chickpea could be planted for next cropping season. Field trials conducted at Jhansi, Kanpur, and Pantnagar resulted in higher grain yield increase in the bacteria-treated seed compared with the nonbacterized control

  5. Understanding stellar activity and flares to search for Earth-like exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sordo, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    The radial velocity method is a powerful way to search for exoplanetary systems and it led to many discoveries of exoplanets in the last 20 years. Nowadays, understanding stellar activity, flares and noise is a key factor for achieving a substantial improvement in such technique.Radial-velocity data are time-series containing the effect of both planets and stellar disturbances: the detection of Earth-like planets requires to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, i.e. it is central to understand the noise present in the data. Noise is caused by physical processes which operate on different time-scales, oftentimes acting in a non-periodic fashion. We present here an approach to such problem: to look for multifractal structures in the time-series coming from radial velocity measurements, identifying the underlying long-range correlations and fractal scaling properties, connecting them to the underlying physical processes (stellar oscillations, stellar wind, granulation, rotation, magnetic activity). This method has been previously applied to satellite data related to Arctic sea albedo, relevant for identify trends and noise in the Arctic sea ice (Agarwal, Moon, Wettlaufer, 2012). Here we suggest to use such analysis for exoplanetary data related to possible Earth-like planets.

  6. Assessment of the Airway Characteristics in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Marwah, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of our study is to use cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to assess the dimensional changes in the nasopharyngeal soft-tissue characteristics in children of Indian origin with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) and to compare the results with patients with ideal occlusion. Materials and methods: A sample of 20 children (10 girls, 10 boys) with repaired CLP was selected. Cone beam computed tomography scans were taken to measure the nasopharyngeal airway changes in terms of linear measurements and sagittal cross-sectional areas. Error analysis was performed to prevent systematic or random errors. Independent means t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis were used to evaluate sex differences and the correlations among the variables. Results: Nasopharyngeal soft-tissue characteristics were different in the control and the study groups. Subjects with repaired CLP had lesser lower aerial width, lower adenoidal width and lower airway width. The upper airway width was also significantly lesser. The retropalatal and the total airway area were significantly greater in the control group. Conclusion: The narrow pharyngeal airway in patients with CLP might result in functional impairment of breathing in patients. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the relationship between pharyngeal structure and airway function in patients with CLP. How to cite this article: Agarwal A, Marwah N. Assessment of the Airway Characteristics in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):5-9. PMID:27274147

  7. ETHICAL MODELS OF PHYSICIAN--PATIENT RELATIONSHIP REVISITED WITH REGARD TO PATIENT AUTONOMY, VALUES AND PATIENT EDUCATION.

    PubMed

    Borza, Liana Rada; Gavrilovici, Cristina; Stockman, René

    2015-01-01

    The present paper revisits the ethical models of patient--physician relationship from the perspective of patient autonomy and values. It seems that the four traditional models of physician--patient relationship proposed by Emanuel & Emanuel in 1992 closely link patient values and patient autonomy. On the other hand, their reinterpretation provided by Agarwal & Murinson twenty years later emphasizes the independent expression of values and autonomy in individual patients. Additionally, patient education has been assumed to join patient values and patient autonomy. Moreover, several authors have noted that, over the past few decades, patient autonomy has gradually replaced the paternalistic approach based on the premise that the physician knows what is best for the patient. Neither the paternalistic model of physician-patient relationship, nor the informative model is considered to be satisfactory, as the paternalistic model excludes patient values from decision making, while the informative model excludes physician values from decision making. However, the deliberative model of patient-physician interaction represents an adequate alternative to the two unsatisfactory approaches by promoting shared decision making between the physician and the patient. It has also been suggested that the deliberative model would be ideal for exercising patient autonomy in chronic care and that the ethical role of patient education would be to make the deliberative model applicable to chronic care. In this regard, studies have indicated that the use of decision support interventions might increase the deliberative capacity of chronic patients.

  8. Low density mesostructures of confined dipolar particles in an external field.

    PubMed

    Richardi, J; Weis, J-J

    2011-09-28

    Mesostructures formed by dipolar particles confined between two parallel walls and subjected to an external field are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The main focus of the work is the structural behavior of the Stockmayer fluid in the low density regime. The dependence of cluster thickness and ordering is estimated as a function of density and wall separation, the two most influential parameters, for large dipole moments and high field strengths. The great sensitivity of the structure to details of the short-range part of the interactions is pointed out. In particular, the attractive part of the Lennard-Jones potential is shown to play a major role in driving chain aggregation. The effect of confinement, evaluated by comparison with results for a bulk system, is most pronounced for a short range hard sphere potential. No evidence is found for a novel "gel-like" phase recently uncovered in low density dipolar colloidal suspensions [A. K. Agarwal and A. Yethiraj, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 198301 (2009)].

  9. Field-driven mesoscale phase transition in polarized colloids in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusid, Boris; Elele, Ezinwa

    2014-11-01

    An unexpected phase transition in a polarized suspension was reported by Kumar, Khusid, Acrivos, PRL 95, 258301, 2005 and Agarwal, Yethiraj, PRL 102, 198301, 2009. Following the field application, particles aggregated head-to-tail into chains that bridged the interelectrode gap and then formed a cellular pattern, in which large-scale particle-free voids were enclosed by particle-rich thin walls. Surprisingly, the size of particle-free domains scales linearly with the gap thickness but is insensitive to the particle size and the field strength and frequency. Cellular structures were not observed in simulations of equilibrium in a polarized suspension (Richardi, Weis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 124502, 2011; Almudallal, Saika-Voivod, PRE 84, 011402, 2011). Nonequilibrium simulations (Park, Saintillan, PRE 83, 041409, 2011) showed cellular-like structures but at a particle concentration much higher than in experiments. A requirement for precise matching of densities between particles and a fluid to avoid gravity effects limits terrestrial experiments to negatively polarized particles. We will present data on positively polarized non-buoyancy-matched particles and the development of experiments in the International Space Station needed to evaluate gravity contribution. Supported by NASA's Physical Science Research Program, NNX13AQ53G.

  10. Prerana: a success story.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Prerana-Associate CEDPA, a women- and youth-focused community organization headquartered in New Delhi, has expanded its program activities with recent grants from two leading donors, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. CEDPA provides important support through grants from The Xerox Foundation, The Turner Foundation, World Bank, and the US Agency for International Development. Founded in 1976, Prerana--whose name means "Inspiration" in Hindi--has grown steadily as knowledge of its comprehensive community-based program has spread. The organization conducts the CEDPA Better Life Options health, education, and vocational skills programs for girls and young women, maternal and child health services, and integrated community-based family planning. A parallel Better Life Options program for boys and young men was recently started. With almost 20 years of experience in the private sector, Prerana provides training and assistance to other private organizations. Prerana's Better Life Options program received international recognition in UNFPA's "The State of World Population 1994." The publication featured an article by a young Indian woman who participated in the program and as a result was able to develop life skills, improve her self-esteem, and, with her husband, decide to delay parenthood. "This success story," said Prerana Executive Director Dr. Uma Agarwal (WIM 29), "is being repeated by many other girls who find support at Prerana."

  11. Host Range Testing of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for Use in Classical Biological Control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Bistline-East, Allison; Pandey, Raju; Kececi, Mehmet; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Host range tests for Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from Punjab Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated D. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolonged sequential no-choice treatments, 3) prolonged no-choice static treatments, and 4) choice treatments. Selection of nontarget psyllid species was based on phylogenetic proximity to D. citri, likelihood of being encountered by D. aligarhensis in the prospective release areas in California, and psyllid species in biological control of invasive weeds. D. aligarhensis exhibited high host affinity to D. citri, and only parasitized one nontarget species, the pestiferous potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), at low levels (<14%). Based on the results of this study, we conclude that D. aligarhensis has a narrow host range and exhibits a high level of host specificity, as it shows a significant attack preference for the target pest, D. citri. Results presented here suggest D. aligarhensis poses minimal risk to nontarget psyllid species in California.

  12. Aerosol penetration of leak pathways : an examination of the available data and models.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-04-01

    Data and models of aerosol particle deposition in leak pathways are described. Pathways considered include capillaries, orifices, slots and cracks in concrete. The Morewitz-Vaughan criterion for aerosol plugging of leak pathways is shown to be applicable only to a limited range of particle settling velocities and Stokes numbers. More useful are sampling efficiency criteria defined by Davies and by Liu and Agarwal. Deposition of particles can be limited by bounce from surfaces defining leak pathways and by resuspension of particles deposited on these surfaces. A model of the probability of particle bounce is described. Resuspension of deposited particles can be triggered by changes in flow conditions, particle impact on deposits and by shock or vibration of the surfaces. This examination was performed as part of the review of the AP1000 Standard Combined License Technical Report, APP-GW-GLN-12, Revision 0, 'Offsite and Control Room Dose Changes' (TR-112) in support of the USNRC AP1000 Standard Combined License Pre-Application Review.

  13. First record of Bombylisoma Rondani (Diptera: Bombyliidae) from China and an identification key to the Chinese genera of Bombyliinae.

    PubMed

    Yao, Gang; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2016-07-11

    Bombylisoma Rondani is a genus of bee flies belonging to the subfamily Bombyliinae (Hull, 1973). It is easily identified by the following characters: Head usually as broad as thorax; hind-margin of eyes indented; wings often small, narrowed at base with at least alula reduced; hind femora often without macrochaetae; body usually more elongate even narrow conical or cylindrical, macrochaetae usually weak often hair-like especially those posterior to the wings; cell r5 open, pulvilli well-developed; male terminalia with gonocoxite without prominent crest; parameral sheath, bearing paired horn-like outgrowths (Greathead & Evenhuis, 2001). Bombylisoma includes two known species from the Oriental Region: B. ghorpadei Kapoor & Agarwal, 1979 and B. resplendens Brunetti, 1909 (Evenhuis & Greathead, 2015). No species has previously been reported from China. Recently, one specimen of Bombylisoma collected from Yunnan was found in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. In the present paper this species, B. resplendens Brunetti, is redescribed and this represents the first record of the genus from China. A key to the genera of the Bombyliinae from China is presented.

  14. Distribution of albumin variants Naskapi amd Mexico among Aleuts, Frobisher Bay Eskimos, and Micmac, Naskapi, Mohawk, Omaha, and Apache Indians.

    PubMed

    Schell, L M; Agarwal, S S; Blumberg, B S; Levy, H; Bennett, P H; Laughlin, W S; Martin, J P

    1978-07-01

    In order to help define the boundaries of the distribution of the albumin variants Naskapi and Mexico which are polymorphic among several American Indian groups, we examined sera from Micmac, Mohawk, Northwest River Naskapi, Omaha and Apache Indians, and from Aleuts and Eskimos. Sera from a total of 1,524 individuals were examined. Using a cellulose acetate membrane electrophoretic system with Tris-Citric acid at pH 5.4 we were able to distinguish normal albumin and both variants in the same run. Naskapi and Mexico variants were absent from Aleut, Eskimo, Micmac, Mohawk and Omaha samples. The albumin Naskapi variant was present in an allele frequency of 0.03 in the Naskapi Indian sample. Albumin variants Naskapi and Mexico were found in the Apache sample at frequencies of 0.016 and 0.037, respectively. This report supersedes that previously published by Schell and Agarwal ('76). Generally, within an area there is a correspondence between changes in the frequency of albumin variants and changes in the ethnic background and history of the area's populations. At the same time, when viewing widely separated areas, relationships between distant groups based on linguistic and cultural similarities are paralleled on a biologic level by the distribution of normal albumin and variant albumins.

  15. Electric field driven mesoscale phase transition in polarized colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusid, Boris; Elele, Ezinwa; Lei, Qian

    2016-11-01

    A mesoscale phase transition in a polarized suspension was reported by Kumar, Khusid, Acrivos, PRL95, 2005 and Agarwal, Yethiraj, PRL102, 2009. Following the application of a strong AC field, particles aggregated head-to-tail into chains that bridged the interelectrode gap and then formed a cellular pattern, in which large particle-free domains were enclosed by particle-rich thin walls. Cellular structures were not observed in numerous simulations of field induced phase transitions in a polarized suspension. A requirement for matching the particle and fluid densities to avoid particle settling limits terrestrial experiments to negatively polarized particles. We present data on the phase diagram and kinetics of the phase transition in a neutrally buoyant, negatively polarized suspension subjected to a combination of AC and DC. Surprisingly, a weak DC component drastically speeds up the formation of a cellular pattern but does not affect its key characteristic. However, the application of a strong DC field destroys the cellular pattern, but it restores as the DC field strength is reduced. We also discuss the design of experiments to study phase transitions in a suspension of positively polarized, non-buoyancy-matched particles in the International Space Station. Supported by NASA's Physical Science Research Program, NNX13AQ53G.

  16. Photon-number-resolving detectors and their role in quantifying quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Si-Hui; Krivitsky, Leonid A.; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2016-09-01

    Harnessing entanglement as a resource is the main workhorse of many quantum protocols, and establishing the degree of quantum correlations of quantum states is an important certification process that has to take place prior to any implementations of these quantum protocols. The emergence of photodetectors known as photon-number-resolving detectors (PNRDs) that allow for accounting of photon numbers simultaneously arriving at the detectors has led to the need for modeling accurately and applying them for use in the certification process. Here we study the variance of difference of photocounts (VDP) of two PNRDs, which is one measure of quantum correlations, under the effects of loss and saturation. We found that it would be possible to distinguish between the classical correlation of a two-mode coherent state and the quantum correlation of a twin-beam state within some photo count regime of the detector. We compare the behavior of two such PNRDs. The first for which the photocount statistics follow a binomial distribution accounting for losses, and the second is that of Agarwal, Vogel, and Sperling for which the incident beam is first split and then separately measured by ON/OFF detectors. In our calculations, analytical expressions are derived for the variance of difference where possible. In these cases, Gauss' hypergeometric function appears regularly, giving an insight to the type of quantum statistics the photon counting gives in these PNRDs. The different mechanisms of the two types of PNRDs leads to quantitative differences in their VDP.

  17. Gravity data inversion to determine 3D topographycal density contrast of Banten area, Indonesia based on fast Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhari, Ayuty; Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-01

    The 3D inversion gravity anomaly to estimate topographical density using a matlab source code from gridded data provided by Parker Oldenburg algorithm based on fast Fourier transform was computed. We extend and improved the source code of 3DINVERT.M invented by Gomez Ortiz and Agarwal (2005) using the relationship between Fourier transform of the gravity anomaly and the sum of the Fourier transform from the topography density. We gave density contrast between the two media to apply the inversion. FFT routine was implemented to construct amplitude spectrum to the given mean depth. The results were presented as new graphics of inverted topography density, the gravity anomaly due to the inverted topography and the difference between the input gravity data and the computed ones. It terminates when the RMS error is lower than pre-assigned value used as convergence criterion or until maximum of iterations is reached. As an example, we used the matlab program on gravity data of Banten region, Indonesia.

  18. Phenotypic characterization of copper-resistant mutants of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, M W; Graham, D W; Arnold, R G; Agarwal, S K; Phelps, P; Speitel, G E; Georgiou, G

    1993-01-01

    Cultures of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b grown in the presence of very low concentrations of copper synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) that efficiently catalyzes the oxidation of trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants. Recently, we isolated five M. trichosporium OB3b mutants that express sMMO activity when grown in the presence of elevated copper concentrations (P.A. Phelps, S. K. Agarwal, G. E. Speitel, Jr., and G. Georgiou, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:3701-3708, 1992). Here we show that, in contrast to the results for the wild-type cells, the addition of copper to mutant cultures grown on methane and nitrate as the nitrogen source has no noticeable effect on the growth rate and sMMO expression. In vitro experiments indicated that the copper-resistant phenotype does not arise from an increased stability of sMMO to copper deactivation. Furthermore, the mutant cultures exhibit altered speciation of copper in the extracellular fluid and have substantially decreased levels of cell-associated copper. On the basis of these results, we propose that the mutant phenotype arises from defects in copper uptake and metabolism rather than from changes in sMMO expression or enzyme stability. Images PMID:8215352

  19. Assessment of zero-equation SGS models for simulating indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghinia, Javad; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Tse, Tim K. T.

    2016-12-01

    The understanding of air-flow in enclosed spaces plays a key role to designing ventilation systems and indoor environment. The computational fluid dynamics aspects dictate that the large eddy simulation (LES) offers a subtle means to analyze complex flows with recirculation and streamline curvature effects, providing more robust and accurate details than those of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. This work assesses the performance of two zero-equation sub-grid scale models: the Rahman-Agarwal-Siikonen-Taghinia (RAST) model with a single grid-filter and the dynamic Smagorinsky model with grid-filter and test-filter scales. This in turn allows a cross-comparison of the effect of two different LES methods in simulating indoor air-flows with forced and mixed (natural + forced) convection. A better performance against experiments is indicated with the RAST model in wall-bounded non-equilibrium indoor air-flows; this is due to its sensitivity toward both the shear and vorticity parameters.

  20. Quantum fuel with multilevel atomic coherence for ultrahigh specific work in a photonic Carnot engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Özgür E.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003), 10.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N +1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.

  1. Purification, characterization, and in vitro activity of 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol from Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84: conformational and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Dharni, Seema; Sanchita; Maurya, Anupam; Samad, Abdul; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Ashok; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-07-02

    A novel strain of Pseudomonas monteilii, PsF84, was isolated from tannery waste soil from Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as P. monteilii. An antifungal volatile organic compound (VOC) active against hyphal growth of Fusarium oxysporum (CIMAP-IMI-357464) in vitro was isolated from strain PsF84 by using chromatographic techniques. The molecular formula of the antifungal VOC was deduced to be C₁₄H₂₂O by EI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was found to be effective against an agriculturally important fungus, namely, F. oxysporum, in inhibiting spore germination and hyphal growth. Molecular docking analysis of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol with β-tubulin further validated the potential of β-tubulin binding in F. oxysporum. Two residues of β-tubulin protein, HIS 118 and THR 117, showed hydrogen binding with ligand. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of antifungal VOC (2,4-di-tert-butylphenol) produced by P. monteilii PsF84 that can be a potent inhibitor of β-tubulin of F. oxysporum.

  2. Evaluation of two commercial field test kits used for screening of groundwater for arsenic in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Chauhan, Divya; Nickson, R T; Tripathi, R M; Iyengar, L

    2008-08-15

    In this study two relatively new arsenic field kits, namely Wagtech Digital Arsenator (WFTK) and Chem-In Corp field test kit (CFTK) for arsenic were evaluated. The response of the two field test kits to known standards (Both As(III) and As(V)) is detailed. In addition around 157 arsenic-contaminated field samples obtained from various locations of Ballia and Kanpur districts, U.P., India were tested using the two kits and the results were compared with the laboratory-based colorimetric method (silver diethyldithiocarbamate method, SDDC). The concentration of arsenic in the 157 samples ranged from 0 to 468 microg l(-1). WFTK is seen to be suitable for measuring arsenic concentration <5-100 microg l(-1) using the digital meter. CFTK was not able to detect As(V) and its usage is cautioned in Uttar Pradesh where As(V) is seen to occur in appreciable concentrations. The Pearson's correlation between the silver diethyldithiocarbamate method and WFTK was found to be 0.87 and for the corresponding correlation with CFTK was 0.41 in the concentration range used in this study. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients comparing the WFTK and CFTK to laboratory measurements in the concentration range of 0-100 microg l(-1) were 0.95 (p<0.001) and 0.64 (p<0.001) respectively.

  3. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  4. Effectiveness evaluation of objective and subjective weighting methods for aquifer vulnerability assessment in urban context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment has been an accepted practice to identify the zones with relatively increased potential for groundwater contamination. DRASTIC is the most popular secondary information-based vulnerability assessment approach. Original DRASTIC approach considers relative importance of features/sub-features based on subjective weighting/rating values. However variability of features at a smaller scale is not reflected in this subjective vulnerability assessment process. In contrast to the subjective approach, the objective weighting-based methods provide flexibility in weight assignment depending on the variation of the local system. However experts' opinion is not directly considered in the objective weighting-based methods. Thus effectiveness of both subjective and objective weighting-based approaches needs to be evaluated. In the present study, three methods - Entropy information method (E-DRASTIC), Fuzzy pattern recognition method (F-DRASTIC) and Single parameter sensitivity analysis (SA-DRASTIC), were used to modify the weights of the original DRASTIC features to include local variability. Moreover, a grey incidence analysis was used to evaluate the relative performance of subjective (DRASTIC and SA-DRASTIC) and objective (E-DRASTIC and F-DRASTIC) weighting-based methods. The performance of the developed methodology was tested in an urban area of Kanpur City, India. Relative performance of the subjective and objective methods varies with the choice of water quality parameters. This methodology can be applied without/with suitable modification. These evaluations establish the potential applicability of the methodology for general vulnerability assessment in urban context.

  5. Screening and identification of early warning algal species for metal contamination in fresh water bodies polluted from point and non-point sources.

    PubMed

    Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita; Shukla, O P; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D

    2008-09-01

    The water bodies of Lucknow, Unnao and Kanpur (U.P.), India polluted through various point and non point sources were found to be either eutrophic or oligotrophic in nature. These water bodies supported a great number of algal diversity, which varied seasonally depending upon the physico-chemical properties of water. Further, the water bodies polluted through non point sources supports diverse algal species, while the water bodies polluted through point sources supports growth of tolerant blue green algae. High biomass producing algal species growing in these water bodies have accumulated significant amount of metals in their tissues. Maximum amount of Fe was found accumulated by species of Oedogonium sp. II (20,523.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Spirogyra sp. I (4,520.00 microg g(-1) dw), while maximum Chromium (Cr) was found accumulated in Phormedium bohneri (2,109.00 microg g(-1) dw) followed by Oscillatoria nigra (1,957.88 microg g(-1) dw) and Oedogonium sp. I (156.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Ni in Ulothrix sp. (495.00 microg g(-1) dw). Results showed that some of these forms growing in polluted environment and accumulating high amounts of toxic metals may be used as bioindicator species, however, their performance in metal contaminated water under different ecological niche is to be ascertained.

  6. Characterization of organic residues of size-resolved fog droplets and their atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Ervens, Barbara; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, Sachchida N.

    2016-04-01

    Size-resolved fog water samples were collected in two consecutive winters at Kanpur, a heavily polluted urban area of India. Samples were analyzed by an aerosol mass spectrometer after drying and directly in other instruments. Residues of fine fog droplets (diameter: 4-16 µm) are found to be more enriched with oxidized (oxygen to carbon ratio, O/C = 0.88) and low volatility organics than residues of coarse (diameter > 22 µm) and medium size (diameter: 16-22 µm) droplets with O/C of 0.68 and 0.74, respectively. These O/C ratios are much higher than those observed for background ambient organic aerosols, indicating efficient oxidation in fog water. Accompanying box model simulations reveal that longer residence times, together with high aqueous OH concentrations in fine droplets, can explain these trends. High aqueous OH concentrations in smaller droplets are caused by their highest surface-volume ratio and high Fe and Cu concentrations, allowing more uptake of gas phase OH and enhanced Fenton reaction rates, respectively. Although some volatile organic species may have escaped during droplet evaporation, these findings indicate that aqueous processing of dissolved organics varies with droplet size. Therefore, large (regional, global)-scale models need to consider the variable reaction rates, together with metal-catalyzed radical formation throughout droplet populations for accurately predicting aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation.

  7. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  8. Seasonal variability of aerosol optical depth over Indian subcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prasad, A.K.; Singh, R.P.; Singh, A.; Kafatos, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ganga basin extends 2000 km E-W and about 400 km N-S and is bounded by Himalayas in the north. This basin is unequivocally found to be affected by high aerosols optical depth (AOD) (>0.6) throughout the year. Himalayas restricts movement of aerosols toward north and as a result dynamic nature of aerosol is seen over the Ganga basin. High AOD in this region has detrimental effects on health of more than 460 million people living in this part of India besides adversely affecting clouds formation, monsoonal rainfall pattern and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Severe drought events (year 2002) in Ganga basin and unexpected failure of monsoon several times, occurred in different parts of Indian subcontinent. Significant rise in AOD (18.7%) over the central part of basin (Kanpur region) have been found to cause substantial decrease in NDVI (8.1%) since 2000. A negative relationship is observed between AOD and NDVI, magnitude of which differs from region to region. Efforts have been made to determine general distribution of AOD and its dominant departure in recent years spatially using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The seasonal changes in aerosol optical depth over the Indo-Gangetic basin is found to very significant as a result of the increasing dust storm events in recent years. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  9. Seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol over the North Indian region during 2005-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvan; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2012-11-01

    The Indo-Gangetic basin (IGB) extends 2000 km in length along NW-SE and has 400 km width, in the north the basin is bounded by towering Himalaya. High aerosol optical depth (AOD) is observed over the IGB throughout the year. The Himalaya restricts the transport of aerosols across Tibet and China. We have used ground based Kanpur and Gandhi College Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra level-3 AOD products for the years 2005-2009 to study the variability of aerosol over the Indo-Gangetic (IG) plains. An increase in both satellite-derived as well as ground observed aerosol loading during 2005-2009 has been found over major cities located in the IG plains. The correlation coefficients between AERONET and MISR data are found to be 0.70, 0.36 0.82, in contrast the correlation coefficients between AERONET and MODIS 0.49, 0.68, and 0.43, respectively during summer, winter and monsoon seasons. The AOD estimation using MISR is found to be close to AERONET data during summer and monsoon seasons, in contrast MODIS estimation is better during winter season.

  10. Quantification of aerosol type, and sources of aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S.; Holben, B. N.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2014-12-01

    Differences and similarities in aerosol characteristics, for the first time, over two environmentally distinct locations in Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) - Kanpur (KPR) (urban location) and Gandhi College (GC) (rural site) are examined. Aerosol optical depths (AODs) exhibit pronounced seasonal variability with higher values during winter and premonsoon. Aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF) and Ångström exponent (α) are higher over GC than KPR indicating relatively higher fine mode aerosol concentration over GC. Higher FMF over GC is attributed to local biomass burning activities. Analysis of AOD spectra revealed that aerosol size distribution is dominated by wide range of fine mode fractions or mixture of modes during winter and postmonsoon, while during premonsoon and monsoon coarse mode aerosols are more abundant. Single scattering albedo (SSA) is lower over GC than KPR. SSA spectra reveals the abundance of fine mode (coarse mode) absorbing (scattering) aerosols during winter and postmonsoon (premonsoon and monsoon). Spectral SSA features reveal that OC contribution to enhanced absorption is negligible. Analysis shows that absorbing aerosols can be classified as Mostly Black Carbon (BC), and Mixed BC and Dust over IGP. Mixed BC and dust is always higher over KPR, while Mostly BC is higher over GC throughout the year. The amount of long range transported dust exhibits a gradient between KPR (higher) and GC (lower). Results on seasonally varying aerosol types, and absorbing aerosol types and their gradients over an aerosol hotspot are important to tune models and to reduce the uncertainty in radiative and climate impact of aerosols.

  11. Physical characterization, magnetic measurements, REE geochemistry and biomonitoring of dust load accumulated during a protracted winter fog period and their implications.

    PubMed

    Chakarvorty, Munmun; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Patil, Shiva Kumar; Shukla, Swati; Niyogi, Ambalika; Saraf, Arun Kumar

    2014-05-01

    The winter fog in India is a recurrent phenomenon for more than a decade now affecting the entire Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions covering an area of nearly 500,000 km(2). Every winter (December-January), the air and surface transports in cities of northern India (Amritsar, New Delhi, Agra, Gwalior, Kanpur, Lucknow, and Allahabad) are severely disrupted with visibility reduced to <50 m at times. Since dust particles are known to act as nuclei for the fog formation, this study is aimed to carry out physicochemical characterization of the dust particulates accumulated during a protracted fog period from one of the severely fog affected cities of north India (Allahabad; 25°27'33.40″N-81°52'45.47″E). The dust-loaded tree leaves belonging to Ficus bengalensis and Ficus religiosa from 50 different locations between January 24 and 31, 2010 are sampled and characterized. The mass of dust, color, grain shape, size, phase constituents, and mineral magnetic parameters, such as magnetic susceptibility, SIRM, χ fd%, and S-ratio, show minor variation and the regional influence outweighs local anthropogenic contributions. The dust compositions show fractionated rare earth element pattern with a pronounced negative Eu anomaly similar to upper continental crust and further suggesting their derivation from sources located in parts of north and central India.

  12. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation, composition, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, S N

    2016-12-15

    Chemical characterization of ambient non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) was carried out in real time at Kanpur, India. The measurements were performed during the winter (December 2014 to February 2015), and comprised of two very distinct high and low aerosol loading periods coupled with prevalent foggy conditions. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol loading varied significantly from high (HL, ~240μg/m(3)) to low loading (LL, ~100μg/m(3)) period and was dominated by organic aerosols (OA) which contributed more than half (~60%) of the measured aerosol mass. OA source apportionment via positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed drastic changes in the composition of OA from HL to LL period. Overall, O/C (oxygen to carbon) ratios also varied significantly from HL (=0.59) to LL (=0.69) period. Fog episodes (n=17) studied here seem to be reducing the magnitude of the negative impact of OA loading on O/C ratio (OA loading and O/C ratio are anti-correlated, as higher OA loading allows gas to particle partitioning of relatively less oxidized organics) by 60% via aqueous processing. This study provided new insights into the combined effects of OA loading and fog aqueous processing on the evolution of ambient organic aerosols (OA) for the first time.

  13. In-depth discrimination of aerosol types using multiple clustering techniques over four locations in Indo-Gangetic plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Humera; Alam, Khan; Bibi, Samina

    2016-11-01

    Discrimination of aerosol types is essential over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) because several aerosol types originate from different sources having different atmospheric impacts. In this paper, we analyzed a seasonal discrimination of aerosol types by multiple clustering techniques using AERosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) datasets for the period 2007-2013 over Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur and Kanpur. We discriminated the aerosols into three major types; dust, biomass burning and urban/industrial. The discrimination was carried out by analyzing different aerosol optical properties such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Angstrom Exponent (AE), Extinction Angstrom Exponent (EAE), Abortion Angstrom Exponent (AAE), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and Real Refractive Index (RRI) and their interrelationship to investigate the dominant aerosol types and to examine the variation in their seasonal distribution. The results revealed that during summer and pre-monsoon, dust aerosols were dominant while during winter and post-monsoon prevailing aerosols were biomass burning and urban industrial, and the mixed type of aerosols were present in all seasons. These types of aerosol discriminated from AERONET were in good agreement with CALIPSO (the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) measurement.

  14. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity assessment of industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Masood, Farhana; Malik, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    The genotoxicity of industrial wastewaters from Jajmau (Kanpur), was carried out by Ames Salmonella/microsome test, DNA repair-defective mutants, and Allium cepa anaphase-telophase test. Test samples showed maximum response with TA98 strain with and without metabolic activation. Amberlite resins concentrated wastewater samples were found to be more mutagenic as compared to those of liquid-liquid extracts (hexane and dichloromethane extracts). The damage in the DNA repair defective mutants in the presence of Amberlite resins concentrated water samples were found to be higher to that of liquid-liquid-extracted water samples at the dose level of 20 μl/ml culture. Among all the mutants, polA exhibited maximum decline with test samples. Mitotic index (MI) of root tip meristematic cells of A. cepa treated with 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 % (v/v) wastewaters were significantly lower than the control. Complementary to the lower levels of MI, the wastewaters showed higher chromosomal aberration levels in all cases investigated.

  15. Genetic Predisposition for Dermal Problems in Hexavalent Chromium Exposed Population

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priti; Bihari, Vipin; Agarwal, Sudhir K.; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic susceptibility on hexavalent chromium induced dermal adversities. The health status of population was examined from the areas of Kanpur (India) having the elevated hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater. Blood samples were collected for DNA isolation to conduct polymorphic determination of genes, namely: NQO1 (C609T), hOGG1 (C1245G), GSTT1, and GSTM1 (deletion). Symptomatic exposed subjects (n = 38) were compared with asymptomatic exposed subjects (n = 108) along with asymptomatic controls (n = 148) from a non contaminated reference community. Exposed symptomatic group consisted of 36.8% subjects who were GSTM1 null genotyped as compared to asymptomatic where only 19.4% subjects were null. The exposed subjects with GSTM1 null genotype were more susceptible to dermal adversities in comparison with wild genotyped subjects (OR = 2.42; 95% CI = 1.071–5.451). Age, smoking, gender or duration of residence were not found to have any confounding effect towards this association. Association with other genes was not statistically significant, nonetheless, possible contribution by these genes cannot be ruled out. In conclusion, variation in the polymorphic status of GSTM1 gene may influence dermal outcomes among residents from Cr(VI) contaminated areas. Further studies are therefore, needed to examine these observations among different population groups. PMID:22919465

  16. Chaotic processes using the two-parameter derivative with non-singular and non-local kernel: Basic theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doungmo Goufo, Emile Franc

    2016-08-01

    After having the issues of singularity and locality addressed recently in mathematical modelling, another question regarding the description of natural phenomena was raised: How influent is the second parameter β of the two-parameter Mittag-Leffler function E α , β ( z ) , z ∈ ℂ ? To answer this question, we generalize the newly introduced one-parameter derivative with non-singular and non-local kernel [A. Atangana and I. Koca, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 89, 447 (2016); A. Atangana and D. Bealeanu (e-print)] by developing a similar two-parameter derivative with non-singular and non-local kernel based on Eα,β(z). We exploit the Agarwal/Erdelyi higher transcendental functions together with their Laplace transforms to explicitly establish the Laplace transform's expressions of the two-parameter derivatives, necessary for solving related fractional differential equations. Explicit expression of the associated two-parameter fractional integral is also established. Concrete applications are done on atmospheric convection process by using Lorenz non-linear simple system. Existence result for the model is provided and a numerical scheme established. As expected, solutions exhibit chaotic behaviors for α less than 0.55, and this chaos is not interrupted by the impact of β. Rather, this second parameter seems to indirectly squeeze and rotate the solutions, giving an impression of twisting. The whole graphics seem to have completely changed its orientation to a particular direction. This is a great observation that clearly shows the substantial impact of the second parameter of Eα,β(z), certainly opening new doors to modeling with two-parameter derivatives.

  17. Multifractal structures in radial velocity measurements for exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sordo, Fabio; Sahil Agarwal, Debra A. Fischer, John S. Wettlaufer

    2015-01-01

    The radial velocity method is a powerful way to search for exoplanetary systems and it led to many discoveries of exoplanets in the last 20 years.Nevertheless, in order observe Earth-like planets, such method needs to be refined, i.e. one needs to improve the signal-to-noise ratio.On one hand this can be achieved by building spectrographs with better performances, but on the other hand it is also central to understand the noise present in the data.Radial-velocity data are time-series which contains the effect of planets as well as of stellar disturbances. Therefore, they are the result of different physical processes which operate on different time-scales, acting in a not always periodic fashionI present here a possible approach to such problem, which consists in looking for multifractal structures in the time-series coming from radial velocity measurements, identifying the underlying long-range correlations and fractal scaling properties, and connecting them to the underlying physical processes, like stellar oscillation, granulation, rotation, and magnetic activity.This method has been previously applied to satellite data related to Arctic sea albedo, relevant for identify trends and noise in the Arctic sea ice (Agarwal, Moon and Wettlaufer, Proc. R. Soc., 2012).Here we use such analysis for exoplanetary data related to possible Earth-like planets.Moreover, we apply the same procedure to synthetic data from numerical simulation of stellar dynamos, which give insight on the mechanism responsible for the noise. In such way we can therefore raise the signal-to-noise ratio in the data using the synthetic data as predicted noise to be subtracted from the observations.

  18. Removal of nitrate from liquid effluents with bio-nano hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Ela; Haniff Wahid, M.; Chen, Xianjue; Smith, Steven M.; Raston, Colin L.

    2013-04-01

    Microalgae are a group of microorganisms that are abundant in the environment and have been commonly used as a tool for sustainable green technologies including bioenergy production1,2, CO2 sequestration2, wastewater treatment3,4, and nutritional supplement5. We have recently developed a hybridization process between common microalgal cells (Chlorella vulgaris) and multi-layer graphene sheets4. Graphene has very strong adhesion energies6 with an ability to attach on the surface of microalgal cells, which results in a functional hybrid material. Initially dynamic thin films formed within a microfluidic platform, as a vortex fluidic device, were used to exfoliate multi-layer graphene from graphite flakes in water. This was followed by hybridizing the multi-layer graphene with microalgal cells. The resulting bio-nano hybrid material was particularly efficient for the removal of nitrate from liquid effluents without being toxic for the microalgal cells. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used for the characterization of the formed graphene sheets, with the fluorescence microscopy and chlorophyll content analyzed for monitoring the viability and growth pattern of the microalgal cells. E. Eroglu and A. Melis, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 2009, 102(5), 1406-1415. É. C Francisco, D. B. Neves, E. Jacob-Lopes, and T. T. Franco, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 2010, 85, 395-403. E. Eroglu, V. Agarwal, M. Bradshaw, X. Chen, S.M. Smith, C.L. Raston and K.S. Iyer, Green Chem., 2012, 14(10), 2682 - 2685. M. H. Wahid, E. Eroglu, X. Chen, S.M. Smith, and C.L. Raston, Green Chem., 2012, doi:10.1039/C2GC36892G. P. Spolaore, C. Joannis-Cassan, E. Duran and A. Isambert, J. Biosci. Bioeng., 2006, 101, 87-96. S. P. Koenig, N. G. Boddeti, M. L. Dunn and J. S. Bunch, Nat. Nanotechnol., 2011, 6, 543-546.

  19. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Nehra, Karan; Jayan, Balakrishna; Poonia, Anish; Bhattal, Hiteshwar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This cross-sectional retrospective study was designed to assess the relationships among breastfeeding duration, nonnutritive sucking habits, convex facial profile, nonspaced dentition, and distoclusion in the deciduous dentition. Materials and methods: A sample of 415 children (228 males, 187 females) aged 4 to 6 years from a mixed Indian population was clinically examined by two orthodontists. Information about breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits was obtained by written questionnaire which was answered by the parents. Results: Chi-square test did not indicate any significant association among breastfeeding duration, convex facial profile, and distoclusion. Statistically significant association was observed between breastfeeding duration and nonspaced dentition and also between breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits. Nonnutritive sucking habits had a statistically significant association with distoclusion and convex facial profile (odds ratio 7.04 and 4.03 respectively). Nonnutritive sucking habits did not have a statistically significant association with nonspaced dentition. Conclusion: The children breastfed < 6 months had almost twofold increased probability for developing sucking habits and nonspaced dentition, respectively, than the children who had breastfeeding > 6 months duration. It can also be hypothesized that nonnutritive sucking habits may act as a dominant variable in the relationship between breastfeeding duration and occurrence of convex facial profile and distoclusion in deciduous dentition. How to cite this article: Agarwal SS, Sharma M, Nehra K, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):162-166. PMID:27365941

  20. Dactylogyridean monogeneans of the siluriform fishes of the Old World.

    PubMed

    Lim, L H; Timofeeva, T A; Gibson, D I

    2001-11-01

    This is a catalogue and discussion of the known dactylogyridean monogenean genera of siluriform fishes of the Old World. Of a total of 38 nominal genera, only 19 are considered valid. Seventeen of these 19 genera are currently in the Ancyrocephalidae (containing the Ancyrocephalinae and Ancylodiscoidinae), whilst the other two (Neocalceostoma and Neocalceostomoides) are in the Neocalceostomatidae. The 17 genera are Anchylodiscus, Ancylodiscoides, Bagrobdella, Bifurcohaptor, Bychowskyella, Chauhanellus, Cornudiscoides, Hamatopeduncularia, Mizelleus, Paraquadriacanthus, Pseudancylodiscoides, Protoancylodiscoides, Quadriacanthus, Schilbetrema, Schilbetrematoides, Synodontella and Thaparocleidus. Clariotrema Long, 1981 and Neobychowskyella Ma, Wang & Li, 1983 are considered synonyms of Bychowskyella Akhmerov, 1952, Anacornuatus Dubey, Gupta & Agarwal, 1992 is considered a synonym of Quadriacanthus Paperna, 1961, Mizellebychowskia Gupta & Sachdeva, 1990 is considered a synonym of Neocalceostoma Tripathi, 1959 and Hargitrema Tripathi, 1959 is treated as a synonym of Hamatopeduncularia Yamaguti, 1953. It is proposed that the Ancylodiscoidinae be raised to family status within the order Dactylogyridea to accommodate these 17 'ancyrocephalid' genera from siluriforms, together with Malayanodiscoides and Notopterodiscoides from notopterids. A key and the diagnostic characteristics of the 19 recognised dactylogyridean genera from catfishes plus two from notopterids, together with a list of species and synonyms, are included. New combinations made in this work are Thaparocleidus avicularia (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. calyciflorus (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. choanovagina (Luo & Lang, 1981) n. comb., T. dissimilis (Chen, 1988) n. comb., T. leiocassis (Reichenbach-Klinke, 1959) n. comb., T. meticulosa (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. parasoti (Zhao & Ma, 1999) n. comb., T. persculpus (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. valga (Chen, 1987) n. comb. and T. wulingensis (Yao & Wang, 1997) n. comb. [all

  1. Anti-proliferative action of silibinin on human colon adenomatous cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Reyhan; Ali, Mohd; Mahmood, Safrunnisa; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2014-02-01

    Antecedentes: Silibinina un flavonoide a partir de la leche de cardo mariano (Silybum marianum) exhiben una variedad de acciones farmacológicas, incluyendo actividades anti-proliferativos y apoptóticos contra varios tipos de cánceres en animales intactos y líneas celulares de cáncer. En el presente estudio, se estudió el efecto de silibinina en células humanas de cáncer de colon HT-29. Método: Las incubaciones de las células con diferentes concentraciones silibinin (0,783-1.600 ug/ml) para 24, 48 o 72 horas mostró un descenso progresivo de la viabilidad celular. Resultados: La pérdida de la viabilidad celular fue de tiempo de inhibición dependiente y óptima de crecimiento de las células (78%) se observó a las 72 horas. Bajo microscopio invertido, las células muertas fueron vistos como los agregados de células. IC50 (concentración de silibinina matar a las células 50%) los valores fueron 180, 110 y 40 ug/ml a las 24, 48 y 72 horas, respectivamente. Conclusión: Estos resultados volver a hacer cumplir la potenciales contra el cáncer de silibinina, como se informó anteriormente para varias otras líneas celulares de cáncer (Ramasamy y Agarwal (2008), Cancer Letters, 269: 352-62).

  2. Calibrating a Rainfall-Runoff and Routing Model for the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowfsky, S.; Li, S.; Assteerawatt, A.; Tillmanns, S.; Hilberts, A.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophe risk models are widely used in the insurance industry to estimate the cost of risk. The models consist of hazard models linked to vulnerability and financial loss models. In flood risk models, the hazard model generates inundation maps. In order to develop country wide inundation maps for different return periods a rainfall-runoff and routing model is run using stochastic rainfall data. The simulated discharge and runoff is then input to a two dimensional inundation model, which produces the flood maps. In order to get realistic flood maps, the rainfall-runoff and routing models have to be calibrated with observed discharge data. The rainfall-runoff model applied here is a semi-distributed model based on the Topmodel (Beven and Kirkby, 1979) approach which includes additional snowmelt and evapotranspiration models. The routing model is based on the Muskingum-Cunge (Cunge, 1969) approach and includes the simulation of lakes and reservoirs using the linear reservoir approach. Both models were calibrated using the multiobjective NSGA-II (Deb et al., 2002) genetic algorithm with NLDAS forcing data and around 4500 USGS discharge gauges for the period from 1979-2013. Additional gauges having no data after 1979 were calibrated using CPC rainfall data. The model performed well in wetter regions and shows the difficulty of simulating areas with sinks such as karstic areas or dry areas. Beven, K., Kirkby, M., 1979. A physically based, variable contributing area model of basin hydrology. Hydrol. Sci. Bull. 24 (1), 43-69. Cunge, J.A., 1969. On the subject of a flood propagation computation method (Muskingum method), J. Hydr. Research, 7(2), 205-230. Deb, K., Pratap, A., Agarwal, S., Meyarivan, T., 2002. A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II, IEEE Transactions on evolutionary computation, 6(2), 182-197.

  3. Corneal surface glycosylation is modulated by IL-1R and Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge but is insufficient for inhibiting bacterial binding.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Amber L; Agarwal, Paresh; Metruccio, Matteo M E; Spiciarich, David R; Evans, David J; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Fleiszig, Suzanne M J

    2017-02-21

    Cell surface glycosylation is thought to be involved in barrier function against microbes at mucosal surfaces. Previously we showed that the epithelium of healthy mouse corneas becomes vulnerable to P. aeruginosa adhesion if it lacks the innate defense protein MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), or after superficial injury by blotting with tissue paper. Here we explored their effect on corneal surface glycosylation using a metabolic label, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetylgalactosamine (Ac4GalNAz). Ac4GalNAz treatment labeled the surface of healthy mouse corneas, leaving most cells viable, and bacteria preferentially associated with GalNAz-labeled regions. Surprisingly, corneas from MyD88(-/-) mice displayed similar GalNAz labeling to wild-type corneas, but labeling was reduced and patchy on IL-1 receptor (IL-1R)-knockout mouse corneas (P < 0.05, ANOVA). Tissue paper blotting removed GalNAz-labeled surface cells, causing DAPI labeling (permeabilization) of underlying cells. MS of material collected on the tissue paper blots revealed 67 GalNAz-labeled proteins, including intracellular proteins. These data show that the normal distribution of surface glycosylation requires IL-1R, but not MyD88, and is not sufficient to prevent bacterial binding. They also suggest increased P. aeruginosa adhesion to MyD88(-/-) and blotted corneas is not due to reduction in total surface glycosylation, and for tissue paper blotting is likely due to cell permeabilization.-Jolly, A. L., Agarwal, P., Metruccio, M. M. E., Spiciarich, D. R., Evans, D. J., Bertozzi, C. R., Fleiszig, S. M. J. Corneal surface glycosylation is modulated by IL-1R and Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge but is insufficient for inhibiting bacterial binding.

  4. Chaotic processes using the two-parameter derivative with non-singular and non-local kernel: Basic theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Doungmo Goufo, Emile Franc

    2016-08-01

    After having the issues of singularity and locality addressed recently in mathematical modelling, another question regarding the description of natural phenomena was raised: How influent is the second parameter β of the two-parameter Mittag-Leffler function Eα,β(z), z∈ℂ? To answer this question, we generalize the newly introduced one-parameter derivative with non-singular and non-local kernel [A. Atangana and I. Koca, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 89, 447 (2016); A. Atangana and D. Bealeanu (e-print)] by developing a similar two-parameter derivative with non-singular and non-local kernel based on Eα , β(z). We exploit the Agarwal/Erdelyi higher transcendental functions together with their Laplace transforms to explicitly establish the Laplace transform's expressions of the two-parameter derivatives, necessary for solving related fractional differential equations. Explicit expression of the associated two-parameter fractional integral is also established. Concrete applications are done on atmospheric convection process by using Lorenz non-linear simple system. Existence result for the model is provided and a numerical scheme established. As expected, solutions exhibit chaotic behaviors for α less than 0.55, and this chaos is not interrupted by the impact of β. Rather, this second parameter seems to indirectly squeeze and rotate the solutions, giving an impression of twisting. The whole graphics seem to have completely changed its orientation to a particular direction. This is a great observation that clearly shows the substantial impact of the second parameter of Eα , β(z), certainly opening new doors to modeling with two-parameter derivatives.

  5. Adiposity and Mortality in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Baqiyyah; Miller, Rachel G; Costacou, Tina; Fried, Linda; Kelsey, Sheryl; Evans, Rhobert W

    2009-01-01

    Background In the general population, adiposity exhibits a J- or U-shaped relationship with mortality; however, in catabolic states this relationship is often inversely linear. We have recently documented an age-independent increase in overweight/obesity in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study (EDC) of type 1 diabetes (T1D). As intensified insulin therapy (IIT) may promote weight gain, the impact of weight gain in T1D is of importance. We therefore assessed the association of adiposity with mortality in 655 EDC participants during twenty years of follow-up. Methods Individuals were categorized as underweight (BMI <20), normal (20≤BMI<25), overweight (25≤BMI<30), or obese (BMI≥30). Cox models were constructed using BMI and covariates at baseline, updated means during follow-up, time-varying (reflecting most recent status), and change during adulthood as predictors of mortality. Results The prevalence of IIT (3+ insulin shots daily and/or pump) increased from 7% to 82%. Overweight increased 47%; obesity increased 7-fold. There were 146 deaths. In unadjusted models BMI (modeled continuously) demonstrated a quadratic relationship with mortality (p=0.002, <0.0001, <0.0001 for baseline, updated mean, and time-varying models, respectively). However, only in the time-varying model were the obese significantly different from the normal weight. while the baseline model revealed no differences by BMI category, in both the updated mean and time varying models, the underweight were at greater risk than the normal weight (p<0.0001 both models). The nonlinear relationship of adiposity with mortality remained after adjustment for diabetes complications, biological, or socioeconomic/lifestyle risk factors, with the exception of baseline socioeconomic/lifestyle risk factors where a linear association emerged. Adjustment for waist circumference eliminated the risk in the obese. Finally, weight gain during follow-up was protective. Conclusion The

  6. Lidar Ratio Climatology for Dust, as Computed from AERONET Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, G. L.; Vaughan, M.; MacDonnell, D.; Su, W.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Dubovik, O.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Raman lidar measurements by Tesche et al. (2009) and Wandinger et al. (2010) indicate lidar ratios of about 55 sr in Morocco and Cape Verde, which is significantly higher than the value of 40 sr assumed for the CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals. Hence, we investigated the dust lidar ratio by analyzing the aerosol climatology at AERONET sites in the dust belt. In order to limit our analysis to "pure" dust retrievals, we restricted the data to depolarizations of 0.2 or greater and fine volume fractions of 0.05 or less, and thereby focused on 1714 retrievals at 22 AERONET sites in non-Sahel regions of north Africa, Sahel Africa, the Middle East, and India. The AERONET climatology indicates that the real refractive index increases from n=1.49 for 229 retrievals in non-Sahel Africa to n=1.53 for 929 retrievals in the Sahel, and that the largest refractive indices occur in the Middle East and Kanpur, India (n=1.57 for 489 and 67 retrievals, respectively). Dry dust mixtures with refractive indices that are less than about 1.5 require high fractions of illite (which has a refractive index of 1.41), since the other common minerals in dust -- calcite, quartz, gypsum, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hematite -- all have refractive indices greater than 1.49. Hence, the AERONET refractive indices are consistent with Chester et al. (1972), who measured the relative fraction of illite during a research voyage near the west African coast; they found that illite decreases from a maximum mass fraction of about 0.53 at 15-20 degrees North to a minimum of about 0.09 at 0-5 degrees North. These illite fractions correspond to a refractive index change from 1.48 to 1.54 as the source aerosol region changed from the Sahara to the Sahel (if the average refractive index of the other minerals in the mixture is assumed to be 1.55). We then used the AERONET refractive indices with the AERONET size distributions, "percent spheres," and forward optics code for spheres and spheroids

  7. Heterogeneity in pre-monsoon aerosol characteristics over the Indo-Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2013-10-01

    Heterogeneity in aerosol characteristics was studied at five different locations over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) region during the pre-monsoon period (April-June 2011) using concurrent measurements from sun/sky radiometer, which is hypothesized to affect the Indian monsoon circulation and also the global climate system. Based on the measured aerosol products, distribution of aerosols and the associated optical properties were examined over the entire region. The pre-monsoon mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) was found to be maximum at Lahore (0.78) and Kanpur (0.68); however, a minimum AOD (∼0.6) was observed at Karachi, Jaipur and Gandhi College, with relatively high variability at Karachi and low at Gandhi College. On the other hand, a significant gradient in Angstrom exponent (AE) from Karachi (0.30) in the west to Gandhi College (0.98) in the east IGB region suggests relative dominance of coarse particles over the western part and fine particles at the eastern part of the IGB. Results are confirmed with the aerosol size distribution and the air mass back-trajectory analysis at all the stations. The corresponding pre-monsoon mean single scattering albedo (SSA) shows relatively higher value at Karachi (0.94), suggests relative dominance of scattering type particles. On the other hand, lower SSA, ranging from 0.85 to 0.92, was observed at the other stations, with the lowest value at Gandhi College (0.85), which suggests absorbing aerosol distributions over the region.

  8. Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens cv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil.

  9. Identification of absorbing organic (brown carbon) aerosols through Sun Photometry: results from AEROCAN / AERONET stations in high Arctic and urban Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, G. H.; Chaubey, J. P.; O'Neill, N. T.; Hayes, P.; Atkinson, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Light absorbing organic aerosols or brown carbon (BrC) aerosols are prominent species influencing the absorbing aerosol optical depth (AAOD) of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the UV wavelength region. They, along with dust, play an important role in modifying the spectral AAOD and the spectral AOD in the UV region: this property can be used to discriminate BrC aerosols from both weakly absorbing aerosols such as sulfates as well as strongly absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC). In this study we use available AERONET inversions (level 1.5) retrieved for the measuring period from 2009 to 2013, for the Arctic region (Eureka, Barrow and Hornsund), Urban/ Industrial regions (Kanpur, Beijing), and the forest regions (Alta Foresta and Mongu), to identify BrC aerosols. Using Dubovik's inversion algorithm results, we analyzed parameters that were sensitive to BrC presence, notably AAOD, AAODBrC estimated using the approach of Arola et al. [2011], the fine-mode-aerosol absorption derivative (αf, abs) and the fine-mode-aerosol absorption 2nd derivative (αf, abs'), all computed at a near UV wavelength (440 nm). Temporal trends of these parameters were investigated for all test stations and compared to available volume sampling surface data as a means of validating / evaluating the sensitivity of ostensible sunphotometer indicators of BrC aerosols to the presence of BrC as measured using independent indicators. Reference: Arola, A., Schuster, G., Myhre, G., Kazadzis, S., Dey, S., and Tripathi, S. N.: Inferring absorbing organic carbon content from AERONET data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 215-225, doi:10.5194/acp-11-215-2011, 2011

  10. Seventh Annual V. M. Goldschmidt Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Subduction of the Aseismic Cocos Ridge Displaced Magma Sources Beneath the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica; Topography of Transition Zone Discontinuities: A Measure of 'Olivine' Content and Evidence for Deep Cratonic Roots; Uranium Enrichment in Lithospheric Mantle: Case Studies from French Massif Central; Rare-Earth-Element Anomalies in the Decollement Zone of the nankai Accretionary Prism, Japan: Evidence of Fluid Flow?; Rare Earth Elements in Japanese Mudrocks: The Influence of Provenance; The Evolution of Seawater Strontium Isotopes in the Last Hundred Million Years: Reinterpretation and Consequences for Erosion and Climate Models; From Pat to Tats: The Lead Isotope Legacy in the Studies of the Continental Crust-Upper Mantle System; Geochronology of the Jack Hills Detrital Zircons by Precise Uranium-Lead Isotope-Dilution Analysis of Crystal Fragments; Iridium in the Oceans; The Helium-Heat-Lead Paradox; Control of Distribution Patterns of Heavy Metals in Ganga Plain Around Kanpur Region, India, by Fluvial Geomorphic Domains; Geochemical and Isotopic Features of Ferrar Magmatic Provience (Victoria Land, Antarctica); Rare Earth Elements in Marine Fine-Grained Sediments from the Northwestern Portuguese Shelf (Atlantic); Aspects of Arc Fluxes; General Kinetic Model for Dolomite Precipitation Rate with Application to the Secular History of Seawater Composition; High-Precision Uranium-series Chronology from Speleothems; Trace-Element Modeling of Aqueous Fluid-Peridotite Interaction in the Mantle Wedge of Subduction Zones; Rainfall Variations in Southeastern Australia over the Last 500,000 Years from Speleothem Deposition; The Role of Water in High-Pressure Fluids; The Kinetic Conditions of Metamorphic Minearogenesis: Evidence from Minerals and Assemblages.

  11. Vertical distribution of aerosols and shortwave radiative forcing over the Indo-Gangetic Basin during three major dust storms of 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvan; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    Abstract: The present study aims to analyze the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) and vertical distribution of aerosols over Kanpur (located in central Indo-Gangetic Basin; IGB) during the three (20 April, 28 May and 2 June, 2010) intense dust-storm events in the pre-monsoon season, using the synergy of ground and satellite observations and SBDART simulation. The analysis reveals considerable changes in the aerosol vertical profiles and ARF during the dust-storm events highlighting the important role of dust in the aerosol load and ARF properties over the IGB. The CALIOP-derived aerosol properties show vertically elevated aerosol profiles (up to 4 km altitude), majorly consisting of dust particles during the dust event. The maximum daily average top of the atmosphere (TOA), atmosphere (ATM) and surface (SRF) forcing is found to be -40.95, 60.65 W/m2 and -101.59W/m2 during the dust events respectively. A strong correlation is found between AOD at 500 nm and the ARF. The correlation coefficient (R2) between AOD and ARF is found to be 0.74, 0.46 and 0.84 at TOA, ATM and SRF respectively. The slope of the regression line gives the aerosol forcing efficiency at 500nm of about 24.29, -19.85 and -44.15 W/m2 at the ATM, TOA and SRF respectively. The ARF is found to increase with the advance of the dry season. Keywords: Dust Storms, Aerosol properties, AERONET, Satellites, Indo-Gangetic Basin, Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF).

  12. A merged aerosol dataset based on MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manoj K.; Gautam, Ritesh; Venkatachalam, Parvatham

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products available from MODIS and MISR observations are widely used for aerosol characterization, and global/environmental change studies. These products are based on different retrieval-algorithms, resolutions, sampling, and cloud-screening schemes, which have led to global/regional biases. Thus a merged product is desirable which bridges this gap by utilizing strengths from each of the sensors. In view of this, we have developed a "merged" AOD product based on MODIS and MISR AOD datasets, using Bayesian principles which takes error distributions from ground-based AOD measurements (from AERONET). Our methodology and resulting dataset are especially relevant in the scenario of combining multi-sensor retrievals for satellite-based climate data records; particularly for long-term studies involving AOD. Specifically for MISR AOD product, we also developed a methodology to produce a gap-filled dataset, using geostatistical methods (e.g. Kriging), taking advantage of available MODIS data. Merged and spatially-complete AOD datasets are inter-compared with other satellite products and with AERONET data at three stations- Kanpur, Jaipur and Gandhi College, in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The RMSE of merged AOD (0.08-0.09) is lower than MISR (0.11-0.20) and MODIS (0.15-0.27). It is found that merged AOD has higher correlation with AERONET data (r within 0.92-0.95), compared to MISR (0.74-0.86) and MODIS (0.69-0.84) data. In terms of Expected Error, the accuracy of valid merged AOD is found to be superior as percent of merged AOD within error envelope are larger (71-92%), compared to MISR (43-61%) and MODIS (50-70%).

  13. Direct radiative effect by brown carbon over the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arola, A.; Schuster, G. L.; Pitkänen, M. R. A.; Dubovik, O.; Kokkola, H.; Lindfors, A. V.; Mielonen, T.; Raatikainen, T.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Tripathi, S. N.; Lihavainen, H.

    2015-11-01

    The importance of light-absorbing organic aerosols, often called brown carbon (BrC), has become evident in recent years. However, there have been relatively few measurement-based estimates for the direct radiative effect of BrC so far. In earlier studies, the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET)-measured aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) were exploited. However, these two pieces of information are clearly not sufficient to separate properly carbonaceous aerosols from dust, while imaginary indices of refraction would contain more and better justified information for this purpose. This is first time that the direct radiative effect (DRE) of BrC is estimated by exploiting the AERONET-retrieved imaginary indices. We estimated it for four sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), Karachi, Lahore, Kanpur and Gandhi College. We found a distinct seasonality, which was generally similar among all the sites, but with slightly different strengths. The monthly warming effect up to 0.5 W m-2 takes place during the spring season. On the other hand, BrC results in an overall cooling effect in the winter season, which can reach levels close to -1 W m-2. We then estimated similarly also the DRE of black carbon and total aerosol, in order to assess the relative significance of the BrC radiative effect in the radiative effects of other components. Even though BrC impact seems minor in this context, we demonstrated that it is not insignificant. Moreover, we demonstrated that it is crucial to perform spectrally resolved radiative transfer calculations to obtain good estimates for the DRE of BrC.

  14. Inferring aerosol types over the Indo-Gangetic Basin from ground based sunphotometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Tripathi, S. N.; Dey, Sagnik; Kanawade, V. P.; Tiwari, S.

    2012-06-01

    A discrimination of aerosol types over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) region during pre-monsoon period was made using multi-year ground based sun/sky radiometer measured aerosol products associated with the size of aerosols and radiation absorptivity. High dust enriched aerosols (i.e. polluted dust, PD) were found to contribute more over the central IGB station at Kanpur (KNP, 62%) as compared to the eastern IGB station at Gandhi College (GC, 31%) whereas vice-versa was observed for polluted continental (PC) aerosols, which contain high anthropogenic and less dust aerosols. Contributions of carbonaceous particles having high absorbing (mostly black carbon, MBC) and low absorbing (mostly organic carbon, MOC) aerosols were found to be 11% and 10%, respectively at GC, which was ~ 46% and 62% higher than the observed contributions at KNP; however, very less contribution of non-absorbing (NA) aerosols was observed only at GC (2%). Variability in aerosol types together with single scattering albedo (SSA) at both the stations were also studied during the forenoon (FN) and afternoon (AN) hour, which suggests their strong association with emission sources. Results were well substantiated with the air mass back-trajectories and the fire products. Spectral information of SSA for each aerosol type discriminates the dominance of natural dust (SSA increases with increasing wavelength) with anthropogenic aerosols (SSA decreases with increasing wavelength) at both the locations. The estimated absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) values suggest relative dominance of absorbing type aerosols over the central part of IGB (due to dominant dust absorption) as compared to the eastern part during pre-monsoon period.

  15. Measurement-based direct radiative effect by brown carbon over Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arola, A.; Schuster, G. L.; Pitkänen, M. R. A.; Dubovik, O.; Kokkola, H.; Lindfors, A. V.; Mielonen, T.; Raatikainen, T.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Tripathi, S. N.; Lihavainen, H.

    2015-08-01

    The importance of light absorbing organic aerosols, often called brown carbon (BrC), has become evident in recent years. However, there are relatively few measurement-based estimates for the direct radiative effect of BrC so far. In those earlier studies, the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) measured Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD) and Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) have been exploited. However, these two pieces of information are clearly not sufficient to separate properly carbonaceous aerosols from dust, while imaginary indices of refraction would contain more and better justified information for this purpose. This is first time that the direct radiative effect (DRE) of BrC is estimated by exploiting the AERONET-retrieved imaginary indices. We estimated it for four sites in Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), Karachi, Lahore, Kanpur and Gandhi College. We found a distinct seasonality, which was generally similar among all the sites, but with slightly different strengths. The monthly warming effect up to 0.5 W m-2 takes place during spring season. On the other hand, BrC results in overall cooling effect in the winter season, which can reach levels close to -1W m-2. We then estimated similarly also DRE of black carbon and total aerosol, in order to assess the relative significance of BrC radiative effect in the radiative effects of other components. Even though BrC impact seems minor in this context, we demonstrated that it is not insignificant and moreover that it is crucial to perform spectrally resolved radiative transfer calculations to obtain good estimates for DRE of BrC.

  16. Pesticide residue in water--a challenging task in India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Akriti; Prajapati, Rajmani; Singh, Om Pal; Raza, S K; Thakur, L K

    2015-02-01

    Modern agriculture practices reveal an increase in use of pesticides to meet the food demand of increasing population which results in contamination of the environment. In India, crop production increased to 100 %, but the cropping area has increased marginally by 20 %. Pesticides have played a major role in achieving the maximum crop production but maximum usage and accumulation of pesticide residues is highly detrimental to aquatic and other ecosystem. Pesticide residues in drinking water have become a major challenge over the last few years. It has been monitored in public water supply resources in National capital territory, i.e., Delhi. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), mainly isomers of hexachlorohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulphan, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlore, were identified from potable water samples. Results suggested that continuous consumption of contaminated water can pose severe health threats to local residents of this area. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, had found α and β isomers of endosulphan residues in the Yamuna river. High concentrations of γ-HCH (0.259 μg/l) and malathion (2.618 μg/l) were detected in the surface water samples collected from the river Ganga in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (UP). High concentration of methyl parathion, endosulfan, and DDT were observed in water samples collected from the river at Bhagalpur, Bihar. The Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow (UP) study also found 0.5671 ppb concentrations of endosulfan in the river at Allahabad, UP. Similar results were found in other water samples in India.

  17. Genetic Dissection of Drought and Heat Tolerance in Chickpea through Genome-Wide and Candidate Gene-Based Association Mapping Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Rathore, Abhishek; Gaur, Pooran Mal; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar; Basu, Partha Sarathi; Gangarao, N. V. P. R.; Fikre, Asnake; Kimurto, Paul; Sharma, Prakash C.; Sheshashayee, M. S.; Tobita, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Ito, Osamu; Killian, Andrzej; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions) for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1–7 seasons and 1–3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore) and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia). Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20) was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs), both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs]) and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM) analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70) was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP) were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance. PMID:24801366

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L(-1)) and PFBS (Kanpur and Patna. PFOS and PFOA emissions to the river varied dramatically along the transect (0.20-190 and 0.03-150 g d(-1), respectively). PFOS emission pattern could be explained by the number of urban residents in the subcatchment (rather than total population). Per-capita emissions were lower than in many developed countries. In groundwater, PFBA (

  19. Application of Spectral Analysis Techniques in the Intercomparison of Aerosol Data. Part II: Using Maximum Covariance Analysis to Effectively Compare Spatiotemporal Variability of Satellite and AERONET Measured Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiomater (MISR) provide regular aerosol observations with global coverage. It is essential to examine the coherency between space- and ground-measured aerosol parameters in representing aerosol spatial and temporal variability, especially in the climate forcing and model validation context. In this paper, we introduce Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA), also known as Singular Value Decomposition analysis as an effective way to compare correlated aerosol spatial and temporal patterns between satellite measurements and AERONET data. This technique not only successfully extracts the variability of major aerosol regimes but also allows the simultaneous examination of the aerosol variability both spatially and temporally. More importantly, it well accommodates the sparsely distributed AERONET data, for which other spectral decomposition methods, such as Principal Component Analysis, do not yield satisfactory results. The comparison shows overall good agreement between MODIS/MISR and AERONET AOD variability. The correlations between the first three modes of MCA results for both MODIS/AERONET and MISR/ AERONET are above 0.8 for the full data set and above 0.75 for the AOD anomaly data. The correlations between MODIS and MISR modes are also quite high (greater than 0.9). We also examine the extent of spatial agreement between satellite and AERONET AOD data at the selected stations. Some sites with disagreements in the MCA results, such as Kanpur, also have low spatial coherency. This should be associated partly with high AOD spatial variability and partly with uncertainties in satellite retrievals due to the seasonally varying aerosol types and surface properties.

  20. Chromium Release from a COPR-Contaminated Soil at Varying Water Content and Redox Conditions.

    PubMed

    Matern, Katrin; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Many soils in the region of Kanpur, North India, are heavily affected by the leather industry and its upstream supplier sector, as indicated by elevated chromium (Cr) contents. Under reducing conditions-for instance, at water saturation after monsoon rain or flood irrigation-the dynamic and species distribution of Cr may be affected due to changes in redox potential (E). In this study, the influence of E on the speciation and release of Cr from a contaminated agricultural soil was investigated. A soil sample that was affected by hyperalkaline leachate from chromite ore processing residue, was taken and packed in soil columns, and subjected to a saturation-drainage-saturation cycle. After initial water saturation, the E dropped slowly to minimum values of around ‒100 mV (calculated to pH 7), while E was controlled by CrO/CrO(s), or CrO/(Fe,Cr)OOH redox couples. Soil drainage resulted in a quick return to oxidizing conditions; i.e., E > 300 mV. The Cr species distribution and release showed a clear trend with E. At the beginning of the experiment, under oxidizing and weakly reducing conditions (E range from >100 to 300 mV), Cr(VI) was released in particular. However, under moderately reducing conditions (E range from 100 to -100 mV), Cr was gradually immobilized and irreversible sequestered via reductive precipitation. The results presented in this study provide an improved understanding of the mobility of Cr(VI) in contaminated soils at varying water contents, which is essential for the evaluation of environmental risks in this region.

  1. Thermal requirement of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) at different phonological stages under late sown condition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Pratap; Lallu; Singh, N B

    2014-01-01

    Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] is a long day plant, which requires fairly cool climatic condition during growth and development for obtaining better seed yield. Various workers have correlated crop growth and development with energy requirement parameters, such as growing degree days (GDD), photo-thermal unit (PTU), helios thermal unit (HTU), photo-thermal index (PTI) and heat use efficiency (HUE). Therefore, GDD requirement for different phenological stages of 22 newly developed Indian mustard varieties was studies during winter (rabi) seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at student instructional farm of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, (Utter Pradesh). Study revealed that RH-8814, NRCDR-02 and BPR-549-9 recorded higher GDD (1703.0, 1662.9 and 1648.0), PTU (19129.8, 18694.2 and 18379.8), HTU (11397.7, 11072.2 and 10876.0), PTI (13.25, 13.14 and 13.08) and HUE (4.11, 3.84 and 3.71) at physiological maturity, while higher HUE was recorded (9.62, 8.99 and 8.91 kg ha(-1) degrees-day) at days after sowing (DAS) to 50 % flowering. On the basis of study mustard genotypes RH-8814, NRCDR-02 and BPR-549-9 were identified as most heat-tolerant, as they maintained higher values for energy related parameters. Seed yield was highly positively correlated with GDD (r = 0.61, 0.65 and 0.75), PTU (r = 0.66, 0.64 and 0.74), HTU(r = 0.79, 0.68 and 0.73) at the above these three phenological stages, while negatively correlated with PTI at anthesis and at maturity. Hence, these parents could be used in crossing programme for achieving further improvement.

  2. Coronary Angiography Safety between Transradial and Transfemoral Access

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas; Afdaali, Nasar; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Kumar, Ashutosh; Asif, Mohammad; Thakur, Ramesh; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of study was to evaluate safety, feasibility, and procedural variables of transradial approach compared with transfemoral approach in a standard population of patients undergoing coronary catheterization as one of the major criticisms of the transradial approach is that it takes longer overall procedure and fluoroscopy time, thereby causing more radiation exposure. Method. Between January 2015 and December 2015, a total of 1,997 patients in LPS Institute of Cardiology, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, UP, India, undergoing coronary catheterization were randomly assigned to the transradial or transfemoral approach. Result. Successful catheterization was achieved in 1045 of 1076 patients (97.1%) in the transradial group and in 918 of 921 patients (99.7%) in the transfemoral group (p = 0.001). Comparing the transradial and transfemoral approaches, fluoroscopy time (2.46 ± 1.22 versus 2.83 ± 1.31 min; p = 0.32), procedure time (8.89 ± 2.72 versus 9.33 ± 2.82 min; p = 0.56), contrast volume (67.52 ± 22.54 versus 71.63 ± 25.41 mL; p = 0.32), radiation dose as dose area product (24.2 ± 4.21 versus 22.3 ± 3.46 Gycm2; p = 0.43), and postprocedural rise of serum creatinine (6 ± 4.5% versus 8 ± 2.6%; p = 0.41) were not significantly different while vascular access site complications were significantly lower in transradial group than transfemoral group (3.9% versus 7.6%; p = 0.04). Conclusion. The present study shows that transradial access for coronary angiography is safe among patients compared to transfemoral access with lower rate of local vascular complications. PMID:27885351

  3. Declination of copper toxicity in pigeon pea and soil system by growth-promoting Proteus vulgaris KNP3 strain.

    PubMed

    Rani, Anju; Shouche, Yogesh S; Goel, Reeta

    2008-07-01

    The copper-resistant (1318 microM CuSO(4).5H(2)O) strain KNP3 of Proteus vulgaris was isolated from soil near the Panki power plant, Kanpur, India, and was used to inoculate pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan var. UPS-120) seeds grown in soil for 60 days in the presence of 600 microM CuSO(4).5H(2)O. A study of siderophore production (126.34 +/- 0.52 microg ml(-1)) and its subsequent effects on plant growth promotion under in situ conditions was conducted. The parameters that were monitored included the plants' wet weight, dry weight, shoot length, chlorophyll content, and concentration of copper in plant roots and shoots. The results showed that the strain caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in wet weight, dry weight, root length, shoot growth, and chlorophyll content (57.8%, 60%, 19.7%, 47.8%, and 36.3%, respectively) in the presence of copper. Furthermore, the strain reduced accumulation of Cu in the roots and shoots to 36.8% and 60.5%, respectively. Apart from this, copper concentration in the soil was measured on 0, 7, 15, 30, and 45 days consecutively and the results indicated that the bioinoculant KNP3 causes a significant decrease in Cu concentration in soil (55.6%), which was unlikely in the control (10.5%) treatment. The data suggested that the bacterial strain has the ability to protect plants against the inhibitory effects of copper besides reducing the copper load of the soil.

  4. Chemical composition and characteristics of ambient aerosols and rainwater residues during Indian summer monsoon: Insight from aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, Sachchida N.

    2016-07-01

    Real time composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) is measured via Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) for the first time during Indian summer monsoon at Kanpur, a polluted urban location located at the heart of Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP). Submicron aerosols are found to be dominated by organics followed by nitrate. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OA) via positive matrix factorization (PMF) revealed several types of secondary/oxidized and primary organic aerosols. On average, OA are completely dominated by oxidized OA with a very little contribution from biomass burning OA. During rain events, PM1 concentration is decreased almost by 60%, but its composition remains nearly the same. Oxidized OA showed slightly more decrease than primary OAs, probably due to their higher hygroscopicity. The presence of organo nitrates (ON) is also detected in ambient aerosols. Apart from real-time sampling, collected fog and rainwater samples were also analyzed via AMS in offline mode and in the ICP-OES (Inductively coupled plasma - Optical emission spectrometry) for elements. The presence of sea salt, organo nitrates and sulfates has been observed. Rainwater residues are also dominated by organics but their O/C ratios are 15-20% lower than the observed values for ambient OA. Alkali metals such as Ca, Na, K are found to be most abundant in the rainwater followed by Zn. Rainwater residues are also found to be much less oxidized than the aerosols present inside the fog water, indicating presence of less oxidized organics. These findings indicate that rain can act as an effective scavenger of different types of pollutants even for submicron particle range. Rainwater residues also contain organo sulfates which indicate that some portion of the dissolved aerosols has undergone aqueous processing, possibly inside the cloud. Highly oxidized and possibly hygroscopic OA during monsoon period compared to other seasons (winter, post monsoon), indicates that they can act

  5. Case studies on biological treatment of tannery effluents in India.

    PubMed

    Tare, Vinod; Gupta, Sandeep; Bose, Purnendu

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of the cost and quality of treatment of tannery wastewater in India by two common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) constructed for two tannery clusters, at Jajmau (Kanpur) and at Unnao in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Jajmau plant is upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process-based, while the Unnao plant is activated sludge process (ASP)-based. Investigations indicated that the ASP-based plant was superior in all respects. Total annualized costs, including capital and operation and maintenance costs, for the UASB and ASP plants were Rs. 4.24 million/million liters per day (MLD) and Rs. 3.36 million/MLD, respectively. Land requirements for the two CETPs were 1.4 hectares/MLD and 0.95 hectares/ MLD, respectively. Moreover, the treated UASB effluent had higher biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD/ COD) and considerable amounts of other undesirable constituents, like chromium (Cr) and sulfide, as compared with the ASP effluent, which had lower BOD/COD and negligible concentration of sulfide and Cr. Sludge production from the UASB-based plant was also higher at 1.4 t/day/MLD, in comparison to the sludge production of 0.8 t/day/MLD for the ASP-based plant. Also, the entire sludge produced in the UASB-based plant was Cr-contaminated and, hence, hazardous, while only a small fraction of the sludge produced in the ASP-based plant was similarly contaminated. The results of this study are at variance with the conventional wisdom of the superiority of anaerobic processes for tannery wastewater treatment in tropical developing countries like India.

  6. A 1 year record of carbonaceous aerosols from an urban site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Characterization, sources, and temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Kirpa; Sarin, M. M.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    This study presents a comprehensive 1 year (January 2007-March 2008) data set on the chemical composition of ambient aerosols collected from an urban location (Kanpur) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and suggests that the varying strength of the regional emission sources, boundary layer dynamics, and formation of secondary aerosols all contribute significantly to the temporal variability in the mass concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble OC (WSOC). On average, carbonaceous aerosols contribute nearly one third of the PM10 mass during winter, whereas their fractional mass is only ˜10% during summer. A three- to four-fold increase in the OC and K+ concentrations during winter and a significant linear relation between them suggest biomass burning (wood fuel and agricultural waste) emission as a dominant source. The relatively high OC/EC ratio (average: 7.4 ± 3.5 for n = 66) also supports that emissions from biomass burning are overwhelming for the particulate OC in the IGP. The WSOC/OC ratios vary from 0.21 to 0.70 over the annual seasonal cycle with relatively high ratios in the summer, suggesting the significance of secondary organic aerosols. The long-range transport of mineral aerosols from Iran, Afghanistan, and the Thar Desert (western India) is pronounced during summer months. The temporal variability in the concentrations of selected inorganic constituents and neutralization of acidic species (SO42- and NO3-) by NH4+ (dominant during winter) and Ca2+ (in summer) reflect conspicuous changes in the source strength of anthropogenic emissions.

  7. Source apportionment and risk assessment of PM1 bound trace metals collected during foggy and non-foggy episodes at a representative site in the Indo-Gangetic plain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-04-15

    The concentration, spatial distribution and source of 13-PM1 bound trace metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cd, Ni, K, Mg, Na, Ca, Pb and V) and adverse health effects of 5-PM1 bound trace metals (Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr and Cd) collected during foggy and non-foggy episodes are presented. Twenty-four samples from each period (foggy and non-foggy episodes) were collected from Kanpur, a typical densely populated city and the most polluted representative site in the Indo-Gangetic plain of India, and were analyzed for carcinogenic (Ni, Cr and Cd) and non-carcinogenic metals (Mn and Zn). The average mass concentration of PM1 during foggy and non-foggy episodes was found to be 160.16±37.70 and 132.87±27.97μg/m(3). Source identification via principle component analysis suggested that vehicular emission and anthropogenic, industrial and crustal dust were the dominant sources in this region. During both episodes the decreasing order of hazard quotient (Hq) for adult and children was as Mn>Cr>Cd>Ni>Zn. In a non-foggy episode the hazardous index (Hi) values of these 5 trace metals were found to be ~3.5 times higher than a foggy episode's exposed population, respectively. In a foggy episode, due to the exposure to total carcinogenic trace metals (Ni, Cr and Cd) present in the ambient air, 95% probability total incremental lifetime cancer risks (TIlcR) were ~687 cancer cases and ~402 cancer cases per million in the adult population and children population respectively. These cancer cases were ~1.6 times higher than a non-foggy episode's exposed population.

  8. Seasonal inhomogeneity in cloud precursors over Gangetic Himalayan region during GVAX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumka, U. C.; Bhattu, Deepika; Tripathi, S. N.; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Madhavan, B. L.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are key elements in cloud microphysics, the hydrological cycle and climate by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The present work analyzes simultaneous measurements of number concentration of CCN (NCCN) and condensation nuclei (NCN) obtained at Nainital, in the Gangetic-Himalayan (GH) region, during the frameworks of Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX), June 2011 to March 2012. The NCCN, NCN and activation (AR = NCCN/NCN) at 0.31-0.33% S (supersaturation ratio), exhibit significant daily, monthly and seasonal variations within a range of 684-2065 cm- 3 for NCCN, 1606-4124 cm- 3 for NCN, and 0.38-0.60 for AR, suggesting large inhomogeneity in aerosol properties, types and sources, which control the degree of aerosol potential activation. Thus, transported aerosols from the Ganges valley and abroad, the boundary-layer dynamics and atmospheric modification processes play an important role in aerosol-cloud interactions over the GH region. The NCN and NCCN show monthly-dependent diurnal variations with afternoon maxima due to transported aerosols from the Ganges valley up to the Himalayan foothills, while the AR is lower during these hours implying lower hygroscopicities or smaller sizes of the transported aerosols. The dependence of NCCN on S is highest during Dec-Mar and lowest during monsoon (Jun-Sep), suggesting different aerosol chemical composition. Comparison between Nainital and Kanpur shows that NCN and NCCN are much lower at Nainital, while the similarity in AR suggests aerosols of similar type, source and chemical composition uplifted from the Ganges valley to the Himalayan foothills.

  9. The Proposal of a BDS Syllabus Framework to Suit Choice Based Credit System (CBCS)

    PubMed Central

    Sethuraman, KR; Narayan, KA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Higher education takes a new dimension universally in the form of choice based Credit System (CBCS). In India, the University Grants Commission (UGC) has made CBCS mandatory in all fields except for Health Profession. Not much attempts were made in designing a BDS syllabus to suit CBCS. Aim Aim of the study was to propose a model dental syllabus to fit into choice based credit system. Materials and Methods A model BDS syllabus Prototype for CBCS was designed based on the UGC guidelines for terms as well as calculations for CBCS. Engineering curriculum models from IIT and Anna University were also referred to. Results Semester based BDS syllabus was designed without changing the norms of Dental Council of India (DCI). All the must know areas of the subjects were considered as “core” areas and the desirable and nice to know areas are left for “electives” by the students. By this method, none of the subject was left out at the same time students are provided with electives to learn deeper on their topics of choice. Conclusion The existing BDS syllabus can be effectively modified by incorporating few changes based on the UGC regulations for Choice based credit system. The proposed framework gives an insight on the nature of modifications that are needed. By adopting this, BDS Course regulations can also follow CBCS without neglecting or reducing the weightage of any subject. PMID:27656467

  10. Sewage reuse for aquaculture after treatment in oxidation and duckweed pond.

    PubMed

    Ghangrekar, M M; Kishor, N; Mitra, A

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of treating sewage by pond systems offer, through a simple and low-cost technology, social and commercial benefits, from the waste raw materials. The objective of this work was to demonstrate an effective treatment of the sewage by using natural treatment systems, and use of treated wastewater for aquaculture. The study was conducted for the sewage generated from the IIT Kharagpur campus. After characterization of the sewage, laboratory scale experiments were conducted for treatment using oxidation pond and duckweed pond. Survival and growth of fishes were observed in the experimental ponds using treated sewage. Based on the experimental results, full-scale treatment plant was designed to meet the aquaculture water quality. From the economics of the proposed full-scale plant, and utilization of the treated sewage for aquaculture, it is estimated that, the amount of Rs. 20,0000 can be generated every year. This amount recovered from the aquaculture will be more than the operating cost of the treatment plant, hence, making the operation of sewage treatment plant self sufficient. Use of a UASB reactor as the first stage treatment before sewage passes to the oxidation pond, can be a more attractive alternative because of less land requirement as compared to the oxidation pond alone, and additional land can be made available for aquaculture to increase revenue.

  11. Role of passive deformation on propulsion through a lumped torsional flexibility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Nipun; Gupta, Amit

    2016-11-01

    Scientists and biologists have been affianced in a deeper examination of insect flight to develop an improved understanding of the role of flexibility on aerodynamic performance. Here, we mimic a flapping wing through a fluid-structure interaction framework based upon a lumped torsional flexibility model. The developed fluid and structural solvers together determine the aerodynamic forces and wing deformation, respectively. An analytical solution to the simplified single-spring structural dynamics equation is established to substantiate simulations. It is revealed that the dynamics of structural deformation is governed by the balance between inertia, stiffness and aerodynamics, where the former two oscillate at the plunging frequency and the latter oscillates at twice the plunging frequency. We demonstrate that an induced phase difference between plunging and passive pitching is responsible for a higher thrust coefficient. This phase difference is also shown to be dependent on aerodynamics to inertia and natural to plunging frequency ratios. For inertia dominated flows, pitching and plunging always remain in phase. As the aerodynamics dominates, a large phase difference is induced which is accountable for a large passive deformation and higher thrust. Authors acknowledge the financial support received from the Aeronautics Research and Development Board (ARDB) under SIGMA Project No. 1705 and thank the IIT Delhi HPC facility for computational resources.

  12. Using design methods to provide the care that people want and need.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Kim; Krishnan, Jerry A

    2016-01-01

    Kim Erwin is an Assistant Professor at IIT Institute of Design and trained in user-centered design methods, which put people at the center of any problem space so as to develop solutions that better fit their everyday lives, activities and context. Her expertise is in making complex information easier to understand and use. Her research targets communication tools and methods for collaborative knowledge construction built through shared experiences. Her book, Communicating the New: Methods to shape and accelerate innovation focuses on helping teams explore, build and diffuse critical knowledge inside organizations. Jerry Krishnan is a Professor of Medicine and Public Health, and Associate Vice President for Population Health Sciences at the University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System. He pioneered the use of Analytic Hierarchy Process to elicit the expressed needs of stakeholders for research. He previously served as Chair of the US FDA Pulmonary and Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee and is a Principal Investigator in NIH and Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)-funded research consortia. He chairs the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Clinical Trials review committee and the PCORI Improving Healthcare Systems merit review panel.

  13. Terrorists: analogies and differences with mental diseases. A phenomenological-metaphysical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisogni, Primavera

    2010-01-01

    Are islamic terrorists insane? International scholars generally concede that Al Qaeda members are not mentally ill. But, until now, there has not been a shared consensus and a strong argument that can prove it. This paper intends to throw light on the specific dehumanization of terrorists and to show that they are always responsible for their acts, unlike those who are affected by mental diseases. The members of Al Qaeda deny the world of life and take the distance from its sense and value: in their perspective only subversive action makes sense. However they always maintain a transcendent relation with the world (I-you; I-it). Persons with serious mental diseases have generally lost the sense of their self and the transcendence with the world. Terrorists and people with mental illness share a common separation from the world of life: one is voluntary, the other is the consequence of a number of factors (biological, social, etc.). Terrorists and psychotics have nevertheless something in common: the deprivation of the self. A loss of being that--I argue--is at the origin of the ordinariness of terrorists and the experience of void in psychotics. Two symptoms that reveal the condition of an intimate dryness, from a phenomenological and a metaphysical point of view as a consequence of a distorted relation with the world of life. I shall discuss how ordinariness is strictly related with the blurring definition of terrorism.

  14. Effect of Damaged Mooring Line on Response of Spar with Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seebai, T.; Sundaravadivelu, R.

    2012-02-01

    Spar platforms have several advantages for deploying wind turbines in offshore for depth beyond 120 m. The merit of spar platform is large range of topside payloads, favourable motions compared to other floating structures and minimum hull/deck interface. This paper addresses the effect of mooring line damages in responses of spar platform subjected to regular waves. A 1:100 scale model of the spar with taut (intact), taut (damaged) and slack (intact) mooring line configuration was studied in the wave basin (30 × 30 × 3 m) in Ocean Engineering Department of IIT Madras. The heave and surge accelerations along with mooring line tension was measured and used. The surge and heave RAO comparison for all three mooring line conditions shows that the effect of damaged mooring line in surge response is negligible whereas in heave response, taut (damaged) will behave similar to slack (intact) condition. The normalized mooring line tension comparison between taut intact and taut damaged configuration is also presented.

  15. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  16. A Study on the Performance of the Split Reaction Water Turbine with Guide Ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Deuel H.; Villanueva, Eliseo P.

    2015-09-01

    The development of technologies that make use of renewable energy is of great significance presently. A new kind of turbine called Split Reaction Water Turbine (SRWT) using PVC pipes as material is a major contribution towards harnessing the energy potentials of small stream low head water resources. SRWTs of diameter to height ratio (D/H = 110 cm/160 cm) were tested at the MSU-IIT College of Engineering Fluid Engineering Laboratory. Data on volumetric flow and pressure head at the turbine inlet of the SRWT were recorded using National Instrument Data Processing System using LabView software. In later experiments, guide ribs were installed at the vane of the exit nozzles in order to determine the difference in the performance of the ribbed and the non-ribbed SRWT. Simulations of the running SRWT were conducted using SOLIDWORKS software. Results of the simulations aided in the thorough analyses of the data from the experimental runs. A comparison of data from the ribbed and non-ribbed SRWT shows that guide ribs were effective in directing the momentum of the exiting water to improve the speed of rotation. In this study, the increase in the speed of the Split Reaction Water Turbine was as much as 46%.

  17. Flat-panel imaging system for fluoroscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeth, Richard E.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Day, Derek J.; Gilblom, David L.; Harris, Richard A.; Job, Isaias D.; Klausmeier-Brown, Martin E.; Pavkovich, John M.; Seppi, Edward J.; Shapiro, Edward G.; Wright, Michael D.; Yu, Jiann M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a multi-mode, digital imager for real- time x-ray applications. The imager has three modes of operation: low dose fluoroscopy, zoom fluoroscopy, and high resolution radiography. These modes trade-off resolution or field-of-view for frame rate and additionally optimize the sensitivity of the imager to match the x-ray dose used in each mode. This large area sensing technology has a form factor similar to that of a film cassette, no geometric image distortion, no sensitivity to magnetic fields, a very large dynamic range which eliminates repeat shots due to over or under exposure, 12 bit digital output and the ability to switch between operating modes in real-time. The imager, which consists of three modules: the Receptor, the Power Supply and the Command Processor, is intended as a component in a larger imaging system. Preliminary characterization of the prototype imager in fluoroscopic mode at entrance exposure rates down to 2.5 (mu) R/frame, indicates that the DQE(f), MTF and low contrast resolution are comparable to that obtained with an image intensifier tube (IIT) coupled to a video camera.

  18. Reduction of start-up time through bioaugmentation process in microbial fuel cells using an isolate from dark fermentative spent media fed anode.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Soumya; Khilari, Santimoy; Roy, Shantonu; Ghangrekar, M M; Pradhan, Debabrata; Das, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemically active bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa IIT BT SS1 was isolated from a dark fermentative spent media fed anode, and a bioaugmentation technique using the isolated strain was used to improve the start-up time of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Higher volumetric current density and lower start-up time were observed with the augmented system MFC-PM (13.7 A/m(3)) when compared with mixed culture MFC-M (8.72 A/m(3)) during the initial phase. This enhanced performance in MFC-PM was possibly due to the improvement in electron transfer ability by the augmented strain. However, pure culture MFC-P showed maximum volumetric current density (17 A/m(3)) due to the inherent electrogenic properties of Pseudomonas sp. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) study, along with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis, supported the influence of isolated species in improving the MFC performance. The present study indicates that the bioaugmentation strategy using the isolated Pseudomonas sp. can be effectively utilized to decrease the start-up time of MFC.

  19. Bengali-English Relevant Cross Lingual Information Access Using Finite Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Avishek; Bhattacharyya, Swapan; Hazra, Simanta; Mondal, Shatabdi

    2010-10-01

    CLIR techniques searches unrestricted texts and typically extract term and relationships from bilingual electronic dictionaries or bilingual text collections and use them to translate query and/or document representations into a compatible set of representations with a common feature set. In this paper, we focus on dictionary-based approach by using a bilingual data dictionary with a combination to statistics-based methods to avoid the problem of ambiguity also the development of human computer interface aspects of NLP (Natural Language processing) is the approach of this paper. The intelligent web search with regional language like Bengali is depending upon two major aspect that is CLIA (Cross language information access) and NLP. In our previous work with IIT, KGP we already developed content based CLIA where content based searching in trained on Bengali Corpora with the help of Bengali data dictionary. Here we want to introduce intelligent search because to recognize the sense of meaning of a sentence and it has a better real life approach towards human computer interactions.

  20. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitri Gidaspow

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to convert learning gas-solid-liquid fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computers the phase velocities and the volume fi-actions of gas, liquid and particulate phases. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. As promised in the SIXTH TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT, January 1996, this report presents measurements of radial distribution function for 450 micron glass particles in liquid-solid fluidized bed. The report is in the form of a preliminary paper. The authors need the radial distribution function to compute the viscosity and the equation of state for particles. The principal results are as follows: (1) The measured radial distribution function, g{sub 0}, is a monotonic function of the solid volume fraction. The values of the radial distribution function g{sub 0} are in the range of the predictions from Bagnold equation and Carnahan and Starling equation. (2) The position of the first peak of the radial distribution function does not lie at r = d at contact (d is particle diameter). This differs from the predications from the hard sphere model and the measurements in the gas-solid system (Gidaspow and Huilin, 1996). This is due to a liquid film lubrication effect in the liquid-solid system.

  1. Ultra-Shallow P{sup +}/N Junction Formation in Si Using Low Temperature Solid Phase Epitaxy Assisted with Laser Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Shuhei; Tanaka, Yuki; Fukaya, Takumi; Matsumoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Fuse, Genshu; Kudo, Toshio; Sakuragi, Susumu

    2008-11-03

    A combination of Ge pre-amorphization implantation (Ge-PAI), low-energy B implantation and laser annealing is a promising method to form highly-activated, abrupt and ultra-shallow junctions (USJ). In our previous report of IIT 2006, we succeeded in forming pn junctions less than 10 nm using non-melt double-pulsed green laser. However, a large leakage current under reverse bias was observed consequently due to residual defects in the implanted layer. In this study, a method to form USJ is proposed: a combination of low-temperature solid phase epitaxy and non-melt laser irradiation for B activation. Ge pre-amorphization implantation was performed at energy of 6 keV with a dose of 3x10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}. Then B implantation was performed at energy of 0.2 keV with a dose of 1.2x10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}. Samples were annealed at 400 deg. C for 10 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, non-melt laser irradiation was performed at energy of 690 mJ/cm{sup 2} and pulse duration of 100 ns with intervals of 300 ns. As a result, USJ around 10 nm with better crystallinity was successfully formed. And the leakage current of pn diodes was reduced significantly. Moreover, it is proven from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis that transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of B is specifically suppressed.

  2. A web GIS based integrated flood assessment modeling tool for coastal urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A. T.; Mohanty, J.; Eldho, T. I.; Rao, E. P.; Mohan, B. K.

    2014-03-01

    Urban flooding has become an increasingly important issue in many parts of the world. In this study, an integrated flood assessment model (IFAM) is presented for the coastal urban flood simulation. A web based GIS framework has been adopted to organize the spatial datasets for the study area considered and to run the model within this framework. The integrated flood model consists of a mass balance based 1-D overland flow model, 1-D finite element based channel flow model based on diffusion wave approximation and a quasi 2-D raster flood inundation model based on the continuity equation. The model code is written in MATLAB and the application is integrated within a web GIS server product viz: Web Gram Server™ (WGS), developed at IIT Bombay, using Java, JSP and JQuery technologies. Its user interface is developed using open layers and the attribute data are stored in MySQL open source DBMS. The model is integrated within WGS and is called via Java script. The application has been demonstrated for two coastal urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai, India. Simulated flood extents for extreme rainfall event of 26 July, 2005 in the two urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai city are presented and discussed. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of the flood simulation tool in a web GIS environment to facilitate data access and visualization of GIS datasets and simulation results.

  3. Design and implementation of ergonomic performance measurement system at a steel plant in India.

    PubMed

    Ray, Pradip Kumar; Tewari, V K

    2012-01-01

    Management of Tata Steel, the largest steel making company of India in the private sector, felt the need to develop a framework to determine the levels of ergonomic performance at its different workplaces. The objectives of the study are manifold: to identify and characterize the ergonomic variables for a given worksystem with regard to work efficiency, operator safety, and working conditions, to design a comprehensive Ergonomic Performance Indicator (EPI) for quantitative determination of the ergonomic status and maturity of a given worksystem. The study team of IIT Kharagpur consists of three faculty members and the management of Tata Steel formed a team of eleven members for implementation of EPI model. In order to design and develop the EPI model with total participation and understanding of the concerned personnel of Tata Steel, a three-phase action plan for the project was prepared. The project consists of three phases: preparation and data collection, detailed structuring and validation of EPI model. Identification of ergonomic performance factors, development of interaction matrix, design of assessment tool, and testing and validation of assessment tool (EPI) in varied situations are the major steps in these phases. The case study discusses in detail the EPI model and its applications.

  4. Applications of the Optical Differential Thermal Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    m . A , , , -A I I t I on- I d h ( I nme ndt r . r e , ’ir i i Ptf + i.? P , I , i- ’+ , i, rh tiT , - ,", h.b .i !, C ln t T nT iiilnl itIlil... M , r , ,, e -n irTFr, ITi’l In T I , ,I I AT%: - qT, D li)t h, 1 - :t r F’L; - E j 1 ,1 Y 1 r L ., r L i b - it ntf~llt y, I rn t’rrl ,1.4nf$,l • , I...8217 ’IVsA.".I I I tI "It I’ .I..It T , i i M .4 Iw’ M % -VI % .1?%,% 1,T In- t ,t - o t i] I , ti.ti A. -1 I ]1! iti P-i It flirt- I I Ma P tf t 1 ttit

  5. Pollutant dispersion simulation for low wind speed condition by the ILS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Jonas C.; de Vilhena, Marco Túllio M. B.

    A semi-analytical Lagrangian particle model to simulate the pollutant dispersion during low wind speed conditions is presented and tested. The method relies to a stochastic integral equation whose solution is obtained using ILS method, which consists in the iterative solution of Langevin equation by the Picard's iteration method. To consider the low wind speed effect, the solution for the horizontal components of the turbulent velocity takes account the Eulerian autocorrelation function as suggested by Frenkiel [1953. Advances in Applied Mechanics 3, 61-107]. The model results are shown to agree very well with the field tracer data collected during stable conditions at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and during convective conditions from the series of field experiments at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT). A statistical analysis reveals that the model simulates very well the experimental data and presents results comparable or even better than ones obtained with other models used as comparison. The analytical feature of the ILS method and the inclusion of the Eulerian autocorrelation function suggested by Frenkiel (1953) allow generating more accurate results.

  6. Bacterial survival and regrowth in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Mahto, Bandana; Goel, Sudha

    2008-01-01

    Weekly variations in free and total chlorine residuals, and their impact on microbial concentrations were monitored for the IIT Kharagpur (IITKgp) water supply to determine possible correlations between heterotrophic bacterial density, total and faecal coliform density, and total and free chlorine residuals. All correlations between HPC, coliforms and free and total chlorine residuals were found to be insignificant, suggesting that coliform survival and growth are not inhibited by low levels of residual chlorine ranging from 0.01 to 0.41 mg Cl2/L and total chlorine ranging from 0.02 to 1.23 mg Cl2/L. Growth studies were carried out to measure bacterial growth rates in chlorinated drinking water using turbidity. An effort was also made to establish correlations between Cell Density (cfu/L) and Turbidity (NTU), which would allow turbidity to be used as a tool for measurement of bacterial growth in real time. Bacteria were grown in nutrient broth solutions diluted 10-fold with chlorinated tap water to simulate low substrate chlorinated drinking water environments and the average growth rate was 0.196 +/- 0.049 1/h (n = 5, CoV = 25%). No bacterial inocula were added to these samples and chlorine residuals in these samples were 0.14 +/- 0.06 mg Cl2/L and 0.06 +/- 0.05 mg Cl2/L for total chlorine and free chlorine, respectively.

  7. The proton driver design study

    SciTech Connect

    Editors: W. Chou, C.M. Ankenbrandt and E.I. Malamud

    2001-03-08

    In a 1997 summer study, a team led by Steve Holmes formulated a development plan for the Fermilab proton source and described the results in TM-2021. Subsequently, at the end of 1998, a task group was formed to prepare a detailed design of a high intensity facility called the Proton Driver to replace the Fermilab Booster. In the past two years the design effort has attracted more than fifty participants, mostly from the Beams Division. Physicists and engineers from the Technical Division and FESS as well as other institutions, including the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Stanford University, University of Hawaii, CERN in Switzerland, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in England and the IHEP in Russia also contributed heavily. The results of that effort are summarized in this document describing the design of a 16 GeV synchrotron, two new beam transport lines (a 400 MeV injection line and a 12/16 GeV extraction line), and related improvements to the present negative ion source and the 400 MeV Linac. A construction cost estimate is presented in Appendix A.

  8. Cylindrical waves at the interface of viscous immiscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Ratul; Farsoiya, Palas Kumar

    2016-11-01

    We conduct Navier-Stokes simulations of cylindrical, axisymmetric standing gravity waves at the interface of radially unbounded, immiscible viscous fluids. The fluid motion generated by these oscillations are studied. Results from the numerical solutions are compared to the analytical solution of an integro-differential equation representing the amplitude of motion of the interface. Standing waves are initiated at the interface as zeroth order Bessel's mode at rest i.e. h (r , 0) =H0 1 + ɛJ0 (kr) where H0 is the undisturbed fluid depth in the simulation, chosen to be large enough for deep water approximation to hold. For small initial amplitudes (compared to 2 πk-1), we obtain good agreement with the analytical solution at early times. As we increase initial amplitude, the time period of the first oscillation is found to increase. Diffusion of vorticity from the interface is studied as a function of initial amplitude. We compare our results to the analytical solution obtained from the corresponding planar problem (Prosperetti, 1981). We will discuss these results in the framework of the viscous Cauchy-Poisson (initial-value) problem between two fluids, and also compare our results to the viscous, single fluid case (Miles, 1968). We thank IRCC, IIT Bombay for financial support.

  9. Relative performance of academic departments using DEA with sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Preeti; Yadav, Shiv Prasad; Singh, S P

    2009-05-01

    The process of liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has brought new opportunities and challenges in all areas of human endeavor including education. Educational institutions have to adopt new strategies to make best use of the opportunities and counter the challenges. One of these challenges is how to assess the performance of academic programs based on multiple criteria. Keeping this in view, this paper attempts to evaluate the performance efficiencies of 19 academic departments of IIT Roorkee (India) through data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique. The technique has been used to assess the performance of academic institutions in a number of countries like USA, UK, Australia, etc. But we are using it first time in Indian context to the best of our knowledge. Applying DEA models, we calculate technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies and identify the reference sets for inefficient departments. Input and output projections are also suggested for inefficient departments to reach the frontier. Overall performance, research performance and teaching performance are assessed separately using sensitivity analysis.

  10. Interferon-alpha-induced destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease in a patient with chronic hepatitis C: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Choi, Young Sik; Park, Yo Han; Lee, Sang Uk

    2011-12-01

    Interferon-induced thyroiditis (IIT) is a major clinical problem for patients receiving interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy. But, destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease associated with IFN-α therapy is very rarely reported. Herein, we report a rare case of pegylated IFN-α (pegIFN-α) induced destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease in a patient with HCV infection. A 31-yr-old woman suffered from chronic active hepatitis C and was treated with pegIFN-α and ribavirin for 12 months. Results of a thyroid function test and autoantibody levels were normal before IFN-α therapy was initiated. Destructive thyrotoxicosis appeared seven months after the initiation of IFN-α therapy, followed by Graves' thyrotoxicosis two months after the cessation of therapy. The diagnoses of destructive thyroiditis and Graves' disease were confirmed by the presence of TSH receptor antibodies in addition to Tc-99m scintigraphy findings. The patient's antithyroglobulin antibody titer increased gradually during IFN-α therapy and remained weakly positive after IFN-α therapy was discontinued.

  11. Geographic List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 1992-Sep 1993. FY 1993. (Aberdeen, Washington-Laramie, Wyoming). Part 13

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    s 0 3- 4 -4.-40 3Y N. tO N~ In .- 44 m II 1(0( coo Go i .)t 01 01 - 01 i I 1D no (000 11 >- It u 1 (00(0 It Li. 11 c 1 00(00 11 11 to I (00(0 Go it...4 iI -3 %- EE >E Go UC EE 0c o o Zj(mCi(Iew EZZZEEwE4 %i m ZEC4 Z wmEw eZw ZkE c ce 11 Io 4 Ocr 112I~ (0c Uz ~ ;mn~ -_ = -- 2CZ X =;C;M=;C;C = = C...4N NN N NN N N e4N NN N m •mI nmm iwiL o mn on 0 0 0 0 0 0 IIt M N I -4U UU U U• • U cQU UU U -4ý4- 4---44- 4- 4- -, 4ýýýý . 4- ý. IfI COO O 1D iI K

  12. A Multi-Year Budget Generation Program for Use in Navy Recruiting: A Users’ Manual,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    aor4- Ct 4 CL4. &40 *- o a. L&oCl. .&9 V 1 A .9 cc cc(IMc _o I -~ P . N .. II , I w - 1~ 10. 1 ~~I I It g c’ i~CIO I U-4 tic ff1 A WVA1; I1 Cd-C x r...0 0 *1 me a rC4 - - IIt of a 0 -OF- 0 4 a loo 0 ~ W% ,a a.I u~l CiftV I i C’ j *ag I I;:c ,’" Iw P 4t .0 -. 6 -, UiO -% a4i*u C~ L* I J TiC ’ Le. Le...or RCPORT A PERIOD Cove’rEO A MULTI-YEAR BUDGET GENERATION PROGRAM FOR USE IN NAVY RECRUITING 6. PERFORMING ON G. RCPOPT 11U0.51&( 7. AUlA 4084() S

  13. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place and Contractor. Part 19. (Abbot, Virginia-Yorktown, Virginia)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    140 1 -40N( I10 10 10() 10 10 1(14M.00 0 I- iI 1I%-4 tic ) iA 0 If) c0 0 00 m1 If) 0 onIitI c0Ic>u if0-4 0.-I 0.-4I -4 -4-INgN 0-I O0N -I -4 N Q0-4...00 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 IsI <C’) tic ) r-4 < 0 to oil I1M if (0000 MO 000 4D ~ N O O O O O OO n n 4 0 4 N~ WlJ 4) 1i4Ml 110-4-4 0-4 C11 4...00 0 000 00 ( 0 s c 1 I(-N 010 If go (a (a m 0 m0 go ) tic to0 . m I 4 (0-( CK -4I- -4 -4 N .4 N .IN -,- IN ."N1 -I N -4--N -4N .- iC\\ II I -4N(0 I C

  14. Perimeter Governed Minority Carrier Lifetimes in 4H-SiC p(+)-n Diodes Measured by Reverse Recovery Switching Transient Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1998-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetimes in epitaxial 4H-SiC p(+)-n junction diodes were measured via an analysis of reverse recovery switching characteristics. Behavior of reverse recovery storage time (t(s)) as a function of initial ON-state forward current (I(F)) and OFF-state reverse current (I(R)) followed well-documented trends which have been observed for decades in silicon p-n rectifiers. Average minority carrier (hole) lifetimes (tau(p)) calculated from plots of t(s) vs I(R)/I(F) strongly decreased with decreasing device area. Bulk and perimeter components of average hole lifetimes were separated by plotting 1/tau(p) as a function of device perimeter-to- area ratio (P/A). This plot reveals that perimeter recombination is dominant in these devices, whose areas are all less than 1 sq mm. The bulk minority carrier (hole) lifetime extracted from the 1/tau(p) vs P/A plot is approximately 0.7 micro-s, well above the 60 ns to 300 ns average iit'eptimes obtained when perimeter recombination effects are ignored in the analysis. Given the fact that there has been little previous investigation of bipolar diode and transistor performance as a function of perimeter-to-area ratio, this work raises the possibility that perimeter recombination may be partly responsible for poor effective minority carrier lifetimes and limited performance obtained in many previous SiC bipolar junction devices.

  15. Facial Expression Overrides Lumbopelvic Kinematics for Clinical Judgements about Low Back Pain Intensity.

    PubMed

    Courbalay, A; Deroche, T; Descarreaux, M; Prigent, E; O'Shaughnessy, J; Amorim, M-A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Through real-time behavioral observation systems, pain behaviors are commonly used by clinicians to estimate pain intensity in patients with low back pain. However, little is known about how clinicians rely on pain-related behaviors to make their judgment. According to the Information Integration Theory (IIT) framework, this study aimed at investigating how clinicians value and integrate information from lumbopelvic kinematics (LK), a protective pain behavior, and facial expression intensity (FEI), a communicative pain behavior, to estimate pain in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Methods. Twenty-one experienced clinicians and twenty-one novice clinicians were asked to estimate back pain intensity from a virtual character performing a trunk flexion-extension task. Results. Results revealed that both populations relied on facial expression and that only half of the participants in each group integrated FEI and LK to estimate cLBP intensity. Among participants who integrated the two pain behaviors, averaging rule predominated among others. Results showed that experienced clinicians relied equally on FEI and LK to estimate pain, whereas novice clinicians mostly relied on FEI. Discussion. The use of additive rule of integration does not appear to be systematic when assessing others' pain. When assessing pain intensity, communicative and protective pain behaviors may have different relevance.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Compressible Multi-phase flows using HLLC extension of AUSM +-up Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhir, Gaurav; Bodi, Kowsik

    2016-11-01

    Solving Multi-fluid equations has always required an onerous effort from researchers with regards to implementing an appropriate numerical scheme which could capture the various facets of such type of flows along with the interaction between the various phases present. Additionally, multi-phase flows bring with them peculiar mathematical properties such as non-hyperbolicity and non-conservativeness which further increases the complexity involved. Our presentation shall present an insight into the advantages and limitations of several numerical schemes proposed in the past and propose to use the HLLC extension of AUSM +-up approach to model such type of flows. We use the single pressure based stratified flow concept and by presenting several test cases, we prove that our method robustly computes multi-phase flow involving discontinuities, such as shock waves and fluid interfaces. Additionally, we present a formulation to incorporate phase transition within multi-fluid equations and establish the validity of this method by presenting several two dimensional test cases such as the Shock-Water Column Interaction problem, the Water-Shock/Air Bubble Interaction problem and the 2D Underwater Explosion problem. Industrial Research and Consultancy Centre, IIT Bombay.

  17. Laboratory technique for quantitative thermal emissivity measurements of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, George; Nair, Archana; Gundu Rao, T. K.; Pande, Kanchan

    2009-08-01

    Thermal infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the compositional analysis of geological materials. The spectral feature in the mid-IR region is diagnostic of the mineralogy and spectral signatures of mixtures of minerals that add linearly, and therefore, can be used as an important tool to determine the mineralogy of rocks in the laboratory and remotely for planetary exploration. The greatest challenge in the emission measurement lies in the measurement of the weak thermal photons emitted from geological materials in a laboratory setup, and accurately records the temperature of the rock sample. The present work pertains to the details of a new Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) laboratory that has been developed under the ISRO Planetary Science and Exploration (PLANEX) programme, for emission related mineralogical investigations of planetary surfaces. The focus of the paper is on the acquisition and calibration technique for obtaining emissivity, and the deconvolution procedure to obtain the modal abundances of the thermal emission spectra in the range of 6-25 µm using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The basic technique is adopted from the work of Ruff et al (1997). This laboratory at the Department of Earth Sciences, IIT-Bombay is currently developing pure end mineral library of mineral particulates (<65 µm), and adding new end members to the existing ASU spectral library. The paper argues the need for considering Lunar Orbiter Thermal Emission Spectrometer (LOTES) for future Indian Moon mission programme (Chandrayan-II) to determine evidences of varied lithologies on the lunar surface.

  18. Rosetta/OSIRIS: Nucleus morphology and activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, Holger

    2015-08-01

    Introduction: The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency arrived on August 6, 2014, at the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of cruise. OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for broad-band nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field coma investigations.OSIRIS images the nucleus and the coma of comet 67P/C-G from the arrival throughout early mapping phase, PHILAE landing, and escort phase with close fly-by beginning of the year 2015.The team paper presents the surface morphology and activity of the nucleus as seen in gas, dust, and local jets and the larger scale coma studied by OSIRIS.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany.Additional Information: The OSIRIS team is H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, J. Agarwal, M. A'Hearn, I. Bertini, F. Angrilli, M. A. Barucci, J. L. Bertaux, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, C. Güttler, P. Gutierrez, S. Hviid, W. Ip, L. Jorda, H. U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J. J. Lopez, S. Lowry, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, H. Michalik, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, L

  19. Clonal relationships among bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Maslow, J N; Whittam, T S; Gilks, C F; Wilson, R A; Mulligan, M E; Adams, K S; Arbeit, R D

    1995-07-01

    The clonal relationships among 187 bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli from 179 patients at Boston, Mass., Long Beach, Calif., and Nairobi, Kenya, were determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), analysis of polymorphisms associated with the ribosomal operon (ribotyping), and serotyping. MLEE based on 20 enzymes resolved 101 electrophoretic types (ETs), forming five clusters; ribotyping resolved 56 distinct patterns concordant with the analysis by MLEE. The isolates at each study site formed a genetically diverse group and demonstrated similar clonal structures, with the same small subset of lineages accounting for the majority of isolates at each site. Moreover, two ribotypes accounted for approximately 30% of the isolates at each study site. One cluster contained the majority (65%) of isolates and, by direct comparison of the ETs and ribotypes of individual isolates, was genetically indistinguishable from the largest cluster for each of two other collections of E. coli causing pyelonephritis and neonatal meningitis (R. K. Selander, T. K. Korhonen, V. Väisänen-Rhen, P. H. Williams, P. E. Pattison, and D. A. Caugent, Infect. Immun. 52:213-222, 1986; M. Arthur, C. E. Johnson, R. H. Rubin, R. D. Arbeit, C. Campanelli, C. Kim, S. Steinbach, M. Agarwal, R. Wilkinson, and R. Goldstein, Infect. Immun. 57:303-313, 1989), thus defining a virulent set of lineages. The isolates within these virulent lineages typically carried DNA homologous to the adhesin operon pap or sfa and the hemolysin operon hly and expressed O1, O2, O4, O6, O18, O25, or O75 antigens. DNA homologous to pap was distributed among isolates of each major cluster, whereas hly was restricted to isolates of two clusters, typically detected in pap-positive strains, and sfa was restricted to isolates of one cluster, typically detected in pap- and hly-positive strains. The occurrence of pap-positive isolates in the same geographically and genetically divergent lineages suggests that this

  20. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Myers, Adam D.; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley; Hirata, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; O'Connell, Ross; Huff, Eric; Schlegel, David; Slosar, Anže; Weinberg, David; Strauss, Michael; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has surveyed 14,555 square degrees of the sky, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present the large-scale clustering of 1.6 million quasars between z=0.5 and z=2.5 that have been classified from this imaging, representing the highest density of quasars ever studied for clustering measurements. This data set spans 0~ 11,00 square degrees and probes a volume of 80 h-3 Gpc3. In principle, such a large volume and medium density of tracers should facilitate high-precision cosmological constraints. We measure the angular clustering of photometrically classified quasars using an optimal quadratic estimator in four redshift slices with an accuracy of ~ 25% over a bin width of δl ~ 10-15 on scales corresponding to matter-radiation equality and larger (0l ~ 2-3). Observational systematics can strongly bias clustering measurements on large scales, which can mimic cosmologically relevant signals such as deviations from Gaussianity in the spectrum of primordial perturbations. We account for systematics by employing a new method recently proposed by Agarwal et al. (2014) to the clustering of photometrically classified quasars. We carefully apply our methodology to mitigate known observational systematics and further remove angular bins that are contaminated by unknown systematics. Combining quasar data with the photometric luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of Ross et al. (2011) and Ho et al. (2012), and marginalizing over all bias and shot noise-like parameters, we obtain a constraint on local primordial non-Gaussianity of fNL = -113+154-154 (1σ error). We next assume that the bias of quasar and galaxy distributions can be obtained independently from quasar/galaxy-CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements (such as those in Sherwin et al. (2013)). This can be facilitated by spectroscopic observations of the sources, enabling the redshift distribution to be completely determined, and allowing precise estimates of the bias

  1. Gemini and Keck Observations of Slowly Rotating, Bilobate Active Asteroid (300163)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waniak, Waclaw; Drahus, Michal

    2016-10-01

    One of the most puzzling questions regarding Active Asteroids is the mechanism of their activation. While some Active Asteroids show protracted and often recurrent mass loss, consistent with seasonal ice sublimation, some other eject dust impulsively as a result of a catastrophic disruption (e.g. Jewitt et al. 2015, Asteroids IV, 221). It has been suggested that ice can be excavated from the cold near-surface interior by an impact (Hsieh & Jewitt 2006, Science 312, 561) or, for small objects susceptible to YORP torques, by near-critical spin rate (Sheppard & Trujillo 2014, AJ 149, 44). But impact and rapid spin can also cause a catastrophic disruption (e.g. Jewitt et al. 2015, Asteroids IV, 221). It therefore becomes apparent that the different types of mass loss observed in Active Asteroids can be best classified and understood based on the nucleus spin rates (Drahus et al. 2015, ApJL 802, L8), but unfortunately the rotation periods have been measured for a very limited number of these objects. With this in mind we have initiated a survey of light curves of small Active Asteroids on the largest ground-based optical telescopes. Here we present the results for (300163), also known as 288P and 2006 VW139, which is a small 2.6-km sized asteroid that exhibited a comet-like activity over 100 days in the second half of 2011 (Hsieh et al. 2012, ApJL 748, L15; Licandro et al. 2013, A&A 550, A17; Agarwal et al. 2016, AJ 151, 12). Using Keck/DEIMOS and Gemini/GMOS-S working in tandem on UT 2015 May 21-22 we have detected an inactive nucleus and measured a complete, dense, high-S/N rotational light curve. The light curve has a double-peaked period of 16 hours, an amplitude of 0.4 mag, and moderately narrow minima suggesting a bilobate or contact-binary shape. The long rotation period clearly demonstrates a non-rotational origin of activity of this object, consistent with an impact. Furthermore, among the five small Active Asteroids with known rotation periods (300163) is only

  2. Spontaneous emission in dielectric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukhov, K. K.; Basiev, T. T.; Orlovskii, Yu. V.

    2008-09-01

    An analytical expression is obtained for the radiative-decay rate of an excited optical center in an ellipsoidal dielectric nanoparticle (with sizes much less than the wavelength) surrounded by a dielectric medium. It is found that the ratio of the decay rate A nano of an excited optical center in the nanoparticle to the decay rate A bulk of an excited optical center in the bulk sample is independent of the local-field correction and, therefore, of the adopted local-field model. Moreover, the expression implies that the ratio A nano/ A bulk for oblate and prolate ellipsoids depends strongly on the orientation of the dipole moment of the transition with respect to the ellipsoid axes. In the case of spherical nanoparticles, a formula relating the decay rate A nano and the dielectric parameters of the nanocomposite and the volumetric content c of these particles in the nanocomposite is derived. This formula reduces to a known expression for spherical nanoparticles in the limit c ≪ 1, while the ratio A nano/ A bulk approaches unity as c tends to unity. The analysis shows that the approach used in a number of papers {H. P. Christensen, D. R. Gabbe, and H. P. Jenssen, Phys. Rev. B 25, 1467 (1982); R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012 (1999); R. I. Zakharchenya, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. B. Kulinkin, et al., Fiz. Tverd. Tela 45, 2104 (2003) [Phys. Solid State 45, 2209 (2003)]; G. Manoj Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203903 (2003); Chang-Kui Duan, Michael F. Reid, and Zhongqing Wang, Phys. Lett. A 343, 474 (2005); K. Dolgaleva, R. W. Boyd, and P. W. Milonni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 516 (2007)}, for which the formula for A nano is derived merely by substituting the bulk refractive index by the effective refractive index of the nanocomposite must be revised, because the resulting ratio A nano/ A bulk turns out to depend on the local-field model. The formulas for the emission and absorption cross

  3. Modeling of the structure and interactions of the B. anthracis antitoxin, MoxX: deletion mutant studies highlight its modular structure and repressor function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Nikita; Agarwal, Shivangi; Verma, Shashikala; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2011-03-01

    Our previous report on Bacillus anthracis toxin-antitoxin module (MoxXT) identified it to be a two component system wherein, PemK-like toxin (MoxT) functions as a ribonuclease (Agarwal S et al. JBC 285:7254-7270, 2010). The labile antitoxin (MoxX) can bind to/neutralize the action of the toxin and is also a DNA-binding protein mediating autoregulation. In this study, molecular modeling of MoxX in its biologically active dimeric form was done. It was found that it contains a conserved Ribbon-Helix-Helix (RHH) motif, consistent with its DNA-binding function. The modeled MoxX monomers dimerize to form a two-stranded antiparallel ribbon, while the C-terminal region adopts an extended conformation. Knowledge guided protein-protein docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and energy minimization was performed to obtain the structure of the MoxXT complex, which was exploited for the de novo design of a peptide capable of binding to MoxT. It was found that the designed peptide caused a decrease in MoxX binding to MoxT by 42% at a concentration of 2 μM in vitro. We also show that MoxX mediates negative transcriptional autoregulation by binding to its own upstream DNA. The interacting regions of both MoxX and DNA were identified in order to model their complex. The repressor activity of MoxX was found to be mediated by the 16 N-terminal residues that contains the ribbon of the RHH motif. Based on homology with other RHH proteins and deletion mutant studies, we propose a model of the MoxX-DNA interaction, with the antiparallel β-sheet of the MoxX dimer inserted into the major groove of its cognate DNA. The structure of the complex of MoxX with MoxT and its own upstream regulatory region will facilitate design of molecules that can disrupt these interactions, a strategy for development of novel antibacterials.

  4. Novel nanohybrid materials for the effective removal of phosphates and nitrates from liquid effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Ela; Haniff Wahid, M.; Boulos, Ramiz A.; Chen, Xianjue; Eggers, Paul K.; Toster, Jeremiah; D'Alonzo, Nicholas J.; Smith, Steven M.; Raston, Colin L.

    2014-05-01

    Within our research group, various types of nanofabrication processes have been applied for creating novel nanohybrid materials, including the immobilization of some microorganisms with electrospun nanofibres1, laminar nanomaterials (i.e. graphene and graphene oxide)2,3, microfibers of human hair4, and magnetic nanoparticles impregnated in polymer5. These approaches afford nanohybrid materials with microalgal cells1-5 or diatom frustules6 for the removal of waste pollutants, mainly nitrate and phosphate ions, while establishing a new paradigm in the field. Aside from these immobilization studies, we also investigated the improvement of nitrate removal with exfoliated graphene sheets in the presence of p-phosphonic acid calix[8]arene molecules.7 Various material characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used for the characterization of the novel nanohybrid materials, while fluorescence microscopy and chlorophyll content analysis were mainly used for monitoring the viability and growth pattern of the microalgal cells. Nitrate and phosphate analyses were carried out by following HACH® standard methods. In this talk, a brief overview of the fabrication processes of these nanohybrid materials and their application for wastewater treatment will be highlighted. 1. E. Eroglu, V. Agarwal, M. Bradshaw, X. Chen, S.M. Smith, C.L. Raston and K.S. Iyer, Green Chemistry, 2012, 14(10), 2682 - 2685. 2. M.H. Wahid, E. Eroglu, X. Chen, S.M. Smith and C.L. Raston, Green Chemistry, 2013, 15(3), 650-655. 3. M.H. Wahid, E. Eroglu, X. Chen, S.M. Smith and C.L. Raston, RSC Advances, 2013, 3(22), 8180-8183. 4. R.A. Boulos, E. Eroglu, X. Chen, A. Scaffidi, J. Toster, B. Edwards and C.L. Raston, Green Chemistry, 2013, 15(5), 1268-1273. 5. E. Eroglu, N.J. D'Alonzo, S.M. Smith and C.L. Raston, Nanoscale, 2013, 5(7), 2627-2631. 6. J. Toster, I. Kusumawardani, E. Eroglu, K.S. Iyer, F

  5. e+ e- collider in the VLHC tunnel. Proceedings, Workshop, Chicago, USA, March 9-11, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, D.,; Tollestrup, A.,; /Fermilab

    2001-07-01

    This document is a collection of the contributions made to the March IIT workshop on an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider in the VLHC tunnel. This machine, which is based on a relatively conservative extrapolation of LEP technology, has a baseline luminosity of 10{sup 33}/cm{sup 2}/s at a CM energy of 370 GeV. The overall parameters and general description of such a machine is described in T. Sen and J. Norem, ''A Very Large Lepton Collider in the VLHC Tunnel'', to be published. A preprint of this paper is included as Appendix 2 of this report. The intention of the workshop was to define the parameters of such a collider and make them available to the community for use in further physics studies. It is clear that the machine cannot compete with a full scale linear collider. Its main interest would be if a VLHC were built and if a linear collider did not already exist. In this case, it could provide a limited and perhaps crucial view of low mass Higgs states. Although the study is incomplete, it does define rather well the parameters of the machine, as well as the challenges that the design faces. The study benefited greatly from the participation of the machine experts that were willing to spend time looking at the design. In this document, the workshop contributions are organized into sections which cover the physics motivation for the machine; the injector; beam dynamics issues in the collider; and accelerator systems. The physics section describes luminosity benchmarks for study of a light Higgs boson, and machine performance issues related to lineshape measurements at the t{bar t} threshold. The contribution on the injector presents a design for a 45 GeV injector. The injection energy is motivated by two considerations: the collider has potential stability problems at injection, which are mitigated by a relatively high injection energy; and, at this energy, the injector can also serve as a Z{sup 0} factory. One of the principal conclusions of the IIT workshop was that

  6. The Patient-Psychiatrist Relationship on the Axis of the Other and the Same.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Gabriel; Avissar, Sofia; Jotkowitz, Alan; Halperin, Demian

    2016-12-14

    The patient-psychiatrist relationship is a cornerstone of psychiatric professionalism and ethics. We discuss this topic along the axis of the Other and the Same, concepts defined by continental philosophy. The self of Anglo-American philosophy is typically described in individualistic terms. Individualism, autonomy and ideal self are valorized within the current model of care. These characteristics belong to the Lacanian Imaginary Order, which is the core of narcissism. Patients may yearn for another model of interaction. For Levinas, ethics should not involve a search for perfectionism and accomplishment but responsibility toward others. Ethics is, according to him, rooted in the calling into question of one's Sameness by the other's Otherness. The question of hospitality and of the welcoming of Otherness is central to his thought. Derrida further asks whether hospitality is not an interruption of the self. Hospitality may thus become a fundamental way of re-thinking clinical practices. A relationship to the Other as an-other is characterized as of Euclidian-type, establishing borders between the self and the Other, whereas a relationship to the Other as same is characterized as of fractal-type, emphasizing similarities between self and other as same and obliterating boundaries. Winnicott's object-relating versus use of object and Buber's I-you and I-it relations are also examined along the axis of Sameness and Otherness. Since psychiatric clinical practice requires to our view adequate and adaptive to and fro movements along this axis, the two forms of relating to the Other are discussed both theoretically and through a clinical case presentation.

  7. Development of biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S

    2000-01-01

    India has embarked upon a very ambitious program in biotechnology with a view to harnessing its available human and unlimited biodiversity resources. It has mainly been a government sponsored effort with very little private industry participation in investment. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) established under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 was the major instrument of action to bring together most talents, material resources, and budgetary provisions. It began sponsoring research in molecular biology, agricultural and medical sciences, plant and animal tissue culture, biofertilizers and biopesticides, environment, human genetics, microbial technology, and bioprocess engineering, etc. The establishment of a number of world class bioscience research institutes and provision of large research grants to some existing universities helped in developing specialized centres of biotechnology. Besides DBT, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), also under the Ministry of S&T, sponsors research at universities working in the basic areas of life sciences. Ministry of Education's most pioneering effort was instrumental in the creation of Biochemical Engineering Research Centre at IIT Delhi with substantial assistance from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland to make available state-of-the-art infrastructure for education, training, and research in biochemical engineering and biotechnology in 1974. This initiative catalysed biotechnology training and research at many institutions a few years later. With a brief introduction, the major thrust areas of biotechnology development in India have been reviewed in this India Paper which include education and training, agricultural biotechnology, biofertilizers and biopesticides, tissue culture for tree and woody species, medicinal and aromatic plants, biodiversity conservation and environment, vaccine development, animal, aquaculture, seri and food biotechnology, microbial

  8. Different attitudes during breastfeeding consultations when infant formula was given: a phenomenographic approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background WHO and UNICEF believe that both antenatal and maternity care organizations are in an excellent position to protect and, if necessary, reinstate a culture that promotes breastfeeding, and that they are responsible for doing so. In Sweden, the number of breastfeeding women has been decreasing annually since 1996. Thus the aim of this study is to identify, describe and analyze the attitude midwives have towards the mother, child and breastfeeding when infant formula is given. Methods From the theoretical standpoint of Buber's I-Thou and I-It concept, the different attitudes during breastfeeding consultations are interpreted. By using a phenomenographic approach based on 101 accounts of varying lengths from 39 midwives, different attitudes or approaches were identified. Results Four different approaches are distinguished in the breastfeeding consultation. The first is the family as a whole, the second is mother and child as separate and equal, the third views the mother as superior and the fourth views the child as superior. Conclusions The approach of the midwife is related to how she defines the overall perspective of the mother-child relationship and how she looks upon her relationship to the mother-child dyad. Her approach varies depending on whether she meets the mother and child as a subject, similar to herself, or whether she sees one of them as an object. A midwife may also take an outside position, as an object, thus excluding a genuine relationship with the mother. The results also indicate that health care professionals focus on parts of the whole instead of maintaining a holistic perspective. PMID:21281517

  9. Advanced Numerical Prediction and Modeling of Tropical Cyclones Using WRF-NMM modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S. G.; Rogers, R. F.; Marks, F. D.; Atlas, R.

    2007-12-01

    Dramatic improvement in tropical cyclone track forecasts have occurred through advancements in high quality observations, high speed computers and improvements in dynamical models. Similar advancements now need to be made for tropical cyclone intensity, structure and rainfall prediction. The Weather Research Forecasting Model (WRF) is a general purpose, multi-institutional mesoscale modeling system. A version of the WRF model called the HWRF/WRF-NMM modeling system, developed at the National Center for Environmental Protection (NCEP) was recently adopted for hurricane forecasting (Gopalakrishnan et al, 2006) by the National Hurricane Center (NHC). At the Hurricane Research Division (HRD/AOML/OAR) we are developing and further advancing a research version of this modeling system. This work is done in collaboration with the Developmental Test bed Center (DTC), Boulder, CO, Global Systems division (GSD/ESRL/OAR), Boulder, CO, The Air Resources Laboratory (ARL/OAR), Washington, D.C., the U.S. university community, the Indian Institute of Technology, IIT.Delhi, India, and the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi, India Our modeling effort includes advancing the WRF system for Ensemble Hurricane Forecasting, advancing our understanding of Ensemble-vs- High Resolution Forecasting of Hurricanes, advancing WRF/WRF-NMM with better analysis techniques (e.g. Four Dimensional Data Assimilation) for improving forecasts and above all, advancing our understanding of hurricane processes using a high resolution numerical modeling approach. Examples of some of these applications will be shown here. Reference: NCEP's Two-way-Interactive-Moving-Nest NMM-WRF modeling system for Hurricane Forecasting, S.G. Gopalakrishnan, N. Surgi, R. Tuleya, and Z. Janjic 27th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, 24- 28 April 2006, Monterey, California.

  10. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  11. Managing risks of market price uncertainty for a microgrid operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Sriram

    After deregulation of electricity in the United States, the day-ahead and real-time markets allow load serving entities and generation companies to bid and purchase/sell energy under the supervision of the independent system operator (ISO). The electricity market prices are inherently uncertain, and can be highly volatile. The main objective of this thesis is to hedge against the risk from the uncertainty of the market prices when purchasing/selling energy from/to the market. The energy manager can also schedule distributed generators (DGs) and storage of the microgrid to meet the demand, in addition to energy transactions from the market. The risk measure used in this work is the variance of the uncertain market purchase/sale cost/revenue, assuming the price following a Gaussian distribution. Using Markowitz optimization, the risk is minimized to find the optimal mix of purchase from the markets. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer quadratic program. The microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, IL was used as a case study. The result of this work reveals the tradeoff faced by the microgrid energy manager between minimizing the risk and minimizing the mean of the total operating cost (TOC) of the microgrid. With this information, the microgrid energy manager can make decisions in the day-ahead and real-time markets according to their risk aversion preference. The assumption of market prices following Gaussian distribution is also verified to be reasonable for the purpose of hedging against their risks. This is done by comparing the result of the proposed formulation with that obtained from the sample market prices randomly generated using the distribution of actual historic market price data.

  12. Direct calculation of the linear thermal expansion coefficients of MoS2 via symmetry-preserving deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chee Kwan; Liu, Yu Yang Fredrik

    2016-10-01

    Using density-functional perturbation theory and the Grüneisen formalism, we directly calculate the linear thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) of a hexagonal bulk system MoS2 in the crystallographic a and c directions. The TEC calculation depends critically on the evaluation of a temperature-dependent quantity Ii(T ) , which is the integral of the product of heat capacity and Γi(ν ) , of frequency ν and strain type i , where Γi(ν ) is the phonon density of states weighted by the Grüneisen parameters. We show that to determine the linear TECs we may use minimally two uniaxial strains in the z direction and either the x or y direction. However, a uniaxial strain in either the x or y direction drastically reduces the symmetry of the crystal from a hexagonal one to a base-centered orthorhombic one. We propose to use an efficient and accurate symmetry-preserving biaxial strain in the x y plane to derive the same result for Γ (ν ) . We highlight that the Grüneisen parameter associated with a biaxial strain may not be the same as the average of Grüneisen parameters associated with two separate uniaxial strains in the x and y directions due to possible preservation of degeneracies of the phonon modes under a biaxial deformation. Large anisotropy of TECs is observed where the linear TEC in the c direction is about 1.8 times larger than that in the a or b direction at high temperatures. Our theoretical TEC results are compared with experiment. The symmetry-preserving approach adopted here may be applied to a broad class of two lattice-parameter systems such as hexagonal, trigonal, and tetragonal systems, which allows many complicated systems to be treated on a first-principles level.

  13. PROBABILISTIC INFORMATION INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    J. BOOKER; M. MEYER; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    The Statistical Sciences Group at Los Alamos has successfully developed a structured, probabilistic, quantitative approach for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources, called Information Integration Technology (IIT). The technology integrates diverse types and sources of data and information (both quantitative and qualitative), and their associated uncertainties, to develop distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. Applications include predicting complex system performance, where test data are lacking or expensive to obtain, through the integration of expert judgment, historical data, computer/simulation model predictions, and any relevant test/experimental data. The technology is particularly well suited for tracking estimated system performance for systems under change (e.g. development, aging), and can be used at any time during product development, including concept and early design phases, prior to prototyping, testing, or production, and before costly design decisions are made. Techniques from various disciplines (e.g., state-of-the-art expert elicitation, statistical and reliability analysis, design engineering, physics modeling, and knowledge management) are merged and modified to develop formal methods for the data/information integration. The power of this technology, known as PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking), won a 1999 R and D 100 Award (Meyer, Booker, Bement, Kerscher, 1999). Specifically the PREDICT application is a formal, multidisciplinary process for estimating the performance of a product when test data are sparse or nonexistent. The acronym indicates the purpose of the methodology: to evaluate the performance or reliability of a product/system by combining all available (often diverse) sources of information and then tracking that performance as the product undergoes changes.

  14. TREC 2010 legal track: method and results of the ELK collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Spearing, Shelly; Roman, Jorge; Mc Kay, Bain; Lindquist, Eric

    2010-10-25

    The ELK team ([E]WA-IIT, [L]os Alamos National laboratory (LANL), and [K]ayvium Corporation (ELK)) used the legal Track task 302 as an opportunity to compare and integrate advanced semantic-automation strategies. The team members believe that enabling parties to discover, consume, analyze, and make decisions in a noisy and information-overloaded environment requires new tools. Together, as well as independently, they are actively developing these tools and view the TREC exercise as an opportunity to test, compare, and complement tools and approaches. Our collaboration is new to TREC, brought together by a shared interest in document relevance, concept-in-context identification and annotation, and the recognition that words out-of-context do not a match make. The team's intent was to lay the foundation for automating the mining and analysis of large volumes of electronic information by litigants and their lawyers, not only in the context of document discovery, but also to support litigation strategy, motion practice, deposition, trial tactics, etc. The premise was that a Subject Matter Expert- (SME-) built model can be automatically mapped onto various search engines for document retrieval, organization, relevance scoring, analysis and decision support. In the end, we ran nearly a dozen models, mostly, but not exclusively, with Kayvium Corporation's knowledge automation technology. The Sal Database Search Engine we used had a bug in its proximity feature, requiring that we develop a workaround. While the work-around was successful, it left us with insufficient time to converge the models to achieve expected quality. However, with optimized proximity processing in place, we would be able to run the model many more times, and believe repeatable quality would be a matter of working through a few requests to get the approach right. We believe that with more time, the results we would achieve might point towards a new way of processing documents for litigation support

  15. Effects of chemical speciation in growth media on the toxicity of mercury(II).

    PubMed

    Farrell, R E; Germida, J J; Huang, P M

    1993-05-01

    The toxicity of metals, including mercury, is expressed differently in different media, and the addition of soluble organics to the growth medium can have a significant impact on bioassay results. Although the effect of medium composition on metal toxicity is generally attributed to its effect on metal speciation (i.e., the chemical form in which the metal occurs), the importance of individual metal-ligand species remains largely unclear. Here, we report the results of a study that investigated, both experimentally and from a modeling perspective, the effects of complex soluble organic supplements on the acute toxicity (i.e., 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]) of mercury to a Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate in chemically well-defined synthetic growth media (M-IIX). The media consisted of a basal inorganic salts medium supplemented with glycerol (0.1%, vol/vol) and a variety of common protein hydrolysates (0.1%, vol/vol), i.e., Difco beef extract (X = B), Casamino Acids (X = C), peptone (X = P), soytone (X = S), tryptone (X = T), and yeast extract (X = Y). These were analyzed to obtain cation, anion, and amino acid profiles and the results were used to compute the aqueous speciation of Hg(II) in the media. Respirometric bioassays were performed and IC50s were calculated. Medium components varied significantly in their effects on the acute toxicity of Hg(II) to the P. fluorescens isolate. IC50s ranged from 1.48 to 14.54 micrograms of Hg ml-1, and the acute toxicity of Hg(II) in the different media decreased in the order M-IIC > M-IIP > M-IIB > M-IIT > M-IIS > M-IIY.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Effects of chemical speciation in growth media on the toxicity of mercury(II).

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, R E; Germida, J J; Huang, P M

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity of metals, including mercury, is expressed differently in different media, and the addition of soluble organics to the growth medium can have a significant impact on bioassay results. Although the effect of medium composition on metal toxicity is generally attributed to its effect on metal speciation (i.e., the chemical form in which the metal occurs), the importance of individual metal-ligand species remains largely unclear. Here, we report the results of a study that investigated, both experimentally and from a modeling perspective, the effects of complex soluble organic supplements on the acute toxicity (i.e., 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]) of mercury to a Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate in chemically well-defined synthetic growth media (M-IIX). The media consisted of a basal inorganic salts medium supplemented with glycerol (0.1%, vol/vol) and a variety of common protein hydrolysates (0.1%, vol/vol), i.e., Difco beef extract (X = B), Casamino Acids (X = C), peptone (X = P), soytone (X = S), tryptone (X = T), and yeast extract (X = Y). These were analyzed to obtain cation, anion, and amino acid profiles and the results were used to compute the aqueous speciation of Hg(II) in the media. Respirometric bioassays were performed and IC50s were calculated. Medium components varied significantly in their effects on the acute toxicity of Hg(II) to the P. fluorescens isolate. IC50s ranged from 1.48 to 14.54 micrograms of Hg ml-1, and the acute toxicity of Hg(II) in the different media decreased in the order M-IIC >> M-IIP > M-IIB >> M-IIT > M-IIS >>> M-IIY.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8517745

  17. DICOM for Clinical Research: PACS-Integrated Electronic Data Capture in Multi-Center Trials.

    PubMed

    Haak, Daniel; Page, Charles-E; Reinartz, Sebastian; Krüger, Thilo; Deserno, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    Providing surrogate endpoints in clinical trials, medical imaging has become increasingly important in human-centered research. Nowadays, electronic data capture systems (EDCS) are used but binary image data is integrated insufficiently. There exists no structured way, neither to manage digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data in EDCS nor to interconnect EDCS with picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Manual detours in the trial workflow yield errors, delays, and costs. In this paper, requirements for a DICOM-based system interconnection of EDCS and research PACS are analysed. Several workflow architectures are compared. Optimized for multi-center trials, we propose an entirely web-based solution integrating EDCS, PACS, and DICOM viewer, which has been implemented using the open source projects OpenClinica, DCM4CHEE, and Weasis, respectively. The EDCS forms the primary access point. EDCS to PACS interchange is integrated seamlessly on the data and the context levels. DICOM data is viewed directly from the electronic case report form (eCRF), while PACS-based management is hidden from the user. Data privacy is ensured by automatic de-identification and re-labelling with study identifiers. Our concept is evaluated on a variety of 13 DICOM modalities and transfer syntaxes. We have implemented the system in an ongoing investigator-initiated trial (IIT), where five centers have recruited 24 patients so far, performing decentralized computed tomography (CT) screening. Using our system, the chief radiologist is reading DICOM data directly from the eCRF. Errors and workflow processing time are reduced. Furthermore, an imaging database is built that may support future research.

  18. Third millenium ideal gas and condensed phase thermochemical database for combustion (with update from active thermochemical tables).

    SciTech Connect

    Burcat, A.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.

    2005-07-29

    The thermochemical database of species involved in combustion processes is and has been available for free use for over 25 years. It was first published in print in 1984, approximately 8 years after it was first assembled, and contained 215 species at the time. This is the 7th printed edition and most likely will be the last one in print in the present format, which involves substantial manual labor. The database currently contains more than 1300 species, specifically organic molecules and radicals, but also inorganic species connected to combustion and air pollution. Since 1991 this database is freely available on the internet, at the Technion-IIT ftp server, and it is continuously expanded and corrected. The database is mirrored daily at an official mirror site, and at random at about a dozen unofficial mirror and 'finger' sites. The present edition contains numerous corrections and many recalculations of data of provisory type by the G3//B3LYP method, a high-accuracy composite ab initio calculation. About 300 species are newly calculated and are not yet published elsewhere. In anticipation of the full coupling, which is under development, the database started incorporating the available (as yet unpublished) values from Active Thermochemical Tables. The electronic version now also contains an XML file of the main database to allow transfer to other formats and ease finding specific information of interest. The database is used by scientists, educators, engineers and students at all levels, dealing primarily with combustion and air pollution, jet engines, rocket propulsion, fireworks, but also by researchers involved in upper atmosphere kinetics, astrophysics, abrasion metallurgy, etc. This introductory article contains explanations of the database and the means to use it, its sources, ways of calculation, and assessments of the accuracy of data.

  19. Optimal load scheduling in commercial and residential microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji Tanha, Mohammad Mahdi

    Residential and commercial electricity customers use more than two third of the total energy consumed in the United States, representing a significant resource of demand response. Price-based demand response, which is in response to changes in electricity prices, represents the adjustments in load through optimal load scheduling (OLS). In this study, an efficient model for OLS is developed for residential and commercial microgrids which include aggregated loads in single-units and communal loads. Single unit loads which include fixed, adjustable and shiftable loads are controllable by the unit occupants. Communal loads which include pool pumps, elevators and central heating/cooling systems are shared among the units. In order to optimally schedule residential and commercial loads, a community-based optimal load scheduling (CBOLS) is proposed in this thesis. The CBOLS schedule considers hourly market prices, occupants' comfort level, and microgrid operation constraints. The CBOLS' objective in residential and commercial microgrids is the constrained minimization of the total cost of supplying the aggregator load, defined as the microgrid load minus the microgrid generation. This problem is represented by a large-scale mixed-integer optimization for supplying single-unit and communal loads. The Lagrangian relaxation methodology is used to relax the linking communal load constraint and decompose the independent single-unit functions into subproblems which can be solved in parallel. The optimal solution is acceptable if the aggregator load limit and the duality gap are within the bounds. If any of the proposed criteria is not satisfied, the Lagrangian multiplier will be updated and a new optimal load schedule will be regenerated until both constraints are satisfied. The proposed method is applied to several case studies and the results are presented for the Galvin Center load on the 16th floor of the IIT Tower in Chicago.

  20. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

  1. Results and Analysis of the Infrastructure Request for Information (DE-SOL-0008318)

    SciTech Connect

    Heidrich, Brenden John

    2015-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) released a request for information (RFI) (DE-SOL-0008318) for “University, National Laboratory, Industry and International Input on Potential Office of Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Investments” on April 13, 2015. DOE-NE solicited information on five specific types of capabilities as well as any others suggested by the community. The RFI proposal period closed on June 19, 2015. From the 26 responses, 34 individual proposals were extracted. Eighteen were associated with a DOE national laboratory, including Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was referenced in a proposal as a proposed capability location, although the proposal did not originate with ORNL. Five US universities submitted proposals (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Pennsylvania State University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, University of Houston and the University of Michigan). Three industrial/commercial institutions submitted proposals (AREVA NP, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)). Eight major themes emerged from the submissions as areas needing additional capability or support for existing capabilities. Two submissions supported multiple areas. The major themes are: Advanced Manufacturing (AM), High Performance Computing (HPC), Ion Irradiation with X-Ray Diagnostics (IIX), Ion Irradiation with TEM Visualization (IIT), Radiochemistry Laboratories (RCL), Test Reactors, Neutron Sources and Critical Facilities (RX) , Sample Preparation and Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) and Thermal-Hydraulics Test Facilities (THF).

  2. Biodegradable m-PEG/PCL Core-Shell Micelles: Preparation and Characterization as a Sustained Release Formulation for Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Danafar, Hossein; Davaran, Soodabeh; Rostamizadeh, Kobra; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hamidi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Among the potent anticancer agents, curcumin is known as a very efficacious against many different types of cancer cells, but its clinical applications has been limited because of hydrophobicity, low gastrointestinal absorption, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism. In this way, a novel micellar delivery system with mPEG–PCL was synthesized and the release profile of the curcumin from the drug-loaded micelles was evaluated. Methods: In this study, curcumin was encapsulated within monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, leading to creation of curcumin-loaded mPEG-PCL (Cur/mPEG-PCL) micelles. Di-block mPEG-PCL copolymers were synthesized and used to prepare micelles. mPEG-PCL copolymer was characterized in vitro by HNMR, FTIR, DSC and GPC techniques. Then, mPEG–PCL copolymers with curcumin were self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solution. The resulting micelles were characterized further by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results: The findings showed the successful formation of smooth and spherical curcumin-loaded micelles. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was 88 ± 3.32%. The results of AFM revealed that the micelles have spherical shapes with size of 73.8 nm. The release behavior of curcumin from micelles was compared in different media. In vitro release of curcumin from curcumin-entrapped micelles was followed remarkably sustained profile. The sustained release of drug was hypothetically due to the entrapment of curcumin in core of micelles. Conclusion: The results indicate the successful formulation of curcumin loaded m-PEG/PCL micelles. From the results, iIt can be concluded that curcumin m-PEG-PCL micelles may be considered as an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future. PMID:25671181

  3. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2000-09-01

    The objective if this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with PIV measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. This phase of the work was presented at the Chemical Reaction Engineering VIII: Computational Fluid Dynamics, August 6-11, 2000 in Quebec City, Canada. To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. The results together with simulations will be presented at the annual meeting of AIChE in November 2000.

  4. Using the Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo and Angstrom Exponent from AERONET to Determine Aerosol Origins and Mixing States over the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Slutsker, I.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Ghauri, B.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosol mixtures—whether dominated by dust, carbon, sulfates, nitrates, sea salt, or mixtures of them—complicate the retrieval of remotely sensed aerosol properties from satellites and possibly increase the uncertainty of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Major aerosol source regions in South Asia include the Thar Desert as well as agricultural lands, Himalayan foothills, and large urban centers in and near the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Over India and Pakistan, seasonal changes in meteorology, including the monsoon (June-September), significantly affect the transport, lifetime, and type of aerosols. Strong monsoonal winds can promote long range transport of dust resulting in mixtures of dust and carbonaceous aerosols, while more stagnant synoptic conditions (e.g., November-January) can prolong the occurrence of urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, or mixtures of them over the IGP. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun/sky radiometer data are analyzed to show the aerosol optical depth (AOD) seasonality and aerosol dominant mixing states. The Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) relationship has been shown to provide sound clustering of dominant aerosol types using long term AERONET site data near known source regions [Giles et al., 2012]. In this study, aerosol type partitioning using the SSA (440 nm) and EAE (440-870 nm) relationship is further developed to quantify the occurrence of Dust, Mixed (e.g., dust and carbonaceous aerosols), Urban/Industrial (U/I) pollution, and Biomass Burning (BB) smoke. Based on EAE thresholds derived from the cluster analysis (for AOD440nm>0.4), preliminary results (2001-2010) for Kanpur, India, show the overall contributions of each dominant particle type (rounded to the nearest 10%): 10% for Dust (EAE≤0.25), 60% for Mixed (0.251.25). In the IGP, BB aerosols may have varying sizes (e.g., corresponding to 1.2

  5. Understanding Diurnality and Inter-Seasonality of a Sub-tropical Urban Heat Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Sarangi, Chandan; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand

    2016-12-01

    We quantify the spatial and temporal aspects of the urban heat-island (UHI) effect for Kanpur, a major city in the humid sub-tropical monsoon climate of the Gangetic basin. Fixed station measurements are used to investigate the diurnality and inter-seasonality in the urban-rural differences in surface temperature ({Δ } T_s ) and air temperature ({Δ } T_c ) separately. The extent of the spatial variations of the nighttime {Δ } T_c and {Δ } T_s is investigated through mobile campaigns and satellite remote sensing respectively. Nighttime {Δ } T_c values dominate during both the pre-monsoon (maximum of 3.6°C) and the monsoon (maximum of 2.0°C). However, the diurnality in {Δ } T_s is different, with higher daytime values during the pre-monsoon, but very little diurnality during the monsoon. The nighttime {Δ } T_s value is mainly associated with differences in the urban-rural incoming longwave radiative flux (r2=0.33 during the pre-monsoon; 0.65 during the monsoon), which, in turn, causes a difference in the outgoing longwave radiative flux. This difference may modulate the nighttime {Δ } T_c value as suggested by significant correlations (r2=0.68 for the pre-monsoon; 0.50 for the monsoon). The magnitude of {Δ } T_c may also be modulated by advection, as it is inversely related with the urban wind speed. A combination of in situ, remotely sensed, and model simulation data were used to show that the inter-seasonality in {Δ } T_s , and, to a lesser extent, in {Δ } T_c , may be related to the change in the land use of the rural site between the pre-monsoon and the monsoon periods. Results suggest that the degree of coupling of {Δ } T_s and {Δ } T_c may be a strong function of land use and land cover.

  6. India: new trends in the national programme.

    PubMed

    Katti, A P

    1979-01-01

    belong to the lower socioeconomic strata. Women have accepted IUDs without any incentives. The studies revealed an inverse relationship between female education and fertility with fertility progressively declining with an increase in education. A substantial number of women undergoing abortion were from rural areas. In Kanpur city it was found that a number of management personnel did not believe in family planning. The overwhelming majority of village headmen were against large families and felt that people in the villages had more children than they could afford. A study of voluntary organizations in Bihar revealed that most of these had no membership base and their activities were concentrated primarily in urban areas.

  7. Chemical characteristics of aerosol and rain water during an El Niño and PDO influenced Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, Pradhi; Rajput, Prashant; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-11-01

    According to the meteorological long-term variability pattern, year 2015 was influenced by El Niño and PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation; causes weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon). These conditions facilitate the assessment of chemical characteristics of fine-mode ambient aerosols (PM2.5; n = 48) and individual rain waters (pH: 6.4-7.6; n = 15) during the South-west monsoon (July-September 2015) in the central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP; Kanpur). Water-soluble ionic species (WSIS) have been measured to assess the undergoing processes (neutralization, formation and below-cloud scavenging) and estimate their dry and wet deposition fluxes. The ∑WSIS varies from 4 to 32 μg/m3 in PM2.5, whereas it ranges from 32 to 102 mg/L in rain waters. The NH4+ and SO42- are found to be predominant in PM2.5 (16-120 μg/m3), whereas HCO3- and Ca2+ are predominant in rain water samples. The difference in chemical composition of PM2.5 and rain water is largely attributed to additional contribution of coarse-mode mineral dust in rain water. The Ca2+ and Mg2+ in both aerosols and rain water samples are associated with HCO3-. The NO3- and SO42- are neutralized predominantly by NH4+ and ∑-/∑+ ratio is ≈ 1 in both aerosols and rain waters. Furthermore, co-variability of NO3- with nss-Ca2+ in PM2.5 indicates role of fine-mode mineral dust surface in the formation of ammonium nitrate. Characteristic mass ratios (HCO3-/Ca2+ and SO42-/NH4+) in rain water look quite similar to those in aerosols (PM2.5). This suggests that below-cloud scavenging is predominant mechanism of aerosols wash-out. Dry deposition fluxes of Mg2+, NH4+ and SO42- are ∼13% of their wet deposition fluxes, whereas for K+, Ca2+ and NO3- it is <6%.

  8. Enhanced secondary organic aerosols during fog episodes over typical location in Indo-Gangetic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, D. S.; Tripathi, S. N.; Gupta, T.

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the reason of enhanced SOA yield during foggy days and hypothesizes likely production of SOA through aqueous phase chemistry during fog episodes. PM1 samples were collected from January 16, 2010 to February 20, 2010 at Kanpur to study the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production during clear and foggy days. Of the 180 samples collected, 56 were from foggy days. Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), a part of National Aeronautic Space Administration (NASA), was used for identification of fog duration. Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and water soluble organic carbon analysis were carried out by a EC-OC analyzer and a TOC analyzer, respectively. Trace gases and solar flux measurement were carried out by gas analyzers and a pyranometer (a part of NASA), respectively to identify the photo-chemical activity. Meteorological data were measured by atmospheric weather station. SOA was estimated during foggy and clear days using tracer method. Enhanced SOA was observed during foggy days, production of SOA was highest in the afternoon and lower during morning and evening. Peak of OC/EC ratio during foggy days occurred earlier indicating role of aqueous phase chemistry in addition to gas-particle portioning which is the prevalent mechanism of SOA production during clear days. The possible contribution of biomass burning to SOA which could otherwise confound the SOA estimate during foggy days was also examined by biomass tracer, potassium ion. The influence of biomass to SOA during foggy days was found to be negligible. This is so because organic carbon from biomass origin is highly hygroscopic and is scavenged by the fog droplets. The lesser average concentration of water soluble organic carbon during foggy days support the scavenging and removal of the biomass originated organic carbon. Evaporation of individual fog and subsequent increase of OC/EC ratio further supported the aqueous phase production of SOA. The temperature and relative humidity

  9. Fog Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET, Including Occurrences During Major Air Pollution Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Li, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, T.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Arola, A. T.; Schafer, J.; Artaxo, P.; Smirnov, A.; Chen, H.; Goloub, P.

    2015-12-01

    The modification of aerosol optical properties due to interaction with fog is examined from measurements made by sun/sky radiometers at several AERONET sites. Retrieved total column volume size distributions for cases identified as aerosol modified by fog often show very a large 'middle mode' submicron radius (~0.4 to 0.5 microns), which is typically seen as a component of a bimodal sub-micron distribution. These middle mode sized particles are often called cloud-processed or residual aerosol. This bimodal accumulation mode distribution may be due to one mode (the larger one) from fog-processed aerosol and the other from interstitial aerosol, or possibly from two different aerosol species (differing chemical composition) with differing hygroscopic growth factors. The size of the fine mode particles from AERONET retrieved for these cases exceeds the size of sub-micron sized particles retrieved for nearly all other aerosol types, suggesting significant modification of aerosols within the fog or cloud environment. In-situ measured aerosol size distributions made during other fog events are compared to the AERONET retrievals, and show close agreement in the residual mode particle size. Almucantar retrievals are analyzed from the Kanpur site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in India (fog in January), Beijing (fog in winter), Fresno, CA in the San Joaquin Valley (fog in winter), South Korea (Yellow Sea fog in spring), Arica on the northern coast of Chile (stratocumulus), and several other sites with aerosol observations made after fog dissipated. Additionally, several major air pollution events are discussed where extremely high aerosol concentrations were measured at the surface and during which fog also occurred, resulting in the detection very large fine mode aerosols (residual mode) from AERONET retrievals in some of these events. Low wind speeds that occurred during these events were conducive to both pollutant accumulation and also fog formation. The presence of fog then

  10. High Black Carbon Concentrations and Atmospheric Pollution Around Indian Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, S.; Takemura, T.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from coal-fired Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) are among major sources of black carbon (BC) aerosols in the atmosphere and air quality degradation. Knowledge of BC emissions from TPPs is important in characterizing regional carbonaceous particulate emissions, associated with regional climate forcing as well as effects on human health. Furthermore, elevated BC concentrations, over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills, has emerged as an important subject to estimate effects of deposition and atmospheric warming of BC on the accelerated melting of snow and glaciers in the Himalaya. For the first time, this study reports BC concentrations and aerosol characterization near coal-fired power plants in the IGP. Coal-fired TPPs are also recognized as major point-sources of other atmospheric pollutants such as high NO2 hotspots in the IGP, as evident from the OMI Aura satellite observations. In-situ measurements were carried out in Kanpur (central IGP) and Singrauli (eastern IGP), during January and March 2013. We show detailed spatial variability of BC within ~10 km from TPPs, that indicate BC variations up to 95 μg/m3, with strong diurnal variations associated with BC concentration peaks during early morning and evening hours. BC concentrations were measured to be significantly higher in close proximity to the coal-fired TPPs (as high as 200μg/m3), compared to the outside domain of our study region. Co-located ground-based sunphotometer measurements of aerosols also show significant spatial variability around the TPPs, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the range 0.38-0.58, and the largest AOD of 0.7 - 0.95 near the TPPs (similar to the peak BC concentrations). Additionally, the Angstrom Exponent was found to be in the range 0.4 - 1.0 (maximum in the morning time) and highest in the vicinity of TPPs (~1.0) suggesting abundance of fine particulates, whereas lowest recorded over the surrounding coal mining fields. We also inter-compare global

  11. Temporal trends in atmospheric PM₂.₅, PM₁₀, elemental carbon, organic carbon, water-soluble organic carbon, and optical properties: impact of biomass burning emissions in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

    PubMed

    Ram, Kirpa; Sarin, M M; Tripathi, S N

    2012-01-17

    The first simultaneous measurements and analytical data on atmospheric concentrations of PM(2.5), PM(10), inorganic constituents, carbonaceous species, and their optical properties (aerosol optical depth, AOD; absorption coefficient, b(abs); mass absorption efficiency, σ(abs); and single scattering albedo, SSA) from an urban site (Kanpur) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain are reported here. Significantly high aerosol mass concentration (>100 μg m(-3)) and AOD (> 0.3) are seen as a characteristic feature throughout the sampling period, from October 2008 to April 2009. The temporal variability in the mass fractions of carbonaceous species (EC, OC, and WSOC) is pronounced during October-January when emissions from biomass burning are dominant and OC is a major constituent (∼30%) of PM(2.5) mass. The WSOC/OC ratio varies from 0.21 to 0.65, suggesting significant contribution from secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). The mass fraction of SO(4)(2-) in PM(2.5) (Av: 12.5%) exceeds that of NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+). Aerosol absorption coefficient (@ 678 nm) decreases from 90 Mm(-1) (in December) to 20 Mm(-1) (in April), and a linear regression analysis of the data for b(abs) and EC (n = 54) provides a measure of the mass absorption efficiency of EC (9.6 m(2) g(-1)). In contrast, scattering coefficient (@ 678 nm) increases from 98 Mm(-1) (in January) to 1056 Mm(-1) (in April) and an average mass scattering efficiency of 3.0 ± 0.9 m(2) g(-1) is obtained for PM(10) samples. The highest b(scat) was associated with the dust storm event (April 17, 2009) over northern Iraq, eastern Syria, and southern Turkey; thus, resulting in high SSA (0.93 ± 0.02) during March-April compared to 0.82 ± 0.04 in October-February. These results have implications to large temporal variability in the atmospheric radiative forcing due to aerosols over northern India.

  12. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness and Its Association With the Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Clinical Setting: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Thakur, Ramesh; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Goel, Amit; Kumar, Varun; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mishra, Vikas; Varma, Chandra Mohan; Krishna, Vinay; Singh, Avinash Kumar; Sachan, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Estimation of visceral adipose tissue is important and several methods are available as its surrogate. Although correlation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with visceral adipose tissue as estimated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or CT is excellent, it is costlier and cumbersome. EAT can be accurately measured by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. It tends to be higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in subjects without coronary artery disease (CAD) and in those with stable angina. It also carries advantage as index of high cardiometabolic risk as it is a direct measure of visceral fat rather than anthropometric measurements. The present study evaluated the relationship of EAT to the presence and severity of CAD in clinical setting. Methods In this prospective, single-center study conducted in the Department of Cardiology, LPS Institute of Cardiology, Kanpur, India, 549 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome or chronic stable angina were enrolled. Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were estimated to find cut-off value of EAT thickness for diagnosing CAD using coronary angiographic findings as gold standard. Results Patients were diagnosed as CAD group (n = 464, 60.30 ± 8.36 years) and non-CAD group (n = 85, 54.42 ± 11.93 years) after assessing coronary angiograms. The EAT was measured at end-systole from the PLAX views of three cardiac cycles on the free wall of the right ventricle. Lesion was significant if > 50% in left main and > 70% in other coronary arteries. The mean EAT thickness in CAD group was 5.10 ± 1.06 and in non-CAD group was 4.36 ± 1.01 which was significant (P = 0.003). Significant correlation was demonstrated between EAT thickness and presence of CAD (P < 0.003). Higher EAT was associated with severe CAD and presence of multivessel disease. By ROC analysis, EAT > 4

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Sachan, Mohit; Goel, Amit; Singh, Karandeep; Mishra, Vikas; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Kumar, Ashutosh; Abdali, Nasar; Asif, Mohammad; Razi, Mahamdula; Pandey, Umeshwar; Thakur, Ramesh; Varma, Chandra Mohan; Krishna, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    Background Thrombolysis in acute submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) remains controversial. So we studied impact of thrombolytic therapy in acute submassive PE in terms of mortality, hemodynamic status, improvement in right ventricular function, and safety in terms of major and minor bleeding. Method A single-center, prospective, randomized study of 86 patients was conducted at LPS Institute of Cardiology, G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur, India. Patients received thrombolysis (single bolus of tenecteplase) with unfractionated heparin (UFH, group I) or placebo with UFH (group II). Result Mean age of patients was 54.35 ± 12.8 years with male dominance (M:F = 70%:30%). Smoking was the most common risk factor seen in 29% of all patients, followed by recent history of immobilization (25%), history of surgery or major trauma within past 1 month (15%), dyslipidemia (10%) and diabetes mellitus (10%). Dyspnea was the most common symptom in 80% of all patients, followed by chest pain in 55% and syncope in 6%. Primary efficacy outcome occurred significantly better in group I vs. group II (4.5% vs. 20%; P = 0.04), and significant difference was also found in hemodynamic decompensation (4.5% vs. 20%; P = 0.04), the fall in mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) (28.8% vs. 22.5%; P = 0.03), improvement in right ventricular (RV) function (70% vs. 40%; P = 0.001) and mean hospital stay (8.1 ± 2.5 vs. 11.1 ± 2.14 days; P = 0.001). There was no difference in mortality and major bleeding as safety outcome but increased minor bleeding occurred in group I patients (16% vs. 12%; P = 0.04). Conclusion Patients with acute submassive PE do not derive overall mortality benefit, recurrent PE and rehospitalization with thrombolytic therapy but had improved clinical outcome in form of decrease in hemodynamic decompensation, mean hospital stay, PASP and improvement of RV function with similar risk of major bleed but at cost of increased minor bleeding. PMID:28090232

  14. Size resolved fog water chemistry and its atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, Sachchida; Ervens, Barbara; Bhattu, Deepika

    2015-04-01

    Fog is a natural meteorological phenomenon that occurs throughout the world. It usually contains substantial quantity of liquid water and results in severe visibility reduction leading to disruption of normal life. Fog is generally seen as a natural cleansing agent but it also has the potential to form Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) via aqueous processing of ambient aerosols. Size- resolved fog water chemistry for inorganics were reported in previous studies but processing of organics inside the fog water and quantification of aqSOA remained a challenge. To assess the organics processing via fog aqueous processing, size resolved fog water samples were collected in two consecutive winter seasons (2012-13, 2013-14) at Kanpur, a heavily polluted urban area of India. Caltech 3 stage fog collector was used to collect the fog droplets in 3 size fraction; coarse (droplet diameter > 22 µm), medium (22> droplet diameter >16 µm) and fine (16> droplet diameter >4 µm). Collected samples were atomized into various instruments such as Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (CCNc), Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and a thermo denuder (TD) for the physico-chemical characterization of soluble constituents. Fine droplets are found to be more enriched with different aerosol species and interestingly contain more aged and less volatile organics compared to other coarser sizes. Organics inside fine droplets have an average O/C = 0.87 compared to O/C of 0.67 and 0.74 of coarse and medium droplets. Metal chemistry and higher residence time of fine droplets are seemed to be the two most likely reasons for this outcome from as the results of a comprehensive modeling carried out on the observed data indicate. CCN activities of the aerosols from fine droplets are also much higher than that of coarse or medium droplets. Fine droplets also contain light absorbing material as was obvious from their 'yellowish' solution. Source apportionment of fog water organics via

  15. An occupational health programme for adults and children in the carpet weaving industry, Mirzapur, India: a case study in the informal sector.

    PubMed

    Das, P K; Shukla, K P; Ory, F G

    1992-11-01

    The Indo-Dutch Environmental and Sanitary Engineering Project under Ganga action Plan in Kanpur and Mirzapur is being executed within the framework of Indo-Dutch bilateral development cooperation. The project aims to integrate technological, social and health related improvements. It is expected that the development approach and methodology can be replicated in other urban settlements in India. The project is being supplemented by a training and institutional strengthening programme, which will facilitate the transfer of new technologies and improvements in operation and maintenance of these new technologies. One of the project's goals is to improve living conditions in the targeted areas by installing drinking water and drainage systems. A socio-economic unit (SEU) in the project supports these technical interventions by encouraging the community to participate in project activities. The Occupational Health Programme in Mirzapur was conceived by the SEU to improve the health and living conditions of child and adult weavers. At the start of the programme, 200 weavers and 60 non-weaver workers from Mirzapur city, matched for age and socio-economic status, were interviewed and underwent a physical examination. The mean age of the weavers is 27 years, reflecting the relatively large percentage of child labour (13.5%). Illiteracy among them is 73%, whereas 14% have had only a primary education. 64.5% of the carpet weavers are Muslims and 35.6% are Hindus. 61% own a loom or work in a family owned loom shed. 95% of the weavers have a monthly income of less than 600 Rs. Complaints of a persistent cough and cough with expectoration, backache, the common cold and joint pains occurred more often in the weaver population than in the comparison group and have been identified as 'occupational hazards'. An intervention programme has been implemented based on the results of the occupational health survey. These interventions include awareness camps, installment of plexiglass

  16. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Clinical and Angiographic Profile in Patients With Naive Acute Coronary Syndrome in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Goel, Amit; Madaan, Amit; Thakur, Ramesh; Krishna, Vinay; Singh, Karandeep; Sachan, Mohit; Pandey, Umeshwar; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Background Data of isolated metabolic syndrome as risk factor in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) especially in context to Indian subcontinent are sparse. Therefore, we studied the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and its clinical and angiographic profile in naive ACS patients in North Indian population. Methods A single-center, prospective, observational study of 324 patients was conducted at LPS Institute of Cardiology, G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur, India with newly diagnosed ACS patients with MetS, as per modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. They were divided into two groups with and without MetS, and their clinical and angiographic profiles were studied. Results Prevalence of MetS in our study was 37.65%. Patients with MetS were significantly older than without MetS (60.3 ± 8.4 vs. 57.6 ± 7.9), and had females preponderance (35.24% vs. 24.25%), less tobacco abuse (30.32% vs. 42.57%), more non-ST-segment elevation ACS (58.19% vs. 36.14%), less ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (41.80% vs. 63.86%), more cardiogenic shock (27.04% vs. 17.32%), recurrent ischemia (14.75% vs. 7.42%) and on angiogram, lesser single vessel disease (21.13% vs. 53.96%), more double vessel disease (39.34 vs. 24.26%), triple vessel disease (19.67% vs. 10.39%), left main (13.11% vs. 4.45%) and complex coronary lesions (tubular 40.98% vs. 31.68%; diffuse 26.23% vs. 18.32%). However, there was a trend of lower but insignificant mortality with MetS (5.44% vs. 6.55%). Conclusion There was high prevalence of MetS among patients with ACS in North Indian population with more advanced coronary artery disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study from North India documenting clinical and angiographic profile of patients with MetS and ACS. PMID:27540441

  17. Comparing ECMWF AOD with AERONET observations at visible and UV wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesnulyte, V.; Lindfors, A. V.; Pitkänen, M. R. A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Arola, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents validation results of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) re-analysis aerosol optical depth (AOD) for the period 2003-2006. We evaluate the MACC AOD at a UV wavelength (340 nm) and at mid-visible (500 and 550 nm) by comparing against ground-based AERONET measurements at 12 sites. The AERONET sites cover various parts of the globe and are categorized in three groups: urban/anthropogenic, biomass burning and dust, depending on the typically dominating aerosol type. This is the first time a global model such as the ECMWF has been evaluated for the performance of AOD at a UV wavelength. The results show that the MACC system generally provides a good representation of the AOD on a monthly basis, showing a realistic seasonal cycle. The model is mostly able to capture major dust load events and also the peak months of biomass burning correctly. For Kanpur and Solar Village, however, the model overestimates the AOD during the monsoon period when the aerosol load is generally low. When comparing hourly AOD values, the model-measurement agreement is better for biomass burning and dust sites than for urban sites, with an average correlation coefficient around 0.90 for biomass burning sites, around 0.77 for dust sites, and below 0.70 for urban sites. The AOD at 500 nm averaged over all sites shows only a small systematic difference between modeled and measured values, with a relative mean bias of 0.02. However, for the AOD at 340 nm the relative mean bias is -0.2. All sites included in the study show a relative mean bias at 340 nm smaller (or more negative) than that at 500 nm, indicating a strong wavelength dependence in the performance of the AOD in the MACC system. A comparison against fine and coarse mode AOD of the AERONET indicates that this has to do with the size distribution of the model: generally, the ECMWF model overestimates the

  18. Comparing ECMWF AOD with AERONET observations at visible and UV wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesnulyte, V.; Lindfors, A. V.; Pitkänen, M. R. A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Morcrette, J. J.; Arola, A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents validation results of the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System MACC re-analysis aerosol optical depth (AOD) for the period 2003-2006. We evaluate the MACC AOD at a UV wavelength (340 nm) and at mid-visible (500 and 550 nm) by comparing against ground-based AERONET measurements at 12 sites. The AERONET sites cover various parts of the globe and are categorized in three groups: urban/anthropogenic, biomass burning and dust, depending on the typically dominating aerosol type. This is the first time when a global model such as the ECMWF is evaluated for the performance of AOD at a UV wavelength. The results show that the MACC system generally provides a good representation of the AOD on a monthly basis, showing a realistic seasonal cycle. The model is mostly able to capture major dust load events and also the peak months of biomass burning correctly. For Kanpur and Solar Village, however, the model overestimates the AOD during the monsoon period when the aerosol load is generally low. When comparing hourly AOD values, the model-measurement agreement is better for biomass burning and dust sites than for urban sites, with an average correlation coefficient around 0.90 for biomass burning sites, around 0.77 for dust sites, and below 0.70 for urban sites. The AOD at 500 nm averaged over all sites shows only a small systematic difference between modeled and measured values, with a relative mean bias of 0.02. However, for the AOD at 340 nm the relative mean bias is -0.2. All sites included in the study show a relative mean bias at 340 nm smaller (or more negative) than that at 500 nm, indicating a strong wavelength-dependence in the performance of the AOD in the MACC system. A comparison against fine and coarse mode AOD of the AERONET indicates that this has to do with the size distribution of the model: generally, the ECMWF model overestimates the contribution by coarse mode particles.

  19. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; O'Connell, Ross; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Schlegel, David; Ross, Nicholas P.; Ross, Ashley; Hirata, Christopher; Huff, Eric; Weinberg, David; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Slosar, Anže; Strauss, Michael; Bahcall, Neta; Schneider, Donald P.; Brinkmann, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu and others

    2015-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has surveyed 14,555 square degrees of the sky, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present the large-scale clustering of 1.6 million quasars between z=0.5 and z=2.5 that have been classified from this imaging, representing the highest density of quasars ever studied for clustering measurements. This data set spans 0∼ 11,00 square degrees and probes a volume of 80 h{sup −3} Gpc{sup 3}. In principle, such a large volume and medium density of tracers should facilitate high-precision cosmological constraints. We measure the angular clustering of photometrically classified quasars using an optimal quadratic estimator in four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼ 25% over a bin width of δ{sub l} ∼ 10−15 on scales corresponding to matter-radiation equality and larger (0ℓ ∼ 2−3). Observational systematics can strongly bias clustering measurements on large scales, which can mimic cosmologically relevant signals such as deviations from Gaussianity in the spectrum of primordial perturbations. We account for systematics by employing a new method recently proposed by Agarwal et al. (2014) to the clustering of photometrically classified quasars. We carefully apply our methodology to mitigate known observational systematics and further remove angular bins that are contaminated by unknown systematics. Combining quasar data with the photometric luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of Ross et al. (2011) and Ho et al. (2012), and marginalizing over all bias and shot noise-like parameters, we obtain a constraint on local primordial non-Gaussianity of f{sub NL} = −113{sup +154}{sub −154} (1σ error). We next assume that the bias of quasar and galaxy distributions can be obtained independently from quasar/galaxy-CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements (such as those in Sherwin et al. (2013)). This can be facilitated by spectroscopic observations of the sources, enabling the redshift distribution to be

  20. P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS --- a rubbing binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainaut, O.; Snodgrass, C.

    2014-07-01

    P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS (hereafter P5) was discovered [1] on a Main Belt orbit, with a cometary appearance, thereby joining the small but growing collection of objects with such characteristics, loosely called the Main Belt Comets. The dust-lifting process at play on these bodies is not known, although several hypotheses are considered. Furthermore, it is likely that different objects are associated with different processes. For instance, 133P [2,3] and 238P [4] were active for extended periods of time on consecutive passage through perihelion; traditional cometary activity, i.e. caused by the sublimation of volatile ice, is the most likely candidate. In other cases, e.g. (596) Scheila [5,6], P/2012 F5 [7,8] or P/2010 A2 [9-11], the morphology of the dust cloud was compatible with a short, impulsive dust release; they are interpreted as the result of an impact with a smaller body. Finally, in some cases, rotational disruption was proposed as the process causing the activity: a gentle centrifugal lift (proposed by Agarwal et al. [12] for A2) or a complete disruption for P/2013 R3 [13]. Other additional processes were proposed by Jewitt [14], but they do not apply in the case of P5. P5 displayed a dust pattern [15-17] that had not been observed before in other objects. The dust cloud appeared as a series of radial fans and streaks, including some extremely narrow ones. The straight streaks matched synchrones, i.e. loci of dust particles emitted at a given time, and spread radially by the radiation pressure acting differently over a broad range of particle sizes. The narrowness of these lines, especially as observed with HST [15], indicated that the emission episodes were very short. Through a Finson-Probstein [18] analysis, it was shown that the dust release started at least 8 months before the observations, and had a series of very short episodes of dust releases. Because of the location of P5 in the inner Main Belt, sublimation-driven activity is unlikely. Rotational

  1. SERIIUS-MAGEEP Visiting Scholars Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Jesus D.

    2014-08-28

    Recent studies have assessed closed-loop supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycles to be a higher energy-density system in comparison to equivalent superheated steam Rankine systems. At turbine inlet conditions of 700°C and 20 MPa, a cycle thermal efficiency of ~50% can be achieved. Achieving these high efficiencies will help concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies to become a competitive alternative to current power generation methods. To incorporate an s-CO2 Brayton power cycle in a solar power tower system, the development of a solar receiver capable of providing an outlet temperature of 700°C (at 20 MPa) is necessary. To satisfy the temperature requirements of an s-CO2 Brayton cycle with recuperation and recompression, the s-CO2 must undergo a temperature rise of ~200°C as it flows through the solar receiver. The main objective is to develop an optical-thermal-fluid and structural model to validate a tubular receiver that will receive a heat input ~0.33 MWth from the heliostat field at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF), Albuquerque, NM, USA. We also commenced the development of computational models and testing of air receivers being developed by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay (IIT-B). The helical tubular receiver is expected to counteract the effect of thermal expansion while using a cavity to reduce the radiative and convective losses. Initially, this receiver will be tested for a temperature range of 100-300°C under 1 MPa of pressurized air. The helical air receiver will be exposed to 10kWth to achieve a temperature rise of ~200°C. Preliminary tests to validate the modeling will be performed before the design and construction of a larger scale receiver. Lastly, I focused on the development of a new computational tool that would allow us to perform a nodal creep-fatigue analysis on the receivers and heat exchangers being

  2. Strict glycaemic control in patients hospitalised in a mixed medical and surgical intensive care unit: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    De La Rosa, Gisela Del Carmen; Donado, Jorge Hernando; Restrepo, Alvaro Humberto; Quintero, Alvaro Mauricio; González, Luis Gabriel; Saldarriaga, Nora Elena; Bedoya, Marisol; Toro, Juan Manuel; Velásquez, Jorge Byron; Valencia, Juan Carlos; Arango, Clara Maria; Aleman, Pablo Henrique; Vasquez, Esdras Martin; Chavarriaga, Juan Carlos; Yepes, Andrés; Pulido, William; Cadavid, Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients can develop hyperglycaemia even if they do not have diabetes. Intensive insulin therapy decreases morbidity and mortality rates in patients in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) and decreases morbidity in patients in a medical ICU. The effect of this therapy on patients in a mixed medical/surgical ICU is unknown. Our goal was to assess whether the effect of intensive insulin therapy, compared with standard therapy, decreases morbidity and mortality in patients hospitalised in a mixed ICU. Methods This is a prospective, randomised, non-blinded, single-centre clinical trial in a medical/surgical ICU. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intensive insulin therapy to maintain glucose levels between 80 and 110 mg/dl (4.4 to 6.1 mmol/l) or standard insulin therapy to maintain glucose levels between 180 and 200 mg/dl (10 and 11.1 mmol/l). The primary end point was mortality at 28 days. Results Over a period of 30 months, 504 patients were enrolled. The 28-day mortality rate was 32.4% (81 of 250) in the standard insulin therapy group and 36.6% (93 of 254) in the intensive insulin therapy group (Relative Risk [RR]: 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85 to 1.42). The ICU mortality in the standard insulin therapy group was 31.2% (78 of 250) and 33.1% (84 of 254) in the intensive insulin therapy group (RR: 1.06; 95%CI: 0.82 to 1.36). There was no statistically significant reduction in the rate of ICU-acquired infections: 33.2% in the standard insulin therapy group compared with 27.17% in the intensive insulin therapy group (RR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.63 to 1.07). The rate of hypoglycaemia (≤ 40 mg/dl) was 1.7% in the standard insulin therapy group and 8.5% in the intensive insulin therapy group (RR: 5.04; 95% CI: 1.20 to 21.12). Conclusions IIT used to maintain glucose levels within normal limits did not reduce morbidity or mortality of patients admitted to a mixed medical/surgical ICU. Furthermore, this therapy increased the

  3. A Comparative evaluation of voxel-based spatial mapping in diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Cabeen, Ryan P; Bastin, Mark E; Laidlaw, David H

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative evaluation of methods for automated voxel-based spatial mapping in diffusion tensor imaging studies. Such methods are an essential step in computational pipelines and provide anatomically comparable measurements across a population in atlas-based studies. To better understand their strengths and weaknesses, we tested a total of eight methods for voxel-based spatial mapping in two types of diffusion tensor templates. The methods were evaluated with respect to scan-rescan reliability and an application to normal aging. The methods included voxel-based analysis with and without smoothing, two types of region-based analysis, and combinations thereof with skeletonization. The templates included a study-specific template created with DTI-TK and the IIT template serving as a standard template. To control for other factors in the pipeline, the experiments used a common dataset, acquired at 1.5T with a single shell high angular resolution diffusion MR imaging protocol, and tensor-based spatial normalization with DTI-TK. Scan-rescan reliability was assessed using the coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation (ICC) in eight subjects with three scans each. Sensitivity to normal aging was assessed in a population of 80 subjects aged 25-65 years old, and methods were compared with respect to the anatomical agreement of significant findings and the R(2) of the associated models of fractional anisotropy. The results show that reliability depended greatly on the method used for spatial mapping. The largest differences in reliability were found when adding smoothing and comparing voxel-based and region-based analyses. Skeletonization and template type were found to have either a small or negligible effect on reliability. The aging results showed agreement among the methods in nine brain areas, with some methods showing more sensitivity than others. Skeletonization and smoothing were not major factors affecting sensitivity to aging

  4. Primary photochemistry of the dark- and light-adapted states of the YtvA protein from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Hun; Madsen, Dorte; van der Steen, Jeroen B; Pullman, Robert; Freer, Lucy H; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; Larsen, Delmar S

    2013-11-12

    The primary (100 fs to 10 ns) and secondary (10 ns to 100 μs) photodynamics in the type II light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain from the blue light YtvA photoreceptor extracted from Bacillus subtilis were explored with transient absorption spectroscopy. The photodynamics of full-length YtvA were characterized after femtosecond 400 nm excitation of both the dark-adapted D447 state and the light-adapted S390 state. The S390 state relaxes on a 43 min time scale at room temperature back into D447, which is weakly accelerated by the introduction of imidazole. This is ascribed to an obstructed cavity in YtvA that hinders access to the embedded FMN chromophore and is more open in type I LOV domains. The primary photochemistry of dark-adapted YtvA is qualitatively similar to that of the type I LOV domains, including AsLOV2 from Avena sativa, but exhibits an appreciably higher (60% greater) terminal triplet yield, estimated near the maximal ΦISC value of ≈78%; the other 22% decays via non-triplet-generating fluorescence. The subsequent secondary dynamics are inhomogeneous, with three triplet populations co-evolving: the faster-decaying (I)T* population (38% occupancy) with a 200 ns decay time is nonproductive in generating the S390 adduct state, a slower (II)T* population (57% occupancy) exhibits a high yield (Φadduct ≈ 100%) in generating S390 and a third (5%) (III)T*population persists (>100 μs) with unresolved photoactivity. The ultrafast photoswitching dynamics of the S390 state appreciably differ from those previously resolved for the type I AcLOV2 domain from Adiantum capillus-veneris [Kennis, J. T., et al. (2004) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 4512], with a low-yield dissociation (Φdis ≈ 2.5%) reaction, which is due to an ultrafast recombination reaction, following photodissociation, and is absent in AcLOV2, which results in the increased photoswitching activity of the latter domain.

  5. SMITH: a LIMS for handling next-generation sequencing workflows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Life-science laboratories make increasing use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for studying bio-macromolecules and their interactions. Array-based methods for measuring gene expression or protein-DNA interactions are being replaced by RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq. Sequencing is generally performed by specialized facilities that have to keep track of sequencing requests, trace samples, ensure quality and make data available according to predefined privileges. An integrated tool helps to troubleshoot problems, to maintain a high quality standard, to reduce time and costs. Commercial and non-commercial tools called LIMS (Laboratory Information Management Systems) are available for this purpose. However, they often come at prohibitive cost and/or lack the flexibility and scalability needed to adjust seamlessly to the frequently changing protocols employed. In order to manage the flow of sequencing data produced at the Genomic Unit of the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), we developed SMITH (Sequencing Machine Information Tracking and Handling). Methods SMITH is a web application with a MySQL server at the backend. Wet-lab scientists of the Centre for Genomic Science and database experts from the Politecnico of Milan in the context of a Genomic Data Model Project developed SMITH. The data base schema stores all the information of an NGS experiment, including the descriptions of all protocols and algorithms used in the process. Notably, an attribute-value table allows associating an unconstrained textual description to each sample and all the data produced afterwards. This method permits the creation of metadata that can be used to search the database for specific files as well as for statistical analyses. Results SMITH runs automatically and limits direct human interaction mainly to administrative tasks. SMITH data-delivery procedures were standardized making it easier for biologists and analysts to navigate the data. Automation also helps saving time. The

  6. Design and Implementation of Alkali Activated Cement For Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseson, Alexander James

    and becomes part of the C(A)-S-H, with an average CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1.4. A six month term as a Visiting Scholar at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Mumbai, India built upon both paths. Several AACs that use local materials and techniques and pass local standards were rapidly developed, and the potential positively assessed for these AACs to be used to empower slum dwellers.

  7. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. This report

  8. Radiofluorinated 3-(2{prime}-fluoroethyl)-2-thienylspiperone (FETS): Synthesis, pharmacologic characterization, tissue distribution and primate imaging of a selective radioligand for mapping D2 receptor sites by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Shi, B.; Hoffman, J.

    1995-05-01

    Abnormally high dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated in schizophrenia. A number of radiolabeled analogs of spiperone, a potent antipyschotic with a high (nanomolar) affinity for dopamine D2 receptors, have been synthesized for quantifying D2 receptors in humans. An undesired property accompanying high striatal uptake of radiolabeled spiperone (SPIP) analogs is high affinity for serotonin 5-IIT2 receptors. A potent spiperone analog which selectively binds to D2 receptors would be valuable in studying regional dopaminergic aberrations in schizophrenia. We have synthesized new potent radioligands [F-18] labeled 3-(2{prime}-fluoroethyl)-2-thienylspiperone (FETS) and 3-(3{prime}-fluoropropyl)-2-thienylspiperone (FPTS) for quantifying D2 receptors by PET. In vitro binding studies for D2 receptors in rat striatal homogenates using [H-3]raclopride afforded Ki`s (nM) of 1.07 for SPIP, 2.02 for FETS, 3.45 for FES and 5.45 for FPTS. In vitro binding studies for 5-HT2 receptors in rat cortical homogenates using [H-3]ketanserin afforded Ki`s (nM) of 1.86 for SPIP, 6.03 for FES, 20 for FPTS and 67 for FETS. Thus, FETS was found to be a potent and the most selective (Ki 5-HT2/Ki D2=33.5) spiperone ligand for D2 receptors. [F-18]FETS was synthesized in 41% E.O.B. by NCA K[F-18]/K222 exchange for tosylate from 3-(2{sup {prime}}-tosylethyl)-2-thienylspiperone in CH3CN at 100{degrees}C. HPLC purification afforded [F-18]FETS with a specific activity of 8 Ci/{mu}mole in a total synthesis time of 90 min. Following femoral vein injection in rats [F-18]FETS showed good uptake and retention in striatal (S) tissue (0.91% dose/g at 60 min) with clearance from the cerebellum (C) (0.24% dose/g at 60 min) giving S/C = 3.6 at 60 min. [F-18]FETS (6.0 mCi) was also administered to a rhesus monkey and showed high uptake and retention in the basal ganglia with S/C = 6.0 and 10.0 at 1 h and 2 h post injection respectively.

  9. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications through the Fundamental Understanding of Membrane and MEA Degradation Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Randal L.

    2013-10-31

    The Project focused on mitigation of degradation processes on membrane electrode assemblies. The approach was to develop a model to improve understanding of the mechanisms, and to use it to focus mitigation strategies. The detailed effects of various accelerated stress tests (ASTs) were evaluated to determine the best subset to use in model development. A combination of ASTs developed by the Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan and the Fuel Cell Tech Team were selected for use. The ASTs were compared by measuring effects on performance, running in-situ diagnostics, and performing microscopic analyses of the membrane electrode assemblies after the stress tests were complete. Nissan ran FCCJ AST protocols and performed in situ and ex-situ electrochemical testing. DuPont ran FCTT and USFCC AST protocols, performed scanning and transmission electron microscopy and ran in-situ electrochemical tests. Other ex-situ testing was performed by IIT, along with much of the data analysis and model development. These tests were then modified to generate time-dependent data of the degradation mechanisms. Three different catalyst types and four membrane variants were then used to generate data for a theoretically-based degradation model. An important part of the approach was to use commercially available materials in the electrodes and membranes made in scalable semiworks processes rather than lab-based materials. This constraint ensured all materials would be practicable for full-scale testing. The initial model for the electrode layer was tested for internal consistency and agreement with the data. A Java-based computer application was developed to analyze the time-dependent AST data using polarization curves with four different cathode gas feeds and generate model parameters. Data showed very good reproducibility and good consistency as cathode catalyst loadings were varied. At the point of termination of the project, a basic electrode model was in hand with several

  10. High-Latitude Ionospheric Structuring at Kilometer Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bust, G. S.; Datta-Barua, S.; Su, Y.; Deshpande, K.; Hampton, D.

    2014-12-01

    Ionospheric observations in the polar and auroral zones have been made regularly with radar chains and optical imaging at larger spatio-temporal cadence. However, the observation of kilometer scale variations at sub-second cadence has not been practically realizable until recently. Quantifying the irregularities at these sizes and scales is necessary for an understanding of the dynamics leading to fine scale phenomena in the high latitude environment. We present measurements of kilometer-scale plasma variations made at the northern auroral zone using an array of specialized Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. These 6 CASES receivers (plus 1 from ASTRA, LLC) are sited at the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, and have been collecting data since late 2013. The array monitors for ionospheric scintillations, fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the GPS L-band signals received due to ionospheric variations. The array spans 2 km east-west and about 1 km north-south, with a variety of intermediate baseline lengths down to about 200 m. In addition to measuring amplitude and phase scintillation with the S4 and sigma_phi indices at 100-s cadence, these receivers also record 100 Hz raw power and phase measurements from GPS baseband signal processing. These low-rate data are publicly available for download through a web portal at http://apollo.tbc.iit.edu/~spaceweather/ with high rate available upon request. A detailed case study is presented from the December 8, 2013, 0300-0400 UT time period. During this period several interesting scintillation periods were observed. We use array cross-correlation processing methods to first estimate direct ground parameters of the array including a) estimate the 2D drift velocity on the ground; b) estimate a de-correlation (or turbulent) speed; and c) parameters of correlation elliptical coordinates (axial ratio and tilt angle). We then use these results and cross-correlation measurements to derive the ground 2D spatial spectrum of

  11. Performance adaptive training control strategy for recovering wrist movements in stroke patients: a preliminary, feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last two decades robot training in neuromotor rehabilitation was mainly focused on shoulder-elbow movements. Few devices were designed and clinically tested for training coordinated movements of the wrist, which are crucial for achieving even the basic level of motor competence that is necessary for carrying out ADLs (activities of daily life). Moreover, most systems of robot therapy use point-to-point reaching movements which tend to emphasize the pathological tendency of stroke patients to break down goal-directed movements into a number of jerky sub-movements. For this reason we designed a wrist robot with a range of motion comparable to that of normal subjects and implemented a self-adapting training protocol for tracking smoothly moving targets in order to facilitate the emergence of smoothness in the motor control patterns and maximize the recovery of the normal RoM (range of motion) of the different DoFs (degrees of Freedom). Methods The IIT-wrist robot is a 3 DoFs light exoskeleton device, with direct-drive of each DoF and a human-like range of motion for Flexion/Extension (FE), Abduction/Adduction (AA) and Pronation/Supination (PS). Subjects were asked to track a variable-frequency oscillating target using only one wrist DoF at time, in such a way to carry out a progressive splinting therapy. The RoM of each DoF was angularly scanned in a staircase-like fashion, from the "easier" to the "more difficult" angular position. An Adaptive Controller evaluated online performance parameters and modulated both the assistance and the difficulty of the task in order to facilitate smoother and more precise motor command patterns. Results Three stroke subjects volunteered to participate in a preliminary test session aimed at verify the acceptability of the device and the feasibility of the designed protocol. All of them were able to perform the required task. The wrist active RoM of motion was evaluated for each patient at the beginning and at the end

  12. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Northeast India Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranjit; Sharma, M. L.; Wason, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    Northeast India bounded by latitudes 20°-30°N and longitudes 87°-98°E is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. This region has experienced several moderate-to-large-sized earthquakes, including the 12 June, 1897 Shillong earthquake ( M w 8.1) and the 15 August, 1950 Assam earthquake ( M w 8.7) which caused loss of human lives and significant damages to buildings highlighting the importance of seismic hazard assessment for the region. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the region has been carried out using a unified moment magnitude catalog prepared by an improved General Orthogonal Regression methodology (Geophys J Int, 190:1091-1096, 2012; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Northeast India region, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 2013) with events compiled from various databases (ISC, NEIC,GCMT, IMD) and other available catalogs. The study area has been subdivided into nine seismogenic source zones to account for local variation in tectonics and seismicity characteristics. The seismicity parameters are estimated for each of these source zones, which are input variables into seismic hazard estimation of a region. The seismic hazard analysis of the study region has been performed by dividing the area into grids of size 0.1° × 0.1°. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration ( S a) values (for periods of 0.2 and 1 s) have been evaluated at bedrock level corresponding to probability of exceedance (PE) of 50, 20, 10, 2 and 0.5 % in 50 years. These exceedance values correspond to return periods of 100, 225, 475, 2475, and 10,000 years, respectively. The seismic hazard maps have been prepared at the bedrock level, and it is observed that the seismic hazard estimates show a significant local variation in contrast to the uniform hazard value suggested by the Indian standard seismic code [Indian standard, criteria for earthquake-resistant design of structures, fifth edition, Part

  13. SY 18-1 TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN PAH.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wook-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder with a poor prognosis and causes pulmonary vascular remodeling accompanied with increased pulmonary arterial medial wall thickness and fibrosis, which leads to vascular and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Despite treatment with prostacyclin, endothelin antagonist, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors the 1-year mortality rate of PAH still remains high. Recent registries, clinical trials, and basic researches have been increasing the knowledge of PAH and it would contribute to potential therapeutic strategies and better clinical outcome.Korean Registry of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (KORPAH) is the first modern PAH registries in Asian ethnicity. Total 39 centers participated and 625 patients were enrolled. This study evaluated the incidence, prevalence, epidemiology, therapeutic modalities and survival data of Korean patients with PAH."Gachon experiences" was to characterize the clinical outcomes and evaluate the factors influencing survival time of the PAH patients in Korean. This study compared the cumulative survival of total 43 PAH patients who received targeted or conventional therapy.PAH Ilopost BMPR-2 gene in Korea IIT Multi-institutional (PILGRIM) is a prospective, investigator-initiative, and multi-institutional clinical trials. This study was recently completed in March by 7 institutes, and aimed to investigate (1) the prevalence of BMPR-2 gene mutations in the Korean PAH patients and (2) the effect of iloprost inhalation solution on hemodynamic response, and exercise echocardiography.PAH basic research focuses on two major themes: (1) Systematic comparison of the effects of adipose tissue, bone marrow and umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on MCT-induced PAH in rats and (2) investigation of the effect of human UCB-derived MSC (hUCB-MSC) transplantation combined with apelin-13 administration on MCT-induced PAH in rats. Data suggests that, although the

  14. Speciation and water soluble fraction of iron in aerosols from various sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Kurisu, M.; Uematsu, M.

    2015-12-01

    that of volcanic ashes, possibly due to the transform of insoluble Fe originally contained in volcanic ashes into the aerosols with highly soluble Fe such as Fe(II) sulfate. Iit was found that the soluble Fe content in the aerosol supplied as volcanic ashes should be important due to the very high soluble Fe content in the aerosol of volcanic origin.

  15. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; Jeff B. Benson; James I. Cole; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2012-03-01

    -Madison; (8) Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Materials Research Collaborative Access Team (MRCAT) beamline at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source; and (9) Nanoindenter in the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Nuclear Engineering laboratory Materials have been analyzed for ATR NSUF users at the Advanced Photon Source at the MRCAT beam, the NIST Center for Neutron Research in Gaithersburg, MD, the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and the SHaRE user facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Additionally, ORNL has been accepted as a partner facility to enable ATR NSUF users to access the facilities at the High Flux Isotope Reactor and related facilities.

  16. Effect Of Black Carbon Radiative Heating On Cloud Microphysics Over Indo-Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    , 2008) of aerosol species in IGB, we assumed that the absorbing BC core coated with purely scattering water-soluble sulfate, OC and/or a homogeneous mixture of sulfate and OC is a realistic choice. We have also used the realistic distributions of BC and other aerosols for IGB as modeled by Dey (2008) using aerosol measurements during ISRO-GBP land campaign II. The results relating the effect of BC radiative heating on cloud microphysics using realistic mixing state and distributions of aerosol species in a continental polluted environment over IGB will be discussed. References Conant, W. C., et al. (2002), Black carbon radiative heating effects on cloud microphysics and implications for aerosol indirect forcing, 1, Extended Köhler theory, J. Geophys. Res.,107(D21),4604. Dey, S., Aerosol radiative effects over Knpur region in the Indo-Gangetic basin, Northern India, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, Ph.D. thesis, 2008. Evans, K. F. (1998), The spherical harmonics discrete ordinate method for three dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 429--446. Toon, O. B., and T. P. Ackerman (1981), Algorithms for the calculation of scattering by stratified spheres, Appl. Opt., 20, 3657--3660. Tripathi, S. N., et al. (2005), Aerosol black carbon radiative forcing at an industrial city in northern India, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L08802. Tripathi, S.N., et al. (2007), Aerosol indirect effect over Indo-Gangetic plain, Atmos. Env.,41,7037--7047.

  17. Chemical, microphysical and optical properties of the aerosols during foggy and nonfoggy day over a typical location in Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, D. S.; Tripathi, S. N.; Gupta, T.

    2012-04-01

    An extensive experimental measurement was carried out from January 16, 2010 to February 20, 2010 at Kanpur to study the chemical, microphysical and optical properties of the aerosols. A Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), a part of National Aeronautic Space Administration (NASA), was used for identification of fog duration. PM1 samples and fogwater were collected to examine the organic and inorganic species of aerosol and fogwater. Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and water soluble organic carbon analysis were carried out by an EC-OC analyzer and a TOC analyzer, respectively. Trace gases and solar flux measurement were carried out by gas analyzers and a pyranometer (a part of NASA Aeronet), respectively, to identify the photo-chemical activity. Meteorological data were measured by atmospheric weather station. The microphysical properties such as aerosol size distribution were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Optical properties were measured by a photo-acoustic soot spectrometer (PASS). Organic and inorganic species are processed by fog droplets such as production of secondary organic aerosol through aqueous mechanism (Kaul et al., 2011) and scavenging of various water soluble species. The concentrations of almost all the ionic species and organic carbon were higher in aerosols during foggy day. Presence of numerous ionic species and organic carbon in the fogwater indicates their wet scavenging and removal from the atmosphere by the fog droplets. Most of the aerosol is composed of inorganic component, ~80% during foggy day and ~85.5 % during clear day. Biomass burning contribution to PM1 mass concentration was considerably higher during clear days and lower during foggy days; lower concentration during foggy day could be due to wet scavenging of biomass generated aerosols. The study average higher number concentration of aerosol during foggy day during late evening and overnight was due to lower boundary layer height and subsequent

  18. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Tripathi, Sachchida; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-04-01

    Fog is a natural meteorological phenomenon that occurs throughout the world, it contains substantial quantity of liquid water and generally seen as a natural cleansing agent but it also has the potential to form highly oxidized secondary organic aerosols (SOA) via aqueous processing of ambient aerosols. On the other hand higher organic aerosols (OA) loading tend to decrease the overall oxidation level (O/C) of the particle phase organics, due to enhanced partitioning of less oxidized organics from gas to particle phase. However, combined impact of these two parameters; aqueous oxidation and OA loading, on the overall oxidation ratio (O/C) of ambient OA has never been studied. To assess this, real time ambient sampling using HR-ToF-AMS was carried out at Kanpur, India from 15 December 2014 - 10 February 2015. In first 3 weeks of this campaign, very high OA loading is (134 ± 42 μg/m3) observed (termed as high loading or HL period) while loading is substantially reduced from 2nd January, 2016 (56 ± 20 μg/m3, termed as low loading or LL period) . However, both the loading period was affected by several fog episodes (10 in HL and 7 in LL), thus providing the opportunity of studying the combined effects of fog and OA loading on OA oxidation. It is found that O/C ratio is very strongly anti-correlated with OA loading in both the loading period, however, slope of this ant-correlation is much steep during HL period than in LL period. Source apportionment of OA revealed that there is drastic change in the types of OA from HL to LL period, clearly indicating difference in OA composition from HL to LL period. During foggy night continuous oxidation of OA is observed from early evening to early morning with 15-20% enhancement in O/C ratio, while the same is absent during non-foggy period, clearly indicating the efficient fog processing of ambient OA. It is also found that night time fog aqueous oxidation can be as effective as daytime photo chemistry in oxidation of OA. Fog

  19. Processing of Ambient Aerosols During Fog Events: Role of Acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Gupta, T.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bhattu, D.

    2013-12-01

    Fog is a major processing and removal agent of ambient aerosols. Enhanced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production has been reported during fog events indicating major role of aqueous processing. Present study was carried out in a heavily polluted city of Kanpur situated in Indo-Gangetic plain of India,from 02- 18 Nov, 2012 and then from 22 Dec, 2012 to 10 January, 2013. 12 fog events were identified from 22 Dec to 10 January based on low visibility (< 300 m) with high liquid water content (~ 0.04 g/m3) and termed as foggy period while remaining as non-foggy period. Foggy period typically showed very high RH (~95%), low temperatures (~2-6°C) compared to non-foggy period. An array of instruments were deployed during this campaign for real time measurement of aerosol physico-chemical properties - High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Cloud Combination Probe (CCP), Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (CCN), fog water collector and Vaisala RH & T sensor. Average aerosol loading during foggy period was 104×44 μg/m3, much higher than 73×49 μg/m3of non-foggy period, but during actual fog events the loading reduced to 85×23 μg/m3 indicating overall aerosol removal by fog. Overall aerosol composition during both the period was dominated by organics which constitutes about 60-70% of the total AMS mass followed by nitrate, but during foggy period sulfate was found to be increased many fold.HR analysis of AMS data revealed noticeable differences in the diurnal average values of O:C ratio between foggy and non -foggy period. Although diurnal O:C ratio was highest around noontime for both period but during fog events, night to early morning O:C ratio was 0.51×0.04, higher than that of non-foggy period 0.44×0.07, clearly indicating enhanced oxidation. AMS data also showed that mode size of all the species specially of organics and sulphate had shifted to a higher diameter during foggy period, an

  20. Improving Vortex Generators to Enhance the Performance of Air-Cooled Condensers in a Geothermal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar S. Sohal

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes work at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop strategies to enhance air-side heat transfer in geothermal air-cooled condensers such that it should not significantly increase pressure drop and parasitic fan pumping power. The work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, Yokohama National University, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. A combined experimental and numerical investigation was performed to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to largescale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique was employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements were obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that included four tube rows in a staggered array. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements were also acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus in the Single Blow Test Facility. In addition, a numerical modeling technique was developed to predict local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds number flows, with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results were obtained that reveal quantitative details of local finsurface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results were obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500. The winglets were of triangular (delta) shape with a 1:2 or 1:3 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface heat transfer results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (in terms of

  1. Charged particles in Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Sachchida

    2010-05-01

    Charged particles in Titan's ionosphere Marykutty Michael1, Sachchida Nand Tripathi1,2,3, Pratima Arya1 1Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 2Oak Ridge Associated Universities 3NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Observations by two instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft, Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and CAssini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS), revealed the existence of heavy hydrocarbon and nitrile species with masses of several thousand atomic mass units at altitudes of 950 - 1400 km in the atmosphere of Titan (Waite et al., 2007; Crary et al., 2009). Though these particles were believed to be molecules, they are most likely aerosols formed by the clumping of smaller molecules (Waite et al., 2009). These particles were estimated to have a density of 10-3 kg m-3 and a size of up to 256 nm. The existence of very heavy ions has also been observed by the CAPS components with a mass by charge ratio of up to 10000 (Coates et al., 2007, 2009; Sittler et al., 2009). The goal of this paper is to find out whether the so called heavy ions (or charged particles) are generated by the charge transfer of ions and electrons to the particles. The charging of these particles has been studied by using the charge balance equations that include positive ions, negative ions, electrons, neutral and charged particles. Information on the most abundant ion clusters are obtained from Vuitton et al., (2009) and Wilson and Atreya, (2004). Mass by charge ratio thus calculated will be compared with those observed by Coates et al. (2007). References: Coates AJ, et al., Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L22103, 2007. Coates AJ, et al., Heavy negative ions in titan's ionosphere: altitude and latitude dependence. Planet. Space Sci., doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.05.009, 2009. Crary F.J., et al., Heavy ions, temperatures and winds in titan's ionosphere: Combined cassini caps and inms observations. Planet. Space Sci., doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.006, 2009

  2. SO2 and NO2 over major urban regions of India: a tempo-spatial perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, C.; Lal, S.

    2012-12-01

    Demographic projections show that by the year 2025, 16 of the world's 29 megacities will be located in Asia, many of which have very basic problems in terms of air quality. Apart from being home to a burgeoning population, these regions of the globe are also major players in atmospheric chemistry as a result of myriad emission patterns combined with intense photochemistry. Like most of these Asian megacities, fast-paced development in some of the Indian cities has ramifications in increased emissions from industrial and transport sectors. These emissions release sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in addition to several pollutants, into the ambient air and have the potential to impact the chemistry and radiative balance on a regional scale. Surface measurements of these two criteria pollutants by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India during 2005-2010 from 13 urban locations in India have been analyzed to get an insight into their temporal and spatial variability. Stations are chosen to represent the entire Indian region: Indo-Gangetic plain or 'IGP' (Jalandhar, Delhi, Kanpur, Durgapur, Kolkata, Guwahati), western India (Jodhpur, Ahmedabad, Surat), central India (Nagpur, Hyderabad) and southern India (Chennai, Trivandrum). The monthly averaged surface level SO2 and NO2 have also been compared with monthly columnar averages of these gases as detected by the Ozone monitoring Instrument (OMI) over these station grids. Mean SO2 concentrations are found to be the highest for Surat (7.5 ppbv), located in a highly industrialized region. Elevated levels of NO2, observed for Durgapur and Kolkata (31 ppbv each), are close to the 24-hour 'National Ambient Air Quality' standard (30 ppbv). The surface concentrations for both SO2 and NO2 concentrations are found to be the highest during winter. Columnar SO2 over many stations show a maximum during summer monsoon. For most IGP stations, columnar NO2 values are elevated during winter. Wavelet analyses

  3. Evaluation of monthwise and overall trends of AOD over Indian cities using MODIS Aqua and Terra retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subhasis; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    care of seasonality in AOD values. Moreover we here used AQUA version 6 data set to compare with Terra 5.1. To our knowledge Aqua version 6 data set has yet not been used in any study over this region. In our study quality controlled "joint land and ocean" product (for almost one decade time) "Optical_Depth_Land_And_Ocean" (0.55 micron) has been used to estimate trend and only statistically significant trend (p=0.05 level) is only reported. We observed that thirty out of fifty cities show overall increasing trend in AOD by both the sensors whereas rest of the cities show increasing trend only by Aqua. Decadal increase in AOD value as reported by Terra is 2-10% whereas by Aqua 4-18%. Aqua consistently shows higher trend than Terra in all cases. After comparing data from both the sensors, we observed, for almost all the cities (except some cities lying in the southern part of the country) trend(increasing) is highest during the month of November, even in case of some north Indian cities November is the only month when significant trend is noticed. In case of most southern cities trend(increasing) is highest for the month of May. Strikingly, for most northern cities in the Indo-Gangetic plain Aqua shows significant overall trend whereas Terra shows no overall trend. But for southern cities both the sensors show similar trend. We also used AERONET level 2 data(0.50 micron) from Kanpur station to estimate trend using same method and found overall trend as estimated using Aqua (10 %) data is pretty close to that found using AERONET(9%)data.

  4. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2016-01-01

    irradiation at 28 Gy dose in small vs large cages, with a higher male mating competitiveness index calculated from results of experiments in the large cages. Based on these results, we consider that the male mating performance of the triple infected strain after irradiation at 28 Gy, a dose required for complete female sterility and the avoidance of population replacement, is approximately equal to that of the wild type males under semi-field conditions. Though field evaluation is required, this suggests that the triple infected strain is suitable for irradiation and release as part of a combined SIT-IIT approach to Ae. albopictus control. PMID:26990981

  5. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  6. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The iMEC 2015 is the second International Manufacturing Engineering Conference organized by the Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), held from 12-14th November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a theme "Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow". For the first time, iMEC is organized together with 3rd Asia- Pacific Conference on Manufacturing System (APCOMS 2015) which owned by Fakulti Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. This is an extended collaboration between UMP and ITB to intensify knowledge sharing and experiences between higher learning institutions. This conference (iMEC & APCOMS 2015) is a platform for knowledge exchange and the growth of ideas, particularly in manufacturing engineering. The conference aims to bring researchers, academics, scientists, students, engineers and practitioners from around the world together to present their latest findings, ideas, developments and applications related to manufacturing engineering and other related research areas. With rapid advancements in manufacturing engineering, iMEC is an appropriate medium for the associated community to keep pace with the changes. In 2015, the conference theme is “Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow” which reflects the acceleration of knowledge and technology in global manufacturing. The papers in these proceedings are examples of the work presented at the conference. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the conference attracted over 200 abstracts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Turkey and Morocco and 151 full papers were accepted in these proceedings. The conference was run in four parallel sessions with 160 presenters sharing their latest finding in the areas of manufacturing process, systems, advanced materials and automation. The first keynote presentation was given by Prof. B. S. Murthy (IIT, Madras) on "Nanomaterials with Exceptional

  7. PREFACE: 7th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Chakraborty, Purushottam; Williams, Jim F.

    2007-09-01

    , Molecular and Optical Physics. We received extensive support from the Journal of Physics: Conference Series staff; Graham Douglas, in particular, has been of tremendous help. The 7th AISAMP was very well attended and was sponsored primarily by the host Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (Chennai), the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, (Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India), the Department of Science and Technology, (Government of India), and the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD) of the US Air Force. There was support from various quarters—each was invaluable and added to the success of the 7th AISAMP. We are very grateful to all the sponsors. It is superfluous to add that guidance and active participation from several colleagues within the host Institute was the primary source of strength for the actual organization of the conference and the multitude of arrangements for the organization came from the young graduate students at the IIT-Madras. We hope that this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series will be referenced widely and that it will strengthen ties between various countries in the region in and around Asia, and also of course to all scientists in this field the world over. Pranawa C Deshmukh, Purushottam Chakraborty and Jim F Williams Editors Conference photograph

  8. Double-negative metamaterial research for accelerator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, S.; Spentzouris, L.; Gai, W.; Liu, W.; Power, J. G.

    2007-09-01

    Material properties are central to the design of particle accelerators. One area of advanced accelerator research is to investigate novel materials and structures and their potential use in extending capabilities of accelerator components. Within the past decade a new type of artificially constructed material having the unique property of simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability has been realized, and is under intense investigation, primarily by the optical physics and microwave engineering communities [C.M. Soukoulis, Science 315 (2007) 47; D.R. Smith, J.B. Pendry, M.C.K. Wiltshire, Science 305 (2004) 788; J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, W.J. Stewart, I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 (1996) 4773]. Although they are typically constructed of arrays of discrete cells, as long as the condition that the wavelength of applied radiation is significantly greater than the cell dimensions is met, the material mimics a continuous medium and can be described with the bulk properties of permittivity, ɛ, and permeability, μ. When the permittivity and permeability are simultaneously negative in some frequency range, the metamaterial is called double negative (DNM) or left-handed (LHM) and has unusual properties, such as a negative index of refraction. An investigation of these materials in the context of accelerators is being carried out by IIT and the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility [S. Antipov, W. Liu, W. Gai, J. Power, L. Spentzouris, AIP Conf. Proc. 877 (2006); S. Antipov, W. Liu, J. Power, L. Spentzouris, Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Left-Handed Metamaterial, Wakefield Notes at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator, ]. Waveguides loaded with metamaterials are of interest because the DNM can change the dispersion relation of the waveguide significantly. For example, slow backward waves can be produced in a DNM-loaded waveguide without having corrugations. This article begins with a brief introduction of known design

  9. Reconstruction of Atmospheric Tracer Releases with Optimal Resolution Features: Concentration Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Turbelin, Gregory; Issartel, Jean-Pierre; Kumar, Pramod; Feiz, Amir Ali

    2015-04-01

    function which exhibits a priori information about the unknown releases apparent to the monitoring network. The properties of the weight function provide an optimal data resolution and model resolution to the retrieved source estimates. The retrieved source estimates are proved theoretically to be stable against the random measurement errors and their reliability can be interpreted in terms of the distribution of the weight functions. Further, the same framework can be extended for the identification of the point type releases by utilizing the maximum of the retrieved source estimates. The inversion technique has been evaluated with the several diffusion experiments, like, Idaho low wind diffusion experiment (1974), IIT Delhi tracer experiment (1991), European Tracer Experiment (1994), Fusion Field Trials (2007), etc. In case of point release experiments, the source parameters are mostly retrieved close to the true source parameters with least error. Primarily, the proposed technique overcomes two major difficulties incurred in the source reconstruction: (i) The initialization of the source parameters as required by the optimization based techniques. The converged solution depends on their initialization. (ii) The statistical knowledge about the measurement and background errors as required by the Bayesian inference based techniques. These are hypothetically assumed in case of no prior knowledge.

  10. Periodization Training Focused on Technical-Tactical Ability in Young Soccer Players Positively Affects Biochemical Markers and Game Performance.

    PubMed

    L Q T Aquino, Rodrigo; Cruz Gonçalves, Luiz G; Palucci Vieira, Luiz H; Oliveira, Lucas P; Alves, Guilherme F; Pereira Santiago, Paulo R; Puggina, Enrico F

    2016-10-01

    Aquino, RLQT, Cruz Gonçalves, LG, Palucci Vieira, LH, Oliveira, LP, Alves, GF, Pereira Santiago, PR, and Puggina, EF. Periodization training focused on technical-tactical ability in young soccer players positively affects biochemical markers and game performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2723-2732, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 22 weeks of periodized training, with an emphasis on technical-tactical ability, on indirect markers of muscle damage, and the on-field performance of young soccer players. Fifteen players (age 15.4 ± 0.2 years, height 172.8 ± 3.6 cm; body mass 61.9 ± 2.9 kg; % fat 11.7 ± 1.6; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 48.67 ± 3.24 ml·kg·min) underwent 4 stages of evaluation: prepreparatory stage-T0; postpreparatory stage-T1; postcompetitive stage I-T2 and; postcompetitive stage II-T3. The plasmatic activity of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated, as well as the on-field performance (movement patterns, tactical variables). Regarding the plasmatic activity of CK and LDH, there was a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the periodization training (T0: 350 U·L; T3: 150 U·L). Significant increases were observed (p ≤ 0.05) in the intensity of the game, high-intensity activities (HIA) (T0: 22%; T3: 27%), maximum speed (T0: 30 km·h; T3: 34 km·h) and tactical performance, team surface area (T0: 515 m; T3: 683 m), and spread (T0: 130 m; T3: 148 m). In addition, we found significant inverse correlations between the percentage variation of T0 to T3 in CK and LDH activities with percentage variation in high-intensity running (r = -0.85; p ≤ 0.05 and r = -0.84; p < 0.01, respectively) and HIA (r = -0.71 and r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05, respectively) during the matches. We concluded that there was reduced activity in biochemical markers related to muscle damage, as well as increases in-game high-intensity performance and the tactical performance of the study participants. Furthermore

  11. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2016-01-01

    irradiation at 28 Gy dose in small vs large cages, with a higher male mating competitiveness index calculated from results of experiments in the large cages. Based on these results, we consider that the male mating performance of the triple infected strain after irradiation at 28 Gy, a dose required for complete female sterility and the avoidance of population replacement, is approximately equal to that of the wild type males under semi-field conditions. Though field evaluation is required, this suggests that the triple infected strain is suitable for irradiation and release as part of a combined SIT-IIT approach to Ae. albopictus control.

  12. Fifty years of Jaynes-Cummings physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Koch, Jens; Larson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    . 46 224007 [19] Emary C 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224008 [20] Miroshnychenko Y 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224009 [21] Dombi A 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224010 [22] Tavis M 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224011 [23] Grimsmo A 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224012 [24] Stenholm S I 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224013 [25] Kockum A F 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224014 [26] Larson J 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224015 [27] Larson J 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224016 [28] Agarwal S 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224017 [29] Deng W-W 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224018 [30] Leppaekangas J 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224019 [31] Schmidt S 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224020 [32] Schiro M 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224021 [33] Susa C 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224022 [34] del Valle E 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224023 [35] Correa B V 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224024 [36] Schetakis N 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 224025 1Number estimate based on a Google Scholar search.

  13. PREFACE: International Conference on Inverse Problems 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Yiu-Chung; Ling, Leevan

    2011-03-01

    Conference 2010, we wish to express our cordial thanks to all the keynote, plenary, and invited speakers and members of the Advisory Board. We would like to thank the City University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Mathematical Society, the K C Wong Education Foundation, the Lee Hysan Foundation, and the Wei Lun Foundation for their generous financial support. Particularly, we wish to thank Miss Lonn Chan for her excellent administrative work in making all the arrangements for the conference. March 2011Yiu-Chung Hon, City University of Hong Kong, HKSARLeevan Ling, Hong Kong Baptist University, HKSAR Invited Keynote SpeakerH Thomas Banks, North Carolina State University, USA Invited Plenary SpeakersRyuichi Ashino, Osaka Kyoiku University, JapanAndrea Caponnetto, City University of Hong Kong, HKSARJeng-Tzong Chen, National Taiwan Ocean University, TaiwanHiromichi Itou, Gunma University, JapanHyeonbae Kang, Inha University, South KoreaMichael Klibanov, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USAKim Knudsen, Technical University of Denmark, DenmarkRainer Kress, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GermanyJérôme Le Rousseau, University of Orleans, FranceChang-Ock Lee, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South KoreaGui-Rong Liu, University of Cincinnati, USAShuai Lu, Fudan University, ChinaFadil Santosa, University of Minnesota, USATomoya Takeuchi, North Carolina State University, USAXiang Xu, Zhejiang University, ChinaJun Zou, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKSAR Invited SpeakersMohamed Abdel-Mooty, The American University in Cairo, EgyptKrishna Agarwal, National University of Singapore, SingaporeHui Cao, Sun Yat-sen University, ChinaWen Chen, Hohai University, ChinaJin Cheng, Fudan University, ChinaLian Duan, University of Oxford, UKMeibao Ge, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, ChinaRalf Hielscher, TU Chemnitz, GermanyGuanghui Hu, Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics (WIAS), GermanyKiwan Jeon, National Institute for Mathematical

  14. PREFACE: International Symposium on `Vacuum Science and Technology' (IVS 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, K. C.; Gupta, S. K.

    2008-03-01

    equipments, accessories, products etc by different manufacturers and suppliers has been organized at the venue of the symposium hall for the benefit of the participants. The interest shown by the exhibitors reveals that the industry has come of age and the advances that have taken place over the years is quite significant. During the symposium, the Indian Vacuum Society felicitated two distinguished personalities who have contributed significantly for the development of vacuum science and technology in the country. The C AMBASANKARAN memorial and Smt SHAKUNTALABAI VYAWAHARE memorial Awards were also conferred on the two best contributed papers. A committee constituted by the Symposium Organizing Committee evaluated the relevance, scientific content, and clarity of presentation to decide the award winning papers. It is hoped that the discussion generated by the delegates at the symposium will help in a better understanding vacuum science and technology. K C Mittal Convener S K Gupta Co Convener International Advisory Committee Kakodkar, Anil DAE/India, Chairman Badve, Cdr A.V.(IN Retd.) Pfeiffer Vac India Banerjee, S. BARC/India Bhandari, R.K. BRNS/India Chander, Shekhar CEERI/India Chopra, K.L. IIT Delhi/India Day, Chris ITER Grover, R.B DAE,BARC/India Jakub, Szajman VSA/ Australia Jayaraj, R.N. NFC/India Kamath, H.S. BARC/India Kaw, P.K. IPR/India Kobayashi, M. VSJ/Japan Kumar, Lalit MTRDC, India Kumar, Vikram NPL., India Langley, Robert AVS, USA Larour, Jean Ecole/France Mendonsa, R.H. Lawrence and Mayo Myneni, Ganapatirao Jlab/USA Narsaiah, S.V. HHV Padamsee, Hasan Cornell/USA Pillay, R.G. TIFR Raj, Baldev IGCAR/India Raju, P.T. IVS/India Ramasami, T. DST/India Ray, A.K. BARC/India Reid, RJ IUVSTA/UK Roy, Amit IUAC/india Sahni, V.C. RRCAT, BARC/India Schamiloglu, E. UNM/USA Shankara, K.N. VSSC,ISRO/India Sinha, Bikash VEC,SINP/India Strubin, P. CERN/Switzerland Local Organizing Committee Ray, A.K. BARC (Chairman) Kailas, S. BARC, (Co Chairman) Chakravarty, D.P. BARC

  15. IMPROVED ANTIFOAM AGENT STUDY END OF YEAR REPORT, EM PROJECT 3.2.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.; Newell, J.

    2011-09-30

    issues above is that DWPF had three antifoam needs in FY2011: (1) Determine the cause of the poor Antifoam 747 performance during caustic boiling; (2) Determine the decomposition products of Antifoam 747 during CPC processing; and (3) Improve the effectiveness of Antifoam 747, in order to minimize the amount used. Testing was completed by Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers to address these questions. The testing results reported were funded by both DWPF and DOE/EM 31. Both sets of results are reported in this document for completeness. The results of this research are summarized: (1) The cause for the poor Antifoam 747 performance during caustic boiling was the high hydrolysis rate, cleaving the antifoam molecule in two, leading to poor antifoam performance. In testing with pH solutions from 1 to 13, the antifoam degraded quickly at a pH < 4 and pH > 10. As the antifoam decomposed it lost its spreading ability (wetting agent performance), which is crucial to its antifoaming performance. During testing of a caustic sludge simulants, there was more foam in tests with added Antifoam 747 than in tests without added antifoam. (2) Analyses were completed to determine the composition of the two antifoam components and Antifoam 747. In addition, the decomposition products of Antifoam 747 were determined during CPC processing of sludge simulants. The main decomposition products were identified primarily as Long Chain Siloxanes, boiling point > 400 C. Total antifoam recovery was 33% by mass. In a subsequent study, various compounds potentially related to antifoam were found using semi-volatile organic analysis and volatile organic analysis on the hexane extractions and hexane rinses. These included siloxanes, trimethyl silanol, methoxy trimethyl silane, hexamethyl disiloxane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, dioctyl phthalate, and emulsifiers. Cumulatively, these species amounted to less than 3% of the antifoam mass. The

  16. PREFACE: National Seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakrishnan, R.; Vijayakumar, K. P.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2013-05-01

    : Materials Science and Engineering. This initiative is in pursuit of the vision of the department to establish itself as a part of the global scientific community. The department is striving to establish itself as a centre of excellence in teaching and research. We sincerely hope that the papers published in this journal will contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the respective fields. We present this volume of papers to the scientific community for their valuable feedback by way of suggestions and collaborative research. Acknowledgment The Department of Physics, Christian College Chengannur acknowledges the efforts of Dr Jacob George who was inspirational in organizing this seminar. His vision and perseverance made it possible for us to organize this event. The seminar was graciously funded by University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India and Kerala State Council for Science Technology and Environment (KSCSTE), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The department wishes to thank both organizations for their support for the event. The management of the college provided great assistance by providing all the infrastructural help required for the event. The department is weighed in gratitude for this gesture and encouragement. Ammini Solar Pvt. Ltd, and Hind High Vacuum Pvt. Ltd, sponsored the best paper award and best poster award respectively. We thank them for this token of their support for the event. The event will be remembered for the participants who arrived from various parts India and the students who made it memorable. The Department acknowledges the efforts of the 2010-2012 and 2009-2011post graduate students who ran the show behind the scenes. National Advisory Board Professor (Dr) K L Chopra (Padamshree) (Former Director, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur) Professor A K Barua (Padamshree) Project Director, MNES/DST project on a-Si Solar cell Professor C Vijayan IIT, Madras Dr M K Jayaraj, Cochin University of Science and technology Dr P Kurian

  17. Proceedings of the 26th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference – International Cryogenic Material Conference 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, T. S.; Sharma, R. G.; Kar, S.

    2017-02-01

    International Conference ICEC 26 - ICMC 2016 was organized at New Delhi, India during March 7-11, 2016. Previous conference ICEC25-ICMC 2014 was held at the University of Twente, The Netherlands in July 2014. Next Conference ICEC 27- ICMC 2018 will be held at Oxford, UK during September 3-7, 2018 1. Introduction This is a biennial international conference on cryogenic engineering and cryogenics materials organized by the International Cryogenic Engineering Committee and the International Cryogenic Material Committee. For some years, the host country has been alternating between Europe and Asia. The present conference was held at the Manekshaw Convention Centre, New Delhi, India during March 7-11, 2016 and hosted jointly by the Indian Cryogenics Council (ICC) and the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi. Put all together as many as 547 persons participated in the conference. Out of these 218 were foreign delegates coming from 25 countries and the rest from India. 2. Inaugural Session & Course Lectures The pre conference short course lectures on “Cryocoolers” and “Superconducting Materials for Power Applications” were organized on 7th March. Cryocooler course was given jointly by Dr. Chao Wang from M/s. Cryomech, USA and Prof. Milind Atrey from IIT Bombay, India. The Course on Superconducting Materials was given by Prof. Venkat Selvamanickam from the University of Houston, USA. The conference was inaugurated in the morning of March 8th in a typical Indian tradition and in the presence of the Chief Guest, Dr. R Chidambaram (Principle Scientific Adviser to Govt. of India), Guest of Honour, Prof. H Devaraj (Vice Chairman University Grant Commission), Prof Marcel ter Brake ( Chair, ICEC Board), Prof. Wilfried Goldacker (Chair, ICMC board), Dr. D Kanjilal (Director IUAC), Dr R K Bhandari, (President, Indian Cryogenic Council ). Dr. T S Datta, Chair Local Organizing Committee coordinated the proceedings of the inaugural function. 3. Technical

  18. PREFACE: Nanoscale science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2008-11-01

    nano-interconnects for future high-speed electronics. Sarto illustrated how a specific focus on European research on nanointerconnects was addressed in the first call of ICT priority of the FP7, within the FET proactive initiative and outlined the successful presentation of the recently approved collaborative project CATHERINE. N Pugno introduced a new concept, of smart flexible—a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery—nanovectors, based on smart adhesion. Targeting, in addition to the classical strategies, is enhanced by designing the nanovector in order to activate an adhesion force larger than the drag force only in the capillaries. A hierarchical architecture is used to model a real vasculature. During adhesion, the smart nanovector considerably changes its shape in a controllable way and, in case, can implode due to buckling. Such a mechanism will cleverly deliver the drug in a controllable way, ideally aborting the tumor colonization. M Pavese presented the growth and the physico/mechanical characterization of millimeters thick layers of self-standing vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The MWCNT 'forest' was obtained by thermal decomposition of camphor over a silicon substrate, in the presence of ferrocene as a catalyst. Alcohol vapors sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers were presented by A Bearzotti. He showed how conjugated polymer (PPA = polyphenylacetylene) and co-polymer (P(PA/HEMA)=(poly[phenylacetylene-(co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)])) were prepared by the modified emulsion polymerisation technique; the nanostructured morphology enhances the properties of these materials mainly because of their increase in surface/volume ratio rendering them adapted for applications like sensitive membranes. The presentation by M Fajfrowski provided a practical reference for using instrumented-indentation testing (IIT), placing emphasis on the equipment, data-analysis, and calibrations required for accurate

  19. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    ) Institute for Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka, Japan (Division Head: Dr K Nishihara) Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago, USA (College of Science and Letters, Department of Applied Mathematics: Dr S I Abarji) and thanks them for making this event possible. The Organizing Committee appreciates the assistance of Suzie Radosic (administrator and assistant, ICTP) Daniil Ilyin (web-master, Chicago) Elena Magnus (assistant, Chicago) We express our gratitude for the help with the Conference Program to the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee S I Abarzhi (The University of Chicago, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA) G Ahlers (University of California at Santa Barbara, USA) M J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Texas A & M University, USA) S I Anisimov (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) E Bodenschatz (Max Plank Institute, Gottingen, Germany) S Dalziel (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) R Ecke (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) H J Fernando (Arizona State University, USA) S Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) G A Glatzmaier (University of California at Santa Cruz, USA) W A Goddard III (California Institute of Technology, USA) L P Kadanoff (The University of Chicago, USA) D Q Lamb (The University of Chicago, USA) D P Lathrop (University of Maryland, USA) S Lebedev (Imperial College, UK) P Manneville (Ecole Polytechnique, France) D I Meiron (California Institute of Technology, USA) H Nagib (Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, USA) J Niemela (International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy) K Nishihara (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) S A Orszag (Yale University, USA) E Ott (University of Maryland, USA) N Peters (RWTS, Aachen, Germany) S B Pope (Cornell, USA) B A Remington (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) R Rosner (Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago, USA) A Schmidt (Naval Research Laboratory, USA) K R Sreenivasan (International Centre for Theoretical Physics

  20. PREFACE: International Symposium on Vacuum Science & Technology and its Application for Accelerators (IVS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, V. S.; Pal, Gautam

    2012-11-01

    clearly indicates that industry has advanced quite significantly. During the symposium, the Indian Vacuum Society honoured two distinguished personalities for their remarkable and significant contributions to the field of vacuum science and development of technology in the country. Awards were presented for both oral and poster papers during the symposium. A committee evaluated the scientific content and clarity of presentation of contributed papers. We believe that deliberations and discussions at the symposium will help gain a better understanding of the complicated and involved technology of vacuum science and be of benefit to scientists and technologists. Subimal Saha Convener Gautam Pal Co-Convener V S Pandit Secretary Surajit Pal Treasurer Conference photograph International Advisory Committee National Advisory Committee S BanerjeeDAE/IndiaR K Bhandari (Chairman)VECC Rockett AngusAVS/USAD L BandyopadhyayIVS A V Dadve CdrPfeiffer Vac /IndiaS B BhattIPR M Barma TIFR/IndiaK G BhushanBARC R K BhandariVECC/IndiaAlok ChakrabartiVECC R C BudhaniNPL, IndiaD P ChakravartyBARC Shekhar ChanderCEERI/IndiaTushar DesaiMumbai Univ S C ChetalIGCAR/IndiaR DeyVECC K L ChopraIIT Delhi/IndiaS C GadkariBARC Christian DayKIT/GermanyS K GuptaIUVSTA/India Kraemer DieterFAIR/GermanyShrikrishna GuptaBARC L M GantayatBARC/IndiaRajendra JatharAgilent Technologies R B GroverDAE, BARC/IndiaS N JoshiCEERI P D Gupta RRCAT/IndiaD KanjilalIUAC Szajman JakubVSA/AustraliaC MallikVECC R N JayarajNFC/IndiaS G MarkandeyaBRNS S KailasBARC/IndiaK C MittalBARC P K KawIPR/IndiaS NagarjunHHV Bangalore Lalit KumarMTRDC/IndiaK G M NairIGCAR Jean Larour Ecole/FranceGautam Pal (Co-convener)VECC Marminga LiaTRIUMF/CanadaSurajit Pal (Treasurer)VECC Shekhar MishraFermilab/USA V S Pandit (Secretary)VECC Ganapatirao MyneniJlab/USaR G PillayTIFR S V NarasaiahHHV/IndiaMohan PradeepNPL K RadhakrishnanISRO/IndiaY Ranga RaoVac Techniques A S Raja RaoIVS/IndiaR RanganathanSINP T RamasamiDST/IndiaSubimal Saha (Convener