Science.gov

Sample records for agave tequilana juice

  1. Effect of Agave tequilana juice on cell wall polysaccharides of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different origins.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca; Arrizon, Javier; Ramirez, Jesús; Solis-Pacheco, Josué

    2007-02-01

    In this study, a characterization of cell wall polysaccharide composition of three yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages was performed. The three yeast strains were isolated from different media (tequila, mezcal and bakery) and were evaluated for the beta(1,3)-glucanase lytic activity and the beta-glucan/ mannan ratio during the fermentation of Agave tequilana juice and in YPD media (control). Fermentations were performed in shake flasks with 30 g l(-1) sugar concentration of A. tequilana juice and with the control YPD using 30 g l(-1) of glucose. The three yeasts strains showed different levels of beta-glucan and mannan when they were grown in A. tequilana juice in comparison to the YPD media. The maximum rate of cell wall lyses was 50% lower in fermentations with A. tequilana juice for yeasts isolated from tequila and mezcal than compared to the bakery yeast.

  2. Bioconversion of Agave tequilana fructans by exo-inulinases from indigenous Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010 enhances ethanol production from raw Agave tequilana juice.

    PubMed

    Huitrón, Carlos; Pérez, Rosalba; Gutiérrez, Luís; Lappe, Patricia; Petrosyan, Pavel; Villegas, Jesús; Aguilar, Cecilia; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Blancas, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Agave tequilana fructans are the source of fermentable sugars for the production of tequila. Fructans are processed by acid hydrolysis or by cooking in ovens at high temperature. Enzymatic hydrolysis is considered an alternative for the bioconversion of fructans. We previously described the isolation of Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010, an indigenous strain that produces extracellular inulinases. Here we evaluated the potential application of A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases for the bioconversion of A. tequilana fructans, and its impact on the production of ethanol. Inulinases were analyzed by Western blotting and thin layer chromatography. Optimal pH and temperature conditions for inulinase activity were determined. The efficiency of A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases was compared with commercial enzymes and with acid hydrolysis. The hydrolysates obtained were subsequently fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine the efficiency of ethanol production. Results indicate that A. niger CH-A-2010 predominantly produces an exo-inulinase activity. Optimal inulinase activity occurred at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. Hydrolysis of raw agave juice by CH-A-2010 inulinases yielded 33.5 g/l reducing sugars, compared with 27.3 g/l by Fructozyme(®) (Novozymes Corp, Bagsværd, Denmark) and 29.4 g/l by acid hydrolysis. After fermentation of hydrolysates, we observed that the conversion efficiency of sugars into ethanol was 97.5 % of the theoretical ethanol yield for enzymatically degraded agave juice, compared to 83.8 % for acid-hydrolyzed juice. These observations indicate that fructans from raw Agave tequilana juice can be efficiently hydrolyzed by using A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases, and that this procedure impacts positively on the production of ethanol.

  3. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    PubMed

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes.

  4. Transcriptome analysis identifies genes involved in ethanol response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Agave tequilana juice.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Córdova, Jesús; Drnevich, Jenny; Madrigal-Pulido, Jaime Alberto; Arrizon, Javier; Allen, Kirk; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Alvarez-Maya, Ikuri

    2012-08-01

    During ethanol fermentation, yeast cells are exposed to stress due to the accumulation of ethanol, cell growth is altered and the output of the target product is reduced. For Agave beverages, like tequila, no reports have been published on the global gene expression under ethanol stress. In this work, we used microarray analysis to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in the ethanol response. Gene expression of a tequila yeast strain of S. cerevisiae (AR5) was explored by comparing global gene expression with that of laboratory strain S288C, both after ethanol exposure. Additionally, we used two different culture conditions, cells grown in Agave tequilana juice as a natural fermentation media or grown in yeast-extract peptone dextrose as artificial media. Of the 6368 S. cerevisiae genes in the microarray, 657 genes were identified that had different expression responses to ethanol stress due to strain and/or media. A cluster of 28 genes was found over-expressed specifically in the AR5 tequila strain that could be involved in the adaptation to tequila yeast fermentation, 14 of which are unknown such as yor343c, ylr162w, ygr182c, ymr265c, yer053c-a or ydr415c. These could be the most suitable genes for transforming tequila yeast to increase ethanol tolerance in the tequila fermentation process. Other genes involved in response to stress (RFC4, TSA1, MLH1, PAU3, RAD53) or transport (CYB2, TIP20, QCR9) were expressed in the same cluster. Unknown genes could be good candidates for the development of recombinant yeasts with ethanol tolerance for use in industrial tequila fermentation.

  5. Improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María; González-García, Yolanda; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Córdova, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. However, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative rates. In this work, fermentations of agave juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were put into operation to prove the necessity of supplementing yeast extract, in order to alleviate nutritional deficiencies of agave juice. Furthermore, continuous fermentations were performed at two different aeration flow rates, and feeding sterilized and non-sterilized media. The obtained fermented musts were subsequently distilled to obtain tequila and the preference level was compared against two commercial tequilas, according to a sensorial analysis. The supplementation of agave juice with air and yeast extract augmented the fermentative capacity of S. cerevisiae S1 and the ethanol productivities, compared to those continuous fermentations non supplemented. In fact, aeration improved ethanol production from 37 to 40 g L(-1), reducing sugars consumption from 73 to 88 g L(-1) and ethanol productivity from 3.0 to 3.2 g (Lh)(-1), for non-aerated and aerated (at 0.02 vvm) cultures, respectively. Supplementation of yeast extract allowed an increase in specific growth rate and dilution rates (0.12 h(-1), compared to 0.08 h(-1) of non-supplemented cultures), ethanol production (47 g L(-1)), reducing sugars consumption (93 g L(-1)) and ethanol productivity [5.6 g (Lh)(-1)] were reached. Additionally, the effect of feeding sterilized or non-sterilized medium to the continuous cultures was compared, finding no significant differences between both types of cultures. The overall effect

  6. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  7. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product.

  8. Fermentative capabilities and volatile compounds produced by Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora and Saccharomyces yeast strains in pure and mixed cultures during Agave tequilana juice fermentation.

    PubMed

    González-Robles, Ivonne Wendolyne; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2015-09-01

    The fermentative and aromatic capabilities of Kloeckera africana/Hanseniaspora vineae K1, K. apiculata/H. uvarum K2, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1 and S2 were studied in pure and mixed culture fermentations using Agave tequila juice as the culture medium. In pure and mixed cultures, Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora strains showed limited growth and sugar consumption, as well as low ethanol yield and productivity, compared to S. cerevisiae, which yielded more biomass, ethanol and viable cell concentrations. In pure and mixed cultures, S. cerevisiae presented a similar behaviour reaching high biomass production, completely consuming the sugar, leading to high ethanol production. Furthermore, the presence of S. cerevisiae strains in the mixed cultures promoted the production of higher alcohols, acetaldehyde and ethyl esters, whereas Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora strains stimulated the production of ethyl acetate and 2-phenyl ethyl acetate compounds.

  9. Fermentation behaviour and volatile compound production by agave and grape must yeasts in high sugar Agave tequilana and grape must fermentations.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Fiore, Concetta; Acosta, Guillermina; Romano, Patrizia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have been performed on the characterization of yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages and their individual fermentation properties. In this study, a comparison and evaluation of yeasts of different origins in the tequila and wine industries were carried out for technological traits. Fermentations were carried out in high (300 g l(-1)) and low (30 g l(-1)) sugar concentrations of Agave tequilana juice, in musts obtained from Fiano (white) and Aglianico (red) grapes and in YPD medium (with 270 g l(-1) of glucose added) as a control. Grape yeasts exhibited a reduced performance in high-sugar agave fermentation, while both agave and grape yeasts showed similar fermentation behaviour in grape musts. Production levels of volatile compounds by grape and agave yeasts differed in both fermentations.

  10. Irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in Agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave plantations.

    PubMed

    Salinas, M L; Ogura, T; Soffchi, L

    2001-02-01

    It was found that needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, are found abundantly in all tissues of Agave tequilana plants; thus, 1 droplet (0.03 ml) of juice pressed from leaves contains 100-150 crystals, 30-500 microm in length, sharpened at both ends. In tequila distilleries, 5/6 of the workers who handle the agave stems have experienced the characteristic irritation. In contrast, only 1/3 of workers in agave plantations who harvest agave plants, complain of the irritation. It is confirmed that all the irritation suffered in both distilleries and plantations takes place at bodily locations where the plants come into contact with the worker's skin in the course of their work.

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly of drought tolerant CAM plants, Agave deserti and Agave tequilana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to xeric environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis), and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets limits the scope of investigations into the molecular-genetic basis of Agave traits. Results Here, we present comprehensive, high quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of two Agave species, A. tequilana and A. deserti, built from short-read RNA-seq data. Our analyses support completeness and accuracy of the de novo transcriptome assemblies, with each species having a minimum of approximately 35,000 protein-coding genes. Comparison of agave proteomes to those of additional plant species identifies biological functions of gene families displaying sequence divergence in agave species. Additionally, a focus on the transcriptomics of the A. deserti juvenile leaf confirms evolutionary conservation of monocotyledonous leaf physiology and development along the proximal-distal axis. Conclusions Our work presents a comprehensive transcriptome resource for two Agave species and provides insight into their biology and physiology. These resources are a foundation for further investigation of agave biology and their improvement for bioenergy development. PMID:23957668

  12. Effect of dilution rate and nutrients addition on the fermentative capability and synthesis of aromatic compounds of two indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in continuous cultures fed with Agave tequilana juice.

    PubMed

    Morán-Marroquín, G A; Córdova, J; Valle-Rodríguez, J O; Estarrón-Espinosa, M; Díaz-Montaño, D M

    2011-11-15

    Knowledge of physiological behavior of indigenous tequila yeast used in fermentation process is still limited. Yeasts have significant impact on the productivity fermentation process as well as the sensorial characteristics of the alcoholic beverage. For these reasons a better knowledge of the physiological and metabolic features of these yeasts is required. The effects of dilution rate, nitrogen and phosphorus source addition and micro-aeration on growth, fermentation and synthesis of volatile compounds of two native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, cultured in continuous fed with Agave tequilana juice were studied. For S1 and S2 strains, maximal concentrations of biomass, ethanol, consumed sugars, alcohols and esters were obtained at 0.04 h⁻¹. Those concentrations quickly decreased as D increased. For S. cerevisiae S1 cultures (at D=0.08 h⁻¹) supplemented with ammonium phosphate (AP) from 1 to 4 g/L, concentrations of residual sugars decreased from 29.42 to 17.60 g/L and ethanol increased from 29.63 to 40.08 g/L, respectively. The S1 culture supplemented with AP was then micro-aerated from 0 to 0.02 vvm, improving all the kinetics parameters: biomass, ethanol and glycerol concentrations increased from 5.66, 40.08 and 3.11 g/L to 8.04, 45.91 and 4.88 g/L; residual sugars decreased from 17.67 g/L to 4.48 g/L; and rates of productions of biomass and ethanol, and consumption of sugars increased from 0.45, 3.21 and 7.33 g/L·h to 0.64, 3.67 and 8.38 g/L·h, respectively. Concentrations of volatile compounds were also influenced by the micro-aeration rate. Ester and alcohol concentrations were higher, in none aerated and in aerated cultures respectively.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Drought-Tolerant CAM plants Agave deserti and Agave tequilana

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Stephen M.; Martin, Jeffrey A.; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2013-03-25

    Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to hot and arid environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis) and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets limits the scope of investigations into the molecular-genetic basis of Agave traits. Here, we present comprehensive, high quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of two Agave species, A. tequilana and A. deserti, from short-read RNA-seq data. Our analyses support completeness and accuracy of the de novo transcriptome assemblies, with each species having approximately 35,000 protein-coding genes. Comparison of agave proteomes to those of additional plant species identifies biological functions of gene families displaying sequence divergence in agave species. Additionally, we use RNA-seq data to gain insights into biological functions along the A. deserti juvenile leaf proximal-distal axis. Our work presents a foundation for further investigation of agave biology and their improvement for bioenergy development.

  14. Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; López, Mercedes G

    2002-02-13

    During the cooking process of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul to produce tequila, besides the hydrolysis of inulin to generate fermentable sugars, many volatiles, mainly Maillard compounds, are produced, most of which may have a significant impact on the overall flavor of tequila. Exudates (agave juice) from a tequila company were collected periodically, and color, Brix, fructose concentration, and reducing sugars were determined as inulin breakdown took place. Maillard compounds were obtained by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2), and the extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. Increments in color, Brix, and reducing sugars were observed as a function of time, but a decrease in fructose concentration was found. Many Maillard compounds were identified in the exudates, including furans, pyrans, aldehydes, and nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The most abundant Maillard compounds were methyl-2-furoate, 2,3-dihydroxy-3,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. In addition, a series of short- and long-chain fatty acids was also found. A large number of the volatiles in A. tequilana Weber var. azul were also detected in tequila extracts, and most of these have been reported as a powerful odorants, responsible for the unique tequila flavor.

  15. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    PubMed Central

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  16. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J.; White, Jr., James F.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Prieto, Katia R.; Yamaguchi, Lydia F.; Torres, Monica S.; Kato, Massuo J.; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from 15N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with 15NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of 15N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

  17. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-11-06

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes.

  18. Class I KNOX genes are associated with organogenesis during bulbil formation in Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Abraham-Juárez, María Jazmín; Martínez-Hernández, Aída; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Simpson, June

    2010-09-01

    Bulbil formation in Agave tequilana was analysed with the objective of understanding this phenomenon at the molecular and cellular levels. Bulbils formed 14-45 d after induction and were associated with rearrangements in tissue structure and accelerated cell multiplication. Changes at the cellular level during bulbil development were documented by histological analysis. In addition, several cDNA libraries produced from different stages of bulbil development were generated and partially sequenced. Sequence analysis led to the identification of candidate genes potentially involved in the initiation and development of bulbils in Agave, including two putative class I KNOX genes. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that expression of the putative Agave KNOXI genes occurs at bulbil initiation and specifically in tissue where meristems will develop. Functional analysis of Agave KNOXI genes in Arabidopsis thaliana showed the characteristic lobed phenotype of KNOXI ectopic expression in leaves, although a slightly different phenotype was observed for each of the two Agave genes. An Arabidopsis KNOXI (knat1) mutant line (CS30) was successfully complemented with one of the Agave KNOX genes and partially complemented by the other. Analysis of the expression of the endogenous Arabidopsis genes KNAT1, KNAT6, and AS1 in the transformed lines ectopically expressing or complemented by the Agave KNOX genes again showed different regulatory patterns for each Agave gene. These results show that Agave KNOX genes are functionally similar to class I KNOX genes and suggest that spatial and temporal control of their expression is essential during bulbil formation in A. tequilana.

  19. Structure of fructo-oligosaccharides from leaves and stem of Agave tequilana Weber, var. azul.

    PubMed

    Praznik, Werner; Löppert, Renate; Cruz Rubio, Josè M; Zangger, Klaus; Huber, Anton

    2013-11-15

    Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) of a six year old agave plant variety, Agave tequilana, were isolated and fractionated by 2D preparative chromatography (SEC and rpHPLC). Structural analyses of different FOS-fractions were performed by reductive methylation analysis connected to GC/FID identification and NMR-analysis. FOSs from leaves (d.p. 3-8) contain single α-d-Glcp residues as well in terminal as internal position, however (2→1)-linked β-d-Fruf residues only. FOSs from stem, however, contain as well (2→1)- and (2→6)-linked β-d-Fruf residues with branched oligomeric repeating units. These characteristics indicate an enzymatically catalyzed metabolic regulation for the biosynthesis and transformation of fructans in A. tequilana which strongly depends on location and transport activities.

  20. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana

    PubMed Central

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O’Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-01-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as ‘Sister of PIN1’ (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation. PMID:25911746

  1. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O'Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-07-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as 'Sister of PIN1' (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation.

  2. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C.; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A.; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R.; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J.; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. ‘Azul’ is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  3. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  4. Agave tequilana MADS genes show novel expression patterns in meristems, developing bulbils and floral organs.

    PubMed

    Delgado Sandoval, Silvia del Carmen; Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Simpson, June

    2012-03-01

    Agave tequilana is a monocarpic perennial species that flowers after 5-8 years of vegetative growth signaling the end of the plant's life cycle. When fertilization is unsuccessful, vegetative bulbils are induced on the umbels of the inflorescence near the bracteoles from newly formed meristems. Although the regulation of inflorescence and flower development has been described in detail for monocarpic annuals and polycarpic species, little is known at the molecular level for these processes in monocarpic perennials, and few studies have been carried out on bulbils. Histological samples revealed the early induction of umbel meristems soon after the initiation of the vegetative to inflorescence transition in A. tequilana. To identify candidate genes involved in the regulation of floral induction, a search for MADS-box transcription factor ESTs was conducted using an A. tequilana transcriptome database. Seven different MIKC MADS genes classified into 6 different types were identified based on previously characterized A. thaliana and O. sativa MADS genes and sequences from non-grass monocotyledons. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the seven candidate MADS genes in vegetative, inflorescence, bulbil and floral tissues uncovered novel patterns of expression for some of the genes in comparison with orthologous genes characterized in other species. In situ hybridization studies using two different genes showed expression in specific tissues of vegetative meristems and floral buds. Distinct MADS gene regulatory patterns in A. tequilana may be related to the specific reproductive strategies employed by this species.

  5. Molecular variability among isolates of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot disease of Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Vega-Ramos, Karla L; Uvalle-Bueno, J Xavier; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F

    2013-04-01

    In this study, 115 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from roots of Agave tequilana Weber cv azul plants and soil in commercial plantations in western Mexico were characterized using morphological and molecular methods. Genetic analyses of monosporic isolates included restriction enzyme analysis of rDNA (ARDRA) using HaeIII and HinfI, and genetic diversity was determined using Box-PCR molecular markers. Box-PCR analysis generated 14 groups. The groups correlated highly with the geographic location of the isolate and sample type. These results demonstrate the usefulness of ARDRA and Box-PCR techniques in the molecular characterization of the Fusarium genus for the discrimination of pathogenic isolates.

  6. Synthesis and emulsifying properties of carbohydrate fatty acid esters produced from Agave tequilana fructans by enzymatic acylation.

    PubMed

    Casas-Godoy, Leticia; Arrizon, Javier; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Plou, Francisco J; Sandoval, Georgina

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrate fatty acid esters are non-ionic surfactants with a broad spectrum of applications. These molecules are generally synthesized using short carbohydrates or linear fructans; however in this research carbohydrate fatty acid esters were produced for the first time with branched fructans from Agave tequilana. Using immobilized lipases we successfully acylated A. tequilana fructans with vinyl laurate, obtaining products with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Lipozyme 435 was the most efficient lipase to catalyze the transesterification reaction. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis proved the presence of a mixture of acylated products as a result of the chemical complexity of fructans in the A. tequilana. The ESI-MS spectra showed a molecular mass shift between 183 and 366g/mol for fructooligosaccharides with a DP lower than 6, which indicated the presence of Agave fructans that had been mono- and diacylated with lauric acid. The carbohydrate fatty acid esters (CFAE) obtained showed good emulsifying properties in W/O emulsions.

  7. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Novel Fructosyltransferases and Invertases from Agave tequilana

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Romero, Celso; Martínez-Hernández, Aída; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G.; Simpson, June

    2012-01-01

    Fructans are the main storage polysaccharides found in Agave species. The synthesis of these complex carbohydrates relies on the activities of specific fructosyltransferase enzymes closely related to the hydrolytic invertases. Analysis of Agave tequilana transcriptome data led to the identification of ESTs encoding putative fructosyltransferases and invertases. Based on sequence alignments and structure/function relationships, two different genes were predicted to encode 1-SST and 6G-FFT type fructosyltransferases, in addition, 4 genes encoding putative cell wall invertases and 4 genes encoding putative vacuolar invertases were also identified. Probable functions for each gene, were assigned based on conserved amino acid sequences and confirmed for 2 fructosyltransferases and one invertase by analyzing the enzymatic activity of recombinant Agave protein s expressed and purified from Pichia pastoris. The genome organization of the fructosyltransferase/invertase genes, for which the corresponding cDNA contained the complete open reading frame, was found to be well conserved since all genes were shown to carry a 9 bp mini-exon and all showed a similar structure of 8 exons/7 introns with the exception of a cell wall invertase gene which has 7 exons and 6 introns. Fructosyltransferase genes were strongly expressed in the storage organs of the plants, especially in vegetative stages of development and to lower levels in photosynthetic tissues, in contrast to the invertase genes where higher levels of expression were observed in leaf tissues and in mature plants. PMID:22558253

  8. Molecular and functional characterization of novel fructosyltransferases and invertases from Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Romero, Celso; Martínez-Hernández, Aída; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G; Simpson, June

    2012-01-01

    Fructans are the main storage polysaccharides found in Agave species. The synthesis of these complex carbohydrates relies on the activities of specific fructosyltransferase enzymes closely related to the hydrolytic invertases. Analysis of Agave tequilana transcriptome data led to the identification of ESTs encoding putative fructosyltransferases and invertases. Based on sequence alignments and structure/function relationships, two different genes were predicted to encode 1-SST and 6G-FFT type fructosyltransferases, in addition, 4 genes encoding putative cell wall invertases and 4 genes encoding putative vacuolar invertases were also identified. Probable functions for each gene, were assigned based on conserved amino acid sequences and confirmed for 2 fructosyltransferases and one invertase by analyzing the enzymatic activity of recombinant Agave protein s expressed and purified from Pichia pastoris. The genome organization of the fructosyltransferase/invertase genes, for which the corresponding cDNA contained the complete open reading frame, was found to be well conserved since all genes were shown to carry a 9 bp mini-exon and all showed a similar structure of 8 exons/7 introns with the exception of a cell wall invertase gene which has 7 exons and 6 introns. Fructosyltransferase genes were strongly expressed in the storage organs of the plants, especially in vegetative stages of development and to lower levels in photosynthetic tissues, in contrast to the invertase genes where higher levels of expression were observed in leaf tissues and in mature plants.

  9. Physiological effects of dietary fructans extracted from Agave tequilana Gto. and Dasylirion spp.

    PubMed

    Urías-Silvas, Judith E; Cani, Patrice D; Delmée, Evelyne; Neyrinck, Audrey; López, Mercedes G; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2008-02-01

    Recent data reported that inulin-type fructans extracted from chicory roots regulate appetite and lipid/glucose metabolism, namely, by promoting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) production in the colon. The Agave genus growing in different regions of Mexico also contains important amounts of original fructans, with interesting nutritional and technological properties, but only few data report their physiological effect when added in the diet. Therefore, we decided to evaluate in parallel the effect of supplementation with 10 % agave or chicory fructans on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed a standard (STD) diet or diet supplemented with Raftilose P95 (RAF), fructans from Agave tequilana Gto. (TEQ) or fructans from Dasylirion spp. (DAS) for 5 weeks. The body weight gain and food intake in mice fed fructans-containing diets were significantly lower than the ones of mice fed the STD diet, TEQ leading to the lowest value. Serum glucose and cholesterol were similarly lower in all fructans-fed groups than in the STD group and correlated to body weight gain. Only RAF led to a significant decrease in serum TAG. As previously shown for RAF, the supplementation with agave fructans (TEQ and DAS) induced a higher concentration of GLP-1 and its precursor, proglucagon mRNA, in the different colonic segments, thus suggesting that fermentable fructans from different botanical origin and chemical structure are able to promote the production of satietogenic/incretin peptides in the lower part of the gut, with promising effects on glucose metabolism, body weight and fat mass development.

  10. Cellular and molecular changes associated with somatic embryogenesis induction in Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Portillo, L; Olmedilla, A; Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, F

    2012-10-01

    In spite of the importance of somatic embryogenesis for basic research in plant embryology as well as for crop improvement and plant propagation, it is still unclear which mechanisms and cell signals are involved in acquiring embryogenic competence by a somatic cell. The aim of this work was to study cellular and molecular changes involved in the induction stage in calli of Agave tequilana Weber cultivar azul in order to gain more information on the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis in this species. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques were used to identify differences between embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells from several genotypes. Presence of granular structures was detected after somatic embryogenesis induction in embryogenic cells; composition of these structures as well as changes in protein and polysaccharide distribution was studied using Coomassie brilliant blue and Periodic Acid-Schiff stains. Distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins was investigated in embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells by immunolabelling using anti-AGP monoclonal antibodies (JIM4, JIM8 and JIM13) as well as an anti-methyl-esterified pectin-antibody (JIM7), in order to evaluate major modifications in cell wall composition in the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis. Our observations pointed out that induction of somatic embryogenesis produced accumulation of proteins and polysaccharides in embryogenic cells. Presence of JIM8, JIM13 and JIM7 epitopes were detected exclusively in embryogenic cells, which supports the idea that specific changes in cell wall are involved in the acquisition of embryogenic competence of A. tequilana.

  11. Use of Agave tequilana-lignin and zinc oxide nanoparticles for skin photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Hernández, José Manuel; Escalante, Alfredo; Murillo-Vázquez, Raquel Nalleli; Delgado, Ezequiel; González, Francisco Javier; Toríz, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    The use of sunscreens is essential for preventing skin damage and the potential appearance of skin cancer in humans. Inorganic active components such as zinc oxide (ZnO) have been used commonly in sunscreens due to their ability to block UVA radiation. This ultraviolet (UV) protection might be enhanced to cover the UVB and UVC bands when combined with other components such as titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this work we evaluate the photoprotection properties of organic nanoparticles made from lignin in combination with ZnO nanoparticles as active ingredients for sunscreens. Lignin nanoparticles were synthesized from Agave tequilana lignin. Two different pulping methods were used for dissolving lignin from agave bagasse. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the precipitation method. All nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were mixed with a neutral vehicle in different concentrations and in-vitro sun protection factor (SPF) values were calculated. Different sizes of spherical lignin nanoparticles were obtained from the spent liquors of two different pulping methods. ZnO nanoparticles resulted with a flake shape. The mixture of all components gave SPF values in a range between 4 and 13. Lignin nanoparticles showed absorption in the UVB and UVC regions which can enhance the SPF value of sunscreens composed only of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Lignin nanoparticles have the added advantage of being of organic nature and its brown color can be used to match the skin tone of the person using it.

  12. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio.

  13. Overexpression of smORF YNR034W-A/EGO4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the fermentative efficiency of Agave tequilana Weber must.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Maya, Naurú Idalia; González-Hernández, Gloria Angélica; Padilla-Guerrero, Israel Enrique; Torres-Guzmán, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Fermentative processes are widely used to produce food, beverages and biofuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an efficient ethanol-producing microorganism. However, a concentration of high ethanol and other metabolites can affect yeast viability and decrease the ethanol yield. Many studies have focused on improving the fermentative efficiency, mostly through the genetic engineering of genes that have a direct impact on specific metabolic pathways. In the present study, we characterized a small open reading frame encoding a protein with an unknown function and biological role termed YNR034W-A. We analyzed the expression profile of the YNR034W-A gene during growth and glucose treatment, finding that it is expressed during the diauxic shift and stationary phase and is negatively regulated by glucose. We overexpressed the YNR034W-A gene in the BY4741 laboratory strain and a wild-type yeast strain (AR5) isolated during the Tequila fermentation process. Transformant derivatives of the AR5 strain showed an improved fermentative efficiency during fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber juice. We suggest that the improved fermentative efficiency is the result of a higher stress tolerance response in the YNR034W-A overexpressing transformant.

  14. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on Agave tequilana Weber bagasse fibers used to elaborate cyto and biocompatible hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Carrillo, Karla Lizette; Nakasone, Kazuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Tagaya, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2014-09-01

    Waste bagasse of Agave tequilana-Weber fibers treated with sodium hydroxide was used to elaborate hydrogel films. The bagasse was offered in an alternative use for the preparation of hydrogel films by phase inversion method without crosslinking and further purification of cellulose. The effect on the properties of the obtained films was studied when the chemical treatment of the agave fibers was changed. It was found that the resultant hydrogels showed increment in tensile from 40 N/mm(2) to 56 N/mm(2) with the increase of sodium hypochlorite concentration from 1 to 10 vol.%, respectively. With regard to biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel films, platelet adhesion, clotting time and protein adsorption were investigated. Analysis of the morphology of adherent NIH3T3 fibroblast indicated that the projected cell area, aspect ratio and long axis gradually increased with the increment of sodium hypochlorite content in the agave treatment. It was presented that the chemical treatment affects cell adhesion and morphology and lignin content remains in the brown fibers.

  15. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans.

  16. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Agave tequilana fructans by Kluyveromyces marxianus yeasts for bioethanol and tequila production.

    PubMed

    Flores, Jose-Axel; Gschaedler, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Arellano, Melchor; Arrizon, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Agave tequilana fructans (ATF) constitute a substrate for bioethanol and tequila industries. As Kluyveromyces marxianus produces specific fructanases for ATF hydrolysis, as well as ethanol, it can perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. In this work, fifteen K. marxianus yeasts were evaluated to develop inoculums with fructanase activity on ATF. These inoculums were added to an ATF medium for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. All the yeasts, showed exo-fructanhydrolase activity with different substrate specificities. The yeast with highest fructanase activity in the inoculums showed the lowest ethanol production level (20 g/l). Five K. marxianus strains were the most suitable for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ATF. The volatile compounds composition was evaluated at the end of fermentation, and a high diversity was observed between yeasts, nevertheless all of them produced high levels of isobutyl alcohol. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ATF with K. marxianus strains has potential for industrial application.

  17. Diversity and structure of landraces of Agave grown for spirits under traditional agriculture: A comparison with wild populations of A. angustifolia (Agavaceae) and commercial plantations of A. tequilana.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ponce, Ofelia; Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Coello-Coello, Julián; Colunga-Garcíamarín, Patricia

    2009-02-01

    Traditional farming communities frequently maintain high levels of agrobiodiversity, so understanding their agricultural practices is a priority for biodiversity conservation. The cultural origin of agave spirits (mezcals) from west-central Mexico is in the southern part of the state of Jalisco where traditional farmers cultivate more than 20 landraces of Agave angustifolia Haw. in agroecosystems that include in situ management of wild populations. These systems, rooted in a 9000-year-old tradition of using agaves as food in Mesoamerica, are endangered by the expansion of commercial monoculture plantations of the blue agave variety (A. tequilana Weber var. Azul), the only agave certified for sale as tequila, the best-known mezcal. Using intersimple sequence repeats and Bayesian estimators of diversity and structure, we found that A. angustifolia traditional landraces had a genetic diversity (H(BT) = 0.442) similar to its wild populations (H(BT) = 0.428) and a higher genetic structure ((B) = 0.405; (B) =0. 212). In contrast, the genetic diversity in the blue agave commercial system (H(B) = 0.118) was 73% lower. Changes to agave spirits certification laws to allow the conservation of current genetic, ecological and cultural diversity can play a key role in the preservation of the traditional agroecosystems.

  18. Small heat-shock proteins and leaf cooling capacity account for the unusual heat tolerance of the central spike leaves in Agave tequilana var. Weber.

    PubMed

    Luján, Rosario; Lledías, Fernando; Martínez, Luz María; Barreto, Rita; Cassab, Gladys I; Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge

    2009-12-01

    Agaves are perennial crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants distributed in tropical and subtropical arid environments, features that are attractive for studying the heat-shock response. In agaves, the stress response can be analysed easily during leaf development, as they form a spirally shaped rosette, having the meristem surrounded by folded leaves in the centre (spike) and the unfolded and more mature leaves in the periphery. Here, we report that the spike of Agave tequilana is the most thermotolerant part of the rosette withstanding shocks of up to 55 degrees C. This finding was inconsistent with the patterns of heat-shock protein (Hsp) gene expression, as maximal accumulation of Hsp transcripts was at 44 degrees C in all sectors (spike, inner, middle and outer). However, levels of small HSP (sHSP)-CI and sHSP-CII proteins were conspicuously higher in spike leaves at all temperatures correlating with their thermotolerance. In addition, spike leaves showed a higher stomatal density and abated more efficiently their temperature several degrees below that of air. We propose that the greater capacity for leaf cooling during the day in response to heat stress, and the elevated levels of sHSPs, constitute part of a set of strategies that protect the SAM and folded leaves of A. tequilana from high temperatures.

  19. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh.

  20. Efficient chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the lignocellulosic residue from Agave tequilana bagasse to produce ethanol by Pichia caribbica.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Luna, Jaime; Castro-Montoya, Agustin Jaime; Martinez-Pacheco, Mauro Manuel; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos Ruben; Campos-Garcia, Jesus

    2011-06-01

    Bagasse of Agave tequilana (BAT) is the residual lignocellulosic waste that remains from tequila production. In this study we characterized the chemical composition of BAT, which was further saccharified and fermented to produce ethanol. BAT was constituted by cellulose (42%), hemicellulose (20%), lignin (15%), and other (23%). Saccharification of BAT was carried out at 147 °C with 2% sulfuric acid for 15 min, yielding 25.8 g/l of fermentable sugars, corresponding to 36.1% of saccharificable material (cellulose and hemicellulose contents, w/w). The remaining lignocellulosic material was further hydrolyzed by commercial enzymes, ~8.2% of BAT load was incubated for 72 h at 40 °C rendering 41 g/l of fermentable sugars corresponding to 73.6% of the saccharificable material (w/w). Mathematic surface response analysis of the acid and enzymatic BAT hydrolysis was used for process optimization. The results showed a satisfactory correlation (R (2) = 0.90) between the obtained and predicted responses. The native yeast Pichia caribbica UM-5 was used to ferment sugar liquors from both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to ethanol yielding 50 and 87%, respectively. The final optimized process generated 8.99 g ethanol/50 g of BAT, corresponding to an overall 56.75% of theoretical ethanol (w/w). Thus, BAT may be employed as a lignocellulosic raw material for bioethanol production and can contribute to BAT residue elimination from environment.

  1. Polymorphism and methylation patterns in Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants propagated asexually by three different methods.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martínez, Miriam; Nava-Cedillo, Alejandro; Guzmán-López, José Alfredo; Escobar-Guzmán, Rocío; Simpson, June

    2012-04-01

    Genetic variation in three forms of asexually propagated Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants namely offsets, bulbils and in vitro cultured individuals was studied by AFLP analysis. Low levels of variation were observed between mother plants and offsets and a higher level between mother plant and bulbils. Families obtained from commercial plantations showed lower levels of variation in comparison to families grown as ornamentals. No variation was observed between the original explant and four generations of in vitro cultured plants. Epigenetic variation was also studied by analyzing changes in methylation patterns between mother plants and offspring in each form of asexual reproduction. Offsets and bulbils showed an overall decrease in methylation whereas in vitro cultured plants showed patterns specific to each generation: Generations 1 and 4 showed overall demethylation whereas Generations 2 and 3 showed increased methylation. Analysis of ESTs associated with transposable elements revealed higher proportions of ESTs from Ty1-copia-like, Gypsy and CACTA transposable elements in cDNA libraries obtained from pluripotent tissue suggesting a possible correlation between methylation patterns, expression of transposable element associated genes and somaclonal variation.

  2. Effects of consuming diets containing Agave tequilana dietary fibre and jamaica calyces on body weight gain and redox status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Mateos, Raquel; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa I; Largo, Carlota; Serrano, José; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Tabernero, María

    2014-04-01

    Dietary fibre (DF) obtained from Agave tequilana, which is rich in fructans and insoluble DF, and jamaica calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa), which is rich in DF and phenolic compounds, were assessed as new potential functional ingredients using the hypercholesterolemic animal model. Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 3 groups (n=8) and fed with cholesterol-rich diets supplemented with cellulose (CC, control), agave DF (ADF) or ADF with jamaica calyces (ADF-JC). After consuming the test diets for 5 weeks, weight gain in the ADF-JC group was significantly lower than in the other groups. The ADF and ADF-JC groups had a reduced concentration of cholesterol transporters in the caecum tissue, although no changes were observed in the plasma lipid profile. Both treatments improved the redox status by reducing the malondialdehyde serum levels and protein oxidative damage, compared to the CC group. DF from A. tequilana alone, or in combination with jamaica calyces, shows promising potential as a bioactive ingredient.

  3. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Kendall R; Byrt, Caitlin S; Bauer, Stefan; DeBolt, Seth; Chambers, Don; Holtum, Joseph A M; Karem, Ghazwan; Henderson, Marilyn; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie T; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Betts, Natalie S; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characterized by linkage analysis, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as pectins were observed by immuno-microscopy, and leaf juice composition was determined by liquid chromatography. Agave leaves are fruit-like--rich in moisture, soluble sugars and pectin. The dry leaf fiber was composed of crystalline cellulose (47-50% w/w) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (16-22% w/w), and whole leaves were low in lignin (9-13% w/w). Of the dry mass of whole Agave leaves, 85-95% consisted of soluble sugars, cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, lignin, acetate, protein and minerals. Juice pressed from the Agave leaves accounted for 69% of the fresh weight and was rich in glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of the fructan oligosaccharides doubled the amount of fermentable fructose in A. tequilana leaf juice samples and the concentration of fermentable hexose sugars was 41-48 g/L. In agricultural production systems such as the tequila making, Agave leaves are discarded as waste. Theoretically, up to 4000 L/ha/yr of bioethanol could be produced from juice extracted from waste Agave leaves. Using standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to ferment Agave juice, we observed ethanol yields that were 66% of the theoretical yields. These data indicate that Agave could rival currently used bioethanol feedstocks, particularly if the fermentation organisms and conditions were adapted to suit Agave leaf composition.

  4. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Kendall R.; Byrt, Caitlin S.; Bauer, Stefan; DeBolt, Seth; Chambers, Don; Holtum, Joseph A. M.; Karem, Ghazwan; Henderson, Marilyn; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie T.; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Betts, Natalie S.; Burton, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characterized by linkage analysis, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as pectins were observed by immuno-microscopy, and leaf juice composition was determined by liquid chromatography. Agave leaves are fruit-like—rich in moisture, soluble sugars and pectin. The dry leaf fiber was composed of crystalline cellulose (47–50% w/w) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (16–22% w/w), and whole leaves were low in lignin (9–13% w/w). Of the dry mass of whole Agave leaves, 85–95% consisted of soluble sugars, cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, lignin, acetate, protein and minerals. Juice pressed from the Agave leaves accounted for 69% of the fresh weight and was rich in glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of the fructan oligosaccharides doubled the amount of fermentable fructose in A. tequilana leaf juice samples and the concentration of fermentable hexose sugars was 41–48 g/L. In agricultural production systems such as the tequila making, Agave leaves are discarded as waste. Theoretically, up to 4000 L/ha/yr of bioethanol could be produced from juice extracted from waste Agave leaves. Using standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to ferment Agave juice, we observed ethanol yields that were 66% of the theoretical yields. These data indicate that Agave could rival currently used bioethanol feedstocks, particularly if the fermentation organisms and conditions were adapted to suit Agave leaf composition. PMID:26305101

  5. Fructans from Agave tequilana with a Lower Degree of Polymerization Prevent Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Liver Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, A L; Camacho-Ruíz, R M; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y K; Padilla-Camberos, E; González-Ávila, M; Gálvez-Gastélum, F J; Díaz-Martínez, N E; Ortuño-Sahagún, D

    2016-12-01

    Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperglycemia by 25 % and liver steatosis by 40 %. Interestingly, unfractionated fructans (HFD+F) decreased glucose and triglycerides (TG), whereas fractionated fructans with a higher dp (HFD+LcF) decreased TG but not glucose; in contrast, HFD+ScF decreased glucose but not TG. Our findings suggest that both higher and lower dp agave fructans have complementary effects in metabolic disorders related to obesity. These findings may contribute to the development of improved food supplements with a specific ratio combination of fructans with different dps.

  6. Heterologous expression of Fusarium oxysporum tomatinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases its resistance to saponins and improves ethanol production during the fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and Agave salmiana must.

    PubMed

    Cira, Luis Alberto; González, Gloria Angélica; Torres, Juan Carlos; Pelayo, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Melesio; Ramírez, Jesús

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the effect of the heterologous expression of tomatinase from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene FoTom1 under the control of the S. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) promoter was cloned into pYES2. S. cerevisiae strain Y45 was transformed with this vector and URA3 transformant strains were selected for resistance to alpha-tomatine. Two transformants were randomly selected for further study (designated Y45-1 and Y45-2). Control strain Y45 was inhibited at 50 muM alpha-tomatine, in contrast, transformants Y45-1 and Y45-2 did not show inhibition at 200 muM. Tomatinase activity was detected by HPLC monitoring tomatine disappearance and tomatidine appearance in the supernatants of culture medium. Maximum tomatinase activity was observed in the transformants after 6 h, remaining constant during the following 24 h. No tomatinase activity was detected in the parental strain. Moreover, the transformants were able to grow and produce ethanol in a mix of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and Agave salmiana must, contrary to the Y45 strain which was unable to grow and ferment under these conditions.

  7. Expression of the 1-SST and 1-FFT genes and consequent fructan accumulation in Agave tequilana and A. inaequidens is differentially induced by diverse (a)biotic-stress related elicitors.

    PubMed

    Suárez-González, Edgar Martín; López, Mercedes G; Délano-Frier, John P; Gómez-Leyva, Juan Florencio

    2014-02-15

    The expression of genes coding for sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; EC 2.4.1.99) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT; EC 2.4.1.100), both fructan biosynthesizing enzymes, characterization by TLC and HPAEC-PAD, as well as the quantification of the fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) accumulating in response to the exogenous application of sucrose, kinetin (cytokinin) or other plant hormones associated with (a)biotic stress responses were determined in two Agave species grown in vitro, domesticated Agave tequilana var. azul and wild A. inaequidens. It was found that elicitors such as salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA) had the strongest effect on fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) accumulation. The exogenous application of 1mM SA induced a 36-fold accumulation of FOS of various degrees of polymerization (DP) in stems of A. tequilana. Other treatments, such as 50mM abscisic acid (ABA), 8% Sucrose (Suc), and 1.0 mg L(-1) kinetin (KIN) also led to a significant accumulation of low and high DP FOS in this species. Conversely, treatment with 200 μM MeJA, which was toxic to A. tequilana, induced an 85-fold accumulation of FOS in the stems of A. inaequidens. Significant FOS accumulation in this species also occurred in response to treatments with 1mM SA, 8% Suc, and 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Maximum yields of 13.6 and 8.9 mg FOS per g FW were obtained in stems of A. tequilana and A. inaequidens, respectively. FOS accumulation in the above treatments was tightly associated with increased expression levels of either the 1-FFT or the 1-SST gene in tissues of both Agave species.

  8. Utilization of by-products from the tequila industry. Part 2: Potential value of Agave tequilana Weber azul leaves.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez-Covarrubias, G; Díaz-Teres, R; Sanjuan-Dueñas, R; Anzaldo-Hernández, J; Rowell, R M

    2001-04-01

    The leaves of the agave plant are left in the field after harvesting the heads for tequila production. Different types of agave leaves were isolated, classified, and their content in the total plant determined. The usable fractions were collected and their properties determined. Of the total wet weight of the agave plant, 54% corresponds to the agave head, 32% corresponds to materials which could be usable for sugar and fiber production which leaves 14% of the wet plant without apparent utility. The fractions with higher total reducing sugars (TRS) content were the fresh fraction of partially dry leaves stuck to the head and the leaf bases with a TRS content of 16.1% and 13.1%, respectively. The highest TRS concentration (16-28%) is in the agave head which is used for tequila production. The leaves are 90-120 cm long and 8-12 cm wide and contain fiber bundles that are 23-52 cm long and 0.6-13 mm wide. The ultimate fiber length is approximately 1.6 mm with an average width of 25 microns. There are several types of leaf fibers that can be utilized depending on what part of the plant they come from and what product is desired. Agave leaf fibers were pulped using a soda pulping process and the pulp was hand formed into test sheets. Test sheets made from pulped agave leaf fibers had a breaking length comparable to paper made from both pine and eucalyptus fibers, but the tear index and burst index were lower than the other two papers.

  9. Hydrolysis of Agave fourcroydes Lemaire (henequen) leaf juice and fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbon sources for biofuel production are wide-ranging and their availability depends on the climate and soil conditions of the land where the production chain is located. Henequen (Agave fourcroydes Lem.) is cultivated in Yucatán, Mexico to produce natural fibers from the leaves, and a juice containing fructans is produced during this process. Fructans can be hydrolyzed to fructose and glucose and metabolized into ethanol by appropriate yeasts. In Mexico, different Agave species provide the carbon source for (distilled and non-distilled) alcoholic beverage production using the stem of the plant, whilst the leaves are discarded. In this work, we investigated the effect of thermal acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of the juice on the amount of reducing sugars released. Growth curves were generated with the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus and fermentations were then carried out with Kluyveromyces marxianus to determine alcohol yields. Results With thermal acid hydrolysis, the greatest increase in reducing sugars (82.6%) was obtained using 5% H2SO4 at 100°C with a 30 min reaction time. Statistically similar results can be obtained using the same acid concentration at a lower temperature and with a shorter reaction time (60°C, 15 min), or by using 1% H2SO4 at 100°C with a 30 min reaction time. In the case of enzymatic hydrolysis, the use of 5.75, 11.47 and 22.82 U of enzyme did not produce significant differences in the increase in reducing sugars. Although both hydrolysis processes obtained similar results, the difference was observed after fermentation. Ethanol yields were 50.3 ± 4 and 80.04 ± 5.29% of the theoretical yield respectively. Conclusions Final reducing sugars concentrations obtained with both thermal acid and enzymatic hydrolysis were similar. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a good ethanol producer, did not grow in the hydrolysates. Only Kluyveromyces marxianus was able to grow in them, giving a higher ethanol

  10. Two new steroidal saponins from dried fermented residues of leaf-juices of Agave sisalana forma Dong No. 1.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y; Tian, R H; Yang, C R; Chen, Y Y; Nohara, T

    1993-03-01

    In a previous paper, we reported the isolation and structure determination of three new steroidal saponins, dongnosides C (3), D (2) and E (1) from the dried fermented residues of leaf-juices of Agave sisalana forma Dong No. 1. In a continuing study on this plant, two additional new major steroidal saponins, named dongnosides B (4) and A (5), were obtained. Their structures were characterized respectively as tigogenin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamonpyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)- [beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactop yranoside and 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta- D- xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  11. Monoxenic production of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae using culture media containing agave juice (aguamiel) from Mexican maguey-pulquero (Agave spp). Effects of the contents of nitrogen, carbohydrates and fat on infective juvenile production.

    PubMed

    Islas-López, Marco-Antonio; Sanjuan-Galindo, René; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana-Inés; Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto

    2005-07-01

    The production of infective juvenile stages (IJ) of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in the presence of its symbiotic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus was carried out in orbitally agitated bottles. Four complex culture media (M1-M4) were used, containing from 8% to 28% (by vol.) agave juice (aguamiel) from Mexican maguey-pulquero (Agave spp) as the main carbohydrate source. After 20 days of fermentation, a maximum viable IJ concentration of 249,000 IJ/ml and an initial nematode population multiplication factor of x620 were achieved when medium M4 was used (aguamiel concentration in this medium was 28% by vol.). M4 medium contained (w/v): 0.3% total nitrogen, 3.2% total carbohydrates and 3.0% total fat. According to the results obtained, total carbohydrates concentration appeared to be of great importance in obtaining high IJ concentrations.

  12. A quantitative gas-liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of hecogenin and tigogenin in the leaves, juice and sapogenin concentrates of Agave sisalana.

    PubMed

    Cripps, A L; Blunden, G

    1978-05-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method has been devised for the routine estimation of the hecogenin [3beta-hydroxy-(25R)-5beta-spirostan-12-one] and tigogenin [ (25R)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol] contents of Agave sisalana leaf and juice samples and of the crude sapogenin concentrates known as "coffee grounds". Because of partial degradation of the sapogenins in the GLC system it was found necessary to acetylate the compounds prior to their estimation. In East African samples the tigogenin proportion of the total sapogenin content is usually about 10%. At this level, the 95% inverse tolerance limits on predicted tigogenin weights are approximately +/- 7%.

  13. Plant compartment and biogeography affect microbiome composition in cultivated and native Agave species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary goal of this research was to investigate the prokaryotic and fungal communities associated with the bulk soil, the rhizosphere, the phyllosphere, and the root and leaf endospheres, for three Agave species: the cultivated Agave tequilana and the native species, A. salmiana and A. deserti ...

  14. Characterization of kinetic parameters and the formation of volatile compounds during the tequila fermentation by wild yeasts isolated from agave juice.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Melchor; Pelayo, Carlos; Ramírez, Jesús; Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2008-08-01

    The production of aroma compounds during tequila fermentation using four native yeast strains isolated from agave juice was quantified at controlled (35 degrees C) and uncontrolled temperatures (room temperature) by gas chromatography (FID). Three of the four strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTLI 1, MALI 1 and MGLI 1) and one as Kloeckera apiculata (MALI 2). Among the aroma compounds produced, acetaldehyde has the highest accumulation at the controlled temperature and before 50% of sugar was consumed. The S. cerevisiae strains produced ethyl acetate in almost the same quantity at a concentration of 5 mg/L and the K. apiculata produced six-times more (30 mg/L) than the S. cerevisiae strains, independent of the fermentation temperature. The rate and amount of 1-propanol, amyl alcohols and isobutanol production were affected by the type of yeast used. The K. apiculate strain produced 50% less of the higher alcohols than the Saccharomyces strains. The results obtained showed that indigenous isolated yeasts play an important role in the tequila flavor and suggest that mixtures of these yeasts may be used to produce tequila with a unique and desirable aroma.

  15. Agave: a biofuel feedstock for arid and semi-arid environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Stephen; Martin, Jeffrey; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2011-05-31

    Efficient production of plant-based, lignocellulosic biofuels relies upon continued improvement of existing biofuel feedstock species, as well as the introduction of newfeedstocks capable of growing on marginal lands to avoid conflicts with existing food production and minimize use of water and nitrogen resources. To this end, specieswithin the plant genus Agave have recently been proposed as new biofuel feedstocks. Many Agave species are adapted to hot and arid environments generally unsuitable forfood production, yet have biomass productivity rates comparable to other second-generation biofuel feedstocks such as switchgrass and Miscanthus. Agavesachieve remarkable heat tolerance and water use efficiency in part through a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) mode of photosynthesis, but the genes andregulatory pathways enabling CAM and thermotolerance in agaves remain poorly understood. We seek to accelerate the development of agave as a new biofuelfeedstock through genomic approaches using massively-parallel sequencing technologies. First, we plan to sequence the transcriptome of A. tequilana to provide adatabase of protein-coding genes to the agave research community. Second, we will compare transcriptome-wide gene expression of agaves under different environmentalconditions in order to understand genetic pathways controlling CAM, water use efficiency, and thermotolerance. Finally, we aim to compare the transcriptome of A.tequilana with that of other Agave species to gain further insight into molecular mechanisms underlying traits desirable for biofuel feedstocks. These genomicapproaches will provide sequence and gene expression information critical to the breeding and domestication of Agave species suitable for biofuel production.

  16. Quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates of mezcal Agave (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dick).

    PubMed

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Juárez-Flores, Bertha Irene; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2008-07-23

    Fructans are the reserve carbohydrates in Agave spp. plants. In mezcal factories, fructans undergoes thermal hydrolysis to release fructose and glucose, which are the basis to produce this spirit. Carbohydrate content determines the yield of the final product, which depends on plant organ, ripeness stage, and thermal hydrolysis. Thus, a qualitative and quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates was conducted in raw and hydrolyzed juices extracted from Agave salmiana stems and leaves under three ripeness stages. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fructose, glucose, sucrose, xylose, and maltose were identified in agave juice. Only the plant fraction with hydrolysis interaction was found to be significant in the glucose concentration plant. Interactions of the fraction with hydrolysis and ripeness with hydrolysis were statistically significant in fructose concentration. Fructose concentration rose considerably with hydrolysis, but only in juice extracted from ripe agave stems (early mature and castrated). This increase was statistically significant only with acid hydrolysis.

  17. Characterization of three agave species by gas chromatography and solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peña-Alvarez, Araceli; Díaz, Laura; Medina, Alejandra; Labastida, Carmen; Capella, Santiago; Vera, Luz Elena

    2004-02-20

    Steam distillation (SD) extraction-solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC-MS was developed for the determination of terpenes and Bligh-Dyer extraction-derivatization coupled with GC for the determination of fatty acids such as ethyl esters were used. It was found that the three different Agave species have the same profile of fatty acids; the quantity of these compounds is different in each Agave variety. On the other hand, different terpenes were identified in the three Agave plants studied: nine in A. salmiana, eight in A. angustifolia and 32 in A. tequilana Weber var. azul.

  18. Fructan metabolism in A. tequilana Weber Blue variety along its developmental cycle in the field.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G

    2012-11-28

    Fructan, as reserve carbohydrate, supplies energy needs during vegetative development, thereby exhibiting variations in its content and composition. Fructan metabolism in Agave tequilana Blue variety from 2- to 7-year-old plants was analyzed in this work. Soluble carbohydrates were determined at all ages. Fructan (328-711 mg/g), sucrose (14-39 mg/g), fructose (11-20 mg/g), glucose (4-14 mg/g), and starch (0.58-4.98 mg/g) were the most abundant carbohydrates. Thin-layer chromatography exhibited that 2-5-year-old plants mainly stored fructooligosaccharides, while 6-7-year-old plants mainly contained long-chain fructans. The fructan degree of polymerization (DP) increased from 6 to 23 throughout plant development. The 7-year-old plants mainly stored highly branched agavins. Partially methylated alditol acetate analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals that fructan molecular structures became more complex with plant age. For the first time, we report the presence of a large number of DP3 (seven forms), DP4 (eight forms), and DP5 (six forms) isomers for agave fructans. Overall, fructan metabolism in A. tequilana displays changes in its soluble carbohydrates, DP, type, and fructan structures stored, along its developmental cycle in the field.

  19. Cytophotometric and biochemical analyses of DNA in pentaploid and diploid Agave species.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, A; Natali, L; Cionini, G; Castorena-Sanchez, I

    1996-04-01

    Nuclear DNA content, chromatin structure, and DNA composition were investigated in four Agave species: two diploid, Agave tequilana Weber and Agave angustifolia Haworth var. marginata Hort., and two pentaploid, Agave fourcroydes Lemaire and Agave sisalana Perrine. It was determined that the genome size of pentaploid species is nearly 2.5 times that of diploid ones. Cytophotometric analyses of chromatin structure were performed following Feulgen or DAPI staining to determine optical density profiles of interphase nuclei. Pentaploid species showed higher frequencies of condensed chromatin (heterochromatin) than diploid species. On the other hand, a lower frequency of A-T rich (DAPI stained) heterochromatin was found in pentaploid species than in diploid ones, indicating that heterochromatin in pentaploid species is made up of sequences with base compositions different from those of diploid species. Since thermal denaturation profiles of extracted DNA showed minor variations in the base composition of the genomes of the four species, it is supposed that, in pentaploid species, the large heterochromatin content is not due to an overrepresentation of G-C repetitive sequences but rather to the condensation of nonrepetitive sequences, such as, for example, redundant gene copies switched off in the polyploid complement. It is suggested that speciation in the genus Agave occurs through point mutations and minor DNA rearrangements, as is also indicated by the relative stability of the karyotype of this genus. Key words : Agave, DNA cytophotometry, DNA melting profiles, chromatin structure, genome size.

  20. New insights into plant glycoside hydrolase family 32 in Agave species

    PubMed Central

    Avila de Dios, Emmanuel; Gomez Vargas, Alan D.; Damián Santos, Maura L.; Simpson, June

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of agaves for commercial applications, an understanding of fructan metabolism in these species at the molecular and genetic level is essential. Based on transcriptome data, this report describes the identification and molecular characterization of cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences for genes encoding fructosyltransferases, invertases and fructan exohydrolases (FEH) (enzymes belonging to plant glycoside hydrolase family 32) from four different agave species (A. tequilana, A. deserti, A. victoriae-reginae, and A. striata). Conserved amino acid sequences and a hypervariable domain allowed classification of distinct isoforms for each enzyme type. Notably however neither 1-FFT nor 6-SFT encoding cDNAs were identified. In silico analysis revealed that distinct isoforms for certain enzymes found in a single species, showed different levels and tissue specific patterns of expression whereas in other cases expression patterns were conserved both within the species and between different species. Relatively high levels of in silico expression for specific isoforms of both invertases and fructosyltransferases were observed in floral tissues in comparison to vegetative tissues such as leaves and stems and this pattern was confirmed by Quantitative Real Time PCR using RNA obtained from floral and leaf tissue of A. tequilana. Thin layer chromatography confirmed the presence of fructans with degree of polymerization (DP) greater than DP three in both immature buds and fully opened flowers also obtained from A. tequilana. PMID:26300895

  1. New insights into plant glycoside hydrolase family 32 in Agave species.

    PubMed

    Avila de Dios, Emmanuel; Gomez Vargas, Alan D; Damián Santos, Maura L; Simpson, June

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of agaves for commercial applications, an understanding of fructan metabolism in these species at the molecular and genetic level is essential. Based on transcriptome data, this report describes the identification and molecular characterization of cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences for genes encoding fructosyltransferases, invertases and fructan exohydrolases (FEH) (enzymes belonging to plant glycoside hydrolase family 32) from four different agave species (A. tequilana, A. deserti, A. victoriae-reginae, and A. striata). Conserved amino acid sequences and a hypervariable domain allowed classification of distinct isoforms for each enzyme type. Notably however neither 1-FFT nor 6-SFT encoding cDNAs were identified. In silico analysis revealed that distinct isoforms for certain enzymes found in a single species, showed different levels and tissue specific patterns of expression whereas in other cases expression patterns were conserved both within the species and between different species. Relatively high levels of in silico expression for specific isoforms of both invertases and fructosyltransferases were observed in floral tissues in comparison to vegetative tissues such as leaves and stems and this pattern was confirmed by Quantitative Real Time PCR using RNA obtained from floral and leaf tissue of A. tequilana. Thin layer chromatography confirmed the presence of fructans with degree of polymerization (DP) greater than DP three in both immature buds and fully opened flowers also obtained from A. tequilana.

  2. Purpuric agave dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricks, M R; Vogel, P S; Elston, D M; Hivnor, C

    1999-02-01

    Agave americana is a low growing, thick, long-leaved, subtropical plant used for medicinal, commercial, and ornamental purposes. The plant's sap contains calcium oxalate crystals, acrid oils, saponins, and other compounds. Despite these known irritants, Agave-induced irritant dermatitis has rarely been reported. Previous case reports have noted a papulovesicular eruption consistent with an irritant contact dermatitis. We report a case of Agave-induced purpura in an otherwise healthy patient. Histopathology was consistent with an evolving leukocytoclastic vasculitis.

  3. Constituents of Agave americana and Agave barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Tinto, W F; Simmons-Boyce, J L; McLean, S; Reynolds, W F

    2005-09-01

    An investigation of Agave americana and Agave barbadensis resulted in the isolation of a new homoisoflavanoid, 7-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl)-chroman (3), together with known compounds 7-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one (2), cantalasaponin-1 (4), and 2-hydroxy-butanedioic acid-1-methyl ester (5).

  4. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  5. Plant compartment and biogeography affect microbiome composition in cultivated and native Agave species.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Desgarennes, Damaris; Fonseca-Garcia, Citlali; Gross, Stephen; Clingenpeel, Scott; Woyke, Tanja; North, Gretchen; Visel, Axel; Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Tringe, Susannah G

    2016-01-01

    Desert plants are hypothesized to survive the environmental stress inherent to these regions in part thanks to symbioses with microorganisms, and yet these microbial species, the communities they form, and the forces that influence them are poorly understood. Here we report the first comprehensive investigation of the microbial communities associated with species of Agave, which are native to semiarid and arid regions of Central and North America and are emerging as biofuel feedstocks. We examined prokaryotic and fungal communities in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, leaf and root endosphere, as well as proximal and distal soil samples from cultivated and native agaves, through Illumina amplicon sequencing. Phylogenetic profiling revealed that the composition of prokaryotic communities was primarily determined by the plant compartment, whereas the composition of fungal communities was mainly influenced by the biogeography of the host species. Cultivated A. tequilana exhibited lower levels of prokaryotic diversity compared with native agaves, although no differences in microbial diversity were found in the endosphere. Agaves shared core prokaryotic and fungal taxa known to promote plant growth and confer tolerance to abiotic stress, which suggests common principles underpinning Agave-microbe interactions.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of different agave plants and the compound cantalasaponin-1.

    PubMed

    Monterrosas-Brisson, Nayeli; Ocampo, Martha L Arenas; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio R; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Cortazar, Manases; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

    2013-07-10

    Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants' leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear edema induced in mice with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) technique. A dose of 6 mg/ear of acetone extract from the three agave species induced anti-inflammatory effects, however, the one from A. americana proved to be the most active. Different fractions of this species showed biological activity. Finally the F5 fraction at 2.0 mg/ear induced an inhibition of 85.6%. We identified one compound in this fraction as (25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23α-triol-3,6-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cantalasaponin-1) through 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral analysis and two dimensional experiments like DEPT NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC. This steroidal glycoside showed a dose dependent effect of up to 90% of ear edema inhibition at the highest dose of 1.5 mg/ear.

  7. Morphological features of different polyploids for adaptation and molecular characterization of CC-NBS-LRR and LEA gene families in Agave L.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Ordóñez, M C; Rodriguez-Zapata, L C; Narváez-Zapata, J A; Tamayo-Ordóñez, Y J; Ayil-Gutiérrez, B A; Barredo-Pool, F; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2016-05-20

    Polyploidy has been widely described in many Agave L. species, but its influence on environmental response to stress is still unknown. With the objective of knowing the morphological adaptations and regulation responses of genes related to biotic (LEA) and abiotic (NBS-LRR) stress in species of Agave with different levels of ploidy, and how these factors contribute to major response of Agave against environmental stresses, we analyzed 16 morphological trials on five accessions of three species (Agave tequilana Weber, Agave angustifolia Haw. and Agave fourcroydes Lem.) with different ploidy levels (2n=2x=60 2n=3x=90, 2n=5x=150, 2n=6x=180) and evaluated the expression of NBS-LRR and LEA genes regulated by biotic and abiotic stress. It was possible to associate some morphological traits (spines, nuclei, and stomata) to ploidy level. The genetic characterization of stress-related genes NBS-LRR induced by pathogenic infection and LEA by heat or saline stresses indicated that amino acid sequence analysis in these genes showed more substitutions in higher ploidy level accessions of A. fourcroydes Lem. 'Sac Ki' (2n=5x=150) and A. angustifolia Haw. 'Chelem Ki' (2n=6x=180), and a higher LEA and NBS-LRR representativeness when compared to their diploid and triploid counterparts. In all studied Agave accessions expression of LEA and NBS-LRR genes was induced by saline or heat stresses or by infection with Erwinia carotovora, respectively. The transcriptional activation was also higher in A. angustifolia Haw. 'Chelem Ki' (2n=6x=180) and A. fourcroydes 'Sac Ki' (2n=5x=150) than in their diploid and triploid counterparts, which suggests higher adaptation to stress. Finally, the diploid accession A. tequilana Weber 'Azul' showed a differentiated genetic profile relative to other Agave accessions. The differences include similar or higher genetic representativeness and transcript accumulation of LEA and NBS-LRR genes than in polyploid (2n=5x=150 and 2n=6x=180) Agave accessions

  8. Identification, classification, and discrimination of agave syrups from natural sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy and HPAEC-PAD.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G

    2015-01-15

    Agave syrups are gaining popularity as new natural sweeteners. Identification, classification and discrimination by infrared spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics (NIR-MIR-SIMCA-PCA) and HPAEC-PAD of agave syrups from natural sweeteners were achieved. MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to classify the natural sweeteners according to their natural source. Natural syrups exhibited differences in the MIR spectra region 1500-900 cm(-1). The agave syrups displayed strong absorption in the MIR spectra region 1061-1,063 cm(-1), in agreement with their high fructose content. Additionally, MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to differentiate among syrups from different Agave species (Agavetequilana and Agavesalmiana). Thin-layer chromatography and HPAEC-PAD revealed glucose, fructose, and sucrose as the principal carbohydrates in all of the syrups. Oligosaccharide profiles showed that A. tequilana syrups are mainly composed of fructose (>60%) and fructooligosaccharides, while A. salmiana syrups contain more sucrose (28-32%). We conclude that MIR-SIMCA-PCA and HPAEC-PAD can be used to unequivocally identify and classified agave syrups.

  9. Phytobezoar from the stem ("quiote") of the cactus Agave americana: report of case.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, R; Martinez, O; Berumen, U

    1985-11-01

    Agave americana is a cactus growing abundantly in Mexico. Its cooked stem ("quiote") yields by mastication a sweet juice which is swallowed, while the fibers ("bagazo") are spit out. That is the way Mexicans are taught to chew quiote since their early childhood, and it accounts for the rarity of bezoars from this origin. One of such cases is reported herein.

  10. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA in three species of Agave (Asparagales, Asparagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Palomino, Guadalupe; Martínez, Javier; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Agave Linnaeus, 1753 is endemic of America and is considered one of the most important crops in Mexico due to its key role in the country’s economy. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in Agave tequilana Weber, 1902 ‘Azul’, Agave cupreata Trelease et Berger, 1915 and Agave angustifolia Haworth, 1812. The analysis showed that in all species the diploid chromosome number was 2n = 60, with bimodal karyotypes composed of five pairs of large chromosomes and 25 pairs of small chromosomes. Furthermore, different karyotypical formulae as well as a secondary constriction in a large chromosome pair were found in all species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). All species analyzed showed that 5S rDNA was located in both arms of a small chromosome pair, while 18S rDNA was associated with the secondary constriction of a large chromosome pair. Data of FISH analysis provides new information about the position and number of rDNA loci and helps for detection of hybrids in breeding programs as well as evolutionary studies. PMID:24260700

  11. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    DOE PAGES

    Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Rodriguez, Jr, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A; ...

    2015-01-01

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with themore » use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.« less

  12. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Rodriguez, Jr, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A; Yang, Xiaohan; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with the use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.

  13. Production of fructanase by a wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on tequila agave fructan.

    PubMed

    Corona-González, R I; Pelayo-Ortiz, C; Jacques, G; Guatemala, G; Arriola, E; Arias, J A; Toriz, G

    2015-01-01

    A new wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CF3) isolated from tequila must was evaluated for production of fructanase on Agave tequilana Weber fructan (FT). Fructanase activity (F) was assessed by a 3(3) factorial design (substrate, temperature and pH). High enzymatic activity (31.1 U/ml) was found at 30 °C, pH 5, using FT (10 g/l) as substrate. The effect of initial substrate concentration on F (FT0, 5.7-66 g/l) was studied and it was found that F was highest (44.8 U/ml) at FT0 25 g/l. A 2(2) factorial experimental design with five central points was utilized to study the effect of stirring and aeration on fructanase activity; stirring exhibited a stronger effect on F. The ratio fructanase to invertase (F/S) was 0.57, which confirms that the enzymes are fructanase. Crude fructanase reached high substrate hydrolysis (48 wt%) in 10 h. It is shown that S. cerevisiae CF3 was able to produce large amounts of fructanase by growing it on fructan from A. tequilana.

  14. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months.

  15. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos®) was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783. PMID:26529006

  16. Effect of Agave americana and Agave salmiana Ripeness on Saponin Content from Aguamiel (Agave Sap).

    PubMed

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Santos-Zea, Liliana; Martínez-Escobedo, Hilda Cecilia; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othón

    2015-04-22

    Steroidal saponins have shown beneficial health effects. Agave spp. leaves and rhizomes are sources of these compounds, but their presence has not been reported in the aguamiel. Aguamiel is the sweet edible sap from mature agave, and its quality is influenced by the plant ripening stage. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantitate saponins in aguamiel from Agave americana and Agave salmiana at two ripening stages. Saponins and sapogenins were identified with HPLC/ESI-MS/TOF and quantitated with HPLC/ELSD. Results proved the presence of saponins derived from kammogenin, manogenin, gentrogenin, and hecogenin. The saponin content in aguamiel from immature A. salmiana was 2-fold higher (478.3 protodioscin equivalents (PE) μg/g aguamiel (DM)) compared with A. americana (179.0 PE μg/g aguamiel (DM)). In both species, saponin content decreased when plants reached sexual maturity. This should be considered before evaluating the effects of Agave spp. as a source of bioactive saponins.

  17. Detection of bacterial infection of agave plants by laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Martínez, Jesús; Flores-Hernández, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin; Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, Fernando

    2002-05-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul were inoculated with Erwinia carotovora, the causal agent of stem soft rot. We investigated the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of agave plants to determine whether LIF can be used as a noninvasive sensing tool for pathological studies. The LIF technique was also investigated as a means of detecting the effect of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor beta-hydroxyethylhydrazine as a bactericide against the pathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora. A He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm was used as the excitation source, and in vivo fluorescence emission spectra were recorded in the 660-790-range. Fluorescence maxima were at 690 and 740 nm. The infected plants that were untreated with the bactericide showed a definite increase in fluorescence intensity at both maxima within the first three days after infection. Beginning on the fifth day, a steady decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed, with a greater effect at 740 than at 690 nm. After 30 days there was no fluorescence. The infected plants that had been treated with the bactericide showed no significant change in fluorescence compared with that of the uninfected plants. The ratio of fluorescence intensities was determined to be F 690 nm/F 740 nm for all treatments. These studies indicate that LIF measurements of agave plants may be used for the early detection of certain types of disease and for determining the effect of a bactericide on bacteria. The results also showed that fluorescence intensity ratios can be used as a reliable indicator of the progress of disease.

  18. Detection of bacterial infection of agave plants by laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Martinez, Jesus; Flores-Hernandez, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, Fernando

    2002-05-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul were inoculated with Erwinia carotovora, the causal agent of stem soft rot. We investigated the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of agave plants to determine whether LIF can be used as a noninvasive sensing tool for pathological studies. The LIF technique was also investigated as a means of detecting the effect of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor beta-hydroxyethylhydrazine as a bactericide against the pathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora. A He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm was used as the excitation source, and in vivo fluorescence emission spectra were recorded in the 660-790-range. Fluorescence maxima were at 690 and 740 nm. The infected plants that were untreated with the bactericide showed a definite increase in fluorescence intensity at both maxima within the first three days after infection. Beginning on the fifth day, a steady decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed, with a greater effect at 740 than at 690 nm. After 30 days there was no fluorescence. The infected plants that had been treated with the bactericide showed no significant change in fluorescence compared with that of the uninfected plants. The ratio of fluorescence intensities was determined to be F 690 nm/F 740 nm for all treatments. These studies indicate that LIF measurements of agave plants may be used for the early detection of certain types of disease and for determining the effect of a bactericide on bacteria. The results also showed that fluorescence intensity ratios can be used as a reliable indicator of the progress of disease.

  19. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  20. Saponins of Agave: Chemistry and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Sidana, Jasmeen; Singh, Bikram; Sharma, Om P

    2016-10-01

    The genus Agave comprises more than 400 species with geographical presence in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. These plants have a rich history of folkloric use and are known for a wide spectrum of applications. Secondary metabolites of diverse chemical classes have been reported from Agave species. Owing to their pharmacological significance, the steroidal saponins of Agave have caught the attention of phytochemists, biologists and drug discovery scientists. The present review describes 141 steroidal saponins and sapogenins and covers the literature published from 1970 to 2015. It is a comprehensive and coherent presentation of the structures, methods of chemical profiling, structure elucidation and biological activities of the saponins and sapogenins reported from Agave. The article provides a perspective of the research on steroidal compounds of Agave.

  1. Eddy covariance captures four-phase crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) gas exchange signature in Agave.

    PubMed

    Owen, Nick A; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; Del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Mass and energy fluxes were measured over a field of Agave tequilana in Mexico using eddy covariance (EC) methodology. Data were gathered over 252 d, including the transition from wet to dry periods. Net ecosystem exchanges (FN,EC ) displayed a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) rhythm that alternated from CO2 sink at night to CO2 source during the day, and partitioned canopy fluxes (FA,EC ) showed a characteristic four-phase CO2 exchange pattern. Results were cross-validated against diel changes in titratable acidity, leaf-unfurling rates, energy exchange fluxes and reported biomass yields. Projected carbon balance (g C m(-2)  year(-1) , mean ± 95% confidence interval) indicated the site was a net sink of -333 ± 24, of which contributions from soil respiration were +692 ± 7, and FA,EC was -1025 ± 25. EC estimated biomass yield was 20.1 Mg (dry) ha(-1)  year(-1) . Average integrated daily FA,EC was -234 ± 5 mmol CO2  m(-2)  d(-1) and persisted almost unchanged after 70 d of drought conditions. Regression analyses were performed on the EC data to identify the best environmental predictors of FA . Results suggest that the carbon acquisition strategy of Agave offers productivity and drought resilience advantages over conventional semi-arid C3 and C4 bioenergy candidates.

  2. Methylene blue biosorption by pericarp of corn, alfalfa, and agave bagasse wastes.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Castor, José M; Garza-González, María T; García-Reyes, Refugio B; Soto-Regalado, Eduardo; Cerino-Córdova, Felipe J; García-González, Alcione; Loredo-Medrano, José A

    2014-01-01

    The presence of dyes in effluent is a matter of concern due to their toxicologic and aesthetical effects. In this research, locally available agro-industrial wastes (Zea mays pericarp, ZMP; Agave tequilana bagasse, ATB; and Medicago sativa waste, MSW) were used as alternative low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterized physically and chemically by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, potentiometric titrations, and N2 physisorption. MB adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems and experimental data were used to calculate the adsorption isotherm model parameters (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin) and the adsorption kinetic model parameters (pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models). MB-loaded biosorbents were desorbed with deionized water, ethanol (10% and 50% v/v), hydrochloric acid (0.01 and 0.05 N), and sodium hydroxide (0.1 N) at room temperature, and the best eluent was used in various adsorption-desorption cycles. The selected agricultural wastes can be considered as promising adsorbents for dye uptake from water since they exhibit considerable MB adsorption capacity (MSW 202.6 mg g(-1), ATB 156.2mg g(-1), and ZMP 110.9mg g(-1)), but it is lower than that reported for activated carbon; however, the biosorbents show higher adsorption rate than powdered activated carbon. Furthermore, the adsorbents can be economically regenerated with HCl solutions and reused for seven adsorption-desorption cycles.

  3. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of liquid waste of Agave sisalana (sisal) in goats.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Botura, Mariana Borges; Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira Guedes da; Yuki, Cristiane Carina; Silva, Gisele Dias da; Costa, Márcia Silva; Murphy, Gleeson; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Almeida, Maria das Graças Ávila Ribeiro de; Branco, Alexsandro; Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas de; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2010-01-01

    It was evaluated the anthelmintic activity of Agave sisalana (sisal) juice against gastrointestinal nematodes and its potential toxic effects in goats. In vitro tests showed more than 95% reduction in larval counts of the genus Haemonchus spp. at concentrations between 86.5 and 146.3 mg.mL(-1). In vivo the percent reduction of larvae of the fourth (L4) and fifth (L5) stages of Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum and Trichostrongylus was less than 95% in groups GI and GII, and between 80 and 90% in group GIII. A. sisalana juice at the concentrations tested in vitro was effective against gastrointestinal nematodes in goats; however, its anthelmintic efficacy was reduced when administered to animals.

  4. In vitro assessment of agave fructans (Agave salmiana) as prebiotics and immune system activators.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Vilet, L; Garcia-Hernandez, M H; Delgado-Portales, R E; Corral-Fernandez, N E; Cortez-Espinosa, N; Ruiz-Cabrera, M A; Portales-Perez, D P

    2014-02-01

    The prebiotic effect of agave fructans (Agave salmiana) was evaluated through the growth of two lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis). The immune system was activated through the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy subjects testing fructans, LAB or a mixture of these compounds at different concentrations. Immune responses, such as early cell activation (CD69), cell cycle progression, nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of transcription factors for lymphocyte differentiation, were analyzed. Compared with other fructans, the extracted agave fructans showed the highest prebiotic activity and increased levels of CD69 expression, proliferative activity and NO production when administered with the probiotic L. casei. The Th1 lymphocyte differentiation produced through LAB stimulation was greatly diminished after the incorporation of agave fructans. In conclusion, these types of fructans (A. salmiana) are involved in the activation and selective differentiation of cells of the immune system through interactions with probiotics. Thus, agave fructans represent a novel immunomodulator that might benefit the functional food industry.

  5. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fructans from Agave salmiana Characterization and Kinetic Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Ortiz-Cerda, Imelda; Moreno-Vilet, Lorena; Grajales-Lagunes, Alicia; Moscosa-Santillán, Mario; Bonnin, Johanne; González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Ruiz-Cabrera, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Fructans were extracted from Agave salmiana juice, characterized and subjected to hydrolysis process using a commercial inulinase preparation acting freely. To compare the performance of the enzymatic preparation, a batch of experiments were also conducted with chicory inulin (reference). Hydrolysis was performed for 6 h at two temperatures (50, 60°C) and two substrate concentrations (40, 60 mg/ml). Hydrolysis process was monitored by measuring the sugars released and residual substrate by HPLC. A mathematical model which describes the kinetics of substrate degradation as well as fructose production was proposed to analyze the hydrolysis assessment. It was found that kinetics were significantly influenced by temperature, substrate concentration, and type of substrate (P < 0.01). The extent of substrate hydrolysis varied from 82 to 99%. Hydrolysis product was mainly constituted of fructose, obtaining from 77 to 96.4% of total reducing sugars. PMID:22629216

  6. Study of enzymatic hydrolysis of fructans from Agave salmiana characterization and kinetic assessment.

    PubMed

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Ortiz-Cerda, Imelda; Moreno-Vilet, Lorena; Grajales-Lagunes, Alicia; Moscosa-Santillán, Mario; Bonnin, Johanne; González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Ruiz-Cabrera, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Fructans were extracted from Agave salmiana juice, characterized and subjected to hydrolysis process using a commercial inulinase preparation acting freely. To compare the performance of the enzymatic preparation, a batch of experiments were also conducted with chicory inulin (reference). Hydrolysis was performed for 6 h at two temperatures (50, 60 °C) and two substrate concentrations (40, 60 mg/ml). Hydrolysis process was monitored by measuring the sugars released and residual substrate by HPLC. A mathematical model which describes the kinetics of substrate degradation as well as fructose production was proposed to analyze the hydrolysis assessment. It was found that kinetics were significantly influenced by temperature, substrate concentration, and type of substrate (P < 0.01). The extent of substrate hydrolysis varied from 82 to 99%. Hydrolysis product was mainly constituted of fructose, obtaining from 77 to 96.4% of total reducing sugars.

  7. Timing and rate of speciation in Agave (Agavaceae).

    PubMed

    Good-Avila, Sara V; Souza, Valeria; Gaut, Brandon S; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2006-06-13

    The Agave (Agavaceae) are keystone species of semiarid to arid regions where the geographic center of origin is Mexico but whose populations spread from the southwestern U.S. through Central America, the Caribbean, and into northern South America. Our analyses indicate that Agave is a young genus, between 7.8 and 10.1 million years old, and yet it harbors the most species of any genera in the family. Of the eight genera in the family, Agave is paraphyletic with respect to three of them, and these four genera are often grouped into a genus termed Agave sensu lato, which harbors 208 of the 293 recognized species in the Agavaceae. In this article, we examine the phylogenetic limits of Agave sensu lato and present analyses elucidating the origin and rate of speciation in the group. These analyses lead to some new insights into the phylogenetic limits of Agave, indicate an estimated age of the family between 20 and 26 million years and an age of the Agave sensu lato of

  8. Timing and rate of speciation in Agave (Agavaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Good-Avila, Sara V.; Souza, Valeria; Gaut, Brandon S.; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2006-01-01

    The Agave (Agavaceae) are keystone species of semiarid to arid regions where the geographic center of origin is Mexico but whose populations spread from the southwestern U.S. through Central America, the Caribbean, and into northern South America. Our analyses indicate that Agave is a young genus, between 7.8 and 10.1 million years old, and yet it harbors the most species of any genera in the family. Of the eight genera in the family, Agave is paraphyletic with respect to three of them, and these four genera are often grouped into a genus termed Agave sensu lato, which harbors 208 of the 293 recognized species in the Agavaceae. In this article, we examine the phylogenetic limits of Agave sensu lato and present analyses elucidating the origin and rate of speciation in the group. These analyses lead to some new insights into the phylogenetic limits of Agave, indicate an estimated age of the family between 20 and 26 million years and an age of the Agave sensu lato of ≤10 million years. Furthermore, we estimate a high mean per-lineage rate of diversification for the genus and find that rates of speciation were significantly elevated between 8 and 6 million years ago and then again between 3 and 2.5 million years ago. We discuss the potential for both monocarpy and the evolution of a generalist pollination system, largely dependent on nectarivorous bat species, as possible driving factors in the radiation of the group. PMID:16757559

  9. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    PubMed

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  10. [Dermatitis from contact with Agave americana].

    PubMed

    Golan, H; Landau, M; Goldberg, I; Brenner, S

    2000-10-01

    Various plants induce dermatitis in man. There have been only a few published cases of contact dermatitis caused by Agave americana (AA). We report intentional exposure to AA in a soldier seeking sick leave, and review our previously reported cases. Treatment with oral antihistamines and topical saline compresses resulted in subsidence of the systemic symptoms within 24 h and regression of cutaneous manifestations in 7-10 days. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of self-inflicted contact dermatitis induced by exposure to plants, especially to A. americana. Systemic signs may accompany the cutaneous lesions.

  11. A new steroidal saponin from Agave attenuata.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Tatiana Paz; Silva, Graziela de Medeiros; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2004-04-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the leaves of Agave attenuata. Its structure was established as (3beta,beta,25S)-spirostan-3-yl O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside. The structural identification was performed using detailed analyses of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra including 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques (COSY, HETCOR, and COLOC) and chemical conversions. The hemolytic activity of the steroidal saponin was evaluated using an in vitro assay.

  12. A new steroidal saponin from Agave shrevei.

    PubMed

    Pereira Da Silva, Bernadete; Valente, Ana Paula; Paz Parente, José

    2006-04-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the leaves of Agave shrevei. Its structure was established as 3-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-oxy]-(3beta,5alpha,25R)-spirostane. The structural identification was performed using detailed analyses of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra including 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques (COSY, HETCOR, HMBC, and HMQC) and chemical conversions. The haemolytic activity of the steroidal saponin was evaluated using an in vitro assay.

  13. Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salas, J M; Villa-Ramírez, M S; Veloz-Rendón, J S; Rivera-Hernández, K N; González-César, R A; Plascencia-Espinosa, M A; Trejo-Estrada, S R

    2009-02-01

    Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and 9.91%, respectively). An optimized enzyme formulation was used to process sugar cane bagasse, which contained Celluclast, Novozyme and Viscozyme L. From alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse samples, a reduced level of reducing sugar yield was obtained (11-20%) compared to agave bagasse (12-58%). Selected hydrolyzates were fermented with a non-recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum alcohol yield by fermentation (32.6%) was obtained from the hydrolyzate of sugarcane depithed bagasse. Hydrolyzed agave waste residues provide an increased glucose decreased xylose product useful for biotechnological conversion.

  14. Agave palmeri Inflorescence Production on Fort Huachuca, Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ER D C /C ER L TR -0 4- 16 Agave palmeri Inflorescence Production on Fort Huachuca...Conservation Assistance Program ERDC/CERL TR-04-16 September 2004 Agave palmeri Inflorescence Production on Fort Huachuca, Arizona...seem likely to increase, putting greater pressure on inflorescence numbers especially in years when fewer plants flower. Other than the loss of

  15. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids

    PubMed Central

    Hammerl, Emily E.; Baier, Melissa A.; Reinhard, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present. PMID:26230855

  16. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    PubMed

    Hammerl, Emily E; Baier, Melissa A; Reinhard, Karl J

    2015-01-01

    Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  17. 75 FR 3190 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of Status Review for Agave eggersiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Status Review for Agave eggersiana and Solanum conocarpum AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...), announce the initiation of a status review for Agave eggersiana (no common name) and Solanum conocarpum (no... best available scientific and commercial information, we request information on Agave eggersiana...

  18. Cytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave sisalana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pi-Yu; Chen, Chin-Hui; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lee, Ching-Kuo

    2011-06-01

    Two new steroidal saponins, 8 and 10, along with 7 known steroidal sapogenins and saponins (1-7) and a furostanol saponin (9) were isolated from Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm. The structures of these two new compounds were identified and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In addition, acid hydrolysis and GC-FID were used to confirm the sugar moieties of 8 and 10. The cytotoxic effects of 1-10 on MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 cancer cells were evaluated, and among them, compound 10 proved to be the most cytotoxic with IC₅₀ values of 1.2, 3.8, and 1.5 µM, respectively.

  19. Mining the Agave Microbiome for adaptions to arid environments

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Wojke, Tanja; North, Gretchen; Partida-Martinez, Laila; DeAngeli, Kristen; Clingenpeel, Scott; Gross, Stephen; Tringe, Susannah; Visel, Axel

    2013-03-25

    A major challenge facing the biofuels industry is the identification of high-yield plant feedstocks that can be cultivated with minimal resource inputs without competing for land and water supplies with existing food crops. Recent research has demonstrated that the Agave plant, cultivated in Mexico and Southwestern United States for the production of fiber and alcohol, meets these criteria1. Agaves grow on non-arable rocky soils in regions characterized by prolonged drought and extreme temperatures, due in part to physiological adaptions that prevent excess water-loss in arid environments2. Plant-microbial symbioses can play a role in helping plants adapt to heat and drought stress, increasing the accessibility of soil nutrients, or compete with plant pathogens3. Whether agaves have similar beneficial microbe interactions in their native environment is unknown. We aim to provide a comprehensive characterization of the Agave microbiome, with the goal of identifying specific community members that may contribute to Agave biotic and abiotic stress tolerance

  20. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2013-11-27

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup −1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  1. Agaves as a raw material: recent technologies and applications.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Zapata, J A; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2009-01-01

    Agave plants are a valuable source of raw material due to its fibrous and complex sugar content of their leaves and core, and their bagasse waste can be use for several aims. This plant genus belongs to the Agavaceae family and until now more than 200 species have been described. A large number of Agave species are currently used as raw material in several biotechnological processes. This review shows the reported applications and patents on fields like alcoholic brewages with special reference to Tequila and Mezcal, the isolation and use of compounds such as saponins and agave fructans, and their potential biotechnological application on several human demands. The process to obtain fibers and cellulose, stock feeds, and several miscellaneous extractives are also reviewed. Some possibilities and problems of cultivation are discussed.

  2. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2013-11-01

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm-1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  3. Pretreatment of Agave americana stalk for enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Pan, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Agave americana is one of commonly grown agave species but currently less valuable because its large flower stalk cannot be used for producing alcoholic beverage. In the present study, the stalk was pretreated with dilute acid (DA), sulfite (SPORL), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to preliminarily assess its potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. The changes of cell wall components during the pretreatments, enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated stalks, and the adsorption of cellulases on the substrates were investigated. Results indicated that the pretreatments significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility of the agave stalk. SPORL pretreatment gave higher substrate and sugar yields, while NaOH pretreated stalk had better digestibility under the investigated conditions. The better hydrolysability of NaOH-pretreated stalk was attributed to low lignin and hemicellulose content and high affinity to cellulases.

  4. Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Agave attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Rizwan, Komal; Zubair, Muhammad; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; de Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine various biological activities of a methanol extract of Agave attenuata leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane fraction from the extract revealed the presence of 31 compounds, with mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (11.37%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (6.33%), n-docosane (6.30%) and eicosane (6.02%) as the major components. The leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (10.541–39.35 GAE, mg/100 g) and total flavonoid contents (43.35–304.8 CE, mg/100 g). The extract and some of its fractions showed moderate antimicrobial effects. Leaves extract and fractions also exhibited a good antioxidant potential when measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation assays. The hemolytic effect of the plant was found to be in a range of 1.01%–2.64%. From the present study it is concluded that this plant could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and functional food nutraceutical applications. PMID:22754375

  5. Phytochemical and biological studies of Agave attenuata.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Komal; Zubair, Muhammad; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; de Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine various biological activities of a methanol extract of Agave attenuata leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane fraction from the extract revealed the presence of 31 compounds, with mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (11.37%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (6.33%), n-docosane (6.30%) and eicosane (6.02%) as the major components. The leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (10.541-39.35 GAE, mg/100 g) and total flavonoid contents (43.35-304.8 CE, mg/100 g). The extract and some of its fractions showed moderate antimicrobial effects. Leaves extract and fractions also exhibited a good antioxidant potential when measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation assays. The hemolytic effect of the plant was found to be in a range of 1.01%-2.64%. From the present study it is concluded that this plant could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and functional food nutraceutical applications.

  6. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins.

  7. Three new hecogenin glycosides from fermented leaves of Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian-Ming; Liu, Xi-Kui; Yang, Chong-Ren

    2003-06-01

    Eight steroidal compounds, including three new hecogenin glycosides, agamenosides D-F, were isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. The structures of the new steroidal saponins were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The activity of the isolated compounds on deformations of mycelia germinated from conidia of Pyricularia oaryzae P-2b was evaluated.

  8. Pollination biology of two chiropterophilous agaves in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Slauson, L A

    2000-06-01

    I studied the pollination biology of two closely related species of agave, Agave palmeri and A. chrysantha (Agavaceae), which exhibit several chiropterophilous (bat-pollinated) traits. Floral studies, floral visitor observations, and pollination studies were conducted over four summers at six different sites to examine floral traits and determine the relative importance of diurnal vs. nocturnal pollinators. Agave chrysantha appears to have developed minor shifts in several floral characters that enhance diurnal pollination. Although floral shifts towards diurnal pollination were fewer in A. palmeri, stigmas were diurnally receptive and copious floral rewards were available in the morning, indicating that some adaptations exist to allow for multiple pollinators. Differences in fruit and seed set between naturally day- and night-pollinated umbels for both species were either not significant or significantly higher in day-pollinated plants. Bats were not important pollinators of A. chrysantha, and the mutualistic relationship between A. palmeri and the lesser long-nosed bat was found to be asymmetric. "Bat-adapted" floral traits appear to be flexible enough to respond to the climatic and pollinator unpredictability experienced by agaves at the northern edge of their distribution. This variability may be a more important factor affecting evolution of floral characters than a particular pollinator.

  9. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.132 Grapefruit juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Grapefruit juice is the unfermented juice... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food...

  10. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated.

  11. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed.

  12. Gastrointestinal tolerance and utilization of agave inulin by healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Holscher, Hannah D; Doligale, Jamie L; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-06-01

    Little clinical research exists on agave inulin as a fiber source. Due to differences in botanical origin and chemical structure compared to other inulin-type fibers, research is needed to assess gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance following consumption. This study aimed to evaluate GI tolerance and utilization of 5.0 and 7.5 g per day of agave inulin in healthy adults (n = 29) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial consisting of three 21 day periods with 1 week washouts among periods. GI tolerance was assessed via daily and weekly questionnaires, three fecal samples were collected on days 16-20 of each period, and breath hydrogen testing was completed on the final day of each treatment period. Survey data were compared using a generalized linear mixed model. All other outcomes were analyzed using a mixed linear model with a repeated measures procedure. Composite GI intolerance scores for 5.0 and 7.5 g treatments were both greater (P < 0.05) than control, however, scores were low, with means of 0.4, 1.9, and 2.3 on a 0-12 point composite scale for 0, 5.0, and 7.5 g treatments, respectively. There were slight increases (P < 0.05) in bloating, flatulence, and rumbling frequency with 5.0 and 7.5 g agave inulin. Abdominal pain and rumbling intensity were marginally greater (P < 0.05) with 7.5 g. Bloating and flatulence intensity increased (P < 0.05) with 5.0 g and 7.5 g. Agave inulin did not affect diarrhea (P > 0.05). Number of bowel movements per day increased, stools were softer, and stool dry matter percentage was lower with 7.5 g (P < 0.05). Breath hydrogen concentrations increased (P < 0.001) from 5-8 hour postprandial when participants consumed agave inulin compared to control. These data demonstrate that doses up to 7.5 g per day of agave inulin led to minimal GI upset, do not increase diarrhea, and improve laxation in healthy young adults.

  13. Studies on jicama juice processing.

    PubMed

    Juarez, M S; Paredes-Lopez, O

    1994-09-01

    Juice was extracted from jicama (Pachyrrizus erosus Urban) and clarified using a 10,000 daltons molecular weight cut-off membrane to improve its stability. Ultrafiltered juice was tested for general composition and Hunter color. Ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate showed some changes, compared to fresh juice, in total and soluble solids, total sugars, and nitrogen, whereas ash and pH remained constant. Hunter color of juice samples exhibited some variation by UF. Results suggest that UF has potential to produce jicama juice with desirable and stable aroma and flavor.

  14. Ultrastructure of the suberized styloid crystal cells in Agave leaves.

    PubMed

    Wattendorff, J

    1976-01-01

    Styloid calcium oxalate crystal idioblasts of Agave americana L. are suberized. Where the crystals do not touch the cell wall directly they are enclosed in a suberinic sheath which is connected with the suberinic wall layer. No polysaccharides are laid down as a tertiary wall layer, nor could any polysaccharides be found in the crystal sheath. These results contradict those of Arnott (1973) but agree fully with those of Rothert and Zalenski (1899).

  15. A new steroidal saponin from the leaves of Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, A; Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    2000-05-01

    A new bisdesmosidic spirostanol saponin, along with three known saponins, were isolated from Agave americana (Agavaceae). The structure of the new saponin was elucidated as (25R)-3 beta,6 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-spirostan-12-one 3,6-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Among the isolated saponins, hecogenin tetraglycoside showed cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells with an IC50 value of 4.3 micrograms/mL.

  16. Bacterial consortia constructed for the decomposition of Agave biomass

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Miranda; Iskhakova, Svetlana; Zhang, Tingzhou; Qin, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that a greater variety of enzymes, as well as variety of microorganisms producing enzymes, can have an overall synergistic effect on the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of value-added bio-products. Here, 8 cellulase-degrading bacterial isolates were selected to develop co-, tri-, and tetra-cultures for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass. Glucose and xylose equivalents released from imitation biomass media containing 0.5% (w/v) beechwood xylan and 0.5% (w/v) Avicel was measured using di-nitrosalicylic acid for all consortia, along with cell growth and survival. Thereafter, 6 co- and 2 tri-cultures with greatest decomposition were examined for ability to degrade Agave americana fiber. Interestingly, when strains were paired up in co-culture, four pairs: G+5, G+A, C+A1, and G+A1 produced high reducing sugars in 24 h: 6 µM, 8 µM, 8 µM, and finally, 6 µM, respectively. From 4 co-cultures with highest reducing sugar equivalents, tri- and tetra-cultures were produced. The bacterial consortia which had the highest reducing sugars detected were 2 tri-cultures: G + A1 + A4 and G + A1 + 5, displaying levels as high as 9 µM and 5 µM in day 1, respectively. All co- and tri-cultures maintained high cell survival for 14 days with 0.5 g ground Agave. Upon evaluating Agave dry weight after treatment, it was evident that almost half the biomass could be decomposed in 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy of treated Agave supported decomposition when compared with the control. These bacterial consortia have potential for further study of value-added by-product production during metabolism of lignocellulosic biomasses. PMID:24637707

  17. Prebiotic effect of Agave fourcroydes fructans: an animal model.

    PubMed

    García-Curbelo, Yanelys; Bocourt, Ramón; Savón, Lourdes L; García-Vieyra, Maria Isabel; López, Mercedes G

    2015-09-01

    The use of prebiotics such as fructans has increased in human and animal nutrition because of their productive performance and health benefits. Agave fourcroydes has shown high concentrations of fructans in their stems; however, there is no information on new products derived from this plant that might enhance its added value. Therefore, we evaluated the prebiotic effect of Agave fourcroydes fructans in an animal model. Male mice (C57BL/6J) were fed on parallel form with a standard diet or diets supplemented with 10% of fructans from Cichorium intybus (Raftilose P95) and Agave fourcroydes from Cuba for 35 days. The body weight, food intake, blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, gastrointestinal organ weights, fermentation indicators in cecal and colon contents and mineral content in femurs were determined. The body weight and food intake of mice were not significantly modified by any treatment. However, serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01) in the fructans groups with respect to the standard diet group; this decrement was higher in the A. fourcroydes group with respect to the Raftilose P95 group. Mice groups supplemented with fructans exhibited increased (P < 0.01) total and wall cecal and colon weights. The fermentation indicators, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and pH decreased (P < 0.001) in the groups that consumed fructans in their diets with respect to the standard diet. The diets supplemented with fructans also increased the mineral concentrations of calcium (P < 0.01) and magnesium (P < 0.05) in the right femurs. In conclusion, the inclusion of fructans from Agave fourcroydes in the mice diet induced a prebiotic response, similar to or greater than the commercial product (Raftilose P95) and this constitutes a promising alternative with potential use not only in animal but also in human diets.

  18. Bacterial consortia constructed for the decomposition of Agave biomass.

    PubMed

    Maki, Miranda; Iskhakova, Svetlana; Zhang, Tingzhou; Qin, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that a greater variety of enzymes, as well as variety of microorganisms producing enzymes, can have an overall synergistic effect on the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of value-added bio-products. Here, 8 cellulase-degrading bacterial isolates were selected to develop co-, tri-, and tetra-cultures for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass. Glucose and xylose equivalents released from imitation biomass media containing 0.5% (w/v) beechwood xylan and 0.5% (w/v) Avicel was measured using di-nitrosalicylic acid for all consortia, along with cell growth and survival. Thereafter, 6 co- and 2 tri-cultures with greatest decomposition were examined for ability to degrade Agave americana fiber. Interestingly, when strains were paired up in co-culture, four pairs: G+5, G+A, C+A1, and G+A1 produced high reducing sugars in 24 h: 6 µM, 8 µM, 8 µM, and finally, 6 µM, respectively. From 4 co-cultures with highest reducing sugar equivalents, tri- and tetra-cultures were produced. The bacterial consortia which had the highest reducing sugars detected were 2 tri-cultures: G + A1 + A4 and G + A1 + 5, displaying levels as high as 9 µM and 5 µM in day 1, respectively. All co- and tri-cultures maintained high cell survival for 14 days with 0.5 g ground Agave. Upon evaluating Agave dry weight after treatment, it was evident that almost half the biomass could be decomposed in 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy of treated Agave supported decomposition when compared with the control. These bacterial consortia have potential for further study of value-added by-product production during metabolism of lignocellulosic biomasses.

  19. Spectroscopic and Microscopic Study of Peroxyformic Pulping of Agave Waste.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Hilda M; Chanona-Pérez, Jorge J; Vega, Alberto; Ligero, Pablo; Farrera-Rebollo, Reynold R; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A; Calderón-Domínguez, Georgina; Vera, Norma Güemes

    2016-10-01

    The peroxyformic process is based on the action of a carboxylic acid (mainly formic acid) and the corresponding peroxyacid. The influences of processing time (60-180 min), formic acid concentration (80-95%), temperature (60-80°C), and hydrogen peroxide concentration (2-4%) on peroxyformic pulping of agave leaves were studied by surface response methodology using a face-centered factorial design. Empirical models were obtained for the prediction of yield, κ number (KN) and pulp viscosity as functions of the aforementioned variables. Mathematical optimization enabled us to select a set of operational variables that produced the best fractionation of the material with the following results: pulp yield (26.9%), KN (3.6), and pulp viscosity (777 mL/g). Furthermore, this work allowed the description and evaluation of changes to the agave fibers during the fractionation process using different microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, and provided a comprehensive and qualitative view of the phenomena occurring in the delignification of agave fibers. The use of confocal and scanning electron microscopy provided a detailed understanding of the microstructural changes to the lignin and cellulose in the fibers throughout the process, whereas Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that cellulose in the pulp after treatment was mainly of type I.

  20. Cytotoxic activity of Agave intermixta L. (Agavaceae) and Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Sáenz, M T; Garcia, M D; Quilez, A; Ahumada, M C

    2000-11-01

    The cytostatic activities of Agave intermixta L. (Agavaceae) and Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae) have been determined. In the antimitotic assay, Agave intermixta L. showed complete inhibition of cell division at 24 h of treatment. Both species showed a moderate cytostatic activity against HEp-2 cells, Cissus sicyoides L. being the most active species.

  1. 76 FR 41240 - Agave Energy Company; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Agave Energy Company; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and Reporting... Procedure, 18 CFR 385.202 (2011), Agave Energy Company (AEC) requests that the Commission grant a...

  2. Diazotrophic potential among bacterial communities associated with wild and cultivated Agave species.

    PubMed

    Desgarennes, Damaris; Garrido, Etzel; Torres-Gomez, Miryam J; Peña-Cabriales, Juan J; Partida-Martinez, Laila P

    2014-12-01

    Agaves are major biotic resources in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Despite their ecological, economical and cultural relevance, many aspects of the microbial communities associated with agaves are still unknown. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities associated with two Agave species by 16S rRNA- Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and sequencing. We also evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors in the structure of the bacterial communities. In parallel, we isolated and characterized diazotrophic bacteria associated with agaves, as Agave soils are characterized by their low nitrogen content. Our results demonstrate that in Agave, the structure of prokaryotic assemblages was mostly influenced by the community group, where the soil, episphere, and endosphere were clearly distinct. Proteobacteria (γ and α), Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla. Bacterial communities in the episphere of agaves were mainly influenced by the host species, whereas in the endosphere were affected by the season. Fifteen bacterial taxa were common and abundant in the endosphere of both Agave species during the dry season. Notably, some of the confirmed diazotrophic strains belonged to this group, suggesting a possible beneficial role in planta.

  3. Reproductive biology of henequen (Agave fourcroydes) and its wild ancestor Agave Angustifolia (Agavaceae). i. Gametophyte development.

    PubMed

    Piven, N M; Barredo-Pool, F A; Borges-Argáez, I C; Herrera-Alamillo, M A; Mayo-Mosqueda, A; Herrera-Herrera, J L; Robert, M L

    2001-11-01

    The pathways of micro- and megagametophyte development in Agave fourcroydes (henequén) and A. angustifolia were studied. We used histology and light microscopy to observe anther ontogeny and ovary differentiation in relation to flower bud size. Both species have the same sexual reproductive strategies and gametophyte development that may be divided into three phases: (1) premeiotic, which includes the establishment of the megaspore mother cell and the pollen mother cell; (2) meiotic, the formation of mature microspores and functional megaspores; (3) postmeiotic, which encompasses the development of mature pollen grains and the formation of the embryo sac. A successive type microsporogenesis was found in both species with formation of T-shaped tetrads and binuclear pollen grains. In vitro germination tests revealed very low pollen fertility. The female gametophyte is formed from two micropylar megaspore cells after the first meiotic division (bisporic type). Male and female gametogenesis occur asynchronously with microsporogenesis finishing before macrosporogenesis. The results so far show that the formation of male and female gametophytes in henequén is affected at different stages and that these alterations might be responsible for the low fertility shown by this species.

  4. Population genetics of Agave cocui: evidence for low genetic diversity at the southern geographic limit of genus Agave.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Carmen J; Nassar, Jafet M

    2011-01-01

    The Agave genus embraces many species with outstanding ecological and economic importance in the arid regions of the Americas. Even though this genus covers a broad geographic distribution, our knowledge on the population genetics of species is concentrated in taxa located in North America. Recently, it has been demonstrated that plant domestication decreases levels of genetic diversity in managed populations and increases population structure with respect to wild populations. We examined levels of allozyme diversity (N = 17 loci) and population structure of Agave cocui, the species at the southern limit of distribution of the genus. We sampled 7 wild populations (N = 30-35 individuals per population) representative of the geographic distribution of the species in Venezuela. Among the agaves studied, A. cocui has some of the lowest estimates of genetic diversity (H(e)[species] = 0.059, H(e)[population] = 0.054) reported until present. We propose that this condition is probably linked to the recent origin of this species in arid and semiarid regions of Colombia and Venezuela, probably through one or a few founder events. The lowest estimates of genetic diversity were associated with small populations in very restricted arid patches; but also with overexploitation of rosettes for production of fermented drinks and fibers. Santa Cruz de Pecaya, one of the 2 centers of economic use of agaves in northwestern Venezuela presented one of the lowest values of genetic variability, a sign suggesting that human impact represents a significant threat to the available genetic pool that this species possesses in the region.

  5. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  6. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  7. Purpuric irritant contact dermatitis induced by Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Cherpelis, B S; Fenske, N A

    2000-10-01

    The sap of Agave americana, a popular ornamental plant, may cause irritant contact dermatitis. This rare eruption is typically vesiculopapular; however, a new purpuric variant with evidence of leukocytoclastic vasculitis has recently been reported. We report an additional case of a purpuric eruption associated with severe constitutional symptoms further supporting a possible vasculitic component. Both cases resulted from direct exposure to sap propelled by a chainsaw. We speculate that oxalic acid crystals, which are recognized systemic toxins, are embedded in the skin with resulting oxalism, which may result in vascular damage.

  8. Tequila production.

    PubMed

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively.

  9. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  10. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  11. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  12. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  13. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  14. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  15. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  16. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  17. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  18. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... in its juice than any other company. Does organic apple juice have less arsenic than non-organic apple juice? The FDA is unaware of any ... States. Is the arsenic in apple juice predominantly organic or inorganic? Due to limited data available to ...

  19. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  20. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  1. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  2. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  3. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  4. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  5. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  6. Yeast communities associated with artisanal mezcal fermentations from Agave salmiana.

    PubMed

    Verdugo Valdez, A; Segura Garcia, L; Kirchmayr, M; Ramírez Rodríguez, P; González Esquinca, A; Coria, R; Gschaedler Mathis, A

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this work were to characterize the fermentation process of mezcal from San Luis Potosi, México and identify the yeasts present in the fermentation using molecular culture-dependent methods (RFLP of the 5.8S-ITS and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain) and also by using a culture-independent method (DGGE). The alcoholic fermentations of two separate musts obtained from Agave salmiana were analyzed. Sugar, ethanol and major volatile compounds concentrations were higher in the first fermentation, which shows the importance of having a quality standard for raw materials, particularly in the concentration of fructans, in order to produce fermented Agave salmiana must with similar characteristics. One hundred ninety-two (192) different yeast colonies were identified, from those present on WL agar plates, by RFLP analysis of the ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 from the rRNA gene, with restriction endonucleases, HhaI, HaeIII and HinfI. The identified yeasts were: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia kluyveri, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida ethanolica and Saccharomyces exiguus. These identifications were confirmed by sequencing the D1-D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. With the PCR-DGGE method, bands corresponding to S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus and T. delbrueckii were clearly detected, confirming the results obtained with classic techniques.

  7. Agave turneri (Agavaceae), a new species from northeastern Baja California, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Salazar-Ceseña, J. Mario

    2011-01-01

    Agave turneri, a new species of Agave from the Sierras Cucapá and El Mayor in northeastern Baja California, Mexico, is a medium-sized species that does not produce offsets, has a relatively short and narrow panicle, and has a distinctive flower structure. The closest relatives to this new species are Agave moranii, which occurs approximately 200 km to the south of the type locality, and A. deserti var. simplex, which occurs in Arizona and California. This new species is a narrow endemic restricted to specific granodiorite and tonalite habitats in a hyperarid environment. Agave turneri appears to be a critically endangered owing to its habitat preference for specific types of granite in the Sierra Cucapá, threats due to prolonged drought and global change, and its close proximity to the Mexicali metropolitan area.

  8. Agave turneri (Agavaceae), a new species from northeastern Baja California, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Salazar-Cesena, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Agave turneri, a new species of Agave from the Sierras Cucap?? and El Mayor in northeastern Baja California, Mexico, is a medium-sized species that does not produce offsets, has a relatively short and narrow panicle, and has a distinctive flower structure. The closest relatives to this new species are Agave moranii, which occurs approximately 200 km to the south of the type locality, and A. deserti var. simplex, which occurs in Arizona and California. This new species is a narrow endemic restricted to specific granodiorite and tonalite habitats in a hyperarid environment. Agave turneri appears to be a critically endangered owing to its habitat preference for specific types of granite in the Sierra Cucap??, threats due to prolonged drought and global change, and its close proximity to the Mexicali metropolitan area. ?? 2010 The New York Botanical Garden.

  9. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions. PMID:26442005

  10. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions.

  11. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  12. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  13. Chemicals from Agave sisalana Biomass: Isolation and Identification

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Jener David Gonçalves; Vieira, Ivo Jose Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Branco, Alexsandro

    2015-01-01

    Agave sisalana (sisal) is known worldwide as a source of hard fibers, and Brazil is the largest producer of sisal. Nonetheless, the process of removing the fibers of the sisal leaf generates 95% waste. In this study, we applied chemical sequential steps (hydrothermal extraction, precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, crystallization, SiO2 and Sephadex LH 20 column chromatography) to obtain pectin, mannitol, succinic acid, kaempferol and a mixture of saponins as raw chemicals from sisal biomass. The structural identification of these compounds was performed though spectrometric methods, such as Infrared (IR), Ultraviolet (UV), Mass spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). All the sisal chemicals found in this work are used by both the chemical and pharmaceutical industries as excipients or active principles in products. PMID:25903149

  14. A new bioactive steroidal saponin from Agave shrevei.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2005-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the leaves of Agave shrevei Gentry. Its structure was established as 26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-methoxy-3-(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl]oxy)-(3beta,5alpha,25R)-furostane. The structural identification was performed using detailed analyses of 1H and 13C NMR spectra including 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques (COSY, HETCOR, and COLOC) and chemical conversions. The steroidal saponin showed absence of haemolytic effects in the in vitro assay, but demonstrated a significant inhibition of the capillary permeability activity.

  15. A new bioactive steroidal saponin from Agave attenuata.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bernadete P; de Sousa, Allyne C; Silva, Graziela M; Mendes, Tatiana P; Parente, José P

    2002-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the leaves of Agave attenuata Salm-Dyck. Its structure was established as (3beta,5beta,22alpha,25S)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-methoxyfurostan-3-yl O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside. The structural identification was performed using detailed analyses of 1H and 13C NMR spectra including 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques (COSY, HETCOR and COLOC) and chemical conversions. The haemolytic potential of the steroidal saponin was evaluated and the anti-inflammatory activity was performed using the capillary permeability assay.

  16. Chemicals from Agave sisalana biomass: isolation and identification.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jener David Gonçalves; Vieira, Ivo Jose Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Branco, Alexsandro

    2015-04-20

    Agave sisalana (sisal) is known worldwide as a source of hard fibers, and Brazil is the largest producer of sisal. Nonetheless, the process of removing the fibers of the sisal leaf generates 95% waste. In this study, we applied chemical sequential steps (hydrothermal extraction, precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, crystallization, SiO2 and Sephadex LH 20 column chromatography) to obtain pectin, mannitol, succinic acid, kaempferol and a mixture of saponins as raw chemicals from sisal biomass. The structural identification of these compounds was performed though spectrometric methods, such as Infrared (IR), Ultraviolet (UV), Mass spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). All the sisal chemicals found in this work are used by both the chemical and pharmaceutical industries as excipients or active principles in products.

  17. Characterization of five typical agave plants used to produce mezcal through their simple lipid composition analysis by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan Fco; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli

    2009-03-11

    Five agave plants typically used in Mexico for making mezcal in places included in the Denomination of Origin (Mexican federal law that establishes the territory within which mezcal can be produced) of this spirit were analyzed: Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina, A. salmiana var. salmiana, Agave angustifolia, Agave cupreata, and Agave karwinskii. Fatty acid and total simple lipid profiles of the mature heads of each plant were determined by means of a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction and gas chromatography. Sixteen fatty acids were identified, from capric to lignoceric, ranging from 0.40 to 459 microg/g of agave. Identified lipids include free fatty acids, beta-sitosterol, and groups of mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, their total concentration ranging from 459 to 992 microg/g of agave. Multivariate analyses performed on the fatty acid profiles showed a close similarity between A. cupreata and A. angustifolia. This fact can be ascribed to the taxa themselves or differences in growing conditions, an issue that is still to be explored. These results help to characterize the agaves chemically and can serve to relate the composition of mezcals from various states of Mexico with the corresponding raw material.

  18. Productivity and water use efficiency of Agave americana in the first field trial as bioenergy feedstock on arid lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agave species are known as high-yielding crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, some of which have been grown commercially in the past and are recognized as potential bioenergy species for dry regions of the world. This study is the first field trial of Agave species for bioenergy in the United ...

  19. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  20. Characterization of molecular structural changes in pectin during juice cloud destabilization in frozen concentrated orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin comprises one of the major components of cloud material in citrus juices. Juice cloud is a complex mixture of polysaccharides, proteins and lower molecular weight compounds that are responsible for the turbid appearance of citrus juices. The stability of juice cloud depends on a number of fac...

  1. Utilization of byproducts from the tequila industry: part 1: agave bagasse as a raw material for animal feeding and fiberboard production.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez-Covarrubias, G; Lange, S E; Rowell, R M

    2001-03-01

    Agave bagasse was successfully separated into fractions that were used in sheep feeding trials. Agave bagasse can be substituted for corn stubble in the sheep's diet which resulted in improved weight gain. Agave bagasse was also processed into long and short fiber fractions with a hammermill and fiberboards of medium and high specific gravities being produced. Medium specific gravity agave fiberboards had moisture and mechanical properties comparable to medium specific gravity fiberboards made using aspen fiber. All high specific gravity agave fiberboards made from short or long fibers were stronger in bending than the ANSI standard for hardboards.

  2. Trace elements in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

    2012-05-01

    Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation.

  3. The electrophoresis of human gastric juice

    PubMed Central

    Piper, D. W.; Stiel, Mirjam C.; Builder, Janet E.

    1962-01-01

    The electrophoretic pattern of normal human gastric juice is described. The effect of autodigestion of gastric juice and of the peptic digestion of albumin is described. The fallacies involved in the study of gastric juice proteins where peptic digestion of the protein constituent has not been prevented are emphasized. In this study the gastric juice was neutralized within the stomach to prevent changes due to autodigestion. PMID:13943717

  4. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation...

  5. Polyphenol profiles of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Kraus, Michael; Richling, Elke

    2005-08-01

    Focusing on 17 constituents, the polyphenol profiles of juices freshly made from various dessert (n = 4) and cider apple cultivars (n = 7) as well as commercially available apple juices (n = 24) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(neg)-MS/MS) analyses. Significant differences in the total polyphenol content as well as the profiles of the apple cultivars under study were observed. For dessert apples the total polyphenol content ranged from 154 to 178 mg/L, whereas for 'old' German cider apple cultivars 261-970 mg/L were determined. Boskoop showed the highest (970 mg/L) and Granny Smith the lowest (154 mg/L) polyphenol content of the freshly prepared samples under study. Hydroxycinnamic acids, with chlorogenic acid as dominating constituent, ranged from 57 to 68 mg/L as well as from 134-593 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that from cider apples, respectively. Dessert apple juices showed lower contents of dihydrochalcones (10-35 mg/L) and flavan-3-ols (50-95 mg/L) compared to that of cider apples (34-171 mg/L and 70-393 mg/L, respectively). Quercetin and its derivatives were found from 0.4-4 mg/L and 0.4-27 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that of cider apples, respectively. Compared with freshly made juices, lower contents of polyphenols were determined in the commercial samples under study. Amounts ranging from 110-459 mg/L, dominated by chlorogenic acid with concentrations from 53-217 mg/L, were determined. Information about cultivar-typical apple polyphenol content and profile is important for bioactivity studies and, consequently, essential for the development of consumer-relevant products with particular nutritional functionalities.

  6. Yeasts associated with the production of Mexican alcoholic nondistilled and distilled Agave beverages.

    PubMed

    Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Moreno-Terrazas, Rubén; Arrizón-Gaviño, Javier; Herrera-Suárez, Teófilo; García-Mendoza, Abisaí; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne

    2008-11-01

    The great variety of agaves and their multiple uses have played an important role in the cultural identification of Mexico. They have been exploited in many ways for over 10,000 years, and one of these applications is the production of alcoholic nondistilled and distilled beverages. Most of the production processes of these Mexican beverages involve a complex fermentation in which bacteria (mainly lactic and acetic acid) and yeasts (non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) are present in stable mixed populations, or succeeding one another, and have a significant impact on the sensorial characteristics and nutritive value of the final product. This minireview focuses on several nondistilled and distilled Agave beverages, their production area, the Agave species used in their elaboration, the functional microbiota involved in the fermentation process, their fermentation products (when known), the biochemical changes of these unique fermentations, and their impact on the quality and sensorial characteristics of the product.

  7. [Interpopulation reproductive synchrony of Agave cocui (Agavaceae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Carmen J; Villegas, José Luis; Nassar, Jafet M

    2011-09-01

    Agave cocui (Agavaceae) is a species with broad distribution in arid and semiarid areas of Venezuela and Colombia. Despite of its ecological importance as a source of food for wildlife, and its economic value for production of a spirit drink, studies on the reproductive ecology of the species are relatively rare. In this study, we conducted a one-year evaluation of the flowering and fruiting phenology of A. cocui in the eight representative localities of the species' distribution in Venezuela. Within each study site, we chose an area with a minimum of 50 reproductive individuals and followed their reproductive phenophases with the help of binoculars, using six qualitative cathegories (emerging reproductive stalk, flowers, inmature fruits, mature fruits, bulbils and dry stalk) every two months. Emergence of the reproductive stalk in most of the examined populations began in September (rainy season), although this event delayed two months in a few populations. We detected significant negative correlations between precipitation and the percentage of flowering occurrence in four of the eight populations. Floral resources are available for flower visitors during approximately five months of the year (January-May). In most populations production of flowers initiated in January (dry season), and for Western Venezuela and Andean regions, the flowering main peak occurred in January. Localities from the Central and Eastern Coast exhibited the flowering peak in March, showing a delay of approximately two months with respect to other populations. Beginning of fruit set varied among localities from January to May; however, peak production of mature fruits concentrated in May, and fruit occurrence varied broadly between 5.2 and 85%. Bulbil production was detected in all populations and varied greatly among them (maximum percentage per population: 26.19-92.10%). High flowering synchronicity (Phenophase Overlapping Index: 0.756 and 0.999) was observed among all populations

  8. Self-assembled ZnO agave-like nanowires and anomalous superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Wang, B.; Wang, C. X.; Chen, D. H.; Yang, G. W.

    2005-09-01

    Thin films of ZnO agave-like nanowires were prepared on amorphous carbon thin layers on silicon substrates using thermal chemical vapour transport and condensation without any metal catalysts. The unusual superhydrophobicity of the fabricated surface was measured; the water contact angle reaches 151.1°. On the basis of experimental and theoretical analyses, it appears likely that the biomimetic microcomposite and nanocomposite surfaces of the prepared thin films of ZnO agave-like nanowires are responsible for the excellent superhydrophobicity.

  9. Somatic embryogenesis in sisal ( Agave sisalana Perr. ex. Engelm).

    PubMed

    Nikam, T D; Bansude, G M; Aneesh Kumar, K C

    2003-10-01

    A protocol has been developed for somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of sisal (Agave sisalana Perr. ex. Engelm). Embryogenic callus cultures were initiated from young shoots raised in vitro from the stem portion of the bulbil on medium supplemented with 1-2 mg l(-1) kinetin (KN) and 0.2-0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid plus KN or 1-1.5 mg l(-1 )benzylaminopurine (BAP) or 0.25-0.5 mg l(-1 )2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid plus BAP or 0.5-1.0 mg l(-1) KN. Embryos at various developmental stages (globular-, heart- or torpedo-shaped) produced mature and germinating embryos on being transferred to a new medium containing 0-0.25 mg l(-1 )KN. After 28 days, a maximum of 76% germinated embryos was obtained on a medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l(-1) KN. The capacity for embryogenesis remained constant in the callus upon subculturing on the same medium for more than 48 months. Histological observations showed a distinct multicellular origin for most of the somatic embryos as they developed from epidermal, sub-epidermal and inside callus cells, while a few of them originated from a superficial callus cell. Plantlets regenerated from embryos were transferred to the field where their survival rate was 100%.

  10. Agave proves to be a low recalcitrant lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuels production on semi-arid lands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Agave, which is well known for tequila and other liquor production in Mexico, has recently gained attention because of its attractive potential to launch sustainable bioenergy feedstock solutions for semi-arid and arid lands. It was previously found that agave cell walls contain low lignin and relatively diverse non-cellulosic polysaccharides, suggesting unique recalcitrant features when compared to conventional C4 and C3 plants. Results Here, we report sugar release data from fungal enzymatic hydrolysis of non-pretreated and hydrothermally pretreated biomass that shows agave to be much less recalcitrant to deconstruction than poplar or switchgrass. In fact, non-pretreated agave has a sugar release five to eight times greater than that of poplar wood and switchgrass . Meanwhile, state of the art techniques including glycome profiling, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Simon’s Stain, confocal laser scanning microscopy and so forth, were applied to measure interactions of non-cellulosic wall components, cell wall hydrophilicity, and enzyme accessibility to identify key structural features that make agave cell walls less resistant to biological deconstruction when compared to poplar and switchgrass. Conclusions This study systematically evaluated the recalcitrant features of agave plants towards biofuels applications. The results show that not only does agave present great promise for feeding biorefineries on semi-arid and arid lands, but also show the value of studying agave’s low recalcitrance for developments in improving cellulosic energy crops. PMID:24708685

  11. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  12. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  13. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  14. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  15. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  16. Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

  17. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  18. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  19. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  20. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  1. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  2. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  3. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  4. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  5. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  6. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  7. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  8. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  9. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  10. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  11. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  12. Stability and enhancement of berry juice color.

    PubMed

    Rein, Maarit J; Heinonen, Marina

    2004-05-19

    Attractive color is one of the main sensory characteristics of fruit and berry products. Unfortunately, the color of red juices is unstable and easily susceptible to degradation, leading to a dull and weak juice color. This study was designed to investigate the color stability and copigmentation of four different berry juices enhanced by phenolic acids and commercial color enhancers. Phenolic acid enrichment improved and stabilized the color of the berry juices during storage. The commercial color enhancers immediately produced an intensive color to the juices, which, however, was not very stable. The color enhancement was intensive in strawberry and raspberry juices and effective in lingonberry and cranberry juices. Sinapic acid induced the strongest color in strawberry juice. Ferulic and sinapic acids improved raspberry juice color equally. Rosmarinic acid enhanced the color of lingonberry and cranberry juices the most. The addition of the simple cinnamic acids produced novel peaks to the end of the high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram, indicating a formation of new compounds. It can be assumed that sinapic and ferulic acids formed new intramolecular copigmentation compounds with berry anthocyanins whereas rosmarinic acid stabilized anthocyanins intermolecularly.

  13. Genetic consequences of pre-Columbian cultivation for Agave murpheyi and A. delamateri (Agavaceae).

    PubMed

    Parker, Kathleen C; Hamrick, J L; Hodgson, Wendy C; Trapnell, Dorset W; Parker, Albert J; Kuzoff, Robert K

    2007-09-01

    Pre-Columbian farmers cultivated several species of agave in central Arizona from ca. A.D. 600-1350. Because of the longevity and primarily asexual reproduction of these species, relict agave clones remain in the landscape and provide insights into pre-Columbian agricultural practices. We analyzed variation in allozyme allele frequencies to infer genetic effects of prehistoric cultivation on Agave murpheyi and A. delamateri, specifically to estimate genetic diversity and structure, to determine whether cultivated populations descended from a single clone, and to examine regional-scale genetic variation. Agave murpheyi maintained more genetic diversity at the species and population levels than A. delamateri, and A. murpheyi populations typically included more multilocus genotypes. Relict plants from prehistoric fields reflect a more complex history than descent from a single clone; A. murpheyi populations may have included more diversity initially because bulbils (produced routinely in A. murpheyi but not A. delamateri) and possibly seed would have facilitated transport of genetically diverse planting stock. Genetic variation in both cultigens was lower than in most contemporary commercial crops but similar to that observed in modern traditional agricultural systems.

  14. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    PubMed

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption.

  15. Isolation and characterization of an utero-active compound from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Basilio, C M; Seyler, L; Bernstein, J; Castro de la Mata, R

    1989-12-01

    Crude extracts of Agave americana contain two utero-active compounds. One of these, tentatively named "Fraction B", has been purified to chromatographic homogeneity. Its pharmacological actions are similar to those of acetylcholine. However its chromatographic and electrophoretic mobilities are different. Some chemical properties of fraction B are compatible with the structure of an acyl derivative of choline different from acetylcholine.

  16. Agave fructans: their effect on mineral absorption and bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    García-Vieyra, María Isabel; Del Real, Alicia; López, Mercedes G

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigate the effect that Agave fructans as new prebiotics have on mineral absorption improvement. Forty-eight 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Forty mice were ovariectomized and eight were sham-operated controls. Mice were fed standard diets or diets supplemented with 10% Agave fructans or 10% inulin fructans. Calcium and magnesium were evaluated as well as their excretion in feces. Osteocalcin levels were also measured; femur structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Other parameters, such as food intake, body weight, glucose, and short-chain fatty acid content, were recorded. Calcium in plasma and bone increased in Agave fructan groups (from 53.1 to 56 and 85 mg/L and from 0.402 to 0.474 and 0.478 g/g, respectively) and osteocalcin increased in all fructan groups (>50%). Scanning electron microscopy showed that fructans were able to mitigate bone loss. In conclusion, we demonstrated that supplementation with Agave fructans prevents bone loss and improves bone formation.

  17. Water-soluble carbohydrates and fructan structure patterns from Agave and Dasylirion species.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Margalli, N Alejandra; López, Mercedes G

    2006-10-04

    Fructans, storage carbohydrates with beta-fructofuranosyl linkages, are found in approximately 15% of higher plants. The metabolic flexibility of those molecules allows them easily to polymerize and depolymerize to soluble carbohydrates according to plant development stage and environmental conditions. In this work, water-soluble carbohydrates, including fructan structure patterns, were compared among Agave and Dasylirion species grown in different environmental regions in Mexico. Fructans were the main storage carbohydrate present in Agave stems, in addition to other carbohydrates related to its metabolism, whereas Dasylirion spp. presented a different carbohydrate distribution. A good correlation of water-soluble carbohydrate content with climatic conditions was observed. Fructans in Agave and Dasylirion genera were found in the form of polydisperse molecules, where structural heterogeneity in the same plant was evidenced by methylation linkage analysis and chromatographic methods. Fructans from the studied species were classified into three groups depending on DP and linkage-type abundance. These storage carbohydrates share structural characteristics with fructans in plants that belong to the Asparagales members. Agave and Dasylirion fructans can be categorized as graminans and branched neo-fructans, which we have termed agavins.

  18. Prebiotic potential of Agave angustifolia Haw fructans with different degrees of polymerization.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Martínez, José Rodolfo; González-Cervantes, Rina M; Hernández-Gallegos, Minerva Aurora; Mendiola, Roberto Campos; Aparicio, Antonio R Jiménez; Ocampo, Martha L Arenas

    2014-08-19

    Inulin-type fructans are the most studied prebiotic compounds because of their broad range of health benefits. In particular, plants of the Agave genus are rich in fructans. Agave-derived fructans have a branched structure with both β-(2→1) and β-(2→6) linked fructosyl chains attached to the sucrose start unit with a degree of polymerization (DP) of up to 80 fructose units. The objective of this work was to assess the prebiotic potential of three Agave angustifolia Haw fructan fractions (AFF) with different degrees of polymerization. The three fructan fractions were extracted from the agave stem by lixiviation and then purified by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography: AFF1, AFF2 and AFF3 with high (3-60 fructose units), medium (2-40) and low (2-22) DP, respectively. The fructan profile was determined with high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), which confirmed a branched fructan structure. Structural elucidation was performed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. The AFF spectrum shows characteristic fructan bands. The prebiotic effect of these fractions was assessed in vitro through fermentation by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains. Four growth patterns were observed. Some bacteria did not grow with any of the AFF, while other strains grew with only AFF3. Some bacteria grew according to the molecular weight of the AFF and some grew indistinctly with the three fructan fractions.

  19. Quantification of selected volatile constituents and anions in Mexican Agave spirits (Tequila, Mezcal, Sotol, Bacanora).

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sohnius, Eva-Maria; Attig, Rainer; López, Mercedes G

    2006-05-31

    A large collection (n = 95) of Mexican Agave spirits with protected appellations of origin (Tequila, Mezcal, Sotol, and Bacanora) was analyzed using ion and gas chromatography. Because of their production from oxalate-containing plant material, all Agave spirits contained significant concentrations of oxalate (0.1-9.7 mg/L). The two Tequila categories ("100% Agave" and "mixed") showed differences in the methanol, 2-/3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol concentrations with lower concentrations in the mixed category. Mezcal showed no significant differences in any of the evaluated parameters that would allow a classification. Sotol showed higher nitrate concentrations and lower 2-/3-methyl-1-butanol concentrations. Bacanora was characterized by exceptionally high acetaldehyde concentrations and a relatively low ethyl lactate content. The methanol content was the most problematic compound regarding the Mexican standards: two Tequilas (4%), five Sotols (31%), and six Bacanoras (46%) had levels above the maximum methanol content of 300 g/hL of alcohol. In conclusion, the composition of Mexican Agave spirits was found to vary over a relatively large range.

  20. Evaluation of agave fiber delignification by means of microscopy techniques and image analysis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Hilda M; Chanona-Pérez, Jorge J; Calderón-Domínguez, Georgina; Perea-Flores, María J; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A; Vega, Alberto; Ligero, Pablo; Palacios-González, Eduardo; Farrera-Rebollo, Reynold R

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the use of different types of natural fibers to produce paper and textiles from agave plants has been proposed. Agave atrovirens can be a good source of cellulose and lignin; nevertheless, the microstructural changes that happen during delignification have scarcely been studied. The aim of this work was to study the microstructural changes that occur during the delignification of agave fibers by means of microscopy techniques and image analysis. The fibers of A. atrovirens were obtained from leaves using convective drying, milling, and sieving. Fibers were processed using the Acetosolv pulping method at different concentrations of acetic acid; increasing acid concentration promoted higher levels of delignification, structural damage, and the breakdown of fiber clumps. Delignification followed by spectrometric analysis and microstructural studies were carried out by light, confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy and showed that the delignification process follows three stages: initial, bulk, and residual. Microscopy techniques and image analysis were efficient tools for microstructural characterization during delignification of agave fibers, allowing quantitative evaluation of the process and the development of linear prediction models. The data obtained integrated numerical and microstructural information that could be valuable for the study of pulping of lignocellulosic materials.

  1. Performance of a biofilter system with agave fiber filter media for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Cortés, Juan Manuel; Villanueva-Fierro, Ignacio; Garzón-Zúñiga, Marco Antonio; de Jesús Návar-Cháidez, José; Chaires-Hernández, Isaías; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2013-01-01

    Agave plants grow in semi-arid regions and are used for mescal production. However, agave fiber by-products are considered waste materials. Thus, we tested agave fiber as a filter media and biofilm material carrier for removing pollutants from municipal wastewater. Three laboratory-scale biofiltration reactors were used in two trials with five hydraulic loading rates (HLRs = 0.27, 0.54, 0.80, 1.07 and 1.34 m(3) m(-2) d(-1)). One series was conducted using mechanical aeration (0.62 m(3) m(-2) h(-1)). To prevent compaction, decreasing pressure and clogging of the filter media, 4, 8 and 12 internal divisions were evaluated in the biofilter column. After 17 months of continuous operation at an HLR of 0.80 m(3) m(-2) d(-1), the removal efficiencies of the aerated biofilters were 92.0% biochemical oxygen demand, 79.7% chemical oxygen demand, 98.0% helminth eggs, 99.9% fecal coliforms and 91.9% total suspended solids. Statistical analysis showed that the chosen operational parameters significantly influenced the removal efficiencies of the biofilters. The effluent quality obtained under these conditions complied with the Mexican and US EPA standards for agricultural irrigation and green spaces, except for coliforms, which is why the effluents must be disinfected. Thus, agave fiber is a favorable choice for use as a packing material in biofiltration processes.

  2. Physico-chemical quality parameters of herbal products from Agave sisalana.

    PubMed

    Apolinário, Alexsandra Conceição; do Nascimento, Morgana Lopes; de Luna Vieira, Juliana Patrícia; Melo, Camila de Oliveira; Santos, Felipe Fernandes; de Lima Damasceno, Bolívar Ponciano Goulart; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa, Adalberto; da Silva, José Alexsandro

    2014-01-01

    Agave sisalana components have great potential in different pharmaceutical applications, but the quality of herbal raw materials is essential to reach the desired product specifications. In this work, we investigated the physico-chemical quality parameters of bole and wastes from decortication of A. sisalana leaves. The statistically significant variations among products suggest different pharmaceutical applications for each of them.

  3. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.

  4. Pleurotus opuntiae (Durieu et Lév.) Sacc. (higher Basidiomycetes) and other species related to Agave and Opuntia plants in Mexico-taxonomy, distribution, and applications.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Marcelo; Guzmán, Gastón; Guzmán-Dávalos, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus opuntiae is an important mushroom from xerophytic temperate regions of Mexico, as parasite or saprobe on Agave and Opuntia. Discussions on the taxonomic relationships of P opuntiae with P djamor, P. agaves, P. levis, and P. yuccae are presented, of which P. agaves is a synonym of P. opuntiae, and P. yuccae is a synonym of P. djamor. This latter and P levis are close species of P. opuntiae. The traditional uses of P opuntiae and P. djamor as food and remedy for several health problems, and also to get a traditional alcoholic drink from the Agave, are also considered.

  5. Clementine juice has the potential for drug interactions - In vitro comparison with grapefruit and mandarin juice.

    PubMed

    Theile, Dirk; Hohmann, Nicolas; Kiemel, Dominik; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Barreca, Davide; Mikus, Gerd; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Schwenger, Vedat; Weiss, Johanna

    2017-01-15

    Adverse drug interactions due to grapefruit juice are well known prompting warnings even in drug labels. Similar issues have not been reported for clementines and available data is scarce, despite of genetic descent. We observed substantially increased tacrolimus trough concentrations in a renal transplant patient consuming high clementine amounts and, thus, scrutinised the effects of clementine juice on drug metabolism and drug transporters in vitro and compared it to the effects of mandarin and grapefruit juice. All citrus juices profoundly induced several drug transporters and drug metabolising enzymes, whereas the effects of grapefruit juice were most pronounced (e.g. 156-fold and 34-fold induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 mRNA by grapefruit juice and clementine juice, respectively). However, the juices also inhibited e.g. CYP3A4, raising the question which effect prevails in vivo. Using an enzymatic activity assay, we demonstrated that at least in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition prevails for both grapefruit and clementine juice, whereas for CYP1A2 induction appears to predominate. Thus, inhibition of CYP3A4 is presumably the underlying reason for the observed increase in the concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate tacrolimus in the patient. Taken together, our data indicate that clementine juice as well as grapefruit juice and to a lesser extent also mandarin juice can induce several important drug metabolising enzymes and drug transporters, but also inhibit some of these proteins. Our data indicate that clementine juice similar to grapefruit juice bears the potential for profound interactions with drugs potentially leading to adverse drug effects e.g. through over-exposure to CYP3A4 substrates.

  6. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  7. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit... the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only and...

  8. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only,...

  9. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only,...

  10. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sweeteners referred to in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section. If the grapefruit juice is prepared from concentrate, such sweeteners, in liquid form, referred to in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, also may be used. When prepared from concentrated grapefruit juice, exclusive of added sweeteners,...

  11. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the unfermented liquid extracted from mature tomatoes of the red or reddish varieties of Lycopersicum... be applied by any method which does not add water thereto. Such juice is strained free from peel... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water and/or tomato juice to a tomato...

  12. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  13. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  14. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  15. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  16. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  17. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  18. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  19. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  20. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  1. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  2. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  3. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  4. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  5. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  6. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  7. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  8. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  9. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  10. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  11. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  12. Isolation and partial characterization of a protease from Agave americana variegata.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, P J

    1976-05-13

    A new protease was isolated from an extract of leaves of Agave americana variegata. The protease (EC 3.4.-) was purified 565-fold with a yield of 39.5%. The 43.8 mg enzyme had a specific activity of 0.44 units/mg. According to electrophoretic, ultracentrifugal and other physical characterizations the enzyme was homogeneous. The enzyme had a MR of 57000, a S20,W-value of 4.37 S, a D20, W-value of 6.8-7.0 - 10(-7) cm2sec-1, a Stokes radius of 3.18 nm, a partial specific volume of 0.735 cm3g-1, a frictional ration of 1.25, a molecular absorbancy index at 280 nm of 5.773-10(4), an isoelectric point of 5.25 and contained 8-10% carbohydrate. The enzyme contained no cysteine. Agave protease could hydrolyze a variety of protein substrates although it did have a restricted specificity. It is not a sulphhydryl protease but seems to be an alkaline "serine" protease with an optimum pH of 7.8-8.0 Agave protease had marked esterolytic activity and with Cbz-Tyr-ONp had an apparent Michaelis constant of 0.0345 -10(-3) M and a V of 1.24 mol substrate/mol enzyme per sec. The enzyme did not need metal ions for optimal activity, monovalent cations did not influence its kinetic parameters, but it was inhibited by cobalt, pC1HgBzO- and TosPheCH2C1. With respect to its primary specificity, as well as its pH-dependence there was a resemblance with chymotrypsin, although the rate of hydrolysis of Agave protease is much lower.

  13. Strategy for the extraction of yeast DNA from artisan agave must for quantitative PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Segura-Garcia, Luis Eduardo; Flores-Berrios, Ericka Patricia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2011-11-01

    An efficient method for the direct extraction of yeast genomic DNA from agave must was developed. The optimized protocol, which was based on silica-adsorption of DNA on microcolumns, included an enzymatic cell wall degradation step followed by prolonged lysis with hot detergent. The resulting extracts were suitable templates for subsequent qPCR assays that quantified mixed yeast populations in artisan Mexican mezcal fermentations.

  14. Pollination ecology of Agave macroacantha (Agavaceae) in a Mexican tropical desert. II. The role of pollinators.

    PubMed

    Arizaga, S; Ezcurra, E; Peters, E; de Arellano, F R; Vega, E

    2000-07-01

    We did a series of observational studies and manipulative experiments on the guild of nocturnal visitors of Agave macroacantha, including (1) a description of the hourly patterns of visits by moths and bats, (2) an evaluation of the relative contribution of bats and moths to flowering success, and (3) an evaluation of the pollination efficiency of the different bat species. Scapes exposed to moths but excluded to bats yielded ∼50% fewer fruits than those exposed to both pollinator groups. Flowers exposed to the bat species Leptonycteris curasoae showed similar fruiting success to those exposed to Choeronycteris mexicana and to those exposed to the whole nocturnal visitor guild. However, the fruits originated from flowers pollinated by Leptonycteris curasoae yielded significantly more seed than those exposed to Choeronycteris mexicana or to the whole pollinator guild. It is concluded that Agave macroacantha is extremely dependent on nocturnal pollinators for its reproductive success and that bats are especially important for successful pollination. Some of these pollinators are migratory and have been reported to be steadily declining. A continuing decline in the populations of pollinators may impede the successful sexual reproduction of the plant host and may put the long-term survival of this agave species under risk.

  15. Nocturnal versus diurnal CO2 uptake: how flexible is Agave angustifolia?

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Agaves exhibit the water-conserving crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway. Some species are potential biofuel feedstocks because they are highly productive in seasonally dry landscapes. In plants with CAM, high growth rates are often believed to be associated with a significant contribution of C3 photosynthesis to total carbon gain when conditions are favourable. There has even been a report of a shift from CAM to C3 in response to overwatering a species of Agave. We investigated whether C3 photosynthesis can contribute substantially to carbon uptake and growth in young and mature Agave angustifolia collected from its natural habitat in Panama. In well-watered plants, CO2 uptake in the dark contributed about 75% of daily carbon gain. This day/night pattern of CO2 exchange was highly conserved under a range of environmental conditions and was insensitive to intensive watering. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm) stimulated CO2 fixation predominantly in the light. Exposure to CO2-free air at night markedly enhanced CO2 uptake during the following light period, but CO2 exchange rapidly reverted to its standard pattern when CO2 was supplied during the subsequent 24h. Although A. angustifolia consistently engages in CAM as its principal photosynthetic pathway, its relatively limited photosynthetic plasticity does not preclude it from occupying a range of habitats, from relatively mesic tropical environments in Panama to drier habitats in Mexico. PMID:24648568

  16. Protective effect ofAgave salmiana fructans in azoxymethane- induced colon cancer in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Céspedes, Antonio; Juárez-Flores, Bertha I; Pinos-Rodríguezc, Juan M; Aguirre-Riverab, Juan R; Oros-Ovalled, A Cuahutemoc; Loyola-Martínez, E D; Andrade-Zaldívar, Hera

    2014-10-01

    Colon cancer is a world concerning disease; it shows a high mortality rate and may be related to eating habits. Studies using inulin-like fructans, which are produced as energy supplies by several plants, have demonstrated a chemo-protective effect of these fructans in colon cancer. However, agavins a structurally different type of fructans from the Agave genus with demonstrated prebiotic effects, have been poorly studied for their possible protective effects in cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect ofAgave fructan-rich diets in colon cancer progress using a rat model and "Agave mezcalero potosino" A. salmiana Otto ex Salm Dick, which is widely distributed in Mexico. Results showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in early lesions of colon cancer (aberrant crypt foci) compared with the control group. These data suggest that fructans from A. salmiana may contribute to a reduction in the risk of colon cancer as well as inulin-like compounds.

  17. Nocturnal versus diurnal CO2 uptake: how flexible is Agave angustifolia?

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Agaves exhibit the water-conserving crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway. Some species are potential biofuel feedstocks because they are highly productive in seasonally dry landscapes. In plants with CAM, high growth rates are often believed to be associated with a significant contribution of C3 photosynthesis to total carbon gain when conditions are favourable. There has even been a report of a shift from CAM to C3 in response to overwatering a species of Agave. We investigated whether C3 photosynthesis can contribute substantially to carbon uptake and growth in young and mature Agave angustifolia collected from its natural habitat in Panama. In well-watered plants, CO2 uptake in the dark contributed about 75% of daily carbon gain. This day/night pattern of CO2 exchange was highly conserved under a range of environmental conditions and was insensitive to intensive watering. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm) stimulated CO2 fixation predominantly in the light. Exposure to CO2-free air at night markedly enhanced CO2 uptake during the following light period, but CO2 exchange rapidly reverted to its standard pattern when CO2 was supplied during the subsequent 24h. Although A. angustifolia consistently engages in CAM as its principal photosynthetic pathway, its relatively limited photosynthetic plasticity does not preclude it from occupying a range of habitats, from relatively mesic tropical environments in Panama to drier habitats in Mexico.

  18. Major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles of agave syrup. Application of this data to authenticity analysis.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2012-09-05

    Nineteen pure agave syrups representing the three major production regions and four processing facilities in Mexico were analyzed for their major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles, as well as their physicochemical properties (pH, °Brix, total acidity, percent total titratable acidity, and color). Additionally, the detection of intentional debasing of agave syrup with four commercial nutritive sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, DE 42 and sucrose) was afforded by oligosaccharide profiling employing both high performance anion exchange liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID). Results showed that the major carbohydrate and polyol in agave syrups were fructose and inositol with mean concentrations of 84.29% and 0.38%, respectively. Oligosaccharide profiling was extremely successful for adulteration detection with detection limits ranging from 0.5 to 2.0% for the aforementioned debasing agents. Also, all four of these possible adulterants could be detected within a single chromatographic analysis.

  19. Molecular and morphological tools to distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838: a new weevil pest of the endangered Eggers Agave from St Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agave Snout Weevil (ASW) or Sisal Weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, is one of the most destructive pests of agave plants, capable of destroying up to 70% of commercial crops, costing millions of dollars in damage to global industries including tequila, mezcal, perfume, henequen, nardo...

  20. Carbohydrate and electrolyte contents in commercial fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Jirapinyo, P; Phosuya, P; Thammonsiri, N; Pidacha, P; Suwanthol, L; Patrarat, S

    2001-07-01

    Forty kinds of commercial fruit juices sold in Thailand were analyzed for types and contents of carbohydrates, electrolytes as well as osmolarity and pH. Each juice was analyzed three times and the results were averaged. A few kinds of fruit juices have high sorbitol contents (> 10 g/L). There are some juices which have a high fructose to glucose ratio (> 1.5:1). Sodium contents in juices ranged from 19 to 1405 mg/L. The osmolarity of the juices ranged from 500 to 1200 mOsmol/L. Most juices have acid pH which ranged between 2.8 and 5.0. It is concluded that each fruit juice has a unique set of properties. Consumers should know the properties of each juice because chronic intake and large amount intake of the juice could have detrimental effects on the health of the consumer.

  1. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods.

  2. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  3. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  4. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  5. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  6. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  7. Effect of kiwifruit juice on beef collagen.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Sumi; Hirota, Aya; Okada, Chikako; Yorita, Taeko; Sato, Kenji; Ohtsuki, Kozo

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify the difference in susceptibility to protease digestion by kiwifruit juice between collagen domains under different conditions. In addition, the effect of pre-treatment with kiwifruit juice on collagen in meat during cooking processes was examined. Kiwifruit juice can degrade denatured collagen, but it can not cleave the triple helical domain of collagen. Thus, kiwifruit juice does not have collagenase activity. On the other hand, the cross-linked subunits of acid-soluble collagen were converted to monomeric subunits by kiwifruit juice treatment at acidic pH, suggesting that the globular domains, in which cross-links preferentially occur, can be degraded by kiwifruit juice. The pre-treatment with kiwifruit juice significantly decreased the shear force of connective tissue in comparison with other pre-treatments without protease activity, but inversely increased the liberation of collagen-related peptides in the outer solution by heating processes at 50 and 70 degrees C or by a shorter heating time at 100 degrees C. This can be explained by the protease-mediated degradation of globular domains. However, this effect was not observed with a prolonged heating period at 100 degrees C, and the liberation of collagen-related peptides by pre-treatment with kiwifruit juice at 100 degrees C was less than that at 70 degrees C for all heating periods. Thus, it can be suggested that the pre-treatment with kiwifruit juice might be useful in meat softening under vacuum-cooking and grilling, but not under stewing.

  8. Effects of debittering on grapefruit juice acceptance.

    PubMed

    Sami, P S; Toma, R B; Nelson, D B; Frank, G C

    1997-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the acceptance of grapefruit juice which has undergone a debittering process. The sensory effect of debittering and the sensory attributes of sourness, sweetness, bitterness, and aftertaste were appraised, and the correlation between chemical and sensory analyses of the debittered juice were identified. The effect of added grapefruit flavor on perception of sweetness and sourness was statistically significant. Both the level of bitterness and storage duration of grapefruit were shown to influence the way judges perceived bitterness and sweetness. Storage study showed no difference in aftertaste, which may increase consumers buying interest in debittered juice with a high level of bitterness (450 ppm).

  9. Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.

    PubMed

    Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna; Santelli, Francesca; Trifirò, Antonio; Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico

    2008-07-09

    The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis.

  10. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  11. Mineral variability among 177 commercial noni juices.

    PubMed

    West, Brett J; Tolson, Charles B; Vest, Randy G; Jensen, Summer; Lundell, Travis G

    2006-01-01

    The popularity of noni juice is increasing globally. As such, knowledge of its nutritional properties is needed to make informed decisions regarding its use. This industry-wide mineral profile was determined by analyses of 177 brands of commercial noni juice according to a modified Association of Official Analytical Chemists protocol. A large degree of variability was found in the concentrations of nine minerals. While potassium was found to be the most prominent mineral, its concentration in most commercial brands is of minor nutritional significance. The wide variability among the many brands of commercial noni juice precludes the assumption that all are the same. Many have a different nutrient profile to that published by the European Union for Tahitian Noni Juice. Such variances may thus require consumers, dieticians, and other healthcare professionals to obtain unlabelled nutrient information from manufacturers.

  12. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice.

  13. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    PubMed

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P < 0.05). Morphology of enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman.

  14. Grapefruit juice modulates bone quality in rats.

    PubMed

    Deyhim, Farzad; Mandadi, Kranthi; Faraji, Bahram; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-03-01

    Hypogonadism and oxidative stress increase the risk for developing osteoporosis. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of drinking grapefruit juice on bone quality in orchidectomized (ORX) and non-ORX rats. Fifty-six 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups--non-ORX rats (sham), sham + grapefruit juice, ORX, and ORX + grapefruit juice--and treated for 60 days. Thereafter, all rats were sacrificed to determine the plasma antioxidant status, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and indices of bone turnover, bone quality, and calcium and magnesium concentrations in the bone, urine, and feces. Orchidectomy decreased (P < .05) antioxidant status, bone quality, and bone mineral contents and increased (P < .05) indices of bone turnover, urinary deoxypridinoline, calcium, and magnesium, and fecal calcium excretions. In contrast to the ORX group, ORX rats that drank grapefruit juice had an increase (P < .05) in antioxidant status, bone density, and bone mineral contents, delayed femoral fracture, and slowed down (P < .05) bone turnover rate and tended to have a decrease (P = .08) in urinary deoxypridinoline. In sham-treated animals, drinking grapefruit juice increased (P < .05) bone density and tended to increase the femoral strength. The concentration of IGF-I in the plasma was not affected across treatments. In conclusion, drinking grapefruit juice positively affected bone quality by enhancing bone mineral deposition in ORX rats and by improving bone density in non-ORX rats via an undefined mechanism.

  15. Effects of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Holloway, Brittany; Nemoseck, Tricia; Cole, Sarah; Petrisko, Yumi; Hong, Mee Young; Kern, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Agave nectar is a fructose-rich liquid sweetener derived from a plant, and is often promoted as a low glycemic alternative to refined sugar. However, little scientific research has been conducted in animals or humans to determine its metabolic and/or health effects. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, fasting plasma blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Eighteen (n=18) male ICR mice (33.8±1.6 g) were divided into two groups (n=6 for agave nectar and n=12 for sucrose) and provided free access to one of two diets of equal energy densities differing only in a portion of the carbohydrate provided. Diets contained 20% carbohydrate (by weight of total diet) from either raw agave nectar or sucrose. Epididymal fat pads were excised, and blood was collected after 34 days. Weight gain (4.3±2.2 vs. 8.4±3.4 g), fat pad weights (0.95±0.54 vs. 1.75±0.66 g), plasma glucose (77.8±12.2 vs. 111.0±27.9 mg/dL), and insulin (0.61±0.29 vs. 1.46±0.81 ng/mL) were significantly lower (P≤.05) for agave nectar-fed mice compared to sucrose-fed mice respectively. No statistically significant differences in total cholesterol or triglycerides were detected. These results suggest that in comparison to sucrose, agave nectar may have a positive influence on weight gain and glucose control. However, more research with a larger sample of animals and/or with human subjects is warranted.

  16. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  17. Performance evaluation of Pichia kluyveri, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial tequila fermentation.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Delgado, L; Herrera-López, E J; Arrizon, Javier; Arellano-Plaza, M; Gschaedler, A

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, industrial tequila production has used spontaneous fermentation or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains. Despite the potential of non-Saccharomyces strains for alcoholic fermentation, few studies have been performed at industrial level with these yeasts. Therefore, in this work, Agave tequilana juice was fermented at an industrial level using two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus) with fermentation efficiency higher than 85 %. Pichia kluyveri (GRO3) was more efficient for alcohol and ethyl lactate production than S. cerevisiae (AR5), while Kluyveromyces marxianus (GRO6) produced more isobutanol and ethyl-acetate than S. cerevisiae (AR5). The level of volatile compounds at the end of fermentation was compared with the tequila standard regulation. All volatile compounds were within the allowed range except for methanol, which was higher for S. cerevisiae (AR5) and K. marxianus (GRO6). The variations in methanol may have been caused by the Agave tequilana used for the tests, since this compound is not synthesized by these yeasts.

  18. Agave salmiana Plant Communities in Central Mexico as Affected by Commercial Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Salvador, Martin; Mata-González, Ricardo; Morales Nieto, Carlos; Valdez-Cepeda, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Agave salmiana is a native plant species harvested for the commercial production of mezcal ( Agave spirits) in the highlands of central Mexico. The objective of this study was to identify vegetation changes in natural communities where A. salmiana has been differentially harvested for commercial purposes. Three plant community categories were identified in the state of Zacatecas based on their history of A. salmiana utilization: short (less than 10 years of use), moderate (about 25 years), and long (60 or more years). Species cover, composition, and density were evaluated in field surveys by use category. A gradient of vegetation structure of the communities parallels the duration of A. salmiana use. A. salmiana density was greatest (3,125 plants ha-1) in the short-use areas and less (892 plants ha-1) in the moderate-use areas, associated with markedly greater density of shrubs (200%) and Opuntia spp. (50%) in moderate-use areas. The main shrubs were Larrea tridentata, Mimosa biuncifera, Jatropha dioica and Buddleia scordioides while the main Opuntia species were Opuntia leucotricha and Opuntia robusta. A. salmiana density was least (652 plants ha-1) in the long-use areas where shrubs were less abundant but Opuntia spp. density was 25% higher than in moderate-use areas. We suggest that shrubs may increase with moderate use creating an intermediate successional stage that facilitates the establishment of Opuntia spp. Long-term Agave use is generating new plant communities dominated by Opuntia spp. (nopaleras) as a replacement of the original communities dominated by A. salmiana (magueyeras).

  19. Agave salmiana plant communities in central Mexico as affected by commercial use.

    PubMed

    Martínez Salvador, Martin; Mata-González, Ricardo; Morales Nieto, Carlos; Valdez-Cepeda, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Agave salmiana is a native plant species harvested for the commercial production of mezcal (Agave spirits) in the highlands of central Mexico. The objective of this study was to identify vegetation changes in natural communities where A. salmiana has been differentially harvested for commercial purposes. Three plant community categories were identified in the state of Zacatecas based on their history of A. salmiana utilization: short (less than 10 years of use), moderate (about 25 years), and long (60 or more years). Species cover, composition, and density were evaluated in field surveys by use category. A gradient of vegetation structure of the communities parallels the duration of A. salmiana use. A. salmiana density was greatest (3,125 plants ha(-1)) in the short-use areas and less (892 plants ha(-1)) in the moderate-use areas, associated with markedly greater density of shrubs (200%) and Opuntia spp. (50%) in moderate-use areas. The main shrubs were Larrea tridentata, Mimosa biuncifera, Jatropha dioica and Buddleia scordioides while the main Opuntia species were Opuntia leucotricha and Opuntia robusta. A. salmiana density was least (652 plants ha(-1)) in the long-use areas where shrubs were less abundant but Opuntia spp. density was 25% higher than in moderate-use areas. We suggest that shrubs may increase with moderate use creating an intermediate successional stage that facilitates the establishment of Opuntia spp. Long-term Agave use is generating new plant communities dominated by Opuntia spp. (nopaleras) as a replacement of the original communities dominated by A. salmiana (magueyeras).

  20. Agavins from Agave angustifolia and Agave potatorum affect food intake, body weight gain and satiety-related hormones (GLP-1 and ghrelin) in mice.

    PubMed

    Santiago-García, Patricia Araceli; López, Mercedes G

    2014-12-01

    Agavins act as a fermentable dietary fiber and have attracted attention due to their potential for reducing the risk of disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of supplementation using 10% agavins with a short-degree of polymerization (SDP) from Agave angustifolia Haw. (AASDP) or Agave potatorum Zucc. (APSDP) along with chicory fructans (RSE) as a reference for 5 weeks, on the energy intake, body weight gain, satiety-related hormones from the gut and blood (GLP-1 and ghrelin), blood glucose and lipids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from the gut of ad libitum-fed mice. We evaluated the energy intake daily and weight gain every week. At the end of the experiment, portal vein blood samples as well as intestinal segments and the stomach were collected to measure glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin using RIA and ELISA kits, respectively. Colon SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The energy intake, body weight gain, and triglycerides were lower in the fructan-fed mice than in the STD-fed mice. The AASDP, APSDP, and RSE diets increased the serum levels of GLP-1 (40, 93, and 16%, respectively vs. STD) (P ≤ 0.05), whereas ghrelin was decreased (16, 38, and 42%, respectively) (P ≤ 0.05). Butyric acid increased significantly in the APSDP-fed mice (26.59 mmol g(-1), P ≤ 0.001) compared with that in the AASDP- and RSE-fed mice. We concluded that AASDP and APSDP are able to promote the secretion of the peptides involved in appetite regulation, which might help to control obesity and its associated metabolic disorder.

  1. Prebiotic Effects of Agave salmiana Fructans in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Cultures.

    PubMed

    Castro-Zavala, Adriana; Juárez-Flores, Bertha I; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan R; Alcocer-Gouyonnet, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Agave salmiana is a fructan rich species that is widely distributed in Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to extract the fructans of A. salmiana and evaluate their prebiotic effect in 48 hours in vitro cultures of Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus and to compare this effect with other available fructan sources. A significant difference in pH, optical density and biomass was found in the cultures depending on the source of fructans and the type of bacteria. It was possible to determine a dose-response effect of the A. salmiana fructans and the growth of the studied strains.

  2. The Effect of Heat on Structural Characteristics and Water Absorption Behavior of Agave Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Dip

    2008-04-01

    The structural characteristics and water absorptions behavior agave fibers were investigated over a range of temperature by using XRD, IR, TG and gravimetric methods. Three distinct thermal processes were observed during heating the fiber in the temperature range 310-760 K in air, oxygen and nitrogen invariably. The cellulose structures of the fibers were unaffected on heating up to 450 K. The samples showed thermal decomposition processes beyond 500 K. Fibers displayed a two-stage diffusion behavior. The structural parameters and kinetic of water absorption of the fibers at specific temperatures were analyzed.

  3. Eddy covariance measurements of net C exchange in the CAM bioenergy crop, Agave tequiliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Nick A.; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crop cultivation may focus more on low grade and marginal lands in order to avoid competition with food production for land and water resources. However, in many regions, this would require improvements in plant water-use efficiency that are beyond the physiological capacity of most C3 and C4 bioenergy crop candidates. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, such as Agave tequiliana, can combine high above-ground productivity with as little as 20% of the water demand of C3 and C4 crops. This is achieved through temporal separation of carboxylase activities, with stomata opening at night to allow gas exchange and minimise transpirational losses. Previous studies have employed 'bottom-up' methodologies to investigate carbon (C) accumulation and productivity in Agave, by scaling leaf-level gas exchange and titratable acidity (TA) with leaf area index or maximum productivity. We used the eddy covariance (EC) technique to quantify ecosystem-scale gas exchange over an Agave plantation in Mexico ('top-down' approach). Measurements were made over 252 days, including the transition from wet to dry periods. Results were cross-validated against diel changes in titratable acidity, leaf-unfurling rates, energy exchange fluxes and reported biomass yields. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 displayed a CAM rhythm that alternated from a net C sink at night to a net C source during the day and partitioned canopy fluxes (gross C assimilation, FA,EC) showed a characteristic four-phase CO2 exchange pattern. The projected ecosystem C balance indicated that the site was a net sink of -333 ± 24 g C m-2 y-1, comprising cumulative soil respiration of 692 ± 7 g C m-2 y-1 and FA,EC of -1025 ± 25 g C m-2 y-1. EC-estimated biomass yield was 20.1 Mg ha-1 y-1. Average integrated daily FA,EC was -234 ± 5 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 and persisted almost unchanged after 70 days of drought conditions. Our results suggest that the carbon acquisition strategy of drought avoidance employed by Agave

  4. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  5. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  6. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  7. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  8. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  9. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  10. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  11. An exploratory study into the putative prebiotic activity of fructans isolated from Agave angustifolia and the associated anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Allsopp, Philip; Possemiers, Sam; Campbell, David; Oyarzábal, Iván Saldaña; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

    2013-08-01

    Linear inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) model. The proximal, transverse and distal vessels were used to investigate fructan fermentation throughout the colon and to assess the alterations of the microbial composition and fermentation metabolites (short chain fatty acids and ammonia). The influence on bioactivity of the fermentation supernatant was assessed by MTT, Comet and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), respectively. Addition of Agave fructan to the SHIME model significantly increased (P < 0.05), bifidobacteria populations (proximal and transverse), SCFA concentrations (proximal, transverse and distal) and decreased ammonia concentrations in the distal vessel. Furthermore, the fermentation supernatant significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TER of a Caco-2 cell monolayer (%) and decreased fluorescein-based paracellular flux, suggesting enhanced barrier function and reduced epithelial barrier permeability (proximal and distal vessel). While cytotoxicity and genotoxicity remained unaltered in response to the presence of Agave fructans. To conclude, branched Agave fructans show indications of prebiotic activity, particularly in relation to colon health by exerting a positive influence on gut barrier function, an important aspect of colon carcinogenesis.

  12. The pollination biology of two paniculate agaves (Agavaceae) from northwestern Mexico: contrasting roles of bats as pollinators.

    PubMed

    Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2003-07-01

    Paniculate agaves from tropical deserts depend on nectar-feeding bats for their reproduction, while species from extratropical areas near the northern limit of Leptonycteris curasoae are pollinated by diurnal and nocturnal insects and birds. Agave angustifolia is a paniculate agave with a broad distribution in Mexico whose range coincides with the distribution of L. curasoae, while A. subsimplex has a narrow distribution in Sonora within the range of nectar-feeding bats. We studied the pollination biology of A. angustifolia and A. subsimplex in northwestern Mexico to evaluate the relative importance of bat pollination in a region where L. curasoae is seasonal. Flower visitors included a wide variety of animals, with bats having greater visitation rates in A. angustifolia. A pollinator-exclusion experiment revealed that bats were responsible for most of the control fruit set in A. angustifolia, whereas for A. subsimplex, diurnal and nocturnal visitors were equally effective. Overall, our data indicate that in central Sonora, A. angustifolia depends on nectar-feeding bats for its sexual reproductive success, while A. subsimplex relies on both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators. Given the contrasting distribution ranges of paniculate agaves, our results seem to support the trend from specialization to generalization along the continuum of tropical to extratropical deserts.

  13. 75 FR 57720 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Agave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12- month finding on a petition to list the plant Agave eggersiana (no common name) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing A. eggersiana is warranted. Currently, however, listing A. eggersiana is precluded by higher......

  14. An assessment of molecular mechanisms involved in metal uptake, translocation and homeostasis in Agave, a genus of CAM succulent plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agave is a monocot genus with more than 200 species of succulent plants capable of growing under arid and desert lands, steep and rocky slopes, or in coasts with high salinity. Some of them have economic relevance either for the production of alcoholic beverages as Tequila, or for natural fiber prod...

  15. Antimicrobial properties of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates of carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Chantaysakorn, P; Richter, R L

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates prepared from carrot juice. Lactoferrin isolated from raw skim milk was digested by pepsin for 4 h at pH 3. The digest of lactoferrin was lyophilized, and the antimicrobial activity of the digests was determined in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, carrot juice, permeate from carrot juice, and the dialysate of carrot juice permeate using Escherichia coli (American Type Culture Collection strain 35343) as the test organism. Growth of E. coli and the inhibitory effect of the peptide were greater in peptone-yeast-glucose broth at pH 7 than at pH 4. The peptic digest of lactoferrin did not have antimicrobial properties in carrot juice at concentrations of less than 10 mg/ml of juice. Carrot juice was filtered through a membrane with a molecular weight rejection of 10,000 or 500 Da, and the permeate was dialyzed against distilled water. Growth of E. coli was delayed in the filtrate by 5 mg but not by 1 mg of the peptic digest of lactoferrin per ml of filtrate. Bacterial counts of the control and experimental samples were not significantly different after 24 h of incubation. The peptic digest of lactoferrin at a concentration of 5 mg of digest per ml of dialysate was bacteriostatic toward E. coli after 24 h of incubation at 23 degrees C. Dialysis of permeate caused a percentage reduction in cation concentration in the permeate ranging from 69.23% (Co) to 99.32% (Na). The antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin added to carrot juice was probably inhibited by cations.

  16. Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK Review of studies finds 1 glass of 100-percent juice a day not linked with weight gain To use the ... one serving [of 100-percent fruit juice] a day contributes to weight gain in children," said study ...

  17. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil:...

  18. 77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Institution of five-year reviews concerning the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead...

  19. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to lead to... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  20. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to lead to... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  1. Oligosaccharide formation during commercial pear juice processing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2016-08-01

    The effect of enzyme treatment and processing on the oligosaccharide profile of commercial pear juice samples was examined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Industrial samples representing the major stages of processing produced with various commercial enzyme preparations were studied. Through the use of commercially available standards and laboratory scale enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin, starch and xyloglucan; galacturonic acid oligomers, glucose oligomers (e.g., maltose and cellotriose) and isoprimeverose were identified as being formed during pear juice production. It was found that the majority of polysaccharide hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation occurred during enzymatic treatment at the pear mashing stage and that the remaining processing steps had minimal impact on the carbohydrate-based chromatographic profile of pear juice. Also, all commercial enzyme preparations and conditions (time and temperature) studied produced similar carbohydrate-based chromatographic profiles.

  2. Fruit juice consumption by infants and children: a review.

    PubMed

    Dennison, B A

    1996-10-01

    The pattern of fruit juice consumption has changed over time. Fifty years ago, orange juice was the major juice produced and it was consumed primarily to prevent scurvy. Now, apple juice is the juice of choice for the under 5 age group. While fruit juice is a healthy, low-fat, nutritious beverage, there have been some health concerns regarding juice consumption. Nursing bottle caries have long been recognized as a consequence of feeding juice in bottles, using the bottle as a pacifier, and prolonged bottle feeding. Non-specific chronic diarrhea or "toddler's" diarrhea has been associated with juice consumption, especially juices high in sorbitol and those with a high fructose to glucose ratio. This relates to carbohydrate malabsorption, which varies by the type, concentration, and mixture of sugars present in different fruit juices. Fruit juice consumption by preschoolers has recently increased from 3.2 to about 5.5 fl oz/day. Consumption of fruit juice helps fulfill the recommendation to eat more fruits and vegetables, with fruit juice accounting for 50% of all fruit servings consumed by children, aged 2 through 18 years, and 1/3 of all fruits and vegetables consumed by preschoolers. Concomitant with the increase in fruit juice consumption has been a decline in milk intake. This is concerning as milk is the major source of calcium in the diet, and at present, only 50% of children, aged 1 through 5 years, meet the RDA for calcium. Studies of newborn infants and preschool-aged children have demonstrated a preference for sweet-tasting foods and beverages. Thus, it is not surprising that some children, if given the opportunity, might consume more fruit juice than is considered optimal. Eleven percent of healthy preschoolers consumed > or = 12 fl oz/day of fruit juice, which is considered excessive. Excess fruit juice consumption has been reported as a contributing factor in some children with nonorganic failure to thrive and in some children with decreased stature. In

  3. Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.

    PubMed

    Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes.

  4. Detailed Morphology of All Life Stages of the Agave Red Worm, Comadia redtenbacheri (Hammerschmidt) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, R; Llanderal-Cázares, C

    2016-12-01

    The agave red worm, Comadia redtenbacheri (Hammerschmidt), is an important source of food and income in Mexico. Despite its importance, several aspects of its biology, morphology, and behavior remain poorly studied. In this work, we describe and illustrate the morphology of all the life stages that may aid in understanding certain aspects of its biology. To obtain all life stages, last instar larvae were collected from agave plants and allowed to pupate; after the adults emerged, they were allowed to mate and oviposit. The frenulum is longer in males; epiphysis I is longer in females than in males; the abdomen bears two types of tubercles of unknown function. Eggs present a reticulate chorion; primary rosette cells are highly variable in shape; the micropylar formula is (10-14): (12-13). First instar larvae are white, becoming red as they develop; L3 in the prothorax is subprimary; the SV setal group in A1 is comprised of only SV1 on first instar larvae; last instars have several secondary setae. Pupae are adecticous and obtect; there are rows of spines on the dorsum of the abdomen. The biological significance of some of the findings is discussed.

  5. Reproductive ecology of five sympatric Agave Littaea (Agavaceae) species in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Martha; Valera, Aldo; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2005-08-01

    We studied a community of Agave species that coexist in the Metztitlán Canyon in Central Mexico. During 2001, 2002, and 2003, we analyzed floral traits and rosette allometry in five species belonging to the subgenus Littaea: A. celsii albicans, A. xylonacantha, A. difformis, A. striata, and Agave sp.; and observed floral visitors for each species. We report the first evidence of bat visitation in the subgenus Littaea and find that bats (Leptonycteris curasoae, Choeronycteris mexicana, and Glossophaga sp.) are the primary pollinators in four species. Honeybees, hummingbirds, bumblebees and hawkmoths were also common visitors. We propose that the presence of diurnal pollinators may increase the reproductive success of the plant when offering pollinator services additional to the coadapted pollinator. We also found evidence of selection pressures toward semelparity because pollinators are selecting for taller inflorescences in three of the five species. There is phenological complementarity in this community because the flowering periods of the five species span the entire year, although there are some periods when pairs of species overlap. Additionally, we found evidence for character displacement in rosette sizes and separation of spatial and temporal resource use in pollinator composition among species.

  6. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of methanol and aqueous extracts of Agave sisalana.

    PubMed

    Hammuel, Chrinius; Yebpella, Gary G; Shallangwa, Gideon A; Magomya, Asabe M; Agbajp, Abel S

    2011-01-01

    The methanol and the aqueous extracts of the plant, Agave sisalana were prepared and evaluated for its phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical analysis of the preparation revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites which include: saponins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, steroids, tannins and flavonoids. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the crude methanol and aqueous extract of the Agave sisalana were investigated. The extract showed antimicrobial activities against the test organisms with different zones of inhibition ranging from 28-32 mm and 25-29 mm for methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both the methanol and aqueous extract was between 10-20 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 20-40 mg/mL for both extracts. The investigation indicated that the methanol extract inhibited the growth of the microbes more than the aqueous extract. The ability of the crude extracts of A. sisalana to inhibit the growth of the microbes is an indication of its antimicrobial potential, which may be employed in the management of microbial infections.

  7. Bacterial immobilization by adhesion onto agave-fiber/polymer foamed composites.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Ortíz, J R; Ramírez-Arreola, D E; Gomez, C; González-Reynoso, O; González-Núñez, R

    2010-02-01

    Adhesion of Pseudomonas putida F1 onto agave-fiber/recycled-polyethylene foamed composites was studied under different controlled conditions. The adhesion process was analyzed in batch experiments controlling factors such as pH, contact time, temperature, initial biomass concentration and ionic strength; and was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of adhered bacteria after the experimental time was determined by difference between concentration of suspended cells in NaCl solution contained in two different Erlenmeyer flasks, one of the flasks with composite pellets and the other one without them. The concentration of cells in each flask was obtained using the serial dilution technique. Experimental data analysis showed that adsorption follows first-order kinetics. And it was further corroborated to be an irreversible process. For the first time, an equation is proposed here to predict the correlation between adhered bacteria and aqueous pH. In addition to the obvious reuse of waste material, these results suggested that agave-fiber/polymer foamed composites could be used as support for bacterial immobilization to be applied, among others in environmental processes such as bioremediation and biofiltration of gases with almost limitless possibilities.

  8. Kinetic study of the thermal hydrolysis of Agave salmiana for mezcal production.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Soto, M J; Jimenez-Islas, H; Navarrete-Bolanos, J L; Rico-Martinez, R; Miranda-Lopez, R; Botello-Alvarez, J E

    2011-07-13

    The kinetics of the thermal hydrolysis of the fructans of Agave salmiana were determined during the cooking step of mezcal production in a pilot autoclave. Thermal hydrolysis was achieved at different temperatures and cooking times, ranging from 96 to 116 °C and from 20 to 80 h. A simple kinetic model of the depolymerization of fructans to monomers and other reducing sugars and of the degradation of reducing sugars to furans [principally 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, HMF] was developed. From this model, the rate constants of the reactions were calculated, as well as the pre-exponential factors and activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. The model was found to fit the experimental data well. The tradeoff between a maximum fructan hydrolysis and a critical furan concentration in allowing for the best ethanol yield during fermentation was investigated. The results indicated that the thermal hydrolysis of agave was optimal, from the point of view of ethanol yield in the ensuing fermentation, in the temperature range of 106-116 °C and the cooking range time of 6-14 h. The optimal conditions corresponded to a fructan hydrolysis of 80%, producing syrups with furan and reducing sugar concentrations of 1 ± 0.1 and 110 ± 10 g/L, respectively.

  9. Natural sweetener agave inhibits gastric emptying in rats by a cholecystokinin-2- and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bihter Gürler, E; Özbeyli, Dilek; Buzcu, Hülya; Bayraktar, Sezin; Carus, İrem; Dağ, Beyza; Geriş, Yasemin; Jeral, Seda; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2017-02-22

    Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12.5%, 15% or 50% concentrations were measured and compared with that of saline. GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin fragment 9-39 (30 μg kg(-1)), CCK-1 receptor antagonist devazepide (1 mg kg(-1)) or gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YM022 (1 mg kg(-1)) was injected subcutaneously 1 min before the emptying of glucose, fructose or agave at their 50% concentrations. When compared with saline emptying, gastric emptying of glucose was significantly delayed at its 25% and 50% concentrations, but the emptying of 12.5% glucose was not different from that of saline. Agave emptying, which was delayed with respect to saline emptying, was not altered by CCK-1 receptor blockade; but agave emptied from the stomach as rapidly as saline following the blockade of either CCK-2 or GLP-1 receptors. The findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of agave on gastric emptying is mediated by both CCK-2 and GLP-1 receptors, suggesting that natural sweeteners including agave may have satiating effects through the inhibition of gastric motility via enteroendocrine mechanisms.

  10. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  11. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance.

  12. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  13. Uses of miscanthus press juice within a green biorefinery platform.

    PubMed

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses some uses of nutrient-rich juice mechanically extracted from freshly harvested Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) as part of a green biorefinery system. The juice was used for culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. MxG juice was further used as substrate for fermentation to produce lactic acid using Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. The results show that MxG juice was a highly nutritious source for the cultivation of bacteria. Higher concentrations of MxG juice used as culture media, resulted in higher cell growth both aerobically and anaerobically. The highest ethanol yield of 70% theoretical and concentration of 0.75g/100ml were obtained from S. cerevisiae cultivated with 90% (v/v) MxG juice media and used for miscanthus solid fraction fermentation. 11.91g/L of lactic acid was also successfully produced from MxG juice through SSF.

  14. Toxicological and analytical investigations of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Westendorf, Johannes; Effenberger, Katharina; Iznaguen, Hassan; Basar, Simla

    2007-01-24

    Morinda citrifolia (noni) is known to contain genotoxic anthraquinones in the roots. Because of the widespread use of noni juice, the possible genotoxic risk was examined through a battery of short-term tests. Noni juice was also chemically analyzed for the possible presence of anthraquinones. Noni juice extract in the Salmonella microsome assay showed a slight mutagenic effect in strain TA1537, due to the presence of flavonoids. No mutagenicity was observed in the mammalian mutagenicity test with V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Rats treated with a noni juice concentrate did not show DNA repair synthesis (UDS) in primary rat hepatocytes, nor could DNA adducts or DNA strand breaks be observed. HPLC analysis of noni juice for anthraquinones was negative, with a sensitivity of <1 ppm. In summary, chemical analysis and genotoxicity tests reveal that noni juice does not have a genotoxic potential and that genotoxic anthraquinones do not exist in noni juice.

  15. Pomegranate juice is potentially better than apple juice in improving antioxidant function in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changjiang; Wei, Jingyu; Yang, Jijun; Xu, Jing; Pang, Wei; Jiang, Yugang

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, 26 elderly subjects were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups, that is, apple (low in antioxidant capacity) and pomegranate (high in antioxidant capacity) groups, and 250 mL of juice was consumed daily for 4 weeks. Changes in plasma antioxidant capacity, activity of antioxidant enzymes, contents of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and carbonyls, and the degree of DNA damage in mononuclear blood cells were measured. Urine samples were collected for determination of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine content. Increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma carbonyl content were demonstrated after daily consumption of pomegranate juice. In comparison, apple juice consumption presented a less significant effect on antioxidant function in elderly subjects. It is concluded that daily consumption of pomegranate juices is potentially better than apple juice in improving antioxidant function in the elderly. Because the plasma ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione contents did not differ significantly between the 2 groups in this study, the phenolics may be the functional components contained in pomegranate juice that accounted for the observations.

  16. Grapefruit Juice and Medicine May Not Mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... 383 K) En Español On This Page: Too High or Too Low Drug Levels Tips for Consumers Grapefruit juice can be part of a healthful diet—most of the time. It has vitamin C and potassium—substances your body needs to work properly. But ...

  17. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... capacity, except when the food is frozen. (2) Determine compliance as specified in § 156.3(d). (3) If the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  18. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The... shall not be construed as a standard of identity under section 401 of the act. However, where a standard of identity for a particular vegetable juice has been promulgated under section 401 of the act,...

  19. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The... shall not be construed as a standard of identity under section 401 of the act. However, where a standard of identity for a particular vegetable juice has been promulgated under section 401 of the act,...

  20. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The... shall not be construed as a standard of identity under section 401 of the act. However, where a standard of identity for a particular vegetable juice has been promulgated under section 401 of the act,...

  1. KNOX1 is expressed and epigenetically regulated during in vitro conditions in Agave spp

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The micropropagation is a powerful tool to scale up plants of economical and agronomical importance, enhancing crop productivity. However, a small but growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, can be affected under the in vitro conditions characteristic of micropropagation. Here, we tested whether the adaptation to different in vitro systems (Magenta boxes and Bioreactors) modified epigenetically different clones of Agave fourcroydes and A. angustifolia. Furthermore, we assessed whether these epigenetic changes affect the regulatory expression of KNOTTED1-like HOMEOBOX (KNOX) transcription factors. Results To gain a better understanding of epigenetic changes during in vitro and ex vitro conditions in Agave fourcroydes and A. angustifolia, we analyzed global DNA methylation, as well as different histone modification marks, in two different systems: semisolid in Magenta boxes (M) and temporary immersion in modular Bioreactors (B). No significant difference was found in DNA methylation in A. fourcroydes grown in either M or B. However, when A. fourcroydes was compared with A. angustifolia, there was a two-fold difference in DNA methylation between the species, independent of the in vitro system used. Furthermore, we detected an absence or a low amount of the repressive mark H3K9me2 in ex vitro conditions in plants that were cultured earlier either in M or B. Moreover, the expression of AtqKNOX1 and AtqKNOX2, on A. fourcroydes and A. angustifolia clones, is affected during in vitro conditions. Therefore, we used Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation (ChIP) to know whether these genes were epigenetically regulated. In the case of AtqKNOX1, the H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 were affected during in vitro conditions in comparison with AtqKNOX2. Conclusions Agave clones plants with higher DNA methylation during in vitro conditions were better adapted to ex vitro conditions. In addition, A. fourcroydes and A

  2. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  3. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Kaur, Manpreeet

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices. PMID:26904628

  4. Genetic diversity of the endangered endemic Agave victoriae-reginae (Agavaceae) in the Chihuahuan Desert.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Palacios, A; Eguiarte, L E; Furnier, G R

    1999-08-01

    Long-lived perennials are a species-rich, ecologically important component of the North American deserts, yet we know little about their genetic structure, information important for their conservation. Agave victoriae-reginae is an endemic of the Chihuahuan Desert of northern Mexico that is endangered by collection for the ornamental trade. We examined levels and patterns of variation at ten polymorphic allozyme loci in ten populations representing the range of the species. Levels of genetic variation (mean H(e)= 0.335) and differentiation (mean F(ST) = 0.236) were high. Phenetic clustering suggested the existence of at least three distinct groups of populations. If this pattern of variation is representative of other long-lived desert perennials, it may explain the species richness of this group and will pose a real challenge to gene conservation efforts.

  5. Isolation and immunomodulatory effect of homoisoflavones and flavones from Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pi Yu; Kuo, Yuh Chi; Chen, Chin Hui; Kuo, Yueh Hsiung; Lee, Ching Kuo

    2009-05-12

    Three known flavones and seven known homoisoflavonoids were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Agave sisalanaPerrine ex Engelm. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The isolated compounds were also evaluated for immunopharmacological activity. PBMC were used as target cells, and cell proliferation was determined by (3)H-thymidine uptake. (+/-)-3,9-Dihydroeucomin (4), dihydrobonducellin (5), and 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxybenzyl)-4-chromanone (7) showed inhibitory effects on PBMC proliferation activated by PHA with IC(50) values 19.4, 73.8, and 58.8 microM, respectively. All three compounds significantly inhibited the production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in activated PBMC in a concentration-dependent manner.

  6. Characterization of volatile compounds of Mezcal, an ethnic alcoholic beverage obtained from Agave salmiana.

    PubMed

    De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; González-Hernández, Lidia; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; López, Mercedes G

    2006-02-22

    Commercial mezcals (white, white with worm, rested, rested with worm, and aged) produced from Agave salmiana were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Thirty-seven compounds were identified, and nine of them were classified as major compounds of mezcal (MCM). Saturated alcohols, ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and acetic acid form the MCM group. Minor compounds of mezcal group include other alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, large chain ethyl esters, organic acids, furans, terpenes, alkenes, and alkynes. Most of the compounds found in mezcals in this study are similar to those present in tequilas and other alcoholic beverages. However, mezcals contain unique compounds such as limonene and pentyl butanoate, which can be used as markers for the authenticity of mezcal produced from A. salmiana.

  7. Genetic diversity of Clavispora lusitaniae isolated from Agave fourcroydes Lem, as revealed by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Magaña-Alvarez, Anuar; Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Cortes-Velazquez, Alberto; Torres-Calzada, Claudia; Herrera-Suarez, Teófilo; Larqué-Saavedra, Alfonso; Tapia-Tussell, Raul

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized Clavispora lusitaniae strains isolated from different stages of the processing and early fermentation of a henequen (Agave fourcroydes) spirit produced in Yucatan, Mexico using a molecular technique. Sixteen strains identified based on morphological features, obtained from different substrates, were typed molecularly. Nine different versions of the divergent D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit ribosomal DNA sequence were identified among the C. lusitaniae strains. The greatest degree of polymorphism was found in the 90-bp structural motif of the D2 domain. The MSP-PCR technique was able to differentiate 100% of the isolates. This study provides significant insight into the genetic diversity of the mycobiota present during the henequen fermentation process, especially that of C. lusitaniae, for which only a few studies in plants have been published. The applied MSP-PCR markers were very efficient in revealing olymorphisms between isolates of this species.

  8. Sequential enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of ionic liquid and organosolv pretreated agave bagasse for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A; Vargas-Tah, Alejandra; López-Ortega, Karla M; Medina-López, Yessenia N; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A; Avila, Sayeny; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Loaces, Inés; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-02-01

    Agave bagasse (AGB) has gained recognition as a drought-tolerant biofuel feedstock with high productivity in semiarid regions. A comparative analysis of ionic liquid (IL) and organosolv (OV) pretreatment technologies in AGB was performed using a sequential enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SESF) strategy with cellulolytic enzymes and the ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain MS04. After pretreatment, 86% of xylan and 45% of lignin were removed from OV-AGB, whereas IL-AGB reduced lignin content by 28% and xylan by 50% when compared to the untreated biomass. High glucan (>90%) and xylan (>83%) conversion was obtained with both pretreated samples. During the fermentation stage (48h), 12.1 and 12.7kg of ethanol were produced per 100kg of untreated AGB for IL and OV, respectively. These comparative analyses showed the advantages of SESF using IL and OV in a biorefinery configuration where a better understanding of AGB recalcitrance is key for future applications.

  9. Hydrophobic modification of cellulose isolated from Agave angustifolia fibre by graft copolymerisation using methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan; Mohamed, Faizal

    2015-07-10

    Graft copolymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto Agave angustifolia was conducted with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the redox initiator. The maximum grafting efficiency was observed at CAN and MMA concentrations of 0.91 × 10(-3) and 5.63 × 10(-2)M, respectively, at 45°C for 3h reaction time. Four characteristic peaks at 2995, 1738, 1440, and 845 cm(-1), attributed to PMMA, were found in the IR spectrum of grafted cellulose. The crystallinity index dropped from 0.74 to 0.46, while the thermal stability improved upon grafting. The water contact angle increased with grafting yield, indicating increased hydrophobicity of cellulose. SEM images showed the grafted cellulose to be enlarged and rougher. The changes in the physical nature of PMMA-grafted cellulose can be attributed to the PMMA grafting in the amorphous regions of cellulose, causing it to expand at the expense of the crystalline component.

  10. Cellulases immobilization on chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles: application for Agave Atrovirens lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ramírez, Jaquelina; Martínez-Hernández, José L; Segura-Ceniceros, Patricia; López, Guillermo; Saade, Hened; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Ramos-González, Rodolfo; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Ilyina, Anna

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, Trichoderma reesei cellulase was covalently immobilized on chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles using glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent. The average diameter of magnetic nanoparticles before and after enzyme immobilization was about 8 and 10 nm, respectively. The immobilized enzyme retained about 37 % of its initial activity, and also showed better thermal and storage stability than free enzyme. Immobilized cellulase retained about 80 % of its activity after 15 cycles of carboxymethylcellulose hydrolysis and was easily separated with the application of an external magnetic field. However, in this reaction, K m was increased eight times. The immobilized enzyme was able to hydrolyze lignocellulosic material from Agave atrovirens leaves with yield close to the amount detected with free enzyme and it was re-used in vegetal material conversion up to four cycles with 50 % of activity decrease. This provides an opportunity to reduce the enzyme consumption during lignocellulosic material saccharification for bioethanol production.

  11. Micropropagation of Agave salmiana: Means to Production of Antioxidant and Bioactive Principles.

    PubMed

    Puente-Garza, César A; Gutiérrez-Mora, Antonia; García-Lara, Silverio

    2015-01-01

    Maguey, Agave salmiana, is an important plant for the "pulque" beverage and functional food industries; however, it has several constraints for elite and homogeneous plant production. In this study, a micropropagation process was established to generate in vitro plants. The effect of the method on metabolite content and antioxidant (AOX) activity in regenerated plants was evaluated. Young germinated plantlets were micropropagated from axillary shoots using Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with L2 vitamins, 0.04 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 10 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine. Total soluble sugars from the aqueous fraction and total phenolic acids, total saponins, and AOX activity of the methanol fraction were determined in wild-type (WT) plants, in in vitro (IN) plants, and ex vitro acclimated plants (EN). The results showed that IN plants have a 50% lower soluble sugar content compared to WT, and EN. The total phenolic acids content was at least 30% higher in micropropagated (IN) and regenerated (EN) plants compared to WT. The total saponin content in IN, and EN plants was 36 and 25 times higher compared to WT. The AOX capacity of IN plants was on average three times higher compared to other treatments. However, no correlation was found between the AOX activity and total phenolic acids or total saponins. A negative and significant correlation (r = -0.927; p = 0.003) was found between the AOX activity and the total soluble sugars content. Micropropagated plants of A. salmiana have a different phytochemical content and bioactivity after the in vitro process compared to WT plants. The micropropagation process could be used as a platform for phytochemical enhancement of Agave plants.

  12. Micropropagation of Agave salmiana: Means to Production of Antioxidant and Bioactive Principles

    PubMed Central

    Puente-Garza, César A.; Gutiérrez-Mora, Antonia; García-Lara, Silverio

    2015-01-01

    Maguey, Agave salmiana, is an important plant for the “pulque” beverage and functional food industries; however, it has several constraints for elite and homogeneous plant production. In this study, a micropropagation process was established to generate in vitro plants. The effect of the method on metabolite content and antioxidant (AOX) activity in regenerated plants was evaluated. Young germinated plantlets were micropropagated from axillary shoots using Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with L2 vitamins, 0.04 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 10 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine. Total soluble sugars from the aqueous fraction and total phenolic acids, total saponins, and AOX activity of the methanol fraction were determined in wild-type (WT) plants, in in vitro (IN) plants, and ex vitro acclimated plants (EN). The results showed that IN plants have a 50% lower soluble sugar content compared to WT, and EN. The total phenolic acids content was at least 30% higher in micropropagated (IN) and regenerated (EN) plants compared to WT. The total saponin content in IN, and EN plants was 36 and 25 times higher compared to WT. The AOX capacity of IN plants was on average three times higher compared to other treatments. However, no correlation was found between the AOX activity and total phenolic acids or total saponins. A negative and significant correlation (r = –0.927; p = 0.003) was found between the AOX activity and the total soluble sugars content. Micropropagated plants of A. salmiana have a different phytochemical content and bioactivity after the in vitro process compared to WT plants. The micropropagation process could be used as a platform for phytochemical enhancement of Agave plants. PMID:26635850

  13. Scientific Scope and Summary of the Arctic Gakkel Vents (AGAVE) Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reves-Sohn, R. A.; Edmonds, H.; Humphris, S.; Shank, T.; Singh, H.; Ericsson, B.; Hedman, U.; Helmke, E.; Jakuba, M.; Kunz, C.; Larsson, B.; Liljebladh, B.; Linder, J.; Murphy, C.; Nakamura, K.; Pontbriand, C.; Sato, T.; Schlindwein, V.; Stranne, C.; Tausendfreund, M.; Upchurch, L.; Willis, C.; Winsor, P.

    2007-12-01

    The AGAVE project is an international collaboration between scientists in the United States, Sweden, Japan, and Germany with the overarching scientific objective of studying the geological, chemical, and biological characteristics of hydrothermal venting on the Gakkel Ridge, the most slowly diverging tectonic plate boundary on Earth. The AGAVE expedition took place on the IB Oden from July 1 - August 10, 2007, and occupied two field sites where evidence of hydrothermal venting had been detected in the water column during the 2001 Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Experiment (AMORE). The first site (~85N, 7.5E) is characterized by peridotite outcrops on normal fault scarps, while the second site (~85.5N, 85E) is characterized by constructional basaltic volcanism, thereby allowing for a comparative study of hydrothermal processes at two segments of an ultra-slow spreading ridge with contrasting geological and tectonic settings. Five primary oceanographic assets were employed during the expedition; a high-resolution, ship-mounted multi-beam bathymetry system, a CTD-rosette system for surveying and sampling the water column, the PUMA autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for fine-scale water column surveys, the JAGUAR AUV for near-bottom geophysical and photographic surveys, and the CAMPER wireline system for acquiring digital images and samples of the deep seafloor. The combined results from the expedition are significantly expanding our understanding of volcanic and hydrothermal processes on the Gakkel Ridge. Important initial results include the discovery of the Asgard volcanic chain at the 85E segment, the discovery of extensive microbial mats covering these volcanoes, the discovery of basaltic glass fragments covering large portions of the seafloor near the volcanoes, and detailed mapping and sampling of water column plumes.

  14. Fluoride content of soft drinks, nectars, juices, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fojo, C; Figueira, M E; Almeida, C M M

    2013-01-01

    A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l⁻¹), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l⁻¹, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children.

  15. Nutritional and physicochemical characteristic of commercial Spanish citrus juices.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J; Pastoriza, S; Alonso-Olalla, R; Delgado-Andrade, C; Rufián-Henares, J A

    2014-12-01

    Citrus juices are perceived as healthy foods by consumers due to their richness in antioxidant compounds. Despite the large number of papers about the antioxidant activity of citrus juices, less is known about the relationship with physicochemical properties. This paper shows that the overall antioxidant activity of citrus juices is underestimated with the standard methodologies, being up to 10-times higher with the GAR method (including an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion). 70% of the antioxidant activity was found in the soluble fraction and citrus juices contributed up to 12% of the overall antioxidant intake within the Spanish diet. Physicochemical parameters, such as colour, fluorescence, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural contents, were correlated with nutritional parameters in some samples. The intake of HMF was negligible from commercial citrus juices and was absent in freshly squeezed ones. Finally, a mathematical model is developed to classify juices depending on their nature or storage conditions.

  16. A randomised, double- blind, cross-over study investigating the prebiotic effect of agave fructans in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, P; Costabile, A; Bustillo, A G R; Gibson, G R

    2015-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over human feeding study aimed to determine the prebiotic effect of agave fructans. A total of thirty-eight volunteers completed this trial. The treatment consisted of 3 weeks' supplementation with 5 g/d of prebiotic agave fructan (Predilife) or equivalent placebo (maltodextrin), followed by a 2-week washout period following which subjects were crossed over to alternate the treatment arm for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week washout. Faecal samples were collected at baseline, on the last day of treatment (days 22 and 58) and washout (days 36 and 72), respectively. Changes in faecal bacterial populations, SCFA and secretory IgA were assessed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, GC and ELISA, respectively. Bowel movements, stool consistencies, abdominal comfort and mood changes were evaluated by a recorded daily questionnaire. In parallel, the effect of agave fructans on different regions of the colon using a three-stage continuous culture simulator was studied. Predilife significantly increased faecal bifidobacteria (log10 9·6 (sd 0·4)) and lactobacilli (log10 7·7 (sd 0·8)) compared with placebo (log10 9·2 (sd 0·4); P = 0·00) (log10 7·4 (sd 0·7); P = 0·000), respectively. No change was observed for other bacterial groups tested, SCFA, secretory IgA, and PGE2 concentrations between the treatment and placebo. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that bacterial communities were randomly dispersed and no significant differences were observed between Predilife and placebo treatments. The in vitro models showed similar increases in bifidobacterial and lactobacilli populations to that observed with the in vivo trial. To conclude, agave fructans are well tolerated in healthy human subjects and increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli numbers in vitro and in vivo but did not influence other products of fermentation.

  17. Genetic structure of coexisting wild and managed agave populations: implications for the evolution of plants under domestication.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Carmen Julia; Casas, Alejandro; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Nassar, Jafet M; Colunga-GarcíaMarín, Patricia; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor

    2015-10-03

    Domestication is a continuous evolutionary process guided by humans. This process leads to divergence in characteristics such as behaviour, morphology or genetics, between wild and managed populations. Agaves have been important resources for Mesoamerican peoples since prehistory. Some species are domesticated and others vary in degree of domestication. Agave inaequidens Koch is used in central Mexico to produce mescal, and a management gradient from gathered wild and silvicultural populations, as well as cultivated plantations, has been documented. Significant morphological differences were reported among wild and managed populations, and a high phenotypic variation in cultivated populations composed of plants from different populations. We evaluated levels of genetic diversity and structure associated with management, hypothesizing that high morphological variation would be accompanied by high genetic diversity in populations with high gene flow and low genetic structure among managed and unmanaged populations. Wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations were studied, collecting tissue of 19-30 plants per population. Through 10 nuclear microsatellite loci, we compared population genetic parameters. We analysed partition of variation associated with management categories to estimate gene flow among populations. Agave inaequidens exhibits high levels of genetic diversity (He = 0.707) and moderate genetic structure (FST = 0.112). No differences were found in levels of genetic diversity among wild (He = 0.704), silviculturally managed (He = 0.733) and cultivated (He = 0.698) populations. Bayesian analysis indicated that five genetic clusters best fit the data, with genetic groups corresponding to habitats where populations grow rather than to management. Migration rates ranged from zero between two populations to markedly high among others (M = 0.73-35.25). Natural mechanisms of gene flow and the dynamic management of agave propagules among populations favour gene

  18. Genetic structure of coexisting wild and managed agave populations: implications for the evolution of plants under domestication

    PubMed Central

    Figueredo, Carmen Julia; Casas, Alejandro; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Nassar, Jafet M.; Colunga-GarcíaMarín, Patricia; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Domestication is a continuous evolutionary process guided by humans. This process leads to divergence in characteristics such as behaviour, morphology or genetics, between wild and managed populations. Agaves have been important resources for Mesoamerican peoples since prehistory. Some species are domesticated and others vary in degree of domestication. Agave inaequidens Koch is used in central Mexico to produce mescal, and a management gradient from gathered wild and silvicultural populations, as well as cultivated plantations, has been documented. Significant morphological differences were reported among wild and managed populations, and a high phenotypic variation in cultivated populations composed of plants from different populations. We evaluated levels of genetic diversity and structure associated with management, hypothesizing that high morphological variation would be accompanied by high genetic diversity in populations with high gene flow and low genetic structure among managed and unmanaged populations. Wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations were studied, collecting tissue of 19–30 plants per population. Through 10 nuclear microsatellite loci, we compared population genetic parameters. We analysed partition of variation associated with management categories to estimate gene flow among populations. Agave inaequidens exhibits high levels of genetic diversity (He = 0.707) and moderate genetic structure (FST = 0.112). No differences were found in levels of genetic diversity among wild (He = 0.704), silviculturally managed (He = 0.733) and cultivated (He = 0.698) populations. Bayesian analysis indicated that five genetic clusters best fit the data, with genetic groups corresponding to habitats where populations grow rather than to management. Migration rates ranged from zero between two populations to markedly high among others (M = 0.73–35.25). Natural mechanisms of gene flow and the dynamic management of agave propagules among populations favour

  19. Lemon juice as a solvent for heroin in Spain.

    PubMed

    Page, J B; Fraile, J S

    1999-06-01

    Preliminary observations and responses to interviews in Valencia, Spain reveal that injecting drug users (IDUs) dissolve heroin before injection with two or three drops of lemon juice. Solution in lemon juice makes heating of heroin in water unnecessary. This pattern apparently developed spontaneously in Spain, but is almost unknown elsewhere in the world. Its implications for IDUs' health remain speculative, but use of lemon juice to dissolve heroin for injection deserves further scientific study.

  20. Comparison of the effects of blending and juicing on the phytochemicals contents and antioxidant capacity of typical korean kernel fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-06-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices.

  1. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF AGAVE AMERICANA, STRYCHNOS NUXVOMICA AND ARECA CATECHU EXTRACTS USING MCF-7 CELL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Anajwala, Chetan C.; Patel, Rajesh M.; Dakhara, Sanjay L.; Jariwala, Jitesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nuxvomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC50 value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 μg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic. PMID:22247852

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity study of agave americana, strychnos nuxvomica and areca catechu extracts using mcf-7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Anajwala, Chetan C; Patel, Rajesh M; Dakhara, Sanjay L; Jariwala, Jitesh K

    2010-04-01

    Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nuxvomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC(50) value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 μg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic.

  3. Microsatellite primers in Agave utahensis (Asparagaceae), a keystone species in the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau1

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Charlee; Maughan, Peter J.; Clouse, Jared; Stewart, J. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Utah agave (Agave utahensis) and its putative subspecies, A. utahensis subsp. kaibabensis and A. utahensis subsp. utahensis, are keystone species of the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. Here we developed microsatellite markers to study population structure and genetic diversity of the two subspecies of A. utahensis. • Methods and Results: We analyzed 22,386 454-pyrosequencing large contigs (>400 bp), derived from a genome reduction experiment consisting of A. utahensis accessions, for putative microsatellites. The use of unique multiplex barcodes for each of the Agave accessions allowed for the identification of putatively polymorphic microsatellites based solely on sequence alignment analysis. We report the characteristics of 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci based on a panel of 104 individuals from the two subspecies. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to eight, with an average of 5.5 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.038 to 0.777 and 0.038 to 0.707, respectively. • Conclusions: The microsatellites identified here will be invaluable for future studies of population structure, polyploidy, and genetic diversity across the species. PMID:25225631

  4. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

    PubMed

    De La Torre-Ruiz, Neyser; Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Rincón-Molina, Clara Ivette; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Palomeque-Dominguez, Héctor; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strains ACO-34A, ACO-40 and ACO-140 were Rhizobium daejeonense, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas mosselii, respectively. All of the strains were able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphate, and had nitrogenase activity. Inoculation using the plant growth-promoting bacteria strains had a significant effect (p<0.05) on plant growth and the sugar content of A. americana, showing that these native plant growth-promoting bacteria are a practical, simple, and efficient alternative to promote the growth of agave plants with proper biological characteristics for agroindustrial and biotechnological use and to increase the sugar content in this agave species.

  5. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    PubMed Central

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  6. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    PubMed

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  7. Study on the development of pomegranate juice processing technology: clarification of pomegranate juice.

    PubMed

    Vardin, Hasan; Fenercioğlu, Hasan

    2003-10-01

    The effects of clarification agents and methods on pomegranate juice quality were studied. Fruits were pressed as whole, and extracted juice was clarified with gelatin, polyvinylypolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and natural sedimentation. In order to determine the effects of these clarifying techniques on product quality, pH, total phenolic substances (TPS), anthocyanin, turbidity, and total colour density tests were applied to each sample. In clarification, the main purpose was to reduce the amount of phenolic substances. Phenolic substances were controlled in each clarification method. The most effective method was the application of 1 g/L gelatine for clarification. Sensory evaluation also applied for clarified juices and gelatin application was selected by panelists to be superior.

  8. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  9. Detection of some intestinal protozoa in commercial fresh juices.

    PubMed

    Mossallam, Shereen F

    2010-04-01

    Fresh fruit juices are popular, but not always safe. For assessing the likelihood of infection with newly emerging intestinal protozoa, commercial fresh orange, lemon, sugar cane, strawberry, and mango juices were screened by wet mounts, Weber's modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Protozoa viability was done by fluorescein-diacetate/propidium-iodide staining, and infectivity was performed in Swiss albino mice. Results showed that 35.43% were contaminated with one or more of Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, and Cyclospora, as well as Giardia spp. Strawberry was the most contaminated juice (54.28%), while orange was the slightest (22.86%). Cryptosporidia was the highest contaminant (61.29%), and Cyclospora was the least (14.52%). Microsporidia spp. was the most robust contaminant which retained its viability and infectivity in juices in which it was detected. Moderately acidic strawberry and mango juices and alkaline sugar cane juice pose a possible threat, due to harboring the highest viable and infectious protozoa. Regarding highly acidic juices, viability and infectivity decreased in lemon, yet was not still risk free. Orange juice was comparatively safe, as viability dramatically declined, while infectivity was completely abolished. Hence consumers, especially high risk group, are placed at hazard of contracting intestinal protozoa infections, especially through moderately acidic and alkaline juices.

  10. Apple juice greatly reduces systemic exposure to atenolol

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyewon; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Kotegawa, Tsutomu; Ieiri, Ichiro; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lim, Kyoung Soo

    2013-01-01

    AIM Fruit juice reduces the plasma concentrations of several β-adrenoceptor blockers, likely by inhibiting OATP2B1-mediated intestinal absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apple juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol. METHODS Twelve healthy Korean volunteers with genotypes of SLCO2B1 c.1457C> T (*1/*1 (n= 6) and *3/*3 (n= 6)) were enrolled in this study. In a three-phase, one-sequence crossover study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of atenolol was evaluated after administration of 50 mg atenolol. Subjects received atenolol with either 300 ml water, 1200 ml apple juice or 600 ml apple juice. RESULTS Apple juice markedly reduced the systemic exposure to atenolol. The geometric mean ratios (95% confidence intervals) of apple juice : water were 0.18 (0.13, 0.25, 1200 ml) and 0.42 (0.30, 0.59, 600 ml) for the AUC(0,tlast). In this study, the PK parameters of atenolol responded in a dose-dependent manner to apple juice. CONCLUSIONS Apple juice markedly reduced systemic exposure to atenolol. The genetic variation of SLCO2B1 c.1457C>T had a minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol when the drug was administered with water or apple juice. PMID:22574741

  11. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Michael J.; Cancalon, Paul; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Greenblatt, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in the clinical setting remains relatively limited. Areas covered This article reviews the in vitro effects of grapefruit juice and its constituents on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, P-glycoprotein, esterases and sulfotransferases. The translational applicability of the in vitro findings to the clinical setting is discussed for each drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter. Reported area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for available grapefruit juice-drug interaction studies are also provided. Relevant investigations were identified by searching the Pubmed electronic database from 1989 to 2010. Expert opinion Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of some orally-administered drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A and normally undergo extensive presystemic extraction. In addition, grapefruit juice can decrease the oral absorption of a few drugs that rely on organic anion-transporting polypeptides in the gastrointestinal tract for their uptake. The number of drugs shown to interact with grapefruit juice in vitro is far greater than the number of clinically relevant grapefruit juice-drug interactions. For the majority of patients, complete avoidance of grapefruit juice is unwarranted. PMID:21254874

  12. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    PubMed

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds.

  13. Vulnerability and risk management of Agave species in the Tehuacán Valley, México

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our study analysed the vulnerability of the useful Agave species of the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico, considering ecological, cultural and economic aspects, and management types. We hypothesized that management intensity is proportional to the degree of risk of a species in order to decrease its vulnerability. Methods Distribution of Agave species was monitored in 36 types of plant associations. Ethnobotanical studies were conducted in 13 villages and six markets. The vulnerability of each species was calculated by assigning risk values to the variables analysed. The vulnerability and management intensity indexes were estimated through the scores of the first principal component of PCA. Variation of management data explained by ecological, cultural and economic information were analysed through canonical correspondence analyses (CCA). A linear regression analysis identified the relation between vulnerability and management intensity. Results We recorded presence of agave species in 20 of 36 vegetation types. Out of 34 Agave species, 28 were recorded to have one to 16 use types; 16 species are used as food, 13 for live fences, 13 for producing ‘pulque’, 11 for fibre and ornamental, 9 for construction. Seven species are used for preparing mescal, activity representing the highest risk. Seven Agave species are exclusively extracted from the wild and the others receive some management type. Incipient cultivation was identified in A. potatorum whose seedlings are grown in nurseries. Intensive cultivation through vegetative propagation occurs with domesticated species of wide distribution in Mexico. The highest management intensity values were recorded in widely distributed, cultivated and domesticated species, but the regionally native species more intensively managed were those with higher demand and economic value, protected by collective regulations because of their scarcity. The regression analysis indicated significant relation (R2=0.677, P<0

  14. Stability of enterocin AS-48 in fruit and vegetable juices.

    PubMed

    Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976.

  15. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in...

  16. Storage Test on Apple Juice After Ultrasound Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Novelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice. PMID:27800306

  17. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  18. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  19. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  20. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  1. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  2. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  3. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-23

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  4. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  5. Biochemical changes induced by Campylobacter pylori in the gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Andreica, V; Suciu, A; Dumitraşcu, D; Drăghici, A; Pascu, O; Suciu, M; Ban, A

    1990-01-01

    The biochemical changes induced in the gastric juice by the presence of Campylobacter pylori (CP) were followed up in 151 patients with various gastric and duodenal diseases. The diagnosis of CP infection was made by the urease test. In the presence of CP urea decreased in the gastric juice and ammonia increased. The sialic acid, fucose and hexoses, glucide components of the mucus glycoproteins dissolved in the gastric juice, underwent no change in the presence of CP. The hexosamines in the gastric mucus increased significantly in CP patients. Urease activity is present in the gastric juice even in the absence of CP, probably due to other microorganisms present in the human stomach. This does not exclude the use of the urease test for the diagnosis of CP infection. However the test can only be used in the bioptically removed gastric mucosa samples, not in the gastric juice.

  6. Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria Siceraria) Juice Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Pravin M; Patel, Pinakin S

    2016-10-01

    We present the case of a young woman who presented to us with multiple episodes of vomiting, followed by hematemesis and abdominal pain after consuming bottle gourd juice. The patient was resuscitated and stabilized with fluids, proton pump inhibitors and antiemetics and discharged in stable condition. As a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, bottle gourd contains toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste and toxicity. There is no known antidote for this toxicity, and clinicians treat such patients symptomatically only.

  7. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.

  8. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana Perr. (sisal) on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

    PubMed

    Botura, Mariana B; dos Santos, Jener David G; da Silva, Gisele D; de Lima, Hélimar G; de Oliveira, João Victor A; de Almeida, Maria Angela O; Batatinha, Maria José M; Branco, Alexsandro

    2013-02-18

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts (AE), ethyl acetate extracts (EE), flavonoid fractions (FF) and saponin fractions (SF) obtained from sisal waste (Agave sisalana) against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. The activity of these extracts was evaluated by performing inhibition of egg hatch (EHA) and larval migration (LMI) assays. The EC(50) results of the EHA corresponded to 4.7, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL for EE, EA and FF, respectively. The SF fraction showed no ovicidal activity. The percent efficacies that were observed for the LMI were 50.3, 33.2 and 64.1% for the AE, EE and SF, respectively. The FF fraction did not show activity against the larvae. The analysis of the FF fraction indicates the presence of a homoisoflavonoid. This report suggests that the A. sisalana has activity in vitro against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. This effect is likely related to the presence of homoisoflavonoid and saponin compounds, which have different actions for specific stages of nematode development.

  9. Genetic differentiation in the Agave deserti (Agavaceae) complex of the Sonoran desert.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Quezada, A; González-Chauvet, R; Molina-Freaner, F; Eguiarte, L E

    2003-03-01

    The Agave deserti complex, comprising A. deserti, A. cerulata and A. subsimplex, represents a group of species and subspecies with a near allopatric distribution and clear differences in morphology. Genetic differentiation and taxonomic status with respect to spatial distribution of 14 populations of the complex were analyzed in an effort to understand the evolution and speciation process within the genus. Allelic frequencies, levels of genetic variation, expected heterozygosity (H(S)), proportion of polymorphic loci (P), and genetic differentiation (theta and Nei's genetic distance) were estimated using 41 putative RAPD loci. All three species show high levels of genetic variation (H(S)=0.12-0.29, P=63.4-95.1), and low genetic differentiation between populations and species (theta populations=0.14+/-0.02 (SE); G(st)=0.11+/-0.02). Accordingly, gene flow among populations was estimated as high by three different methods (N(m)=2.91-6.14). Nei's genetic distances between the three species were low compared to the values obtained from other Agavaceae, and there was no clear correlation with taxonomic divisions. In a UPGMA analysis, A. subsimplex and A. cerulata formed exclusive monospecific clusters, whereas the A. deserti populations appear in more than one cluster together with other species. The results were consistent with a pattern of genetic isolation by distance.

  10. The NMR studies on two new furostanol saponins from Agave sisalana leaves.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Fu, Jing; Yu, He-shui; Zhang, Jie; Kang, Li-ping; Ma, Bai-ping; Yan, Xian-zhong

    2006-12-01

    The detailed NMR studies and full assignments of the 1H and 13C spectral data for two new furostanol saponins isolated from Agave sisalana leaves are described. Their structures were established using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR techniques including 1H, 13C, 1H-1H COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and HSQC-TOCSY, and also FAB-MS spectrometry and chemical methods. The structures were established as (25S)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-22 xi-hydroxyfurost-12-one-3beta-yl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galacto- pyranoside (1) and (25S)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-22xi-hydroxyfurost-5-en-12-one-3beta-yl-O-alpha-L-rhamno- pyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2).

  11. Minor physiological response to elevated CO/sub 2/ by the CAM plant Agave vilmoriniana

    SciTech Connect

    Szarek, S.R.; Holthe, P.A.; Ting, I.P.

    1987-04-01

    One-year-old plants of the CAM leaf succulent Agave vilmoriniana Berger were grown outdoors at Riverside, California. Potted plants were acclimated to CO/sub 2/-enrichment (about 750 microliters per liter) by growth for 2 weeks in an open-top polyethylene chamber. Control plants were grown nearby where the ambient CO/sub 2/ concentration was about 370 microliters per liter. When the plants were well watered, CO/sub 2/-induced differences in stomatal conductances and CO/sub 2/ assimilation rates over the entire 24-hour period were not large. There was a large nocturnal acidification in both CO/sub 2/ treatments and insignificant differences in leaf chlorophyll content. Well watered plants maintained water potentials of -0.3 to -0.4 megapascals. When other plants were allowed to dry to water potentials of -1.2 to -1.7 megapascals, stomatal conductances and CO/sub 2/ uptake rates were reduced in magnitude, with the biggest difference in Phase IV photosynthesis. The minor nocturnal response to CO/sub 2/ by this species is interpreted to indicate saturated, or nearly saturated, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity at current atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations. CO/sub 2/-enhanced diurnal activity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity remains a possibility.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts and steroidal sapogenins of Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Peana, A T; Moretti, M D; Manconi, V; Desole, G; Pippia, P

    1997-06-01

    Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from Agave americana L (Agavaceae) collected in the north of Sardinia were characterized with regard to their steroidal sapogenin content. Extracts of A. americana and genins isolated from them were evaluated for anti-inflammatory properties by testing their effects on carrageenin-induced edema. The effect of orally administered genins on gastric mucous membranes was also assessed. Lyophilized extracts administered by the intraperitoneal route at doses equivalent to 200 and 300 mg/kg of fresh plant starting material, showed good anti-inflammatory activity. Doses of genins (total steroidal sapogenins, hecogenin and tigogenin) equivalent to the amount in the lyophilized extracts produced an antiedentatous effect which was much stronger and more efficacious than that obtained with an i.p. administration of 5 mg/kg of indomethacin or dexamethasone 21-phosphate at a dose equivalent to the molar content of hecogenin administered. At the doses used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, the genins did not have any harmful effect on the gastric mucous membranes. Lesions occurred when significantly higher doses of hecogenin were given, but gastric damage was still less than that caused by the drugs used for comparative purposes.

  13. Four new steroid constituents from the waste residue of fibre separation from Agave americana leaves.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren

    2004-06-01

    Three new steroidal saponins, named agamenosides H-J (1-3), and a new cholestane steroid agavegenin D (4) were isolated from the waste residue of fibre separation from Agave americana leaves, together with six known steroids. Structures of the new compounds 1-4 were deduced to be (22S,23S,24R,25S)-24-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,6alpha,23-triol 6-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), (22S,23S,24R,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol 24-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), (22S,23S,25R,26S)-23,26-epoxy-5alpha-furostane-3beta,22,26-triol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (22S,25S)-5alpha-cholestane-3beta,16beta,22,26-tetrol (4), respectively, by means of spectroscopic analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR data, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage.

  14. Phloem Transport of Fructans in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Species Agave deserti

    PubMed

    Wang; Nobel

    1998-02-01

    Four oligofructans (neokestose, 1-kestose, nystose, and an un-identified pentofructan) occurred in the vascular tissues and phloem sap of mature leaves of Agave deserti. Fructosyltransferases (responsible for fructan biosynthesis) also occurred in the vascular tissues. In contrast, oligofructans and fructosyltransferases were virtually absent from the chlorenchyma, suggesting that fructan biosynthesis was restricted to the vascular tissues. On a molar basis, these oligofructans accounted for 46% of the total soluble sugars in the vascular tissues (sucrose [Suc] for 26%) and for 19% in the phloem sap (fructose for 24% and Suc for 53%). The Suc concentration was 1.8 times higher in the cytosol of the chlorenchyma cells than in the phloem sap; the nystose concentration was 4.9 times higher and that of pentofructan was 3.2 times higher in the vascular tissues than in the phloem sap. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence that oligofructans are synthesized and transported in the phloem of higher plants. The polymer-trapping mechanism proposed for dicotyledonous C3 species may also be valid for oligofructan transport in monocotyledonous species, such as A. deserti, which may use a symplastic pathway for phloem loading of photosynthates in its mature leaves.

  15. Phloem Transport of Fructans in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Species Agave deserti1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Nobel, Park S.

    1998-01-01

    Four oligofructans (neokestose, 1-kestose, nystose, and an un-identified pentofructan) occurred in the vascular tissues and phloem sap of mature leaves of Agave deserti. Fructosyltransferases (responsible for fructan biosynthesis) also occurred in the vascular tissues. In contrast, oligofructans and fructosyltransferases were virtually absent from the chlorenchyma, suggesting that fructan biosynthesis was restricted to the vascular tissues. On a molar basis, these oligofructans accounted for 46% of the total soluble sugars in the vascular tissues (sucrose [Suc] for 26%) and for 19% in the phloem sap (fructose for 24% and Suc for 53%). The Suc concentration was 1.8 times higher in the cytosol of the chlorenchyma cells than in the phloem sap; the nystose concentration was 4.9 times higher and that of pentofructan was 3.2 times higher in the vascular tissues than in the phloem sap. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence that oligofructans are synthesized and transported in the phloem of higher plants. The polymer-trapping mechanism proposed for dicotyledonous C3 species may also be valid for oligofructan transport in monocotyledonous species, such as A. deserti, which may use a symplastic pathway for phloem loading of photosynthates in its mature leaves. PMID:9490769

  16. Tolerance to Cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae) Seeds and Seedlings from Sites Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Hurtado, Alejandra; Rangel-Méndez, René; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz) and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza) were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them. PMID:24453802

  17. Comparison of the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on recalcitrance of agave bagasse and switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pimienta, Jose A; Lopez-Ortega, Monica G; Varanasi, Patanjali; Stavila, Vitalie; Cheng, Gang; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulose represents a sustainable source of carbon for transformation into biofuels. Effective biomass to sugar conversion strategies are needed to lower processing cost without degradation of polysaccharides. Since ionic liquids (ILs) are excellent solvents for pretreatment/dissolution of biomass, IL pretreatment was carried out on agave bagasse (AGB-byproduct of tequila industry) and digestibility and sugar yield was compared with that obtained with switchgrass (SWG). The IL pretreatment was conducted using ([C2mim][OAc]) at 120 and 160 °C for 3h and 15% biomass loading. While pretreatment using [C2mim][OAc] was very effective in improving the digestibility of both feedstocks, IL pretreatment at 160 °C resulted in higher delignification for AGB (45.5%) than for SWG (38.4%) when compared to 120 °C (AGB-16.6%, SWG-8.2%), formation of a highly amorphous cellulose structure and a significant enhancement of enzyme kinetics. These results highlight the potential of AGB as a biofuel feedstock that can produce high sugar yields with IL pretreatment.

  18. Water Relations and Photosynthesis of a Desert CAM Plant, Agave deserti1

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1976-01-01

    The water relations and photosynthesis of Agave deserti Engelm., a plant exhibiting Crassulacean acid metabolism, were measured in the Colorado desert. Although no natural stomatal opening of A. deserti occurred in the summer of 1975, it could be induced by watering. The resistance for water vapor diffusion from a leaf (RWV) became less than 20 sec cm−1 when the soil water potential at 10 cm became greater than −3 bars, as would occur after a 7-mm rainfall. As a consequence of its shallow root system (mean depth of 8 cm), A. deserti responded rapidly to the infrequent rains, and the succulent nature of its leaves allowed stomatal opening to continue for up to 8 days after the soil became drier than the plant. When the leaf temperature at night was increased from 5 to 20 C, RWV increased 5-fold, emphasizing the importance of cool nighttime temperatures for gas exchange by this plant. Although most CO2 uptake occurred at night, a secondary light-dependent rise in CO2 influx generally occurred after dawn. The transpiration ratio (mass of water transpired/mass of CO2 fixed) had extremely low values of 18 for a winter day, and approximately 25 for an entire year. PMID:16659721

  19. Studies on the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira on schistosomiasis transmitting snails.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdalla M; Abdel-Gawad, Mahfouz M; El-Nahas, Hanan A; Osman, Nadia S

    2015-04-01

    In the search for new molluscicidal plants for controlling the snail vectors of schistosomiasis, laboratory evaluation was made to assess the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira plants against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Results indicated that both plants have promising molluscicidal activity as the LC90 of the dry powder of both plants was 120 ppm. Both plants showed marked cercaricidal and miracidicidal potencies against S. mansoni larvae. The LC90 of both plants (120 ppm) killed most B. alexandrina eggs within 24 h of exposure. The sub-lethal concentrations of both plants markedly suppressed the survival rate of B. alexandrina snails and the mortality increased with increasing the concentrations and the exposure period up to 10 successive weeks. The accumulative toxic effect of these concentrations was continuous during the recovery period. Also, the reproductive rates of exposed snails were greatly affected even through the recovery period. This depression in reproductive ability of snails was accompanied by histological damage in the hermaphrodite glands of exposed snails. Meanwhile, the growth of snails was estimated weekly and it showed great inhibition in exposed snails comparing with the control ones.

  20. Transcript, protein and metabolite temporal dynamics in the CAM plant Agave

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Paul E.; Yin, Hengfu; Borland, Anne M.; Weighill, Deborah; Lim, Sung Don; De Paoli, Henrique Cestari; Engle, Nancy; Jones, Piet C.; Agh, Ryan; Weston, David J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Tschaplinski, Timothy; Jacobson, Daniel; Cushman, John C.; Hettich, Robert L.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Yang, Xiaohan

    2016-11-21

    Already a proven mechanism for drought resilience, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized type of photosynthesis that maximizes water-use efficiency (WUE) via an inverse (compared to C3 and C4 photosynthesis-performing species) day/night pattern of stomatal closure/opening to shift CO2 uptake to the night, when evapotranspiration rates are low. A systems-level understanding of temporal molecular and metabolic controls is needed to define the cellular behavior that underpins CAM. Here, we report high-resolution temporal behaviors of transcript, protein and metabolite abundances across a CAM diel cycle and, where applicable, compare those observations to the well-established C3 model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. A mechanistic finding that emerged is that CAM operates with a diel redox poise that is shifted relative to that in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, we identified widespread rescheduled expression of genes associated with signal transduction mechanisms that regulate stomatal opening/closing. Controlled production and degradation of transcripts and proteins represents a timing mechanism by which to regulate cellular function, yet how this molecular timekeeping regulates CAM physiology remains unclear. In this paper, we provide new insights into complex post-transcriptional and -translational hierarchies that govern CAM in Agave. These data sets together provide a resource to inform efforts to engineer more water-use efficient CAM pathway traits into economically valuable C3 crops.

  1. Evaluation of agave bagasse recalcitrance using AFEX™, autohydrolysis, and ionic liquid pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pimienta, Jose A; Flores-Gómez, Carlos A; Ruiz, Héctor A; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A

    2016-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the response of agave bagasse (AGB) to pretreatment by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™), autohydrolysis (AH) and ionic liquid (IL) was performed using 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, wet chemistry, enzymatic saccharification and mass balances. It has been found that AFEX pretreatment preserved all carbohydrates in the biomass, whereas AH removed 62.4% of xylan and IL extracted 25% of lignin into wash streams. Syringyl and guaiacyl lignin ratio of untreated AGB was 4.3, whereas for the pretreated biomass the ratios were 4.2, 5.0 and 4.7 for AFEX, AH and IL, respectively. Using NMR spectra, the intensity of β-aryl ether units in aliphatic, anomeric, and aromatic regions decreased in all three pretreated samples when compared to untreated biomass. Yields of glucose plus xylose in the major hydrolysate stream were 42.5, 39.7 and 26.9kg per 100kg of untreated AGB for AFEX, IL and AH, respectively.

  2. Minor Physiological Response to Elevated CO2 by the CAM Plant Agave vilmoriniana1

    PubMed Central

    Szarek, Stan R.; Holthe, Peter A.; Ting, Irwin P.

    1987-01-01

    One-year-old plants of the CAM leaf succulent Agave vilmoriniana Berger were grown outdoors at Riverside, California. Potted plants were acclimated to CO2-enrichment (about 750 microliters per liter) by growth for 2 weeks in an open-top polyethylene chamber. Control plants were grown nearby where the ambient CO2 concentration was about 370 microliters per liter. When the plants were well watered, CO2-induced differences in stomatal conductances and CO2 assimilation rates over the entire 24-hour period were not large. There was a large nocturnal acidification in both CO2 treatments and insignificant differences in leaf chlorophyll content. Well watered plants maintained water potentials of −0.3 to −0.4 megapascals. When other plants were allowed to dry to water potentials of −1.2 to −1.7 megapascals, stomatal conductances and CO2 uptake rates were reduced in magnitude, with the biggest difference in Phase IV photosynthesis. The minor nocturnal response to CO2 by this species is interpreted to indicate saturated, or nearly saturated, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations. CO2-enhanced diurnal activity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity remains a possibility. PMID:16665367

  3. Physical properties and constraints of hydrothermal plumes on the Gakkel Ridge during AGAVE 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsor, P.; Liljebladh, B.; Edmonds, H. N.; Stranne, C.; Nakamura, K.; Reves-Sohn, R. A.; Tupper, G.; Upchurch, L.

    2007-12-01

    The unique hydrographic characteristics of the Arctic Ocean have important implications for the dynamical behavior of hydrothermal plumes. Some of the main issues include the weak density stratification of the deep bottom layer, topographical effects from a deep axial valley, and high-latitude tides. We address these issues using analytical and numerical models, and comparing the results to hydrographic water column plume data acquired during the Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) from July 1 to August 10, 2007. A total of 36 CTD casts were conducted from the icebreaker Oden at two main sites (85N 7E and 85N 85E), where different modes of hydrothermal circulation appear to generate different kinds of water column plumes. Several plume signals of varying thickness and rise height above the bottom were observed, which implies that several seafloor sources with distinct discharge characteristics were active during the surveys. We use our models to constrain the character of the seafloor sources, and discuss observational strategies for future field work aimed at locating and mapping hydrothermal sources in the deep Arctic.

  4. Methylglyoxal is associated with bacteriostatic activity of high fructose agave syrups.

    PubMed

    Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gomez Ojeda, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Magana, Armando Alcazar; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2014-12-15

    Three α-ketoaldehydes, potentially present in high fructose agave syrups (HFASs) as intermediates of the Maillard reaction, were determined. A previously reported HPLC-FLD procedure based on pre-column derivatisation with 4-methoxy-o-phenylenediamine was adopted, yielding the method quantification limits 0.11 mg/kg, 0.10mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg for glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGo) and diacetyl, respectively. The obtained results revealed high concentrations of methylglyoxal in HFASs (average 102 ± 91 mg/kg, range 15.6-315 mg/kg) as compared to commercial Mexican bee honeys or corn syrups. Hydrogen peroxide was generated in all HFASs upon dilution, yet to less extent than in bee honeys. HFASs presented bacteriostatic activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; catalase addition had minimum effect on the assay results in syrups with elevated MGo. Principal component analysis revealed direct association between growth inhibition and MGo. It is concluded that elevated concentration of MGo in HFASs is at least in part responsible for their non-peroxide bacteriostatic activity.

  5. Probiotic Properties of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Isolated from Aguamiel of Agave salmiana.

    PubMed

    Diana, Castro-Rodríguez; Humberto, Hernández-Sánchez; Jorge, Yáñez Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Four lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, were isolated from aguamiel the sap obtained from Agave salmiana from México and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The probiotic potential of these strains was evaluated and compared with a commercial probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum 299v) from human origin. All the strains survived the in vitro gastrointestinal simulation conditions: the stomach simulation (3 h, pH 2, 37 °C) and the intestinal simulation (4 h, bile salts 0.5%, 37 °C). All the strains showed a strong hydrophilic character with n-hexadecane and chloroform assays, and all the strains showed a mucin adhesion rate similar to that of L. plantarum 299v. The strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides exhibited similar antimicrobial activity against some pathogens in comparison with L. plantarum 299v. Some antibiotics inhibited the growth of the strains. L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides exhibited in vitro probiotic potential, and it could be better characterized through future in vivo tests.

  6. Tolerance to cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae) seeds and seedlings from sites contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Hurtado, Alejandra; Rangel-Méndez, René; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz) and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza) were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them.

  7. Heat flux estimates from the Gakkel Ridge 85E vent field from the AGAVE 2007 expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranne, C.; Winsor, P.; Sohn, R. A.; Liljebladh, B.

    2009-04-01

    During the Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) 2007, abundant hydrothermal venting was discovered on the Gakkel Ridge at 85E. Hydrothermal vents on the sea floor give rise to buoyant plumes which, when reaching neutral buoyancy, spreads horizontally over areas with length scales on the order of several kilometres and are therefore easily detected with a CTD rosette. The detected anomalies are consistent with the findings 6 years earlier during the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition (AMORE) 2001. The horizontal and vertical distribution of the anomalies is considered in order to establish the number of individual plumes detected. The objective of this paper is to estimate the minimum heat input required to reproduce the observed plumes, using a turbulent entrainment model. The model was run with a large number of combinations of boundary conditions (nozzle area, vertical velocity and temperature) in order to see which combinations that give rise to the observed plume characteristics (level of neutral buoyancy and temperature anomaly). For each individual plume, we estimate the minimum heat flux required to obtain the observed temperature anomaly. Adding the minimum heat flux from each vent together, the total heat flux for the vent field is estimated to be ~ 2 GW. The estimated value is comparable or larger than any other known vent field.

  8. Spectral analysis of bacanora (agave-derived liquor) by using FT-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan

    2016-04-01

    The industry of the agave-derived bacanora, in the northern Mexican state of Sonora, has been growing substantially in recent years. However, this higher demand still lies under the influences of a variety of social, legal, cultural, ecological and economic elements. The governmental institutions of the state have tried to encourage a sustainable development and certain levels of standardization in the production of bacanora by applying different economical and legal strategies. However, a large portion of this alcoholic beverage is still produced in a traditional and rudimentary fashion. Beyond the quality of the beverage, the lack of proper control, by using adequate instrumental methods, might represent a health risk, as in several cases traditional-distilled beverages can contain elevated levels of harmful materials. The present article describes the qualitative spectral analysis of samples of the traditional-produced distilled beverage bacanora in the range from 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 by using a Fourier Transform Raman spectrometer. This particular technique has not been previously explored for the analysis of bacanora, as in the case of other beverages, including tequila. The proposed instrumental arrangement for the spectral analysis has been built by combining conventional hardware parts (Michelson interferometer, photo-diodes, visible laser, etc.) and a set of self-developed evaluation algorithms. The resulting spectral information has been compared to those of pure samples of ethanol and to the spectra from different samples of the alcoholic beverage tequila. The proposed instrumental arrangement can be used the analysis of bacanora.

  9. Transcript, protein and metabolite temporal dynamics in the CAM plant Agave

    DOE PAGES

    Abraham, Paul E.; Yin, Hengfu; Borland, Anne M.; ...

    2016-11-21

    Already a proven mechanism for drought resilience, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized type of photosynthesis that maximizes water-use efficiency (WUE) via an inverse (compared to C3 and C4 photosynthesis-performing species) day/night pattern of stomatal closure/opening to shift CO2 uptake to the night, when evapotranspiration rates are low. A systems-level understanding of temporal molecular and metabolic controls is needed to define the cellular behavior that underpins CAM. Here, we report high-resolution temporal behaviors of transcript, protein and metabolite abundances across a CAM diel cycle and, where applicable, compare those observations to the well-established C3 model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Amore » mechanistic finding that emerged is that CAM operates with a diel redox poise that is shifted relative to that in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, we identified widespread rescheduled expression of genes associated with signal transduction mechanisms that regulate stomatal opening/closing. Controlled production and degradation of transcripts and proteins represents a timing mechanism by which to regulate cellular function, yet how this molecular timekeeping regulates CAM physiology remains unclear. In this paper, we provide new insights into complex post-transcriptional and -translational hierarchies that govern CAM in Agave. These data sets together provide a resource to inform efforts to engineer more water-use efficient CAM pathway traits into economically valuable C3 crops.« less

  10. Propagation mechanisms in Agave macroacantha (Agavaceae), a tropical arid-land succulent rosette.

    PubMed

    Arizaga, Santiago; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2002-04-01

    Agave macroacantha can sexually reproduce by seeds and propagate vegetatively by aerial bulbils and ground-level basal shoots and rhizomes. It forms compact patches apparently generated by the multiplication of ground-level offshoots. We experimentally evaluated the establishment and survival of bulbils and seedlings of A. macroacantha in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico, between 1991 and 1994 and studied comparatively the effectiveness of sexual reproduction against vegetative propagation.Seedlings showed low survival rates. Cohorts placed outside nurse plants died in less than 1 yr, while 1-10% of cohorts under nurse plants survived for more than 2 yr. Herbivores negatively affected seedling survival in non-nursed plots. In rainy years, survival rates increased. Bulbils showed higher survival rates than seedlings.The excavation of rosettes showed that most are derived from vegetative shoots, as indicated by remains of rhizomes in their base. Most rosettes had ground-level vegetative offspring totaling almost three shoots per rosette.In A. macroacantha, the establishment of seedlings and bulbils is a rare event that possibly only occurs under nurse plants in rainy years, while ground-level cloning is highly effective as a propagation mechanism. These results are consistent with the aggregated spatial pattern of the species.

  11. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  12. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  13. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  14. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  15. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  16. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  17. Effect of HLB on flavor of orange juice and perception of limonin and nomilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) on orange juice flavor is complex. On the one hand, fruit that are harvested from diseased trees, that are asymptomatic for the disease, produce juice that is not much different from normal juice. In some cases the asymptomatic HLB fruit juice was detected to be sli...

  18. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...”; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink); or (2) Include the amount of the named juice, declared in a 5- percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage, 10- to 15-percent...

  19. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...”; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink); or (2) Include the amount of the named juice, declared in a 5- percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage, 10- to 15-percent...

  20. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...”; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink); or (2) Include the amount of the named juice, declared in a 5- percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage, 10- to 15-percent...

  1. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...”; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink); or (2) Include the amount of the named juice, declared in a 5- percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage, 10- to 15-percent...

  2. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...”; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink); or (2) Include the amount of the named juice, declared in a 5- percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage, 10- to 15-percent...

  3. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  4. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  5. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  6. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  7. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  8. Development of flavor lexicon for fresh pressed and processed blueberry juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lexicon with thirty-two aroma/flavor, taste, and mouth feel attributes were developed for blueberry juice. Commercial frozen blueberries were thawed and hand pressed to make three juices (P1, P2 or P3), which were compared to four bottled juices (B1, B2, B3 or B4). Fresh pressed juices had signi...

  9. Radar sounder performances for ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquin, Y. P.; Kofman, W. W.; Heggy, E.; Hérique, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Jupiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) is the first Large-class mission chosen as part of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission will study Jovian icy moons Ganymede and Europa as potential habitats for life, addressing two key themes of Cosmic Vision namely the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life, and the Solar System interactions. The radar sounder instrument on this mission will have great potential to address specific science questions such as the presence of subsurface liquid water and ice shell geophysical structures. One major constraint for radar sounding is the roughness of the planetary surface. The work presented will focus on the characterization of Ganymede's surface topography to better understand its surface properties from a radar point of view. These results should help to put constraints on the design of JUICE's radar sounder. We use topographic data derived from the Voyager and Galileo missions images to try to characterize the surface structure and to quantify its geometry (in terms of slopes and RMS heights mainly). This study will help us evaluating the radar budget in a statistical approach. In addition, deterministic simulations of surface radar echoes conducted on synthetic surfaces -extrapolated from Digital Elevation Models- will be presented to better assess radar sounding performances.

  10. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ankur; Jaiswal, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is popularly known as lauki, ghia or dudhi in India. Its consumption is advocated by traditional medicine healers for controlling diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver diseases, weight loss and other diseases. However, in last few years there have been reports of suspected toxicity due to consumption of its juice leading to severe vomiting and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As emergency physicians we need to be aware of this very rare poisoning specially in India. METHODS: We present a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with multiple episodes of hematemesis and shock to the emergency department (ED) after consuming bottle gourd juice. The patient was resuscitated and stabilized with fluids, proton pump inhibitors and antiemetics and shifted to the intensive care unit (ICU) under the care of a gastroenterology team for urgent endoscopy and further management. RESULTS: The patient received intravenous fluids, antibiotics, antiemetics, and antacids and underwent upper gastroenterologic endoscopy during the hospitalization. She was discharged in a stable condition 4 days later. CONCLUSIONS: As a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, bottle gourd contains toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste and toxicity. There is no known antidote for this toxicity, and clinicians treat such patients symptomatically only. It is important to educate the public about the harmful effects of this potentially life-threatening toxicity. PMID:26693268

  11. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds.

  12. Lemon juice as a natural biocide for disinfecting drinking water.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, M; Teves, S A

    1994-12-01

    The natural biocidal activity of lemon juice was studied in order to explore its possible use as a disinfectant and inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae in drinking water for areas lacking water treatment plants. From January through July 1993, water samples of varying alkalinity and hardness were prepared artificially, and underground and surface water samples were obtained from a number of different rural and urban areas in Argentina's Buenos Aires Province. After measuring the latter samples' hardness and alkalinity, a range of concentrations of lemon juice and other acidifiers were added to each sample, and the resulting pH as well as the samples' ability to destroy V. cholerae were determined. The results show that lemon juice can actively prevent survival of V. cholerae but that such activity is reduced in markedly alkaline water. For example, treatment of underground drinking water, which is characterized as having the greatest degree of alkalinity in our area, will typically destroy V. cholerae if the alkalinity of the water is the equivalent of that produced by 200 mg CaCO3 per liter, if enough lemon juice is added to bring the lemon juice concentration to 2%, and if the lemon juice is allowed to act for 30 minutes. All this points up the need to determine the alkalinity of water from any local source to be treated in the process of assessing the minimum concentration of lemon juice required.

  13. Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Fickert, Peter; Lackner, Carolin; Schmerlaib, Jutta; Krisper, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2005-08-14

    NONI juice (Morinda citrifolia) is an increasingly popular wellness drink claimed to be beneficial for many illnesses. No overt toxicity has been reported to date. We present two cases of novel hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. Causality of liver injury by NONI juice was asses-sed. Routine laboratory tests and transjugular or percutaneous liver biopsy were performed. The first patient underwent successful liver transplantation while the second patient recovered spontaneously after cessation of NONI juice. A 29-year-old man with previous toxic hepatitis associated with small doses of paracetamol developed sub-acute hepatic failure following consumption of 1.5 L NONI juice over 3 wk necessitating urgent liver transplantation. A 62-year-old woman without evidence of previous liver disease developed an episode of self-limited acute hepatitis following consumption of 2 L NONI juice for over 3 mo. The most likely hepatotoxic components of Morinda citrifolia were anthraquinones. Physicians should be aware of potential hepatotoxicity of NONI juice.

  14. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bakul, G; Unni, V N; Seethaleksmy, N V; Mathew, A; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G; Rajesh, J; Jayaraj, P M; Kishore, D S; Jose, P P

    2013-07-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management.

  15. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Ilame, Susmit A; Satyavir, V Singh

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used.

  16. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    PubMed

    Landers, Timothy F; Dent, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (p<.001). While the parallel streak method is not intended as a quantitative estimate of antimicrobial properties, these results suggest that nitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  17. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    PubMed

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  18. Food-drug interactions: grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Camelia Harapu; Cuciureanu, Magdalena; Vlase, L; Cuciureanu, Rodica

    2011-01-01

    Food-drug interactions are increasingly recognized as important clinical events which may change significantly the bioavailability of oral administrated drugs. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) demonstrated multiple interactions with drugs leading to loss of the therapeutic effects or increased side-effects. GFJ decreases pre-systemic metabolism through a) competitive or mechanism-based inhibition of gut wall CYP3A4 isoenzymes and b) P-glycoprotein (P-gp), c) multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP2) or d) organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibition. Although, GFJ presents high amounts of flavonoids (e.g. naringin, naringenin), furanocoumarins (e.g. 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamottin) are the main chemicals involved in the pharmacokinetic interactions. As compounds of GFJ show additive or synergistic effects, all the major furanocoumarins are necessary for the maximal inhibitory effect. Also, related citrus fruits (sweeties, pummelo and sour orange) or various plants containing furanocoumarins may present pharmacological interactions, yet to be discovered.

  19. Distribution, abundance and traditional management of Agave potatorum in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico: bases for sustainable use of non-timber forest products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Agave species have been used for thousands of years in the Tehuacán Valley, but the current mescal production has great impact on populations of the most used species. Harvesting of A. potatorum takes place before sexual reproduction and the over-extraction put local populations at high risk. In the community of San Luis Atolotilán (SLA), mescal has been produced for one century but the growing mescal trade is leading to intensified agave extraction. Our study evaluated distribution and abundance of A. potatorum, extraction rates, management practices and economic importance for SLA households. The unbalanced relation between availability and extraction rates would be an indicator of risk requiring sustainable management strategies. Our case study aspires contributing to analyze general patterns for sustainable use for this and other forest products highly extracted. Methods We used bioclimatic modeling to project a map of potential distribution of the species, and ecological sampling to estimate the total availability of harvestable agaves within the territory of SLA. We used participant observation, surveys and semi-structured interviews with producers and households of SLA to document agave uses, technological and socio-economic aspects of mescal production, and to estimate extraction rates of agaves. Results Mescal production, medicine and fodder are the most important uses of A. potatorum. Its distribution area is nearly 608 ha where annually occur on average 7,296 harvestable plants, nearly 54 to 87% of them being harvested. Mescal production currently is a non-sustainable activity, requiring great changes in patterns of extraction and management adopting sustainable criteria. Local people started management planning to ensure the future availability of agaves, and the ecological information of this study has been helpful in constructing their decisions. Technical support for improving local experiences for managing populations’ recovering is

  20. Isozymatic variation and phylogenetic relationships between henequen (Agave fourcroydes) and its wild ancestor A. angustifolia (Agavaceae).

    PubMed

    Colunga-Garcíamarín, P; Coello-Coello, J; Eguiarte, L E; Piñero, D

    1999-01-01

    Isozymatic variation and phylogenetic relationships among extant henequén (Agave fourcroydes) germplasm and wild populations of its ancestor A. angustifolia in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico were analyzed. Analysis of three isozyme systems using starch gel electrophoresis indicated that while A. angustifolia populations have relatively high levels of variation, within each henequén cultivar all individuals were identical. This result corresponds to previous ethnobotanical and morphological analyses, which indicated severe loss of genetic variation of this domesticated plant as a consequence of the promotion by means of asexual propagation of only one cultivar since the middle of the last century. The three extant cultivars of henequén were distinct from each other. Two of them, Sac Ki (SK) and Yaax Ki (YK), could be matched within the progenitor, but Kitam Ki (KK) has a MDH electrophenotype not found in any of the plants growing inside the Yucatan Peninsula, but found in some A. angustifolia plants growing in the Mexican states of Oaxaca and Veracruz. A parsimony analysis of the morphological data indicated two lineages: that of SK and YK, cultivated cordage plants selected for stronger and longer fibers, whose sister group is the Tropical subdeciduous forest ecotype (SF), and that of all the other wild populations, which also included KK, the cultivated textile plants selected for finer fibers and nearly extinct in Yucatan. These results support the hypothesis of the yucatecan origin of SK and YK from the SF ecotype, as well as the hypothesis of a recent introduction of KK to the Yucatan Peninsula in a domestication trend that probably included also Chelem White (its cultivation being abandoned later).

  1. Optimization of Alkaline and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Agave Bagasse by Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Lara, Abimael I; Camberos-Flores, Jesus N; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A; Messina-Fernández, Sarah R; Saldaña-Duran, Claudia E; Jimenez-Ruiz, Edgar I; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M; Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA) and alkaline (AL) catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass, such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15%) since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification), which will be reflected in lower capital costs; however, this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables, such as catalyst loading, retention time, and solids loading, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial central composite design of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w) to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. Pretreated biomass was characterized by wet-chemistry techniques and selected samples were analyzed by calorimetric techniques, and scanning electron/confocal fluorescent microscopy. RSM was also used to optimize the pretreatment conditions for maximum TRS yield. The optimum conditions were determined for AL pretreatment: 1.87% NaOH concentration, 50.3 min and 13.1% solids loading, whereas DA pretreatment: 2.1% acid concentration, 33.8 min and 8.5% solids loading.

  2. Optimization of Alkaline and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Agave Bagasse by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ávila-Lara, Abimael I.; Camberos-Flores, Jesus N.; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A.; Messina-Fernández, Sarah R.; Saldaña-Duran, Claudia E.; Jimenez-Ruiz, Edgar I.; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M.; Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA) and alkaline (AL) catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass, such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15%) since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification), which will be reflected in lower capital costs; however, this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables, such as catalyst loading, retention time, and solids loading, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial central composite design of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w) to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. Pretreated biomass was characterized by wet-chemistry techniques and selected samples were analyzed by calorimetric techniques, and scanning electron/confocal fluorescent microscopy. RSM was also used to optimize the pretreatment conditions for maximum TRS yield. The optimum conditions were determined for AL pretreatment: 1.87% NaOH concentration, 50.3 min and 13.1% solids loading, whereas DA pretreatment: 2.1% acid concentration, 33.8 min and 8.5% solids loading. PMID:26442260

  3. Structural analysis of fructans from Agave americana grown in South Africa for spirit production.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Neil; Cescutti, Paola; Hearshaw, Meredith A; Ramsout, Ronica; Rizzo, Roberto; Timme, Elizabeth M

    2009-05-27

    Fructans isolated from Agave americana grown in South Africa are currently used for spirit production. Structural studies on water-soluble fructans were performed to facilitate the development of other applications including its use as a prebiotic. Acid hydrolysis followed by HPAEC-PAD analysis confirmed that the fructan was composed of glucose and fructose, and size analysis by HPAEC-PAD and size exclusion chromatography indicated that the saccharides have a DP range from 6 to 50. An average DP of 14 was estimated by (1)H NMR analysis. Linkage analysis and ESI-MS studies suggest that A. americana has a neofructan structure consisting of a central sucrose to which (2 → 1)- and (2 → 6)-linked β-D-Fruf chains are attached. The (2 → 1)-linked units extend from C-1 of Fru and C-6 of glucose, whereas the (2 → 6)-linked β-D-Fruf units are attached to C-6 of the central Fru. This structure accounts for the presence of equimolar amounts of 1,6-linked Glu and 1,2,6-linked Fru found in linkage analysis and the multiplicity of the NMR signals observed. Detailed ESI-MS studies were performed on fructan fractions: native, periodate oxidized/reduced, and permethylated oligomers. These derivatizations introduced mass differences between Glc and Fru following oxidation and between 1,2-, 1,6-, 2,6-, and 1,2,6-linked units after methylation. Thus, ESI-MS showed the presence of a single Glc per fructan chain and that it is predominantly internal, rather than terminal as found in inulin. These structural features were confirmed by the use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  4. Identification of the Temperature Induced Larvicidal Efficacy of Agave angustifolia against Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kajla, Mithilesh; Bhattacharya, Kurchi; Gupta, Kuldeep; Banerjee, Ujjwal; Kakani, Parik; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic insecticides are generally employed to control the mosquito population. However, their injudicious over usage and non-biodegradability are associated with many adverse effects on the environment and mosquitoes. The application of environment-friendly mosquitocidals might be an alternate to overcome these issues. In this study, we found that organic or aqueous extracts of Agave angustifolia leaves exhibited a strong larvicidal activity (LD50 28.27 μg/ml) against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles stephensi larvae within a short exposure of 12 h. The larvicidal activity of A. angustifolia is inherited and independent of the plants vegetative growth. Interestingly, the plant larvicidal activity was observed exclusively during the summer season (April–August, when outside temperature is between 30 and 50°C) and it was significantly reduced during winter season (December–February, when the outside temperature falls to ~4°C or lower). Thus, we hypothesized that the larvicidal components of A. angustifolia might be induced by the manipulation of environmental temperature and should be resistant to the hot conditions. We found that the larvicidal activity of A. angustifolia was induced when plants were maintained at 37°C in a semi-natural environment against the controls that were growing outside in cold weather. Pre-incubation of A. angustifolia extract at 100°C for 1 h killed 60% larvae in 12 h, which gradually increased to 100% mortality after 24 h. In addition, the dry powder formulation of A. angustifolia, also displayed a strong larvicidal activity after a long shelf life. Together, these findings revealed that A. angustifolia is an excellent source of temperature induced bioactive metabolites that may assist the preparedness for vector control programs competently. PMID:26793700

  5. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  6. Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

    2014-11-26

    Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ζ potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ζ potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability.

  7. Patulin production by Byssochlamys spp. in fruit juices.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, S L; Beuchat, L R; Worthington, R E

    1977-01-01

    Ten strains of Byssochlamys fulva and three strains of B. nivea were cultured in a laboratory medium and tested for their ability to produce patulin. Two strains of B. fulva and all three strains of B. nivea produced the mycotoxin. One strain of B. fulva produced patulin in 11 of 13 processed fruit juices, with greatest amounts being produced in blueberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry juices, whereas no patulin was detected in prune or tomato juices. Grown in Concord grape juice at 18, 25, 30, and 38 degrees C, this strain produced the highest patulin concentration at 18 degrees C after 25 days, whereas biomass production was greatest at 25 and 30 degrees C after 20 and 25 days. PMID:596876

  8. Helicobacter pylori does not release cysteamine into gastric juice.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, M B; Neithercut, W D; Gillen, D; McColl, K E

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori releases cysteamine into gastric juice as cysteamine is known to be ulcerogenic. METHODS: Samples of fasting gastric juice were collected from 22 individuals (four women); 10 subjects were H pylori negative. The presence of infection was confirmed by examination and culture of gastric biopsies. Cysteamine in gastric juice was measured by reversed phase gradient high performance liquid chromatography with a detection limit of 10 mumol/l. RESULTS: Cysteamine was not detected in any of the gastric juice samples or in extracts of cultured H pylori. CONCLUSIONS: If H pylori produces cysteamine then the amounts produced are insignificant and are unlikely to explain the association between H pylori infection and the development of duodenal ulcer disease. PMID:9389979

  9. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  10. Effect of sonication on eliminating of phorate in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xiaosong

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of phorate in apple juice by sonication was investigated in the present study. Results showed that sonication was effective in eliminating phorate in apple juice, and the ultrasonic power and sonication time significantly influenced the degradation of phorate (p<0.05). The degradation of phorate followed the first-order kinetics model well. Phorate-oxon and phorate sulfoxide were identified as the degradation products of phorate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, the toxicity of apple juice samples spiked with phorate was significantly reduced by sonication (p<0.05). The quality indexes of apple juice including pH, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble solids (TSS), and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose were not affected by sonication, and no visible difference in color was observed between the sonicated samples and the control.

  11. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  14. Specialization clines in the pollination systems of agaves (Agavaceae) and columnar cacti (Cactaceae): A phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Sosa, Vinicio J; Ojeda, Mario M; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2009-10-01

    The biogeography of plant-animal interactions is a novel topic on which many disciplines converge (e.g., reproductive biology, biogeography, and evolutionary biology). Narrative reviews have indicated that tropical columnar cacti and agaves have highly specialized pollination systems, while extratropical species have generalized systems. However, this dichotomy has never been quantitatively tested. We tested this hypothesis using traditional and phylogenetically informed meta-analysis. Three effect sizes were estimated from the literature: diurnal, nocturnal, and hand cross-pollination (an indicator of pollen limitation). Columnar cactus pollination systems ranged from purely bat-pollinated in the tropics to generalized pollination, with diurnal visitors as effective as nocturnal visitors in extratropical regions; even when phylogenetic relatedness among species is taken into account. Metaregressions identified a latitudinal increase in pollen limitation in columnar cacti, but this increase was not significant after correcting for phylogeny. The currently available data for agaves do not support any latitudinal trend. Nectar production of columnar cacti varied with latitude. Although this variation is positively correlated with pollination by diurnal visitors, it is influenced by phylogeny. The degree of specificity in the pollination systems of columnar cacti is heavily influenced by ecological factors and has a predictable geographic pattern.

  15. Ribosomal DNA sequence polymorphism and the delineation of two ascosporic yeast species: Metschnikowia agaves and Starmerella bombicola.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Marc-André; Wijayanayaka, Tishara M; Bundus, Joanna D; Wijayanayaka, Dilini N

    2011-06-01

    The relationship between mating success and sequence divergence in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)/5.8S-D1/D2 rDNA region was examined in isolates tentatively assigned to Metschnikowia agaves and Starmerella bombicola. Both species are haplontic and heterothallic, such that the formation of mature asci can be used as a measure of genetic compatibility. Parsimony haplotype network analysis and mating success confirmed that all known isolates of M. agaves are conspecific. The previously reported D1/D2 polymorphism of five substitutions was not corroborated; the maximum divergence observed between any two strains was three substitutions, four with ITS. Of 39 putative S. bombicola strains, 36 formed an ITS-D1/D2 haplotype network using the 95% criterion. Thirty-five strains could mate with one or more compatible partner. The excluded strains did not mate. Mature asci arose from crosses between individuals differing by as many as five, but not six or seven substitutions in the D1/D2 domain. All strains capable of mating formed mature asci with at least one partner and all network members could be linked to another member by three or fewer substitutions. These results support the use of sequence divergence as a criterion for species delineation, but caution against describing poorly sampled species solely on the basis of that criterion.

  16. Preparation and properties of self-reinforced cellulose composite films from Agave microfibrils using an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Obi; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Jun; Rajulu, A Varada

    2014-12-19

    The applications of natural fibers and their microfibrils are increasing rapidly due to their environment benefits, specific strength properties and renewability. In the present work, we successfully extracted cellulose microfibrils from Agave natural fibers by chemical method. The extracted microfibrils were characterized by chemical analysis. The cellulose microfibrils were found to dissolve in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) to larger extent along with little quantity of undissolved microfibrils. Using this solution, the self-reinforced regenerated cellulose composite films were prepared. The raw fiber, extracted cellulose microfibrils and regenerated cellulose composite films were characterized by FTIR, (13)C CP-MAS NMR, XRD, TGA and SEM techniques. The average tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break of the self-reinforced cellulose composite films were found to be 135 MPa, 8150 MPa and 3.2%, respectively. The high values of tensile strength and modulus were attributed to the self-reinforcement of Agave fibers in their generated matrix. These self-reinforced cellulose biodegradable composite films prepared from renewable source can find applications in packaging field.

  17. Pollination ecology of Agave macroacantha (Agavaceae) in a Mexican tropical desert. I. Floral biology and pollination mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arizaga, S; Ezcurra, E; Peters, E; de Arellano, F R; Vega, E

    2000-07-01

    In a study of sexual reproduction in long-lived semelparous plants, we observed Agave macroacantha in the tropical desert of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Mexico, describing duration of flowering, flower phenology, and nectar production patterns. We also performed two manipulative experiments evaluating (a) the seed production efficiency of different crossing systems (selfing, cross-pollination, apomixis, and control), and (b) the effect of different pollinators (diurnal exposure to pollinators, nocturnal exposure, exclusion, and control) on the seeds produced. Flowering occurred from early May to late July and had a mean duration of 29 days in the individual rosettes. The flowers were protandrous; anthesis occurred in the afternoon of the third day after floral opening, and the pistils matured in the afternoon of the fifth day. The stigmas remained receptive from dusk to the following morning. Pollination was mostly allogamous. Nectar was produced principally during the night, from the first stages of floral aperture until the stigmas wilted and flowering ceased. The flowers were visited during the day by hymenoptera, butterflies, and hummingbirds and during the night by bats and moths. Only the nocturnal visitors, however, were successful pollinators. Agave macroacantha is extremely dependent on nocturnal pollinators for its reproductive success.

  18. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations.

  19. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  20. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni

    2012-07-01

    Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.

  1. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  2. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt. PMID:28078255

  3. Juice and water intake in infancy and later beverage intake and adiposity: Could juice be a gateway drink?

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Long, Michael W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the tracking and significance of beverage consumption in infancy and childhood. Design and Methods Among 1163 children in Project Viva, we examined associations of fruit juice and water intake at 1 year (0 oz, 1–7 oz [small], 8–15 oz [medium], and ≥16 oz [large]) with juice and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and BMI z-score during early (median 3.1 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). Results In covariate adjusted models, juice intake at one year was associated with greater juice and sugar sweetened beverages intake during early and mid-childhood and also greater adiposity. Children who drank medium and large amounts of juice at 1 year had higher BMI z-scores during both early (Medium: β=0.16 [95%CI=0.01, 0.32]; Large: β=0.28 [95%CI=0.01, 0.56]) and mid-childhood (Medium: β=0.23 [95%CI=0.07, 0.39]; Large: β=0.36 [95%CI=0.08, 0.64]). After covariate adjustment, associations between water intake at 1 year and beverage intake and adiposity later in childhood were null. Conclusions Higher juice intake at 1 year was associated with higher juice intake, sugar sweetened beverage intake, and BMI z-score during early and mid-childhood. Assessing juice intake during infancy could provide clinicians important data regarding future unhealthy beverage habits and excess adiposity during childhood. PMID:25328160

  4. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P < 0.0001), and Isosource HN with fibre had higher flow rates than Novasource Renal (P = 0.01). We concluded that apple juice and cola have less tube clogging potential than orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  5. Failure of juice or juice extract from the noni plant (Morinda citrifolia) to protect rats against oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Berg, John T; Furusawa, Eiichi

    2007-02-01

    Noni juice possesses antioxidant activity and prevents superoxide-mediated tissue injury in laboratory animals. A polysaccharide-rich precipitate of noni juice (noni-ppt) also stimulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) in mice. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) stimulates TNF and IL-1 in rats and protects against superoxide-mediated oxygen toxicity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that noni juice, or noni-ppt, would protect rats against pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Rats were divided into four groups; one received noni-ppt to test for cytokine-induced protection; another received noni juice to test for antioxidant activity; a third received saline as hyperoxia control; a fourth received no treatment in air. Rats were then exposed to either hyperoxia (> 97% oxygen at sea level for 52 or 60 hours) or air and lung injury assessed. Rats receiving saline, noni-ppt or noni juice exhibited typical signs of oxygen toxicity with hemorrhagic lungs, large pleural effusions and increases in protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. They also developed heavy lungs with increases in wet/dry weight ratios, hematocrit values and ratios of effusion protein to plasma protein concentration. These results show that Noni juice and Noni-ppt do not prevent oxygen toxicity in rats when administered according to the protocols used in this study.

  6. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  7. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend.

  8. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  9. Apoptotic potential role of Agave palmeri and Tulbaghia violacea extracts in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mthembu, Nonkululeko N; Motadi, Lesetja Raymond

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cancer, a gynaecological malignant disorder, is a common cause of death in females in Sub-Saharan Africa, striking nearly half a million of lives each year worldwide. Currently, more than 50 % of all modern drugs in clinical use are of natural products, many of which have an ability to control cancer cells (Madhuri and Pandey, Curr Sci 96:779-783, 2009; Richter, Traditional medicines and traditional healers in South Africa, 2003). In South Africa, plants used to treat cancer are rare even though majority of our population continue to put their trust in traditional medicine. In this study we aimed to screen Agave palmeri (AG) and Tulbaghia violacea (TV) for potential role in inducing cell death in cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and ME-180, and in normal human fibroblast cell line KMST-6 cell lines. To achieve this, AG and TV crude extracts were utilized to screen for apoptosis induction, inhibition of cell proliferation followed by elucidation of the role of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, Rb, RBBP and Mdm2 genes in cervical cancer. In brief, plant leaves and roots were collected, crushed and methanolic extracts obtained. Different concentrations of the stock extracts were used to treat cancer cells and measure cell death using the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and flow cytometry. Western blot was applied to measure gene expression at protein level using RBBP6, p53, Mdm2, Rb, Bax, Bcl-2 and β-actin mouse monoclonal primary antibodies (IgG) and goat anti mouse coupled with horseradish peroxidase secondary antibody from Santa Cruz Biotechnology and real time-PCR was used for mRNA expression level. Plant extracts of AG and TV were time (24 h) and dose (50, 100, 150 μg/ml) dependent in their induction of cell death with an IC50 ~ 150 μg/ml. A further mixed respond by several genes was observed following treatment with the two plant extracts where RBBP6 was seen to be spliced in cancer cells while Bax was induced and Bcl-2 was

  10. Comparison of bioactive components in fresh, pressurized, pasteurized and sterilized pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Chattong, Utaiwan; Chunthanom, Pornprapa

    2012-06-01

    The biologically active constituents of pennywort juice were analyzed by HPLC. The juice extract contained the bioactive glycosides, including asiaticoside and madecassoside. Antioxidant properties of juices were determined in terms of ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, total polyphenol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. After processing, asiaticoside, madecassoside and β-carotene in the extracted juice were relatively stable with no significant losses occurring. Pressurization could significantly retain ascorbic acid, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity than those pasteurization or sterilization. For storage assessment, asiaticoside in the processed juices was relatively stable during 4 months storage. Losses of ascorbic acid in the pressurized juice during storage were greater than in pasteurized and sterilized juice. However, the total amount of ascorbic acid retained in pressurized juice was still higher than those thermal-treated products.

  11. New vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices treated by high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovská, Dana; Ouhrabková, Jarmila; Rysová, Jana; Laknerová, Ivana; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; Holasová, Marie; Winterová, Renata; Průchová, Jiřina; Strohalm, Jan; Houška, Milan; Landfeld, Aleš; Erban, Vladimír; Eichlerová, Eva; Němečková, Irena; Kejmarová, Marie; Bočková, Pavlína

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit-vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination with sweet whey. Nutritional and sensory evaluations were carried out using juices prepared in the laboratory. The total phenolic content, in addition to ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, was determined. The developed juices with high nutritional value should increase very low fruit and vegetable consumption in the Czech population. The prepared juices were high pressure pasteurized (410 MPa). This technique retains the desired levels of important nutritional substances, while being destructive to live microbial cell structure. The germination of spores is suppressed by low pH value.

  12. Physicochemical parameters that influence carotenoids bioaccessibility from a tomato juice.

    PubMed

    Degrou, Antoine; Georgé, Stéphane; Renard, Catherine M G C; Page, David

    2013-01-15

    In vitro digestion models have been developed to estimate carotenoid bioavailability but most do not consider that their diffusion from fruit matrix to the lipid phase of the bolus could be a limiting step. Therefore we designed a model in which tomato juice is mixed with oil or oil/water emulsions, and the carotenoids diffusing to oil are measured by spectrometry. Temperature, pH and tomato juice/peanut oil ratio were evaluated for their influence on carotenoid diffusion. When oil/tomato ratio was between 0.11 and 1, extraction of lycopene was limited by the saturation of the oil phase. With a large excess of oil, diffusion was also limited, as only 31 ± 1% of lycopene could be extracted from the juice. Diffusion did not vary significantly with pH but doubled when temperature rose from 10°C to 37°C. When the juice was mixed in an emulsion stabilised with bovine serum albumin or phospholipids the maximum extraction decreased to 14.5 ± 0.2% and 18.5 ± 1.5% respectively, indicating that in addition to the saturation of the oil phase at low oil/tomato ratio and in addition to intrinsic properties of the tomato juice in non-saturating conditions, lycopene diffusion was limited by the structure of the interface in emulsions.

  13. Effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Oyelami, O A; Olatunya, O S; Adeyemi, L A

    2011-10-01

    One hundred and twenty children with acute uncomplicated malaria who were managed at the children's outpatient department of the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa (a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria) were recruited into the study to determine the effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance. These children were randomized into treatment with World Health Organization recommended antimalarials (artemisinin combination therapy, ACT) either alone or with lime juice. Nine of them were lost to follow-up, four were in the group that were managed with ACT and lime, and five in the group that were managed on ACT alone. The average (SD) time to achieve >75% reduction in parasite load was significantly lower in patients on ACT and lime; 30.5 ± 2.4 h against 38.6 ± 3.3 h for those on ACT alone (p < 0.001). Also, while a significantly higher proportion of children on antimalarial drugs and lime juice achieved complete parasite clearance by 72 h of therapy (p = 0.007), ten (18.2%) patients without lime had early treatment failure (p = 0.003). There were no side effects with the use of lime juice. It may therefore be inferred, from this preliminary work, that lime juice when used with the appropriate antimalarial may enhance malaria parasite clearance especially in those with uncomplicated malaria.

  14. Evaluation of the ergogenic potential of noni juice.

    PubMed

    Ma, De-lu; West, Brett J; Su, Chen X; Gao, Jian-hua; Liu, Tin-zhong; Liu, Yu-Wen

    2007-11-01

    Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice is an increasingly popular health food with many reported benefits, such as antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Traditionally, noni fruit was used by Polynesians to combat fatigue. Also, clinical studies have revealed that noni juice consumption improves quality of life scores related to physical functioning and energy levels. To further evaluate the ergogenic (antifatigue and endurance promoting) potential of noni juice, aged mice were pretreated orally with increasing doses (10, 20 and 40 mL/kg body weight) of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) and then compared with young and aged controls in the forced swim test and rotarod test. The average times of all TNJ dose groups were significantly longer than the aged controls in both the swim test (36% to 45%) and the rotarod test (59% to 128%), and were similar to those of the young controls. This demonstrates not only an improvement in endurance but also in balance and flexibility. These results confirm the reported use of noni juice to combat fatigue, improve endurance and increase overall physical performance.

  15. Assessment of goods and valuation of ecosystem services (AGAVES) San Pedro River Basin, United States and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semmens, Darius; Kepner, William; Goodrich, David

    2010-01-01

    A consortium of federal, academic, and nongovernment organization (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of ecosystem services research is that human condition is intrinsically linked to the environment. Human health and well-being (including economic prosperity) depend on important supporting, regulating, provisioning, and cultural services that we derive from our surrounding ecosystems. The AGAVES project is intended as a demonstration study for incorporating ecosystem services information into resource management policy and decisionmaking. Accordingly, a nested, multiscale project design has been adopted to address a range of stakeholder information requirements. This design will further facilitate an evaluation of how well methods developed in this project can be transferred to other areas.

  16. Analysis of the main components of the aguamiel produced by the maguey-pulquero (Agave mapisaga) throughout the harvest period.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Pourcelly, Gérald; Doco, Thierry; Williams, Pascale; Dornier, Manuel; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2008-05-28

    The main characteristics of the aguamiel (maguey-pulquero sap) during the harvest period of the Agave mapisaga plants were assessed to establish its stability through time and the industrial potential of its components. Only minor differences in aguamiel composition were detected among samples collected at different time points of the harvest period. The aguamiel analyzed contained 11.5 wt % of dry matter, which was composed mainly of sugars (75 wt %). Among these sugars, 10 wt % were fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are known to be important in the food industry for their prebiotic properties. Other components include 0.3 wt % of free amino acids (with most essential amino acids and four neurotransmitters: GABA, GLY, GLX, and ASX), 3 wt % of proteins, and 3 wt % of ashes.

  17. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%.

  18. Genetic and morphological contrasts between wild and anthropogenic populations of Agave parryi var. huachucensis in south-eastern Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Kathleen C.; Trapnell, Dorset W.; Hamrick, J. L.; Hodgson, Wendy C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims At least seven species of Agave, including A. parryi, were cultivated prehistorically in Arizona, serving as important sources of food and fibre. Many relict populations from ancient cultivation remain in the modern landscape, offering a unique opportunity to study pre-Columbian plant manipulation practices. This study examined genetic and morphological variation in six A. p. var. huachucensis populations of unknown origin to compare them with previous work on A. parryi populations of known origin, to infer their cultivation history and to determine whether artificial selection is evident in populations potentially managed by early agriculturalists. Methods Six A. p. var. huachucensis and 17 A. parryi populations were sampled, and morphometric, allozyme and microsatellite data were used to compare morphology and genetic structure in purportedly anthropogenic and wild populations, as well as in the two taxa. Analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering were performed to partition variation associated with taxonomic identity and hypothesized evolutionary history, to highlight patterns of similarity among populations and to identify potential wild sources for the planting stock. Key Results A p. var. huachucensis and A. parryi populations differed significantly both morphologically and genetically. Like A. parryi, wild A. p. var. huachucensis populations were more genetically diverse than the inferred anthropogenic populations, with greater expected heterozygosity, percentage of polymorphic loci and number of alleles. Inferred anthropogenic populations exhibited many traits indicative of past active cultivation: greater morphological uniformity, fixed heterozygosity for several loci (non-existent in wild populations), fewer multilocus genotypes and strong differentiation among populations. Conclusions Where archaeological information is lacking, the genetic signature of many Agave populations in Arizona can be used to infer their

  19. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  20. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  1. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  2. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  3. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  4. 75 FR 60817 - Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China AGENCY: United States International Trade... concentrated apple juice from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted a... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China...

  5. Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-11-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and β-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake.

  6. The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohl, Arthur N.

    1985-01-01

    Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

  7. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard A. susp...

  8. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices.

  9. 75 FR 51978 - United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice AGENCY: Agricultural... Pineapple Juice are corrected to include text inadvertently omitted from Tables I and II. The corrections... of Pineapple Juice are located on the Internet at: http://www.regulations.go v or...

  10. Characterization of chemical, biological and antiproliferative properties of fermented black carrot juice,shalgam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shalgam juice is a dark red-colored and sour fermented beverage produced and consumed in Turkey. The main ingredient of shalgam juice is black carrot, which is rich in anthocyanins. In this study, commercially available shalgam juice was characterized by determining its chemical composition and anti...

  11. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  12. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY... order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ On April 13, 2012, the International Trade Commission..., 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012)...

  13. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29, 2012.\\1....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659...

  14. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration.

  15. 78 FR 48145 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Doc No: 2013-19067] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice... of the suspended investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would likely lead to continuation or... of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina...

  16. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children.

  17. Optimization of enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice: a statistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Nicemol; Sukumaran, R K; Prema, P

    2008-12-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish optimum conditions for enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice. Polygalacturonase obtained from Streptomyces lydicus had been purified to homogeneity and was used for the treatment. The independent variables were temperature (30-45 degrees C), enzyme concentration (0.5-1.5 U), and treatment time (30-90 min), whose effects on viscosity and clarity of the juice were evaluated using a Box-Behnken design. Significant regression models describing the changes of viscosity and clarity with respect to the independent variables were obtained, with the coefficient of determination, R (2) , greater than 0.8. Based on response surfaces and contour plots, the optimum conditions for clarifying sapodilla juice were enzyme concentration 1.15 U, incubation temperature 34 degrees C, and incubation time 70 min.

  18. Production of Insecticide Degradates in Juices: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Radford, Samantha A; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P Barry

    2016-06-08

    This study was designed to observe the production of degradates of two organophosphorus insecticides and one pyrethroid insecticide in beverages. Purified water, white grape juice, apple juice, and red grape juice were fortified with 500 ng/g malathion, chlorpyrifos, and permethrin, and aliquots were extracted for malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) several times over a 15 day period of being stored in the dark at 2.5 °C. Overall, first-order kinetics were observed for production of MDA, and statistically significant production of TCPy was also observed. Statistically significant production of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was not observed. Results indicate that insecticides degrade in food and beverages, and this degradation may lead to preexisting insecticide metabolites in the beverages. Therefore, it is suggested that caution should be exercised when using urinary insecticide metabolites to assess exposure and risk.

  19. Reducing Childhood Obesity by Eliminating 100% Fruit Juice

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Melvin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture’s Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

  20. Interaction of grapefruit juice and calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2006-07-01

    Drug-drug interactions are commonly recognized occurrences in the hypertensive population. Drug-nutrient interactions, however, are less well appreciated. The grapefruit juice-calcium channel blocker interaction is one that has been known since 1989. The basis for this interaction has been diligently explored and appears to relate to both flavanoid and nonflavanoid components of grapefruit juice interfering with enterocyte CYP3A4 activity. In the process, presystemic clearance of susceptible drugs decreases and bioavailability increases. A number of calcium channel blockers are prone to this interaction, with the most prominent interaction occurring with felodipine. The calcium channel blocker and grapefruit juice interaction should be incorporated into the knowledge base of rational therapeutics for the prescribing physician.

  1. The Submillimetre Wave Instrument on JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartogh, P.; Barabash, S.; Beaudin, G.; Börner, P.; Bockeleé-Morvan, D.; Boogaerts, W.; Cavalié, T.; Christensen, U. R.; Dannenberg, A.; Eriksson, P.; Fränz, M.; Fouchet, T.; Frisk, U.; Hocke, K.; Janssen, C.; Jarchow, C.; Kasai, Y.; Kikuchi, K.; Krieg, J.-M.; Krupp, N.; Kuroda, T.; Lellouch, E.; Loose, A.; Maestrini, A.; Manabe, T.; Medvedev, A. S.; Mendrok, J.; Miettinen, E. P.; Moreno, R.; Murk, A.; Murtagh, D.; Nishibori, T.; Rengel, M.; Rezac, L.; Sagawa, H.; Steinmetz, E.; Thomas, B.; Urban, J.; Wicht, J.

    2013-09-01

    The Submillimetre Wave Instrument (SWI) is part of the JUICE (Jupiter ICy moon Explorer) payload. SWI's primary scientific objectives are the investigation of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter and the atmospheres and exospheres of the Galilean satellites. SWI will contribute to the understanding of the circulation regime in the atmosphere of Jupiter as a function of latitude and altitude, how the various atmospheric regions are dynamically coupled, and how the energy originating in Jupiter's interior vertically propagates to the upper layers to be radiated in space. In this sense SWI complements the Juno mission. Furthermore SWI will determine important isotopic radios, monitor and trace known gases and search for new molecules. SWI will - for the first time - investigate the density, structure and distribution of the water atmospheres of Ganymede, Callisto and Europa from ground up to a few hundred km, determine its isotopic composition and general circulation. Io's volcanic atmosphere will be studied through lines of SO2, SO, NaCl, and perhaps other species.. The secondary scientific objectives concerns the determination of thermophysical properties of the Galilean satellite surfaces by radiometric observations. In the proposed configuration SWI will operate in two submm wave bands around 600 GHz and 1200 GHz. Basline however at the present time are two 600 GHz receivers. Both receivers will be tunable within a bandwidth of approximately 20 % around the centre frequency. The antenna has a diameter of 30 cm and will be movable in two dimensions. Two high resolution Chirp Transform Spectrometers with 1 GHz bandwidth and two 5 GHz wide low resolution autocorrelator spectrometer are used for determining the spectral line shapes and for line surveys. The observations geometry includes limb and nadir sounding. The total mass of the instrument is aimed at below 10 kg and the power consumption below 50 W.

  2. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    PubMed Central

    Touhami, Mohammed; Laroubi, Amine; Elhabazi, Khadija; Loubna, Farouk; Zrara, Ibtissam; Eljahiri, Younes; Oussama, Abdelkhalek; Grases, Félix; Chait, Abderrahman

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG) and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC) for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight). Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis. PMID:17919315

  3. Isolation, characterization, and localization of AgaSGNH cDNA: a new SGNH-motif plant hydrolase specific to Agave americana L. leaf epidermis.

    PubMed

    Reina, José J; Guerrero, Consuelo; Heredia, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    GDSL and SGNH hydrolases are lipases involved in a wide range of functions, behaving in many cases as bifunctional enzymes. In this work, the isolation and characterization of AgaSGNH, a cDNA encoding a member of the SGNH-hydrolase superfamily from young leaf epidermis of the monocot Agave americana L., is reported. The protein possesses a typical signal peptide at its N-terminus that allows its secretion to the epidermis cell wall, as verified by immunolocalization experiments. In addition, the AgaSGNH sequence contains a His-Leu-Gly-Ala-Glu (HLGAE) motif which is similar to that observed in other plant acyltransferases. Expression levels by northern blot and in situ localization of the corresponding mRNA, as well as the immunolocalization of the protein in Agave young leaves indicate that the protein is specifically present in the epidermal cells. The detailed study performed in different parts of the Agave leaf confirms two aspects: first, the expression of AgaSGNH is limited to the epidermis, and second, the maximum mRNA levels are found in the epidermis of the youngest zones of the leaf which are especially active in cutin biosynthesis. These levels dramatically decrease in the oldest zone of the leaf, where the presence of AgaSGNH mRNA is undetectable, and the biosynthesis of different cuticle components is severely reduced. These data could be compatible with the hypothesis that AgaSGNH could carry out both the hydrolysis and the transfer, from an activated acyl-CoA to a crescent cutin in Agave americana leaves and, therefore, be involved in the still unknown mechanism of plant cutin biosynthesis.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Heavy Metal-Resistant Cupriavidus alkaliphilus ASC-732T, Isolated from Agave Rhizosphere in the Northeast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rojas, Fernando Uriel; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Shapiro, Nicole; Ibarra, J Antonio; Estrada-de Los Santos, Paulina

    2016-09-22

    Cupriavidus alkaliphilus ASC-732(T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of agave plant growing in alkaline soils in San Carlos, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The species is able to grow in the presence of arsenic, zinc, and copper. The genome sequence of strain ASC-732(T) is 6,125,055 bp with 5,586 genes and an average G+C content of 67.81%.

  5. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    PubMed

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Heavy Metal-Resistant Cupriavidus alkaliphilus ASC-732T, Isolated from Agave Rhizosphere in the Northeast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rojas, Fernando Uriel; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Shapiro, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Cupriavidus alkaliphilus ASC-732T was isolated from the rhizosphere of agave plant growing in alkaline soils in San Carlos, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The species is able to grow in the presence of arsenic, zinc, and copper. The genome sequence of strain ASC-732T is 6,125,055 bp with 5,586 genes and an average G+C content of 67.81%. PMID:27660789

  7. Flavonoid glycosides in bergamot juice (Citrus bergamia Risso).

    PubMed

    Gattuso, Giuseppe; Caristi, Corrado; Gargiulli, Claudia; Bellocco, Ersilia; Toscano, Giovanni; Leuzzi, Ugo

    2006-05-31

    A comprehensive profile of flavonoids in bergamot juice was obtained by a single DAD-ESI-LC-MS-MS course. Eight flavonoids were found for the first time, five of these are C-glucosides (lucenin-2, stellarin-2, isovitexin, scoparin, and orientin 4'-methyl ether), and three are O-glycosides (rhoifolin 4'-O-glucoside, chrysoeriol 7-O-neohesperidoside-4'-O-glucoside, and chrysoeriol 7-O-neohesperidoside). A method is proposed to differentiate chrysoeriol and diosmetin derivatives, which are often indistinguishable by LC-MS-MS. In-depth knowledge of the flavonoid content is the starting point for bergamot juice exploitation in food industry applications.

  8. Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

  9. Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

    2013-10-01

    Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice.

  10. [Two cases of toxic hepatitis caused by arrowroot juice].

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Young; Yim, Hyung Joon; Ahn, Jae Hong; Kim, Jeong Han; Kim, Jin Nam; Yoon, Ik; Kim, Dong Il; Lee, Hong Sik; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Jai Hyun

    2009-12-01

    Herbal remedies and health foods are widely used, and their side effects have been reported. We describe two cases of symptomatic toxic hepatitis that developed in middle-aged women after ingesting arrowroot juice. The clinical manifestations were nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. The diagnosis of toxic hepatitis was made using the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method score on the basis of the patient's history and laboratory data. After supportive care, the patients showed rapid improvements of clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and liver stiffness. Clinicians should be aware that the consumption of arrowroot juice can cause toxic hepatitis.

  11. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent.

  12. Strategy for biotechnological process design applied to the enzymatic hydrolysis of agave fructo-oligosaccharides to obtain fructose-rich syrups.

    PubMed

    García-Aguirre, Mauricio; Sáenz-Alvaro, Victor A; Rodríguez-Soto, Mayra A; Vicente-Magueyal, Francisco J; Botello-Alvarez, Enrique; Jimenez-Islas, Hugo; Cárdenas-Manríquez, Marcela; Rico-Martínez, Ramiro; Navarrete-Bolaños, Jose L

    2009-11-11

    A strategy to optimize biotechnological process design is illustrated for the production of fructose-rich syrups via enzymatic hydrolysis of agave fructo-oligosaccharides. The optimization process includes ecological studies from natural fermentations leading to the selection of a strain with capacity for inulinase synthesis, and variable optimization for the synthesis, and enzymatic hydrolysis using the response surface methodology. The results lead to the selection of Kluyveromyces marxianus , endogenous strains isolated from aguamiel (natural fermented sugary sap from agave plants), as the main strain with high capacity for enzyme synthesis with inulinase activity. Production optimization at bioreactor level revealed that operation at 30.6 degrees C, 152 rpm, 1.3 VVM of aeration, and pH 6.3 leads to maximum inulinase synthesis, whereas 31 degrees C, 50 rpm, and pH 6.2 leads to maximum hydrolysis of agave fructo-oligosaccharides. HPLC analysis of the fructose-rich syrups obtained at these optimal conditions showed an average composition of 95% of fructose and 5% of glucose and the absence of sucrose. The analysis also revealed that the syrups are free of residues and toxic compounds, an undesirable occurrence often present when traditional methods based on thermal or acid hydrolysis are applied for their obtainment. Therefore, the product may be suitable for use as additive in many applications in the food and beverage industries.

  13. Carbon isotopes from fossil packrat pellets and elevational movements of Utah agave plants reveal the Younger Dryas cold period in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Arundel, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon isotopes in rodent fecal pellets were measured on packrat (Neotoma spp.) middens from the Grand Canyon, Arizona. The pellet samples reflect the abundance of cold-intolerant C4 and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant species relative to the predominant C3 vegetation in the packrat diet. The temporal sequence of isotopic results suggests a temperature decline followed by a sharp increase corresponding to the B??lling/Aller??d-Younger Dryas - early Holocene sequence. This pattern was then tested using the past distribution of Utah agave (Agave utahensis). Spatial analyses of the range of this temperature-sensitive CAM species demonstrate that its upper elevational limit is controlled by winter minimum temperature. Applying this paleotemperature proxy to the past elevational limits of Utah agave suggests that minimum winter temperatures were ???8??C below modern values during the Last Glacial Maximum, 4.5-6.5 ??C below modern during the B??lling/Aller??d, and 7.5-8.7 ??C below modern during the early Younger Dryas. As the Younger Dryas terminated, temperatures warmed ???4 ??C between ca. 11.8 ka and 11.5 ka. These extreme fluctuations in winter minimum temperature have not been generally accepted for terrestrial paleoecological records from the arid southwestern United States, likely because of large statistical uncertainties of older radiocarbon results and reliance on proxies for summer temperatures, which were less affected. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  14. Carbon isotopes from fossil packrat pellets and elevational movements of Utah agave plants reveal the Younger Dryas cold period in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; Arundel, Samantha T.

    2005-09-01

    Carbon isotopes in rodent fecal pellets were measured on packrat (Neotoma spp.) middens from the Grand Canyon, Arizona. The pellet samples reflect the abundance of cold-intolerant C4 and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant species relative to the predominant C3 vegetation in the packrat diet. The temporal sequence of isotopic results suggests a temperature decline followed by a sharp increase corresponding to the Bølling/ Allerød Younger Dryas early Holocene sequence. This pattern was then tested using the past distribution of Utah agave (Agave utahensis). Spatial analyses of the range of this temperature-sensitive CAM species demonstrate that its upper elevational limit is controlled by winter minimum temperature. Applying this paleotemperature proxy to the past elevational limits of Utah agave suggests that minimum winter temperatures were ˜8 °C below modern values during the Last Glacial Maximum, 4.5 6.5 °C below modern during the Bølling/Allerød, and 7.5 8.7 °C below modern during the early Younger Dryas. As the Younger Dryas terminated, temperatures warmed ˜4 °C between ca. 11.8 ka and 11.5 ka. These extreme fluctuations in winter minimum temperature have not been generally accepted for terrestrial paleoecological records from the arid southwestern United States, likely because of large statistical uncertainties of older radiocarbon results and reliance on proxies for summer temperatures, which were less affected.

  15. How much sugar is hidden in drinks marketed to children? A survey of fruit juices, juice drinks and smoothies

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, Jane; Hashem, Kawther M; Jenner, Katharine H; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the amount of sugars in fruit juices, juice drinks and smoothies (FJJDS) marketed to children. Design We surveyed the sugars content (per 100 ml and standardised 200 ml portion) of all FJJDS sold by seven major UK supermarkets (supermarket own and branded products). Only products specifically marketed towards children were included. We excluded sports drinks, iced teas, sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks and cordials as being not specifically marketed towards children. Results We identified 203 fruit juices (n=21), juice drinks (n=158) and smoothies (n=24) marketed to children. Sugars content ranged from 0 to 16 g/100 ml. The mean sugars content was 7.0 g/100 ml, but among the 100% fruit juice category, it was 10.7 g/100 ml. Smoothies (13.0 g/100 ml) contained the highest amounts of sugars and juice drinks (5.6 g/100 ml) contained the lowest amount. 117 of the 203 FJJDS surveyed would receive a Food Standards Agency ‘red’ colour-coded label for sugars per standardised 200 ml serving. Only 63 FJJDS would receive a ‘green’ colour-coded label. 85 products contained at least 19 g of sugars—a child's entire maximum daily amount of sugars. 57 products contained sugar (sucrose), 65 contained non-caloric sweeteners and five contained both. Seven products contained glucose-fructose syrup. Conclusions The sugars content in FJJDS marketed to children in the UK is unacceptably high. Manufacturers must stop adding unnecessary sugars and calories to their FJJDS. PMID:27009146

  16. 75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of... the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate (``apple juice'') from the... Villanueva, Program Manager, New Shipper Review: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the...

  17. Effect of Extraction, Pasteurization and Cold Storage on Flavonoids and other Secondary Metabolites in Fresh Orange Juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have nutrients and phytonutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. To evaluate this, 'Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, r...

  18. Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

    2014-06-01

    The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice.

  19. Effect of processing of dates into date juice concentrate and appraisal of its quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S G; Vijayanand, P; Shubha, L

    2010-03-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widely cultivated in Kutch district of Gujarat and the fruits are harvested at immature stage before the onset of monsoon to prevent spoilage. The immature date fruits with less commercial value were used for processing into date juice concentrate. Immature dates were crushed and treated with 0.1% pectinase enzyme for 120 min to obtain maximum juice. Date juice was found to be rich in reducing sugars (16.1%) and total sugars (18.3%). Juice was pasteurized at 85°C to inactivate the enzyme, cooled and centrifuged at 3000 rpm to get clear juice. The juice was concentrated in a thin film evaporator to a total soluble solids (TSS) of 76°Brix in 2 passes. Chemical composition of date juice during different stages of concentration was determined. Date juice concentrate was packed in low density polyethylene bags of size (22 cm × 14 cm) and frozen in blast freezer at -40°C and stored at -20°C. Storage of date juice concentrate at -20°C for 6 months indicated no significant changes in TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars and pH. Hunter colour lightness L, and redness a values of date juice concentrate decreased whereas b values increased during storage. Date juice concentrate was stable during 6 months storage could be reconstituted for preparing ready-to-serve beverages with acceptable sensory quality.

  20. Mass spectrometric 13C/12C determinations to detect high fructose corn syrup in orange juice: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Doner, L W; Bills, D D; Carro, O; Drimmie, R; Fritz, P; Gearing, J N; Hillaire-Marcel, C; Parker, P L; Reeseman, F M; Smith, B N; Ziegler, H

    1982-05-01

    The 13C/12C ratios in orange juice are sufficiently uniform and different from those in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) so that the addition of HFCS to orange juice can be detected. HFCS averages -9.7% (parts per thousand) delta 13C, orange juice averages -24.5%, and mixtures of HFCS and orange juice possess intermediate values. One pure orange juice and 4 orange juice -HFCS mixtures containing from 25 to 70% orange juice were properly classified by 7 collaborators. Samples with delta 13C values less negative than -22.1%, 4 standard deviations from the mean of pure juices, can, with a high degree of confidence, be classified as adulterated. Samples with values more negative than -22.1% must be considered unadulterated with HFCS, because pure orange juices possess a range of delta 13C values. The 13C/12C mass spectrometric method was adopted official first action for detecting HFCS in orange juice.

  1. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers.

  2. Comparison of bioactive components in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices fortified with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-06-01

    In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.

  3. Impact of Frozen Storage on the Anthocyanin and Polyphenol Contents of American Elderberry Fruit Juice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mitch C; Thomas, Andrew L; Greenlief, C Michael

    2015-06-17

    The effects of frozen storage on the anthocyanin and polyphenol content of elderberry fruit juice are investigated. Juice from three genotypes of American elderberry (Adams II, Bob Gordon, and Wyldewood) was screened for total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents with spectrophotometric methods. The individual anthocyanin content (IAC) of the juice was tested by coupling solid phase extraction with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Juice samples were tested initially upon harvest and then again after 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage. Juice from the three different genotypes had significantly different TP, TMA, and IAC profiles initially (p < 0.05). The TP, TMA, and IAC contents of the juice from different genotypes were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the frozen storage time, suggesting that both genotype and length of frozen storage time can affect the anthocyanin content of elderberry fruit juice.

  4. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice.

  6. Leguminose green juice as an efficient nutrient for l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Donna; Schneider, Roland; Papendiek, Franka; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-20

    Lactic acid is one of the most important building blocks for the production of bioplastic. Many investigations have been conducted to reduce the lactic acid production costs. In this work, the focus was put on the application of legume pressed juice or green juice as nutrient source. The pressed juice was utilized directly without prior pre-treatment and sterilization. Using two different alfalfa green juices and a clover green juice from two different harvest years as sole nutrients, non-sterile fermentations were performed at 52°C and pH 6.0 with a thermotolerant strain Bacillus coagulans AT107. The results showed that alfalfa green juices generally were more suitable for high lactic acid production than clover green juices, presumably due to the higher nitrogen content. A final titer of 98.8g/L after 30h with l(+)-lactic acid purity of >99% was obtained.

  7. Comparison of dynamic viscoelastic and physicochemical properties of pressurised and pasteurised longan juices with xanthan addition.

    PubMed

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-10-15

    Physical and biochemical properties of pressurised and pasteurised longan juices with various xanthan additions, such as viscoelastic behaviour, colour L (lightness), -a(*) (greenness), b(*) (yellowness), ΔE (total different colours) and BI (Browning Index) parameters, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, total phenols and antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) were studied. Viscoelastic determination indicated that longan juice with 0.15% xanthan addition was optimal for a fruit drink. Colour parameters showed pressurised longan juice at 500 MPa was brighter and more transparent than fresh and other processed juices. PPO was completely inactivated in pasteurised juices, whereas in pressurised juices at 300 and 500 MPa, the activities were more than 100% and 95-99%, respectively. Bioactive components including ascorbic acid were significantly reduced according to treatment severities, whereas gallic and ellagic acids were relatively stable in all processed juices. Total phenols and DPPH radical-scavenging activity decreased significantly on pasteurisation, but were stable on pressurisation.

  8. Stability of the Ellagitannin Fraction and Antioxidant Capacity of Varietal Pomegranate Juices.

    PubMed

    Mena, Pedro; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    This work aimed to assess the effect of combining two pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars at different rates on the ellagitannin content, antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content of varietal pomegranate juices. Widely distinct juices made from Mollar de Elche and Wonderful cultivars were used for the elaboration of blended juices. They were stored for 70 days at both room and refrigeration temperatures. This study revealed a significant cultivar effect on the stability of main pomegranate ellagitannins (punicalagins, punicalins, punicalagin-like compound, and ellagic acid derivatives) and on the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS+ and DPPH* in vitro assays. Blended juices enhanced and/or retained the initial ellagitannin content and antioxidant capacity of pure juices during storage. Thus, blending varietal juices could be suggested as a promising alternative to the development of fresh juices with a high, stable phytochemical load.

  9. Characterization of Pectin from Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-(1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority o...

  10. Synephrine Content of Juice from Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. We determined the synephrine concentration in the juices of C. unshiu mandarins harvested fro...

  11. The Science Operations of the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altobelli, Nicolas; Cardesin, Alejandro; Costa, Marc; Frew, David; Lorente, Rosario; Vallat, Claire; Witasse, Olivier; Christian, Erd

    2016-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa.JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system.The Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase.We will present the current status of the SOC science planning activities with an overview of the tools and methods in place in this early phase of the mission.

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide process for pasteurization of fruit juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) nonthermal processing inactivates microorganisms in juices using non-toxic and non-reactive CO2. However, data is lacking on the inactivation of E. coli K12 and L. plantarum in apple cider using pilot plant scale SCCO2 equipment. For this study, pasteurized pres...

  13. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  14. A magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst for fruit juice clarification.

    PubMed

    Sojitra, Uttam V; Nadar, Shamraja S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2016-12-15

    The major complications in fruit juice quality improvement are the presence of polysaccharides components in the form of disrupted fruit cell wall and cell materials. Hence, breakdown of cellulose along with pectin and starch is important for the juice processing. In this context, magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst was prepared by simultaneously co-immobilizing three enzymes; α-amylase, pectinase and cellulase onto amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle by 60mM glutaraldehyde concentration with 10h cross-linking time for one pot juice clarification. The prepared nanobiocatalyst was characterized by FT-IR, SEM and XRD. The thermal (50-70°C) and pH (3-6) stability studies indicated more than two folds increment in half-life and enhanced tolerance to lower pH. The immobilized enzymes retained up to 75% of residual activity even after eight consecutive cycles of reuse. Finally, the clarification of apple, grapes and pineapple juices using magnetic tri-enzyme showed 41%, 46% and 53% respective reduction in turbidity till 150min treatment.

  15. Grape juice bait for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile chemicals produced by actively fermenting aqueous grape juice bait have been found to be highly attractive to Zaprionus indianus in field tests conducted in south Florida. This is a highly dynamic system, and studies were conducted to determine the effect of factors including time period o...

  16. Oxalate nephropathy due to 'juicing': case report and review.

    PubMed

    Getting, Jane E; Gregoire, James R; Phul, Ashley; Kasten, Mary J

    2013-09-01

    A patient presented with oxalate-induced acute renal failure that was attributable to consumption of oxalate-rich fruit and vegetable juices obtained from juicing. We describe the case and also review the clinical presentation of 65 patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from 1985 through 2010 with renal failure and biopsy-proven renal calcium oxalate crystals. The cause of renal oxalosis was identified for all patients: a single cause for 36 patients and at least 2 causes for 29 patients. Three patients, including our index patient, had presumed diet-induced oxalate nephropathy in the context of chronic kidney disease. Identification of calcium oxalate crystals in a kidney biopsy should prompt an evaluation for causes of renal oxalosis, including a detailed dietary history. Clinicians should be aware that an oxalate-rich diet may potentially precipitate acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Juicing followed by heavy consumption of oxalate-rich juices appears to be a potential cause of oxalate nephropathy and acute renal failure.

  17. Authenticity analysis of pear juice employing chromatographic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2014-12-03

    Pear juice is predominately composed of carbohydrates/polyols (>95% of the total soluble solids), making it susceptible to adulteration by the addition of less expensive commercial sweeteners. In this research, the major carbohydrate and polyol (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol) content of 32 pure pear juices representing five world producing regions and three years of production was determined. Additionally, methods employing oligosaccharide profiling to detect the debasing of these samples with four commercial sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, TIS, and HIS) were developed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Detection limits for the four commercial sweeteners ranged from 0.5 to 5.0% (v/v). In addition, the developed CGC-FID method could be used to (a) detect the addition of pear to apple juice via arbutin detection and (b) determine if a pear juice was produced using enzymatic liquefaction via the presence of O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucopyranose (cellobiose), all within a single chromatographic analysis.

  18. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  19. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

  20. Effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease on orange juice flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, Huanglongbing (HLB), also called greening or yellow dragon disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005. This is a serious disease of citrus that can kill the tree in 5-10 years. It has also been rumored that the disease causes off-flavor in the fruit and subsequent juice that has be...