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Sample records for agathosma crenulata dodonaea

  1. Antineoplastic effects of Rhodiola crenulata treatment on B16-F10 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Maxine C; Wong, Kaitlyn E; Bassa, Lotfi M; Mora, Maria Carmen; Ser-Dolansky, Jennifer; Henneberry, Jean M; Crisi, Giovanna M; Arenas, Richard B; Schneider, Sallie S

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer with limited treatment options for advanced stage disease. Early detection and wide surgical excision remain the initial mode of treatment for primary tumors thus preventing metastases and leading to improved prognosis. Through this work, we have evaluated the antineoplastic effects of Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) root extracts on the B16-F10 melanoma cell line, both in vitro and in vivo. We observed that R. crenulata treatment resulted in increased cell death as well as a reduction in tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Additionally, we observed that R. crenulata decreased the expression of integrin β1 and vimentin and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Further, in mice treated with a topical R. crenulata-based cream therapy, tumors were more likely to have a radial growth pattern, a reduction in mitotic activity, and an increase in tumor necrosis. We also observed that mice drinking water supplemented with R. crenulata displayed a reduction of metastatic foci in disseminated models of melanoma. Collectively, these findings suggest that R. crenulata exhibits striking antitumorigenic and antimetastatic properties and that this extract may harbor potential novel adjuvant therapy for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26159852

  2. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Investigation of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicols. Stem.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Subramanian; Ramakrishnan, N

    2011-07-01

    Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigation were carried out on the stem of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicols. The pharmacognostic analysis revealed total ash of 9.65%, water soluble ash of 48.0%, alcohol soluble extractive value of 13.0% and acid insoluble ash of 48.0%. The quantitative and qualitative analysis is very essential for identifying the compounds present in the medicinal plants. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, phenol, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, and alkaloid, while triterpenoid, anthraquinone and quinone were absent. The present paper deals with the standardization of its aerial part of plant on the basis of various pharmacognostic parameters. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analysis of this species. PMID:22736885

  3. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Investigation of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicols. Stem

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Subramanian; Ramakrishnan, N

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigation were carried out on the stem of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicols. The pharmacognostic analysis revealed total ash of 9.65%, water soluble ash of 48.0%, alcohol soluble extractive value of 13.0% and acid insoluble ash of 48.0%. The quantitative and qualitative analysis is very essential for identifying the compounds present in the medicinal plants. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, phenol, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, and alkaloid, while triterpenoid, anthraquinone and quinone were absent. The present paper deals with the standardization of its aerial part of plant on the basis of various pharmacognostic parameters. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analysis of this species. PMID:22736885

  4. Rapid Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Antibacterial Clerodane Type Diterpenoid from Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jaeq.

    PubMed Central

    Khurram, Muhammad; Lawton, Linda A.; Edwards, Christine; Iriti, Marcello; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Murad A.; Khan, Farman A.; ur Rahman, Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts are complex matrices and, although crude extracts are widely in use, purified compounds are pivotal in drug discovery. This study describes the application of automated preparative-HPLC combined with a rapid off-line bacterial bioassay, using reduction of a tetrazolium salt as an indicator of bacterial metabolism. This approach enabled the identification of fractions from Dodonaea viscosa that were active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, which, ultimately, resulted in the identification of a clerodane type diterpenoid, 6β-hydroxy-15,16-epoxy-5β, 8β, 9β, 10α-cleroda-3, 13(16), 14-trien-18-oic acid, showing bacteriostatic activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 64–128 µg/mL) against test bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antibacterial activity of this metabolite from D. viscosa. PMID:26343638

  5. Comparison of fatty acid composition of cell homogenates and isolated chloroplasts in Acetabularia crenulata (Lamouroux).

    PubMed

    Santiago-Vázquez, Lory Z; Jacobs, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    Algal preparations from Acetabularia crenulata were analyzed for their fatty acid composition to establish the suitability of this alga as a model to study fatty acid oxidation and oxylipin biosynthesis. The work was based on two goals. The first goal of this study was to determine the contribution of fatty acids from contaminating bacteria and how this influenced the total fatty acid composition of cell homogenates of A. crenulata collected in the wild as compared to specimens cultured in sterile conditions. The major fatty acids detected for both specimens were palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-7), oleic (C18:1n-9), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolenic (C18:3n-3), and octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4n-3). Significant amounts of odd-chain fatty acids common to bacteria were not detected in either sample. Furthermore, branched-chain fatty acids, typical bacterial biomarkers, were not detected in either sample. Data suggest that bacteria do not greatly contribute to the total fatty acid pool of A. crenulata. The second goal was to compare the fatty acid composition of cell homogenates with that of isolated chloroplasts. Comparatively speaking palmitoleic and octadecatetraenoic acid were found at significantly lower concentrations in the chloroplast whereas oleic and linolenic acid were found at significantly higher amounts in this organelle. Furthermore, the amount of hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3), a fatty acid commonly esterified to monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG; lipid present at high concentrations inside the chloroplasts of algae), was present at very low concentrations in these plastids (0.7%). Typically green algal follow the "prokaryotic pathway" for MGDG biosynthesis where C18:3 is esterified at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone and C18:3 or C16:3 at the sn-2 position, making C16:3 a major fatty acid inside chloroplasts. Interestingly, our results suggest that chloroplasts of A. crenulata appear to follow the "eukaryotic pathway" for MGDG

  6. Effects of seed burial on germination, protein mobilisation and seedling survival in Dodonaea viscosa.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Rodríguez, L; Gamboa-deBuen, A; Sánchez-Coronado, M E; Alvarado-López, S; Soriano, D; Méndez, I; Vázquez-Santana, S; Carabias-Lillo, J; Mendoza, A; Orozco-Segovia, A

    2014-07-01

    Ecological restoration of disturbed areas requires substantial knowledge of the germination of native plants and the creation of novel methods to increase seedling establishment in the field. We studied the effects of soil matrix priming on the germination of Dodonaea viscosa seeds, which exhibit physical dormancy. To this end, we buried both pre-scarified (in H2SO4, 3 min) and non-pre-scarified seeds in the Parque Ecológico de la Ciudad de México. After seeds were unearthed, they were post-scarified for 0, 2, 6 and 10 min and their germination percentages compared to the germination of a control batch of laboratory-stored seeds. For both control and unearthed seeds, the protein pattern was determined in the enriched storage protein fraction in SDS-PAGE gels stained with Coomassie blue. Percentage germination increased as the scarification time increased. Pre-scarification significantly increased percentage germination of post-scarified seeds in relation to the control and non-pre-scarified seeds. In seeds unearthed from the forest site, the buried pre-scarified seeds had relatively high percentage germination, even in the absence of post-scarification treatment. A 48-kDa protein was not found in unearthed, pre-scarified seeds nor in the control germinated seeds, indicating that mobilisation of this protein occurred during soil priming. Burying seeds for a short period, including the beginning of the rainy season, promoted natural priming, which increased protein mobilisation. Functionally, priming effects were reflected in high percentage seedling survival in both the shade house and the field. Seed burial also reduced the requirement for acidic post-scarification.

  7. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously. PMID:25039174

  8. Rhodiola crenulata extract for prevention of acute mountain sickness: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) is widely used to prevent acute mountain sickness in the Himalayan areas and in Tibet, but no scientific studies have previously examined its effectiveness. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to investigate its efficacy in acute mountain sickness prevention. Methods Healthy adult volunteers were randomized to 2 treatment sequences, receiving either 800 mg R. crenulata extract or placebo daily for 7 days before ascent and 2 days during mountaineering, before crossing over to the alternate treatment after a 3-month wash-out period. Participants ascended rapidly from 250 m to 3421 m on two separate occasions: December 2010 and April 2011. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of acute mountain sickness, as defined by a Lake Louise score ≥ 3, with headache and at least one of the symptoms of nausea or vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, or difficulty sleeping. Results One hundred and two participants completed the trial. There were no demographic differences between individuals taking Rhodiola-placebo and those taking placebo-Rhodiola. No significant differences in the incidence of acute mountain sickness were found between R. crenulata extract and placebo groups (all 60.8%; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–1.52). The incidence of severe acute mountain sickness in Rhodiola extract vs. placebo groups was 35.3% vs. 29.4% (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.90–2.25). Conclusions R. crenulata extract was not effective in reducing the incidence or severity of acute mountain sickness as compared to placebo. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01536288. PMID:24176010

  9. Study on 1H-NMR fingerprinting of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi-yuan; Zhou, Jiang-tao; Chen, Yan-yan; Ding, Li-qin; Jiang, Miao-miao

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) fingerprint of Rhodiola rosea medicinal materials was established, and used to distinguish the quality of raw materials from different sources. Pulse sequence for water peak inhibition was employed to acquire 1H-NMR spectra with the temperature at 298 K and spectrometer frequency of 400.13 MHz. Through subsection integral method, the obtained NMR data was subjected to similarity analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). 10 batches raw materials of Rhodiola rosea from different origins were successfully distinguished by PCA. The statistical results indicated that rhodiola glucoside, butyl alcohol, maleic acid and alanine were the main differential ingredients. This method provides an auxiliary method of Chinese quality approach to evaluate the quality of Rhodiola crenulata without using natural reference substances. PMID:26697690

  10. [Optimization of extraction technology for salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid in Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma with orthogonal test].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Xue-jing; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The extracting technology of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma was optimized. With extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid as indexes, orthogonal test was used to evaluate effect of 4 factors on extracting technology, including concentration of solvent, the dosage of solvent, duration of extraction, and frequency of extraction. The results showed that, the best extracting technology was to extract in 70% alcohol with 8 times the weight of herbal medicine for 2 times, with 3 hours once. High extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid were obtained with the present technology. The extracting technology was stable and feasible with high extraction rate of four compounds from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma, it was suitable for industrial production.

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia on the Virulence Properties of the Oral Pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Owotade, Foluso John

    2013-01-01

    Aim. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA) on the virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis implicated in periodontal diseases. Methods. S. mutans was cultured in tryptone broth containing a crude leaf extract of DVA for 16 hours, and the pH was measured after 10, 12, 14, and 16 h. Biofilms of S. mutans were grown on glass slides for 48 hours and exposed to plant extract for 30 minutes; the adherent cells were reincubated and the pH was measured at various time intervals. Minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts against the four periodontal pathogens was determined. The effect of the subinhibitory concentration of plant extract on the production of proteinases by P. gingivalis was also evaluated. Results. DVA had no effect on acid production by S. mutans biofilms; however, it significantly inhibited acid production in planktonic cells. Periodontal pathogens were completely eliminated at low concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.02 mg/mL of crude plant extracts. At subinhibitory concentrations, DVA significantly reduced Arg-gingipain (24%) and Lys-gingipain (53%) production by P. gingivalis (P ≤ 0.01). Conclusions. These results suggest that DVA has the potential to be used to control oral infections including dental caries and periodontal diseases. PMID:24223061

  12. Engineering Salidroside Biosynthetic Pathway in Hairy Root Cultures of Rhodiola crenulata Based on Metabolic Characterization of Tyrosine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lingjiang; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Qiu, Fei; Zheng, Weilie; Quan, Hong; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min; Huang, Wenlin; Liu, Wanhong; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase initializes salidroside biosynthesis. Metabolic characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase gene from Rhodiola crenulata (RcTYDC) revealed that it played an important role in salidroside biosynthesis. Recombinant 53 kDa RcTYDC converted tyrosine into tyramine. RcTYDC gene expression was induced coordinately with the expression of RcUDPGT (the last gene involved in salidroside biosynthesis) in SA/MeJA treatment; the expression of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT was dramatically upregulated by SA, respectively 49 folds and 36 folds compared with control. MeJA also significantly increased the expression of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT in hairy root cultures. The tissue profile of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT was highly similar: highest expression levels found in stems, higher expression levels in leaves than in flowers and roots. The gene expressing levels were consistent with the salidroside accumulation levels. This strongly suggested that RcTYDC played an important role in salidroside biosynthesis in R. crenulata. Finally, RcTYDC was used to engineering salidroside biosynthetic pathway in R. crenulata hairy roots via metabolic engineering strategy of overexpression. All the transgenic lines showed much higher expression levels of RcTYDC than non-transgenic one. The transgenic lines produced tyramine, tyrosol and salidroside at higher levels, which were respectively 3.21–6.84, 1.50–2.19 and 1.27–3.47 folds compared with the corresponding compound in non-transgenic lines. In conclusion, RcTYDC overexpression promoted tyramine biosynthesis that facilitated more metabolic flux flowing toward the downstream pathway and as a result, the intermediate tyrosol was accumulated more that led to the increased production of the end-product salidroside. PMID:24124492

  13. Bioactive compound loaded stable silver nanoparticle synthesis from microwave irradiated aqueous extracellular leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata and its wound healing activity in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, T; Thiyagarajan, M; Geetha, N; Venkatachalam, P

    2014-07-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles was developed using Naringi crenulata leaf extracts via microwave irradiation method. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by treating N. crenulata leaf extracts with 1mM of aqueous silver nitrate solution. An effective bioactive compound such as alkaloids, phenols, saponins and quinines present in the N. crenulata reduces the Ag(+) into Ag(0). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometer and further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 390nm due to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. From FESEM results, an average crystal size of the synthesized nanoparticle was 72-98nm. FT-IR results showed sharp absorption peaks and they were assigned to phosphine, alkyl halides and sulfonate groups. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical and cubic shape. Topical application of ointment prepared from silver nanoparticles of N. crenulata were formulated and evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model on Wistar albino rats. The measurement of the wound areas was performed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th days and the percentage of wound closures was calculated accordingly. By the 15th day, the ointment base containing 5% (w/w) of silver nanoparticles showed 100% wound healing activity compared with that of the reference as well as control bases. The results strongly suggested that the batch C ointment containing silver nanaoparticles synthesized from the leaf extracts of N. crenulata was found to be very effective in wound repair and encourages harnessing the potentials of the plant biomolecules loaded silver nanoparticle in the treatment of tropical diseases including wound healing. PMID:24681224

  14. Bioactive compound loaded stable silver nanoparticle synthesis from microwave irradiated aqueous extracellular leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata and its wound healing activity in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, T; Thiyagarajan, M; Geetha, N; Venkatachalam, P

    2014-07-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles was developed using Naringi crenulata leaf extracts via microwave irradiation method. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by treating N. crenulata leaf extracts with 1mM of aqueous silver nitrate solution. An effective bioactive compound such as alkaloids, phenols, saponins and quinines present in the N. crenulata reduces the Ag(+) into Ag(0). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometer and further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 390nm due to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. From FESEM results, an average crystal size of the synthesized nanoparticle was 72-98nm. FT-IR results showed sharp absorption peaks and they were assigned to phosphine, alkyl halides and sulfonate groups. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical and cubic shape. Topical application of ointment prepared from silver nanoparticles of N. crenulata were formulated and evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model on Wistar albino rats. The measurement of the wound areas was performed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th days and the percentage of wound closures was calculated accordingly. By the 15th day, the ointment base containing 5% (w/w) of silver nanoparticles showed 100% wound healing activity compared with that of the reference as well as control bases. The results strongly suggested that the batch C ointment containing silver nanaoparticles synthesized from the leaf extracts of N. crenulata was found to be very effective in wound repair and encourages harnessing the potentials of the plant biomolecules loaded silver nanoparticle in the treatment of tropical diseases including wound healing.

  15. Behavioral thermoregulation and critical thermal limits of giant keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata(Sowerby 1825) (Mollusca; Vetigastropoda).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Fernando; Denisse Re, Ana; Salas, Alfredo; Galindo-Sanchez, Clara E; Gonzalez, Marco A; Sanchez, Adolfo; Rosas, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The thermoregulatory behavior of the giant keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata was determined in a horizontal thermal gradient during the day at 18.9 °C and 18.3 °C for the night. The final preferendum determined for giant keyhole limpets was of 18.6±1.2 °C. Limpets' displacement velocity was 10.0±3.9 cm h(-1) during the light phase and 8.4±1.6 cm h(-1) during the dark phase. The thermotolerance (measured as CTMax at 50%) was determined in a keyhole limpet in three acclimation temperatures 17, 20, and 23 °C. Limpets were subjected to water increasing temperatures at a rate of 1 °C every 30 min, until they detached from the substrate. The critical thermal maximum at 50% was 27.2, 27.9 and 28.3 °C respectively.

  16. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: −51% vs. RC: −41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID

  17. Diversity and antioxidant activity of culturable endophytic fungi from alpine plants of Rhodiola crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Long; Guo, Ting-Ting; Ren, Zhen-Xing; Zhang, Na-Sha; Wang, Meng-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola spp. are rare and endangered alpine plants widely used as medicines and food additives by many civilizations since ancient times. Their main effective ingredients (such as salidroside and p-tyrosol) are praised to exhibit pharmacologic effects on high-altitude sickness and possess anti-aging and other adaptogenic capacities based on their antioxidant properties. In this study, 347 endophytic fungi were isolated from R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, and the molecular diversity and antioxidant activities of these fungi were investigated for the first time. These fungi were categorized into 180 morphotypes based on cultural characteristics, and their rRNA gene ITS sequences were analyzed by BLAST search in the GenBank database. Except for 12 unidentified fungi (6.67%), all others were affiliated to at least 57 genera in 20 orders of four phyla, namely, Ascomycota (88.89%), Basidiomycota (2.78%), Zygomycota (1.11%), and Glomeromycota (0.56%), which exhibited high abundance and diversity. Antioxidant assay showed that the DPPH radical-scavenging rates of 114 isolates (63.33%) were >50%, and those of five isolates (Rct45, Rct63, Rct64, Rac76, and Rsc57) were >90%. The EC50 values of five antioxidant assays suggested significant potential of these fungi on scavenging DPPH•, O2-•, and OH• radicals, as well as scavenging nitrite and chelating Fe2+, which showed preference and selection between endophytic fungi and their hosts. Further research also provided the first evidence that Rac12 could produce salidrosides and p-tyrosol. Results suggested that versatile endophytic fungi associated with Rhodiola known as antioxidants could be exploited as potential sources of novel antioxidant products.

  18. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  19. Diversity and Antioxidant Activity of Culturable Endophytic Fungi from Alpine Plants of Rhodiola crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jin-Long; Guo, Ting-Ting; Ren, Zhen-Xing; Zhang, Na-Sha; Wang, Meng-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola spp. are rare and endangered alpine plants widely used as medicines and food additives by many civilizations since ancient times. Their main effective ingredients (such as salidroside and p-tyrosol) are praised to exhibit pharmacologic effects on high-altitude sickness and possess anti-aging and other adaptogenic capacities based on their antioxidant properties. In this study, 347 endophytic fungi were isolated from R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, and the molecular diversity and antioxidant activities of these fungi were investigated for the first time. These fungi were categorized into 180 morphotypes based on cultural characteristics, and their rRNA gene ITS sequences were analyzed by BLAST search in the GenBank database. Except for 12 unidentified fungi (6.67%), all others were affiliated to at least 57 genera in 20 orders of four phyla, namely, Ascomycota (88.89%), Basidiomycota (2.78%), Zygomycota (1.11%), and Glomeromycota (0.56%), which exhibited high abundance and diversity. Antioxidant assay showed that the DPPH radical-scavenging rates of 114 isolates (63.33%) were >50%, and those of five isolates (Rct45, Rct63, Rct64, Rac76, and Rsc57) were >90%. The EC50 values of five antioxidant assays suggested significant potential of these fungi on scavenging DPPH•, O2−•, and OH• radicals, as well as scavenging nitrite and chelating Fe2+, which showed preference and selection between endophytic fungi and their hosts. Further research also provided the first evidence that Rac12 could produce salidrosides and p-tyrosol. Results suggested that versatile endophytic fungi associated with Rhodiola known as antioxidants could be exploited as potential sources of novel antioxidant products. PMID:25768014

  20. A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method for identification of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Ma, Li; Liu, Tianfeng; Wu, Yawen; Xu, Rui; Song, Aihua; Yin, Ran

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was developed for the first time to analyze the extract of Rhodiola crenulata and the constituents absorbed into rat blood and brain after oral administration. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 64 chemical constituents were identified or tentatively characterized in vitro in 30min, and also 24 and 9 chemical constituents were detected in rat plasma and brain respectively, by comparing the retention time, accurate mass and/or MS/MS data of blank and dosed sample. The results indicated that the developed UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was suitable for detection and identifying the chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain, and it could be used as a powerful and reliable analytical strategy for rapid identification of chemical constituents in vitro and in vivo for other traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCMs). Furthermore, the detected chemical constituents in rat brain could be speculated to be the pharmacodynamic substances of Rhodiola crenulata for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it could also provide useful chemical information for further mass spectrometry imaging and bioactive substances research on Rhodiola crenulata. PMID:27591603

  1. A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method for identification of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Ma, Li; Liu, Tianfeng; Wu, Yawen; Xu, Rui; Song, Aihua; Yin, Ran

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was developed for the first time to analyze the extract of Rhodiola crenulata and the constituents absorbed into rat blood and brain after oral administration. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 64 chemical constituents were identified or tentatively characterized in vitro in 30min, and also 24 and 9 chemical constituents were detected in rat plasma and brain respectively, by comparing the retention time, accurate mass and/or MS/MS data of blank and dosed sample. The results indicated that the developed UHPLC-FT-ICR MS/MS method was suitable for detection and identifying the chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata extract, rat plasma and rat brain, and it could be used as a powerful and reliable analytical strategy for rapid identification of chemical constituents in vitro and in vivo for other traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCMs). Furthermore, the detected chemical constituents in rat brain could be speculated to be the pharmacodynamic substances of Rhodiola crenulata for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it could also provide useful chemical information for further mass spectrometry imaging and bioactive substances research on Rhodiola crenulata.

  2. Protective Effects of a Rhodiola Crenulata Extract and Salidroside on Hippocampal Neurogenesis against Streptozotocin-Induced Neural Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ze-qiang; Zhou, Yan; Zeng, Yuan-shan; Lin, Yu-kun; Li, Yan; Zhong, Zhi-qiang; Chan, Wood Yee

    2012-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that a Rhodiola crenulata extract (RCE), containing a potent antioxidant salidroside, promotes neurogenesis in the hippocampus of depressive rats. The current study was designed to further investigate the protective effect of the RCE on neurogenesis in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ), and to determine whether this neuroprotective effect is induced by the antioxidative activity of salidroside. Our results showed that pretreatment with the RCE significantly improved the impaired neurogenesis and simultaneously reduced the oxidative stress in the hippocampus of AD rats. In vitro studies revealed that (1) exposure of neural stem cells (NSCs) from the hippocampus to STZ strikingly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, induced cell death and perturbed cell proliferation and differentiation, (2) hydrogen peroxide induced similar cellular activities as STZ, (3) pre-incubation of STZ-treated NSCs with catalase, an antioxidant, suppressed all these cellular activities induced by STZ, and (4) likewise, pre-incubation of STZ-treated NSCs with salidroside, also an antioxidant, suppressed all these activities as catalase: reduction of ROS levels and NSC death with simultaneous increases in proliferation and differentiation. Our findings indicated that the RCE improved the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in the rat model of AD through protecting NSCs by its main ingredient salidroside which scavenged intracellular ROS. PMID:22235318

  3. Effects of Rhodiola on production, health and gut development of broilers reared at high altitude in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long; Wang, Honghui; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Rhodiola has long been used as a traditional medicine to increase resistance to physical stress in humans in Tibet. The current study was designed to investigate whether Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) could alleviate the negative effects of hypoxia on broiler chickens reared in Tibet Plateau. The effect of supplementing crushed roots of R. crenulata on production performance, health and intestinal morphology in commercial male broilers was investigated. Dietary treatments included CTL (basal diet), Low-R (basal diet + 0.5% R. crenulata) and High-R (basal diet + 1.5% R. crenulata). In comparison with broilers fed the control diet, Low-R had no effect on production performance while High-R significantly decreased average daily feed intake at d14, 28 and 42, body weight at d28 and 42 and gut development. Ascites induced mortality did not differ among treatments. Nevertheless Low-R significantly reduced non-ascites induced mortality and total mortality compared with broilers fed CTL and High-R diets. Broilers fed the High-R diet had significantly increased blood red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels at 28d compared with other treatments. Our results suggest that supplementation with Rhodiola might reduce the effects of hypoxia on broilers and consequently decrease mortality rate. PMID:25418541

  4. New secondary metabolites isolated from dondonae viscosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dodonaea viscosa Linn. from Egypt, resulted in the isolation and identification of three new compounds, including two new clerodane diterpenoids and a new myo-inositol derivative, along with nine...

  5. Occurrence of Physical Dormancy in Seeds of Australian Sapindaceae: A Survey of 14 Species in Nine Genera

    PubMed Central

    Cook, A.; Turner, S. R.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.; Steadman, K. J.; Dixon, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Sapindaceae is one of 16 angiosperm families whose seeds have physical dormancy (PY). However, the extent and nature of PY within this family is poorly known. The primary aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate seed characteristics and determine presence (or not) of PY within nine genera of Australian Sapindaceae; and (2) to compare the frequency of PY across the phylogenetic tree within Australian Sapindaceae. Methods Viability, imbibition and seed characteristics were assessed for 14 taxa from nine genera of Sapindaceae. For five species of Dodonaea, optimal conditions for germination and dormancy break were evaluated. An in situ burial experiment was performed on D. hackettiana seeds to identify the factor(s) responsible for overcoming PY. Classes of dormancy and of non-dormancy for 26 genera of Sapindaceae were mapped onto a phylogenetic tree for the family. Key Results Mean seed viability across all taxa was 69·7 %. Embryos were fully developed and folded (seven genera) or bent (two genera); no endosperm was present. Seeds of all five Dodonaea spp. and of Distichostemon hispidulus had PY. Hot-water treatment released PY in these six species. Optimal germination temperature for seeds of the four Dodonaea spp. that germinated was 15–20 °C. Following 5 months burial in soil, 36·4 % of D. hackettiana seeds had lost PY and germinated by the beginning of the winter wet season (May). Laboratory and field data indicate that dormancy was broken by warm, moist temperatures (≥50 °C) during summer. Conclusions PY occurs infrequently in genera of Sapindaceae native to Australia. Seeds of Dodonaea and Distichostemon had PY, whereas those of the other seven genera did not. Seeds of these two genera and of Diplopeltis (a previous study) are the only three of the 20 native Australian genera of Sapindaceae for which germination has been studied that have PY; all three belong to subfamily Dodonaeoideae. PMID:18369237

  6. The giant keyhole limpet radular teeth: A naturally-grown harvest machine.

    PubMed

    Ukmar-Godec, Tina; Kapun, Gregor; Zaslansky, Paul; Faivre, Damien

    2015-12-01

    The limpet radula is a feeding organ, which contains more than 100 rows of teeth. During their growth the teeth mature and advance in position along the radula. The simpler doccoglossan radulae operate by grinding rocky substrates, extracting the algae by rasping and scraping with the teeth functioning as shovels. Less is known about the rhipidoglossan radulae, used as rakes or brooms that brush and collect loose marine debris. This type of radula is found in the giant keyhole limpet (Megathura crenulata). The large size of this organism suggests that the rhipidoglossan radula entails a technological superiority for M. crenulata in its habitat. The structure and function of the radulae teeth have however not been reported in detail. Using a combination of 2D and 3D microscopy techniques coupled with amino acid analysis and X-ray scattering, we reveal the working components of M. crenulata's radula. It is characterized by numerous marginal teeth surrounding a pair of major hook-like lateral teeth, two pairs of minor lateral teeth and a large central tooth. The mature major lateral teeth show pronounced signs of wear, which gradually increase towards the very front end of the radula and are evidence for scraping. An abrupt change in the amino acid composition in the major lateral teeth and the concurrent formation of a chitinous fiber-network mark the onset of tooth maturation. In comparison to the simpler rock-scraping doccoglossate limpets, the radula of M. crenulata forms an elaborate feeding apparatus, which can be seen as a natural harvest machine. PMID:26433029

  7. The giant keyhole limpet radular teeth: A naturally-grown harvest machine.

    PubMed

    Ukmar-Godec, Tina; Kapun, Gregor; Zaslansky, Paul; Faivre, Damien

    2015-12-01

    The limpet radula is a feeding organ, which contains more than 100 rows of teeth. During their growth the teeth mature and advance in position along the radula. The simpler doccoglossan radulae operate by grinding rocky substrates, extracting the algae by rasping and scraping with the teeth functioning as shovels. Less is known about the rhipidoglossan radulae, used as rakes or brooms that brush and collect loose marine debris. This type of radula is found in the giant keyhole limpet (Megathura crenulata). The large size of this organism suggests that the rhipidoglossan radula entails a technological superiority for M. crenulata in its habitat. The structure and function of the radulae teeth have however not been reported in detail. Using a combination of 2D and 3D microscopy techniques coupled with amino acid analysis and X-ray scattering, we reveal the working components of M. crenulata's radula. It is characterized by numerous marginal teeth surrounding a pair of major hook-like lateral teeth, two pairs of minor lateral teeth and a large central tooth. The mature major lateral teeth show pronounced signs of wear, which gradually increase towards the very front end of the radula and are evidence for scraping. An abrupt change in the amino acid composition in the major lateral teeth and the concurrent formation of a chitinous fiber-network mark the onset of tooth maturation. In comparison to the simpler rock-scraping doccoglossate limpets, the radula of M. crenulata forms an elaborate feeding apparatus, which can be seen as a natural harvest machine.

  8. Characterization of chemical constituents in Rhodiola Crenulate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS).

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Mao, Xinjuan; Xu, Rui; Yin, Ran

    2016-05-01

    In this work, an approach using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS) for the identification and profiling of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata was developed for the first time. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm,3 µm) using a gradient elution program, and the detection was performed on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 48 chemical compounds, including 26 alcohols and their glycosides, 12 flavonoids and their glycosides, 5 flavanols and gallic acid derivatives, 4 organic acids and 1 cyanogenic glycoside were identified or tentatively characterized. The results indicated that the developed HPLC-FT-ICR MS method with ultra-high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents in R. crenulata. And it provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on R. crenulata. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Preliminary screening of 44 plant extracts for anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Ya, Wang; Chun-Meng, Zhao; Tao, Guo; Yi-Lin, Zhu; Ping, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    In order to find new tyrosinase inhibitors and antioxidant materials, we investigated 44 plants, which were evaluated for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities. The mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assay and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay were conducted to evaluate these activities. Among all tested plant extracts, Morus alba L. (positive control), Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Momordica charantia L., Cuminum cyminum L. et al. exhibit higher tyrosinase inhibition. Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Rosa rugosa Thunb. and Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. perform the highest antioxidant activity, similar to vitamin C (the positive control). A low positive correlation is found in the DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition assay. Considering these factors, the extracts of Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Alpinia officinarum Hance and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. exhibit high anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities and could be used in the cosmetic industry. Further studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant properties of these plant extracts. PMID:26408894

  10. Survival and growth of seedlings of 19 native tree and shrub species planted in degraded forest as part of a forest restoration project in Madagascar’s highlands

    PubMed Central

    Birkinshaw, Chris; Andrianjafy, Mamisoa; Rasolofonirina, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Percentage survival and mean percentage change in height were compared for 19 native tree and shrub species planted at Ankafobe Forest, a degraded fragment of highland forest, at ten months after planting. The species varied considerably in both, survival and growth. Best performers included Macaranga alnifolia (Euphorbiaceae), Harungana madagascariensis (Clusiaceae), Filicium decipiens (Sapindaceae) and Dodonaea madagascariensis (Sapindaceae). A comparison of survival between relatively short seedlings compared to relatively tall seedlings revealed no significant difference. This information will be used to increase the efficiency of forest restoration at this site. PMID:21892357

  11. Pollen record from Ka'au Crater, Oahu, Hawaii: Evidence for a dry glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, S.C.; Juvik, J.O. Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo )

    1993-06-01

    Fossil pollen from a 3.5 m-long core from Ka'au Crater, Hawaii (elev. 460 m), yields a ca. 23,000-year record of regional vegetation history. Results indicate a full-glacial period drier and possibly cooler than present, a warmer and wetter early Holocene, and a somewhat drier late Holocene; this sequence agrees with earlier work by Selling (1948) on other islands. The oldest zone is donated by pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, Acacia koa, and Dodonaea viscosa; post-glacial pollen assemblages feature high percentages of Myrsine and Coprosma, followed by increases in Lycopodium cernuum Ilex anomala. Freycinetia arborea and Pritchardia. After about 8000 years ago, Chenopodium, Acacia, and Dodonaea increase, suggesting a return to drier conditions. Abundant pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, a plant of dry regions, during the last glacial maximum implies that neither the trade winds nor cyclonic storms were delivering as much moisture to the regional vegetation as they presently do. This suggests that the ocean surface temperature during the last glacial maximum may have been cooler than present, a finding contradictory to the reconstructions of the CLIMAP (1981) group, which show temperatures near Hawaii equal to or even warmer than present.

  12. The giant keyhole limpet radular teeth: A naturally-grown harvest machine

    PubMed Central

    Ukmar-Godec, Tina; Kapun, Gregor; Zaslansky, Paul; Faivre, Damien

    2015-01-01

    The limpet radula is a feeding organ, which contains more than 100 rows of teeth. During their growth the teeth mature and advance in position along the radula. The simpler doccoglossan radulae operate by grinding rocky substrates, extracting the algae by rasping and scraping with the teeth functioning as shovels. Less is known about the rhipidoglossan radulae, used as rakes or brooms that brush and collect loose marine debris. This type of radula is found in the giant keyhole limpet (Megathura crenulata). The large size of this organism suggests that the rhipidoglossan radula entails a technological superiority for M. crenulata in its habitat. The structure and function of the radulae teeth have however not been reported in detail. Using a combination of 2D and 3D microscopy techniques coupled with amino acid analysis and X-ray scattering, we reveal the working components of M. crenulata’s radula. It is characterized by numerous marginal teeth surrounding a pair of major hook-like lateral teeth, two pairs of minor lateral teeth and a large central tooth. The mature major lateral teeth show pronounced signs of wear, which gradually increase towards the very front end of the radula and are evidence for scraping. An abrupt change in the amino acid composition in the major lateral teeth and the concurrent formation of a chitinous fiber-network mark the onset of tooth maturation. In comparison to the simpler rock-scraping doccoglossate limpets, the radula of M. crenulata forms an elaborate feeding apparatus, which can be seen as a natural harvest machine. PMID:26433029

  13. [Species specificity of morphogenetic factors of Acetabularia, localized in the cytoplasmic zone adjacent to the cell membrane].

    PubMed

    Naumova, G A; Naumova, L P; Puchkova, L I; Savchenko, S M; Sandakhchiev, L S

    1976-01-01

    The species specificity of the factors controlling the cap development was established in the experiments with the transplantation of both the intact and centrifuged in the basal direction apical regions of Acetabularia meditteranea on nuclear basal regions of A. crenulata. These factors are found at the stage of 72 hrs of regeneration primarily in the cytoplasmic zone adjacent to the cell membrane which is not displaced during centrifugation. Using direct measurements and radiochemical method, we have shown that the accumulation of proteins proceeded in this zone due, mainly, to their transition from the cytoplasmic zone displaced during centrifugation.

  14. Garra mondica, a new species from the Mond River drainage with remarks on the genus Garra from the Persian Gulf basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Garra mondica, new species, from the Mond River drainage in Iran is distinguished from its congeners by having 7½ branched dorsal-fin rays; the breast, belly and back in front of the dorsal-fin origin naked and 9+8 branched caudal-fin rays. Garra mondica is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin, except an unidentified species from the Kol River, by having two fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. The identity of G. gymnothorax, a nominal species from the Karun River drainage, and G. crenulata, a nominal species from Central Iran, are discussed. Garra populations examined from the Karun have a unique mtDNA COI barcode sequence, but their diagnostic characters are not consistent with the description and syntypes of G. gymnothorax. G. crenulata is considered as a synonym of G. rufa. Two populations of Garra from the Kol River have a sequence of the COI barcode region very similar to G. mondica, but cannot be identified as G. mondica and their identity cannot be resolved here.

  15. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.

    2009-01-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  16. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H; Moawad, S

    2009-07-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  17. The concept of the genus Ulothrix (Chlorophyta) strengthened by comparative cytology.

    PubMed

    Lokhorst, G M

    1985-01-01

    The revelation of the ultrastructure of the pyrenoid, flagellar apparatus and mitosis/cytokinesis in the green algal genus Ulothrix, in its traditional broad sense, resulted in the assignment of species to three newly defined green algal classes. The largest group consisting of 11 species (including the type species Ulothrix tenuissima) is classified in the Ulvophyceae, the species U. verrucosa and U. crenulata are transferred to the genus Klebsormidium in the Charophyceae while Ulothrix species with pointed apical cells (e.g. U. belkae) appear to belong to the Chlorophyceae. It is shown that cytokinesis in Ulothrix sensu stricto may vary from a strict furrowing mechanism in U. mucosa to a pattern in which the centripetal ingrowth is combined with a cell plate-like structure in U. palusalsa and U. zonata. Based on the growth habit, the type of life history and the ultrastructural features pertaining to cytokinesis and the flagellar apparatus, phylogenetic trends are suggested for the Ulotrichales sensu lato.

  18. Thanaka: traditional Burmese sun protection.

    PubMed

    Goldsberry, Anne; Dinner, Alan; Hanke, C William

    2014-03-01

    Limonia acidissima or Hesperethusa crenulata is a common tree in Southeast Asia. It is indigenous to the Republic of Myanmar (formerly Burma) as well as India, Sri Lanka, Java, and Pakistan. In English, the common names for Limonia acidissima are sandalwood, wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit tree. The plant has a number of different names in different languages including bal or bael in Assamese, bael in Bengali, kaitha in Hindi, belingai in Malaysia, and thanaka in Burmese. Unique to the Burmese people, thanaka has been used as a cosmetic product for over 2000 years. Mention of thanaka has been traced back to ancient Burmese lyrics, and relics of equipment used by ancient royalty to grind thanaka can be found in museums.

  19. Comparison of cold resistance physiological and biochemical features of four Herba Rhodiola seedlings under low temperature

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuling; Zhao, Kentian; Ma, Lingfa; Yang, Jingjun; Chang, Yuwei; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the cold resistance performance of different Herba Rhodiolae and successfully transplant Herba Rhodiolae to the Gansu plateau area for nursing, domestication and planting, this paper systematically studies six physiological and biochemical features of Rhodiola kirilowii, Rhodiola algida, Rhodiola crenulata and Herba Rhodiolae that are closely associated with cold resistance features and concludes with the cold resistance capability of Rhodiola kirilowii. In the selected six main indexes of the Herba Rhodiolae, the POD, SOD and CAT activity and MDA and Pro content in the leaf are the main physiological and biochemical indexes to indicate the cold resistance performance of four Herba Rhodiolae seedlings and can be regarded as the preliminary indexes to assess the winter performance of Herba Rhodiolae. The research work will provide the theoretical basis for the wild variants of Herba Rhodiolae and GAPJ base construction. PMID:26981000

  20. Circular dichroism study of the hemocyanin thermostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova Georgieva, Dessislava; Stoeva, Stanka; Abid Ali, Syed; Abbasi, Atiya; Genov, Nicolay; Voelter, Wolfgang

    1998-05-01

    Circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to investigate the thermostability of six arthropod hemocyanins (Hcs), representatives of the subphyla Crustacea (infraorder Brachyura) and Chelicerate (infraorders Xiphosura and Arachnida), and three molluscan Hcs from gastropod organisms. Melting points ( Tm) are determined from the temperature dependence of ellipticity of dioxygen-binding proteins from Maia squinado, Callinectes sapidus, Carcinus maenas, Limulus polyphemus, Buthus sindicus, Androctonus australis, Megathura crenulata, Haliotis tuberculata, and Rapana thomasiana. Both, arthropod and molluscan Hcs, are thermostable proteins with melting temperatures in the region 68-91°C. Binuclear dioxygen-binding sites contribute significantly to the thermostability and increase the Tm values of the apo-forms by 3-16°C. An elevated thermostability is observed in the case of the Limulus polyphemus Hc. One of the reasons is the high degree of hemocyanin oligomerization.

  1. Llandovery green/grey and black mudrock facies of the northern Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) and their relation to early Silurian sea-level changes and benthic oxygen level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trela, Wiesław; Podhalańska, Teresa; Smolarek, Justyna; Marynowski, Leszek

    2016-08-01

    The Llandovery mudrock facies in the northern Holy Cross Mountains reveal lithological variability allowing their interpretation in the context of post-Ordovician climate and sea-level changes in the Caledonian foredeep basin developed along the present SW margin of Baltica. They form a succession up to 50 m thick made up of grey and greenish clayey mudstones interrupted by black shales. The sedimentary and geochemical data (total organic carbon, pyrite framboids and trace metals) clearly show that the black shales document periods of the significant sediment starvation and oxygen- deficient conditions. Their occurrence is confined to the persculptus-acuminatus, vesiculosus, cyphus, convolutus-sedgwickii, turriculatus-crispus, crenulata and spiralis graptolite biozones and they can be correlated with post-glacial transgressions. In contrast, the grey and greenish mudstones are interpreted as lithofacies reflecting permanent benthic oxygenation driven by deep-water ventilation during the Aeronian and Telychian regressions supported by sedimentary and geochemical studies, and diameters of pyrite framboids

  2. New and little known Orthoptera (Ensifera and Caelifera) from the Ñambí River Natural Reserve, Nariño, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Gutiérrez, Yeisson; Bacca, Tito

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the Orthopterans from the Ñambí River Natural reserve is presented. A total of 26 species were studied, five new species are herein described: Championica nambiensis n. sp., Cocconotus awa n. sp., Cocconotus levyi n. sp. (Tettigoniidae: Pseudophyllinae), Antillicharis kwaiker n. sp. (Gryllidae) and Brachybaenus nariniensis n. sp. (Gryllacrididae). Three species are recorded from Colombia for the first time (Legua crenulata, Uvaroviella (Holacla) nebulosa and Anabropsis alata) and seven species are new records for Nariño department (Allotettix peruvianus, Ripipteryx ecuadoriensis, Neoconocephalus affinis, Anaulacomera poculigera, Orophus conspersus, Orophus tessellatus and Neocurtilla hexadactyla). Further comments on species distribution and taxonomy are given. PMID:27615970

  3. An Approach to Characterizing the Complicated Sequential Metabolism of Salidroside in Rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Ma, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yang; Lu, Lina; Yang, Ruirui; Yu, Guohua; Sun, Mohan; Xin, Shaokun; Tian, Simin; Chen, Xinjing; Zhao, Haiyu

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic study of bioactive compounds that undergo a dynamic and sequential process of metabolism is still a great challenge. Salidroside, one of the most active ingredients of Rhodiola crenulata, can be metabolized in different sites before being absorbed into the systemic blood stream. This study proposed an approach for describing the sequential biotransformation process of salidroside based on comparative analysis. In vitro incubation, in situ closed-loop and in vivo blood sampling were used to determine the relative contribution of each site to the total metabolism of salidroside. The results showed that salidroside was stable in digestive juice, and it was metabolized primarily by the liver and the intestinal flora and to a lesser extent by the gut wall. The sequential metabolism method described in this study could be a general approach to characterizing the metabolic routes in the digestive system for natural products. PMID:27248984

  4. Nutraceutical potential of selected wild edible fruits of the Indian Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Indra D; Rawat, Sandeep; Badhani, Amit; Rawal, Ranbeer S

    2017-01-15

    Wild edible fruits contribute significantly to the nutritional security of mankind across the globe. However, detailed analyses of health promoting bioactive compounds and antioxidants are lacking, especially in Himalayan wild edible fruits. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of 10 wild edible fruits reveal that Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica and Myrica esculenta are the richest source of total phenolics; Pyaracantha crenulata, Terminalia chebula and Berberis asiatica for flavonoids; Phyllanthus emblica, Morus alba and Ficus palmata for ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, and Morus alba for β-carotene. Phenolic compounds, i.e. Gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid varied among species and found the maximum in Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica. Antioxidant activity showed the significant relation with total phenolics, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Results indicated that these species should be promoted as a natural source of antioxidant/nutraceuticals so that these antioxidants can be used for supplementing dietary foods of mountain people. PMID:27542453

  5. Tandemly repeated nonribosomal DNA sequences in the chloroplast genome of an Acetabularia mediterranea strain.

    PubMed

    Tymms, M J; Schweiger, H G

    1985-03-01

    A purified chloroplast fraction was prepared from caps of the giant unicellular green alga Acetabularia mediterranea (strain 17). High molecular weight DNA obtained from these chloroplasts contains at least five copies of a 10-kilobase-pair (kbp) sequence tandemly arranged. This unique sequence is present in DNA from chloroplasts of all stages of the life cycle examined. A chloroplast rDNA clone from mustard hybridized with some restriction fragments from Acetabularia chloroplast DNA but not with the repeated sequence. An 8-kbp EcoRI-Pst I fragment of the repeated sequence was cloned into pBR322 and used as a hybridization probe. No homology was found between the cloned 8-kbp sequence and chloroplast DNA from related species Acetabularia crenulata or chloroplast DNA from spinach.

  6. [Effect of the ionic composition of the environment on the intracellular potential of the alga Acetabularia].

    PubMed

    Apostolova, R D; Ksenzhek, O S

    1977-01-01

    Concentration of K+-, Na+-, Mg++-, Ca++-, Cl-ions defined in Acetabularia crenulata cell was the same as that of Acetabularia mediterranea, both were cultivated under the same conditions. At the variations of the ionic composition of the external medium it has been shown that the potential of Acetabularia (A.) cell depends on K+-, Cl-ions and alga A. can accumulate K+- Cl-ions and lose Na+, Mg++ ones when there is a deficiency of these ions in the medium. Na+-, Mg++-ions participation in the generation of the rest potential of Alga A. is insignificant. K+- ion is able to change the ionic permeability of the membrane. There is a possibility of the existance of essential H+-, -OH-, or HCO3- ions flux in A. cell.

  7. From Traditional Resource to Global Commodities:-A Comparison of Rhodiola Species Using NMR Spectroscopy-Metabolomics and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Booker, Anthony; Zhai, Lixiang; Gkouva, Christina; Li, Shuyuan; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The fast developing international trade of products based on traditional knowledge and their value chains has become an important aspect of the ethnopharmacological debate. The structure and diversity of value chains and their impact on the phytochemical composition of herbal medicinal products, as well as the underlying government policies and regulations, have been overlooked in the debate about quality problems in transnational trade. Rhodiola species, including Rhodiola rosea L. and Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. & Thomson) H. Ohba, are used as traditional herbal medicines. Faced with resource depletion and environment destruction, R. rosea and R. crenulata are becoming endangered, making them more economically valuable to collectors and middlemen, and also increasing the risk of adulteration and low quality. Rhodiola products have been subject to adulteration and we recently assessed 39 commercial products for their composition and quality. However, the range of Rhodiola species potentially implicated has not been assessed. Also, the ability of selected analytical techniques in differentiating these species is not known yet. Using a strategy previously developed by our group, we compare the phytochemical differences among Rhodiola raw materials available on the market to provide a practical method for the identification of different Rhodiola species from Europe and Asia and the detection of potential adulterants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis software and high performance thin layer chromatography techniques were used to analyse the samples. Rosavin and rosarin were mainly present in R. rosea but also in Rosea sachalinensis Borris. 30% of the Rhodiola samples purchased from the Chinese market were adulterated by other Rhodiola spp. The utilization of a combined platform based on (1)H-NMR and HPTLC methods resulted in an integrated analysis of different Rhodiola species. We identified adulteration at the earliest stage

  8. From Traditional Resource to Global Commodities:—A Comparison of Rhodiola Species Using NMR Spectroscopy—Metabolomics and HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Anthony; Zhai, Lixiang; Gkouva, Christina; Li, Shuyuan; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The fast developing international trade of products based on traditional knowledge and their value chains has become an important aspect of the ethnopharmacological debate. The structure and diversity of value chains and their impact on the phytochemical composition of herbal medicinal products, as well as the underlying government policies and regulations, have been overlooked in the debate about quality problems in transnational trade. Rhodiola species, including Rhodiola rosea L. and Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. & Thomson) H. Ohba, are used as traditional herbal medicines. Faced with resource depletion and environment destruction, R. rosea and R. crenulata are becoming endangered, making them more economically valuable to collectors and middlemen, and also increasing the risk of adulteration and low quality. Rhodiola products have been subject to adulteration and we recently assessed 39 commercial products for their composition and quality. However, the range of Rhodiola species potentially implicated has not been assessed. Also, the ability of selected analytical techniques in differentiating these species is not known yet. Using a strategy previously developed by our group, we compare the phytochemical differences among Rhodiola raw materials available on the market to provide a practical method for the identification of different Rhodiola species from Europe and Asia and the detection of potential adulterants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis software and high performance thin layer chromatography techniques were used to analyse the samples. Rosavin and rosarin were mainly present in R. rosea but also in Rosea sachalinensis Borris. 30% of the Rhodiola samples purchased from the Chinese market were adulterated by other Rhodiola spp. The utilization of a combined platform based on 1H-NMR and HPTLC methods resulted in an integrated analysis of different Rhodiola species. We identified adulteration at the earliest stage

  9. From Traditional Resource to Global Commodities:—A Comparison of Rhodiola Species Using NMR Spectroscopy—Metabolomics and HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Anthony; Zhai, Lixiang; Gkouva, Christina; Li, Shuyuan; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The fast developing international trade of products based on traditional knowledge and their value chains has become an important aspect of the ethnopharmacological debate. The structure and diversity of value chains and their impact on the phytochemical composition of herbal medicinal products, as well as the underlying government policies and regulations, have been overlooked in the debate about quality problems in transnational trade. Rhodiola species, including Rhodiola rosea L. and Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. & Thomson) H. Ohba, are used as traditional herbal medicines. Faced with resource depletion and environment destruction, R. rosea and R. crenulata are becoming endangered, making them more economically valuable to collectors and middlemen, and also increasing the risk of adulteration and low quality. Rhodiola products have been subject to adulteration and we recently assessed 39 commercial products for their composition and quality. However, the range of Rhodiola species potentially implicated has not been assessed. Also, the ability of selected analytical techniques in differentiating these species is not known yet. Using a strategy previously developed by our group, we compare the phytochemical differences among Rhodiola raw materials available on the market to provide a practical method for the identification of different Rhodiola species from Europe and Asia and the detection of potential adulterants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis software and high performance thin layer chromatography techniques were used to analyse the samples. Rosavin and rosarin were mainly present in R. rosea but also in Rosea sachalinensis Borris. 30% of the Rhodiola samples purchased from the Chinese market were adulterated by other Rhodiola spp. The utilization of a combined platform based on 1H-NMR and HPTLC methods resulted in an integrated analysis of different Rhodiola species. We identified adulteration at the earliest stage

  10. Contrasting Geographical Distributions as a Result of Thermal Tolerance and Long-Distance Dispersal in Two Allegedly Widespread Tropical Brown Algae

    PubMed Central

    Tronholm, Ana; Leliaert, Frederik; Sansón, Marta; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Tyberghein, Lennert; Verbruggen, Heroen; De Clerck, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Background Many tropical marine macroalgae are reported from all three ocean basins, though these very wide distributions may simply be an artifact resulting from inadequate taxonomy that fails to take into account cryptic diversity. Alternatively, pantropical distributions challenge the belief of limited intrinsic dispersal capacity of marine seaweeds and the effectiveness of the north-south oriented continents as dispersal barriers. We aimed to re-assess the distribution of two allegedly circumtropical brown algae, Dictyota ciliolata and D. crenulata, and interpret the realized geographical range of the respective species in relation to their thermal tolerance and major tectonic and climatic events during the Cenozoic. Methodology/Principal Findings Species delimitation was based on 184 chloroplast encoded psbA sequences, using a Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent method. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by analyzing a six-gene dataset. Divergence times were estimated using relaxed molecular clock methods and published calibration data. Distribution ranges of the species were inferred from DNA-confirmed records, complemented with credible literature data and herbarium vouchers. Temperature tolerances of the species were determined by correlating distribution records with local SST values. We found considerable conflict between traditional and DNA-based species definitions. Dictyota crenulata consists of several pseudocryptic species, which have restricted distributions in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Central America. In contrast, the pantropical distribution of D. ciliolata is confirmed and linked to its significantly wider temperature tolerance. Conclusions/Significance Tectonically driven rearrangements of physical barriers left an unequivocal imprint on the current diversity patterns of marine macroalgae, as witnessed by the D. crenulata–complex. The nearly circumglobal tropical distribution of D. ciliolata, however, demonstrates that the north

  11. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Kealohanuiopuna M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cordell, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Heckman, Katherine; Hotchkiss, Sara; Jeraj, Marjeta; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E.; Questad, Erin J.; Thaxton, Jarrod M.; Trusdell, Frank; Kellner, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years), and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years). The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years) were dominated by the short-stature native shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. This work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands. PMID:26066334

  13. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  14. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Kealohanuiopuna M; Asner, Gregory P; Cordell, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver A; Heckman, Katherine; Hotchkiss, Sara; Jeraj, Marjeta; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E; Questad, Erin J; Thaxton, Jarrod M; Trusdell, Frank; Kellner, James R

    2015-01-01

    We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years), and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years). The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years) were dominated by the short-stature native shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. This work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands. PMID:26066334

  15. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence

    DOE PAGES

    Kinney, Kealohanuiopuna M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cordell, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Heckman, Katherine; Hotchkiss, Sara; Jeraj, Marjeta; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E.; Questad, Erin J.; et al

    2015-06-12

    We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years), and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years). The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years) were dominated by the short-stature nativemore » shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. In conclusion, this work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands.« less

  16. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Kealohanuiopuna M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cordell, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Heckman, Katherine; Hotchkiss, Sara; Jeraj, Marjeta; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E.; Questad, Erin J.; Thaxton, Jarrod M.; Trusdell, Frank; Kellner, James R.

    2015-06-12

    We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years), and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years). The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years) were dominated by the short-stature native shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. In conclusion, this work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands.

  17. Negative Stains Containing Trehalose: Application to Tubular and Filamentous Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. Robin; Gerber, Max; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Wernicke, Wolfgang; Markl, Jürgen

    1996-02-01

    Several examples are presented that show the successful application of uranyl acetate and ammonium molybdate negative staining in the presence of trehalose for TEM studies of filamentous and tubular structures. The principal benefit to be gained from the inclusion of trehalose stems from the considerably reduced flattening of the large tubular structures and the greater orientational freedom of single molecules due to an increased depth of the negative stain in the presence of trehalose. Trehalose is likely to provide considerable protection to protein molecules and their assemblies during the drying of negatively stained specimens. Some reduction in the excessive density imparted by uranyl acetate around large assemblies is also achieved. Nevertheless, in the presence of 1% (w/v) trehalose, it is desirable to increase the concentration of negative stain to 5% (w/v) for ammonium molybdate and to 4% for uranyl acetate to produce satisfactory image contrast. In general, the ammonium molybdate-trehalose negative stain is more satisfactory than the uranyl acetate-trehalose combination, because of the greater electron beam sensitivity of the uranyl negative stain. Reassembled taxol-stabilized pig brain microtubules, together with collagen fibrils, sperm tails, helical filaments, and reassociated hemocyanin (KLH2), all from the giant keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata, have been studied by negative staining in the presence of trehalose. In all cases satisfactory TEM imaging conditions were readily obtained on the specimens, as long as regions of excessively deep stain were avoided.

  18. Keyhole limpet haemocyanin – a model antigen for human immunotoxicological studies

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M; Dear, Keith; McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Immunization with a T-cell dependent antigen has been promoted as a reliable and sensitive tool for assessing the influence of putative immunotoxic exposures or agents on immune function. Keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) is a very large, copper-containing protein molecule derived from the haemolymph of the inedible mollusc, Megathura crenulata. KLH is a highly immunogenic T-cell dependent antigen that is used increasingly in immunotoxicological studies, particularly in those involving animals. This report systematically reviews the human clinical studies that have used trans-cutaneous KLH immunization for assessment of the influence of various physiological and disease states and exposures on immune function over the last 20 years (1994–2013). These studies varied in their immunization protocols, formulation of KLH, dose, site and route of administration and immunoassay platforms developed to assess KLH-specific responses. KLH immunization has been well tolerated with only mild to moderate adverse effects reported. Though very promising as a model antigen candidate in immunotoxicology research, more work on standardizing immunization and immunoassay protocols is required. PMID:24833186

  19. Occurrence and significance of Silurian K-bentonite beds at Arisaig, Nova Scotia, eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, Stig M.; Huff, W.D.; Kolata, Dennis R.; Melchin, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    The most extensive succession of K-bentonite beds known in the Silurian of North America occurs at Arisaig on the northern coast of Nova Scotia. At least 40 ash beds are present in the Llandoverian Ross Brook Formation and at least four in the early Ludlovian McAdam Brook Formation. Most of the beds are thin (<5 cm), but one bed (the Smith Brook K-bentonite bed) in the late Llandoverian crenulata Zone and another (the McAdam Brook K-bentonite bed) in the early Ludlovian nilssoni Zone each reach a thickness of 20 cm. New graptolite collections provide critical information on the biostratigraphic position of the K-bentonite beds in the Ross Brook Formation. Geochemical data show that the Arisaig ash beds represent calc-alkaline magmas from plate margin, subduction-related volcanic vents. Differences in K-bentonite stratigraphie distribution, combined with paleogeographic considerations, suggest that the volcanoes were located much farther to the south in the Iapetus than the source volcanoes of the British - Baltoscandian Llandoverian K-bentonites.

  20. Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms by plant extracts and putative identification of icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds.

    PubMed

    Coenye, Tom; Brackman, Gilles; Rigole, Petra; De Witte, Evy; Honraet, Kris; Rossel, Bart; Nelis, Hans J

    2012-03-15

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. This organism is capable of biofilm formation and the decreased antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm-associated cells may hamper efficient treatment. In addition, the prolonged use of systemic antibiotic therapy is likely to lead to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we investigated whether P. acnes biofilms could be eradicated by plant extracts or their active compounds, and whether other mechanisms besides killing of biofilm cells could be involved. Out of 119 plant extracts investigated, we identified five with potent antibiofilm activity against P. acnes (extracts from Epimedium brevicornum, Malus pumila, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rhodiola crenulata and Dolichos lablab). We subsequently identified icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds in three of these extracts. Extracts from E. brevicornum and P. cuspidatum, as well as their active compounds (icariin and resveratrol, respectively) showed marked antibiofilm activity when used in subinhibitory concentrations, indicating that killing of microbial cells is not their only mode of action. PMID:22305279

  1. The Circadian Rhythm in Photosynthesis in Acetabularia in the Presence of Actinomycin D, Puromycin, and Chloramphenicol

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Beatrice M.; Tuffli, Charles F.; Rubin, Richard H.

    1967-01-01

    Anucleate Acetabularia crenulata shows a circadian rhythm in photosynthesis. In this study, an oxygen electrode was employed to measure this photosynthetic rhythm in the presence and absence of the inhibitors, actinomycin D, chloramphenicol, and puromycin. High concentrations of the inhibitors were used: actinomycin D, 20–40 µg ml-1 puromycin, 30 and 100 µg ml-1; and chloramphenicol, 250 µg ml-1. The effectiveness of these inhibitors on protein synthesis was also measured under the same conditions used for the determination of rhythmicity. In spite of large effects of all three inhibitors on the incorporation of 14C leucine, no effect on the period or the phase of the photosynthetic rhythm was observed. The higher concentration of puromycin and chloramphenicol produced toxic effects which were expressed as a reduction in the amount of photosynthesis, but rhythmicity was still apparent. After 3 or 4 days' exposure to actinomycin, Acetabularia became resistant to its effect. Recovery was also observed in the ability to incorporate leucine. The implications of these results for theories of the basic oscillator responsible for circadian rhythmicity are discussed. PMID:11526851

  2. [Photic induction of polar growth in enucleated fragments of Acetabularia mediterranea].

    PubMed

    Pikalov, A V; Sandakhchiev, L S

    1975-01-01

    The process of induction of polarity in enucleated fragments (EF) of Acetabularia mediterranea has been studied by the method of local illumination. A device is described which allows to illuminate one part of EF at 2, 500 lx and another at 5 lx. The local illumination of a part of EF during 10-24 hrs was shown to polarize with a high probability the subsequent growth and formation of caps at the subsequent uniform illumination. Using the method of successive illumination and darkening of apical and basal portions of EF, it was shown that the initial stages of induction were partially reversible and the complete determination of polarity took place after the initiation of the cap anlage. After the short-term induction by light (2500 lx), the darkening of the growth zone inhibits completely the process of cap initiation, but already at 100 lx the EF previously induced at 2 500 lx are initiated and grow. While using the local illumination of grafts of EF from two species, A. crenulata and A. mediterranea, with their subsequent fragmentation and the analysis of cap morphology, it was shown that the induction of polar growth did not provide the directed transport of the factors controlling morphogenesis to the future growth zone.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of salidroside on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury involve the nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Xiao, Qing; Lin, Yan-hua; Zheng, Zhen-zhu; He, Zhao-dong; Hu, Juan; Chen, Li-dian

    2015-01-01

    Salidroside, the main active ingredient extracted from Rhodiola crenulata, has been shown to be neuroprotective in ischemic cerebral injury, but the underlying mechanism for this neuroprotection is poorly understood. In the current study, the neuroprotective effect of salidroside on cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative stress and the role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway was investigated in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Salidroside (30 mg/kg) reduced infarct size, improved neurological function and histological changes, increased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase, and reduced malon-dialdehyde levels after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Furthermore, salidroside apparently increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression. These results suggest that salidroside exerts its neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia through anti-oxidant mechanisms and that activation of the Nrf2 pathway is involved. The Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway may become a new therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:26889188

  4. The circadian rhythm in photosynthesis in Acetabularia in the presence of actinomycin D, puromycin, and chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, B M; Tuffli, C F; Rubin, R H

    1967-01-01

    Anucleate Acetabularia crenulata shows a circadian rhythm in photosynthesis. In this study, an oxygen electrode was employed to measure this photosynthetic rhythm in the presence and absence of the inhibitors, actinomycin D, chloramphenicol, and puromycin. High concentrations of the inhibitors were used: actinomycin D, 20-40 micrograms ml-1; puromycin, 30 and 100 micrograms ml-1; and chloramphenicol, 250 micrograms ml-1. The effectiveness of these inhibitors on protein synthesis was also measured under the same conditions used for the determination of rhythmicity. In spite of large effects of all three inhibitors on the incorporation of 14C leucine, no effect on the period or the phase of the photosynthetic rhythm was observed. The higher concentration of puromycin and chloramphenicol produced toxic effects which were expressed as a reduction in the amount of photosynthesis, but rhythmicity was still apparent. After 3 or 4 days' exposure to actinomycin, Acetabularia became resistant to its effect. Recovery was also observed in the ability to incorporate leucine. The implications of these results for theories of the basic oscillator responsible for circadian rhythmicity are discussed.

  5. Schistosoma mansoni shares a protective carbohydrate epitope with keyhole limpet hemocyanin

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The glycanic epitope of the 38,000 Mr Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula major immunogen defined by the IPLSm1 protective mAb was identified in the hemocyanin of the marine mollusc Megathura crenulata, better known as KLH. This antigenic community was exploited to investigate further the biological properties of this epitope. KLH was shown to strongly inhibit the binding of IPLSm1 mAb to its 38,000 Mr target antigen. Immunization of naive LOU rats with KLH elicited the production of anti- S. mansoni antibodies capable of immunoprecipitating the 38,000 Mr schistosomulum antigen. Antibodies to KLH mediated a marked eosinophil- dependent cytotoxicity and passively transferred immunity towards S. mansoni infection. Finally, rats immunized with KLH were significantly protected against a challenge with S. mansoni cercariae. The deglycosylation of KLH completely abolishes its immunological and functional KLH properties, indicating the participation of an oligosaccharidic epitope of the native KLH that is also recognized by the sera of S. mansoni-infected patients. These observations provide new opportunities of access to the well-defined structure of a glycanic epitope potentially available for the immunoprophylaxis and seroepidemiology of schistosomiasis, and a new approach to the isotypic response towards a well-chemically defined epitope. PMID:2434601

  6. Volcanism, sedimentation, K/Ar and palynology studies, Yayu and Delbi-Moye Basins, Southwestern Plateau of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, A.

    2014-05-01

    Major element, K/Ar, sedimentation and palynology data are reported on Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks from the Yayu and Delbi-Moye Basins, SW Ethiopia. In the Yayu and Delbi-Moye Basins, pre-rift volcanic (basalts) and post-rift volcanic (basalts) are separated by coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentary rocks. The basalts are tholeiitic in composition. The K/Ar data on the volcanic rocks range from 10.98 ± 0.55 Ma (Lower Miocene i.e. Tortonian) to 111.19 ± 2.83 Ma (Early Cretaceous i.e. Aptian). Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentary rocks are widely distributed in the Yayu and Delbi-Moye Basins. The NNW-SSE fault system developed grabens and half-grabens for the deposition of coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentary rocks. The sedimentary successions are dominated by fine to medium-grained sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, carbonaceous shales, carbonaceous claystones, coal and oil shale seams, and are characterized by meandering river and lacustrine depositional environments. Fresh water algae Botryococcus brauni, Pediastrum sp., Polypodii sporites favus and Polypodii sporites afavus and Pachydermites diederixi, are common palynomorphs in the studied coal and oil shales, and are indicators of lacustrine environment. The presence of Peregrinipollis nigericus is consistent with Oligocene to Miocene. The presence of Euphorbiaceae, Papilionacae, Melastomtaceae sp., Dodonaea, Martretia quadricornis, Rubiaceae sp. (pollen derived from tropical shrubs), Sapotaceae spp. and Meliaceae spp. are indicative of humid, tropical rainforest conditions. Extensive bio-assemblages confirm that the age of coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentary rocks to be Oligocene to Miocene.

  7. Dry forest restoration and unassisted native tree seedling recruitment at Auwahi, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medeiros, Arthur C.; von Allmen, E. I.; Chimera, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to restore highly degraded but biologically significant forests draw from a limited toolbox. With less than 10% of their former distribution remaining, Hawaiian dry forests, though critically endangered, remain important biological and cultural refugia. At restoration onset (1997), vegetation of restoration and control areas of degraded Auwahi dry forest, Maui Island, was similar, dominated by nonnative graminoids (restoration 78.3%; control 75.4%), especially Cenchrus (Pennisetum) clandestinus. In 2012, unrestored control area vegetation was basically unchanged. In contrast, in the restoration area in 2012, native shrub cover increased from 3.1% to 81.9%, and cover of nonnative graminoids declined from 75.4% to 3.3%. In 2012, nonplanted seedlings of 14 of 22 native tree species and six of seven native shrub species were observed in restoration plots; the majority (99%) were five native (Dodonaea viscosa, Coprosma foliosa, Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, Chamaesyce celastoides, Nestegis sandwicensis) and one nonnative species (Bocconia frutescens). By 2012, stem counts of native woody plants had increased from 12.4 to 135.0/100 m2, and native species diversity increased from 2.4 to 6.6/100 m2. By 2012, seven rare dry forest tree species, Charpentiera obovata, Nothocestrum latifolium, Ochrosia haleakalae, Pleomele auwahiensis, Santalum ellipticum, S. haleakalae, and Streblus pendulinus, had established seedlings and/or saplings within the restoration site, especially notable because natural reproduction is largely lacking elsewhere. Without development and implementation of appropriate management strategies, remaining Hawaiian dry forest will likely disappear within the next century. Multicomponent restoration incorporating ungulate exclusion, weed control, and outplanting as described here offers one strategy to conserve and restore tracts of high-value but degraded forests.

  8. A Comparative study of Volatile Organic Compounds from two desert plant species growing in Southern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasche, K. M.; Meyers, K.; Jardine, K.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout their lives, plants are subjected to a multitude of stressors, ranging from herbivory to changes in weather. In order to survive, plants have created an arsenal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and aromatic compounds, to combat these stressors. In this study, two plant species, Baccharis salicifolia (Seep willow) and Dodonaea viscosa (Hopbush) were examined for isoprenoids, GLVs, and aromatic compound emissions. Although, the species are not related, they should share some emitted compounds as they can be seen growing in the same environment, though the majority of the emitted compounds should remain unique to each species type. Both the Seep willow, sampled in Catalina State Park, and the Hopbush, sampled at Biosphere 2, were sampled using a Teflon bag enclosure connected to an apex lite air-sampling device and a thermal desorption (TD) tube, which was used to collect the emitted compounds. TD tube samples were analyzed using a Unity 2 thermal desorption system, which was directly connected to a 5975C series gas chromatograph/electron impact mass spectrometer with a triple-axis detector. The major compounds emitted from the Seep willow were GLVs (Octanal, Decanal, and Nonanal) and aromatics (Benzoic acid, Benzaldehyde, 1,2,3-Trifluorobenzene, and Acetophenone). The major compounds emitted from the Hopbush were isoprene and monoterpenes (1R-α-Pinene, Limonene, and α-Phellandrene.) Our results show the two species emit completely different compounds from each other, which could indicate adaptive differences. The Hopbush may be a hardier species better adapted to the Arizona environment as isoprene and monoterpenes have been indicated in thermo tolerance. GLVs on the other hand indicate the Seep willow is under severe stress.

  9. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. PMID:23898973

  10. Evaluating nurse plants for restoring native woody species to degraded subtropical woodlands.

    PubMed

    Yelenik, Stephanie G; DiManno, Nicole; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2015-01-01

    Harsh habitats dominated by invasive species are difficult to restore. Invasive grasses in arid environments slow succession toward more desired composition, yet grass removal exacerbates high light and temperature, making the use of "nurse plants" an appealing strategy. In this study of degraded subtropical woodlands dominated by alien grasses in Hawai'i, we evaluated whether individuals of two native (Dodonaea viscosa, Leptocophylla tameiameia) and one non-native (Morella faya) woody species (1) act as natural nodes of recruitment for native woody species and (2) can be used to enhance survivorship of outplanted native woody species. To address these questions, we quantified the presence and persistence of seedlings naturally recruiting beneath adult nurse shrubs and compared survival and growth of experimentally outplanted seedlings of seven native woody species under the nurse species compared to intact and cleared alien-grass plots. We found that the two native nurse shrubs recruit their own offspring, but do not act as establishment nodes for other species. Morella faya recruited even fewer seedlings than native shrubs. Thus, outplanting will be necessary to increase abundance and diversity of native woody species. Outplant survival was the highest under shrubs compared to away from them with few differences between nurse species. The worst habitat for native seedling survival and growth was within the unmanaged invasive grass matrix. Although the two native nurse species did not differentially affect outplant survival, D. viscosa is the most widespread and easily propagated and is thus more likely to be useful as an initial nurse species. The outplanted species showed variable responses to nurse habitats that we attribute to resource requirements resulting from their typical successional stage and nitrogen fixation capability. PMID:25709807

  11. Evaluating nurse plants for restoring native woody species to degraded subtropical woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yelenik, Stephanie G.; DiManno, Nicole; D’Antonio, Carla M.

    2015-01-01

    Harsh habitats dominated by invasive species are difficult to restore. Invasive grasses in arid environments slow succession toward more desired composition, yet grass removal exacerbates high light and temperature, making the use of “nurse plants” an appealing strategy. In this study of degraded subtropical woodlands dominated by alien grasses in Hawai'i, we evaluated whether individuals of two native (Dodonaea viscosa, Leptocophylla tameiameia) and one non-native (Morella faya) woody species (1) act as natural nodes of recruitment for native woody species and (2) can be used to enhance survivorship of outplanted native woody species. To address these questions, we quantified the presence and persistence of seedlings naturally recruiting beneath adult nurse shrubs and compared survival and growth of experimentally outplanted seedlings of seven native woody species under the nurse species compared to intact and cleared alien-grass plots. We found that the two native nurse shrubs recruit their own offspring, but do not act as establishment nodes for other species. Morella faya recruited even fewer seedlings than native shrubs. Thus, outplanting will be necessary to increase abundance and diversity of native woody species. Outplant survival was the highest under shrubs compared to away from them with few differences between nurse species. The worst habitat for native seedling survival and growth was within the unmanaged invasive grass matrix. Although the two native nurse species did not differentially affect outplant survival, D. viscosa is the most widespread and easily propagated and is thus more likely to be useful as an initial nurse species. The outplanted species showed variable responses to nurse habitats that we attribute to resource requirements resulting from their typical successional stage and nitrogen fixation capability.

  12. Foliar phosphite application has minor phytotoxic impacts across a diverse range of conifers and woody angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Scott, Peter; Bader, Martin Karl-Friedrich; Williams, Nari Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Phytophthora plant pathogens cause tremendous damage in planted and natural systems worldwide. Phosphite is one of the only effective chemicals to control broad-scale Phytophthora disease. Little work has been done on the phytotoxic effects of phosphite application on plant communities especially in combination with plant physiological impacts. Here, we tested the phytotoxic impact of phosphite applied as foliar spray at 0, 12, 24 and 48 kg a.i. ha(-1) . Eighteen-month-old saplings of 13 conifer and angiosperm species native to New Zealand, and two exotic coniferous species were treated and the development of necrotic tissue and chlorophyll-a-fluorescence parameters (optimal quantum yield, Fv /Fm ; effective quantum yield of photosystem II, ΦPSII ) were assessed. In addition, stomatal conductance (gs ) was measured on a subset of six species. Significant necrosis assessed by digital image analysis occurred in only three species: in the lauraceous canopy tree Beilschmiedia tawa (8-14%) and the understory shrub Dodonaea viscosa (5-7%) across phosphite concentrations and solely at the highest concentration in the myrtaceous pioneer shrub Leptospermum scoparium (66%). In non-necrotic tissue, Fv /Fm , ΦPSII and gs remained unaffected by the phosphite treatment. Overall, our findings suggest minor phytotoxic effects resulting from foliar phosphite application across diverse taxa and regardless of concentration. This study supports the large-scale use of phosphite as a management tool to control plant diseases caused by Phytophthora pathogens in plantations and natural ecosystems. Long-term studies are required to ascertain potential ecological impacts of repeated phosphite applications. PMID:26968132

  13. Finding needles in a genomic haystack: targeted capture identifies clear signatures of selection in a nonmodel plant species.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Matthew J; Biffin, Ed; Breed, Martin F; Lowe, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Teasing apart neutral and adaptive genomic processes and identifying loci that are targets of selection can be difficult, particularly for nonmodel species that lack a reference genome. However, identifying such loci and the factors driving selection have the potential to greatly assist conservation and restoration practices, especially for the management of species in the face of contemporary and future climate change. Here, we focus on assessing adaptive genomic variation within a nonmodel plant species, the narrow-leaf hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa ssp. angustissima), commonly used for restoration in Australia. We used a hybrid-capture target enrichment approach to selectively sequence 970 genes across 17 populations along a latitudinal gradient from 30°S to 36°S. We analysed 8462 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for FST outliers as well as associations with environmental variables. Using three different methods, we found 55 SNPs with significant correlations to temperature and water availability, and 38 SNPs to elevation. Genes containing SNPs identified as under environmental selection were diverse, including aquaporin and abscisic acid genes, as well as genes with ontologies relating to responses to environmental stressors such as water deprivation and salt stress. Redundancy analysis demonstrated that only a small proportion of the total genetic variance was explained by environmental variables. We demonstrate that selection has led to clines in allele frequencies in a number of functional genes, including those linked to leaf shape and stomatal variation, which have been previously observed to vary along the sampled environmental cline. Using our approach, gene regions subject to environmental selection can be readily identified for nonmodel organisms.

  14. Evaluating nurse plants for restoring native woody species to degraded subtropical woodlands

    PubMed Central

    Yelenik, Stephanie G; DiManno, Nicole; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2015-01-01

    Harsh habitats dominated by invasive species are difficult to restore. Invasive grasses in arid environments slow succession toward more desired composition, yet grass removal exacerbates high light and temperature, making the use of “nurse plants” an appealing strategy. In this study of degraded subtropical woodlands dominated by alien grasses in Hawai'i, we evaluated whether individuals of two native (Dodonaea viscosa, Leptocophylla tameiameia) and one non-native (Morella faya) woody species (1) act as natural nodes of recruitment for native woody species and (2) can be used to enhance survivorship of outplanted native woody species. To address these questions, we quantified the presence and persistence of seedlings naturally recruiting beneath adult nurse shrubs and compared survival and growth of experimentally outplanted seedlings of seven native woody species under the nurse species compared to intact and cleared alien-grass plots. We found that the two native nurse shrubs recruit their own offspring, but do not act as establishment nodes for other species. Morella faya recruited even fewer seedlings than native shrubs. Thus, outplanting will be necessary to increase abundance and diversity of native woody species. Outplant survival was the highest under shrubs compared to away from them with few differences between nurse species. The worst habitat for native seedling survival and growth was within the unmanaged invasive grass matrix. Although the two native nurse species did not differentially affect outplant survival, D. viscosa is the most widespread and easily propagated and is thus more likely to be useful as an initial nurse species. The outplanted species showed variable responses to nurse habitats that we attribute to resource requirements resulting from their typical successional stage and nitrogen fixation capability. PMID:25709807

  15. Subunit organization of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 2 (HtH2), and the cDNA sequence encoding its functional units d, e, f, g and h.

    PubMed

    Lieb, B; Altenhein, B; Lehnert, R; Gebauer, W; Markl, J

    1999-10-01

    We have developed a HPLC procedure to isolate the two different hemocyanin types (HtH1 and HtH2) of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. On the basis of limited proteolytic cleavage, two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, PAGE, N-terminal protein sequencing and cDNA sequencing, we have identified eight different 40-60-kDa functional units (FUs) in HtH2, termed HtH2-a to HtH2-h, and determined their linear arrangement within the elongated 400-kDa subunit. From a Haliotis cDNA library, we have isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone which encodes the five C-terminal FUs d, e, f, g and h of HtH2. As shown by multiple sequence alignments, defg of HtH2 correspond structurally to defg from Octopus dofleini hemocyanin. HtH2-e is the first FU of a gastropod hemocyanin to be sequenced. The new Haliotis hemocyanin sequences are compared to their counterparts in Octopus, Helix pomatia and HtH1 (from the latter, the sequences of FU-f, FU-g and FU-h have recently been determined) and discussed in relation to the recent 2.3 A X-ray structure of FU-g from Octopus hemocyanin and the 15 A three-dimensional reconstruction of the Megathura crenulata hemocyanin didecamer from electron micrographs. This data allows, for the first time, an insight into the evolution of the two functionally different hemocyanin isoforms found in marine gastropods. It appears that they evolved several hundred million years ago within the Prosobranchia, after separation of the latter from the branch leading to the Pulmonata. Moreover, as a structural explanation for the inefficiency of the type 1 hemocyanin to form multidecamers in vivo, the additional N-glycosylation sites in HtH1 compared to HtH2 are discussed. PMID:10491167

  16. First contribution of mites (Acari) to the forensic analysis of hanged corpses: a case study from Spain.

    PubMed

    Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Perotti, M Alejandra

    2014-11-01

    This case study from North Spain, highlights the importance of the collection of mites in addition to insects, from crime scenes or corpses subjected to environmental constraints that reduce or minimise insect activity, such as hanged corpses. In addition, this analysis highlights the relevance of arthropods' collection in the field, even after the corpse has been moved away for autopsy. Four species of mites, phoretic on carrion (Silphidae) and rove (Staphylinidae) beetles, complemented and reinforced the autopsy analysis as well as the scarce information provided by insect activity. Poecilochirus carabi Canestrini & Canestrini, 1882 and Poecilochirus (Physoparasitus) davydovae Hyatt, 1980 (Mesostigmata: Parasitidae) were found in association with two Silphidae, Nicrophorus Fabricius, 1775 and Necrodes Leach, 1815, only when sampled in the autopsy room; this is suggestive of host-switching of mites and was likely due to the lack of availability of specific carriers in the field. The interpretation of the activity of Parasitidae mites both in the field and the autopsy room allows a better understanding of the timing and circumstances of decomposition. Phoretic deutonymphs of Pelzneria Scheucher 1957 (Astigmata: Histiostomatidae) were highly abundant, mostly P. crenulata Oudemans, 1909 and are reported for the first time on a Staphylinidae rove beetle, Creophilus maxillosus (L., 1758). Surprisingly, in this case study no Pelzneria were associated with the Silphidae found, which are their most common hosts, such as Necrodes littoralis (L., 1758) and Nicrophorus interruptus (Stephens, 1830). All histiostomatids were removed from the staphylinid (rove beetle) collected from the soil, at the scene of death, suggesting a recent arrival of the beetle. The occurrence of Staphylinidae beetles and their associated mites, such as Parasitidae and Pelzneria, and the information they provided would have been easily overlooked or lost if only the autopsy sampling would have been

  17. Soft-bottom crustacean assemblages in Mediterranean marine caves: the cave of Cerro Gordo (Granada, Spain) as case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Barranco, C.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Tocino, L.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Although marine caves are priority conservation areas according to the Directive 92/43/CEE of the European Community, there is a lack of studies dealing with their soft-bottom communities. For a case study, we selected the Cerro Gordo cave at 15 m depth. Three different zones were defined: a semi-dark 25-m long entrance area, a dark intermediate area of 35 m, and the final zone at 90 m from the entrance. Sediment samples were taken from these zones as well as from outside the cave (control) by SCUBA diving. Six rectangular cores of 10 × 250 cm2 were collected in each site for macrofaunal study, and three more replicates were taken to analyze physico-chemical parameters. The granulometry showed a clear gradient from medium sands outside the cave to silt and clay in the inner zone. Measurements of the crustacean assemblages showed that the number of species and abundance were significantly higher outside the cave (30-40 species, >4,000 ind m-2) than inside (5-10 species, <1,000 ind m-2). Multivariate analyses showed a clear difference in species composition between outside and inside the cave. Caprellids, tanaids, cumaceans, and decapods were only found outside the cave, while gammarids and isopods were present both outside and inside the cave. The gammarid Siphonoecetes sabatieri and the tanaid Apseudes latreilli were the dominant species outside the cave, while the gammarids Harpinia pectinata, Harpinia crenulata, and Harpinia ala were dominant inside. The present study represents an increase in depth range and geographic distribution for Kupellonura mediterranea and Monoculodes packardi. This is the first description of soft-bottom crustacean communities from submarine caves of southern Spain.

  18. A revision of the Chinese Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera, Trigonalyoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-yan; van Achterberg, Cornelis; He, Jun-hua; Xu, Zai-fu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese fauna of the family Trigonalyidae Cresson, 1887, is revised, keyed and fully illustrated for the first time. Eight genera of this family (Bakeronymus Rohwer, 1922, Bareogonalos Schulz, 1907, Jezonogonalos Tsuneki, 1991, re-instated, Lycogaster Shuckard, 1841, Orthogonalys Schulz, 1905, Pseudogonalos Schulz, 1906, Taeniogonalos Schulz, 1906 and Teranishia Tsuneki, 1991) are recorded from China. The genus Ischnogonalos Schulz, 1907, is synonymized with Taeniogonalos Schulz, 1906. In total 40 valid species are recognized. Twenty species are new for science: Jezonogonalos elliptifera sp. n., J. jiangliae sp. n., J. luteata sp. n., J. nigrata sp. n., Lycogaster angustula sp. n., L. flavonigrata sp. n., L. nigralva sp. n., Orthogonalys cheni sp. n., O. clypeata sp. n., O. robusta sp. n., Pseudogonalos angusta sp. n., Taeniogonalos bucarinata sp. n., T. cordata sp. n., T. geminata sp. n., T. sculpturata sp. n., T. triangulata sp. n., T. tricolorisoma sp. n., T. uncifera sp. n., Teranishia crenulata sp. n. and T. glabrata sp. n. Two species are reported new for China: Orthogonalys elongata Teranishi, 1929 and Nanogonalos flavocincta Teranishi, 1929 (renamed to Taeniogonalos subtruncata nom. n.). Seven new synonyms are proposed: Poecilogonalos yuasai Teranishi, 1938, and P. maga taiwana Tsuneki, 1991, of Taeniogonalos taihorina (Bischoff, 1914); Taiwanogonalos minima Tsuneki, 1991, and T. similis Tsuneki, 1991, of Taeniogonalos alticola (Tsuneki, 1991); P. intermedia Chen, 1949, and P. unifasciata Chen, 1949, of Taeniogonalos formosana (Bischoff, 1913). Six taxa are recognised as valid species: Bakeronymus seidakka Yamane & Terayama, 1983, Jezonogonalos laeviceps (Tsuneki, 1991), J. satoi (Tsuneki, 1991), Taeniogonalos alticola (Tsuneki, 1991), T. flavoscutellata (Chen, 1949) and T. gestroi (Schulz, 1908). Five new combinations are made: Jezonogonalos laeviceps (Tsuneki, 1991), comb. n., J. satoi (Tsuneki, 1991), comb. n., Taeniogonalos flavoscutellata

  19. Molecular phylogenetics of Amorpha (Fabaceae): an evaluation of monophyly, species relationships, and polyploid origins.

    PubMed

    Straub, Shannon C K; Doyle, Jeff J

    2014-07-01

    . confusa and A. crenulata, were identified as A. fruticosa and A. herbacea.

  20. The genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae)

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Charles L.; García-Robledo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The species of the Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836 are revised. We present a key to the known larvae of Cephaloleia (8 species), a key to the 95 species known to occur in Mexico, Central America and the West Indies, and a key to the 138 species known to occur in South America. All identification keys were translated to Spanish. Descriptions for the 214 known species of Cephaloleia as well as illustrations for 212 species are presented. The following species are removed from Cephaloleia: C. bipartita Pic, 1926c is transferred to Hybosispa Weise, 1910; C. minasensis Pic, 1931 and C. viridis Pic, 1931 are transferred to Stenispa Baly, 1858. The following species are described as new: C. abdita sp. n. from Brazil; C. amba sp. n. from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; C. angustacollis sp. n. from Ecuador; C. brevis sp. n. from French Guiana; C. calathae sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. chica sp. n. from Peru; C. conforma sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. crenulata sp. n. from Ecuador; C. gemma sp. n. from Bolivia and Brazil; C. horvitzae sp. n. from French Guiana; C. interrupta sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. kressi sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. lenticula sp. n. from Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, and Suriname; C. nana sp. n. from Ecuador; C. ochra sp. n. from Ecuador; C. stainesi sp. n. from Costa Rica; and C. susanae sp. n. from Brazil and Ecuador. Cephaloleia simoni Pic, 1934 is treated as Incertae sedis. The larvae of C. erichsonii Baly, 1858 and C. puncticollis Baly, 1885 are described and illustrated. PMID:25197208

  1. Hemocyanins Stimulate Innate Immunity by Inducing Different Temporal Patterns of Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ta-Ying; Arancibia, Sergio; Born, Raimundo; Tampe, Ricardo; Villar, Javiera; Del Campo, Miguel; Manubens, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Hemocyanins induce a potent Th1-dominant immune response with beneficial clinical outcomes when used as a carrier/adjuvant in vaccines and nonspecific immunostimulant in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which hemocyanins trigger innate immune responses, leading to beneficial adaptive immune responses, are unknown. This response is triggered by a proinflammatory signal from various components, of which macrophages are an essential part. To understand how these proteins influence macrophage response, we investigated the effects of mollusks hemocyanins with varying structural and immunological properties, including hemocyanins from Concholepas concholepas, Fissurella latimarginata, and Megathura crenulata (keyhole limpet hemocyanin), on cultures of peritoneal macrophages. Hemocyanins were phagocytosed and slowly processed. Analysis of this process showed differential gene expression along with protein levels of proinflammatory markers, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, and TNF-α. An extended expression analysis of 84 cytokines during a 24-h period showed a robust proinflammatory response for F. latimarginata hemocyanin in comparison with keyhole limpet hemocyanin and C. concholepas hemocyanin, which was characterized by an increase in the transcript levels of M1 cytokines involved in leukocyte recruitment. These cytokine genes included chemokines (Cxcl1, Cxcl3, Cxcl5, Ccl2, and Ccl3), ILs (Il1b and Ifng), growth factors (Csf2 and Csf3), and TNF family members (Cd40lg). The protein levels of certain cytokines were increased. However, every hemocyanin maintains downregulated key M2 cytokine genes, including Il4 and Il5. Collectively, our data demonstrate that hemocyanins are able to trigger the release of proinflammatory factors with different patterns of cytokine expression, suggesting differential signaling pathways and transcriptional network mechanisms that lead to the activation of M1-polarized macrophages. PMID:27183578

  2. Hemocyanins Stimulate Innate Immunity by Inducing Different Temporal Patterns of Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ta-Ying; Arancibia, Sergio; Born, Raimundo; Tampe, Ricardo; Villar, Javiera; Del Campo, Miguel; Manubens, Augusto; Becker, María Inés

    2016-06-01

    Hemocyanins induce a potent Th1-dominant immune response with beneficial clinical outcomes when used as a carrier/adjuvant in vaccines and nonspecific immunostimulant in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which hemocyanins trigger innate immune responses, leading to beneficial adaptive immune responses, are unknown. This response is triggered by a proinflammatory signal from various components, of which macrophages are an essential part. To understand how these proteins influence macrophage response, we investigated the effects of mollusks hemocyanins with varying structural and immunological properties, including hemocyanins from Concholepas concholepas, Fissurella latimarginata, and Megathura crenulata (keyhole limpet hemocyanin), on cultures of peritoneal macrophages. Hemocyanins were phagocytosed and slowly processed. Analysis of this process showed differential gene expression along with protein levels of proinflammatory markers, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, and TNF-α. An extended expression analysis of 84 cytokines during a 24-h period showed a robust proinflammatory response for F. latimarginata hemocyanin in comparison with keyhole limpet hemocyanin and C. concholepas hemocyanin, which was characterized by an increase in the transcript levels of M1 cytokines involved in leukocyte recruitment. These cytokine genes included chemokines (Cxcl1, Cxcl3, Cxcl5, Ccl2, and Ccl3), ILs (Il1b and Ifng), growth factors (Csf2 and Csf3), and TNF family members (Cd40lg). The protein levels of certain cytokines were increased. However, every hemocyanin maintains downregulated key M2 cytokine genes, including Il4 and Il5 Collectively, our data demonstrate that hemocyanins are able to trigger the release of proinflammatory factors with different patterns of cytokine expression, suggesting differential signaling pathways and transcriptional network mechanisms that lead to the activation of M1-polarized macrophages.

  3. Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) hemocyanin type 1 (HtH1). Organization of the approximately 400 kDa subunit, and amino acid sequence of its functional units f, g and h.

    PubMed

    Keller, H; Lieb Bp6; Altenhein, B; Gebauer, D; Richter, S; Stricker, S; Markl, J

    1999-08-01

    We have identified two separate hemocyanin types (HtH1 and HtH2) in the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. HtH1/HtH2 hybrid molecules were not found. By selective dissociation of HtH2 we isolated HtH1 which, as revealed by electron microscopy and SDS/PAGE, is present as didecamers of a approximately 400 kDa subunit. Immunologically, HtH1 and HtH2 correspond to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)1 and KLH2, respectively, the two well-studied hemocyanin types of the closely related marine gastropod Megathura crenulata. On the basis of limited proteolytic cleavage, two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, SDS/PAGE and N-terminal sequencing, we identified eight different 40-60 kDa functional units in HtH1, termed HtH1-a to HtH1-h, and determined their linear arrangement within the elongated subunit. From Haliotis mantle tissue, rich in hemocyanin-producing pore cells, we isolated mRNA and constructed a cDNA library. By expression screening with HtH-specific rabbit antibodies, a cDNA clone was isolated and sequenced which codes for the three C-terminal functional units f, g and h of HtH1. Their sequences were aligned to those available from other molluscs, notably to functional unit f and functional unit g from the cephalopod Octopus dofleini. HtH1-f, which is the first sequenced functional unit of type f from a gastropod hemocyanin, corresponds to functional unit f from Octopus. Also functional unit g from Haliotis and Octopus correspond to each other. HtH1-h is a gastropod hemocyanin functional unit type which is absent in cephalopods and has not been sequenced previously. It exhibits a unique tail extension of approximately 95 amino acids, which is lacking in functional units a to g and aligns with a published peptide sequence of 48 amino acids from functional unit h of Helix pomatia hemocyanin. The new Haliotis sequences are discussed with respect to their counterparts in Octopus, the 15 A three-dimensional reconstruction of the KLH1 didecamer from electron