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Sample records for agc concept main

  1. AGC-2 Disassembly Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2014-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite Research and Development (R&D) Program is currently measuring irradiated material properties for predicting the behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades available for use within the cores of new very high temperature reactor designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, consisting of six irradiation capsules, will generate irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. The AGC experiment is designed to determine the changes to specific material properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, elastic modulus, mechanical strength, irradiation induced dimensional change rate, and irradiation creep for a wide variety of nuclear grade graphite types over a range of high temperature, and moderate doses. A series of six capsules containing graphite test specimens will be used to expose graphite test samples to a dose range from 1 to 7 dpa at three different temperatures (600, 900, and 1200°C) as described in the Graphite Technology Development Plan. Since irradiation induced creep within graphite components is considered critical to determining the operational life of the graphite core, some of the samples will also be exposed to an applied load to determine the creep rate for each graphite type under both temperature and neutron flux. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). AGC-1 and AGC-2 will be irradiated in the south flux trap and AGC-3–AGC-6 will be irradiated in the east flux trap. The change in flux traps is due to NGNP irradiation priorities requiring the AGC experiment to be moved to accommodate Fuel irradiation experiments. After irradiation, all six AGC capsules will be cooled in the ATR Canal, sized for shipment, and shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) where the capsule will be disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). During disassembly, the metallic

  2. AGC-3 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes; David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the third Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-3) irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule is third in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The general design of AGC-3 test capsule is similar to the AGC-2 test capsule, material property tests were conducted on graphite specimens prior to loading into the AGC-3 irradiation assembly. However the 6 major nuclear graphite grades in AGC-2 were modified; two previous graphite grades (IG-430 and H-451) were eliminated and one was added (Mersen’s 2114 was added). Specimen testing from three graphite grades (PCEA, 2114, and NBG-17) was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and specimen testing for two grades (IG-110 and NBG-18) were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from May 2011 to July 2013. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-3 irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule design requires "matched pair" creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-3 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce "matched pairs" of graphite samples above and below the AGC-3 capsule elevation mid-point to

  3. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes; W. David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-08-01

    This report described the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the second Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-2) irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule is the second in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. Similar to the AGC-1 specimen pre-irradiation examination report, material property tests were conducted on specimens from 18 nuclear graphite types but on an increased number of specimens (512) prior to loading into the AGC-2 irradiation assembly. All AGC-2 specimen testing was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from October 2009 to August 2010. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-2 irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule design requires “matched pair” creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-2 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce “matched pairs” of graphite samples above and below the AGC-2 capsule elevation mid-point to provide specimens with similar neutron dose levels.

  4. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  5. AGC-1 Post Irradiation Examination Status

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank

    2011-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF), and examined at the INL Research Center (IRC) or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This is the first in a series of status reports on the progress of the AGC experiment. As the first capsule, AGC1 was irradiated from September 2009 to January 2011 to a maximum dose level of 6-7 dpa. The capsule was removed from ATR and transferred to the HFEF in April 2011 where the capsule was disassembled and test specimens extracted from the capsules. The first irradiated samples from AGC1 were shipped to the IRC in July 2011and initial post irradiation examination (PIE) activities were begun on the first 37 samples received. PIE activities continue for the remainder of the AGC1 specimen as they are received at the IRC.

  6. FY-2010 AGC-1 Disassembly Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Philip L. Winston

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluencies, and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor and preirradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed.

  7. AGC1/2, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carriers.

    PubMed

    Amoedo, N D; Punzi, G; Obre, E; Lacombe, D; De Grassi, A; Pierri, C L; Rossignol, R

    2016-10-01

    In this review we discuss the structure and functions of the aspartate/glutamate carriers (AGC1-aralar and AGC2-citrin). Those proteins supply the aspartate synthesized within mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol in exchange for glutamate and a proton. A structure of an AGC carrier is not available yet but comparative 3D models were proposed. Moreover, transport assays performed by using the recombinant AGC1 and AGC2, reconstituted into liposome vesicles, allowed to explore the kinetics of those carriers and to reveal their specific transport properties. AGCs participate to a wide range of cellular functions, as the control of mitochondrial respiration, calcium signaling and antioxydant defenses. AGC1 might also play peculiar tissue-specific functions, as it was found to participate to cell-to-cell metabolic symbiosis in the retina. On the other hand, AGC1 is involved in the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in neurons and AGC gene or protein alterations were discovered in rare human diseases. Accordingly, a mice model of AGC1 gene knock-out presented with growth delay and generalized tremor, with myelinisation defects. More recently, AGC was proposed to play a crucial role in tumor metabolism as observed from metabolomic studies showing that the asparate exported from the mitochondrion by AGC1 is employed in the regeneration of cytosolic glutathione. Therefore, given the central role of AGCs in cell metabolism and human pathology, drug screening are now being developed to identify pharmacological modulators of those carriers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  8. AGC-2 Irradiation Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence C. Hull

    2012-07-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment (AGC-2) began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 149A on April 12, 2011, and ended with ATR Cycle 151B on May 5, 2012. The purpose of this report is to qualify AGC-2 irradiation monitoring data following INL Management and Control Procedure 2691, Data Qualification. Data that are Qualified meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Data that do not meet the requirements are Failed. Some data may not quite meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. These data are labeled as Trend. No Trend data were identified for the AGC-2 experiment. All thermocouples functioned throughout the AGC-2 experiment. There was one instance where spurious signals or instrument power interruption resulted in a recorded temperature value being well outside physical reality. This value was identified and labeled as Failed data. All other temperature data are Qualified. All helium and argon gas flow data are within expected ranges. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during reactor shutdown. All gas flow data are Qualified. At the start of the experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line increased to 200 ppmv then declined to less than 10 ppmv over a period of 5 days. This increase in moisture coincides with the initial heating of the experiment and drying of the system. Moisture slightly exceeded 10 ppmv three other times during the experiment. While these moisture values exceed the 10 ppmv threshold value, the reported measurements are considered accurate and to reflect moisture conditions in the capsule. All moisture data are Qualified. Graphite creep specimens are subjected to one of three loads, 393 lbf

  9. Down-regulation of the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 1 AGC1 inhibits proliferation and N-acetylaspartate synthesis in Neuro2A cells.

    PubMed

    Profilo, Emanuela; Peña-Altamira, Luis Emiliano; Corricelli, Mariangela; Castegna, Alessandra; Danese, Alberto; Agrimi, Gennaro; Petralla, Sabrina; Giannuzzi, Giulia; Porcelli, Vito; Sbano, Luigi; Viscomi, Carlo; Massenzio, Francesca; Palmieri, Erika Mariana; Giorgi, Carlotta; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Virgili, Marco; Palmieri, Luigi; Zeviani, Massimo; Pinton, Paolo; Monti, Barbara; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Lasorsa, Francesco Massimo

    2017-02-21

    The mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 1 (AGC1) catalyzes a Ca(2+)-stimulated export of aspartate to the cytosol in exchange for glutamate, and is a key component of the malate-aspartate shuttle which transfers NADH reducing equivalents from the cytosol to mitochondria. By sustaining the complete glucose oxidation, AGC1 is thought to be important in providing energy for cells, in particular in the CNS and muscle where this protein is mainly expressed. Defects in the AGC1 gene cause AGC1 deficiency, an infantile encephalopathy with delayed myelination and reduced brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels, the precursor of myelin synthesis in the CNS. Here, we show that undifferentiated Neuro2A cells with down-regulated AGC1 display a significant proliferation deficit associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration, and are unable to synthesize NAA properly. In the presence of high glutamine oxidation, cells with reduced AGC1 restore cell proliferation, although oxidative stress increases and NAA synthesis deficit persists. Our data suggest that the cellular energetic deficit due to AGC1 impairment is associated with inappropriate aspartate levels to support neuronal proliferation when glutamine is not used as metabolic substrate, and we propose that delayed myelination in AGC1 deficiency patients could be attributable, at least in part, to neuronal loss combined with lack of NAA synthesis occurring during the nervous system development.

  10. Concept as the Main Research Object of Cognitive Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdikalyk, Kunimzhan Sadirkyzy; Abitzhanova, Zhanar Altynbekovna; Otarbekova, Zhamilya Kerimbaevna; Kaidarova, Gulyaim Kablakatovna; Seidullayeva, Gulzhan Abutalipovna

    2016-01-01

    This article dwells upon the basic unit of cognitive linguistics, which is a concept. Firstly, we provide an overview of major scientific works written by foreign linguists who pay attention to special aspects and lines of research. Secondly, we analyse conclusions on modern problems in linguistics that are drawn in cognitological studies…

  11. Experience with joint AGC regulation. [Automatic Generation Control

    SciTech Connect

    Prowse, D.C.H. ); Koskela, P. ); Grove, T.A. ); Larson, L.R. )

    1994-11-01

    Operating generators on Automatic Generation Control to follow load fluctuations has often been considered an unavoidable cost of doing business. However, several months of testing and more than two years of commercial operation have demonstrated that there can be significant benefits in transferring AGC regulation from three predominantly thermal-based utilities to a fourth predominantly hydro-based utility. This arrangement called Joint AGC Regulation successfully transfers high frequency regulation components for reduced fuel and maintenance costs and allows dynamic interchange scheduling to achieve flexible generation scheduling and improved economic dispatch. Successful implementation involved development of a Joint AGC Regulation control strategy and an evaluation of the tangible and intangible costs of providing AGC regulation.

  12. AGC-2 Graphite Pre-irradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  13. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  14. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Laurence C.

    2014-08-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear-grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC-3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. The report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data following MCP-2691. This report also documents whether AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data meet the requirements for data collection as specified in technical and functional requirements documents and quality assurance (QA) plans. Data handling is described showing how data are passed from the data collection experiment to the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) team. The data structure is described, including data batches, components, attributes, and response variables. The description of the approach to data qualification includes the steps taken to qualify the data and the specific tests used to verify that the data meet requirements. Finally, the current status of the data received by NDMAS from the AGC-3 experiment is presented with summarized information on test results and resolutions. This report addresses all of the irradiation monitoring data collected during the AGC-3 experiment.

  15. The nuts and bolts of AGC protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Laura R; Komander, David; Alessi, Dario R

    2010-01-01

    The AGC kinase subfamily of protein kinases contains 60 members, including PKA, PKG and PKC. The family comprises some intensely examined protein kinases (such as Akt, S6K, RSK, MSK, PDK1 and GRK) as well as many less well-studied enzymes (such as SGK, NDR, LATS, CRIK, SGK494, PRKX, PRKY and MAST). Research has shed new light onto the architecture and regulatory mechanisms of these kinases. In addition, AGC kinases mediate diverse and important cellular functions, and their mutation and/or dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer and diabetes.

  16. A Taiwanese Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA) for Quantification of Aphasic Oral Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Yeh, Chun-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various quantitative systems have been proposed to examine aphasic oral narratives in English. A clinical tool for assessing discourse produced by Cantonese-speaking persons with aphasia (PWA), namely Main Concept Analysis (MCA), was developed recently for quantifying the presence, accuracy and completeness of a narrative. Similar…

  17. The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia…

  18. An Assessment of Flap and Main Landing Gear Noise Abatement Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the acoustic performance of several noise reduction concepts for aircraft flaps and landing gear is presented. Consideration is given to the best performing concepts within the suite of technologies that were evaluated in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel using an 18 percent scale, semi-span, high-fidelity Gulfstream aircraft model as a test bed. Microphone array measurements were obtained with the model in a landing configuration (flap deflected 39 degrees and the main landing gear deployed or retracted). The effectiveness of each concept over the range of pitch angles, speeds, and directivity angles tested is presented. Comparison of the acoustic spectra, obtained from integration of the beamform maps between the untreated baseline and treated configurations, clearly demonstrates that the flap and gear concepts maintain noise reduction benefits over the entire range of the directivity angles tested.

  19. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    SciTech Connect

    Windes, William Enoch; Swank, W. David; Rohrbaugh, David T.; Cottle, David L.

    2015-08-01

    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  20. A flexible AGC algorithm for the Hellenic interconnected system

    SciTech Connect

    Vournas, C.D.; Dialynas, E.N.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Machias, A.V.; Souflis, J.L.; Papadias, B.C.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes a flexible AGC algorithm that has been developed for the Hellenic Interconnected system. The algorithm includes the three well known LFC types (flat frequency; flat tie-line; and tie-line bias), and introduces four operating modes that depend on the magnitude of the measured ACE. These modes are the steady state operating mode, the normal operation mode and two distinct emergency modes. The LFC stability margins are calculated for the case of slow-acting, flat frequency control. The effects of integral feedback are also considered and analyzed. An approximate economic dispatch algorithm is presented, that makes use of a predetermined table of the economic loading of units. Simulation results are reported that demonstrate a satisfactory operation of the developed AGC system. Finally, detailed transient stability program simulations demonstrate that a number of ACE measurements per measuring period are necessary to avoid dangerous false emergencies.

  1. AGC-1 Pre-Irradiation Data Report Status

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2011-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All samples in the experiment will be fully characterized before irradiation, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and then re-examined to determine the irradiation induced changes to key materials properties in the different graphite grades. The information generated during the AGC experiment will be utilized for NRC licensing of NGNP reactor designs, shared with international collaborators in the Generation IV Information Forum (GIF), and eventually utilized in ASME design code for graphite nuclear applications. This status report will describe the process the NGNP Graphite R&D program has developed to record the AGC1 pre-irradiation examination data.

  2. The Numerical Studies Program for the Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE) for Spacelab Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlis, W. W. (Editor); Davis, M. H. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric general circulation experiment (AGCE) numerical design for Spacelab flights was studied. A spherical baroclinic flow experiment which models the large scale circulations of the Earth's atmosphere was proposed. Gravity is simulated by a radial dielectric body force. The major objective of the AGCE is to study nonlinear baroclinic wave flows in spherical geometry. Numerical models must be developed which accurately predict the basic axisymmetric states and the stability of nonlinear baroclinic wave flows. A three dimensional, fully nonlinear, numerical model and the AGCE based on the complete set of equations is required. Progress in the AGCE numerical design studies program is reported.

  3. The Extremely Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxy AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John Joseph; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) sample, which consists of ultra-low HI mass galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast-Acting ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. SHIELD is a multi-configuration Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) study of the neutral gas content and dynamics of galaxies with HI masses in the range of 106-107 M⊙. Our spectral data were obtained using the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) on the Mayall 4-m telescope as part of a systematic study of the nebular abundances in the SHIELD galaxy sample. These observations enable measurement of the temperature sensitive [OIII]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a "direct" oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxy with an oxygen abundance comparable to such objects as I Zw 18, SBS 0335-052W, Leo P, and DDO 68 - the lowest metallicity star-forming systems known. It is worth noting that two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies currently recognized were discovered via the ALFALFA blind HI survey. These XMD galaxies are potential analogues to the first star-forming systems, which through hierarchical accretion processes built up the large galaxies we observe today in the local Universe. Detailed analysis of such XMD systems offers observational constraint to models of galactic evolution and star formation histories to allow a better understanding of the processes that govern the chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies.

  4. Myotonin protein-kinase [AGC]n trinucleotide repeat in seven nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, G.; Sineo, L.; Pontieri, E. ||

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is due to a genomic instability of a trinucleotide [AGC]n motif, located at the 3{prime} UTR region of a protein-kinase gene (myotonin protein kinase, MT-PK). The [AGC] repeat is meiotically and mitotically unstable, and it is directly related to the manifestations of the disorder. Although a gene dosage effect of the MT-PK has been demonstrated n DM muscle, the mechanism(s) by which the intragenic repeat expansion leads to disease is largely unknown. This non-standard mutational event could reflect an evolutionary mechanism widespread among animal genomes. We have isolated and sequenced the complete 3{prime}UTR region of the MT-PK gene in seven primates (macaque, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, gibbon, owl monkey, saimiri), and examined by comparative sequence nucleotide analysis the [AGC]n intragenic repeat and the surrounding nucleotides. The genomic organization, including the [AGC]n repeat structure, was conserved in all examined species, excluding the gibbon (Hylobates agilis), in which the [AGC]n upstream sequence (GGAA) is replaced by a GA dinucleotide. The number of [AGC]n in the examined species ranged between 7 (gorilla) and 13 repeats (owl monkeys), with a polymorphism informative content (PIC) similar to that observed in humans. These results indicate that the 3{prime}UTR [AGC] repeat within the MT-PK gene is evolutionarily conserved, supporting that this region has important regulatory functions.

  5. Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

  6. A Robust Distributed Multipoint Fiber Optic Gas Sensor System Based on AGC Amplifier Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Rende; Tao, Xuechen; Wang, Guangwei; Wang, Pengpeng

    2016-01-01

    A harsh environment-oriented distributed multipoint fiber optic gas sensor system realized by automatic gain control (AGC) technology is proposed. To improve the photoelectric signal reliability, the electronic variable gain can be modified in real time by an AGC closed-loop feedback structure to compensate for optical transmission loss which is caused by the fiber bend loss or other reasons. The deviation of the system based on AGC structure is below 4.02% when photoelectric signal decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is 20 times lower than the ordinary differential system. In addition, the AGC circuit with the same electric parameters can keep the baseline intensity of signals in different channels of the distributed multipoint sensor system at the same level. This avoids repetitive calibrations and streamlines the installation process. PMID:27483267

  7. Flexible Ag-C60 nano-biosensors based on surface plasmon coupled emission for clinical and forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Mulpur, Pradyumna; Yadavilli, Sairam; Mulpur, Praharsha; Kondiparthi, Neeharika; Sengupta, Bishwambhar; Rao, Apparao M; Podila, Ramakrishna; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2015-10-14

    The relatively low sensitivity of fluorescence detection schemes, which are mainly limited by the isotropic nature of fluorophore emission, can be overcome by utilizing surface plasmon coupled emission (SPCE). In this study, we demonstrate directional emission from fluorophores on flexible Ag-C60 SPCE sensor platforms for point-of-care sensing, in healthcare and forensic sensing scenarios, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than traditional fluorescence sensing schemes. Adopting the highly sensitive Ag-C60 SPCE platform based on glass and novel low-cost flexible substrates, we report the unambiguous detection of acid-fast Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacteria at densities as low as 20 Mtb mm(-2); from non-acid-fast bacteria (e.g., E. coli and S. aureus), and the specific on-site detection of acid-fast sperm cells in human semen samples. In combination with the directional emission and high-sensitivity of SPCE platforms, we also demonstrate the utility of smartphones that can replace expensive and cumbersome detectors to enable rapid hand-held detection of analytes in resource-limited settings; a much needed critical advance to biosensors, for developing countries.

  8. [Food allergies in early childhood. 1. General concepts, etiopathogenesis, and main clinical features].

    PubMed

    Vigi, V; Fanaro, S

    2000-04-01

    Abnormal immune reactions to food antigens are a rather common event during infancy. Adverse reactions to milk proteins occur in 2.5% of suckling infants. Both IgE and non IgE-mediated allergic mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of food allergy. IgE mediated allergic responses are the most dramatic and the most often diagnosed types. Non IgE mediated food allergy is usually more difficult to diagnose and its clinical course is more chronic. Food induced allergic reactions mediate a variety of symptoms, involving the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract and the skin. A limited number of foods are responsible for the vast majority of allergic reactions: cow milk proteins, egg, fish and peanuts are the main causes. The vast majority of infants with formula-protein intolerance will outgrow their symptoms by the third year of age. Eliminating the food allergens is the only means of dealing with the problem. In part I of this series, immunopathogenic mechanisms and clinical disorders are described.

  9. Reliability improvements of the Guri Hydroelectric Power Plant computer control system AGC and AVC

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, F.; Pescina, M. ); Llort, G. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the computer control system of a large hydroelectric powerplant and the reliability improvements made to the automatic generation control (AGC) and automatic voltage control (AVC) programs. hardware and software modifications were required to improve the interface between the powerplant and the regional load dispatch office. These modifications, and their impact on the AGC and AVC reliability, are also discussed. The changes that have been implemented are recommended for inclusion in new powerplant computer control systems, and as an upgrade feature for existing control systems.

  10. Data Report on Post-Irradiation Dimensional Change of AGC-1 Samples

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the initial dimensional changes for loaded and unloaded AGC-1 samples. The dimensional change for all samples is presented as a function of dose. The data is further presented by graphite type and applied load levels to illustrate the differences between graphite forming processes and stress levels within the graphite components. While the three different loads placed on the samples have been verified [ ref: Larry Hull’s report] verification of the AGC-1 sample temperatures and dose levels are expected in the summer of 2012. Only estimated dose and temperature values for the samples are presented in this report to allow a partial analysis of the results.

  11. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  12. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-30

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  13. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik

    2016-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 106-107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  14. SHIELD II: AGC 198507 - An Extremely Rare Low-Mass Galaxy Interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolina Borg Stevens, Karin; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Teich, Yaron; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. New HST imaging of one of these sample galaxies, AGC 198507, has revealed it to be a very rare interacting system; to our knowledge this is one of only a few known interactions in this extreme mass range. WSRT imaging indicates that the bulk of the HI is associated with the more luminous AGC 198507, while low surface brightness gas extends toward and coincides with the less luminous companion, which is separated by roughly 1.5 kpc from AGC 198507. Here we present new VLA B configuration HI imaging that allows us to localize the HI gas, to examine the rotational dynamics of AGC 198507, and to study the nature of star formation in this unique low-mass interacting system.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  15. Testing the promiscuity of commercial kinase inhibitors against the AGC kinase group using a split-luciferase screen.

    PubMed

    Jester, Benjamin W; Gaj, Alicia; Shomin, Carolyn D; Cox, Kurt J; Ghosh, Indraneel

    2012-02-23

    Using a newly developed competitive binding assay dependent upon the reassembly of a split reporter protein, we have tested the promiscuity of a panel of reported kinase inhibitors against the AGC group. Many non-AGC targeted kinase inhibitors target multiple members of the AGC group. In general, structurally similar inhibitors consistently exhibited activity toward the same target as well as toward closely related kinases. The inhibition data was analyzed to test the predictive value of either using identity scores derived from residues within 6 Å of the active site or identity scores derived from the entire kinase domain. The results suggest that the active site identity in certain cases may be a stronger predictor of inhibitor promiscuity. The overall results provide general guidelines for establishing inhibitor selectivity as well as for the future design of inhibitors that either target or avoid AGC kinases.

  16. Core-shell structured Ag@C for direct electrochemistry and hydrogen peroxide biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shuxian; Long, Yumei; Li, Weifeng; Tu, Yifeng; Deng, Anping

    2013-10-15

    Ag@C core-shell nano-composites have been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal method and are further explored for protein immobilization and bio-sensing. The electrochemical behavior of immobilized horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on Ag@C modified indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode and its application as H₂O₂ sensor are investigated. Electrochemical and UV-vis spectroscopic measurements demonstrated that Ag@C nano-composites provide excellent matrixes for the adsorption of HRP and the entrapped HRP retains its bioactivities. It is found that on the HRP-Ag@C/ITO electrode, HRP exhibited a fast electron transfer process and good electrocatalytic reduction toward H₂O₂. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responds to H₂O₂ concentration in the range of 5.0×10⁻⁷-1.4×10⁻⁴ M with a detection limit of 2.0×10⁻⁷ M (S/N=3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(app)(M)) of the biosensor is calculated to be 3.75×10⁻⁵ M, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward H₂O₂. In addition, the HRP-Ag@C/ITO bio-electrode shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. Thus, the core-shell structured Ag@C is an attractive material for application in the fabrication of biosensors due to its direct electrochemistry and functionalized surface for efficient immobilization of bio-molecules.

  17. Capacitive deionization of seawater effected by nano Ag and Ag@C on graphene.

    PubMed

    Cai, P-F; Su, C-J; Chang, W-T; Chang, F-C; Peng, C-Y; Sun, I-W; Wei, Y-L; Jou, C-J; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Drinking water shortage has become worse in recent decades. A new capacitive deionization (CDI) method for increasing water supplies through the effective desalination of seawater has been developed. Silver as nano Ag and Ag@C which was prepared by carbonization of the Ag(+)-β-cyclodextrin complex at 573 K for 30 min can add the antimicrobial function into the CDI process. The Ag@C and Ag nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Ag@C/rGO and nano Ag/rGO) were used as the CDI electrodes. The nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can reduce the charging resistant, and enhance the electrosorption capability. Better CDI efficiencies with the nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can therefore be obtained. When reversed the voltage, the electrodes can be recovered up to 90% within 5 min. This work presents the feasibility for the nano Ag and Ag@C on rGO electrodes applied in CDI process to produce drinking water from seawater or saline water.

  18. NV Energy Large-Scale Photovoltaic Integration Study: Intra-Hour Dispatch and AGC Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Meng, Da; Guo, Xinxin; Jin, Chunlian; Samaan, Nader A.

    2013-01-02

    The uncertainty and variability with photovoltaic (PV) generation make it very challenging to balance power system generation and load, especially under high penetration cases. Higher reserve requirements and more cycling of conventional generators are generally anticipated for large-scale PV integration. However, whether the existing generation fleet is flexible enough to handle the variations and how well the system can maintain its control performance are difficult to predict. The goal of this project is to develop a software program that can perform intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulation, by which the balancing operations of a system can be simulated to answer the questions posed above. The simulator, named Electric System Intra-Hour Operation Simulator (ESIOS), uses the NV Energy southern system as a study case, and models the system’s generator configurations, AGC functions, and operator actions to balance system generation and load. Actual dispatch of AGC generators and control performance under various PV penetration levels can be predicted by running ESIOS. With data about the load, generation, and generator characteristics, ESIOS can perform similar simulations and assess variable generation integration impacts for other systems as well. This report describes the design of the simulator and presents the study results showing the PV impacts on NV Energy real-time operations.

  19. Specific inhibition of AGC protein kinases by antibodies against C-terminal epitopes.

    PubMed

    Traincard, François; Giacomoni, Véronique; Veron, Michel

    2004-08-13

    The sequences contributing to the catalytic site of protein kinases are not all comprised within the highly conserved catalytic core. Thus, in mammalian cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), the C-terminal sequence participates in substrate binding. Using synthetic peptides mimicking the FxxF motif present at most C-termini of AGC kinases, we have raised highly specific antibodies which are potent and specific inhibitors of the catalytic activity of the cognate protein kinase. Taking into account the structure of PKA, these results point to the potential of the C-terminal region of protein kinases as a target for designing specific protein kinase inhibitors.

  20. Awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as bridge to recovery after left main coronary artery occlusion: a promising concept of haemodynamic support in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Alozie, Anthony; Kische, Stephan; Birken, Thomas; Kaminski, Alexander; Westphal, Bernd; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Ince, Hüseyin; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction is associated with high mortality rate. Different management concepts including fluid management, inotropic support, intra aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) mainly in mechanically ventilated patients have been used as cornerstones of management. However, success rates have been disappointing. Few reports suggested that ECMO when performed under circumvention of mechanical ventilation, may offer some survival benefits. We herein present our experience with the use of veno-arterial ECMO as bridge to recovery in an awake and spontaneously breathing patient after left main coronary artery occlusion complicated by cardiogenic shock.

  1. Testbed-based Performance Evaluation of Attack Resilient Control for AGC

    SciTech Connect

    Ashok, Aditya; Sridhar, Siddharth; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Wang, Pengyuan Wang; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2016-09-22

    The modern electric power grid is a complex cyber-physical system whose reliable operation is enabled by a wide-area monitoring and control infrastructure. This infrastructure, supported by an extensive communication backbone, enables several control applications functioning at multiple time scales to ensure the grid is maintained within stable operating limits. Recent events have shown that vulnerabilities in this infrastructure may be exploited to manipulate the data being exchanged. Such a scenario could cause the associated control application to mis-operate, potentially causing system-wide instabilities. There is a growing emphasis on looking beyond traditional cybersecurity solutions to mitigate such threats. In this paper we perform a testbed-based validation of one such solution - Attack Resilient Control (ARC) - on Iowa State University's \\textit{PowerCyber} testbed. ARC is a cyber-physical security solution that combines domain-specific anomaly detection and model-based mitigation to detect stealthy attacks on Automatic Generation Control (AGC). In this paper, we first describe the implementation architecture of the experiment on the testbed. Next, we demonstrate the capability of stealthy attack templates to cause forced under-frequency load shedding in a 3-area test system. We then validate the performance of ARC by measuring its ability to detect and mitigate these attacks. Our results reveal that ARC is efficient in detecting stealthy attacks and enables AGC to maintain system operating frequency close to its nominal value during an attack. Our studies also highlight the importance of testbed-based experimentation for evaluating the performance of cyber-physical security and control applications.

  2. Ag/C nanoparticles as an cathode catalyst for a zinc-air battery with a flowing alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jia-Jun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    The cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded by the four-electron pathway mechanism on larger Ag particles (174 nm), and that the ORR proceeded by the four-electron pathway and the two-electron pathway mechanisms on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm), simultaneously. The kinetics towards ORR was measured at a rotating disk electrode (RDE) with Ag/C electrode. The number of exchanged electrons for the ORR was found to be close to four on larger Ag particles (174 nm) and close to three on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm). The zinc-air battery with Ag/C catalysts (25.9 nm) was fabricated and examined.

  3. Detection of an Optical Counterpart to the ALFALFA Ultra-compact High-velocity Cloud AGC 249525

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, William; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Cannon, John M.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the detection at >98% confidence of an optical counterpart to AGC 249525, an ultra-compact high-velocity cloud (UCHVC) discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey blind neutral hydrogen survey. UCHVCs are compact, isolated H i clouds with properties consistent with their being nearby low-mass galaxies, but without identified counterparts in extant optical surveys. Analysis of the resolved stellar sources in deep g- and i-band imaging from the WIYN pODI camera reveals a clustering of possible red giant branch stars associated with AGC 249525 at a distance of 1.64 ± 0.45 Mpc. Matching our optical detection with the H i synthesis map of AGC 249525 from Adams et al. shows that the stellar overdensity is exactly coincident with the highest-density H i contour from that study. Combining our optical photometry and the H i properties of this object yields an absolute magnitude of -7.1≤slant {M}V≤slant -4.5, a stellar mass between 2.2+/- 0.6× {10}4 {M}ȯ and 3.6+/- 1.0× {10}5 {M}ȯ , and an H i to stellar mass ratio between 9 and 144. This object has stellar properties within the observed range of gas-poor ultra-faint dwarfs in the Local Group, but is gas-dominated.

  4. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  5. Controlling Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation: An Analysis of AGC Capabilities Under New Performance Based Compensation Policy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, J.; Pao, L. Y.; Fleming, P.; Ela, E.

    2015-02-01

    As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio there has been an increased interest for wind turbines to control their active power output to provide ancillary services which support grid reliability. One of these ancillary services is the provision of frequency regulation, also referred to as secondary frequency control or automatic generation control (AGC), which is often procured through markets which recently adopted performance-based compensation. A wind turbine with a control system developed to provide active power ancillary services can be used to provide frequency regulation services. Simulations have been performed to determine the AGC tracking performance at various power schedule set-points, participation levels, and wind conditions. The performance metrics used in this study are based on those used by several system operators in the US. Another metric that is analyzed is the damage equivalent loads (DELs) on turbine structural components, though the impacts on the turbine electrical components are not considered. The results of these single-turbine simulations show that high performance scores can be achieved when there is sufficient wind resource available. The capability of a wind turbine to rapidly and accurately follow power commands allows for high performance even when tracking rapidly changing AGC signals. As the turbine de-rates to meet decreased power schedule set-points there is a reduction in the DELs, and the participation in frequency regulation has a negligible impact on these loads.

  6. Controlling Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation: An Analysis of AGC Capabilities Under New Performance Based Compensation Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, Jacob; Pao, Lucy Y.; Fleming, Paul; Ela, Erik

    2014-11-13

    As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio there has been an increased interest for wind turbines to control their active power output to provide ancillary services which support grid reliability. One of these ancillary services is the provision of frequency regulation, also referred to as secondary frequency control or automatic generation control (AGC), which is often procured through markets which recently adopted performance-based compensation. A wind turbine with a control system developed to provide active power ancillary services can be used to provide frequency regulation services. Simulations have been performed to determine the AGC tracking performance at various power schedule set-points, participation levels, and wind conditions. The performance metrics used in this study are based on those used by several system operators in the US. Another metric that is analyzed is the damage equivalent loads (DELs) on turbine structural components, though the impacts on the turbine electrical components are not considered. The results of these single-turbine simulations show that high performance scores can be achieved when there are insufficient wind resources available. The capability of a wind turbine to rapidly and accurately follow power commands allows for high performance even when tracking rapidly changing AGC signals. As the turbine de-rates to meet decreased power schedule set-points there is a reduction in the DELs, and the participation in frequency regulation has a negligible impact on these loads.

  7. Double-differential recording and AGC using microcontrolled variable gain ASIC.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Robert; Deng, Shin-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Low-power wearable recording of biopotentials requires acquisition front-ends with high common-mode rejection for interference suppression and adjustable gain to provide an optimum signal range to a cascading analogue-to-digital stage. A microcontroller operated double-differential (DD) recording setup and automatic gain control circuit (AGC) are discussed which reject common-mode interference and provide tunable gain, thus compensating for imbalance and variation in electrode interface impedance. Custom-designed variable gain amplifiers (ASIC) are used as part of the recording setup. The circuit gain and balance is set by the timing of microcontroller generated clock signals. Measured results are presented which confirm that improved common-mode rejection is achieved compared to a single differential amplifier in the presence of input network imbalance. Practical measured examples further validate gain control suitable for biopotential recording and power-line rejection for wearable ECG and EMG recording. The prototype front-end consumes 318 μW including amplifiers and microcontroller.

  8. Polymer Assisted Core-shell Ag-C nanoparticles Synthesis via Green hydrothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James; Mishra, Sanjay

    2009-03-01

    Core-Shell Ag-C nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of glucose through a one-pot green hydrothermal wet chemical process. An aqueous solution of glucose and Ag nitrate was hydrothermally treated to produce porous carbonaceous shell over silver core nanoparticles. The growth of carbon shells was regulated by either of the polymers (poly) vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) or poly vinyl alcohol (PVA). The two polymers were compared to take a measure of different tunable sizes of cores, and shells. The effects of hydrothermal temperature, time, and concentration of reagents on the final formation of nanostructures were studied using UV-vis extinction spectra, transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy. The polymer molecules were found to be incorporated into carbonaceous shell. The resulting opacity of the shell was found to be hydrothermal time and temperature dependent. The shell structure was found to be more uniform with PVP than PVA. Furthermore, the polymer concentration was found to influence size and shape of the core-silver particles as well. The core-shelled nanoparticles have surfaces with organic groups capable of assembling with different reagents that could be useful in drug-delivery, optical nanodevices or biochemistry.

  9. The effect of education based on the main concepts of logotherapy approach on the quality of life in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mahdizadeh, Mostafa; Alavi, Mousa; Ghazavi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Improving the patients’ quality of life (QOL) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is one of the main concerns of the treatment team. Educational interventions may affect the aspects of QOL in various ways. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of education based on the main concepts of logotherapy approach on the CABG patients’ quality of life. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, a convenient sample of 67 patients who had undergone CABG in Isfahan Chamran hospital were randomly allocated to two groups of experimental (n = 35) and control (n = 32). While the control group received routine care, the experiment group benefitted from logotherapy-based education program (six 90-min sessions, twice a week). SF-36 questionnaire was completed by both two groups (before and 1 month after intervention). Descriptive and inferential statistical tests (consisting of independent t-test) were employed to analyze data in SPSS version 13. Results: The pre-test mean total score of SF-36 questionnaire and also the mean scores of its eight dimensions were not significantly different between the two groups. The post-test mean score change [Standard Error (SE)] in the intervention group was 24.95 (3) and in the control group was 9.27 (0.82). There were significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean scores of six dimensions of QOL (vitality, bodily pain, general health, emotional role, social functioning, and mental health) changed significantly in the intervention group. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the intervention has improved the patients’ QOL after CABG. Integration of such an intervention in these patients’ rehabilitation programs is recommended. PMID:26985218

  10. Schizosaccharomyces pombe AGC family kinase Gad8p forms a conserved signaling module with TOR and PDK1-like kinases

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Kubo, Yoshiya; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    The TOR protein is a phosphoinositide kinase-related kinase widely conserved among eukaryotes. Fission yeast tor1 encodes an ortholog of TOR, which is required for sexual development and growth under stressed conditions. We isolated gad8, which encodes a Ser/Thr kinase of the AGC family, as a high-copy suppressor of the sterility of a tor1 mutant. Disruption of gad8 caused phenotypes similar to those of tor1 disruption. Gad8p was less phosphorylated and its kinase activity was undetectable in tor1Δ cells. Three amino acid residues corresponding to conserved phosphorylation sites in the AGC family kinases, namely Thr387 in the activation loop, Ser527 in the turn motif and Ser546 in the hydrophobic motif, were important for the kinase activity of Gad8p. Tor1p was responsible for the phosphorylation of Ser527 and Ser546, whereas Ksg1p, a PDK1-like kinase, appeared to phosphorylate Thr387 directly. Altogether, Tor1p, Ksg1p and Gad8p appear to constitute a signaling module for sexual development and growth under stressed conditions in fission yeast, which resembles the mTOR–PDK1–S6K1 system in mammals and may represent a basic signaling module ubiquitous in eukaryotes. PMID:12805221

  11. Dr. J. R. Huynen's main contributions in the development of polarimetric radar techniques and how the 'Radar Targets Phenomenological Concept' becomes a theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, Eric

    1993-02-01

    Among the engineering scientists who have most decisively contributed toward forefront advances for the 'Development of POLARIMETRIC Radar Theory, Techniques and Target Phenomenology', Dr. Jean Richard HUYNEN stands out as one of the towering giants. This paper is dedicated to him, and it is a great honor for the author to present here a summary on some of the main Dr. J.R. HUYNEN's contributions in the development of Polarimetric Radar Techniques, including the 'Mueller Matrix Decomposition' approaches which this Senior Radar Polarimetrist considers as his 'life's main contribution'.

  12. Silver nanoparticles sensitized C60(Ag@C60) as efficient electrocatalysts for hydrazine oxidation: Implication for hydrogen generation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narwade, Shankar S.; Mulik, Balaji B.; Mali, Shivsharan M.; Sathe, Bhaskar R.

    2017-02-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs; 10 ± 0.5 nm) sensitized Fullerene (C60; 15 ±2 nm) nanocatalysts (Ag@C60) for the first time showing efficient electroatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine demonstrating activity comparable to that of Pt in acidic, neutral and basic media. The performance is comparable with the best available electrocatalytic system and plays a vital role in the overall hydrogen generation reactions from hydrazine as a one of the fuel cell reaction. The materials are synthesized by a simple and scalable synthetic route involving acid functionalization of C60 followed by chemical reduction of Ag+ ions in ethylene glycol at high temperature. The distributation of Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) (morphological information) on C60, bonding, its crystal structure, along with activity towards hydrazine oxidation (electrocatalytic) is studied using TEM, XRD, UV-vis, XPS, FTIR and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) studies, respectively. The observed efficient electrocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized electrode is attributed to the co-operative response and associated structural defects due to their oxidative functionalization along with thier cooperative functioning at nanodimensions.

  13. Model Verification and Validation Concepts for a Probabilistic Fracture Assessment Model to Predict Cracking of Knife Edge Seals in the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxidizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Riha, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Physics-based models are routinely used to predict the performance of engineered systems to make decisions such as when to retire system components, how to extend the life of an aging system, or if a new design will be safe or available. Model verification and validation (V&V) is a process to establish credibility in model predictions. Ideally, carefully controlled validation experiments will be designed and performed to validate models or submodels. In reality, time and cost constraints limit experiments and even model development. This paper describes elements of model V&V during the development and application of a probabilistic fracture assessment model to predict cracking in space shuttle main engine high-pressure oxidizer turbopump knife-edge seals. The objective of this effort was to assess the probability of initiating and growing a crack to a specified failure length in specific flight units for different usage and inspection scenarios. The probabilistic fracture assessment model developed in this investigation combined a series of submodels describing the usage, temperature history, flutter tendencies, tooth stresses and numbers of cycles, fatigue cracking, nondestructive inspection, and finally the probability of failure. The analysis accounted for unit-to-unit variations in temperature, flutter limit state, flutter stress magnitude, and fatigue life properties. The investigation focused on the calculation of relative risk rather than absolute risk between the usage scenarios. Verification predictions were first performed for three units with known usage and cracking histories to establish credibility in the model predictions. Then, numerous predictions were performed for an assortment of operating units that had flown recently or that were projected for future flights. Calculations were performed using two NASA-developed software tools: NESSUS(Registered Trademark) for the probabilistic analysis, and NASGRO(Registered Trademark) for the fracture

  14. Assignment of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) to 15q26 using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.R.; Chen, X.N.; Doege, K.; Grover, J.; Roughley, P.J.

    1993-05-01

    The large aggregating proteoglycan aggrecan is a major structural component of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage. Recent cDNA cloning of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) reveals a core protein of at least 2316 amino acids characterized by several distinct structural domains. Two globular domains, termed G1 and G2, are present at the amino terminus of the molecule and a third, termed G3, is present at the carboxy terminus. The G1 domain is homologous in structure to the cartilage link protein and accounts for the aggregating potential of aggrecan through its ability to interact with hyaluronic acid. The aggrecan gene is known to consist of 15 exons, with each exon encoding a distinct functional region of the mature protein. However, while the link protein gene is known to reside on chromosome 5 in the human, the location of the aggrecan gene is currently undetermined in any species. The probe (pAGG2) for the aggrecan gene was mapped on chromosome band 15q26, most likely in the subregion of 15q26.1, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clear signals were noted on both chromatids of chromosome band 15q26 in over 80% of the 300 metaphase cells examined in three independent experiments using pAGG2. No other sites of hybridization were noted on both chromatids of any other chromosome band. The precise band location was identified by using chromsomes of about 650 bands and employing fluorescence reverse banding with chromomycin A3 and distamycin. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Concepts in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Jimmie D.; And Others

    This book is a collection of ideas and information, gathered from various sources, which should aid college students in formulating their own methods of improving communication. The four main sections of the book are "Concepts of Communication,""Concepts of Source and Message,""Concepts of Communication Criticism," and "Concepts of Interpersonal…

  16. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  17. Characterizing land condition variability in Ferlo, Senegal (2001-2009) using multi-temporal 1-km Apparent Green Cover (AGC) SPOT Vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, B.; Gilabert, M. A.; García-Haro, F. J.; Faye, A.; Meliá, J.

    2011-04-01

    The ecosystem state or 'land condition' can be characterized by a set of attributes, which show variations at different temporal scales. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) based on the wavelet transform (WT) has been implemented to examine the land condition of a dryland region in Ferlo (Senegal) over the period 2001-2009. This methodology has proven to be useful for smoothing time series while considering those temporal resolutions that incorporate information about the vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, time series of the 1-km Apparent Green Cover (AGC) from the 10-day composites SPOT Vegetation (VGT) data are analyzed. Two relevant outputs from the MRA, A1 (de-noised) and the A6 (inter-annual) components have served us for characterizing the annual vegetation production and assess the long-term variation, respectively. In a first stage, the vegetation seasonality (or intra-annual variation) over the area is described by using several metrics related to vegetation phenology derived from the de-noised time series ( A1). In a second phase, the temporal variability of the inter-annual component series ( A6) is accomplished to detect potential vegetation changes over the considered period. A Mann-Kendall test has been applied to confirm the significance of the observed inter-annual changes. A higher number of significant pixels (86%) are obtained when considering the inter-annual component in the trend analysis instead of the original time-series (47%). The results confirm a general greening up over the period 2001-2009, not fully explained by precipitation, as well as rather local negative trends. The Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE) ratio computed using the AGC as a proxy of vegetation production has been considered to further analyze the detected changes. Inter-annual changes in RUE provide a potential method of separating vegetation declines due to lack of rainfall from declines associated with degradation. Some spots of negative values in inter-annual RUE changes

  18. Concept Image Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingolbali, Erhan; Monaghan, John

    2008-01-01

    Concept image and concept definition is an important construct in mathematics education. Its use, however, has been limited to cognitive studies. This article revisits concept image in the context of research on undergraduate students' understanding of the derivative which regards the context of learning as paramount. The literature, mainly on…

  19. The sphingoid long chain base phytosphingosine activates AGC-type protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including Ypk1, Ypk2, and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiping; Lester, Robert L; Dickson, Robert C

    2005-06-17

    The Pkh1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a homolog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), regulates downstream AGC-type protein kinases including Ypk1/2 and Pkc1, which control cell wall integrity, growth, and other processes. Phytosphingosine (PHS), a sphingoid long chain base, is hypothesized to be a lipid activator of Pkh1 and thereby controls the activity of Ypk1/2. Here we present biochemical evidence supporting this hypothesis, and in addition we demonstrate that PHS also stimulates autophosphorylation and activation of Ypk1/2. Greatest stimulation of Ypk1/2 phosphorylation and activity are achieved by inclusion of both PHS and Pkh1 in an in vitro kinase reaction. We also demonstrate for the first time that Pkh1 phosphorylates the Sch9 protein kinase in vitro and that such phosphorylation is stimulated by PHS. This is the first biochemical demonstration of Sch9 activators, and the results further support roles for long chain bases in heat stress resistance in addition to implying roles in chronological aging and cell size determination, since Sch9 functions in these processes. Thus, our data support a model in which PHS, rather than simply being an upstream activator of Pkh1, also activates kinases that are downstream targets of Pkh1 including Ypk1/2 and Sch9.

  20. Deficient glucose and glutamine metabolism in Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12 knockout mice contributes to altered visual function

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Laura; Du, Jianhai; Hurley, James B.; Satrústegui, Jorgina; de la Villa, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the vision phenotype of mice lacking Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier mutated in global cerebral hypomyelination (OMIM 612949). Methods We tested overnight dark-adapted control and aralar-deficient mice for the standard full electroretinogram (ERG) response. The metabolic stress of dark-adaptation was reduced by 5 min illumination after which the ERG response was monitored in darkness. We used the electrical response to two identical saturating light flashes (paired-flash stimulation) to isolate the inner retina and photoreceptor responses. Retinal morphology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry of antibodies against retinal cells, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) labeling. Results Aralar plays a pivotal role in retina metabolism as aralar provides de novo synthesis pathway for glutamine, protects glutamate from oxidation, and is required for efficient glucose oxidative metabolism. Aralar-deficient mice are not blind as their retinas have light-evoked activity. However, we report an approximate 50% decrease in the ERG amplitude response in the light-evoked activity of dark-adapted retinas from aralar-deficient mice, in spite of normal retina histology. The defective response is partly reversed by exposure to a brief illumination period, which lowers the metabolic stress of dark-adaptation. The metabolic stress and ERG alteration takes place primarily in photoreceptors, but the response to two flashes applied in fast succession also revealed an alteration in synaptic transmission consistent with an imbalance of glutamate and an energy deficit in the inner retina neurons. Conclusions We propose that compromised glucose oxidation and altered glutamine and glutamate metabolism in the absence of aralar are responsible for the phenotype reported. PMID:27746674

  1. The phylogenetically invariant ACAGAGA and AGC sequences of U6 small nuclear RNA are more tolerant of mutation in human cells than in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Datta, B; Weiner, A M

    1993-01-01

    U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is the most highly conserved of the five spliceosomal snRNAs that participate in nuclear mRNA splicing. The proposal that U6 snRNA plays a key catalytic role in splicing [D. Brow and C. Guthrie, Nature (London) 337:14-15, 1989] is supported by the phylogenetic conservation of U6, the sensitivity of U6 to mutation, cross-linking of U6 to the vicinity of the 5' splice site, and genetic evidence for extensive base pairing between U2 and U6 snRNAs. We chose to mutate the phylogenetically invariant 41-ACAGAGA-47 and 53-AGC-55 sequences of human U6 because certain point mutations within the homologous regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae U6 selectively block the first or second step of mRNA splicing. We found that both sequences are more tolerant to mutation in human cells (assayed by transient expression in vivo) than in S. cerevisiae (assayed by effects on growth or in vitro splicing). These differences may reflect different rate-limiting steps in the particular assays used or differential reliance on redundant RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. The ability of mutations in U6 nucleotides A-45 and A-53 to selectively block step 2 of splicing in S. cerevisiae had previously been construed as evidence that these residues might participate directly in the second chemical step of splicing; an indirect, structural role seems more likely because the equivalent mutations have no obvious phenotype in the human transient expression assay. Images PMID:8355689

  2. Calcium-regulation of mitochondrial respiration maintains ATP homeostasis and requires ARALAR/AGC1-malate aspartate shuttle in intact cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Folch, Irene; Rueda, Carlos B; Amigo, Ignacio; del Arco, Araceli; Saheki, Takeyori; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2013-08-28

    Neuronal respiration is controlled by ATP demand and Ca2+ but the roles played by each are unknown, as any Ca2+ signal also impacts on ATP demand. Ca2+ can control mitochondrial function through Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial carriers, the aspartate-glutamate and ATP-Mg/Pi carriers, ARALAR/AGC1 and SCaMC-3, respectively, or in the matrix after Ca2+ transport through the Ca2+ uniporter. We have studied the role of Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in intact mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and in response to increased workload caused by increases in [Na+]cyt (veratridine, high-K+ depolarization) and/or [Ca2+]cyt (carbachol). Respiration in nonstimulated neurons on 2.5-5 mm glucose depends on ARALAR-malate aspartate shuttle (MAS), with a 46% drop in aralar KO neurons. All stimulation conditions induced increased OCR (oxygen consumption rate) in the presence of Ca2+, which was prevented by BAPTA-AM loading (to preserve the workload), or in Ca2+-free medium (which also lowers cell workload). SCaMC-3 limits respiration only in response to high workloads and robust Ca2+ signals. In every condition tested Ca2+ activation of ARALAR-MAS was required to fully stimulate coupled respiration by promoting pyruvate entry into mitochondria. In aralar KO neurons, respiration was stimulated by veratridine, but not by KCl or carbachol, indicating that the Ca2+ uniporter pathway played a role in the first, but not in the second condition, even though KCl caused an increase in [Ca2+]mit. The results suggest a requirement for ARALAR-MAS in priming pyruvate entry in mitochondria as a step needed to activate respiration by Ca2+ in response to moderate workloads.

  3. The Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.

    1992-11-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed.

  4. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) and human papillomavirus (HPV) as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC): a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shu-Yuan; Rodgers, William H.; Kauderer, James; Bonfiglio, Thomas A.; Walker, Joan L.; Darcy, Kathleen M.; Carter, Randy; Hatae, Masayuji; Levine, Lyuba; Spirtos, Nick M; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection is strongly linked to cervical neoplasia but its role in detecting glandular lesions is unclear. In the cervix, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is expressed in cervical neoplasia, but rarely in the benign cervix. The diagnostic utility of these biomarkers was evaluated in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC). H-HPV was detected using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) in liquid based cytology and CA-IX immunoreactivity was studied on conventional Pap smears. Of 403 patients, 111 (28%) were positive for significant cervical lesions (SCLs) including CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. CA-IX testing alone (n=403) had a sensitivity of 75%, 95%, or 65% for SCLs, significant glandular lesions (GLs) or squamous lesions (SLs), respectively, with a specificity of 88%, and a false negative rate (FNR defined as one minus negative predictive value) of 10%. Testing for H-HPV (n=122) had a sensitivity of 97%, 100%, or 96% for SCLs, GLs or SLs, respectively, with a specificity of 87%, and a FNRof 1%. The combination of CA-IX and H-HPV testing (n=122), collectively, had the same sensitivity, specificity and FNR for SCLs, GLs or SLs as H-HPV testing alone. The conclusions of this study are that both H-HPV and CA-IX testing are useful diagnostic markers for GLs. However, H-HPV testing is a better diagnostic marker for SLs. The combination of CA-IX with H-HPV testing does not improve the diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC diagnosis over that of H-HPV testing alone. PMID:19670419

  5. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  6. The Maine Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

  7. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important…

  8. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  9. Understanding the Agribusiness Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.

    Designed to aid in learning the main ideas of the agribusiness concept, this document answers the following questions, treating each answer in a separate explanatory section: (1) What is the meaning of the terms "agriculture" and "agribusiness"? (2) What is the relationship of agriculture and agribusiness? (3) What is involved in tracing an…

  10. Space shuttle main engine controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

  11. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  12. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Ladybugs of Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  14. Concept Maps in Introductory Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are tools for organizing thoughts on the main ideas in a course. I present an example of a concept map that was created through the work of students in an introductory class and discuss major topics in statistics and relationships among them.

  15. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  16. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  17. Exploring Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, M. V.; Larson, S. M.; Whiteley, R.; Fink, U.; Jedicke, R.; Emery, J.; Fevig, R.; Kelley, M.; Harris, A. W.; Ostro, S.; Reed, K.; Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A.; Magri, C.; Bottke, W.; Durda, D.; Walker, R.; Davis, D.; Hartmann, W. K.; Sears, D.; Yano, H.; Granahan, J.; Storrs, A.; Bus, S. J.; Bell, J. F.; Tholen, D.; Cellino, A.

    2001-11-01

    Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of fragments, and significantly depleted of mass as a consequence of dynamical scattering. Yet, these fragments retain a record of the early steps of planet formation and evolution, as well as a record of early solar system conditions and the primordial composition gradient in that region. By exploring main belt asteroids through groundbased observations and spacecraft, modeling and theoretical work, we seek ultimately to recover this information. A single mission to a single target is not sufficient to address, in isolation, these questions. They require a foundation of robust, broad, and continuing groundbased, theoretical, and modeling programs. Such work is funded at a small fraction of a typical mission cost through the NASA Research and Analysis Program. Therefore, within the context of planetary decadal study recommendations to NASA, highest priority needs to be given to maintaining and growing a healthy R&A program over the next ten years and beyond. Missions also have an important role to play. An Earth orbiting remote sensing mission needs to be considered as a means of collecting important data for a large fraction of all main belt asteroids above a sub-kilometer diameter (while also realizing synergistic benefits to astrophysics). Missions to specific main belt targets can provide important new insights and leverage new understanding of existing data, models, and theories, but target definition (and corresponding instrument complement) is critical and must be based on our existing knowledge of these very diverse objects

  18. Concept Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    Four teaching techniques were used to enhance conceptual learning and to increase student performance in a course in physical-chemical principles at the School of Pharmacy of the University of Missouri-Kansas City. One of the techniques, "concept overview," is described. (MLW)

  19. Aquarius Main Structure Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eremenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory is a joint US-Argentine mission to map the salinity at the ocean surface. This information is critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system - the water cycle and ocean circulation. By measuring ocean salinity from space, the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will provide new insights into how the massive natural exchange of freshwater between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice influences ocean circulation, weather and climate. Aquarius is the primary instrument on the SAC-D spacecraft. It consists of a Passive Microwave Radiometer to detect the surface emission that is used to obtain salinity and an Active Scatterometer to measure the ocean waves that affect the precision of the salinity measurement. The Aquarius Primary Structure houses instrument electronics, feed assemblies, and supports a deployable boom with a 2.5 m Reflector, and provides the structural interface to the SAC-D Spacecraft. The key challenge for the Aquarius main structure configuration is to satisfy the needs of component accommodations, ensuring that the instrument can meet all operational, pointing, environmental, and launch vehicle requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the Aquarius main structure configuration, the challenges of balancing the conflicting requirements, and the major configuration driving decisions and compromises.

  20. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  1. Good clinical response to gefitinib in a non-small cell lung cancer patient harboring a rare somatic epidermal growth factor gene point mutation; codon 768 AGC > ATC in exon 20 (S768I).

    PubMed

    Masago, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Shiro; Irisa, Kaoru; Kim, Yung Hak; Ichikawa, Masataka; Mio, Tadashi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2010-11-01

    Recently, two small-molecule kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor have proven effective in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. There are specific activating mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor related to the sensitivity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, it is unknown whether rare mutations in the N-lobe (exons 18-20) and the C-lobe (exon 21) of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain other than L858R in exon 21 and the in-frame deletion in exon 19 may predict the effectiveness of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We reported a case of non-small cell lung cancer harboring a rare epidermal growth factor somatic mutation, codon 768 AGC > ATC in exon 20 (S768I), who showed a good clinical response to gefitinib. Therefore, we may suggest that this rare mutation (S768I in exon 20) may not be an insensitive epidermal growth factor receptor somatic mutation in vivo.

  2. Current Concepts in Conception Control

    PubMed Central

    Ringrose, C. A. Douglas

    1963-01-01

    The progressive increase in world population has become a most urgent global problem in recent years. Man has, however, been interested in controlling his reproductivity at the family level for many centuries. Historical aspects of this saga are reviewed. The modern era of conception control was ushered in by Makepeace et al. in 1937 when ovulation inhibition by progesterone was demonstrated. Confirmation of this by Pincus and associates, and development of the potent oral progestational agents, the 19-norsteroids, have made efficient reliable contraception a reality. Experience with one of these agents (Ortho-Novum, 2 mg.) in 115 patients through 805 cycles is presented. Conception control was 100% effective at this dosage. Side effects were minimal. Only three of the women discontinued the tablets because of these effects. All but five in this group of 115 preferred the oral contraceptives to methods previously employed. PMID:13973987

  3. [Main parasitic skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Bernigaud, C; Monsel, G; Delaunay, P; Do-Pham, G; Foulet, F; Botterel, F; Chosidow, O

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but their global distribution is heterogenous; prevalence is especially high in subtropical and tropical countries. They are mainly due to arthropods (insects and mites). Many species of parasites are involved, explaining the diversity of their clinical signs. The most common are caused by ectoparasites such as scabies or pediculosis (head lice, body lice and pubic lice). Clinical signs may be related to the penetration of the parasite under the skin, its development, the inoculation of venom or allergic symptoms. Diagnosis can be easy when clinical signs are pathognomonic (e.g. burrows in the interdigital web spaces in scabies) or sometimes more difficult. Some epidemiological characteristics (diurnal or nocturnal bite, seasonality) and specific clinical presentation (single or multiple bites, linear or grouped lesions) can be a great diagnostic help. Modern non-invasive tools (dermoscopy or confocal microscopy) will play an important role in the future but the eye and experience of the specialist (dermatologist, parasitologist, infectious disease specialist or entomologist) remains for the time the best way to guide or establish a diagnosis. For most skin parasites, therapeutic proposals are rarely based on studies of high level of evidence or randomized trials but more on expert recommendations or personal experience.

  4. Concept Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  5. Networks of Emotion Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Toivonen, Riitta; Kivelä, Mikko; Saramäki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/). PMID:22276099

  6. Main Street as Art Museum: Metaphor and Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    A walk down Main Street can be very much like a stroll through a museum gallery--visually rich, inviting unexpected choices, aesthetically rewarding. This article explores the concept of shop windows as visually ordered compositions, much like paintings and other art objects, and suggests some approaches to applying this concept in teaching a…

  7. A Survey of NATO Defense Concepts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    receive broad endorsement-- current Theater Nuclear Weapons (TNW)[1] vul- nerabilities and the need to rectify them, NATO/WP imbalances caused by... current defense concepts or capabilities; what the main tenets of the author’s proposed concepts are; and how the concept is supposed to work. This...concepts for the defense of NA:’O. Each article was read for the author’s views on three topics: o Why a change is needed in NATO’s current defense

  8. Technium concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Marc; Davies, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    Traditionally the economy of Wales has been based on the coal and steel industries. Recently, Wales has elected its own National Assembly and together with the Welsh Development Agency (WDA) and through a Regional Technology Plan, has prioritized the creation and development of a knowledge based economy. The culture of Wales has always placed emphasis on education and for a small nation, has a University sector with an excellent reputation for advanced research. The WDA and the University of Wales Swansea came together to establish Technium, which is an unique concept designed to bridge the gap between advanced University research and commercial exploitation. Technium was co-funded by the WDA and the European Regional Development Fund. The project is seen as the first phase of creating a network of sector specific Techniums across the country, all linked via state of the art telecomm-infrastructure to University centers of research excellence. This paper will describe two case studies, both in the Optics/Photonics field, of research centers being established in Technium by blue chip international companies. Those companies having located in Technium specifically because of the links to high quality university research. One company is Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) a global leader in Optoelectronic components. The second company, ICN Pharmaceuticals Inc, design and develop optical devices to be used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals for the treatment of a range of diseases. Working closely with the WDA and the University of Wales Swansea, these and other companies will pursue product development, sponsor postgraduate research and generate intellectual capital that will benefit the company, students and the region alike.

  9. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  10. 6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  11. Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S.; Saewert, A.; Van Bogaert, J.; Votava, M.; Webber, R.; Wendt, M.; Wilcer, N.; Wolbers, S.

    2006-11-01

    An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV, Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

  12. Logistic Regression: Concept and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokluk, Omay

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of logistic regression analysis is classification of individuals in different groups. The aim of the present study is to explain basic concepts and processes of binary logistic regression analysis intended to determine the combination of independent variables which best explain the membership in certain groups called dichotomous…

  13. The Theory of Figural Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim

    1993-01-01

    The main thesis of the paper is that geometry deals with mental entities (the so-called geometrical figures) which possess simultaneously conceptual and figural characters. The paper analyzes the internal tensions which may arise in figural concepts because of their double nature, developmental aspects, and didactical implications. (Author/MDH)

  14. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  15. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. Opamp filters control responses in AGC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prymek, Roy E.

    1991-10-01

    The use of basic circuits to optimize the performance of RF and microwave amplitude-leveling loops is discussed. Sources of loop error and ways to compensate for them are examined, emphasizing the role of opamps.

  17. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  18. Reconnaissance of radioactive rocks of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, John M.; Narten, Perry F.

    1951-01-01

    The state of Maine was traversed with car-mounted Geiger-Mueller equipment in the late summer of 1948 and the radioactivity of approximately 4,600 miles of road was logged. All samples were analyzed, both in the field by comparing the radioactivity of each sample to the radioactivity of a stranded measured with a simple scaling modification of a portable counter, and in the Geological Survey’s Trace Elements Section Washington Laboratory. Differences between both types of analyses were negligible. The maximum equivalent uranium content of the most radioactive rocks thus analyzed was 0.008 percent. A 1,400-square-mile abnormally radioactive province in southwestern Maine was outlined. The outcrop data obtained from car traversing are evaluated statistically. Cumulative frequency distribution curves are drawn to show the distribution of outcrops at various levels of radioactivity, and straight-line extensions are made to show to maximum probable grade for various rock types and areas in Maine. A maximum grade of 0.055 percent equivalent uranium is thus predicted for the entire state. This prediction necessarily is a broad generalization because large areas of Main are inaccessible for car traversing. A concept of evaluation of an area for possible mineral deposits is proposed on the basis of lithology, and observed and indicated ranges in grade.

  19. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  20. Maine Indians: A Brief Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The Indians of Maine, descendants of Algonquian linguistic stock, number approximately 1800 and reside on 3 reservations totalling 22,600 acres of land. Most of the reservation land is forested, with important economic and recreational advantages in terms of timber production and hunting and fishing opportunities. In 1965, Maine became the first…

  1. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  2. The Synergic Integrated Concepts of C2S

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    manner, main intention or construction principle. The synergic integrated concept of the command and control system represents a definition and...trends comprise specifications of synergic integrated concepts for the command and control systems, particularly battlefield digitalisation and Network

  3. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  4. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  5. Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

  6. Design of a prototype Advanced Main Combustion Chamber for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, J. D.; Myers, W. N.

    1992-07-01

    Development of a prototype advanced main combustion chamber is underway at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Advanced Main Combustion Chamber (AMCC) project is being approached utilizing a 'concurrent engineering' concept where groups from materials, manufacturing, stress, quality, and design are involved from the initiation of the project. The AMCC design has been tailored to be compatible with the investment casting process. Jacket, inlet/outlet manifolds, inlet/outlet neck coolant flow splitters, support ribs, actuator lugs, and engine controller mounting bracket will all be a part of the one-piece AMCC casting. Casting of the AMCC in a one-piece configuration necessitated a method of forming a liner in its structural jacket. A method of vacuum plasma spraying the liner is being developed. In 1994, the AMCC will be hot-fired on the Technology Test Bed Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  7. Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

  8. Concepts in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Poyhonen, Samuli

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is…

  9. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance.

  10. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbit, H. A.; Tuegel, L. M.; Dodd, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Program was an analytical, design, and test program to demonstrate an injection concept applicable to an Isolated Combustion Compartment of a full-scale, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 engine. Several injector patterns were tested in a 3.4-in. combustor. Based on these results, features of the most promising injector design were incorporated into a 5.7-in. injector which was then hot-fire tested. In turn, a preliminary design of a 5-compartment 2D combustor was based on this pattern. Also the additional subscale injector testing and analysis was performed with an emphasis on improving analytical techniques and acoustic cavity design methodology. Several of the existing 3.5-in. diameter injectors were hot-fire tested with and without acoustic cavities for spontaneous and dynamic stability characteristics.

  11. Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.

    Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform…

  12. Maine's Approach to Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broyles, India L.; Krawic, Joanne

    This study of Maine schools inquires into efforts that have been made to internationalize the curriculum. Specifically, the researchers were interested in how curricular goals and organization contribute to an understanding of global society. The efforts to internationalize the curriculum upon which the researchers focused included the…

  13. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Maine Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Maine state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  14. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  15. Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis - Maine, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-09-25

    Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are rickettsial tickborne diseases that have had at least a twofold increase in prevalence in the United States since 2000. Despite similar clinical presentations, the causative organisms are carried by different ticks with distinct geographic and ecologic associations. Surveillance efforts are complicated by ambiguous terminology and serologic testing with antibody cross-reactivity. Although anaplasmosis historically has been reported in Maine, ehrlichiosis has been reported infrequently. During 2007-2008, the number of physician-reported anaplasmosis cases nearly doubled in Maine, and ehrlichiosis cases increased more than fourfold. To examine this increase, the Maine Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) analyzed available data on tick burden and physician-reported cases of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis during 2000-2008. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that Ixodes scapularis (the tick vector for Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was broadly distributed in Maine, whereas Amblyomma americanum (the tick vector for Erhlichia chaffeenisis) was scarce. Moreover, 95% of physician-reported ehrlichiosis cases lacked a concurrent serologic assessment to exclude anaplasmosis, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity might have resulted in misclassification. In 2008, Maine modified case classification to enhance specificity; ehrlichiosis cases that lack a concurrent test for anaplasmosis are now classified as suspect rather than probable and therefore are not included in national surveillance summaries. The accuracy of case classification and surveillance can be improved by educating health-care providers regarding 1) the expected geographic distribution of tick vectors and 2) recommendations for confirmatory testing to distinguish between the causative organisms of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis.

  16. Formal concept analysis and linguistic hedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belohlavek, Radim; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an application of linguistic hedges to formal concept analysis of data with fuzzy attributes. Formal concept analysis aims at extraction of particular (bi-)clusters, called formal concepts, from data. The clusters link collections of objects (extents) and attributes (intents), and have a clear interpretation due to a simple verbal description of the concept-forming operators. We insert linguistic hedges such as 'very' or 'extremely' in the description of the operators. In this way, linguistic hedges become parameters for formal concept analysis that control the number of clusters extracted from data. Namely, as we show theoretically as well as experimentally, stronger hedges result in a smaller number of clusters. The new concept-forming operators form Galois-like connections. We study their properties and axiomatize them. Then, we show that a concept lattice with hedges, i.e. the set of all formal concepts of the new operators is indeed a complete lattice which is isomorphic to a particular ordinary concept lattice. We describe the isomorphism and its inverse. These mappings serve as translation procedures. As a consequence, we obtain a theorem characterizing the structure of concept lattices with hedges which generalizes the well-known main theorem of ordinary concept lattices. The isomorphism and its inverse enable us to compute a concept lattice with hedges using algorithms for ordinary concept lattices. We demonstrate by experiments that when selecting various hedges from the strongest to weaker hedges, the reduction in size of the corresponding concept lattices is smooth. From a broader perspective, we argue that linguistic hedges represent mathematically and computationally a feasible way to parameterize methods for knowledge extraction from data that enable one to emphasize or to suppress extracted patterns while keeping their interpretation.

  17. Creative Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Recommends the use of concept mapping in science teaching and proposes that it be presented as a creative activity. Includes a sample lesson plan of a potato stamp concept mapping activity for astronomy. (DDR)

  18. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  19. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  20. Subnational variations in conceptions.

    PubMed

    Wood, R

    1996-01-01

    Conception statistics are derived from information collected at the registration of live births, still births, and legal abortions. This article looks at how conception rates vary across England and Wales using the 1991 ONS area classification of DHAs (Population Trends 79). A comparison is made between age-specific conception rates for different area classification groups in 1993, and changes between 1983 and 1993 are examined. Correlations between certain social and economic factors and conception rates are also analysed.

  1. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

  2. Conceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  3. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  4. Development of rotorcraft interior noise control concepts. Phase 3: Development of noise control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoerkie, Charles A.; Gintoli, P. J.; Ingraham, S. T.; Moore, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this research is the understanding of helicopter internal noise mechanisms and the development, design, and testing of noise control concepts which will produce significant reductions in the acoustic environment to which passengers are exposed. The Phase 3 effort involved the identification and evaluation of current and advanced treatment concepts, including isolation of structure-borne paths. In addition, a plan was devised for the full-scale evaluation of an isolation concept. Specific objectives were as follows: (1) identification and characterization of various noise control concepts; (2) implementation of noise control concepts within the S-76 SEA (statistical energy analysis) model; (3) definition and evaluation of a preliminary acoustic isolation design to reduce structure-borne transmission of acoustic frequency main gearbox gear clash vibrations into the airframe; (4) formulation of a plan for the full-scale validation of the isolation concept; and (5) prediction of the cabin noise environment with various noise control concepts installed.

  5. The Concept of In Loco Parentis in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Herman Edward

    Institutions of higher education have long stood in loco parentis to their students. This concept is now widely challenged. This paper examines the evolution of the concept and discusses 29 court cases, beginning with a case heard in a Maine court in 1847. The evidence indicates that the future of the concept is unpredictable. Procedural due…

  6. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  7. YNPS main coolant system decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, E.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) located in Rowe, Massachusetts, is a four-loop pressurized water reactor that permanently ceased power operation on February 26, 1992. Decommissioning activities, including steam generator removal, reactor internals removal, and system dismantlement, have been in progress since the shutdown. One of the most significant challenges for YNPS in 1996 was the performance of the main coolant system chemical decontamination. This paper describes the objectives, challenges, and achievements involved in the planning and implementation of the chemical decontamination.

  8. Main Pipelines Corrosion Monitoring Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatoliy, Bazhenov; Galina, Bondareva; Natalia, Grivennaya; Sergey, Malygin; Mikhail, Goryainov

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to substantiate the technical solution for the problem of monitoring corrosion changes in oil and gas pipelines with use (using) of an electromagnetic NDT method. Pipeline wall thinning under operating conditions can lead to perforations and leakage of the product to be transported outside the pipeline. In most cases there is danger for human life and environment. Monitoring of corrosion changes in pipeline inner wall under operating conditions is complicated because pipelines are mainly made of structural steels with conductive and magnetic properties that complicate test signal passage through the entire thickness of the object under study. The technical solution of this problem lies in monitoring of the internal corrosion changes in pipes under operating conditions in order to increase safety of pipelines by automated prediction of achieving the threshold pre-crash values due to corrosion.

  9. The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

  10. STS-3 main parachute failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runkle, R.; Henson, K.

    1982-01-01

    A failure analysis of the parachute on the Space Transportation System 3 flight's solid rocket booster's is presented. During the reentry phase of the two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), one 115 ft diameter main parachute failed on the right hand SRB (A12). This parachute failure caused the SRB to impact the Ocean at 110 ft/sec in lieu of the expected 3 parachute impact velocity of 88 ft/sec. This higher impact velocity relates directly to more SRB aft skirt and more motor case damage. The cause of the parachute failure, the potential risks of losing an SRB as a result of this failure, and recommendations to ensure that the probability of chute failures of this type in the future will be low are discussed.

  11. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  12. Précis of doing without concepts.

    PubMed

    Machery, Edouard

    2010-06-01

    Although cognitive scientists have learned a lot about concepts, their findings have yet to be organized in a coherent theoretical framework. In addition, after twenty years of controversy, there is little sign that philosophers and psychologists are converging toward an agreement about the very nature of concepts. Doing without Concepts (Machery 2009) attempts to remedy this state of affairs. In this article, I review the main points and arguments developed at greater length in Doing without Concepts.

  13. Resilience - A Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-05

    Image designed by Diane Fleischer Resilience—A CONCEPT Col Dennis J. Rensel, USAF (Ret.) Resilience takes on many definitions and ideas depending...2015, Vol. 22 No. 3 : 294–324 A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil Resilience as a term has as many definitions as...people who talk about it. What if resiliency is treated as a concept? How do you measure a concept? In reviewing many definitions , “each [ definition

  14. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  15. Main memory unit. [hybrid computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

  16. Long life valve design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. R.; Hall, A. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Valve concept evaluation, final candidate selection, design, manufacture, and demonstration testing of a pneumatically actuated 10-inch hybrid poppet butterfly shutoff valve are presented. Conclusions and recommendations regarding those valve characteristics and features which would serve to guide in the formulation of future valve procurements are discussed. The pertinent design goals were temperature range of plus 200 to minus 423 F, valve inlet pressure 35 psia, actuation pressure 750 psia, main seal leakage 3 x 0.00001 sccs at 35 psia valve inlet pressure, and a storage and operating life of 10 years. The valve was designed to be compatible with RP-1, propane, LH2, LO2, He, and N2.

  17. Core Concepts of Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jackie L.

    1995-01-01

    Core concepts of kinesiology are the basis of communication about movement that facilitate progression of skill levels. The article defines and exemplifies each of 10 core concepts: range of motion, speed of motion, number of segments, nature of segments, balance, coordination, compactness, extension at release/contact, path of projection, and…

  18. The Self Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbon, Ann

    The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the self concept as a variable, to indicate what is known about the self concept from existing research, to discuss its importance to the school and its effect on learning, and to offer a method of assessment which is tied to a definition arbitrarily made as a starting point for researchers. A…

  19. Avionics technology - system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Huntoon, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Avionics System Concepts to meet technology needs of advanced helicopter integrated cockpit design are identified. Specific avionics system concepts which should be conducted and/or support by NASA to most effectively aid industry in advanced helicopter integrated cockpit design are also identified. Candidate Missions and Mission Requirements to meet technology needs are considered.

  20. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  1. New Concepts of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Social Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The two-day Canadian conference focused on the topics: "Why are new concepts of work emerging?" and "How can we encourage desirable new work concepts in our society?" Following an introductory summary by David P. Ross, Stephen Peitchinis (Dean, School of Business Administration, University of Calgary) presented the economic…

  2. Learning Our Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Stanley Peters appreciates the centrality of concepts for everyday life, however, he fails to recognize their pedagogical dimension. He distinguishes concepts employed at the first-order (our ordinary language-use) from second-order conceptual clarification (conducted exclusively by academically trained philosophers). This distinction…

  3. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  4. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  5. Thinking to Learn Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter C.

    1988-01-01

    States that programs which link the teaching of thinking with content have the greatest instructional value. Presents a concept formation lesson, based on the works of Taba (1967) and Ehrenberg (1978), which requires students to learn a concept by studying several examples and noting their similarities and differences. Includes a sample…

  6. Teach Concepts, Not Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Leon E.

    Since concepts are the mental divisions man makes among the concrete and abstract phenomena of his environment so he may generate, maneuver, and control their relationships in a manner ot satisfy his physical, emotional, social, and aesthetic needs, concepts should be the vortex of intelligence. Too often students are taught as if they lack a…

  7. OMV--Short Range Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), is shown without its main propulsion module. Essentially two propulsion vehicles in one, the OMV could be powered by a main propulsion module , or, in its short range vehicle configuration shown here, use its own hydrazine and cold gas thrusters. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  8. Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    contemporary notion of planetary habitability. This study also shows the convergence of the methodological aspects used to examine the concept of habitability, mainly based on analogy.

  9. Concepts in human biological rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Reinberg, Alain; Ashkenazi, Israel

    2003-01-01

    Biological rhythms and their temporal organization are adaptive phenomena to periodic changes in environmental factors linked to the earth's rotation on its axis and around the sun. Experimental data from the plant and animal kingdoms have led to many models and concepts related to biological clocks that help describe and understand the mechanisms of these changes. Many of the prevailing concepts apply to all organisms, but most of the experimental data are insufficient to explain the dynamics of human biological clocks. This review presents phenomena thai are mainly characteristic ofand unique to - human chronobiology, and which cannot be fully explained by concepts and models drawn from laboratory experiments. We deal with the functional advantages of the human temporal organization and the problem of desynchronization, with special reference to the period (τ) of the circadian rhythm and its interindividual and intraindividual variability. We describe the differences between right- and left-hand rhythms suggesting the existence of different biological clocks in the right and left cortices, Desynchronization of rhythms is rather frequent (one example is night shift workers). In some individuals, desynchronization causes no clinical symptoms and we propose the concept of “allochronism” to designate a variant of the human temporal organization with no pathological implications. We restrict the term “dyschronism” to changes or alterations in temporal organization associated with a set of symptoms similar to those observed in subjects intolerant to shift work, eg, persisting fatigue and mood and sleep alterations. Many diseases involve chronic deprivation of sleep at night and constitute conditions mimicking thai of night shift workers who are intolerant to desynchronization. We also present a genetic model (the dian-circadian model) to explain interindividual differences in the period of biological rhythms in certain conditions. PMID:22033796

  10. Emerging SPS Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Four technologies were evaluated to determine their effect on Satellite Power System concepts. Two of these technologies, solid-state power amplifiers and magnetrons, are replacements for the Klystrons used for dc to RF conversion on the satellite. A third technology, laser power transmission, transmits the energy at laser frequencies rather than microwave frequencies. The fourth technology, multibandgap solar cells, has the promise of significantly increased solar to dc conversion efficienty as compared to the reference-concept silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells. The design characteristics of concepts resulting from application of these technologies are summarized.

  11. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  12. International Concepts and Agendas of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations were the main proponents of Lifelong Learning when the concept was first developed in the early 1970s. Although different organisations used different labels--Lifelong Learning, recurrent education, education permanente--they all emphasised that learning is a lifelong process and that all education should be organised…

  13. Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptions about Astronomical Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify prospective science teachers' conceptions on basic astronomical phenomena. A questionnaire consisting of nine open-ended questions was administered to 327 prospective science teachers. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive review of the literature and took into consideration the reported…

  14. A Proof of Concept: Grizzly, the LWRS Program Materials Aging and Degradation Pathway Main Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Spencer; Jeremey Busby; Richard Martineau; Brian Wirth

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear power currently provides a significant fraction of the United States’ non-carbon emitting power generation. In future years, nuclear power must continue to generate a significant portion of the nation’s electricity to meet the growing electricity demand, clean energy goals, and ensure energy independence. New reactors will be an essential part of the expansion of nuclear power. However, given limits on new builds imposed by economics and industrial capacity, the extended service of the existing fleet will also be required.

  15. Main Street Zero Energy Buildings: The Zero Energy Method in Concept and Practice: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Lobato, C.; Hootman, T.

    2010-07-01

    Ongoing work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicates that net-zero energy building (NZEB) status is both achievable and repeatable today. This paper presents a definition framework for classifying NZEBs and a real-life example that demonstrates how a large-scale office building can cost-effectively achieve net-zero energy.

  16. Blazars: Artist Conception

    NASA Video Gallery

    What astronomers once thought were two blazar families may in fact be one, as shown in this artist's concept. Energy stored in the black hole during its salad days of intense accretion may later be...

  17. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  18. Decoding Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durisen, Richard H.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    Two astronomy professors, using the Decoding the Disciplines process, help their students use abstract theories to analyze light and to visualize the enormous scale of astronomical concepts. (Contains 5 figures.)

  19. The AERA Concept.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-24

    electrgnic tabular displays ( ETABS ). - , This concept document was prepared by a team of ATC experts to review prior work, the on-going AERA program, and to...Address Beacon System (DABS), trajectory modeling and planning algorithms, and electronic tabular displays ( ETABS ). This concept document was...capability, and a Flight Management System. The development of AERA requires major efforts in system design and software and man-machine interface

  20. Concept analysis: resilience.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Dia, Mary Joy; DiNapoli, Jean Marie; Garcia-Ona, Leila; Jakubowski, Rita; O'Flaherty, Deirdre

    2013-12-01

    This paper will systematically analyze the concept of resilience using an integrated review of literature. The historical perspective, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of resilience will be reviewed. A theoretical and operational definition will be provided. The Walker and Avant method will be used to describe the cases. Finally, the use of concept map will capture the relationships among the attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empirical indicators through clustering and chaining.

  1. [Comfort: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jia-Ling; Lee, Ya-Ling; Hu, Wen-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Comfort is an important concept and core value of nursing. The defining attributes, antecedents and consequences of comfort need further analysis and exploration, even though the concept of comfort has been addressed previously in nursing literature. We employed the strategies of concept analysis as described by Walker&Avant (2005) to analyze the concept of comfort. The defining attributes of comfort include: 1) effective communication; 2) family and meaningful relationships; 3) maintaining functionality; 4) self-characteristics; 5) physical symptom relief, states, and interventions; 6) psychological, spiritual activities and states; and 7) a sense of safety and security. Antecedents consist of discomfort, distress and suffering. Consequences consist of (1) met/satisfied needs; (2) increased sense of control; (3) sense of inner peace; (4) a pleasant experience; (5) feeling cared for; (6) relief of symptoms; (7) reduced suffering; (8) decreased disequilibrium; and (9) absence of discomfort. We also outline the construction of cases, empirical references and comfort measurement tools. Analysis found comfort to have multiple dimensions and confirmed it as a clinical issue that should receive greater emphasis and valuation. Findings are hoped to increase nurse understanding of the concept of comfort and enable nurses to evaluate level of comfort and follow up on variations in such using empirical tools. Concept analysis can guide further comfort related interventions and research to benefit patients.

  2. [Mindfulness: A Concept Analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2016-04-01

    "Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing.

  3. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

  4. [Analysis of dental students' knowledge and concepts in oral health: evaluation by concept maps].

    PubMed

    Struchiner, M; Vieira, A R; Ricciardi, R M

    1999-11-01

    This study sought to analyze senior dental students' cognitive structure concerning the topic of "enamel", which is fundamentally important for understanding oral health, since it offers basic scientific concepts for clinical and preventive practices and is the main subject of several courses during dentistry training. The strategy used to analyze students' cognitive structures was Novak's Concept Maps, based on Ausubel's Meaningful Learning theory. Analysis of students' maps allowed for a study of students' cognitive structure and concepts concerning oral health. It also fostered a diagnosis of students' knowledge in several important aspects of scientific and professional training. The results highlighted the need for rethinking the teaching/learning process in dentistry training.

  5. Maine Students Learn to Appreciate Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Pamela S.

    1994-01-01

    The Maine studies program at a rural Maine middle school begins in the sixth grade and expands through the eighth grade. Students camp out, explore Maine's geography, and learn about themselves, their state's history, and the state's diverse populations. Two multischool programs, Exchanging Maine's Cultures and the Curriculum Integration…

  6. A Key Concept: Spatial Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostrowicki, Jerzy

    1975-01-01

    The application of geography to spatial planning is discussed. Concepts presented include the regional concept, the typological concept, and spatial structure, spatial processes, and spatial organization. For address of journal see SO 504 028. (Author/RM)

  7. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  8. Space vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Michael; Meredith, Oliver; Brothers, Bobby

    1986-01-01

    Several concepts of chemical-propulsion Space Vehicles (SVs) for manned Mars landing missions are presented. For vehicle sizing purposes, several specific missions were chosen from opportunities in the late 1990's and early 2000's, and a vehicle system concept is then described which is applicable to the full range of missions and opportunities available. In general, missions utilizing planetary opposition alignments can be done with smaller vehicles than those utilizing planetary opposition alignments. The conjunction missions have a total mission time of about 3 years, including a required stay-time of about 60 days. Both types of missions might be desirable during a Mars program, the opposition type for early low-risk missions and/or for later unmanned cargo missions, and the conjunction type for more extensive science/exploration missions and/or for Mars base activities. Since the opposition missions appeared to drive the SV size more severely, there were probably more cases examined for them. Some of the concepts presented utilize all-propulsive braking, some utilize and all aerobraking approach, and some are hybrids. Weight statements are provided for various cases. Most of the work was done on 0-g vehicle concepts, but partial-g and 1-g concepts are also provided and discussed. Several options for habitable elements are shown, such as large-diameter modules and space station (SS) types of modules.

  9. Creating Heliophysics Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Center for Science Education at University of California Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory is creating concept maps for Heliophysics and would like to get input from scientists. The purpose of this effort is to identify key concepts related to Heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of Heliophysics might develop from Kindergarten through higher education. These maps are meant to tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards. It is hoped that the results of this effort will be useful for curriculum designers developing Heliophysics-related curriculum materials and classroom teachers using Heliophysics materials. The need for concept maps was identified as a result of product analysis undertaken by the NASA Heliophysics Forum Team. The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have as two of their goals to improve the characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate and Public Outreach (SMD E/PO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD E/PO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). An important part of this effort is receiving feedback from solar scientists regarding the inclusion of key concepts and their progression in the maps. This session will introduce the draft concept maps and elicit feedback from scientists.

  10. The concept of compartmentalisation.

    PubMed

    Scott, A; Zepeda, C; Garber, L; Smith, J; Swayne, D; Rhorer, A; Kellar, J; Shimshony, A; Batho, H; Caporale, V; Giovannini, A

    2006-12-01

    The rationale for establishing trade 'regions' and 'zones' is based on principles of epidemiological science and risk analysis that assess and manage animal disease risks so that the safety of trade can be ensured. However, the boundaries of geographical regions and zones may readily be breached through numerous epidemiological pathways. The concept of a 'compartment' extends the application of a 'risk boundary' beyond that of a geographical interface and considers all epidemiological factors that can contribute to the creation of an effective boundary. The fundamental requirement for application of either concept (regions/zones or compartments) is that the population considered for trade is maintained within management or geographical boundaries which allow clear epidemiological differentiation to be made between those animals and surrounding populations of higher risk. Seven factors are presented that an exporting country might use to guide the identification and documentation of a compartment. Additionally, the steps that would be undertaken to implement trade based on the compartmentalisation concept are discussed.

  11. New Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-02-01

    The paper briefly reviews the evolution of the Mars vehicle design concepts from 1952 to 1990, and the currently understood requirements, constraints, and options for manned Mars missions in the early decades of the 21st century. The most up-to-date integrated Mars vehicle concepts for crew-carrying transfer and excursion vehicles are presented together with the Mars descent-ascent mission phases. Particular attention is given to a reusable transfer ship, which is a modular vehicle launched to earth orbit on six 185 t-class boosters and assembled there robotically; it uses dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines and liquid hydrogen propellant. The lander concept is capable of supporting many kinds of surface missions anywhere on Mars.

  12. [Appraisal: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Chi; Lin, Chiu-Chu; Ma, Shu-Ching

    2007-04-01

    Appraisal is a cognitive response by an individual facing an event within a given environment. When the individual has passed through a thought process that gives the event meaning, the coping process is finally completed. Coping heightens an individual's well-being. Negative appraisal will induce an emotional coping response and affect one's quality of life, mental state and health. Several researchers applied the concept of appraisal to their disciplines. The concept of appraisal, however, is poorly defined. This article applies the methodology outlined by Walker and Avant (1995) to analyze the concept of appraisal. The definition of appraisal, examples, and empirical references provided in this paper will be useful in nursing practice in relation to the role of appraisal in coping.

  13. Telepresence work system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Telepresence has been used in the context of the ultimate in remote manipulation where the operator is provided with the sensory feedback and control to perform highly dexterous tasks. The concept of a Telepresence Work Station (TWS) for operation in space is described. System requirements, concepts, and a development approach are discussed. The TWS has the potential for application on the Space Shuttle, on the Orbit Maneuver Vehicle, on an Orbit Transfer Vehicle, and on the Space Station. The TWS function is to perform satellite servicing tasks and construction and assembly operations in the buildup of large spacecraft. The basic concept is a pair of dexterous arms controlled from a remote station by an operation with feedback. It may be evolved through levels of supervisory control to a smart adaptive robotic system.

  14. Robust Rocket Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for a revolutionary step in the durability of reusable rocket engines is made possible by the combination of several emerging technologies. The recent creation and analytical demonstration of life extending (or damage mitigating) control technology enables rapid rocket engine transients with minimum fatigue and creep damage. This technology has been further enhanced by the formulation of very simple but conservative continuum damage models. These new ideas when combined with recent advances in multidisciplinary optimization provide the potential for a large (revolutionary) step in reusable rocket engine durability. This concept has been named the robust rocket engine concept (RREC) and is the basic contribution of this paper. The concept also includes consideration of design innovations to minimize critical point damage.

  15. Life in the fast lane: fish and foodweb structure in the main channel of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.; Soluk, D.A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the main channel of the lower Illinois River and of the Mississippi River just upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Illinois River to describe the abundance, composition, and/or seasonal appearance of components of the main-channel community. Abundance of fishes in the main channel was high, especially adults. Most adult fishes were present in the main channel for either 3 or 4 seasons/y, indicating that fishes regularly reside in the main channel. We documented abundant zooplankton and benthic invertebrates in the main channel, and the presence of these food types in the diets of channel catfish and freshwater drum. All trophic levels were well represented in the main channel, indicating that the main channel supports a unique food web. The main channel also serves as an important energetic link with other riverine habitats (e.g., floodplains, secondary channels, backwater lakes) because of the mobility of resident fishes and because of the varied energy sources supplying this food web. It may be more realistic to view energy flow in large-river systems as a combination of 3 existing concepts, the river continuum concept (downstream transport), the flood pulse concept (lateral transport to the floodplain), and the riverine productivity model (autochthonous production). We urge additional research to quantify the links between the main channel and other habitat types in large rivers because of the apparent importance of main-channel processes in the overall structure and function of large-river ecosystems.

  16. Effectiveness of Ninth-Grade Physics in Maine: Conceptual Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Michael J.; Thompson, John R.

    2009-04-01

    The Physics First movement—teaching a true physics course to ninth-grade students—is gaining popularity in high schools. There are several different rhetorical arguments for and against this movement, and it is quite controversial in physics education. However, there is no actual evidence to assess the success, or failure, of this substantial shift in the science teaching sequence. We have undertaken a comparison study of physics classes taught in ninth- and 12th-grade classes in Maine. Comparisons of student understanding and gains with respect to mechanics concepts were made with excerpts from well-known multiple-choice surveys and individual student interviews. Results indicate that both populations begin physics courses with similar content knowledge and specific difficulties, but when learning concepts, ninth-graders are more sensitive to the instructional method used.

  17. Students' Conceptions of Function Transformation in a Dynamic Mathematical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh; Anabousy, Ahlam

    2015-01-01

    The study of function transformations helps students understand the function concept which is a basic and main concept in mathematics, but this study is problematic to school students as well as college students, especially when transformations are performed on non-basic functions. The current research tried to facilitate grade 9 students'…

  18. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  19. Revisiting the matricellular concept.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E; Sage, E Helene

    2014-07-01

    The concept of a matricellular protein was first proposed by Paul Bornstein in the mid-1990s to account for the non-lethal phenotypes of mice with inactivated genes encoding thrombospondin-1, tenascin-C, or SPARC. It was also recognized that these extracellular matrix proteins were primarily counter or de-adhesive. This review reappraises the matricellular concept after nearly two decades of continuous investigation. The expanded matricellular family as well as the diverse and often unexpected functions, cellular location, and interacting partners/receptors of matricellular proteins are considered. Development of therapeutic strategies that target matricellular proteins are discussed in the context of pathology and regenerative medicine.

  20. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2011-01-01

    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the

  1. Revisiting the matricellular concept

    PubMed Central

    Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Sage, E. Helene

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a matricellular protein was first proposed by Paul Bornstein in the mid-1990s to account for the non-lethal phenotypes of mice with inactivated genes encoding thrombospondin-1, tenascin-C, or SPARC. It was also recognized that these extracellular matrix proteins were primarily counter or de-adhesive. This review reappraises the matricellular concept after nearly two decades of continuous investigation. The expanded matricellular family as well as the diverse and often unexpected functions, cellular location, and interacting partners/receptors of matricellular proteins are considered. Development of therapeutic strategies that target matricellular proteins are discussed in the context of pathology and regenerative medicine. PMID:25064829

  2. Manned expedition to Mars: concepts & problems.

    PubMed

    Strogonova, L B; Leonid, G

    1991-01-01

    In this article presents general concept of interplanetary spacecraft and bio-medical aspect of long interplanetary flight, the problems of technical supply for their solving. Presents version of the programme of the flight to Mars. This paper discusses the main specific factors of the flight: after long duration of being in the microgravity state, the men are subjected to the pressure of lineary and shock overload, augmented radiation, caused by crossing Earth radiation belts possible solar flares and the influence of galactic space radiation, and etc. The concept biomedical problems and technical supply for their solving are schematic reflected in tables 1, 2, 3, 4.

  3. Missing concepts in natural selection theory reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Ginnobili, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    The concept of fitness has generated a lot of discussion in philosophy of biology. There is, however, relative agreement about the need to distinguish at least two uses of the term: ecological fitness on the one hand, and population genetics fitness on the other. The goal of this paper is to give an explication of the concept of ecological fitness by providing a reconstruction of the theory of natural selection in which this concept was framed, that is, based on the way the theory was put to use in Darwin's main texts. I will contend that this reconstruction enables us to account for the current use of the theory of natural selection. The framework presupposed in the analysis will be that of metatheoretical structuralism. This framework will provide both a better understanding of the nature of ecological fitness and a more complete reconstruction of the theory. In particular, it will provide what I think is a better way of understanding how the concept of fitness is applied through heterogeneous cases. One of the major advantages of my way of thinking about natural selection theory is that it would not have the peculiar metatheoretical status that it has in other available views. I will argue that in order to achieve these goals it is necessary to make several concepts explicit, concepts that are frequently omitted in usual reconstructions.

  4. Nursing-sensitive indicators: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heslop, Liza; Lu, Sai

    2014-01-01

    Aim To report a concept analysis of nursing-sensitive indicators within the applied context of the acute care setting. Background The concept of ‘nursing sensitive indicators’ is valuable to elaborate nursing care performance. The conceptual foundation, theoretical role, meaning, use and interpretation of the concept tend to differ. The elusiveness of the concept and the ambiguity of its attributes may have hindered research efforts to advance its application in practice. Design Concept analysis. Data sources Using ‘clinical indicators’ or ‘quality of nursing care’ as subject headings and incorporating keyword combinations of ‘acute care’ and ‘nurs*’, CINAHL and MEDLINE with full text in EBSCOhost databases were searched for English language journal articles published between 2000–2012. Only primary research articles were selected. Methods A hybrid approach was undertaken, incorporating traditional strategies as per Walker and Avant and a conceptual matrix based on Holzemer's Outcomes Model for Health Care Research. Results The analysis revealed two main attributes of nursing-sensitive indicators. Structural attributes related to health service operation included: hours of nursing care per patient day, nurse staffing. Outcome attributes related to patient care included: the prevalence of pressure ulcer, falls and falls with injury, nosocomial selective infection and patient/family satisfaction with nursing care. Conclusion This concept analysis may be used as a basis to advance understandings of the theoretical structures that underpin both research and practical application of quality dimensions of nursing care performance. PMID:25113388

  5. "Disease entity" as the key theoretical concept of medicine.

    PubMed

    Hucklenbroich, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Philosophical debates about the concept of disease, particularly of mental disease, might benefit from reconsideration and a closer look at the established terminology and conceptual structure of contemporary medical pathology and clinical nosology. The concepts and principles of medicine differ, to a considerable extent, from the ideas and notions of philosophical theories of disease. In medical theory, the concepts of disease entity and pathologicity are, besides the concept of disease itself, of fundamental importance, and they are essentially connected to the concepts cause of disease or etiological factor, natural course or natural history of disease, and pathological disposition. It is the concept of disease entity that is of key importance for understanding medical pathology and theory of disease. Its central role is shown by a short reconstruction of its main features and its intrinsic connection to the concept of pathologicity. The meaning of pathologicity is elucidated by explicating the underlying criteria.

  6. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  7. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    PubMed

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  8. Space Shuttle Main Engine Flies High

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Main Engine is being lowered onto its handler before its journey to the test complex at Stennis Space Center. This building is where partially assembled Space Shuttle Main Engines are received and prepared for testing.

  9. Ares I concept illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is an illustration of the Ares I concept. The first stage will be a single, five-segment solid rocket booster derived from the space shuttle programs reusable solid rocket motor. The first stage is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama for NASA's Constellation program.

  10. Ares I concept illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is a concept illustration of Ares I which is an in-line, two-stage rocket that will transport the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to low earth orbit. Orion will accommodate as many as six astronauts. The first stage will consist of the five-segment solid rocket booster.

  11. Ares I concept illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is a concept illustration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, left, and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Ares I will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to space. Ares V will serve as NASA's primary vehicle for delivery of large-scale hardware to space.

  12. Learning Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Yasmeen, Farah

    2004-01-01

    In order to learn the concept of statistical techniques one needs to run real experiments that generate reliable data. In practice, the data from some well-defined process or system is very costly and time consuming. It is difficult to run real experiments during the teaching period in the university. To overcome these difficulties, statisticians…

  13. Photoelectrochemistry: Introductory Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finklea, Harry O.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is based on the semiconductor electrode. It is the semiconductor's ability to absorb light and convert it to electrical and/or chemical energy that forms the basis for the semiconductor liquid-junction solar cell. To understand how this occurs, solid-state physics concepts are discussed. (Author/JN)

  14. The Concept of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores the concept of culture as a factor in the well-being of children. Holding students accountable for their behavior, holding schools accountable for activities and achievements of students, and inducing parents to support their children in school require a cultural change in how we look at schooling. (SLD)

  15. Concept of Operations: Essence

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, William J.

    2014-04-01

    This concept of operations is designed to give the reader a brief overview of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association’s Essence project and a description of the Essence device design. The data collected by the device, how the data are used, and how the data are protected are also discussed in this document.

  16. Using Concept Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabell, John

    2008-01-01

    Concept cartoons are cognitive drawings or "visual disagreements" that use a cartoon-style design to present mathematical conversations inside speech bubbles. The viewpoints portrayed are all different and it is this difference that acts as a catalyst for further conversations, as learners talk together to discuss their thinking. They make…

  17. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  18. Embodying Policy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces some of the key concepts that we have used in our research to help illuminate the multiple and different ways in which apparently ubiquitous health policies relating to obesity, exercise, diet and health are mediated and shaped both globally and nationally, as well as within regional, school and other contexts. The analyses…

  19. Children's Conceptions of Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Turiel, Elliot

    Aware that children conceive of different types of trust, a study examined 60 children's conception of trust. The subjects comprised three age groups: 6-7 years old, 8-9 years old, and 10-11 years old. Each subject was interviewed on the basis of three stories. The stories depicted a hypothesized violation of trust in a moral context (lying),…

  20. The Concept of "Teachability."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that "teachability" is a speculative concept that has for its form and content the absolute, suggesting that its dialectical movement and speculative significance are mis-recognized when the illusionary nature of its constitutive moments is suppressed. The essay outlines the speculative nature of the master/slave relationship in Hegel's…

  1. Naive Conceptions of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Michael

    Two experiments were conducted to characterize the system of beliefs that make up the naive impetus theory of motion and to determine what effects physics instruction has on students' conceptions of motion. Thirteen college students were asked to solve several quantitative problems and were interviewed about their answers in the first experiment.…

  2. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  3. I Teach Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Januszewski, Alan

    This paper describes the author's views on and approach to teaching about educational technology. The author teaches concepts, with an emphasis on "teaching about" rather than "teaching how". The author's educational background and experiences, and their influence on his current views are described. While the definitions of educational technology…

  4. Creativity: Concepts and Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rookey, T. Jerome

    The lack of a universal definition of creativity has led to the assessment of creativity according to the definition favored by the evaluator. These assessments fall into four groups. The first centers around the concept of the creative product; it assesses a tangible event or relationship that results from the creative process, which is implied…

  5. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  6. Changing Conceptions of Nonprofessionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanek, Linda; Powell, Thomas J.

    The authors distinguish between the therapeutically-oriented and the socializationally-oriented nonprofessionals, and maintain that both are valuable in a comprehensive program and neither one is uniquely effective. Hence, task assignments should represent the differing orientations as should training programs. A realistic conception of the types…

  7. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  8. Some Core Contested Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  9. Entropy, a Protean Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balian, Roger

    We review at a tutorial level the many aspects of the concept of entropy and their interrelations, in thermodynamics, information theory, probability theory and statistical physics. The consideration of relevant entropies and the identification of entropy with missing information enlighten the paradoxes of irreversibility and of Maxwell's demon.

  10. Mass Producing Concept Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin-Doxas, K.; Klymkowsky, M.; Doxas, I.

    2005-12-01

    Concept Inventories are research based assessment instruments which derive their validity and reliability from well researched distracters that represent students' dominant misconceptions in the field. They have formed the backbone of research based reform efforts in Physics by providing valid, reliable common assessment instruments with which to evaluate different teaching approaches and materials, and many disciplines are in the process of developing large numbers of Concept Inventories for their own subject areas. Unfortunately, Concept Inventories are labour and time intensive, with instruments taking anywhere from 2-8 years to develop, and correspondingly high price tags. The time and cost is directly related to the fact that valid, reliable instruments require mapping the dominant misconceptions in a field, which is usually a time consuming and labour intensive task. This paper will describe how we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) with unsupervised clustering of the LSA vectors to identify and classify misconceptions in various science disciplines, considerably speeding up the process of misconception discovery and classification. The paper will present results from Astronomy and Biology, and will describe current efforts to develop a Concept Inventory for Space Physics.

  11. Concepts in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sally

    Presented is a discussion of the components and concepts of an ecology typical of the coastal southeastern United States. Principles presented are applicable to other areas. The discussion includes several major sections: the environment, wildlife management, freshwater ecosystems, and the estuarine environment. Numerous figures and illustrations…

  12. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  13. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  14. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  15. Mapping Sociological Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepagnier, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the use of cognitive mapping within sociology. Describes an assignment where students created a cognitive map that focused on names of theorists and concepts related to them. Discusses sociological imagination in relation to cognitive mapping and the assessment of the assignment. (CMK)

  16. DSMS science operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connally, M. J.; Kuiper, T. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Science Operations Concept describes the vision for enabling the use of the DSMS, particularly the Deep Space Network (DSN) for direct science observations in the areas of radio astronomy, planetary radar, radio science and VLBI.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF WATER MAIN INSPECTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a handout of a slide presentation that addresses improvement of water main inspection technology. The slide presentation addresses the need for improved inspection technology (e.g., 237,000 main breaks/yr); the limits on main break prevention; and, the adverse ...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6160 - Main facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main facilities. 57.6160 Section 57.6160...-Underground Only § 57.6160 Main facilities. (a) Main facilities used to store explosive material underground... facilities will not prevent escape from the mine, or cause detonation of the contents of another...

  19. Separations innovative concepts: Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.

    1988-05-01

    This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

  20. Concepts in Activities and Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this special issue make valuable contributions toward a scientific understanding of concepts that is broader than the traditional view that has focused on categorizing by individuals. I propose considering concepts for categorization as a special case of concepts. At their clearest, they can be referred to as "formal concepts," or…

  1. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  2. Exploring the concept of recovery in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M; Gamble, C

    2005-04-01

    The concept of recovery in psychosis has gained much momentum in recent years in the UK. Current government policy describes its underpinning philosophy as the way forward for mental health services. Many mental health professionals now claim to embrace this concept yet fail to make the desired impact upon the care and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. This article reviews some of the literature and explores what the concept of recovery means. The formal evidence will be augmented with personal accounts about recovery written by individuals who have schizophrenia. In doing so the main components that appear to have influenced the recovery process will be highlighted, and the implications for mental health nurses and practitioners will be discussed.

  3. Primary Teachers' Conceptions about the Concept of Volume: The Case of Volume-Measurable Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    In this paper part of the results obtained by a research project called "Primary Teachers' Thinking about the Concept of Volume and its Teaching", performed from 1997 to 2001, are reported. This paper focuses in one of the two main objectives of the aforementioned research: To describe the mental object volume of the participant…

  4. Polyherbal formulation: Concept of ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Subramani; Thing, Gan Siaw; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the traditional medicinal systems of Indian. The philosophy behind Ayurveda is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Ayurveda involves the use of natural elements to eliminate the root cause of the disease by restoring balance, at the same time create a healthy life-style to prevent the recurrence of imbalance. Herbal medicines have existed world-wide with long recorded history and they were used in ancient Chinese, Greek, Egyptian and Indian medicine for various therapies purposes. World Health Organization estimated that 80% of the word's inhabitants still rely mainly on traditional medicines for their health care. The subcontinent of India is well-known to be one of the major biodiversity centers with about 45,000 plant species. In India, about 15,000 medicinal plants have been recorded, in which the communities used 7,000-7,500 plants for curing different diseases. In Ayurveda, single or multiple herbs (polyherbal) are used for the treatment. The Ayurvedic literature Sarangdhar Samhita’ highlighted the concept of polyherbalism to achieve greater therapeutic efficacy. The active phytochemical constituents of individual plants are insufficient to achieve the desirable therapeutic effects. When combining the multiple herbs in a particular ratio, it will give a better therapeutic effect and reduce the toxicity. This review mainly focuses on important of the polyherbalism and its clinical significance. PMID:25125878

  5. Polyherbal formulation: Concept of ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Subramani; Thing, Gan Siaw; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam Arumugam

    2014-07-01

    Ayurveda is one of the traditional medicinal systems of Indian. The philosophy behind Ayurveda is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Ayurveda involves the use of natural elements to eliminate the root cause of the disease by restoring balance, at the same time create a healthy life-style to prevent the recurrence of imbalance. Herbal medicines have existed world-wide with long recorded history and they were used in ancient Chinese, Greek, Egyptian and Indian medicine for various therapies purposes. World Health Organization estimated that 80% of the word's inhabitants still rely mainly on traditional medicines for their health care. The subcontinent of India is well-known to be one of the major biodiversity centers with about 45,000 plant species. In India, about 15,000 medicinal plants have been recorded, in which the communities used 7,000-7,500 plants for curing different diseases. In Ayurveda, single or multiple herbs (polyherbal) are used for the treatment. The Ayurvedic literature Sarangdhar Samhita' highlighted the concept of polyherbalism to achieve greater therapeutic efficacy. The active phytochemical constituents of individual plants are insufficient to achieve the desirable therapeutic effects. When combining the multiple herbs in a particular ratio, it will give a better therapeutic effect and reduce the toxicity. This review mainly focuses on important of the polyherbalism and its clinical significance.

  6. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Ravi Kumar; Janice West; Vitali Lissianski; Neil Widmer; Vladimir Zamansky

    2001-01-01

    accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2000 and ending December 31, 2000. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, objectives of this program, and provides a summary of initial program activities covering program management and preliminary progress in first year tasks including lab- and bench-scale design, facilities preparation, and process/kinetic modeling. More over, the report presents and discusses preliminary results particularly form the bench-scale design and process modeling efforts including a process flow diagram that incorporates the AGC module with other vision-21 plant components with the objective of maximizing H{sub 2} production and process efficiency.

  7. Evolved Expandable Launch Vehicle System: RS-68 Main Engine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portanova, P. L.; Conley, D. S., , Capt; Lee, N. Y.; Wood, B. K.

    2002-01-01

    Delta IV is one of two competing Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) systems being developed in an industry/United States Government partnership to meet the need for the new era of space transportation for the early decades of the 21st Century. The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne, and United States Air Force have developed a 650 Klbf (2.9 NM) class liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen main engine for the Delta IV family of EELV. The purpose of this paper is to present the innovative approach to the design, development, testing, and certification of the RS-68 engine over the last several years. With the initial production process underway, RS-68 is implementing additional innovative concepts to produce an affordable main engine, and provide assured access to space. 1) The Aerospace Corporation3) The Aerospace Corporation 2) Captain, United States Air Force4) The Boeing Company/Rocketdyne

  8. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor hub concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, P. G. C.

    1983-01-01

    Two variations of the helicopter bearingless main rotor hub concept are proposed as bases for further development in the preliminary design phase of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) program. This selection was the result of an evaluation of three bearingless hub concepts and two articulated hub concepts with elastomeric bearings. The characteristics of each concept were evaluated by means of simplified methodology. These characteristics included the assessment of stability, vulnerability, weight, drag, cost, stiffness, fatigue life, maintainability, and reliability.

  9. Overview of 3D laser materials processing concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoukantas, George; Salonitis, Konstantinos; Stavropoulos, Panagiotis; Chryssolouris, George

    2003-04-01

    The term of 3D laser processing has been used so far to describe a group of different three-dimensional laser processing concepts. At each of these concepts the 3D aspect refers to a different manipulation of one or more laser beams, as to process and/or produce three-dimensional geometries by performing material removal, welding or heat treating. The most important concepts are focused mainly in laser machining and laser welding processes by incorporating one or two laser beams simultaneously. This paper overviews a number of these concepts that have been developed in research or industrial level, along with their advantages, drawbacks and fields of application.

  10. An advanced manned launch system concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, H. W.; Piland, W. M.

    1992-08-01

    A two-stage fully reusable rocked powered concept is defined and analyzed in detail for the Advanced Manned Launch System missions. The concept elements include a Mach 3 staging unmanned glideback booster and a 149-ft long winged orbiter with an external payload canister with a 15-ft diameter and 30-ft long payload bay. The booster and orbiter main propulsion system is a lightweight derivative of the current Space Shuttle Main Engine. The primary mission is the Space Station Freedom logistics mission, 40,000-lb payload with two crew members and eight passengers. The structural design and material selection, the thermal protection system, the integral cryogenic tanks and insulation, the propulsion system, and the modular payload canister system are described. The ground and flight operations approach analysis, the manufacturing and certification plan, and the technology development requirements are also discussed.

  11. Trimble Vrs Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttenberger, C.

    Presenting the Trimble Virtual Reference Station (VRS) concept. High accuracy Real-Time Kinematic Positioning with GPS is one of todaySs most widely used surveying techniques. But, its use is restricted by the effects of the iono- sphere and troposphere which create systematic errors in the raw data. In practice, these mean that the distance between a rover (mobile) receiver and its reference sta- tion has to be quite short in order to work efficiently. The concept of Virtual Reference Stations offers a new opportunity. When used, the systematic errors in the reference station data are either reduced, or eliminated. This not only allows a user to increase the distance at which the rover receiver is located from the reference, it also increases the reliability of the system and reduces the OTF initialization time. The presentation describes the setup of a VRS system, as well the used model to reduce the error influence in such a permanente reference station network.

  12. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.; Lopez-Ortiz, A.; White, J.D.; Groves, F.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Three possible regeneration concepts were identified as a result of a literature search. The potential for elemental sulfur production from a number of candidate metal oxide sorbents using each regeneration concept was evaluated on the basis of a thermodynamic analysis. Two candidate sorbents, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} were chosen for experimental testing. The experimental test program using both electrobalance and fixed-bed reactor sis now getting underway. The objective is to determine reaction conditions--temperature, pressure, space velocity, and regeneration feed gas composition--which will maximize the yield of elemental sulfur in the regeneration product gas. Experimental results are to be used to define a conceptual desulfurization-regeneration process and to provide a preliminary economic evaluation.

  13. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A free radical propulsion concept utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust was examined. The concept offered promise of a propulsion system operating at a theoretical impulse, with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, thus filling the gas existing between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas was transferred to the propellant via three body recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Power absorption by the microwave plasma discharge was in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressures. Gas temperatures inferred from gas dynamic equations showed much higher temperatures from microwave heating than from electrothermal heating. Spectroscopic analysis appeared to corroborate the inferred temperatures of one of the gases tested.

  14. TQM: the essential concepts.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality.

  15. Politicizing science: conceptions of politics in science and technology studies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.

  16. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Options for the Future Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jue, Fred; Kuck, Fritz; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump improvements may range from minor component improvements to using 3rd-generation pumps built on the advanced concepts demonstrated by the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) program and the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) prototype engines.The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump

  17. Modular Reflector Concept Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    capability provides discretionary backup for direct monitoring and troubleshooting. DCMi MODULE, DEPLOYED DCM MODULE CREW COMPARTMENT MAN IPULATOR MANIPULATOR...are equivalent in size, shape, and function to DCM modules. META modules differ from DCMI modules by having three intermediate struts per module...excluding static loading, which will vary according to mission). As with the DCMI concept, META modules are limited in size by the available diameter

  18. Firefly system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Firefly' project has developed and implemented an infrared (IR) remote sensing prototype system based on the concept presented. The Firefly system produces images through smoke that will provide near real-time wildland fire information for fire management and suppression. The prototype will be tested through the 1991 fire season. Results of the testing will be incorporated into the final system design for operational use at the end of 1992.

  19. Some core contested concepts.

    PubMed

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  20. Elaborating on threshold concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account for both the important and the problematic characteristics of TCs in terms of the Knowledge/Strategies/Mental Models Framework defined in previous work.

  1. Water laws and concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1970-01-01

    Throughout human history various laws and customs have developed concerning the individual rights and rights in common to the waters of the earth. Many existing laws and concepts are clearly influenced by the environment in which they originated and reflect the relative abundance or scarcity of water. Many concepts reflect the people's original interests in the water and once established have been passed from generation to generation with little modification. Some laws and concepts have been carried by people in their migrations and colonial expansions to vastly different environments, with rather curious consequences. In many places water laws that had been well adapted to the natural environment have become less tenable because of man's activities in modifying that environment, or because of increasing use of water: Increasing consumptive use shifts the water economy toward lesser abundance or increasing deficiency; increasing nonconsumptive use results in pollution of the water resources, so that they become less suitable for other users. The water-rights systems in the United States vary from State to State: some are reasonably fitted to their environment, some have outlived their place in history, some are wasteful of water, some show favoritism to certain special interests or segments of the population. Water-use rights are universally recognized as real property, with constitutional protection against deprivation without due process of law.

  2. Fission Surface Power System Initial Concept Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA has embarked on a project to develop Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology. The primary goals of the project are to 1) develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options, 2) establish a hardwarebased technical foundation for FSP design concepts and reduce overall development risk, 3) reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates, and 4) generate the key products to allow NASA decision-makers to consider FSP as a preferred option for flight development. The FSP project was initiated in 2006 as the Prometheus Program and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission were phased-out. As a first step, NASA Headquarters commissioned the Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study to evaluate the potential for an affordable FSP development approach. With a cost-effective FSP strategy identified, the FSP team evaluated design options and selected a Preliminary Reference Concept to guide technology development. Since then, the FSP Preliminary Reference Concept has served as a point-of-departure for several NASA mission architecture studies examining the use of nuclear power and has provided the foundation for a series of "Pathfinder" hardware tests. The long-term technology goal is a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) integrated system test using full-scale components and a non-nuclear reactor simulator. The FSP team consists of Glenn Research Center (GRC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the DOE National Laboratories at Los Alamos (LANL), Idaho (INL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Sandia (SNL). The project is organized into two main elements: Concept Definition and Risk Reduction. Under Concept Definition, the team performs trade studies, develops analytical tools, and formulates system concepts. Under Risk

  3. Experimental Concepts for Testing Seismic Hazard Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic hazard analysis is the primary interface through which useful information about earthquake rupture and wave propagation is delivered to society. To account for the randomness (aleatory variability) and limited knowledge (epistemic uncertainty) of these natural processes, seismologists must formulate and test hazard models using the concepts of probability. In this presentation, we will address the scientific objections that have been raised over the years against probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Owing to the paucity of observations, we must rely on expert opinion to quantify the epistemic uncertainties of PSHA models (e.g., in the weighting of individual models from logic-tree ensembles of plausible models). The main theoretical issue is a frequentist critique: subjectivity is immeasurable; ergo, PSHA models cannot be objectively tested against data; ergo, they are fundamentally unscientific. We have argued (PNAS, 111, 11973-11978) that the Bayesian subjectivity required for casting epistemic uncertainties can be bridged with the frequentist objectivity needed for pure significance testing through "experimental concepts." An experimental concept specifies collections of data, observed and not yet observed, that are judged to be exchangeable (i.e., with a joint distribution independent of the data ordering) when conditioned on a set of explanatory variables. We illustrate, through concrete examples, experimental concepts useful in the testing of PSHA models for ontological errors in the presence of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty. In particular, we describe experimental concepts that lead to exchangeable binary sequences that are statistically independent but not identically distributed, showing how the Bayesian concept of exchangeability generalizes the frequentist concept of experimental repeatability. We also address the issue of testing PSHA models using spatially correlated data.

  4. Generalizing about Genre: New Conceptions of an Old Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devitt, Amy J.

    1993-01-01

    Explains the new conception of literary genre as it is being devised in the fields of literary studies, linguistics, and rhetoric. Suggests how this new conception has affected the thinking of teachers on writing and writing instruction. (HB)

  5. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  6. Self-Concept Is a Concept Worth Considering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nora

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of self-concept in the pediatric rehabilitation research literature. There also is confusion and inconsistency in the definitions of and the terminology used to describe self-concept. What is agreed is that self-concept is multidimensional, comprising a child's perception of their personal…

  7. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  8. Off-Reservation Indian Survey [Maine].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockabasin, Allen J., Comp; Stone, John G., Comp.

    The needs of the off-reservation Indian population in Maine and recommendations for the correction of these needs are discussed. The program's objectives were (1) to determine the present level of services available to off-reservation Indians in Maine, (2) to determine present housing standards, educational levels, health programs, and geographic…

  9. Fla. Students Turn to Maine for Diplomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a student option to earn a high school diploma from a Maine private school. Frustrated in their attempts to pass the state graduation test and receive high school diplomas, some Florida students are securing the prized credentials by a different route: a private school in Lewiston, Maine. For many of those students,…

  10. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine..., Lincoln and Waldo Cos., ME: Hancock County (part) (includes only the following cities and towns): Bar... following cities and towns): Camden, Criehaven, Cushing, Friendship, Isle au Haut, Matinicus Isle,...

  11. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine...: Hancock County (part) (includes only the following cities and towns): Bar Harbor, Blue Hill, Brooklin... January 10, 2007 Attainment Knox County (part) (includes only the following cities and towns):...

  12. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... (part) (includes only the following cities and towns): Bar Harbor, Blue Hill, Brooklin, Brooksville..., 2007 Attainment Knox County (part) (includes only the following cities and towns): Camden,...

  13. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine...., ME: Hancock County (part) (includes only the following cities and towns): Bar Harbor, Blue Hill... towns): Camden, Criehaven, Cushing, Friendship, Isle au Haut, Matinicus Isle, Muscle Ridge Shoals,...

  14. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine...., ME: Hancock County (part) (includes only the following cities and towns): Bar Harbor, Blue Hill... towns): Camden, Criehaven, Cushing, Friendship, Isle au Haut, Matinicus Isle, Muscle Ridge Shoals,...

  15. Libraries in Maine: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.mainegeneral.org/ Bangor Dorothea Dix Psychiatric Center Behavioral Health Library 656 State Street, PO Box 926 Bangor, ME 04402-0926 207-941-4226 http://www.maine.gov/msl/services/ask.htm Eastern Maine Medical Center Hadley Parrot Health Science Library 489 State Street, PO Box 404 Bangor, ...

  16. 40 CFR 81.413 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maine. 81.413 Section 81.413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.413 Maine. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  17. Total main rotor isolation system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankewitsch, V.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements, preliminary design, and verification procedures for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are presented. The fuselage is isolated from the vibration inducing main rotor at one frequency in all degrees of freedom by four antiresonant isolation units. Effects of parametric variations on isolation system performance are evaluated.

  18. Maine Educational Assessment School Report, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Maine Educational Assessment (MEA) is the state's measure of student progress in achieving the challenging academic expectations, known as "Learning Results," adopted by the Maine Legislature in 1997. This report of student performance in writing, reading, mathematics, and science and technology provides a status report of student…

  19. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is...

  20. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is...

  1. 78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maine Disaster ME-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Apartment Complex Fire. Incident Period: 04/29/2013. Effective Date: 05/30/2013. Physical...

  2. 78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maine Disaster ME-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Commercial and Residential Building Complex Fire. Incident Period: 05/03/2013. Effective Date:...

  3. The Legal Rights of Maine Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Judy R.; Marshall, Gail

    This booklet is intended to help Maine women recognize and enforce their rights under Maine and federal law. It is not designed to be a substitute for lawyers' services, but to inform women of their legal rights so that they will know when to consult a lawyer or a governmental agency for assistance in enforcing these rights. Organized topically by…

  4. Maine Adult Education Director's Handbook, 2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Maine Adult Education Directors' Handbook offers a basic overview of the Adult and Community Education system in Maine. The information is general and intended to provide a background to the person initially becoming involved in adult education--director, teacher, school board member, advisory council member or superintendent. The Handbook is…

  5. RADAR "SAIL" satellite concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguttes, Jean Paul; Sombrin, Jacques; Conde, Eric

    1996-11-01

    The Radar SAIL concept is based on the use of a rectangular antenna lying in the dawn-dusk orbital plane with the length (along speed vector) smaller than the height. Such geometry makes it possible to place the solar cells on the back of the antenna, to use gravity gradient stabilisation, and to implement multipath-free GPS interferometric measurement of the antenna deformation thus allowing structural relaxation. Less obviously, the geometry favours the RADAR design too, by allowing grating lobes and therefore a lower density of built-in electronic in the active antenna. The antenna can be thin and packed for launch inside a cylinder-shaped bus having pyrotechnic doors for the antenna deployement and bearing the rest of the payload and the service equipment. With respect to a standard design of performant missions, cost savings come from the bus, whose functions (AOCS, power supply) are simplified, from the launch since the mass budget and the stowing configuration become compatible with medium size rockets (LLV2/3, DELTA-LITE, LM-4.), and from the active antenna built-in electronics. The RADAR SAIL concept is all the more cost effective when the mission requires a large, high and short antenna, i.e. high resolution (<5m), low frequency band (L or S or even P), high revisiting, multiple frequencies. Mission implementation and funding can be favored by the new capability to share the satellite between autonomous regional operators. Combined with ground DBF (digital beam forming) technique, the concept allows extremely simple and low cost missions providing a fixed wide swath (10 to 15 m resolution within 500km to 1000 km swath) for systematic surveillance or monitoring.

  6. As the nation goes, so goes Maine?

    PubMed

    Kilbreth, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    Historically, Maine has been a state with generous safety net programs and a track record of innovative efforts in health system reform, developed under the leadership of Democratic administrations and with frequent support from moderate Republicans. But the 2010 elections in Maine dramatically changed the political balance of power, anointing both a governor and a legislature ideologically at odds with the state's recent political past. Maine has become a bastion of resistance to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, with a reduced Medicaid program, defunded state access initiative, and no state exchange. In addition, the state has adopted a laissez-faire approach to insurance market dysfunction. Using Maine as a case study of the shifts in national political mood, this article describes in broad brushstrokes Maine's history of health reform efforts and recent shift in political direction, and discusses some of the factors that contributed to the change.

  7. GLAST Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2001-01-01

    Cominsky served as the chair of the GLAST Public Affairs Working Group during the mission concept study. The major accomplishments of this group, which were carried out under her direction include: (1) GLAST Outreach website; (2) Brochure for scientists; (3) Brochure for public; (4) Developed the five key science goal 'bullets' to explain GLAST to the public, as well as the motto used on the GLAST brochures 'Quest for the Ultimate Sources of Energy in the Universe'; (5) Defined the EPO program for GLAST for the proposal phase. Developed initial program outline and budget; and (6) Assisted in the development of the GLAST exhibit, which was used at several scientific conferences.

  8. On the gestalt concept.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Jost, Jürgen

    2006-08-01

    We define a gestalt as the invariants of a collection of patterns that can mutually be transformed into each other through a class of transformations encoded by, or conversely, determining that gestalt. The class of these transformations needs to satisfy structural regularities like the ones of the mathematical structure of a group. This makes an analysis of a gestalt possible in terms of relations between its representing patterns. While the gestalt concept has its origins in cognitive psychology, it has also important implications for morphology.

  9. The concept behind sugammadex.

    PubMed

    Epemolu, O; Bom, A

    2014-05-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. It allows rapid reversal of any degree of neuromuscular blockade induced by steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex acts by encapsulation of the neuromuscular blocking agent. This prevents the drug from acting on prejunctional and postjunctional nicotinic receptors, allowing acetylcholine to activate these receptors, and resulting in reversal of the neuromuscular blockade. Objective monitoring of the degree of neuromuscular blockade is strongly recommended to determine the optimal dose of sugammadex. A good understanding of the concept behind sugammadex is essential in order to use this reversal agent in clinical practice.

  10. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  11. Mars rover 1988 concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Donna Shirley; Penn, Thomas J.; Dias, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Results of FY88 studies of a sample-collecting Mars rover are presented. A variety of rover concepts are discussed which include different technical approaches to rover functions. The performance of rovers with different levels of automation is described and compared to the science requirement for 20 to 40 km to be traversed on the Martian surface and for 100 rock and soil samples to be collected. The analysis shows that a considerable amount of automation in roving and sampling is required to meet this requirement. Additional performance evaluation shows that advanced RTG's producing 500 W and 350 WHr of battery storage are needed to supply the rover.

  12. Open airscrew VTOL concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Tarczynski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The following concepts, based on using open airscrew(s) for VTOL maneuvers, are re-examined in light of current technology: (1) tip-driven helicopters, (2) compound helicopters; and (3) high-speed VTOL aircraft, represented by tiltrotors, tiltwings, retractoplanes and stoppable rotors. Criteria, permitting one to compare performance of aircraft using diverse lifting and propelling methods are established. Determination of currently possible performance, indication of near-future potentials, and comparison of those items with the baseline levels (as represented by contemporary shaft-driven helicopters, first generation tiltrotors, and commercial turboprop fixed-wind aircraft) constitutes bulk of this report.

  13. 78 FR 70545 - KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... located on the North Branch of the Dead River, in Franklin County, Maine; the Marcal Project is located on....gov/docs-filing/ecomment.asp . You must include your name and contact information at the end of...

  14. Preparing the DSN operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, A. J.; Bailey, M. D.; Kuo, N. R.; Wilkinson, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    Operations concepts are prepared to support a specific application and can, therefore, be classified accordingly. Studies of NASA and military operations concepts suggest three major types: data services, customer services, and systems oriented. Data services concepts concentrate on data types (e.g., telemetry and command) and how these data are processed and delivered to the user. Such concepts are normally used by data-processing centers to describe data-coding schemes and data formats. Customer services concepts concentrate on the customers' requirements and describe how these requirements are met using the systems available to the operation. Project centers use such concepts to describe the various types of data as they flow from the source (e.g., a spacecraft) to the end user (i.e., the customer). Systems oriented concepts concentrate on the use of systems for processing and delivering customer data. This paper examines the latter type and the 'concepts' that are inherent within them.

  15. Let's Teach Life Insurance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Larry D.

    1973-01-01

    The author presents arguments for teaching life insurance concepts as part of the business education curriculum. He also presents specific facts, "knowledges," understandings, and concepts as part of the learning process. (AG)

  16. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  17. Rocketdyne RBCC Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortwerth, P.; Ratekin, G.; Goldman, A.; Emanuel, M.; Brown, C.; Ketchum, A.; Horn, M.

    1997-01-01

    Rocketdyne is pursuing the conceptual design and development of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (BBCC) engine for booster and SSTO, advanced reusable space transportation systems under the Advanced Reusable Transportation Technologies contract with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Rocketdyne concept is a fixed geometry integrated rocket, ramjet, scramjet which is hydrogen fueled and uses hydrogen regenerative cooling. Vision vehicle integration studies have determined that scramjet operation to the range of Mach 10 to 12 has high payoff for low cost reusable space transportation. Rocketdyne is internally developing versions of the concept for other applications in high speed aircraft and missiles with hydrocarbon fuel systems. A subscale engine ground test program is underway for all modes of operation from takeoff to Mach 8. High altitude rocket tests will only be completed as part of the ground test program to validate high expansion ratio performance. A unique feature of the ground test series is the inclusion of dynamic trajectory simulation with real time Mach number, altitude, engine throttling, and RBCC mode changes in a specially modified freejet test facility at GASL. Preliminary cold flow air augmented rocket and all rocket test results have met program goals and have been used to integrate all modes of operation in a single combustor design with a fixed geometry inlet for design confirmation tests. A water cooled subscale engine is currently being fabricated for test during the early part of 1998.

  18. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  19. ATR performance modeling concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Baker, Hyatt B.; Nolan, Adam R.; McGinnis, Ryan E.; Paulson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models are needed for automatic target recognition (ATR) development and use. ATRs consume sensor data and produce decisions about the scene observed. ATR performance models (APMs) on the other hand consume operating conditions (OCs) and produce probabilities about what the ATR will produce. APMs are needed for many modeling roles of many kinds of ATRs (each with different sensing modality and exploitation functionality combinations); moreover, there are different approaches to constructing the APMs. Therefore, although many APMs have been developed, there is rarely one that fits a particular need. Clarified APM concepts may allow us to recognize new uses of existing APMs and identify new APM technologies and components that better support coverage of the needed APMs. The concepts begin with thinking of ATRs as mapping OCs of the real scene (including the sensor data) to reports. An APM is then a mapping from explicit quantized OCs (represented with less resolution than the real OCs) and latent OC distributions to report distributions. The roles of APMs can be distinguished by the explicit OCs they consume. APMs used in simulations consume the true state that the ATR is attempting to report. APMs used online with the exploitation consume the sensor signal and derivatives, such as match scores. APMs used in sensor management consume neither of those, but estimate performance from other OCs. This paper will summarize the major building blocks for APMs, including knowledge sources, OC models, look-up tables, analytical and learned mappings, and tools for signal synthesis and exploitation.

  20. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

  1. PRSEUS Structural Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velicki, Alex; Jegley, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    A lighter, more robust airframe is one of the key technological advancements necessary for the successful launch of any large next-generation transport aircraft. Such a premise dictates that considerable improvements beyond current state-of-the-art aluminum structures is needed, and that improvements of this magnitude will require an extensive use of composite materials that are not only lightweight, but also economical to produce. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are developing a novel structural concept called the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. It is an integrally stiffened panel concept that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. In addition to improved structural performance, an important facet of this unique arrangement of stitched carbon fibers is its innovative manufacturing method that has the potential to lower fabrication costs by eliminating fasteners and autoclave cures. The rationale and development status for this new approach forms the basis of the work described in this paper. The test specimens described herein were fabricated, or are currently being fabricated, by The Boeing Company, while the structural analyses and testing tasks are being performed by NASA and Boeing personnel.

  2. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  3. Can We Feel Physics Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yucheng

    2010-01-01

    There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…

  4. The Concept of Philosophical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…

  5. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  6. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  7. Concept Learning through Image Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Yi-Chuan, Jane Hsieh

    This study explored computer-based image processing as a study strategy for middle school students' science concept learning. Specifically, the research examined the effects of computer graphics generation on science concept learning and the impact of using computer graphics to show interrelationships among concepts during study time. The 87…

  8. Nonstandard Student Conceptions about Infinitesimals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This is a case study of an undergraduate calculus student's nonstandard conceptions of the real number line. Interviews with the student reveal robust conceptions of the real number line that include infinitesimal and infinite quantities and distances. Similarities between these conceptions and those of G. W. Leibniz are discussed and illuminated…

  9. On the Nature of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninnes, L. E.

    It is difficult to give a precise meaning to the term "concept" because to specify any sense to the term is already to be using concepts. It is impossible to talk about concepts without at the same time having made epistemological and metaphysical commitments. If the epistemological and metaphysical commitments are inadequate, then the…

  10. The Lexicography of Scholarly Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Raymond G.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the function of concepts in scholarly discourse. Topics include the genesis of Greenwood Press's concept dictionaries; the origins of modern rhetoric; the prescriptive nature of meaning in scholarly discourse; conceptual change, including logical positivism, introspection, and historicism; and interdisciplinary application of concepts.…

  11. Practical review of pharmacology concepts.

    PubMed

    Janda, Sue M; Fagan, Nancy L

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacology concepts are used routinely in nursing practice. These concepts may be as simple as drug names and side effects, or as complex as pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. All play major roles in drug efficacy and safety. A practical review of pharmacology, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts, will be presented.

  12. 78 FR 42556 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental..., 2011, with various implementation dates for each of the rule changes. Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MYAPC) is holder of Facility Operating License DPR-36 for the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant (MY)....

  13. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  14. A Structural Model Related to the Understanding of the Concept of Function: Definition and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaoura, Areti; Michael-Chrysanthou, Paraskevi; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Elia, Iliada; Philippou, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on exploring students' understanding of the concept of function concerning three main aspects: secondary students' ability to (1) define the concept of function and present examples of functions, (2) solve tasks which asked them to recognize and interpret the concept of function presented in different forms of representation,…

  15. Concept Map Structure, Gender and Teaching Methods: An Investigation of Students' Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstner, Sabine; Bogner, Franz X.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study deals with the application of concept mapping to the teaching and learning of a science topic with secondary school students in Germany. Purpose: The main research questions were: (1) Do different teaching approaches affect concept map structure or students' learning success? (2) Is the structure of concept maps influenced…

  16. A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

  17. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  18. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    SciTech Connect

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S. )

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews.

  19. Nancy Main Henley (1934-2016).

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Dean, Karol

    2016-12-01

    Presents an obituary for Nancy Main Henley who passed away on June 4, 2016, in Maryland. Henley was a feminist trailblazer who conducted influential work on gender, communication, and power. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. NASA Now: Geology: Curiosity -- Main Science Goals

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Ashwin Vasavada, deputy project scientist for the Mars Science Laboratory, discusses the main science goals for Curiosity, including the investigation of the presence of water and evidence of l...

  1. Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.

  2. Interview at a Small Maine School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Sally

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interview with the founder and director of the Riley School in Maine in which she discusses the school's educational philosophy and practices, curriculum design, and physical plant design. (BB)

  3. Substructure Main Bridge, Piers B & C Huey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure - Main Bridge, Piers B & C - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  4. Topology of Saturn's main magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-08-01

    The reported analysis of Saturn's main magnetic field takes into account the data obtained by Voyager 1 during its close flyby of Saturn in November 1980. A magnetic field model for the analysis of Saturn's main field in which the distributed ring currents are explicitly modelled is constructed. The considered internal field parameters constitute a first approximation to Saturn's main field. Several model current systems that might be expected on physical grounds to be active in Saturn's magnetosphere are considered. It is pointed out that certain aspects of Saturn's main magnetic field relevant to the planet's interior have been discussed by Stevenson (1980). In particular, the unexpectedly small dipole moment seems to be consistent with the gravitational settling of helium, which leads to a much smaller electrically conducting and convecting region than would be expected of a homogeneous distribution of hydrogen and helium.

  5. Turning Main Street into a Green Street

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With EPA assistance, a small community near Pittsburgh is turning its main street into a green street to control stormwater runoff that has caused flooding, sewer backups and combined sewer overflows.

  6. Geomagnetic main field modeling using magnetohydrodynamic constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of physical constraints are investigated which may be approximately satisfied by the Earth's liquid core on models of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation. A previous report describes the methodology used to incorporate nonlinear equations of constraint into the main field model. The application of that methodology to the GSFC 12/83 field model to test the frozen-flux hypothesis and the usefulness of incorporating magnetohydrodynamic constraints for obtaining improved geomagnetic field models is described.

  7. Current NASA lunar base concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Connolly, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology has completed a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define a point design for an evolving lunar base that supports substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. This study addressed the following: systems level design; element requirements and conceptual design; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and operations concepts. The central base is assumed to be located equatorially on the lunar nearside north of the crater Moltke in Mare Tranquilliatis. The study considers an aggressive case with three main phases. The initial Man-Tended Phase established basic enabling facilities that include a modular habitat that periodically houses a crew of four. During the Experimental Phase, the base becomes permanently manned with the construction of a larger habitat that provides augmented workshop and laboratory volumes and housing for crew. The Operational Phase expands base capabilities to a substantially mature level while reducing reliance on Earth. The analysis classifies base characteristics into several major functional areas: Human Systems; Assembly and Construction; Energy Management; Launch and Landing; Surface Transportation; In-Situ Resources Utilization; User Accommodations; and Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management. Results of various NASA-sponsored studies were synthesized to meet requirements. The system level architecture was determined, the physical layout was developed from a set of proximity criteria and related functions, and the evlotuionary path of the base was analyzed. Conclusions include a summary of technology needs, design drivers, high leverage items, and important issues.

  8. Polymer concepts in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Peter, S J; Miller, M J; Yasko, A W; Yaszemski, M J; Mikos, A G

    1998-01-01

    Traumatic injuries, cancer treatment, and congenital abnormalities are often associated with abnormal bone shape or segmental bone loss. Restoration of normal structure and function in these cases requires replacement of the missing bone that may be accomplished by surgical transfer of natural tissue from an uninjured location elsewhere in the body. However, this procedure is limited by availability, adequate blood supply, and secondary deformities at the donor site. One strategy to overcome these problems is to develop living tissue substitutes based on synthetic biodegradable polymers. Three methods of bone regeneration using biodegradable polymers are being studied in our laboratory: tissue induction, cell transplantation, and fabrication of vascularized bone flaps. Injectable polymers are used for filling skeletal defects and guiding bone tissue growth. Their main advantage is minimizing the surgical intervention or the severity of the surgery. Polymer-cell constructs also hold great promise in the field of tissue engineering. They provide a scaffold on which cells grow and organize themselves. As the cells begin to secrete their own extracellular matrix, the polymer degrades and is eventually eliminated from the body, resulting in completely natural tissue replacement. Bone flaps can be fabricated ectopically into precise shapes and sizes. With an attached vascular supply, these flaps can be transferred into areas deficient in vascularity. This article discusses polymer concepts regarding bone tissue engineering and reviews recent advances of our laboratory on guided bone regeneration using biodegradable polymer scaffolds.

  9. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  10. The Saturn management concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilstein, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Management of the Saturn launch vehicles was an evolutionary process, requiring constant interaction between NASA Headquarters, the Marshall Space Flight Center (particularly the Saturn 5 Program Office), and the various prime contractors. Successful Saturn management was a blend of the decades of experience of the von Braun team, management concepts from the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Government, and private industry. The Saturn 5 Program Office shared a unique relationship with the Apollo Program Office at NASA Headquarters. Much of the success of the Saturn 5 Program Office was based on its painstaking attention to detail, emphasis on individual responsibilities (backed up by comprehensive program element plans and management matrices), and a high degree of visibility as embodied in the Program Control Center.

  11. Avicenna's concept of pain.

    PubMed

    Tashani, Osama A; Johnson, Mark I

    2010-09-08

    Ibn Sina (Latin name - Avicenna, 980-1037) is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity) were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change) of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire.

  12. Introducing the CTA concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, B. S.; Actis, M.; Aghajani, T.; Agnetta, G.; Aguilar, J.; Aharonian, F.; Ajello, M.; Akhperjanian, A.; Alcubierre, M.; Aleksić, J.; Alfaro, R.; Aliu, E.; Allafort, A. J.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Amato, E.; Anderson, J.; Angüner, E. O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Armstrong, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Arrabito, L.; Asano, K.; Ashton, T.; Asorey, H. G.; Awane, Y.; Baba, H.; Babic, A.; Baby, N.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balbo, M.; Balis, D.; Balkowski, C.; Bamba, A.; Bandiera, R.; Barber, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basili, A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Baushev, A.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K. C.; Becker Tjus, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Belluso, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernard, F.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bhat, N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Bitossi, M.; Blake, S.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Blasi, P.; Bobkov, A.; Boccone, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bogacz, L.; Bogart, J.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix Gargallo, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borgland, A.; Borkowski, J.; Bose, R.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bouchet, L.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M.; Bringmann, T.; Brook, P.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buanes, T.; Buckley, J.; Buehler, R.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Camprecios, J.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Casanova, S.; Casiraghi, M.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chabanne, E.; Chadwick, P.; Champion, C.; Chen, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiappetti, L.; Chikawa, M.; Chitnis, V. R.; Chollet, F.; Chudoba, J.; Cieślar, M.; Cillis, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colin, P.; Colome, J.; Colonges, S.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Conforti, V.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corona, P.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Crimi, G.; Criswell, S. J.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Dafonseca, M.; Dale, O.; Daniel, M.; Darling, J.; Davids, I.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caprio, V.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de la Calle, I.; De La Vega, G. A.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Luca, A.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Naurois, M.; de Oliveira, Y.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Decock, G.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Della Volpe, D.; Demange, P.; Depaola, G.; Dettlaff, A.; Di Paola, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickherber, R.; Dickinson, H.; Diez-Blanco, V.; Digel, S.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Dohmke, M.; Domainko, W.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donat, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Drake, G.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Dumas, D.; Dumm, J.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Ebr, J.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Einecke, S.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Evans, P.; Falcone, A.; Fantinel, D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Fasola, G.; Favill, B.; Fede, E.; Federici, S.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Ferrando, P.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Fiorini, M.; Firpo Curcoll, R.; Flores, H.; Florin, D.; Focke, W.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Fornasa, M.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Franckowiak, A.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G.; Frei, R.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gabriele, R.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gallant, Y.; Gámez-García, J.; García, B.; Garcia López, R.; Gardiol, D.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Gebremedhin, L.; Geffroy, N.; Gerard, L.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Giannakaki, E.; Gianotti, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Gika, V.; Giommi, P.; Girard, N.; Giro, E.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Godinovic, N.; Golev, V.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gómez-Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, M. M.; González, A.; González, F.; González Muñoz, A.; Gothe, K. S.; Gougerot, M.; Graciani, R.; Grandi, P.; Grañena, F.; Granot, J.; Grasseau, G.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grégoire, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzinska, M.; Gruev, V.; Grünewald, S.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  13. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  14. The evolving microlesion concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul

    The ``microlesion concept'', introduced by D. Grahn in the 1970's, was further explored using published quantitative carcinogenesis data. Laboratory experiments performed by T.C.H. Yang and co-workers and by R.J.M. Fry and co-workers using the Fe ion beam of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac have resulted in quantitative data on in vitro and in vivo (respectively) carcinogenesis in mouse systems. These data sets were interpreted on the basis of track calculations, and it was found that the action cross section for tumor induction in cultured cells is approximately 0.032 μm2 and that it is about 1/1000th as great in mouse Harderian gland cells. This great difference in carcinogenic sensitivity is a reflection of the biological differences between these two highly promoted systems, neither of which may be quantitatively applicable to humans in space.

  15. The Moon Village Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  16. Transforming care in nursing: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Calatayud, Mónica; Oroviogoicoechea, Cristina; Saracibar, Maribel; Pumar-Méndez, María J

    2017-04-01

    Although the concept of 'Transforming care' is promising for improving health care, there is no consensus in the field as to its definition. The aim of this concept analysis is to develop a deeper understanding of the term 'Transforming care' within the nursing discipline, in order to facilitate its comprehension, implementation, and evaluation. We performed a comprehensive literature review on electronic databases such as Medline (PubMed), Cinahl (Ebsco), Cochrane Library, PsycINFO (Ovid), Web of Science, Wiley-Blackwell, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink and used Walker and Avant's approach to analyse the concept. From the 20 studies selected for this analysis, 3 main attributes of 'Transforming care' were identified: patient-centredness, evidence-based change, and transformational leadership driven. We suggest an operational definition to facilitate the implementation of the concept in practice. Furthermore, we propose that implementation is guided by the following key ideas: (1) fostering a culture of continuous improvement; (2) encouraging bottom-up initiatives; (3) promoting patient-centred care; and (4) using transformational leadership. Lastly, the evaluation of 'Transforming care' initiatives should assess care processes and professionals' and patients' outcomes.

  17. Volumic visual perception: principally novel concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-01-01

    The general concept of volumic view (VV) as a universal property of space is introduced. VV exists in every point of the universe where electromagnetic (EM) waves can reach and a point or a quasi-point receiver (detector) of EM waves can be placed. Classification of receivers is given for the first time. They are classified into three main categories: biological, man-made non-biological, and mathematically specified hypothetical receivers. The principally novel concept of volumic perception is introduced. It differs chiefly from the traditional concept which traces back to Euclid and pre-Euclidean times and much later to Leonardo da Vinci and Giovanni Battista della Porta's discoveries and practical stereoscopy as introduced by C. Wheatstone. The basic idea of novel concept is that humans and animals acquire volumic visual data flows in series rather than in parallel. In this case the brain is free from extremely sophisticated real time parallel processing of two volumic visual data flows in order to combine them. Such procedure seems hardly probable even for humans who are unable to combine two primitive static stereoscopic images in one quicker than in a few seconds. Some people are unable to perform this procedure at all.

  18. Marine Occupations Conference (Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute, South Portland, Maine, April 5, 1974). Maine Sea Grant Bulletin 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of speeches, presented as the 1974 Marine Occupations Conference in South Portland, Maine, provides an overview of information regarding availability and kinds of careers in, as well as the educational requirements for, marine occupations. Also reviewed are the problems of developing marine resources, such as those involving…

  19. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A

    1990-06-01

    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  20. Alternate Concepts Study Extension. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of alternate space shuttle concepts is presented. The two main program alternatives are: (1) phased booster development with an interim solid rocket engine cluster preceding the reusable booster and (2) phased orbiter development with modified avionics, vehicle subsystems, thermal protection system, and redesigned rocket engines. Diagrams of the various concepts are provided. The predicted spacecraft performance capabilities are reported. Project management proposals are submitted.

  1. Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

    2006-03-15

    The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

  2. On the main flow pattern in hydrocyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, C.C.; Shen, H.Q.; Zhu, G.; Khonsari, M.M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    A theoretical model is developed for the prediction of the main flow pattern in hydrocyclones. The model regards the main body of the cyclone as inviscid and includes provisions for the fluid underflow in cyclones. The governing equations are solved analytically in closed form. To verify the results, a laboratory-scale conically-shaped hydrocyclone was designed, built, and tested. Experimental measurements for axial and tangential velocities are presented with a series of test solely devoted to the effect of underflow. The theoretical and experimental results are shown to be in good agreement. It is concluded that such an inviscid model gives an adequate representation of the main flow field in a cyclone.

  3. Tune control in the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    G. Wu et al.

    1999-04-16

    We describe methods used to measure and control tunes in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI). Emphasis is given to software implementation of the operator interface, to the front-end embedded computer system, and handling of hysteresis of main dipole and quadrupole magnets. Techniques are developed to permit control of tune of the Main Injector through several acceleration cycles: from 8.9 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c, from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c, and from 150 GeV/c to 8.9 GeV/c. Systems which automate the complex interactions between tune measurement and the variety of ramping options are described. Some results of tune measurements and their comparison with the design model are presented.

  4. Optics Simulations for the NLC Main Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Mark D

    2001-06-15

    Focusing in the NLC main linac will be provided mainly by hybrid permanent magnet quadrupoles which have limited variability in strength. When the energy profile of the linac changes, due to normal cycling of rf sources, mismatches in the beam optics can be generated if the quadrupole strengths are not rescaled to the new energy profile. These mismatches can lead to emittance dilution. In addition, betatron phase advance changes caused by the mismatch can adversely affect the beam trajectory, leading to emittance dilution from dispersion and wakefields. This paper describes the results of simulations of these processes, undertaken in an attempt to determine whether or not rescaling of the quadrupoles will be necessary in the NLC main linac.

  5. [Special methodology, qualitative methods and abstract concepts].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Ana R

    2010-08-01

    Generally speaking, this paper comments on the role of qualitative methods in scientific psychology. To begin with, general and special methodology are defined; then, the main uses of qualitative methods are described and the focus of the paper on the study of meaning and of abstract concepts in the context of embodied cognition is justified. It is emphasized that three uses of qualitative methods converge in the study of embodied cognition: (1) classification, given that it is centered on concepts, (2) discovery, because theories are not yet well articulated and inductive effort is required, and (3) the study of meaning. The final recommendation is to profit from the opportunity of constructing special techniques that the transformation of cognitive psychology is favoring; in this context, varieties of emotion become a privileged object of study.

  6. Analyzing phonetic confusions using formal concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Moreno, C; García-Moral, A I; Valverde-Albacete, F J

    2010-09-01

    Confusion matrices have been used as a tool for the analysis of speech perception or human speech recognition (HSR) for decades. However, they are rarely employed in automatic speech recognition (ASR) mainly due to the lack of a systematic procedure for their exploration. The generalization of formal concept analysis employed in this paper provides a conceptual interpretation of confusion matrices that enables the analysis of the structure of confusions for both human and machine performances. Generalized formal concept analysis transforms confusion matrices into ordered lattices of confusion events, supporting classic results in HSR that identify a hierarchy of virtual articulatory-acoustic channels. Translating this technique into ASR, a detailed map of the relationships among the speech units employed in the system can be traced to make different sources of confusions apparent: the influence of the lexicon, segmentation errors, dialectal variations or limitations of the feature extraction procedures, among others.

  7. Alien Sunset (Artist Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Our solitary sunsets here on Earth might not be all that common in the grand scheme of things. New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed that mature planetary systems -- dusty disks of asteroids, comets and possibly planets -- are more frequent around close-knit twin, or binary, stars than single stars like our sun. That means sunsets like the one portrayed in this artist's photo concept, and more famously in the movie 'Star Wars,' might be quite commonplace in the universe.

    Binary and multiple-star systems are about twice as abundant as single-star systems in our galaxy, and, in theory, other galaxies. In a typical binary system, two stars of roughly similar masses twirl around each other like pair-figure skaters. In some systems, the two stars are very far apart and barely interact with each other. In other cases, the stellar twins are intricately linked, whipping around each other quickly due to the force of gravity.

    Astronomers have discovered dozens of planets that orbit around a single member of a very wide stellar duo. Sunsets from these worlds would look like our own, and the second sun would just look like a bright star in the night sky.

    But do planets exist in the tighter systems, where two suns would dip below a planet's horizon one by one? Unveiling planets in these systems is tricky, so astronomers used Spitzer to look for disks of swirling planetary debris instead. These disks are made of asteroids, comets and possibly planets. The rocky material in them bangs together and kicks up dust that Spitzer's infrared eyes can see. Our own solar system is swaddled in a similar type of disk.

    Surprisingly, Spitzer found more debris disks around the tightest binaries it studied (about 20 stars) than in a comparable sample of single stars. About 60 percent of the tight binaries had disks, while the single stars only had about 20 percent. These snug binary systems are as close or closer than just three times the

  8. Transition crossing in the main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the study of various longitudinal problems pertaining to the transition-energy crossing in the proposed Fermi Lab Main Injector. The theory indicates that the beam loss and bunch-area growth are mainly caused by the chromatic non-linear effect, which is enhanced by the space-charge force near transition. Computer simulation using the program TIBETAN shows that a {gamma}{sub T} jump'' of about 1.5 unit within 1 ms is adequate to achieve a clean'' crossing in the currently proposed h{equals}588 scenario. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Circumportal pancreas with retroportal main pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yasushi; Ross, Andrew S; Traverso, L William

    2009-08-01

    There have been 6 cases of circumportal pancreas reported, and 2 of them had the main pancreatic duct in a retroportal dorsal portion. This extremely uncommon anomaly is asymptomatic and therefore incidentally discovered. For the surgeon, it is important to discover this during pancreatic resection so the pancreatic duct can be closed and fistula is avoided. We describe the third case where a circumportal pancreas had its main pancreatic duct passing under the portal vein. The duct was identified and ligated. A fistula did not occur.

  10. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    PubMed

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  11. Maine's College Graduates: Where They Go and Why. Finding Maine's Future Workforce (Revisited)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Woodard, Brianne L.

    2006-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy of today, training and retaining a college educated workforce is crucial to the vitality of Maine. Approximately one-half of Maine's high school graduates who go on to college leave the State to do so. A previous study, "Maine's College Graduates: Where They Go and Why" (2003), looked at the factors that…

  12. Basic concepts of epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Through epigenetic modifications, specific long-term phenotypic consequences can arise from environmental influence on slowly evolving genomic DNA. Heritable epigenetic information regulates nucleosomal arrangement around DNA and determines patterns of gene silencing or active transcription. One of the greatest challenges in the study of epigenetics as it relates to disease is the enormous diversity of proteins, histone modifications and DNA methylation patterns associated with each unique maladaptive phenotype. This is further complicated by a limitless combination of environmental cues that could alter the epigenome of specific cell types, tissues, organs and systems. In addition, complexities arise from the interpretation of studies describing analogous but not identical processes in flies, plants, worms, yeast, ciliated protozoans, tumor cells and mammals. This review integrates fundamental basic concepts of epigenetics with specific focus on how the epigenetic machinery interacts and operates in continuity to silence or activate gene expression. Topics covered include the connection between DNA methylation, methyl-CpG-binding proteins, transcriptional repression complexes, histone residues, histone modifications that mediate gene repression or relaxation, histone core variant stability, H1 histone linker flexibility, FACT complex, nucleosomal remodeling complexes, HP1 and nuclear lamins. PMID:22395460

  13. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a free radical propulsion system, utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust, is analyzed. The system, operating at a theoretical impulse with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, is hypothesized to bridge the gap between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. A comparative methodology is outlined by which characteristics of chemical and electric propulsion for orbit raising mission can be investigated. It is noted that free radicals proposed in rockets previously met with difficulty and complexity in terms of storage requirements; the present study proposes to eliminate the storage requirements by using electric energy to achieve a continuous-flow product of free radicals which are recombined to produce a high velocity propellant. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas is transferred to the propellant via three-body-recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Microwave plasma discharge was found in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressure in preliminary experiments, and microwave heating compared to electrothermal heating showed much higher temperatures in gasdynamic equations.

  14. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned.

  15. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  16. The Master Protocol Concept.

    PubMed

    Redman, Mary W; Allegra, Carmen J

    2015-10-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution-from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars-to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next-generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demands the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study).

  17. Human babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert P; Elias, Susan P; Borelli, Timothy J; Missaghi, Bayan; York, Brian J; Kessler, Robert A; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Hayes, Catherine M; Coulter, Michael S; Rand, Peter W

    2014-10-01

    We observed an increase in the ratio of pathogenic Babesia microti to B. odocoilei in adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Maine. Risk for babesiosis was associated with adult tick abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence, and Lyme disease incidence. Our findings may help track risk and increase the focus on blood supply screening.

  18. State of Maine Learning Results: Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

    In this document the social studies knowledge and skills deemed necessary for preparing Maine students for work, higher education, citizenship, and personal fulfillment are identified. The document serves as a guideline for teachers and parents regarding what students should know and be able to do at various checkpoints during their social studies…

  19. Maine's Balance of Representation: Information and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This document, a companion to the "LAS Guide Principles and Criteria for the Adoption of Local Assessment Systems," [ED484135] presents results that are intended to provide Maine's school administrative units with an option for selecting sample performance indicators to be assessed through the Local Assessment System to meet the…

  20. Project MAIN: Community Collaboration Benefits Senior Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Gerald F.

    1986-01-01

    Examines Project MAIN (Mobile Assistants in Nutrition), a 12-month demonstration project and the collaborative effort of an urban university, a high school, and a senior services agency, which employed students, ages 14 to 19, to research, plan, and operate a grocery delivery and escort service for elderly and disabled citizens. (BB)

  1. Eutrophication in the Gulf of Maine's waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf of Maine and its watershed encompass more than 170,000 km2 and is home to over 6.5 million Canadians and Americans. Despite its long-standing importance to fisheries and natural resources and current interest in exploration of wind and tide as renewable energy sources, ...

  2. Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine…

  3. Maine Technical College System Annual Report, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, John

    Focusing on the 1995-96 academic year, this report discusses programs and outcomes for the seven colleges in the Maine Technical College System (MTCS). Following a message from the System President, general outcomes for the MTCS are described. This section indicates that systemwide enrollment in fall 1995 was 4,475, representing a 24% increase…

  4. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  5. Identification of space shuttle main engine dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Guo, Ten-Huei; Merrill, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    System identification techniques are used to represent the dynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The transfer function matrices of the linearized models of both the closed loop and the open loop system are obtained by using the recursive maximum likelihood method.

  6. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  7. Antenna Beam Coverage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The strawman Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) design calls for the use of a CONUS beam for transmission between the supplier and the satellite and for fixed beams for transmission between the basic personal terminal and the satellite. The satellite uses a 3 m main reflector for transmission at 20 GHz and a 2 m main reflector for reception at 30 GHz. There are several types of spot beams under consideration for the PASS system besides fixed beams. The beam pattern of a CONUS coverage switched beam is shown along with that of a scanning beam. A switched beam refers to one in which the signal from the satellite is connected alternatively to various feed horns. Scanning beams are taken to mean beams whose footprints are moved between contiguous regions in the beam's coverage area. The advantages and disadvantages of switched and/or scanning beams relative to fixed beams. The consequences of using switched/scanning in lieu of fixed beams in the PASS design and attempts are made to evaluate the listed advantages and disadvantages. Two uses of switched/scanning beams are examined. To illustrate the implications of switched beams use on PASS system design, operation at two beam scan rates is explored.

  8. Revolutionary Concepts for Helicopter Noise Reduction: SILENT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bryan; Cox, Charles; Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of a NASA initiative to reduce helicopter main rotor noise, a Phase 1 study has been performed of candidate noise reduction concepts. Both conventional and novel design technologies have been analyzed that reduce the community impact of helicopter operations. In this study the noise reduction potential and design implications are assessed for conventional means of noise reduction, e.g., tip speed reduction, tip shapes and airfoil tailoring, and for two innovative design concepts: modulated blade spacing and x-force control. Main rotor designs that incorporate modulated blade spacing are shown to have reduced peak noise levels in most flight operations. X-force control alters the helicopter's force balance whereby the miss distance between main rotor blades and shed vortices can be controlled. This control provides a high potential to mitigate BVI noise radiation. Each concept is evaluated using best practice design and analysis methods, achieving the study's aim to significantly reduce noise with minimal performance degradation and no vibration increase. It is concluded that a SILENT main rotor design, incorporating the modulated blade spacing concept, offers significantly reduced noise levels and the potential of a breakthrough in how a helicopter's sound is perceived and judged. The SILENT rotor represents a definite advancement in the state-of-the-art and is selected as the design concept for demonstration in Phase 2. A Phase 2 Implementation Plan is developed for whirl cage and wind tunnel evaluations of a scaled model SILENT rotor.

  9. Mathematical Concepts and Maple Animations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Mohammad; Mitchell, Kristy

    2010-09-01

    Maple is a mathematics software package, which contains graphic, computation, and programming tools. Maple animation is a powerful tool that can help in comprehending many fundamental concepts in mathematics and other sciences. This paper deals with the use of maple animation to demonstrate many fundamental concepts in mathematics that are difficult to explain verbally or through static figures. We show Maple animations effectively convey different concepts. We present problems taken from the literature to exemplify and explain Maple animation procedures. Using Maple in teaching mathematics facilitates the students with a tool to experiment and visualize complicated mathematical concepts and thus, strengthen their grasp of the subject.

  10. AGC-1 Experiment and Final Preliminary Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Bratton; Tim Burchell

    2006-08-01

    This report details the experimental plan and design as of the preliminary design review for the Advanced Test Reactor Graphite Creep-1 graphite compressive creep capsule. The capsule will contain five graphite grades that will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory to determine the irradiation induced creep constants. Seven other grades of graphite will be irradiated to determine irradiated physical properties. The capsule will have an irradiation temperature of 900 C and a peak irradiation dose of 5.8 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} [E > 0.1 MeV], or 4.2 displacements per atom.

  11. The AGCE related studies of baroclinic flows in spherical geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyun, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Steady state, axisymmetric motions of a Boussineaq fluid continued in rotating spherical anmulus are considered. The motions are driven by latitudinally varying temperature gradient at the shells. Linearized formulations for a narrow gap are derived and the flow field is divided into the Ekman layers and the geostrophic interior. The Ekman layer flows are consistent with the known results for cylindrical geometries. Within the framework of rather restrictive assumptions, the interior flows are solved by a series of associated Legendre polynomials. The solutions show qualitative features valid at midlatitudes.

  12. Crystal Field Theory and the Angular Overlap Model Applied to Hydrides of Main Group Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is how crystal field theory and the angular overlap model can be applied to very simple molecules which can then be used to introduce such concepts as bonding orbitals, MO diagrams, and Walsh diagrams. The main-group compounds are used as examples and a switch to the transition metal complexes. (KR)

  13. Students' Alternative Conceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions about Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David

    2001-01-01

    Identifies students' conceptions that could be categorized as scientifically acceptable and investigates the nature of any possible relationship between these concepts. Investigates 6th and 10th grade students' ideas on whether gravity acted upon a series of moving or non-moving objects in everyday situations. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  15. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  16. Concept of software interface for BCI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svejda, Jaromir; Zak, Roman; Jasek, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology is intended to control external system by brain activity. One of main part of such system is software interface, which carries about clear communication between brain and either computer or additional devices connected to computer. This paper is organized as follows. Firstly, current knowledge about human brain is briefly summarized to points out its complexity. Secondly, there is described a concept of BCI system, which is then used to build an architecture of proposed software interface. Finally, there are mentioned disadvantages of sensing technology discovered during sensing part of our research.

  17. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  18. Habitable zones around main sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.; Whitmire, Daniel P.; Reynolds, Ray T.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for stabilizing climate on the earth and other earthlike planets is described, and the physical processes that define the inner and outer boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) around the sun and main sequence stars are discussed. Physical constraints on the HZ obtained from Venus and Mars are taken into account. A 1D climate model is used to estimate the width of the HZ and the continuously habitable zone around the sun, and the analysis is extended to other main sequence stars. Whether other stars have planets and where such planets might be located with respect to the HZ is addressed. The implications of the findings for NASA's SETI project are considered.

  19. Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (28.5 miles) per picture element (pixel) along Jupiter's rings. Because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced when sunlight is scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts - - a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, outside the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the figure's far left side. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa (top image). A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings. This vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. To accentuate faint features in the bottom image of the ring halo, different brightnesses are shown through color. Brightest features are white or yellow and the

  20. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maine. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Anderson, W.; Foley, M.E.

    1993-07-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maine Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of Maine's nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $41.3 million, a $21.2 million decrease compared with that of 1990. Decreases in output and value were reported for most of the nonfuel minerals produced. The largest decreases in both production and value were for construction sand and gravel and dimension stone. Smaller decreases were estimated for both masonry and portland cement. Other mineral commodities produced in the State included common clay, gemstones, and peat. Perlite was shipped in from out-of-State and expanded at one plant in the State.

  1. Orbital evolution of the main Uranian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheylewegen, E.; Noyelles, B.

    2011-10-01

    Since Voyager 2 space mission, we know some properties of the main Uranian satellites (Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon): on the one hand, we observe an important resurfacing of both Miranda and Ariel, and on the other hand some strangenesses in the orbital elements such as the anomalously high inclinaison of Miranda or the anomalously high eccentricity of Ariel. The aim of this study is to use some modern methods including advances in computing resources to revise some studies developed in the last 20 years (see for instance [1], [2], [3], [4]). We therefore consider a model of a n-body problem which takes into account of the mutual perturbations of the five main satellites and of the planet Uranus and meet/improve some previous results.

  2. Early history of the Fermilab Main Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E.; /Fermilab

    1983-10-01

    This note is written in response to a request from Phil Livdahl for corrections, and additions to a TM he is writing on Staffing Levels at Fermilab during Initial Construction Years and to a note that Hank Hinterberger is preparing on milestones. In my spare time over the past few years I have taken the original files of the Main Ring Section, my own notes from that period, and various other collections of relevant paper, and arranged them in a set of 44 large loose leaf binders in chronological order. I call this set of volumes the 'Main Ring Chronological Archives'. In response to Phil's request I have recently skimmed through these records of the period and extracted a small subset of documents which relate to the specific questions that Phil is addressing: staffing. administration, and milestones.

  3. Main field and recent secular variation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    As Cain (1979) indicated might happen in the last IUGG quadrennial report, added resources were made available during the past few years and a real impulse was added to the geomagnetic work in the US by the launching of the MAGSAT Satellite. This new effort paid off in terms of new charts, additional long wavelength studies, and external source studies. As before, however, the future funding for new starts in geomagnetism does not look bright at the present time. A single MAGSAT in orbit a little more than seven months did wonders for main field (M.F.) charting, but did little or nothing for secular variation (S.V.) charting. It would take a number of repeated MAGSATS to help the S.V. picture. Meanwhile, the world magnetic observatory net and surface repeat stations remain as the main source of S.V. data. -from Author

  4. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Vladimir Zamansky; Linda Denton; Hana Loreth; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2001-07-01

    accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2001 and ending June 30, 2001. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, objectives of this program, and provides a summary of program activities covering program management and progress in first year tasks including lab- and bench-scale design, facilities preparation, and engineering studies.

  5. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Edwin Hippo; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2002-07-01

    accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2002 and ending June 30, 2002. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities covering program management and progress in tasks including lab-/bench-scale experimental testing and pilot-scale design.

  6. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Tomasz Wiltowski; Tom Miles; Bruce Springsteen

    2002-01-01

    accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2001 and ending December 31, 2001. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities covering program management and progress in tasks including lab- and bench-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale design, and economic studies.

  7. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    algae are common along the shore and in the intertidal and subtidal areas of the bay. Brown algae are dominant in the rocky intertidal and subtidal plant...loss of mixing within the wate, column would affect the existing organisms. Nine species of marine mammals are common to the Gulf of Maine and the...to the present shore line. After the glacier had melted back somc distance from the coast, silt and clay were laid down over the previous sediments in

  8. The geomagnetic main field and the geodynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Roberts, Paul H.

    1991-01-01

    Information available on the geomagnetic main field and the geodynamo is presented. Attention is given to the process of mapping the magnetic field, the last version of International Geomagnetic Reference Field Model, and maps of the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary and their interpretation. Particular consideration is given to the existing geodynamo theories, with special relation given to the Braginsky and Meytlis theory of core turbulence in which the turbulence differs fundamentally from classical turbulence of Kolmogorov type.

  9. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  10. Acadian dextral transpression in western Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, S.G. ); Marvinney, R.G. )

    1993-03-01

    Two groups of faults characterize the Acadian tectonic regime of northwestern Maine. The first group is largely dextral and reverse in nature and is represented by the Deep Pond (DPF) and Thrasher Peaks (TPF) faults in the Jackman area. The second is reverse in nature, and is represented by three faults in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. Taken together this fault system represents an Acadian dextral transpressive regime. Part of this regime includes an 11 km wide by 17 km long horst of Cambrian( ), Ordovician( ) and Late Silurian rocks in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. This horst is a part of a restraining bend. Associated with this bend is a deflection and rotation of the regional fault, fold axis and cleavage pattern. Orientations of these structures generally change from NE-SW in the Jackman area to N-S in the Caucomgomoc area. In westernmost Maine, the DPF and TPF both strike NE-SW, but the strikes rotate to ENE-WSW farther to the east in the Jackman area. The NW-dipping DPF separates Silurian rocks of the Frontenac Fm on the north from Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the south. Foliation associated with Acadian folding dips moderately (30--50 degrees) near the DPF and major folds are overturned and verge toward the SE along its entire length in Maine. This contrasts sharply with the dominant upright, NW-verging folds and sleep foliation which characterizes the Acadian throughout northwestern Maine. The NW-dipping TPF separates Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the north from Precambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Chain Lakes massif and Attean pluton, respectively, on the south. Along the TPF and DPF are kinematic indicators which suggest reverse and dextral components to movement.

  11. Neurological disorders presenting mainly in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, S; Appleton, R E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss some of the neurological diseases that present mainly in the adolescent period. The article focuses on the usual presentation and course of the more common, and some uncommon, epilepsies, neuromuscular disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system and some other, miscellaneous conditions. The article ends with a very brief and general discussion about management issues in this age group. PMID:17264287

  12. Dark current model for ILC main linac

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.; Romanov, G.; Mokhov, N.V.; Eidelman, Y.; Tam, Wai-Ming; /Indiana U.

    2008-06-01

    In the ILC Main Linac, the dark current electrons, generated in SRF cavity can be accelerated to hundreds of MeV before being kicked out by quadrupoles and thus will originate electromagnetic cascade showers in the surrounding materials. Some of the shower secondaries can return back into vacuum and be re-accelerated again. The preliminary results of simulation of the dark current generation in ILC cavity, its dynamics in linac are discussing in this paper.

  13. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  14. Radiation shielding of the main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; Martin, P.S.

    1995-05-01

    The radiation shielding in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) complex has been carried out by adopting a number of prescribed stringent guidelines established by a previous safety analysis. Determination of the required amount of radiation shielding at various locations of the FMI has been done using Monte Carlo computations. A three dimensional ray tracing code as well as a code based upon empirical observations have been employed in certain cases.

  15. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewallen, Pat

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) vibration data without having to constantly replay analog tapes, the SSME Vibration Data Base was developed. This data base contains data that have been digitized at a high sample rate for the entire test duration. It provides quick and efficient recall capabilities for numerious computation and display routines. The data base components are described as well as some of the compution and display features.

  16. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution.

    PubMed

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries.

  17. Photogrammetric Analysis of CPAS Main Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric; Bretz, David

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown with a cluster of two to three Main parachutes. The instantaneous rate of descent varies based on parachute fly-out angles and geometric inlet area. Parachutes in a cluster oscillate between significant fly-out angles and colliding into each other. The former presents a sub-optimal inlet area and the latter lowers the effective drag area as the parachutes interfere with each other. The fly-out angles are also important in meeting a twist torque requirement. Understanding cluster behavior necessitates measuring the Mains with photogrammetric analysis. Imagery from upward looking cameras is analyzed to determine parachute geometry. Fly-out angles are measured from each parachute vent to an axis determined from geometry. Determining the scale of the objects requires knowledge of camera and lens calibration as well as features of known size. Several points along the skirt are tracked to compute an effective circumference, diameter, and inlet area as a function of time. The effects of this geometry are clearly seen in the system drag coefficient time history. Photogrammetric analysis is key in evaluating the effects of design features such as an Over-Inflation Control Line (OICL), Main Line Length Ratio (MLLR), and geometric porosity, which are varied in an attempt to minimize cluster oscillations. The effects of these designs are evaluated through statistical analysis.

  18. Free (Reactionless) Torque Generation - Or Free Propulsion Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjev, Bojidar

    2010-01-28

    The basic principle in Newtonian Mechanics is based upon equal and opposite forces. Placing the vectors of velocity, acceleration, force and momentum of interacting objects along a single line satisfies the claim it is a linear or a 1-D concept. Classical Mechanics states that there are two main kinds of motion, linear and angular motion. Similarly placing the vectors of angular velocity, angular acceleration, torque and angular momentum along a line in the case of rotation in fact brings a plane 2-D interaction to the well known 1-D Newtonian concept. This adaptation transforms Classical Mechanics into a 1-D concept as well and presents a conformation that the linear concept is the only possible one. The Laws of Conservation of Momentum and Angular Momentum are results of the 1-D concept. But the world contains 3 geometrical spatial dimensions. Within the 3-D world there can exist 1-D, 2-D and 3-D kinds of interaction. The question is how to believe that the 3-D world can really be composed of a 1-D interaction or interactions made equal to the 1-D concept only? Examine a gyroscope - the only one mechanical device that is capable of performing 3-D behavior. The problem is that a gyroscope cannot perform three permanent and unidirectional torques that are fixed in space acting about perpendicular axes. This impossibility conforms to a 1-D concept. The idea is to find a solution that can be achieved for the 3-D concept.

  19. Teaching Population Concepts. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This edition is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of population study are presented. These include populations, growth rates, birth and death rates, doubling time, migration, age…

  20. Conceptions of Workplace University Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elaine

    1998-01-01

    A study examined how academic staff involved in workplace supervision of students conceive of the workplace experience in four professional areas: engineering, business administration, health sciences, and social science. Five concepts are identified, and a relationship is seen between the conceptions and the quality of student learning. Staff…

  1. Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

  2. Mental Models of Boolean Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P.; Johnson-Laird, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    Negation, conjunction, and disjunction are major building blocks in the formation of concepts. This article presents a new model-based theory of these Boolean components. It predicts that individuals simplify the models of instances of concepts. Evidence corroborates the theory and challenges alternative accounts, such as those based on minimal…

  3. Vocational Maturity and Self Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Hans

    The relationship between separate dimensions of vocational maturity and different self-concept and identity variables were examined. Subjects were Dutch students, age 14-18 years. The vocational maturity dimensions were measured by Dutch adaptations of American vocational maturity scales. Instruments for self-concept and identity measurement were…

  4. Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…

  5. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  6. A concept analysis of otherness.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jane Greene

    2012-01-01

    Otherness is an important concept in understanding the health provider-patient relationship and in creating insights into how to be more present with patients and families. This is an analysis of the concept of Otherness that leads to a definition of the construct.

  7. Learning to Use Scientific Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    In responding to the research on conceptual change, this article attempts to make two points. First, scientific concepts are not possessed by individuals; rather, they are part of a culture's resources, which individuals learn to use for their own or for group purposes. Second, particular concepts are most effectively mastered when the learner is…

  8. Developing the Concept of Metalearning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman

    2004-01-01

    The idea of metalearning was originally used by John Biggs (1985) to describe the state of 'being aware of and taking control of one's own learning'. This paper explores the concept through collaborative enquiry involving researchers and higher education teachers. An evolved conception is proposed in which metalearning is a subconcept within…

  9. Mnemonic Instruction of Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight behavior disordered students (ages 7-11) in a self-contained class were given two units of instruction in science concepts in a crossover design, with each student receiving both mnemonic and traditional instruction. Student learning was significantly improved under mnemonic instruction, and high levels of concept retention were…

  10. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  11. Prison Rehabilitation: Concept Associates, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    A self-help project called Concept Associates, Inc., was started at Parish Prison in New Orleans. While most penal rehabilitation programs educate inmates and teach them a trade, the work of Concept is more thorough. The inmates aid each other with their problems by concentrating on inner changes and the power of positive thinking through four…

  12. Concept Empiricism: A Methodological Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machery, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to Barsalou's, Damasio's, Glenberg's, Prinz' and others' work, neo-empiricism is gaining a deserved recognition in the psychology and philosophy of concepts. I argue, however, that neo-empiricists have underestimated the difficulty of providing evidence against the amodal approach to concepts and higher cognition. I highlight three key…

  13. Science Club--A Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Issak, Nicole; Tesch, Katharina; Zehne, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a concept of a science club which was developed by two master's students as a part of their thesis and which has been developed and improved ever since. The extra-curricular concept emphasises pupils' individuality through focusing on problem based leaning, station learning, and mixed age groups. Having joined the…

  14. Fijian Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayal, Hem Chand; Lingam, Govinda Ishwar

    2015-01-01

    Teacher's conceptions are important as they could have a strong influence on their professional practices. This study set out to explore Fijian teacher's conceptions of assessment. Seventy teachers enrolled in an assessment course at a university in Fiji were involved in this study. Data was collected by asking teachers to write a reflection on…

  15. The Greek Concept of "Techne."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, C. Stephen

    The Greek concept of techne can aid in understanding technological society and the way it can generate a separation of business and personal lives. As used by the early Greeks, techne mean the knowledge required to get the job done. The "manager" of today epitomizes this early concept. He is trained to get the job done efficiently,…

  16. Children's Death Concepts and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.

    1980-01-01

    Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…

  17. New Concepts in Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    The 30th annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Minneapolis in 1968. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "A Fresh Look at Industrial Arts," (2) "New Curricular Concepts," (3) "Making Education Relevant," (4) "Industrial Arts in an Educational System for the Seventies," (5) "New Concepts in…

  18. Advanced Turbulence Modeling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    The ZCET program developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is to study hydrogen/air injection concepts for aircraft gas turbine engines that meet conventional gas turbine performance levels and provide low levels of harmful NOx emissions. A CFD study for ZCET program has been successfully carried out. It uses the most recently enhanced National combustion code (NCC) to perform CFD simulations for two configurations of hydrogen fuel injectors (GRC- and Sandia-injector). The results can be used to assist experimental studies to provide quick mixing, low emission and high performance fuel injector designs. The work started with the configuration of the single-hole injector. The computational models were taken from the experimental designs. For example, the GRC single-hole injector consists of one air tube (0.78 inches long and 0.265 inches in diameter) and two hydrogen tubes (0.3 inches long and 0.0226 inches in diameter opposed at 180 degree). The hydrogen tubes are located 0.3 inches upstream from the exit of the air element (the inlet location for the combustor). To do the simulation, the single-hole injector is connected to a combustor model (8.16 inches long and 0.5 inches in diameter). The inlet conditions for air and hydrogen elements are defined according to actual experimental designs. Two crossing jets of hydrogen/air are simulated in detail in the injector. The cold flow, reacting flow, flame temperature, combustor pressure and possible flashback phenomena are studied. Two grid resolutions of the numerical model have been adopted. The first computational grid contains 0.52 million elements, the second one contains over 1.3 million elements. The CFD results have shown only about 5% difference between the two grid resolutions. Therefore, the CFD result obtained from the model of 1.3-million grid resolution can be considered as a grid independent numerical solution. Turbulence models built in NCC are consolidated and well tested. They can handle both coarse and

  19. Status of the NGNP graphite creep experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 irradiated in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2014-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) very high temperature gas reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have three different compressive loads applied to the top half of three diametrically opposite pairs of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment.

  20. The bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning; Jørgensen, John L; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter S

    2004-05-01

    The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target. Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus is on main belt objects, but the mission profile will enable mapping of objects inside the Earth orbit as well.

  1. [History of the concept of quarantine].

    PubMed

    Mafart, B; Perret, J L

    1998-01-01

    Quarantine is a concept developed by society to protect against the outbreak of contagious diseases. From its original application in the favorable context of Medieval Europe, the quarantine concept has been driven by three main currents. The first involves the personification of epidemics. Although this personification had superstitious implications and led to many excesses, it did have the merit of establishing a concrete connection between travel and outbreak of disease. The second fundamental aspect of quarantining is the existence of a social organization capable of providing the necessary infrastructure for isolation. Specialized facilities are needed and laws must be made and enforced by competent officials. The last fundamental aspect of the development of the quarantine concept is the role of science. After a long process involving better medical knowledge and international negotiations, epidemic controls has largely outgrown the early stage involving essentially local control measures. In accordance with the development of these three currents, infected individuals have been branded as curse bearers, possible criminals, and innocent victims of natural contamination. While forced quarantine is no longer practiced, several recent examples of heated debates illustrate that strong emotional feelings are still present in societies threatened by epidemic disease outbreak. Since the major responsibility for disease control now rests in their hands, physicians must take these factors into account for management of possible future epidemic crises.

  2. Coccolithophores in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Earlier this summer, trillions of calcite (limestone) coated phytoplankton, known as coccolithophores, appeared in the waters off the coast of Maine. This true color image of the coccolithophore bloom was acquired on July 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The bloom is the large bluish-green patch in the center of the image in the Gulf of Maine. Unlike any other plant in the ocean, coccolithophores surround themselves with microscopic plating made of calcite. These scales, known as coccoliths, are shaped like hubcaps and are only three one-thousandths of a millimeter in diameter. What coccoliths lack in size, they make up in volume. At any one time a single coccolithophore is attached to or surrounded by at least 30 scales. Additional coccoliths are dumped into the water when the coccolithophores multiply asexually, die or simply make too many scales. In areas with trillions of coccolithophores, the waters will turn an opaque turquoise from the dense cloud of coccoliths. (Click to read more about coccolithophores.) Though there are always coccoliths in the Gulf of Maine, the area hasn't seen a bloom like this one since 1989. Currently, NASA researchers are studying the bloom aboard a ferry in the gulf in an attempt to measure the bloom's density and depth. So far the bloom appears to be about 20 to 25 meters thick and contains nearly half a million tons of calcite. Image by Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; Data courtesy MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  3. The Main Achievements of the Laa Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichichi, A.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * General philosophy of the LAA Project * The basic data * The Physics at the new generation of Hadron Colliders * Present structure of the LAA project * Participants * The Main achievements of the LAA Project * STATUS OF THE PROJECT * High Precision Tracking * Gaseous detectors * Scintillating fibres * Microstrip GaAs * CALORIMETRY * High precision electro-magnetic * Compact EM+Hadronic * "Perfect" Calorimetry * LARGE AREA DEVICES * Construction * Alignment * LEADING PARTICLE DETECTION * Radiation-hard technologies * DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS * SUPER COMPUTERS AND MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS * CONCLUSIONS * References

  4. Inner main belt asteroids in Slivan states?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The spin state of ten asteroids in the Koronis family has previously been determined. Surprisingly, all four asteroids with prograde rotation were shown to have spin axes nearly parallel in the inertial space. All asteroids with retrograde rotation had large obliquities and rotation periods that were either short or long. The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect has been demonstrated to be able to explain all these peculiar facts. In particular, the effect causes the spin axes of the prograde rotators to be captured in a secular spin-orbit resonance known as Cassini state 2, a configuration dubbed "Slivan state". Aims: It has been proposed based on an analysis of a sample of asteroids in the Flora family that Slivan states might also exist in this region of the main belt. This is surprising because convergence of the proper frequency s and the planetary frequency s6 was assumed to prevent Slivan states in this zone. We therefore investigated the possibility of a long-term stable capture in the Slivan state in the inner part of the main belt and among the asteroids previously observed. Methods: We used the swift integrator to determine the orbital evolution of selected asteroids in the inner part of the main belt. We also implemented our own secular spin propagator into the swift code to efficiently analyze their spin evolution. Results: Our experiments show that the previously suggested Slivan states of the Flora-region asteroids are marginally stable for only a small range of the flattening parameter Δ. Either the observed spins are close to the Slivan state by chance, or additional dynamical effects that were so far not taken into account change their evolution. We find that only the asteroids with very low-inclination orbits (lower than ≃4°, for instance) could follow a similar evolution path as the Koronis members and be captured in their spin state into the Slivan state. A greater number of asteroids in the inner main-belt Massalia

  5. America Saves! Energizing Main Street's Small Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, James

    2016-09-30

    The America Saves! Energizing Main Street Small Businesses project engaged the 1,200-member National Main Street Center (NMSC) network of downtown organizations and other local, regional, and national partners to test a methodology for sharing customized energy efficiency information with owners of commercial buildings smaller than 50,000 square feet. Led by the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s Preservation Green Lab, the project marshalled local staff and volunteers to gather voluntarily-disclosed energy use information from participating businesses. This information was analyzed using a remote auditing tool (validated by the National Renewable Energy Lab) to assess energy savings opportunities and design retrofit strategies targeting seven building types (food service and sales, attached mixed-use, strip mall, retail, office, lodging, and schools). The original project design contemplated extensive leveraging of the Green Button protocol for sharing annualized utility data at a district scale. Due the lack of adoption of Green Button, the project partners developed customized approaches to data collection in each of twelve pilot communities. The project team encountered considerable challenges in gathering standardized annual utility data from local partners. After overcoming these issues, the data was uploaded to a data storehouse. Over 450 properties were benchmarked and the remote auditing tool was tested using full building profiles and utility records for more than 100 commercial properties in three of the pilot communities. The audit tool demonstrated potential for quickly capturing, analyzing, and communicating energy efficiency opportunities in small commercial buildings. However, the project team found that the unique physical characteristics and use patterns (partial vacancy, periodic intensive uses) of small commercial buildings required more trouble-shooting and data correction than was anticipated. In addition, the project revealed that

  6. Space shuttle main engine hardware simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. G.; Hampton, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Huntsville Simulation Laboratory (HSL) provides a simulation facility to test and verify the space shuttle main engine (SSME) avionics and software system using a maximum complement of flight type hardware. The HSL permits evaluations and analyses of the SSME avionics hardware, software, control system, and mathematical models. The laboratory has performed a wide spectrum of tests and verified operational procedures to ensure system component compatibility under all operating conditions. It is a test bed for integration of hardware/software/hydraulics. The HSL is and has been an invaluable tool in the design and development of the SSME.

  7. Additively Manufactured Main Fuel Valve Housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was utilized to fabricate a liquid hydrogen valve housing typical of those found in rocket engines and main propulsion systems. The SLM process allowed for a valve geometry that would be difficult, if not impossible to fabricate by traditional means. Several valve bodies were built by different SLM suppliers and assembled with valve internals. The assemblies were then tested with liquid nitrogen and operated as desired. One unit was also burst tested and sectioned for materials analysis. The design, test results, and planned testing are presented herein.

  8. Some peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Anderson, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty of the peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine contain an estimated 29,282,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat is chiefly sphagnum moss and reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. Analyses show that this same volume has high fuel value, low sulfur and high hydrogen contents compared with lignite and sub-bituminous coal, which may indicate that it also has potential for fuel use. On the basis of the metallic trace element content, one area within the region containing the 20 deposits has been delineated for further bedrock studies.

  9. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  10. Main challenges in demulsifier research and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fusheng; Liu, Guoliang; Ma, Junhan; Ouyang, Jian; Yi, Xiaoling; Su, Huimin

    2017-01-01

    Main challenges in demulsifier research, such as demulsification of ASP flooding produced liquid, demulsification of heavy oil produced liquid, low temperature demulsification and fast demulsification, are summarized. Some importance technology routes to solve the challenges are proposed according to demulsification mechanisms and emulsion characteristics. The proposed routes include increasing aromaticity, molecular weight and branch degree of demulsifiers, and introducing double-function groups to demulsifiers for W/O and O/W emulsions, or groups with alkyl matching with alkyl carbon number of the crude oil into demulsifier molecule. The demulsification mechanisms of the above-mentioned research routes are described in detail.

  11. Kaon physics at Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, Y.

    1992-03-01

    For high precision and high sensitivity studies of the physics of kaon physics of kaon decays, the important characteristics of the new Main Injector at Fermilab are its high energy (relative to other factories'') and its high intensity. Experiments of this kind are becoming increasingly important in the study of CP violation and for searches for new interactions. An extracted beam of 120 GeV will produce a source of high energy kaons (10--50 GeV) that will not be surpassed in intensity by any facility new under consideration world-wide.

  12. Kaon physics at Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, Y.

    1992-03-01

    For high precision and high sensitivity studies of the physics of kaon physics of kaon decays, the important characteristics of the new Main Injector at Fermilab are its high energy (relative to other ``factories``) and its high intensity. Experiments of this kind are becoming increasingly important in the study of CP violation and for searches for new interactions. An extracted beam of 120 GeV will produce a source of high energy kaons (10--50 GeV) that will not be surpassed in intensity by any facility new under consideration world-wide.

  13. Electrochemistry of Main-Group Phthalocyanines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-30

    to follow a linear relationship with the function r/(ze) (radius/charge). This reltionshlp may be used to facilitate the design of photocatalysts with...ze) and a function of central metal ion has been published. We have recently completed a study of the electrochemistry of main- us n i. Figure I for...SiV 54 0.074 -540 CIA 111 67.5 0.044 915 -655 1570Experimental Secfio* CiGat el 76 0.040 865 -735 1600Clintl! 94 0.032 830 -715 1545The r.-:m grUp

  14. Observed and Predicted Pier Scour in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lombard, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Pier-scour and related data were collected and analyzed for nine high river flows at eight bridges across Maine from 1997 through 2001. Six bridges had multiple piers. Fifteen of 23 piers where data were measured during a high flow had observed maximum scour depths ranging from 0.5 feet (ft) to 12.0 ft. No pier scour was observed at the remaining eight piers. The maximum predicted pier-scour depths associated with the 23 piers were computed using the equations in the Federal Highway Administration's Hydraulic Engineering Circular number 18 (HEC-18), with data collected for this study. The predicted HEC-18 maximum pier-scour depths were compared to the observed maximum pier-scour depths. The HEC-18 pier-scour equations are intended to be envelope equations, ideally never underpredicting scour depths and not appreciably overpredicting them. The HEC-18 pier-scour equations performed well for rivers in Maine. Twenty-two out of 23 pier-scour depths were overpredicted by 0.7 ft to 18.3 ft. One pier-scour depth was underpredicted by 4.5 ft. For one pier at each of two bridges, large amounts of debris lodged on the piers after high-flow measurements were made at those sites. The scour associated with the debris increased the maximum pier-scour depths by about 5 ft in each case.

  15. Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2001-12-01

    Bruxism is a controversial phenomenon. Both its definition and the diagnostic procedure contribute to the fact that the literature about the aetiology of this disorder is difficult to interpret. There is, however, consensus about the multifactorial nature of the aetiology. Besides peripheral (morphological) factors, central (pathophysiological and psychological) factors can be distinguished. In the past, morphological factors, like occlusal discrepancies and the anatomy of the bony structures of the orofacial region, have been considered the main causative factors for bruxism. Nowadays, these factors play only a small role, if any. Recent focus is more on the pathophysiological factors. For example, bruxism has been suggested to be part of a sleep arousal response. In addition, bruxism appears to be modulated by various neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. More specifically, disturbances in the central dopaminergic system have been linked to bruxism. Further, factors like smoking, alcohol, drugs, diseases and trauma may be involved in the bruxism aetiology. Psychological factors like stress and personality are frequently mentioned in relation to bruxism as well. However, research to these factors comes to equivocal results and needs further attention. Taken all evidence together, bruxism appears to be mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.

  16. Ring Current Development During Storm Main Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Moore, Thomas E.; Greenspan, Marian E.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the ring current ions in the inner magnetosphere during the main phase of a magnetic storm is studied. The temporal and spatial evolution of the ion phase space densities in a dipole field are calculated using a three dimensional ring current model, considering charge exchange and Coulomb losses along drift paths. The simulation starts with a quiet time distribution. The model is tested by comparing calculated ion fluxes with Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/CCE measurement during the storm main phase on May 2, 1986. Most of the calculated omnidirectional fluxes are in good agreement with the data except on the dayside inner edge (L less than 2.5) of the ring current, where the ion fluxes are underestimated. The model also reproduces the measured pitch angle distributions of ions with energies below 10 keV. At higher energy, an additional diffusion in pitch angle is necessary in order to fit the data. The role of the induced electric field on the ring current dynamics is also examined by simulating a series of substorm activities represented by stretching and collapsing the magnetic field lines. In response to the impulsively changing fields, the calculated ion energy content fluctuates about a mean value that grows steadily with the enhanced quiescent field.

  17. Pendulum Motion in Main Parachute Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Machin, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of a cluster of parachutes to a payload are notoriously difficult to predict. Often the payload is designed to be insensitive to the range of attitude and rates that might occur, but spacecraft generally do not have the mass and volume budgeted for this robust of a design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) implements a cluster of three mains for landing. During testing of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) design, it was discovered that with a cluster of two mains (a fault tolerance required for human rating) the capsule coupled to the parachute cluster could get into a limit cycle pendulum motion which would exceed the spacecraft landing capability. This pendulum phenomenon could not be predicted with the existing models and simulations. A three phased effort has been undertaken to understand the consequence of the pendulum motion observed, and explore potential design changes that would mitigate this phenomenon. This paper will review the early analysis that was performed of the pendulum motion observed during EDU testing, summarize the analysis ongoing to understand the root cause of the pendulum phenomenon, and discuss the modeling and testing that is being pursued to identify design changes that would mitigate the risk.

  18. Learning to use scientific concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Gordon

    2008-07-01

    In responding to the research on conceptual change, this article attempts to make two points. First, scientific concepts are not possessed by individuals; rather, they are part of a culture's resources, which individuals learn to use for their own or for group purposes. Second, particular concepts are most effectively mastered when the learner is deeply engaged in solving a problem for which they function as effective semiotic tools in achieving a solution. On these grounds, it is argued that the mastering of scientific concepts is best achieved through learning to use them in motivated inquiry.

  19. SSF growth concepts and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.

    1991-01-01

    There are three primary objectives for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Growth concepts and configuration study task. The first objective is the development of evolutionary SSF concept consistent with user requirements and program constraints. The second primary objective is to ensure the feasibility of the proposed SSF evolution concepts as the systems level. This includes an assessment of SSF evolution flight control analysis, logistics assessment, maintainability, and operational considerations. The final objective is to ensure compatibility of the baseline SSF design with the derived evolution requirements at both the system and element (habitat modules, power generation equipment, etc.) levels.

  20. Ephemerides of the main Uranian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, N. V.; Nikonchuk, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    A new model of motions of the five main Uranian satellites is developed. The model is based on all published observations made since the dates of the satellites' discoveries until 2008. The corresponding periods are 220 yr for Titania and Oberon, 160 yr for Ariel and Umbriel and 60 yr for Miranda. To fit the parameters of the satellites' motion, 30 139 observations were used, including those made by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as well as astrometric results of the photometric observations of mutual occultations and eclipses of the main Uranian satellites in 2007-2008. The model is elaborated by the numerical integration of equations of motions of the satellites where all necessary perturbating factors were taken into consideration. Basing on the model, new ephemerides of the main Uranian satellites were generated for the period from 1787 to 2031. The ephemerides are put to the MULTI-SAT ephemeris server. The root-mean-square residual of observed topocentric positions of the satellites and their ephemeris positions is 0.43 arcsec. Taking into account the weighting factors of the observations, this value is 0.12 arcsec. An attempt is also made to define from observations the parameters of the mechanical energy dissipation of the satellites' motion. The dissipation can be caused by both tides in the planet and by the tides in the satellites' bodies. Approximate values of the quadratic terms in the orbital longitudes are obtained. These values are equal to -(0.64 ± 0.11) × 10-11 d-2 for Ariel, -(0.08 ± 0.24) × 10-11 d-2 for Umbriel, -(0.29 ± 0.09) × 10-11 d-2 for Titania, -(0.32 ± 0.07) × 10-11 d-2 for Oberon and -(7.56 ± 1.15) × 10-11 d-2 for Miranda. The obtained parameters reveal deceleration in the orbital motion of the satellites, which results from the influence of the tides raised on the interior of Uranus that is rotating faster than the satellites.

  1. Preservice; Nigerian Science Teachers' Conceptions of Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oludipe, Bimbola; Oludipe, Daniel I.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to critically examine the conceptions students in the integrated science major and non-integrated science major have about integrated science. Participants were 187 student-teachers enrolled in a University of Education in South-West Nigeria. They all did integrated science at the Junior Secondary School (JSS)…

  2. What Is Marketing in Libraries? Concepts, Orientations, and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Dinesh K.; Jambhekar, Ashok

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of marketing in library and information centers and emphasizes the main concern of satisfying the customer. Considers whether concepts from the business world can be transferred to public service organizations; and discusses marketing as a philosophy, as a set of techniques, and as an approach, and examines the common threads.…

  3. Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools" provides a comprehensive view of the way competencies can be used to drive organizational e-learning, including the main conceptual elements, competency gap analysis, advanced related computing topics, the application of semantic Web technologies, and the integration of competencies…

  4. Learning to Play: A "Hedgehog Concept" for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    What is physical education and why does it exist? Despite its relatively long and storied history, consensus about the main purpose of physical education remains minimal. This article explores three questions, developed by Jim Collins in his best-selling book Good to Great, to help organizations identify a hedgehog concept, or primary reason for…

  5. Family Functions' Distribution in Men and Women Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimova, Ramilya Sh.; Biktagirova, Gulnara F.

    2016-01-01

    Creating a happy family with a favorable psychological climate is important both for the individual and the society as a whole. One of the factors, that influence the creation of a welfare family, is the content of the spouses' concepts of the family, its functions and their possible distribution. The main purpose of this article is to identify…

  6. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  7. Space transportation main engine cycle assessment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.; Lyles, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) program selection process for a space transportation main engine (STME) power cycle is described in terms of the methodology employed. Low cost, robustness, and high reliability are the primary parameters for engine choice, suggesting simplicity of design and efficient fabrication methods as the crucial characteristics. An evaluation methodology is developed based on the Pugh (1981) process and the King (1989) matrices. The cycle configurations considered are the gas generator (GG), the closed expander, and the open expander. The cycle assessment team determined that the GG cycle is favored by most cycle discriminators, based on an assessment of the characteristics in terms of ALS goals. The lower development risk of the GG-cycle STME is consistent with the goals of the ALS program in terms of reliability and cost efficiency.

  8. National Launch System Space Transportation Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoodless, Ralph M., Jr.; Monk, Jan C.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    1991-01-01

    The present liquid-oxygen/liquid-hydrogen engine is described as meeting the specific requirements of the National Launch System (NLS) Program including cost-effectiveness and robustness. An overview of the NLS and its objectives is given which indicates that the program aims to develop a flexible launch system to meet security, civil, and commercial needs. The Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) provides core and boost propulsion for the 1.5-stage vehicle and core propulsion for the solid booster vehicle. The design incorporates step-throttling, order-of-magnitude reductions in welds, and configuration targets designed to optimize robustness. The STME is designed to provide adaptable and dependable propulsion while minimizing recurring costs and is designed to meet the needs of NLS and other typical space-transportation programs currently being planned.

  9. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D.

    1993-04-01

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near {+-}45{degrees} are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field.

  10. Main results of the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Corbard, T.; Hauchecorne, A.; Irbah, A.; Boumier, P.; Chevalier, A.; Schmutz, W.; Ikhlef, R.; Morand, F.; Renaud, C.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Cessateur, G.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Salabert, D.; Rouzé, M.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Zhu, P.; Kholikov, S.; Koller, S.; Conscience, C.; Dewitte, S.; Damé, L.; Djafer, D.

    2016-07-01

    PICARD is a mission devoted to solar variability observations through imagery and radiometric measurements. The main goal is to provide data for scientific investigation first in the area of solar physics, and second in the assessment of the influence of the solar variability on the Earth climate variability. PICARD contains a double program with in-space and on-ground measurements. The PICARD spacecraft was launched on June 15, 2010, commissioned in-flight in October of the same year and was retired in April 2014. The PICARD ground-based observatory is operational since May 2011. We shall give a short overview of the PICARD instrumentation. New estimates of the absolute values of the total solar irradiance, of the solar spectral irradiance at typical wavelengths, and of the solar oblateness will be given. We will also report about helioseismic studies. Finally, we will present our current results about solar radius variations after six years of solar observation.

  11. Apollo 15 main-parachute failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arabian, D. D.; Mechelay, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    In the investigation of the failure of one of the three main parachutes of the Apollo 15 spacecraft, which collapsed at approximately 1825 meters after operating properly from deployment at 3050 meters, three conditions considered to be possible causes of the failure were produced. The suspect conditions were the proximity of the forward heat shield that passed the spacecraft at approximately 1825 meters, the dumping of the reaction control system hypergolic propellants at approximately 1825 meters, and the failing of a riser link found on a recovered parachute. (The failed parachute was not recovered). The remaining two parachutes functioned as planned and averted a catastrophic failure. The conclusions concerning the cause of the failure are discussed.

  12. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  13. Alternative divertor target concepts for next step fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazul, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    The operational conditions of a divertor target in the next steps of fusion devices are more severe in comparison with ITER. The current divertor designs and technologies have a limited application concerning these conditions, and so new design concepts/technologies are required. The main reasons which practically prevent the use of the traditional motionless solid divertor target are analyzed. We describe several alternative divertor target concepts in this paper. The comparative analysis of these concepts (including the advantages and the drawbacks) is made and the prospects for their practical implementation are prioritized. The concept of the swept divertor target with a liquid metal interlayer between the moving armour and motionless heat-sink is presented in more detail. The critical issues of this design are listed and outlined, and the possible experiments are presented.

  14. Concept Maps Applied to Mars Exploration Public Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoffrey; Canas, Alberto; Shamma, David; Scargle, Jeffrey; Novak, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes CMEX Mars, an effort in the creation of a comprehensive set of concept maps to describe all aspects of Mars exploration. These concept maps, created using the CmapTools software developed by the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, are available on the Internet at http:/cmex.arc.nasa.gov/CMEX and are linked among themselves as well as to resources on the Internet. The work described took place mainly between 1998 and 2001 and combined the goals of: 1) developing a library of concept maps for educational outreach while also 2) refining the capabilities of the software used to create the interactive maps and 3) making them available on the Internet. Here we focus on the library of Mars exploration concept maps that has been created.

  15. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  16. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-03-01

    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  17. Accretion onto Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Herczeg, Gregory; Calvet, Nuria

    2016-09-01

    Accretion through circumstellar disks plays an important role in star formation and in establishing the properties of the regions in which planets form and migrate. The mechanisms by which protostellar and protoplanetary disks accrete onto low-mass stars are not clear; angular momentum transport by magnetic fields is thought to be involved, but the low-ionization conditions in major regions of protoplanetary disks lead to a variety of complex nonideal magnetohydrodynamic effects whose implications are not fully understood. Accretion in pre-main-sequence stars of masses ≲1M⊙ (and in at least some 2-3-M⊙ systems) is generally funneled by the stellar magnetic field, which disrupts the disk at scales typically of order a few stellar radii. Matter moving at near free-fall velocities shocks at the stellar surface; the resulting accretion luminosities from the dissipation of kinetic energy indicate that mass addition during the T Tauri phase over the typical disk lifetime ˜3 Myr is modest in terms of stellar evolution, but is comparable to total disk reservoirs as estimated from millimeter-wave dust emission (˜10-2 M⊙). Pre-main-sequence accretion is not steady, encompassing timescales ranging from approximately hours to a century, with longer-timescale variations tending to be the largest. Accretion during the protostellar phase—while the protostellar envelope is still falling onto the disk—is much less well understood, mostly because the properties of the central obscured protostar are difficult to estimate. Kinematic measurements of protostellar masses with new interfometric facilities should improve estimates of accretion rates during the earliest phases of star formation.

  18. Concept Model on Topological Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ae, Tadashi; Kioi, Kazumasa

    2010-11-01

    We discuss a new model for concept based on topological learning, where the learning process on the neural network is represented by mathematical topology. The topological learning of neural networks is summarized by a quotient of input space and the hierarchical step induces a tree where each node corresponds to a quotient. In general, the concept acquisition is a difficult problem, but the emotion for a subject is represented by providing the questions to a person. Therefore, a kind of concept is captured by such data and the answer sheet can be mapped into a topology consisting of trees. In this paper, we will discuss a way of mapping the emotional concept to a topological learning model.

  19. The Concept of Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altrichter, Herbert; Kemmis, Stephen; McTaggart, Robin; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2002-01-01

    Explains why definition of action research is problematic and presents working definitions developed internationally that indicate its nature, philosophy, and methodology. Suggests that pragmatic approaches to definition serve communication purposes without narrowly confining the concept. (SK)

  20. Solar Sail Control Actuator Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangus, David; Heaton, Andy

    2004-01-01

    The thrust produced by a solar sail is a direct function of its attitude. Thus, solar sail thrust vector control is a key technology that must be developed for sailcraft to become a viable form of deep-space transportation. The solar sail community has been studying various sail Attitude Control System (ACS) actuator designs for near Earth orbit as well as deep space missions. These actuators include vanes, spreader bars, two-axis gimbals, floating/locking gimbals with wheels, and translating masses. This paper documents the various concepts and performs an assessment at the highest level. This paper will only compare the various ACS actuator concepts as they stand at the publication time. This is not an endorsement of any particular concept. As concepts mature, the assessments will change.

  1. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  2. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  3. [Concept analysis of workplace bullying].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2011-08-01

    Workplace bullying is a complicated and imprecise concept. Research findings have highlighted it as an important issue in the nursing environment worldwide. Workplace bullying arises due to malfunctions in workplace organizational and cultural related antecedents and manifests in various forms. Many studies have reported that nurses experiencing workplace bullying face increased levels of physical, psychological and social distress, may adopt suicidal thoughts and negativity towards the nursing profession, and may even abandon the nursing profession completely. Although a large number of papers have discussed the antecedents, forms and interventions related to workplace bullying, there has yet been no systematic concept analysis of workplace bullying. This paper applied Walker and Avant's concept analysis process to verify concept definitions, identify defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and provide examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases. Findings can help nursing administrators understand and clarify the meaning of workplace bullying in order to take appropriate measures to improve the working environment for nursing professionals.

  4. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  5. Professionalism: evolution of the concept.

    PubMed

    van Mook, Walther N K A; de Grave, Willem S; Wass, Valerie; O'Sullivan, Helen; Zwaveling, Jan Harm; Schuwirth, Lambert W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2009-07-01

    The concept of professionalism has undergone major changes over the millennia in general and the last century specifically. This article, the first in a series of articles in this Journal on professionalism, attempts to provide the reader with a historical overview of the evolution of the concept of professionalism over time. As a result of these changes, medical school curricula, and contemporary specialist training programs are increasingly becoming competence based, with professionalism becoming an integral part of a resident's training and assessment program.

  6. Rover concepts for lunar exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements and design concepts developed for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) and the follow-on lunar missions by the Human Planet Surface Project Office at the Johnson Space Center, which include inputs from scientists, technologists, operators, personnel, astronauts, mission designers, and program managers. Particular attention is given to the requirements common to all rover concepts, the precursor robotic missions, the FLO scenario and capabilities, and the FLO evolution.

  7. Developing an action concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  8. Concepts in viral pathogenesis II

    SciTech Connect

    Notkins, A.L.; Oldstone, M.B.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains papers divided among 10 sections. The section titles are: Viral Structure and Function; Viral Constructs; Oncogenes, Transfection, and Differentiation; Viral Tropism and Entry into Cells; Immune Recognition of Viruses; Evolving Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis Illustrated by Selected Plant and Animal Models; Evolving Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis Illustrated by Selected Diseases in Humans; New Trends in Diagnosis and Epidemiology; and Vaccines and Antiviral Therapy.

  9. Supersonic Retropropulsion Flight Test Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Ethan A.; Dupzyk, Ian C.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Tanimoto, Rebekah L.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program has proposed plans for a series of three sub-scale flight tests at Earth for supersonic retropropulsion, a candidate decelerator technology for future, high-mass Mars missions. The first flight test in this series is intended to be a proof-of-concept test, demonstrating successful initiation and operation of supersonic retropropulsion at conditions that replicate the relevant physics of the aerodynamic-propulsive interactions expected in flight. Five sub-scale flight test article concepts, each designed for launch on sounding rockets, have been developed in consideration of this proof-of-concept flight test. Commercial, off-the-shelf components are utilized as much as possible in each concept. The design merits of the concepts are compared along with their predicted performance for a baseline trajectory. The results of a packaging study and performance-based trade studies indicate that a sounding rocket is a viable launch platform for this proof-of-concept test of supersonic retropropulsion.

  10. Spiritual Health: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaberi, Azita; Momennasab, Marzieh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Ebadi, Abbas; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-03-10

    Spiritual health has attracted a lot of attention in health-related and nursing sciences and numerous researches. Yet, this concept has remained complex and ambiguous, and there is no consensus in this regard. This ambiguity can be challenging for holistic nursing; therefore, clarification of the concept is required for development of nursing knowledge. The present study aimed to explore the concept of spiritual health in health-related and nursing literature. Walker and Avant (Strategies for theory construction in nursing, Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, 1995) concept analysis method was used in this study. The results were categorized as antecedents, attributes, and outcomes of spiritual health. The critical attributes extracted for spiritual health included transcendence, purposefulness and meaningfulness, faithfulness, harmonious interconnectedness, integrative power, multidimensionality, and holistic being. Besides, the antecedents of spiritual health included capability and potentiality for transcendence, and spiritual awareness. Finally, well-being and moral development were the outcomes of spiritual health. Spiritual health is one of the basic aspects of health and providing a clear theoretical definition can result in a common understanding of this concept for nurses. Clarifying this concept would also be useful for provision of spiritual care interventions and development of nursing theories.

  11. Multi-kilowatt solar power system concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kirpich, A.; Chung, A.

    1984-08-01

    As part of a feasibility study for large satellite communications, the conceptual design of a multi-kilowatt solar power system has been completed. The concept is based on using two flat-pack SEP solar arrays having a beginning-of-life output of 25 KW. The bulk of this power is supplied to the communication payload at 200 VDC. Further processing to various user voltage levels is performed within the communications subsystem. A limited amount of energy storage is used to maintain the payload during eclipse periods. The system has been designed for a geosynchronous orbit. Key technical issues of this concept are the use of a high distribution voltage (200 VDC) and the effects of electro-static discharge (ESD) associated with the large solar array area. Assessments of these issues are presented together with approaches for reducing deleterious effects to acceptable levels. Housekeeping loads, estimated at 1 KW, are supported by a small segment of the solar array along with a complement of batteries for operation through eclipse periods. This power is provided at 28 VDC. A unique feature of the design is the manner in which the solar array is mounted to the spacecraft. Instead of articulating the solar array with respect to the main spacecraft body, as implemented in many geosynchronous spacecraft, the solar array is fixed to the main body. Both the solar array and main body are then sun oriented. Key advantages of this approach are: elimination of high power slip rings; simple thermal control because sun-pointing results in constant thermal conditions; straightforward structural and mechanical integration resulting largely from elimination of view factor considerations associated with articulated solar arrays.

  12. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    PubMed

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  13. Dynamic Light Scattering Based Microelectrophoresis: Main Prospects and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk

    2013-01-01

    Microelectrophoresis based on the dynamic light scattering (DLS) effect has been a major tool for assessing and controlling the conditions for stability of colloidal systems. However, both the DLS methods for characterization of the hydrodynamic size of dispersed submicron particles and the theory behind the electrokinetic phenomena are associated with fundamental and practical approximations that limit their sensitivity and information output. Some of these fundamental limitations, including the spherical approximation of DLS measurements and an inability of microelectrophoretic analyses of colloidal systems to detect discrete charges and differ between differently charged particle surfaces due to rotational diffusion and particle orientation averaging, are revisited in this work. Along with that, the main prospects of these two analytical methods are mentioned. A detailed review of the role of zeta potential in processes of biochemical nature is given too. It is argued that although zeta potential has been used as one of the main parameters in controlling the stability of colloidal dispersions, its application potentials are much broader. Manipulating surface charges of interacting species in designing complex soft matter morphologies using the concept of zeta potential, intensively investigated recently, is given as one of the examples. Branching out from the field of colloid chemistry, DLS and zeta potential analyses are now increasingly finding application in drug delivery, biotechnologies, physical chemistry of nanoscale phenomena and other research fields that stand on the frontier of the contemporary science. Coupling the DLS-based microelectrophoretic systems with complementary characterization methods is mentioned as one of the prosperous paths for increasing the information output of these two analytical techniques. PMID:23904690

  14. Escape of asteroids from the main belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We locate escape routes from the main asteroid belt, particularly into the near-Earth-object (NEO) region, and estimate the relative fluxes for different escape routes as a function of object size under the influence of the Yarkovsky semimajor-axis drift. Methods: We integrated the orbits of 78 355 known and 14 094 cloned main-belt objects and Cybele and Hilda asteroids (hereafter collectively called MBOs) for 100 Myr and recorded the characteristics of the escaping objects. The selected sample of MBOs with perihelion distance q > 1.3 au and semimajor axis a < 4.1 au is essentially complete, with an absolute magnitude limit ranging from HV < 15.9 in the inner belt (a < 2.5 au) to HV < 14.4 in the outer belt (2.5 au < a < 4.1 au). We modeled the semimajor-axis drift caused by the Yarkovsky force and assigned four different sizes (diameters of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 km) and random spin obliquities (either 0 deg or 180 deg) for each test asteroid. Results: We find more than ten obvious escape routes from the asteroid belt to the NEO region, and they typically coincide with low-order mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and secular resonances. The locations of the escape routes are independent of the semimajor-axis drift rate and thus are also independent of the asteroid diameter. The locations of the escape routes are likewise unaffected when we added a model for Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) cycles coupled with secular evolution of the rotation pole as a result of the solar gravitational torque. A Yarkovsky-only model predicts a flux of asteroids entering the NEO region that is too high compared to the observationally constrained flux, and the discrepancy grows larger for smaller asteroids. A combined Yarkovsky and YORP model predicts a flux of small NEOs that is approximately a factor of 5 too low compared to an observationally constrained estimate. This suggests that the characteristic timescale of the YORP cycle is longer than our canonical

  15. Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed

  16. Unity amidst heterogeneity in theories of concepts.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kevan

    2010-06-01

    This commentary raises two concerns with Machery's approach in Doing without Concepts. The first concern is that it may be possible to preserve a unified theory of concepts by distinguishing facts about concept individuation from facts about cognitive structures and processes. The second concern questions the sharpness of the distinction Machery draws between psychological and philosophical conceptions of concepts.

  17. Key Concepts in Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm

    This book defines and explains some 40 key concepts in adult education and training, and it presents an analysis of the more than 150 concepts that can be made by combining core and qualifying concepts. The concepts have been grouped into seven chapters, with the following core concepts discussed in chapter 1: adult, education, and training, plus…

  18. High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC): Proofs of Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christopher A.; Arney, Dale C.; Bassett, George Z.; Clark, James R.; Hennig, Anthony I.; Snyder, Jessica C.

    2015-01-01

    The atmosphere of Venus is an exciting destination for both further scientific study and future human exploration. A recent internal NASA study of a High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC) led to the development of an evolutionary program for the exploration of Venus, with focus on the mission architecture and vehicle concept for a 30-day crewed mission into Venus's atmosphere at 50 kilometers. Key technical challenges for the mission include performing the aerocapture maneuvers at Venus and Earth, inserting and inflating the airship at Venus during the entry sequence, and protecting the solar panels and structure from the sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. Two proofs of concept were identified that would aid in addressing some of the key technical challenges. To mitigate the threat posed by the sulfuric acid ambient in the atmosphere of Venus, a material was needed that could protect the systems while being lightweight and not inhibiting the performance of the solar panels. The first proof of concept identified candidate materials and evaluated them, finding FEP-Teflon (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene-Teflon) to maintain 90 percent transmittance to relevant spectra even after 30 days of immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid. The second proof of concept developed and verified a packaging algorithm for the airship envelope to inform the entry, descent, and inflation analysis.

  19. Chemical quality of precipitation at Greenville, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smath, J.A.; Potter, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Weekly composite precipitation samples were collected at a rural site located in Greenville, Maine for analysis of trace metals and organic compounds. Samples collected during February 1982, through May 1984, were analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc and during February 1982, through March 1983, for chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, pthalate ester plasticizers, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Deposition rates were computed. Data reported by the NADP (National Atmospheric Deposition Program) was used to evaluate the general chemical quality of the precipitation. The precipitation had relatively high concentrations of hydrogen ions, sulfate, and nitrate, compared to other constituents. Of the trace metals included for analysis, only copper, lead, and zinc were consistently detected. Lead concentrations exceeded the U.S. EPA recommended limit for domestic water supply in three samples. High deposition rates for some of the metals were episodic. Alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane was the only organic compound that was consistently detected (maximum 120 nanograms/L). None of the other organic compounds were detected in any of the samples. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Chromospheric variations in main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baliunas, S. L.; Donahue, R. A.; Soon, J. H.; Horne, J. H.; Frazer, J.; Woodard-Eklund, L.; Bradford, M.; Rao, L. M.; Wilson, O. C.; Zhang, Q.

    1995-01-01

    The fluxes in passbands 0.1 nm wide and centered on the Ca II H and K emission cores have been monitored in 111 stars of spectral type F2-M2 on or near the main sequence in a continuation of an observing program started by O. C. Wilson. Most of the measurements began in 1966, with observations scheduled monthly until 1980, when observations were schedueld sevral times per week. The records, with a long-term precision of about 1.5%, display fluctuations that can be idntified with variations on timescales similar to the 11 yr cycle of solar activity as well as axial rotation, and the growth and decay of emitting regions. We present the records of chromospheric emission and general conclusions about variations in surface magnetic activity on timescales greater than 1 yr but less than a few decades. The results for stars of spectral type G0-K5 V indicate a pattern of change in rotation and chromospheric activity on an evolutionary timescale, in which (1) young stars exhibit high average levels of activity, rapid rotation rates, no Maunder minimum phase and rarely display a smooth, cyclic variation; (2) stars of intermediate age (approximately 1-2 Gyr for 1 solar mass) have moderate levels of activity and rotation rates, and occasional smooth cycles; and (3) stars as old as the Sun and older have slower rotation rates, lower activity levels and smooth cycles with occasional Maunder minimum-phases.

  1. The two main theories on dental bruxism.

    PubMed

    Behr, Michael; Hahnel, Sebastian; Faltermeier, Andreas; Bürgers, Ralf; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard; Proff, Peter

    2012-03-20

    Bruxism is characterized by non-functional contact of mandibular and maxillary teeth resulting in clenching or grating of teeth. Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy in current literature. The dental profession has predominantly viewed peripheral local morphological disorders, such as malocclusion, as the cause of clenching and gnashing. This etiological model is based on the theory that occlusal maladjustment results in reduced masticatory muscle tone. In the absence of occlusal equilibration, motor neuron activity of masticatory muscles is triggered by periodontal receptors. The second theory assumes that central disturbances in the area of the basal ganglia are the main cause of bruxism. An imbalance in the circuit processing of the basal ganglia is supposed to be responsible for muscle hyperactivity during nocturnal dyskinesia such as bruxism. Some authors assume that bruxism constitutes sleep-related parafunctional activity (parasomnia). A recent model, which may explain the potential imbalance of the basal ganglia, is neuroplasticity. Neural plasticity is based on the ability of synapses to change the way they work. Activation of neural plasticity can change the relationship between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. It seems obvious that bruxism is not a symptom specific to just one disease. Many forms (and causes) of bruxism may exist simultaneously, as, for example, peripheral or central forms.

  2. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  3. Primary Productivity in Meduxnekeag River, Maine, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.; Schalk, Charles W.; Kempf, Joshua P.

    2009-01-01

    During August and September 2005, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, specific conductance, streamflow, and light intensity (LI) were determined continuously at six sites defining five reaches on Meduxnekeag River above and below Houlton, Maine. These data were collected as input for a dual-station whole-stream metabolism model to evaluate primary productivity in the river above and below Houlton. The river receives nutrients and organic matter from tributaries and the Houlton wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Model output estimated gross and net primary productivity for each reach. Gross primary productivity (GPP) varied in each reach but was similar and positive among the reaches. GPP was correlated to LI in the four reaches above the WWTP but not in the reach below. Net primary productivity (NPP) decreased in each successive downstream reach and was negative in the lowest two reaches. NPP was weakly related to LI in the upper two reaches and either not correlated or negatively correlated in the lower three reaches. Relations among GPP, NPP, and LI indicate that the system is heterotrophic in the downstream reaches. The almost linear decrease in NPP (the increase in metabolism and respiration) indicates a cumulative effect of inputs of nutrients and organic matter from tributaries that drain agricultural land, the town of Houlton, and the discharges from the WWTP.

  4. Main sources of lead and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Lead-acid batteries used in cars accounted for 65% of the lead in MSW in 1986, and rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries contributed 52% of the cadmium discarded in the U.S. since 1980. According to an EPA draft report, other major sources of lead are consumer electronics 27%; glass and ceramics, 4%; and such plastic items as PVC resins. Other less significant sources of lead are soldered cans, pigments, brass and bronze products, light bulbs, rubber products, used oil, and lead foil wine bottle wrappers. Cadmium comes from other sources in addition to nickel-cadmium batteries. Plastics using cadmium as stabilizer (mainly PVC) or in pigments contribute 28% of the total amount entering the waste stream. Consumer electronics account for 9% (including cadmium-plated steel chassis on old TV sets and radios); appliances which used to be built with cadmium-plated parts to resist corrosion, 5% pigments, particularly those used in non-newspaper printing inks, textile dyes and paints, 4%; and glass and ceramics, 1.6% of the total.

  5. The main magnetic field of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    The main magnetic field of Jupiter has been measured by the Goddard Space Flight Center flux gate magnetometer on Pioneer 11. Analysis of the data yields a more detailed model than that obtained from Pioneer 10 results. In a spherical harmonic octupole representation the dipole term (with opposite polarity to earth's) has a magnitude of 4.28 G times the radial distance cubed at a tilt angle of 9.6 deg and a system 111 longitude of 232 deg. The quadrupole and octupole moments are 24% and 21% of the dipole, respectively. This leads to a significant deviation of the planetary magnetic field from a simple offset dipole topology at distances of less than three times the radial distance. The north polar field strength is 14 G, and in the Northern Hemisphere the 'footprint' of the Io associated flux tube traverses the magnetic polar region. Associated L shell splitting in the radiation belts, warping of the charged particle equatorial planes, and enhanced absorption effects due to the satellites Amalthea and Io are expected as a result of the field complexity.

  6. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

  7. The Pamela study: main findings and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bombelli, Michele; Toso, Elena; Peronio, Maria; Fodri, Danilo; Volpe, Marco; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Facchetti, Rita; Sega, Roberto; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    PAMELA (Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni) is an epidemiological study, originally designed to determine the normality of home and ambulatory blood pressure values. The study was performed on 3,200 subjects, aged 25 to 74 years, randomly selected from the general population of Monza (Milan, Italy). In the study context we performed clinical, home and ambulatory blood pressure measurements, echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function as well as laboratory examinations (glucose and lipids). Personal and family histories were collected. The same procedures were repeated 10 years later. During a 12-year follow-up, the incident cardiovascular events were validated. Cardiovascular and all-cause fatal events were collected for a 16-year follow-up. This article will review the main results of the PAMELA study, with particular emphasis on (1) the prognostic value of the different blood pressure measurements, (2) the relationships between metabolic variables and blood pressure and (3) the clinical relevance and prognostic importance of left ventricular mass values and alterations.

  8. Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider.

  9. Emsian synorogenic paleogeography of the Maine Applachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.; Tucker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Acadian deformation front in the northern Appalachians of Maine and New Hampshire can now be closely located during the early Emsian (Early Devonian; 408-406 Ma). Tight correlations between paleontologically and isotopically dated rocks are possible only because of a new 408-Ma time scale tie point for the early Emsian. The deformation front lay between a belt of Lower Devonian flysch and molasse that were deposited in an Acadian foreland basin and had not yet been folded and a belt of early Emsian plutons that intruded folded Lower Devonian rocks. This plutonic belt includes the newly dated Ore Mountain gabbro (U/Pb; 406 Ma), which hosts magmatic-sulfide mineralization. Along the deformation front, a 407-Ma pluton that locally truncates Acadian folds (Katahdin) was the feeder to volcanic rocks (Traveler Rhyolite; 406-407 Ma) that are part of the foreland-basin succession involved in these same folds. The Emsian igneous rocks thus define a syncollisional magmatic province that straddled the deformation front. These findings bear on three alternative subduction geometries for the Acadian collision.

  10. Seismicity map of the State of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stover, C.W.; Barnhard, L.M.; Reagor, B.G.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    The earthquake data shown on this map and listed in table 1 are a list of earthquakes that were originally used in preparing the Seismic Risk Studies in the United States (Algermissen, 1969) which have been recompiled and updated through 1977.  These data have been reexamined which resulted in some revisions of epicenters and intensities as well as assignment of intensities to earthquakes that previously had none assigened.  Intensity values were updated from new and additional data soureces that were not available at the time of original compilation.  Some epicenters were relocated on the basis of new informaition.  The data shown in table 1 are estimates of the most accurate epicenter, magnitude, and intensity of each earthquake, on the basis of historical and current information.  Some of the aftershocks from large earthquakes are listed but are incomplete in many instances, especialy for ones that occurred before seismic instruments were in universal usage.  Only earthquakes located within the borders of the states of Maine are listed.  This map superceeds Miscellaneous Field Sudies Map MF-845.

  11. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, C.P.; Haines, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

  12. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  13. Space shuttle main engine: Interactive design challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. P.; Wood, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The operating requirements established by NASA for the SSME were considerably more demanding than those for earlier rocket engines used in the military launch vehicles or Apollo program. The SSME, in order to achieve the high performance, low weight, long life, reusable objectives, embodied technical demands far in excess of its predecessor rocket engines. The requirements dictated the use of high combustion pressure and the staged combustion cycle which maximizes performance through total use of all propellants in the main combustion process. This approach presented a myriad of technical challenges for maximization of performance within attainable state of the art capabilities for operating pressures, operating temperatures and rotating machinery efficiencies. Controlling uniformity of the high pressure turbomachinery turbine temperature environment was a key challenge for thrust level and life capability demanding innovative engineering. New approaches in the design of the components were necessary to accommodate the multiple use, minimum maintenance objectives. Included were the use of line replaceable units to facilitate field maintenance automatic checkout and internal inspection capabilities.

  14. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant.

  15. X-34 Main Propulsion System Design and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champion, R. J., Jr.; Darrow, R. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34 program is a joint industry/government program to develop, test, and operate a small, fully-reusable hypersonic flight vehicle, utilizing technologies and operating concepts applicable to future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) systems. The vehicle will be capable of Mach 8 flight to 250,000 feet altitude and will demonstrate an all composite structure, composite RP-1 tank, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Fastrac engine, and the operability of an advanced thermal protection systems. The vehicle will also be capable of carrying flight experiments. MSFC is supporting the X-34 program in three ways: Program Management, the Fastrac engine as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE), and the design of the Main Propulsion System (MPS). The MPS Product Development Team (PDT) at MSFC is responsible for supplying the MPS design, analysis, and drawings to Orbital. The MPS consists of the LOX and RP-1 Fill, Drain, Feed, Vent, & Dump systems and the Helium & Nitrogen Purge, Pressurization, and Pneumatics systems. The Reaction Control System (RCS) design was done by Orbital. Orbital is the prime contractor and has responsibility for integration, procurement, and construction of all subsystems. The paper also discusses the design, operation, management, requirements, trades studies, schedule, and lessons learning with the MPS and RCS designs.

  16. The main concern of burn survivors in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Lila; Lotfi, Mojgan; Salehi, Feridoon; Khalili, Assef

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to study the burn patients’ experiences to get an insight into their main concerns when they suffer the tragic event, recover from it, and adjust back in the society, so that better rehabilitation programs can be planned corresponding to their needs as well as to the needs of the society and the existing situations. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, 17 burn survivors were enrolled. Unstructured interviews were used for data collection. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis method. Results: Based on the existing elements of the explicit textual meanings, two categories of threat and disturbance were formed. The category of threat was extracted from the following five subcategories: (a) Threat to physical life; (b) threat to the process of living; (c) psychological threat; (d) spiritual threat; and (e) social threat. The category of disturbance was extracted from the following three subcategories: (a) Sensory disturbance: Suffering pain; (b) self-concept disturbance; and (c) behavioral disturbance. Conclusions: Burn survivors experience severe pain, enduring and suffering in their daily activities after burn. Passing through these difficult trajectories is perceived as a threat and disturbance in self-integrity. PMID:27563326

  17. Budget Period 2 Summary Report Part 2: Hywind Maine Project

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Frederick; Platt, Andrew; Sirnivas, Senu

    2015-08-15

    This project was performed under the Work for Others—Funds in Agreement FIA-14-1793 between Statoil and the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, manager and operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). To support the development of a 6-MW spar-mounted offshore wind turbine, Statoil funded NREL to perform tasks in the following three categories: 1. Design and analysis 2. Wake modeling 3. Concept resource assessment. This study expands upon the work conducted in Budget Period 1 (BP1) to investigate the influence of the wake generated from an upstream turbine on a downstream turbine using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) high-fidelity modeling tool. Simulator fOr Wind Farms Application (SOWFA) [1] is an NREL high fidelity modeling tool that couples OpenFOAM [2] CFD and NREL’s Aero-Elastic code Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST)[3]. In BP1 the configuration was based on Hywind-3MW at 140 m water depth in the Gulf of Maine; however this study for Budget Period 2 (BP2) the configuration investigated is based on Hywind-6MW at 220 m water depth off the coast of Boston. The objectives were to perform two-turbines One-Way Coupling (OWC), three-turbines Two-Way Coupling (TWC), and to investigate wind power plant optimization.

  18. Geology of the Cupsuptic quadrangle, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.

    1966-01-01

    The Cupsuptic quadrangle, in west-central Maine, lies in a relatively narrow belt of pre-Silurian rocks extending from the Connecticut River valley across northern New Hampshire to north-central Maine. The Albee Formation, composed of green, purple, and black phyllite with interbedded-quartzite, is exposed in the core of a regional anticlinorium overlain to the southeast by greenstone of the Oquossoc Formation which in turn is overlain by black slate of the Kamankeag Formation. In the northern part of the quadrangle the Albee Formation is overlain by black slate, feldspathic graywacke, and minor greenstone of the Dixville Formation. The Kamankeag Formation is dated as 1-ate Middle Ordovician by graptolites (zone 12) found near the base of the unit. The Dixville Formation is correlated with the Kamankeag Formation and Oquossoc Formation and is considered to be Middle Ordovician. The Albee Formation is considered to be Middle to Lower Ordovician from correlations with similar rocks in northeastern and southwestern Vermont. The Oquossoc and Kamankeag Formations are correlated with the Amonoosuc and Partridge Formations of northern New Hampshire. The pre-Silurian rocks are unconformably overlain by unnamed rocks of Silurian age in the southeast, west-central, and northwest ninths of the quadrangle. The basal Silurian units are boulder to cobble polymict conglomerate and quartz-pebble conglomerate of late Lower Silurian (Upper Llandovery) age. The overlying rocks are either well-bedded slate and quartzite, silty limestone, or arenaceous limestone. Thearenaceous limestone contains Upper Silurian (Lower Ludlow) brachiopods. The stratified rocks have been intruded by three stocks of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite, a large body of metadiorite and associated serpentinite, smaller bodies of gabbro, granodiorite, and intrusive felsite, as well as numerous diabase and quartz monzonite dikes. The metadiorite and serpentinite, and possibly the gabbro and granodiorite are Late

  19. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  20. Environmental radon and cancer correlations in Maine.

    PubMed

    Hess, C T; Weiffenbach, C V; Norton, S A

    1983-08-01

    The distribution of 222Rn has been measured in the sixteen counties of Maine, U.S.A. by liquid scintillation counting of water samples from more than two thousand public and private wells. Three hundred and fifty of these wells have been characterized for geology and hydrology. Airborne radon has been measured in seventy houses with grab samples and in eighteen houses for 5-7 days each with continuously recording diffusion-electrostatic radon detectors. Concentrations of radon in water ranged from 20 to 180,000 pCi/l. Granite areas yielded the highest average levels (mean = 22,100 pCi/l.; n = 136), with considerable intra-granite variation. Metasedimentary rocks yielded levels characteristic of the lithology for metamorphic grades ranging from chlorite to andalusite. Sillimanite and higher-grade rocks yielded higher 222Rn levels, probably due to the intrusion of uranium-bearing pegmatites in these terranes. Airborne 222Rn in homes ranged from 0.05 to 210 pCi/l. At the high end of this range, doses will exceed recommended industrial limits. In some homes only a small fraction of the airborne 222Rn was due to the water supply. Average 222Rn levels in domestic water supplies for each of the 16 counties, calculated by areally averaging rock types and their associated 222Rn levels, were found to be significantly correlated with rates for all cancers combined and rates for lung and reproductive cancers in the counties. Although numerous factors other than cancer induction by indoor daughter exposures may be responsible for the observed correlations, these have not been investigated in detail.

  1. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  2. Main points for 1991 family planning work.

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    The main points for 1991 Family Planning (FP) Work in China are discussed as follows: 1) strengthen leadership, 2) strengthen grass roots buildup, 3 intensify population plan management and improve the responsibility system, 4) strengthen publicity and promote population and FP education in rural areas, 5) strengthen and establish the legal system for FP management, 6) provide excellent contraceptive and birth control services, 7 perform inservice training conscientiously and technical secondary education earnestly, and 8) coordinate efforts among related departments. Leadership changes involve the 2 top leaders of the Communist Party Committees and governments at each level taking personal responsibility for the implementation of their local population plans and FP work. FP work must have a prominent place on all agendas. The FP service network needs to be accelerated in countries, townships, and villages and grass roots units strengthened in urban areas. Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities must work out their local population plans for 1991-95 and 1991-99 according to the national population target. Rational apportionment needs to be considered for prefectures and counties. The emphasis should be on timely and accurate feedback and statistical supervision. The 1990 national population census data should be used to inform everyone about the current population situation. Legal needs entail standardizing documentation and developing local laws and regulations within a comprehensive system. Improvements are needed in such areas as rules and regulations pertaining to the administration of charges for unplanned births, identification of disabled children and approval of the birth quota. Abortion and unplanned births are to be averted through prepregnancy management. The emphasis is on voluntary use of contraception by couples of childbearing age. Inservice training should improve the political, ideological, professional proficiency, and ability to

  3. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  4. Frustrated Lewis pairs: from concept to catalysis.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Douglas W

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) chemistry has emerged in the past decade as a strategy that enables main-group compounds to activate small molecules. This concept is based on the notion that combinations of Lewis acids and bases that are sterically prevented from forming classical Lewis acid-base adducts have Lewis acidity and basicity available for interaction with a third molecule. This concept has been applied to stoichiometric reactivity and then extended to catalysis. This Account describes three examples of such developments: hydrogenation, hydroamination, and CO2 reduction. The most dramatic finding from FLP chemistry was the discovery that FLPs can activate H2, thus countering the long-existing dogma that metals are required for such activation. This finding of stoichiometric reactivity was subsequently evolved to employ simple main-group species as catalysts in hydrogenations. While the initial studies focused on imines, subsequent studies uncovered FLP catalysts for a variety of organic substrates, including enamines, silyl enol ethers, olefins, and alkynes. Moreover, FLP reductions of aromatic anilines and N-heterocycles have been developed, while very recent extensions have uncovered the utility of FLP catalysts for ketone reductions. FLPs have also been shown to undergo stoichiometric reactivity with terminal alkynes. Typically, either deprotonation or FLP addition reaction products are observed, depending largely on the basicity of the Lewis base. While a variety of acid/base combinations have been exploited to afford a variety of zwitterionic products, this reactivity can also be extended to catalysis. When secondary aryl amines are employed, hydroamination of alkynes can be performed catalytically, providing a facile, metal-free route to enamines. In a similar fashion, initial studies of FLPs with CO2 demonstrated their ability to capture this greenhouse gas. Again, modification of the constituents of the FLP led to the discovery of reaction

  5. Simplified liquid oxygen propellant conditioning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, N. L.; Holt, K. A.; Flachbart, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    Current liquid oxygen feed systems waste propellant and use hardware, unnecessary during flight, to condition the propellant at the engine turbopumps prior to launch. Simplified liquid oxygen propellant conditioning concepts are being sought for future launch vehicles. During a joint program, four alternative propellant conditioning options were studied: (1) passive recirculation; (2) low bleed through the engine; (3) recirculation lines; and (4) helium bubbling. The test configuration for this program was based on a vehicle design which used a main recirculation loop that was insulated on the downcomer and uninsulated on the upcomer. This produces a natural convection recirculation flow. The test article for this program simulated a feedline which ran from the main recirculation loop to the turbopump. The objective was to measure the temperature profile of this test article. Several parameters were varied from the baseline case to determine their effects on the temperature profile. These parameters included: flow configuration, feedline slope, heat flux, main recirculation loop velocity, pressure, bleed rate, helium bubbling, and recirculation lines. The heat flux, bleed rate, and recirculation configurations produced the greatest changes from the baseline temperature profile. However, the temperatures in the feedline remained subcooled. Any of the options studied could be used in future vehicles.

  6. Time Concepts for Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    1990-01-01

    Points out that children have difficulty learning time concepts. Presents instructional activities for concepts associated with clocks, calendars, and chronology. Outlines Jerome Bruner's three different stages of representation for each concept: enactive, iconic, and symbolic. (DB)

  7. Metagenomics and the niche concept.

    PubMed

    Marco, Diana

    2008-08-01

    The metagenomics approach has revolutionised the fields of bacterial diversity, ecology and evolution, as well as derived applications like bioremediation and obtaining bioproducts. A further associated conceptual change has also occurred since in the metagenomics methodology the species is no longer the unit of study, but rather partial genome arrangements or even isolated genes. In spite of this, concepts coming from ecological and evolutionary fields traditionally centred on the species, like the concept of niche, are still being applied without further revision. A reformulation of the niche concept is necessary to deal with the new operative and epistemological challenges posed by the metagenomics approach. To contribute to this end, I review past and present uses of the niche concept in ecology and in microbiological studies, showing that a new, updated definition need to be used in the context of the metagenomics. Finally, I give some insights into a more adequate conceptual background for the utilisation of the niche concept in metagenomic studies. In particular, I raise the necessity of including the microbial genetic background as another variable into the niche space.

  8. Investigations of ice formation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209 main injector coolant cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Charklwick, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Severe main combustion chamber wall and main injector baffle element deterioration occurred during tests of Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209. One of the possible causes considered is ice formation and blockage of coolant to these components, resulting from the mixing of leaking hot turbine exhaust gas (hydrogen rich steam) and hydrogen coolant in the injector coolant cavity. The plausibility of ice blockage is investigated through simple mixing calculations for hot gas and hydrogen, investigation of condensation and water droplet formation, calculation of the freezing times for droplets, and the prediction of ice layer thicknesses. It is concluded that condensation and droplet formation can occur, and small water droplets that form can freeze very quickly when in contact with the cold coolant cavity surfaces. Copnservative analysis predicts, however, that the maximum thickness of the ice layers formed is too small to result in significant blockage of the coolant flow.

  9. Jupiter's Main Ring and 2 Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter's main ring is a narrow structure about 6,000 kilometers (about 3,700 miles) in width and about 100,000 times fainter than the planet it encircles. These are the first pictures that NASA's Cassini spacecraft has taken of the ring, a portion of which appears in each frame as an arc opening toward the right.

    Image processing helped make the ring easier to see in these frames taken with Cassini's narrow-angle camera during a 39.5-hour period beginning Dec. 11, 2000. The distance between the spacecraft and Jupiter narrowed during those hours, from 20.3 million kilometers (12.6 million miles) to 19 million kilometers (11.8 million miles). Also, Cassini's movement took it from 3.3 degrees above the plane of the rings to 2.98 degrees above the plane. The frames are in sequence from upper left to lower right. The image of the ring's arc grows longer, as the spacecraft approaches the planet.

    Resolution is about 230 kilometers (143 miles) per pixel. The 10 frames shown here are each a small section of several separate narrow-angle images taken through the camera's clear filter and spanning the entire 39.5 hour period. The scattered light background has been removed, and the images have been contrast-stretched to enhance the ring. The contours in the image, as well as the small variations in brightness of the ring from one frame to the next, are a result of the image processing and background removal.

    This image sequence also shows the motions of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies. This image sequence also shows the motions of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency

  10. Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-11-01

    For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both

  11. Pleiades System Architecture and Main Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, M. A.; Perret, L.; Kubik, P.

    2012-07-01

    France, under the leadership of the French Space Agency (CNES), has set up a cooperative program with Austria, Belgium, Spain, Sweden, in order to develop a space Earth Observation system called PLEIADES. PLEIADES is a dual system, this means that it is intended to fulfill an extended panel of both civilian and Defense user's needs.. This paper reports the status of the satellite after its launch and the in orbit commissioning, the PLEIADES satellite first model has been launched at the end of year 2011, the second model will be launched about 12 months later. It describes the main mission characteristics and performances status. It exposes how the system, satellite and ground segment have been designed in order to be compliant with a dual exploitation between civilian and defense partners. The system is based on the use of a set of newly European developed technologies to feature the satellite. In order to maximize the agility of the satellite, weight and inertia have been reduced using a compact hexagonal shape for the satellite bus. The optical mission consists in Earth optical observation composed of 0.7 m nadir resolution for the panchromatic band and 2.8 m nadir resolution for the four multi-spectral bands. The image swath is about 20 km. PLEIADES delivers optical high resolution products consisting in a Panchromatic image, into which is merged a four multispectral bands image, orthorectified on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM). Thanks to the huge satellite agility obtained with control momentum gyros as actuators, the optical system delivers as well instantaneous stereo images, under different stereoscopic conditions and mosaic images, issued from along the track thus enlarging the field of view. The ground segment is composed of a dual ground center located in CNES Toulouse premises in charge of preparing the dual mission command plan and of the real time contacts with the satellite through a control center. The dual ground center interfaces with several

  12. The Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM), USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, S.; Kahl, J.; Fernandez, I.; Haines, T.; Rustad, L.; Nodvin, S.; Scofield, J.; Strickland, T.; Erickson, H.; Wigington, P.; Lee, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation project in Maine is a paired calibrated watershed study funded by the U.S. EPA. The research program is evaluating whole ecosystem response to elevated inputs of acidifying chemicals. The consists of a 2.5 year calibration period (1987-1989), nine years of chemical additions of (NH4)2SO4 (15N- and 34S-enriched for several years) to West Bear watershed (1989-1998), followed by a recovery period. The other watershed, East Bear, serves as a reference. Dosing is in six equal treatments/yr of 1800 eq SO4 and NH4/ha/yr, a 200% increase over 1988 loading (wet plus dry) for SO4 300% for N (wet NO3 + NH4). The experimental and reference watersheds are forested with mixed hard- and softwoods, and have thin acidic soils, areas of 10.2 and 10.7 ha and relief of 210 m. Thin till of variable composition is underlain by metasedimentary pelitic rocks and calc-silicate gneiss intruded by granite dikes and sills. For the period 1987-1995, precipitation averaged 1.4 m/yr, had a mean pH of 4.5, with SO4, NO3, and NH4 concentrations of 26, 14, and 7 ??eq/L, respectively. The nearly perrenial streams draining each watershed have discharges ranging from 0 (East Bear stops flowing for one to two months per year) to 150 L/sec. Prior to manipulation, East Bear and West Bear had a volume weighted annual mean pH of approximately 5.4, alkalinity = 0 to 4 ??eq/L, total base cations = 184 ??eq/L (sea-salt corrected = 118 ??eq/L), and SO4 = 100 to 111 ??eq/L. Nitrate ranged from 0 to 30 ??eq/L with an annual mean of 6 to 25 ??eq/L; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1 to 7 mg/L but was typically less than 3. Episodic acidification occurred at high discharge and was caused by dilution of cations, slightly increased DOC, significantly higher NO3, and the sea-salt effect. Depressions in pH were accompanied by increases in inorganic Al. The West Bear catchment responded to the chemical additions with increased export of base cations, Al, SO4, NO3, and

  13. Microwave Observations on Saturn's Main Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhimeng; Hayes, Alexander; Janssen, Michael A.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; de Pater, Imke; Dunn, David; Hedman, Matthew M.; Estrada, Paul R.

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable study, Saturn's rings continue to challenge current theories for their provenance. Water ice comprises the bulk of Saturn's rings, yet it is the small fraction of non-icy material that is arguably more valuable in revealing clues about the system's origin and age. Herein, we present new measurements of the non-icy material fraction in Saturn's main rings, determined from microwave observations obtained by Cassini Radar and EVLA.Our Cassini Radar observations in the C Ring show an exceptionally high brightness at near-zero azimuthal angles, suggesting a high porosity of 70%-75% for the particles. Furthermore, most regions in the C ring contain about 1-2% silicates while with an enhanced abundance concentrated in the middle C ring reaching a maximum of 6%-11%. We proposed that the C ring has been continuously polluted by meteoroid bombardment for 15-90Myr, while the middle C ring was further contaminated by an incoming Centaur disrupted by Saturn tidal force. Owing to the B ring's high opacity, the particles there are likely to have 85% - 90% porosity, with corresponding non-icy material fractions of ~ 0.3% - 0.5% in the inner and outer B ring, and ~0.1% - 0.2% in the middle regions. For the A ring interior to the Encke gap, the derived non-icy material is ~0.2% - 0.3% everywhere for porosities ranging from 55% - 90%. Finally, our results for the Cassini Division indicate a non-icy material fraction of ~1% - 2% similar to most regions in the C ring, except that the Cassini Division particles are more likely to contain ~ 90% porosity due to the high opacity there. Our results here further support the idea that Saturn's rings may be less than 150 Myr old suggesting an origin scenario in which the rings are derived from the relatively recent breakup of an icy moon.Furthermore, we calibrated and analyzed multi-wavelengths EVLA observation at wavelengths ranging from 0.7cm to 13cm. As the array operates in a wavelength regime where the absorption

  14. Apparent Brecciation Gradient, Mount Desert Island, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, A. T.; Johnson, S. E.

    2004-05-01

    Mount Desert Island, Maine, comprises a shallow level, Siluro-Devonian igneous complex surrounded by a distinctive breccia zone ("shatter zone" of Gilman and Chapman, 1988). The zone is very well exposed on the southern and eastern shores of the island and provides a unique opportunity to examine subvolcanic processes. The breccia of the Shatter Zone shows wide variation in percent matrix and clast, and may represent a spatial and temporal gradient in breccia formation due to a single eruptive or other catastrophic volcanic event. The shatter zone was divided into five developmental stages based on the extent of brecciation: Bar Harbor Formation, Sols Cliffs breccia, Seeley Road breccia, Dubois breccia, and Great Head breccia. A digital camera was employed to capture scale images of representative outcrops using a 0.5 m square Plexiglas frame. Individual images were joined in Adobe Photoshop to create a composite image of each outcrop. The composite photo was then exported to Adobe Illustrator, which was used to outline the clasts and produce a digital map of the outcrop for analysis. The fractal dimension (Fd) of each clast was calculated using NIH Image and a Euclidean distance mapping method described by Bérubé and Jébrak (1999) to quantify the morphology of the fragments, or the complexity of the outline. The more complex the fragment outline, the higher the fractal dimension, indicating that the fragment is less "mature" or has had less exposure to erosional processes, such as the injection of an igneous matrix. Sols Cliffs breccia has an average Fd of 1.125, whereas Great Head breccia has an average Fd of 1.040, with the stages between having intermediate values. The more complex clasts of the Sols Cliffs breccia with a small amount (26.38%) of matrix material suggests that it is the first stage in a sequence of brecciation ending at the more mature, matrix-supported (71.37%) breccia of Great Head. The results of this study will be used to guide isotopic

  15. Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-01-01

    For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both

  16. Physical Habitat Analysis of Missouri River Main Stem Reservoir Tailwaters Using the Riverine Community Habitat Assessment and Restoration Concept (RCHARC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    The work was funded by the U.S. Army Engineer Division, Missouri River (MRD), as part of the Missouri River Water Control Manual Review. The report was...prepared under the direct supervision of Dr. Mark S. Dortch, Chief, Water Quality and Cont t Modeling Branch (1K CMB), and under the general supervision of...River (MRD), controls, maintains, and conserves water resources to provide for flood control, navigation, irriga- tion, power generation, recreation

  17. Evaluation of advanced airship concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joner, B. A.; Schneider, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    A historical overview of the airship, technical and operational characteristics of conventional and hybrid concepts, and the results of a parametric design analysis and evaluation are presented. The lift capabilities of certain buoyant fluids for a hypothetical 16 million cu.ft. volume airship are compared. The potential advanced airship concepts are surveyed, followed by a discussion of the six configurations: conventional nonrigid, conventional rigid, Deltoid (Dynairship), Guppoid (Megalifter), Helipsoid, and Heli-Stat. It is suggested that a partially buoyant Helipsoid concept of the optimum buoyancy ratio has the potential to solve the problems facing future airship development, such as Ballast and Ballast Recovery System, Full Low-Speed Controllability, Susceptibility to Wind/Gusting, Weather/Icing Constraints, Ground Handling/Hangaring, and Direct/Indirect Operating Costs.

  18. Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination of Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, S.; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination that was developed for the examination of a limited access circumferential Inconel 718 fusion weld of a Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle - Cone. The paper discusses the selection and formation criteria used for the phased array focal laws, the reference standard that simulated hardware conditions, the examination concept, and results. Several unique constraints present during this examination included limited probe movement to a single axis and one-sided access to the weld.

  19. Changing Conceptions of Globalization: Changing Conceptions of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Examines changing conceptions of globalization in education, highlighting new electronic information technologies that, rather than promoting homogeneity, are producing a stimulus for a politics of difference. Cyborgs and cyberspace are emerging as discourses of disunity and difference. The essay recommends a form of critical localism to challenge…

  20. A Network Analysis of Concept Maps of Triangle Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiyue, Jin; Khoon Yoong, Wong

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics educators and mathematics standards of curriculum have emphasised the importance of constructing the interconnectedness among mathematic concepts ("conceptual understanding") instead of only the ability to carry out standard procedures in an isolated fashion. Researchers have attempted to assess the knowledge networks in…