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Sample records for agc concept main

  1. AGC-2 Disassembly Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2014-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite Research and Development (R&D) Program is currently measuring irradiated material properties for predicting the behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades available for use within the cores of new very high temperature reactor designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, consisting of six irradiation capsules, will generate irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. The AGC experiment is designed to determine the changes to specific material properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, elastic modulus, mechanical strength, irradiation induced dimensional change rate, and irradiation creep for a wide variety of nuclear grade graphite types over a range of high temperature, and moderate doses. A series of six capsules containing graphite test specimens will be used to expose graphite test samples to a dose range from 1 to 7 dpa at three different temperatures (600, 900, and 1200°C) as described in the Graphite Technology Development Plan. Since irradiation induced creep within graphite components is considered critical to determining the operational life of the graphite core, some of the samples will also be exposed to an applied load to determine the creep rate for each graphite type under both temperature and neutron flux. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). AGC-1 and AGC-2 will be irradiated in the south flux trap and AGC-3–AGC-6 will be irradiated in the east flux trap. The change in flux traps is due to NGNP irradiation priorities requiring the AGC experiment to be moved to accommodate Fuel irradiation experiments. After irradiation, all six AGC capsules will be cooled in the ATR Canal, sized for shipment, and shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) where the capsule will be disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). During disassembly, the metallic

  2. Main concepts of dentin adhesion (review).

    PubMed

    Mamaladze, M; Sanodze, L; Vadachkoria, D

    2009-03-01

    This review examines fundamental concepts in bonding to dentin. Emphasis is placed on the structure and permeability characteristics of dentin and how they may influence its interaction with adhesive resin. Several new techniques to examine the interfaces between resin and dentin are reviewed along with some of their limitations. The advantages and disadvantages of acid etchants/conditioners versus self-etching conditioners/primers are discussed. The problems of matching the surface tension of resin bonding systems to the surface energy of the substrate are reviewed in terms of wetting the various components of dentin. The problems associated with matching the permeability of intertubular dentin to the diffusibility of bonding reagents are explored. Speculation is advanced on how to ensure polymerization and wetting of dentinal collagen. Theoretical problems associated with dentin bonding and with bond testing are reviewed in order to encourage future research in this rapidly developing area. PMID:19359716

  3. AGC-3 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes; David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the third Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-3) irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule is third in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The general design of AGC-3 test capsule is similar to the AGC-2 test capsule, material property tests were conducted on graphite specimens prior to loading into the AGC-3 irradiation assembly. However the 6 major nuclear graphite grades in AGC-2 were modified; two previous graphite grades (IG-430 and H-451) were eliminated and one was added (Mersen’s 2114 was added). Specimen testing from three graphite grades (PCEA, 2114, and NBG-17) was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and specimen testing for two grades (IG-110 and NBG-18) were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from May 2011 to July 2013. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-3 irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule design requires "matched pair" creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-3 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce "matched pairs" of graphite samples above and below the AGC-3 capsule elevation mid-point to

  4. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes; W. David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-08-01

    This report described the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the second Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-2) irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule is the second in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. Similar to the AGC-1 specimen pre-irradiation examination report, material property tests were conducted on specimens from 18 nuclear graphite types but on an increased number of specimens (512) prior to loading into the AGC-2 irradiation assembly. All AGC-2 specimen testing was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from October 2009 to August 2010. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-2 irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule design requires “matched pair” creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-2 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce “matched pairs” of graphite samples above and below the AGC-2 capsule elevation mid-point to provide specimens with similar neutron dose levels.

  5. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  6. AGC-1 Post Irradiation Examination Status

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank

    2011-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF), and examined at the INL Research Center (IRC) or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This is the first in a series of status reports on the progress of the AGC experiment. As the first capsule, AGC1 was irradiated from September 2009 to January 2011 to a maximum dose level of 6-7 dpa. The capsule was removed from ATR and transferred to the HFEF in April 2011 where the capsule was disassembled and test specimens extracted from the capsules. The first irradiated samples from AGC1 were shipped to the IRC in July 2011and initial post irradiation examination (PIE) activities were begun on the first 37 samples received. PIE activities continue for the remainder of the AGC1 specimen as they are received at the IRC.

  7. Is AGC beneficial in hearing aids?

    PubMed

    King, A B; Martin, M C

    1984-02-01

    Three different functions of Automatic Gain Control (AGC) circuits in hearing aids are distinguished and the evidence for their benefits is considered. The value of AGC's function as a relatively distortion-free means of limiting output has been well established. With regard to compression, the benefit of short-term or 'syllabic' compression has not been demonstrated convincingly. Most evaluations of this type of AGC have looked for increase in speech intelligibility, but theoretical predictions of its effect do not appear to take account of the acoustic cues to consonant contrasts actually used by hearing impaired people, and empirical studies have often used listening conditions which do not give a realistic test of benefit. Relatively little attention has been paid to long-term compression, or to the effect of AGC on comfort rather than intelligibility. Listening tests carried out at the RNID and reported here have shown that AGC can benefit hearing aid users by allowing them to listen to a wider range of sound levels without either strain or discomfort, and, if time constants are well chosen, without adverse effects on speech intelligibility in quiet or in noise.

  8. FY-2010 AGC-1 Disassembly Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Philip L. Winston

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluencies, and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor and preirradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed.

  9. AGC 226067: A possible interacting low-mass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. A. K.; Cannon, J. M.; Rhode, K. L.; Janesh, W. F.; Janowiecki, S.; Leisman, L.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Salzer, J. J.; Zaidi, T.

    2015-08-01

    We present Arecibo, GBT, VLA, and WIYN/pODI observations of the ALFALFA source AGC 226067. Originally identified as an ultra-compact high velocity cloud and candidate Local Group galaxy, AGC 226067 is spatially and kinematically coincident with the Virgo cluster, and the identification by multiple groups of an optical counterpart with no resolved stars supports the interpretation that this systems lies at the Virgo distance (D = 17 Mpc). The combined observations reveal that the system consists of multiple components: a central H i source associated with the optical counterpart (AGC 226067), a smaller H i-only component (AGC 229490), a second optical component (AGC 229491), and extended low-surface brightness H i. Only ~1/4 of the single-dish H i emission is associated with AGC 226067; as a result, we find MHI/Lg ~ 6M⊙/L⊙ which is lower than previous work. At D = 17 Mpc, AGC 226067 has an H i mass of 1.5 × 107M⊙ and Lg = 2.4 × 106L⊙, AGC 229490 (the H i-only component) has MHI = 3.6 × 106M⊙, and AGC 229491 (the second optical component) has Lg = 3.6 × 105L⊙. The nature of this system of three sources is uncertain: AGC 226067 and AGC 229490 may be connected by an H i bridge, and AGC 229490 and AGC 229491 are separated by only 0.5'. The current data do not resolve the H i in AGC 229490 and its origin is unclear. We discuss possible scenarios for this system of objects: an interacting system of dwarf galaxies, accretion of material onto AGC 226067, or stripping of material from AGC 226067.

  10. Concept as the Main Research Object of Cognitive Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdikalyk, Kunimzhan Sadirkyzy; Abitzhanova, Zhanar Altynbekovna; Otarbekova, Zhamilya Kerimbaevna; Kaidarova, Gulyaim Kablakatovna; Seidullayeva, Gulzhan Abutalipovna

    2016-01-01

    This article dwells upon the basic unit of cognitive linguistics, which is a concept. Firstly, we provide an overview of major scientific works written by foreign linguists who pay attention to special aspects and lines of research. Secondly, we analyse conclusions on modern problems in linguistics that are drawn in cognitological studies…

  11. AGC-2 Irradiation Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence C. Hull

    2012-07-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment (AGC-2) began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 149A on April 12, 2011, and ended with ATR Cycle 151B on May 5, 2012. The purpose of this report is to qualify AGC-2 irradiation monitoring data following INL Management and Control Procedure 2691, Data Qualification. Data that are Qualified meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Data that do not meet the requirements are Failed. Some data may not quite meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. These data are labeled as Trend. No Trend data were identified for the AGC-2 experiment. All thermocouples functioned throughout the AGC-2 experiment. There was one instance where spurious signals or instrument power interruption resulted in a recorded temperature value being well outside physical reality. This value was identified and labeled as Failed data. All other temperature data are Qualified. All helium and argon gas flow data are within expected ranges. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during reactor shutdown. All gas flow data are Qualified. At the start of the experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line increased to 200 ppmv then declined to less than 10 ppmv over a period of 5 days. This increase in moisture coincides with the initial heating of the experiment and drying of the system. Moisture slightly exceeded 10 ppmv three other times during the experiment. While these moisture values exceed the 10 ppmv threshold value, the reported measurements are considered accurate and to reflect moisture conditions in the capsule. All moisture data are Qualified. Graphite creep specimens are subjected to one of three loads, 393 lbf

  12. AGC-2 Graphite Pre-irradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  13. The wheat AGC kinase TaAGC1 is a positive contributor to host resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia cerealis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiuliang; Yang, Kun; Wei, Xuening; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Rong, Wei; Du, Lipu; Ye, Xingguo; Qi, Lin; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles of AGC kinases in mammalian systems. However, very little is known about the roles of AGC kinases in wheat (Triticum aestivum). The necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis is the major pathogen of the destructive disease sharp eyespot of wheat. In this study, the wheat AGC kinase gene TaAGC1, responding to R. cerealis infection, was isolated, and its properties and role in wheat defence were characterized. R. cerealis-resistant wheat lines expressed TaAGC1 at higher levels than susceptible wheat lines. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the TaAGC1 protein is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) subgroup of AGC kinases. Kinase activity assays proved that TaAGC1 is a functional kinase and the Asp-239 residue located in the conserved serine/threonine kinase domain of TaAGC1 is required for the kinase activity. Subcellular localization assays indicated that TaAGC1 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Virus-induced TaAGC1 silencing revealed that the down-regulation of TaAGC1 transcripts significantly impaired wheat resistance to R. cerealis. The molecular characterization and responses of TaAGC1 overexpressing transgenic wheat plants indicated that TaAGC1 overexpression significantly enhanced resistance to sharp eyespot and reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wheat plants challenged with R. cerealis. Furthermore, ROS-scavenging and certain defence-associated genes were up-regulated in resistant plants overexpressing TaAGC1 but down-regulated in susceptible knock-down plants. These results suggested that the kinase TaAGC1 positively contributes to wheat immunity to R. cerealis through regulating expression of ROS-related and defence-associated genes. PMID:26220083

  14. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Laurence C.

    2014-08-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear-grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC-3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. The report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data following MCP-2691. This report also documents whether AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data meet the requirements for data collection as specified in technical and functional requirements documents and quality assurance (QA) plans. Data handling is described showing how data are passed from the data collection experiment to the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) team. The data structure is described, including data batches, components, attributes, and response variables. The description of the approach to data qualification includes the steps taken to qualify the data and the specific tests used to verify that the data meet requirements. Finally, the current status of the data received by NDMAS from the AGC-3 experiment is presented with summarized information on test results and resolutions. This report addresses all of the irradiation monitoring data collected during the AGC-3 experiment.

  15. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  16. A Taiwanese Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA) for Quantification of Aphasic Oral Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Yeh, Chun-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various quantitative systems have been proposed to examine aphasic oral narratives in English. A clinical tool for assessing discourse produced by Cantonese-speaking persons with aphasia (PWA), namely Main Concept Analysis (MCA), was developed recently for quantifying the presence, accuracy and completeness of a narrative. Similar…

  17. The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia…

  18. An Assessment of Flap and Main Landing Gear Noise Abatement Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the acoustic performance of several noise reduction concepts for aircraft flaps and landing gear is presented. Consideration is given to the best performing concepts within the suite of technologies that were evaluated in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel using an 18 percent scale, semi-span, high-fidelity Gulfstream aircraft model as a test bed. Microphone array measurements were obtained with the model in a landing configuration (flap deflected 39 degrees and the main landing gear deployed or retracted). The effectiveness of each concept over the range of pitch angles, speeds, and directivity angles tested is presented. Comparison of the acoustic spectra, obtained from integration of the beamform maps between the untreated baseline and treated configurations, clearly demonstrates that the flap and gear concepts maintain noise reduction benefits over the entire range of the directivity angles tested.

  19. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    SciTech Connect

    Windes, William Enoch; Swank, W. David; Rohrbaugh, David T.; Cottle, David L.

    2015-08-01

    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  20. Evolutionary Adaptations of Plant AGC Kinases: From Light Signaling to Cell Polarity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Eike H.; Offringa, Remko

    2012-01-01

    Signaling and trafficking over membranes involves a plethora of transmembrane proteins that control the flow of compounds or relay specific signaling events. Next to external cues, internal stimuli can modify the activity or abundance of these proteins at the plasma membrane (PM). One such regulatory mechanism is protein phosphorylation by membrane-associated kinases, several of which are AGC kinases. The AGC kinase family is one of seven kinase families that are conserved in all eukaryotic genomes. In plants evolutionary adaptations introduced specific structural changes within the AGC kinases that most likely allow modulation of kinase activity by external stimuli (e.g., light). Starting from the well-defined structural basis common to all AGC kinases we review the current knowledge on the structure-function relationship in plant AGC kinases. Nine of the 39 Arabidopsis AGC kinases have now been shown to be involved in the regulation of auxin transport. In particular, AGC kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the auxin transporters ABCB1 and ABCB19 has been shown to regulate their activity, while auxin transporters of the PIN family are located to different positions at the PM depending on their phosphorylation status, which is a result of counteracting AGC kinase and PP6 phosphatase activities. We therefore focus on regulation of AGC kinase activity in this context. Identified structural adaptations of the involved AGC kinases may provide new insight into AGC kinase functionality and demonstrate their position as central hubs in the cellular network controlling plant development and growth. PMID:23162562

  1. AGC-1 Pre-Irradiation Data Report Status

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2011-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All samples in the experiment will be fully characterized before irradiation, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and then re-examined to determine the irradiation induced changes to key materials properties in the different graphite grades. The information generated during the AGC experiment will be utilized for NRC licensing of NGNP reactor designs, shared with international collaborators in the Generation IV Information Forum (GIF), and eventually utilized in ASME design code for graphite nuclear applications. This status report will describe the process the NGNP Graphite R&D program has developed to record the AGC1 pre-irradiation examination data.

  2. The Numerical Studies Program for the Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE) for Spacelab Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlis, W. W. (Editor); Davis, M. H. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric general circulation experiment (AGCE) numerical design for Spacelab flights was studied. A spherical baroclinic flow experiment which models the large scale circulations of the Earth's atmosphere was proposed. Gravity is simulated by a radial dielectric body force. The major objective of the AGCE is to study nonlinear baroclinic wave flows in spherical geometry. Numerical models must be developed which accurately predict the basic axisymmetric states and the stability of nonlinear baroclinic wave flows. A three dimensional, fully nonlinear, numerical model and the AGCE based on the complete set of equations is required. Progress in the AGCE numerical design studies program is reported.

  3. Myotonin protein-kinase [AGC]n trinucleotide repeat in seven nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, G.; Sineo, L.; Pontieri, E. ||

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is due to a genomic instability of a trinucleotide [AGC]n motif, located at the 3{prime} UTR region of a protein-kinase gene (myotonin protein kinase, MT-PK). The [AGC] repeat is meiotically and mitotically unstable, and it is directly related to the manifestations of the disorder. Although a gene dosage effect of the MT-PK has been demonstrated n DM muscle, the mechanism(s) by which the intragenic repeat expansion leads to disease is largely unknown. This non-standard mutational event could reflect an evolutionary mechanism widespread among animal genomes. We have isolated and sequenced the complete 3{prime}UTR region of the MT-PK gene in seven primates (macaque, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, gibbon, owl monkey, saimiri), and examined by comparative sequence nucleotide analysis the [AGC]n intragenic repeat and the surrounding nucleotides. The genomic organization, including the [AGC]n repeat structure, was conserved in all examined species, excluding the gibbon (Hylobates agilis), in which the [AGC]n upstream sequence (GGAA) is replaced by a GA dinucleotide. The number of [AGC]n in the examined species ranged between 7 (gorilla) and 13 repeats (owl monkeys), with a polymorphism informative content (PIC) similar to that observed in humans. These results indicate that the 3{prime}UTR [AGC] repeat within the MT-PK gene is evolutionarily conserved, supporting that this region has important regulatory functions.

  4. Computation of flow regimes in parameter space for the AGCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. O.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the results of a small study program in support of the design studies for NASA's proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE). The proposed experiment will model the atmosphere using a hemispherical layer of a dielectric fluid such as silicone oil, heated at the equator, and with a large radial AC electric field producing a temperature-dependent radial body force similar to radial gravity. The effect of terrestrial gravity on the experiment can be eliminated by doing the experiment in space flight. The author developed a series of three computer models to support these design studies. The first two calculate axisymmetric solutions and their stability to small non-axisymmetric perturbations. The third computes three-dimensional solutions. These codes allow the option of solving problems in a cylindrical geometry as well as a rather generally defined spherical layer.

  5. The Extremely Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxy AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John Joseph; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) sample, which consists of ultra-low HI mass galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast-Acting ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. SHIELD is a multi-configuration Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) study of the neutral gas content and dynamics of galaxies with HI masses in the range of 106-107 M⊙. Our spectral data were obtained using the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) on the Mayall 4-m telescope as part of a systematic study of the nebular abundances in the SHIELD galaxy sample. These observations enable measurement of the temperature sensitive [OIII]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a "direct" oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxy with an oxygen abundance comparable to such objects as I Zw 18, SBS 0335-052W, Leo P, and DDO 68 - the lowest metallicity star-forming systems known. It is worth noting that two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies currently recognized were discovered via the ALFALFA blind HI survey. These XMD galaxies are potential analogues to the first star-forming systems, which through hierarchical accretion processes built up the large galaxies we observe today in the local Universe. Detailed analysis of such XMD systems offers observational constraint to models of galactic evolution and star formation histories to allow a better understanding of the processes that govern the chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies.

  6. Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

  7. A Robust Distributed Multipoint Fiber Optic Gas Sensor System Based on AGC Amplifier Structure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Rende; Tao, Xuechen; Wang, Guangwei; Wang, Pengpeng

    2016-01-01

    A harsh environment-oriented distributed multipoint fiber optic gas sensor system realized by automatic gain control (AGC) technology is proposed. To improve the photoelectric signal reliability, the electronic variable gain can be modified in real time by an AGC closed-loop feedback structure to compensate for optical transmission loss which is caused by the fiber bend loss or other reasons. The deviation of the system based on AGC structure is below 4.02% when photoelectric signal decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is 20 times lower than the ordinary differential system. In addition, the AGC circuit with the same electric parameters can keep the baseline intensity of signals in different channels of the distributed multipoint sensor system at the same level. This avoids repetitive calibrations and streamlines the installation process. PMID:27483267

  8. A Robust Distributed Multipoint Fiber Optic Gas Sensor System Based on AGC Amplifier Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Rende; Tao, Xuechen; Wang, Guangwei; Wang, Pengpeng

    2016-01-01

    A harsh environment-oriented distributed multipoint fiber optic gas sensor system realized by automatic gain control (AGC) technology is proposed. To improve the photoelectric signal reliability, the electronic variable gain can be modified in real time by an AGC closed-loop feedback structure to compensate for optical transmission loss which is caused by the fiber bend loss or other reasons. The deviation of the system based on AGC structure is below 4.02% when photoelectric signal decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is 20 times lower than the ordinary differential system. In addition, the AGC circuit with the same electric parameters can keep the baseline intensity of signals in different channels of the distributed multipoint sensor system at the same level. This avoids repetitive calibrations and streamlines the installation process. PMID:27483267

  9. Experimental evaluation of an advanced Space Shuttle Main Engine hot-gas manifold design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, D. G.; Lepore, F. F.; Oconnor, G. M.; Rao, G. V. R.; Ratekin, G. H.; Vogt, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine's hot gas manifold (HGM) has been the subject of an experimental study aimed at the establishment of an aerodynamic data base to support the development of an advanced, three-dimensional, fluid dynamic analysis computer model. The advanced HGM design used in the study demonstrated improved flow uniformity in the fuel-side turbine exit and transfer duct exit regions. Major modifications were incorporated in the HGM flow test article model, using two large transfer ducts on the fuel turbine side in place of the three small transfer ducts of the present design. The HGM flow field data were found to be essentially independent of Reynolds number over the range examined.

  10. Experimental evaluation of an advanced Space Shuttle main engine hot-gas manifold design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, D. G.; Lepore, F. F.; Oconnor, G. M.; Rao, G. V. R.; Ratekin, G. H.; Vogt, S. T.

    1985-01-01

    This study, using an extensively modified, full-scale space shuttle main engine (SSME) hot-gas manifold (HGM), established a detailed aerodynamic data base to support development of an advanced, three-dimensional, fluid-dynamic analysis computer model. In addition, the advanced SSME hot-gas manifold design used in this study demonstrated improved flow environment (uniformity) in the fuel side turbine exit and transfer duct exit regions. Major modifications were incorporated in the full-scale HGM flow test article model using two large transfer ducts on the fuel turbine side of the HGM in place of the three small transfer ducts in the present design. Other model features included an increases in the flow areas downstream of the 180-degree turn and in the fishbowl regions.

  11. Data Report on Post-Irradiation Dimensional Change of AGC-1 Samples

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the initial dimensional changes for loaded and unloaded AGC-1 samples. The dimensional change for all samples is presented as a function of dose. The data is further presented by graphite type and applied load levels to illustrate the differences between graphite forming processes and stress levels within the graphite components. While the three different loads placed on the samples have been verified [ ref: Larry Hull’s report] verification of the AGC-1 sample temperatures and dose levels are expected in the summer of 2012. Only estimated dose and temperature values for the samples are presented in this report to allow a partial analysis of the results.

  12. Reliability improvements of the Guri Hydroelectric Power Plant computer control system AGC and AVC

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, F.; Pescina, M. ); Llort, G. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the computer control system of a large hydroelectric powerplant and the reliability improvements made to the automatic generation control (AGC) and automatic voltage control (AVC) programs. hardware and software modifications were required to improve the interface between the powerplant and the regional load dispatch office. These modifications, and their impact on the AGC and AVC reliability, are also discussed. The changes that have been implemented are recommended for inclusion in new powerplant computer control systems, and as an upgrade feature for existing control systems.

  13. SHIELD II: AGC 198507 - An Extremely Rare Low-Mass Galaxy Interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolina Borg Stevens, Karin; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Teich, Yaron; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. New HST imaging of one of these sample galaxies, AGC 198507, has revealed it to be a very rare interacting system; to our knowledge this is one of only a few known interactions in this extreme mass range. WSRT imaging indicates that the bulk of the HI is associated with the more luminous AGC 198507, while low surface brightness gas extends toward and coincides with the less luminous companion, which is separated by roughly 1.5 kpc from AGC 198507. Here we present new VLA B configuration HI imaging that allows us to localize the HI gas, to examine the rotational dynamics of AGC 198507, and to study the nature of star formation in this unique low-mass interacting system.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  14. ASASSN-16ke: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in AGC 331536

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Bock, G.; Cruz, I.; Marples, P.; Post, R. S.

    2016-09-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy AGC 331536.

  15. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik

    2016-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 106–107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  16. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-30

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  17. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  18. Exploratory case study of students' main explanatory approaches to science concepts and their states of mental engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicdao-Quita, Maria Isabel T.

    This study explored students' dominant ways of operating in science; the types of structuring that is evident, not in terms of ideas, but in terms of how the students think about, imagine, and relate to the physical processes. As the study progressed, the investigation of the students' ideas went beyond their prior knowledge; other significant dimensions emerged as these students interacted with the heating process. The students demonstrated rich and dynamic pictures of the heating process, and from these images, a larger picture of the mental entities and processes dominant in their understanding of the physical phenomenon. Four Filipino students studying in the United States were individually observed in their science classes, were visited at home, and were interviewed about water being heated. The analysis of each student's data led to the two constructs, the main explanatory approach and the students' states of mental engagement (SOME), while the student was cognitively and affectively connected with the phenomenon. The features of the main explanatory approach include an explanatory element and an affective element that pervade the students' thinking about the phenomenon. It is common to and dominant in students' thinking across time. It is the approach of the student taken as a holistic organization within the student when he or she starts dealing with the phenomenon. One of the assumptions behind dealing with the main explanatory approach is that it is much more connected with what kind of person the student is and with the state of mental engagement (SOME) the student is in. SOME refers to the personal energy of a student as he or she relates to and becomes involved with the physical process--there is absorption into the object of study. SOME is related to energizing the main explanatory approach. The interconnectedness of these two constructs can be viewed as a different level of abstraction or interpretation of the students' ways of thinking about the

  19. Design and realization of an AEC&AGC system for the CCD aerial camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai ying; Feng, Bing; Wang, Peng; Li, Yan; Wei, Hao yun

    2015-08-01

    An AEC and AGC(Automatic Exposure Control and Automatic Gain Control) system was designed for a CCD aerial camera with fixed aperture and electronic shutter. The normal AEC and AGE algorithm is not suitable to the aerial camera since the camera always takes high-resolution photographs in high-speed moving. The AEC and AGE system adjusts electronic shutter and camera gain automatically according to the target brightness and the moving speed of the aircraft. An automatic Gamma correction is used before the image is output so that the image is better for watching and analyzing by human eyes. The AEC and AGC system could avoid underexposure, overexposure, or image blurring caused by fast moving or environment vibration. A series of tests proved that the system meet the requirements of the camera system with its fast adjusting speed, high adaptability, high reliability in severe complex environment.

  20. Capacitive deionization of seawater effected by nano Ag and Ag@C on graphene.

    PubMed

    Cai, P-F; Su, C-J; Chang, W-T; Chang, F-C; Peng, C-Y; Sun, I-W; Wei, Y-L; Jou, C-J; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Drinking water shortage has become worse in recent decades. A new capacitive deionization (CDI) method for increasing water supplies through the effective desalination of seawater has been developed. Silver as nano Ag and Ag@C which was prepared by carbonization of the Ag(+)-β-cyclodextrin complex at 573 K for 30 min can add the antimicrobial function into the CDI process. The Ag@C and Ag nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Ag@C/rGO and nano Ag/rGO) were used as the CDI electrodes. The nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can reduce the charging resistant, and enhance the electrosorption capability. Better CDI efficiencies with the nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can therefore be obtained. When reversed the voltage, the electrodes can be recovered up to 90% within 5 min. This work presents the feasibility for the nano Ag and Ag@C on rGO electrodes applied in CDI process to produce drinking water from seawater or saline water.

  1. NV Energy Large-Scale Photovoltaic Integration Study: Intra-Hour Dispatch and AGC Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Meng, Da; Guo, Xinxin; Jin, Chunlian; Samaan, Nader A.

    2013-01-02

    The uncertainty and variability with photovoltaic (PV) generation make it very challenging to balance power system generation and load, especially under high penetration cases. Higher reserve requirements and more cycling of conventional generators are generally anticipated for large-scale PV integration. However, whether the existing generation fleet is flexible enough to handle the variations and how well the system can maintain its control performance are difficult to predict. The goal of this project is to develop a software program that can perform intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulation, by which the balancing operations of a system can be simulated to answer the questions posed above. The simulator, named Electric System Intra-Hour Operation Simulator (ESIOS), uses the NV Energy southern system as a study case, and models the system’s generator configurations, AGC functions, and operator actions to balance system generation and load. Actual dispatch of AGC generators and control performance under various PV penetration levels can be predicted by running ESIOS. With data about the load, generation, and generator characteristics, ESIOS can perform similar simulations and assess variable generation integration impacts for other systems as well. This report describes the design of the simulator and presents the study results showing the PV impacts on NV Energy real-time operations.

  2. Capacitive deionization of seawater effected by nano Ag and Ag@C on graphene.

    PubMed

    Cai, P-F; Su, C-J; Chang, W-T; Chang, F-C; Peng, C-Y; Sun, I-W; Wei, Y-L; Jou, C-J; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Drinking water shortage has become worse in recent decades. A new capacitive deionization (CDI) method for increasing water supplies through the effective desalination of seawater has been developed. Silver as nano Ag and Ag@C which was prepared by carbonization of the Ag(+)-β-cyclodextrin complex at 573 K for 30 min can add the antimicrobial function into the CDI process. The Ag@C and Ag nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Ag@C/rGO and nano Ag/rGO) were used as the CDI electrodes. The nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can reduce the charging resistant, and enhance the electrosorption capability. Better CDI efficiencies with the nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can therefore be obtained. When reversed the voltage, the electrodes can be recovered up to 90% within 5 min. This work presents the feasibility for the nano Ag and Ag@C on rGO electrodes applied in CDI process to produce drinking water from seawater or saline water. PMID:24928455

  3. Research of AGC technology in a digital optical fiber sensing system with PGC modulation and demodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianfeng; Xiong, Shuidong; Zhang, Yan

    2014-11-01

    The magnitude of light intensity on the photo-to-electric detector fluctuates all the time in an optic fiber sensing system, because of the influence of various factors in the fiber optic sensing system and from the external environment. As a result of the excessive intensity, the electric signal will be overload after the amplifier circuit with constant enlargement factor, and when the light intensity becames too small, it will reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the electric signal. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce an automatic gain control (AGC) module into the system, which can insure the electric signal in a reasonable magnitude. In order to solve the problem of optic intensity fluctuating in the optical fiber sensing system with PGC modulation and demodulation, in this paper, firstly, it is analyzed that the impact of different magnitudes of interferential intensity to the PGC demodulation in theory. Secondly, a reasonable control method is put forward and an AGC module based on the AD602 chip is designed and produced. Finally, it is proved that the optic fiber sensor system with an AGC module has strong ability to resist fluctuation of light intensity within 40dB.

  4. AGC System after Deregulation Considering TCPS in Series with the Tie-Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Rajesh Joseph; Das, D.; Patra, A.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the study of automatic generation control (AGC) of two area interconnected power system after deregulation, considering a thyristor controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in series with the tie-line. It is possible to minimize the system frequency and tie-power oscillations by controlling the phase angle of TCPS which is expected to provide a new ancillary service for the future power system. Effect of TCPS is examined for three different cases, i.e. (1) unilateral contract, (2) bilateral contract and (3) contract violation. Analysis reveals that a TCPS is quite capable of suppressing the frequency and tie-power oscillations effectively as compared to that obtained without TCPS.

  5. Awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as bridge to recovery after left main coronary artery occlusion: a promising concept of haemodynamic support in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Alozie, Anthony; Kische, Stephan; Birken, Thomas; Kaminski, Alexander; Westphal, Bernd; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Ince, Hüseyin; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction is associated with high mortality rate. Different management concepts including fluid management, inotropic support, intra aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) mainly in mechanically ventilated patients have been used as cornerstones of management. However, success rates have been disappointing. Few reports suggested that ECMO when performed under circumvention of mechanical ventilation, may offer some survival benefits. We herein present our experience with the use of veno-arterial ECMO as bridge to recovery in an awake and spontaneously breathing patient after left main coronary artery occlusion complicated by cardiogenic shock.

  6. Migration insertion polymerization (MIP) of cyclopentadienyldicarbonyldiphenylphosphinopropyliron (FpP): a new concept for main chain metal-containing polymers (MCPs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosong; Cao, Kai; Liu, Yibo; Tsang, Brian; Liew, Sean

    2013-03-01

    We report a conceptually new polymerization technique termed migration insertion polymerization (MIP) for main chain metal-containing polymer (MCP) synthesis. Cyclopentadienyldicarbonyldiphenylphosphinopropyliron (FpP) is synthesized and polymerized via MIP, resulting in air stable poly(cyclopentadienylcarbonyldiphenylphosphinobutanoyliron) (PFpP) displaying narrow molecular weight distribution. The backbone of PFpP contains asymmetric iron units connected by both phosphine coordination and Fe-acyl bonds, which is representative of a new type of polymer. Furthermore, PFpP is tested to be soluble in a wide range of organic solvents and shown to possess reactive Fp end groups. PFpP amphiphiles have therefore been prepared via an end group migration insertion reaction in the presence of oligoethylene phosphine. PMID:23425192

  7. Ag/C nanoparticles as an cathode catalyst for a zinc-air battery with a flowing alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jia-Jun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    The cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded by the four-electron pathway mechanism on larger Ag particles (174 nm), and that the ORR proceeded by the four-electron pathway and the two-electron pathway mechanisms on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm), simultaneously. The kinetics towards ORR was measured at a rotating disk electrode (RDE) with Ag/C electrode. The number of exchanged electrons for the ORR was found to be close to four on larger Ag particles (174 nm) and close to three on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm). The zinc-air battery with Ag/C catalysts (25.9 nm) was fabricated and examined.

  8. Controlling Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation: An Analysis of AGC Capabilities Under New Performance Based Compensation Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, Jacob; Pao, Lucy Y.; Fleming, Paul; Ela, Erik

    2014-11-13

    As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio there has been an increased interest for wind turbines to control their active power output to provide ancillary services which support grid reliability. One of these ancillary services is the provision of frequency regulation, also referred to as secondary frequency control or automatic generation control (AGC), which is often procured through markets which recently adopted performance-based compensation. A wind turbine with a control system developed to provide active power ancillary services can be used to provide frequency regulation services. Simulations have been performed to determine the AGC tracking performance at various power schedule set-points, participation levels, and wind conditions. The performance metrics used in this study are based on those used by several system operators in the US. Another metric that is analyzed is the damage equivalent loads (DELs) on turbine structural components, though the impacts on the turbine electrical components are not considered. The results of these single-turbine simulations show that high performance scores can be achieved when there are insufficient wind resources available. The capability of a wind turbine to rapidly and accurately follow power commands allows for high performance even when tracking rapidly changing AGC signals. As the turbine de-rates to meet decreased power schedule set-points there is a reduction in the DELs, and the participation in frequency regulation has a negligible impact on these loads.

  9. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  10. Controlling Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation: An Analysis of AGC Capabilities Under New Performance Based Compensation Policy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, J.; Pao, L. Y.; Fleming, P.; Ela, E.

    2015-02-01

    As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio there has been an increased interest for wind turbines to control their active power output to provide ancillary services which support grid reliability. One of these ancillary services is the provision of frequency regulation, also referred to as secondary frequency control or automatic generation control (AGC), which is often procured through markets which recently adopted performance-based compensation. A wind turbine with a control system developed to provide active power ancillary services can be used to provide frequency regulation services. Simulations have been performed to determine the AGC tracking performance at various power schedule set-points, participation levels, and wind conditions. The performance metrics used in this study are based on those used by several system operators in the US. Another metric that is analyzed is the damage equivalent loads (DELs) on turbine structural components, though the impacts on the turbine electrical components are not considered. The results of these single-turbine simulations show that high performance scores can be achieved when there is sufficient wind resource available. The capability of a wind turbine to rapidly and accurately follow power commands allows for high performance even when tracking rapidly changing AGC signals. As the turbine de-rates to meet decreased power schedule set-points there is a reduction in the DELs, and the participation in frequency regulation has a negligible impact on these loads.

  11. Polymer Assisted Core-shell Ag-C nanoparticles Synthesis via Green hydrothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James; Mishra, Sanjay

    2009-03-01

    Core-Shell Ag-C nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of glucose through a one-pot green hydrothermal wet chemical process. An aqueous solution of glucose and Ag nitrate was hydrothermally treated to produce porous carbonaceous shell over silver core nanoparticles. The growth of carbon shells was regulated by either of the polymers (poly) vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) or poly vinyl alcohol (PVA). The two polymers were compared to take a measure of different tunable sizes of cores, and shells. The effects of hydrothermal temperature, time, and concentration of reagents on the final formation of nanostructures were studied using UV-vis extinction spectra, transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy. The polymer molecules were found to be incorporated into carbonaceous shell. The resulting opacity of the shell was found to be hydrothermal time and temperature dependent. The shell structure was found to be more uniform with PVP than PVA. Furthermore, the polymer concentration was found to influence size and shape of the core-silver particles as well. The core-shelled nanoparticles have surfaces with organic groups capable of assembling with different reagents that could be useful in drug-delivery, optical nanodevices or biochemistry.

  12. Double-differential recording and AGC using microcontrolled variable gain ASIC.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Robert; Deng, Shin-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Low-power wearable recording of biopotentials requires acquisition front-ends with high common-mode rejection for interference suppression and adjustable gain to provide an optimum signal range to a cascading analogue-to-digital stage. A microcontroller operated double-differential (DD) recording setup and automatic gain control circuit (AGC) are discussed which reject common-mode interference and provide tunable gain, thus compensating for imbalance and variation in electrode interface impedance. Custom-designed variable gain amplifiers (ASIC) are used as part of the recording setup. The circuit gain and balance is set by the timing of microcontroller generated clock signals. Measured results are presented which confirm that improved common-mode rejection is achieved compared to a single differential amplifier in the presence of input network imbalance. Practical measured examples further validate gain control suitable for biopotential recording and power-line rejection for wearable ECG and EMG recording. The prototype front-end consumes 318 μW including amplifiers and microcontroller. PMID:22929480

  13. Searching for Optical Counterparts to Ultra-compact High Velocity Clouds: Possible Detection of a Counterpart to AGC 198606

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, William; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Cannon, John M.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.

    2015-09-01

    We report initial results from a campaign to obtain optical imaging of Ultra Compact High Velocity Clouds (UCHVCs) discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Hi survey. UCHVCs have properties consistent with their being low-mass dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume, but do not have identified optical counterparts. We are using the WIYN 3.5 m telescope to image these objects and search for an associated stellar population. Here we present our observational strategy and method for searching for resolved stellar counterparts to the UCHVCs. We combine careful photometry, a color–magnitude filter, and spatial smoothing techniques to search for stellar overdensities in the g- and i-band images. We also run statistical tests to quantify the likelihood that detected overdensities are real and not chance superpositions of sources. We demonstrate the method by applying it to WIYN imaging of two objects: Leo P, a UCHVC discovered by ALFALFA and shown to be a star-forming dwarf galaxy in the Local Volume and AGC 198606, an ALFALFA source near in position and velocity to the Local Group dwarf galaxy Leo T. Applying the search method to the Leo P data yields an unambiguous detection (>99% confidence) of the galaxy’s stellar population. Applying the method to the AGC 198606 imaging yields a possible detection (92% confidence) of an optical counterpart located ∼2.5 arcmin from the centroid of AGC 198606's Hi distribution and within the Hi disk. We estimate a distance to the stellar counterpart of 373–393 kpc, an absolute magnitude Mi = ‑4.67 ± 0.09, and an Hi-to-stellar mass ratio of ∼45–110.

  14. A 6 μW per channel analog biomimetic cochlear implant processor filterbank architecture with across channels AGC.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Lyon, Richard F; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2015-02-01

    A new analog cochlear implant processor filterbank architecture of increased biofidelity, enhanced across-channel contrast and very low power consumption has been designed and prototyped. Each channel implements a biomimetic, asymmetric bandpass-like One-Zero-Gammatone-Filter (OZGF) transfer function, using class-AB log-domain techniques. Each channel's quality factor and suppression are controlled by means of a new low power Automatic Gain Control (AGC) scheme which is coupled across the neighboring channels and emulates lateral inhibition (LI) phenomena in the auditory system. Detailed measurements from a five-channel silicon IC prototype fabricated in a 0.35 μm AMS technology confirm the operation of the coupled AGC scheme and its ability to enhance contrast among channel outputs. The prototype is characterized by an input dynamic range of 92 dB while consuming only 28 μW of power in total ( ∼ 6 μW per channel) under a 1.8 V power supply. The architecture is well-suited for fully-implantable cochlear implants.

  15. A 2-mW 50-dB DR wideband hybrid AGC for a GNSS receiver in 65 nm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Baoyong, Chi; Yang, Xu; Nan, Qi; Zhihua, Wang

    2012-07-01

    A low-power wideband hybrid automatic gain control (AGC) loop for a GNSS receiver is presented. Single AGC in the I/Q path is composed of four-stage programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs), a differential peak detector, two comparators, a control algorithm logic, a decoder and the reference voltage source. Besides being controlled by an AGC loop, the gain of PGAs could alternatively be controlled by an off-chip digital baseband processor through the SPI interface. To obtain low power consumption and noise, an improved source degenerated amplifier is adopted, and the I/Q path phase mismatch within the ±5° range is calibrated with 0.2° accuracy. Implemented in 65 nm CMOS, the measured PGA total gains range from 9.8 to 59.5 dB with an average step of 0.95 dB and simulated bandwidth of more than 110 MHz. The settling time is about 180 μs with 80% AM input with measured signal power from -76.7 to -56.6 dBm from a radio-frequency amplifier (RFA) input port, and also reduces to 90 μs with clock frequency doubling. The single AGC consumes almost 0.8 mA current from the 2.5-V supply and occupies an area of 750 × 300 μm2.

  16. Model Verification and Validation Concepts for a Probabilistic Fracture Assessment Model to Predict Cracking of Knife Edge Seals in the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxidizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Riha, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Physics-based models are routinely used to predict the performance of engineered systems to make decisions such as when to retire system components, how to extend the life of an aging system, or if a new design will be safe or available. Model verification and validation (V&V) is a process to establish credibility in model predictions. Ideally, carefully controlled validation experiments will be designed and performed to validate models or submodels. In reality, time and cost constraints limit experiments and even model development. This paper describes elements of model V&V during the development and application of a probabilistic fracture assessment model to predict cracking in space shuttle main engine high-pressure oxidizer turbopump knife-edge seals. The objective of this effort was to assess the probability of initiating and growing a crack to a specified failure length in specific flight units for different usage and inspection scenarios. The probabilistic fracture assessment model developed in this investigation combined a series of submodels describing the usage, temperature history, flutter tendencies, tooth stresses and numbers of cycles, fatigue cracking, nondestructive inspection, and finally the probability of failure. The analysis accounted for unit-to-unit variations in temperature, flutter limit state, flutter stress magnitude, and fatigue life properties. The investigation focused on the calculation of relative risk rather than absolute risk between the usage scenarios. Verification predictions were first performed for three units with known usage and cracking histories to establish credibility in the model predictions. Then, numerous predictions were performed for an assortment of operating units that had flown recently or that were projected for future flights. Calculations were performed using two NASA-developed software tools: NESSUS(Registered Trademark) for the probabilistic analysis, and NASGRO(Registered Trademark) for the fracture

  17. Phosphorylation of the amino-terminus of the AGC kinase Gad8 prevents its interaction with TORC2

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Forte, Gabriella M.; Smith, Duncan; Petersen, Janni

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation, metabolism, migration and survival are coordinated through the tight control of two target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase complexes: TORC1 and TORC2. Here, we show that a novel phosphorylation of fission yeast Gad8 (AGC kinase) on the evolutionarily conserved threonine 6 (Thr6) prevents the physical association between Gad8 and TORC2. Accordingly, this block to protein interactions by Gad8 Thr6 phosphorylation decreases TORC2-controlled activation of Gad8. Likewise, phosphorylation of Gad8 Thr6, possibly by PKC, prevents the association of Gad8 with TORC2 thereby increasing TORC2 activity, because it reduces Gad8-mediated feedback inhibition of TORC2. Consistently, the introduction of a Gad8 T6D mutant, that mimics phosphorylation, increased TORC2 activity. Increased PKCPck2 expression prevented Gad8–TORC2 binding and so reduced the TORC2-mediated phosphorylation of Gad8 serine 546 that activates Gad8. Interestingly, independent of the Ser546 phosphorylation status, Gad8 Thr6 phosphorylation is important for remodelling the actin cytoskeleton and survival upon potassium ion and heat stresses. In contrast, Ser546 phosphorylation is required for the control of G1 arrest, mating, cell length at division and vascular size. Finally, these findings reveal a novel mode of TORC2 activation that is essential for cell survival following stress. PMID:26935949

  18. Catalytic dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride in liquid phase with methanol as H-donor over Ag/C catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mohong; Li, Xuebing; Chen, Bo; Li, Mingshi; Xin, Hongchuan; Song, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Catalytic hydrodechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an effective measure to remove CCl4 due to its pollutant character. The dechlorination of CCl4 to dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and chloroform (CHCl3) with a molar ratio of 3:2 was catalyzed by carbon-supported silver (Ag/C) catalyst in methanol solution. It was proposed from the catalytic results and characterization (X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) data that, the chloride ion is abstracted from adsorbed CCl4 by Ag to form CCl3 and CCI2 radicals and silver chloride (AgCl), and meanwhile the dehydrogenation of methanol over Ag domains intrigues initial active Ag-H species and formaldehyde (HCHO); then the CCI3 and CCI, radicals are combined with Ag-H to generate reaction products (CHCl3 and CH2Cl2) and Ag, and the dehydrogenated product HCHO facilitates the regeneration of formed AgCl to Ag with formation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride. The catalyst can be recovered and recycled, and there was no significant decrease in catalytic activity and selectivity after 4th recycling. PMID:25924408

  19. Phosphorylation of the TOR ATP binding domain by AGC kinase constitutes a novel mode of TOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hálová, Lenka; Du, Wei; Kirkham, Sara; Smith, Duncan L; Petersen, Janni

    2013-11-25

    TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling coordinates cell growth, metabolism, and cell division through tight control of signaling via two complexes, TORC1 and TORC2. Here, we show that fission yeast TOR kinases and mTOR are phosphorylated on an evolutionarily conserved residue of their ATP-binding domain. The Gad8 kinase (AKT homologue) phosphorylates fission yeast Tor1 at this threonine (T1972) to reduce activity. A T1972A mutation that blocked phosphorylation increased Tor1 activity and stress resistance. Nitrogen starvation of fission yeast inhibited TOR signaling to arrest cell cycle progression in G1 phase and promoted sexual differentiation. Starvation and a Gad8/T1972-dependent decrease in Tor1 (TORC2) activity was essential for efficient cell cycle arrest and differentiation. Experiments in human cell lines recapitulated these yeast observations, as mTOR was phosphorylated on T2173 in an AKT-dependent manner. In addition, a T2173A mutation increased mTOR activity. Thus, TOR kinase activity can be reduced through AGC kinase-controlled phosphorylation to generate physiologically significant changes in TOR signaling.

  20. Maine Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

  1. A Fully Digital AGC System with 100MHz Bandwidth and 35dB Dynamic Range Power Detectors for DVB-S2 Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Younggun; Lee, Kang-Yoon

    This paper presents a fully digital gain control system with a new high bandwidth and wide dynamic range power detector for DVB-S2 application. Because the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of DVB-S2 system is so high and the settling time requirement is so stringent, the conventional closed-loop analog gain control scheme cannot be used. The digital gain control is necessary for the robust gain control and the direct digital interface with the baseband modem. Also, it has several advantages over the analog gain control in terms of the settling time and insensitivity to the process, voltage and temperature variation. In order to have a wide gain range with fine step resolution, a new AGC system is proposed. The system is composed of high-bandwidth digital VGAs, wide dynamic range power detectors with RMS detector, low power SAR type ADC, and a digital gain controller. To reduce the power consumption and chip area, only one SAR type ADC is used, and its input is time-interleaved based on four power detectors. Simulation and measurement results show that the new AGC system converges with gain error less than 0.25dB to the desired level within 10µs. It is implemented in a 0.18µm CMOS process. The measurement results of the proposed IF AGC system exhibit 80-dB gain range with 0.25-dB resolution, 8nV/\\\\!\\\\sqrt{Hz} input referred noise, and 5-dBm IIP3 at 60-mW power consumption. The power detector shows the 35dB dynamic range for 100MHz input.

  2. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  3. Synthesis of single-crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes-loaded Ag@C core-shell matrix and their application for electrochemical sensing of nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-10-01

    A nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor was fabricated by combing the crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes and Ag@C core-shell matrix with their own superior characteristics. The morphology, size and electrochemical of the sensing interface materials and the relationship between the electrical catalytic properties and sensor response performance were also studied, established a new method for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The structure and morphology of hollow tubular-like MnO2 and MnO2-Ag@C film were characterized by scanning electron micrograph (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the sensor were explored by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The investigation showed that the MnO2-Ag@C at the sensor exhibited a high electrocatalytic activity towards electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide; and under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of hydrogen peroxide were 0.5μM to 5.7mM with a low detection limit of 0.17μM (S/N=3) and high sensitivity of 127.2μAmM(-1)cm(-2). Compared with other nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor, the fabricated sensor own lower detection limit, demonstrating that MnO2-Ag@C nanocomposite film will be a new promising platform for the construction of hydrogen peroxide sensors.

  4. Synthesis of single-crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes-loaded Ag@C core-shell matrix and their application for electrochemical sensing of nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-10-01

    A nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor was fabricated by combing the crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes and Ag@C core-shell matrix with their own superior characteristics. The morphology, size and electrochemical of the sensing interface materials and the relationship between the electrical catalytic properties and sensor response performance were also studied, established a new method for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The structure and morphology of hollow tubular-like MnO2 and MnO2-Ag@C film were characterized by scanning electron micrograph (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the sensor were explored by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The investigation showed that the MnO2-Ag@C at the sensor exhibited a high electrocatalytic activity towards electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide; and under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of hydrogen peroxide were 0.5μM to 5.7mM with a low detection limit of 0.17μM (S/N=3) and high sensitivity of 127.2μAmM(-1)cm(-2). Compared with other nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor, the fabricated sensor own lower detection limit, demonstrating that MnO2-Ag@C nanocomposite film will be a new promising platform for the construction of hydrogen peroxide sensors. PMID:27474303

  5. The AGC Ser/Thr kinase Aga1 is essential for appressorium formation and maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Patrick; Lanver, Daniel; Kahmann, Regine

    2010-12-01

    On the plant surface the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis switches from budding to hyphal growth and differentiates appressoria. To get more insight into these highly regulated processes we report on the role of a conserved Ser/Thr kinase of the AGC kinase family, Aga1. U. maydis Aga1 could functionally replace Ypk1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. aga1 deletion mutants were affected in growth, cell wall integrity, mating as well as the ability to form appressoria and showed defects in actin organization and actin-dependent endocytosis. With respect to appressorium formation and endocytosis, the aga1 deletion phenotype could be mimicked by inhibiting the formation of actin filaments with Latrunculin A. These data suggest a critical role of Aga1 in F-actin organization during the morphological changes accompanying the development of appressoria.

  6. Differential roles of PDK1- and PDK2-phosphorylation sites in the yeast AGC kinases Ypk1, Pkc1 and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Françoise M; Torrance, Pamela D; Thorner, Jeremy

    2004-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pkh1 and Pkh2 (orthologues of mammalian protein kinase, PDK1) are functionally redundant. These kinases activate three AGC family kinases involved in the maintenance of cell wall integrity: Ypk1 and Ypk2, two closely related, functionally redundant enzymes (orthologues of mammalian protein kinase SGK), and Pkc1 (orthologue of mammalian protein kinase PRK2). Pkh1 and Pkh2 activate Ypk1, Ypk2 and Pkc1 by phosphorylating a Thr in a conserved sequence motif (PDK1 site) within the activation loop of these proteins. A fourth protein kinase involved in growth control and stress response, Sch9 (orthologue of mammalian protein kinase c-Akt/PKB), also carries the conserved activation loop motif. Like other AGC family kinases, Ypk1, Ypk2, Pkc1 and Sch9 also carry a second conserved sequence motif situated in a region C-terminal to the catalytic domain, called the hydrophobic motif (PDK2 site). Currently, there is still controversy surrounding the identity of the enzyme responsible for phosphorylating this second site and the necessity for phosphorylation at this site for in vivo function. Here, genetic and biochemical methods have been used to investigate the physiological consequences of phosphorylation at the PDK1 and PDK2 sites of Ypk1, Pkc1 and Sch9. It was found that phosphorylation at the PDK1 site in the activation loop is indispensable for the essential functions of all three kinases in vivo, whereas phosphorylation at the PDK2 motif plays a non-essential and much more subtle role in modulating the ability of these kinases to regulate the downstream processes in which they participate. PMID:15470109

  7. Characterizing land condition variability in Ferlo, Senegal (2001-2009) using multi-temporal 1-km Apparent Green Cover (AGC) SPOT Vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, B.; Gilabert, M. A.; García-Haro, F. J.; Faye, A.; Meliá, J.

    2011-04-01

    The ecosystem state or 'land condition' can be characterized by a set of attributes, which show variations at different temporal scales. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) based on the wavelet transform (WT) has been implemented to examine the land condition of a dryland region in Ferlo (Senegal) over the period 2001-2009. This methodology has proven to be useful for smoothing time series while considering those temporal resolutions that incorporate information about the vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, time series of the 1-km Apparent Green Cover (AGC) from the 10-day composites SPOT Vegetation (VGT) data are analyzed. Two relevant outputs from the MRA, A1 (de-noised) and the A6 (inter-annual) components have served us for characterizing the annual vegetation production and assess the long-term variation, respectively. In a first stage, the vegetation seasonality (or intra-annual variation) over the area is described by using several metrics related to vegetation phenology derived from the de-noised time series ( A1). In a second phase, the temporal variability of the inter-annual component series ( A6) is accomplished to detect potential vegetation changes over the considered period. A Mann-Kendall test has been applied to confirm the significance of the observed inter-annual changes. A higher number of significant pixels (86%) are obtained when considering the inter-annual component in the trend analysis instead of the original time-series (47%). The results confirm a general greening up over the period 2001-2009, not fully explained by precipitation, as well as rather local negative trends. The Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE) ratio computed using the AGC as a proxy of vegetation production has been considered to further analyze the detected changes. Inter-annual changes in RUE provide a potential method of separating vegetation declines due to lack of rainfall from declines associated with degradation. Some spots of negative values in inter-annual RUE changes

  8. Deviations from one-electron behavior in the Ag and Pd M4,5-VV Auger spectra of AgcPd1-c alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariot, J.-M.; Hague, C. F.; Dufour, G.

    1981-04-01

    A systematic investigation of the Ag and Pd M4,5-VV Auger spectra in the pure metals and in the AgcPd1-c(0.1<=c<=0.9) alloys is presented. The shape of the Auger spectra is discussed in relation to the values of the effective Coulomb interaction Ueff between the two holes present in the final state of the Auger transition and of the width W of the one-electron local densities of states as obtained from Lβ2,15 soft-x-ray emission bands. The Auger spectra of Ag in the metal and the alloys have a pronounced quasiatomic character, as can be expected from the Ueff2W ratio which is found to be close to unity. The Auger spectrum of pure Pd (Ueff2W~0.4) can be explained in terms of an atomic model in which strong band effects are present. For alloys with low-Pd content where Pd forms an impurity state, it is shown that final states other than the localized [4d2] two-hole state have to be invoked to explain the line shape.

  9. CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASER, ROBERT

    REVIEWED ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS THEY RELATE TO CONCEPT TEACHING. AN ANALYSIS IS MADE OF THE NATURE OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS IT IS STUDIED IN THE PSYCHOLOGIST'S LABORATORY, INCLUDING THE NATURE OF CONCEPT TASKS AS THEY APPEAR IN SUBJECT MATTER LEARNING. THE PRIMARY KINDS OF CONCEPT LEARNING SITUATIONS, INCLUDING THE…

  10. Deficient glucose and glutamine metabolism in Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12 knockout mice contributes to altered visual function

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Laura; Du, Jianhai; Hurley, James B.; Satrústegui, Jorgina; de la Villa, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the vision phenotype of mice lacking Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier mutated in global cerebral hypomyelination (OMIM 612949). Methods We tested overnight dark-adapted control and aralar-deficient mice for the standard full electroretinogram (ERG) response. The metabolic stress of dark-adaptation was reduced by 5 min illumination after which the ERG response was monitored in darkness. We used the electrical response to two identical saturating light flashes (paired-flash stimulation) to isolate the inner retina and photoreceptor responses. Retinal morphology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry of antibodies against retinal cells, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) labeling. Results Aralar plays a pivotal role in retina metabolism as aralar provides de novo synthesis pathway for glutamine, protects glutamate from oxidation, and is required for efficient glucose oxidative metabolism. Aralar-deficient mice are not blind as their retinas have light-evoked activity. However, we report an approximate 50% decrease in the ERG amplitude response in the light-evoked activity of dark-adapted retinas from aralar-deficient mice, in spite of normal retina histology. The defective response is partly reversed by exposure to a brief illumination period, which lowers the metabolic stress of dark-adaptation. The metabolic stress and ERG alteration takes place primarily in photoreceptors, but the response to two flashes applied in fast succession also revealed an alteration in synaptic transmission consistent with an imbalance of glutamate and an energy deficit in the inner retina neurons. Conclusions We propose that compromised glucose oxidation and altered glutamine and glutamate metabolism in the absence of aralar are responsible for the phenotype reported. PMID:27746674

  11. Modification of tobacco plant development by sense and antisense expression of the tomato viroid-induced AGC VIIIa protein kinase PKV suggests involvement in gibberellin signaling

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The serine-threonine protein kinase gene, designated pkv (protein kinase- viroid induced) was previously found to be transcriptionally activated in tomato plants infected with the plant pathogen Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). These plants exhibited symptoms of stunting, and abnormal development of leaf, root, and vascular tissues. The encoded protein, PKV, is a novel member of the AGC VIIIa group of signal-transducing protein kinases; however, the role of PKV in plant development is unknown. In this communication, we report the phenotypic results of over expression and silencing of pkv in transgenic tobacco. Results Over expression of pkv in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi (tobacco) resulted in stunting, reduced root formation, and delay in flowering, phenotypes similar to symptoms of PSTVd infection of tomato. In addition, homozygous T2 tobacco plants over expressing PKV were male sterile. Antisense expression of pkv, on the other hand, resulted in plants that were taller than non-transformed plants, produced an increased number of flowers, and were fertile. Exogenous application of GA3 stimulated stem elongation in the stunted, sense-expressing plants. PKV sense and antisense expression altered transcript levels of GA biosynthetic genes and genes involved in developmental and signaling pathways, but not genes involved in salicylic acid- or jasmonic acid-dependent pathways. Our data provide evidence suggesting that PKV plays an important role in a GA signaling pathway that controls plant height and fertility. Conclusion We have found that the over expression of the tomato protein kinase PKV resulted in stunting, modified vascular tissue development, reduced root formation, and male sterility in tobacco, and we propose that PKV regulates plant development by functioning in critical signaling pathways involved in gibberellic acid metabolism. PMID:19689802

  12. Calcium-regulation of mitochondrial respiration maintains ATP homeostasis and requires ARALAR/AGC1-malate aspartate shuttle in intact cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Folch, Irene; Rueda, Carlos B; Amigo, Ignacio; del Arco, Araceli; Saheki, Takeyori; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2013-08-28

    Neuronal respiration is controlled by ATP demand and Ca2+ but the roles played by each are unknown, as any Ca2+ signal also impacts on ATP demand. Ca2+ can control mitochondrial function through Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial carriers, the aspartate-glutamate and ATP-Mg/Pi carriers, ARALAR/AGC1 and SCaMC-3, respectively, or in the matrix after Ca2+ transport through the Ca2+ uniporter. We have studied the role of Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in intact mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and in response to increased workload caused by increases in [Na+]cyt (veratridine, high-K+ depolarization) and/or [Ca2+]cyt (carbachol). Respiration in nonstimulated neurons on 2.5-5 mm glucose depends on ARALAR-malate aspartate shuttle (MAS), with a 46% drop in aralar KO neurons. All stimulation conditions induced increased OCR (oxygen consumption rate) in the presence of Ca2+, which was prevented by BAPTA-AM loading (to preserve the workload), or in Ca2+-free medium (which also lowers cell workload). SCaMC-3 limits respiration only in response to high workloads and robust Ca2+ signals. In every condition tested Ca2+ activation of ARALAR-MAS was required to fully stimulate coupled respiration by promoting pyruvate entry into mitochondria. In aralar KO neurons, respiration was stimulated by veratridine, but not by KCl or carbachol, indicating that the Ca2+ uniporter pathway played a role in the first, but not in the second condition, even though KCl caused an increase in [Ca2+]mit. The results suggest a requirement for ARALAR-MAS in priming pyruvate entry in mitochondria as a step needed to activate respiration by Ca2+ in response to moderate workloads.

  13. Space Transportation Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

  14. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  15. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  16. Understanding the Agribusiness Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.

    Designed to aid in learning the main ideas of the agribusiness concept, this document answers the following questions, treating each answer in a separate explanatory section: (1) What is the meaning of the terms "agriculture" and "agribusiness"? (2) What is the relationship of agriculture and agribusiness? (3) What is involved in tracing an…

  17. The Main Idea Organizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents the Main Idea Organizer (MIO) to help students who may struggle with writing, reading, and thinking--though in different ways and for different reasons. Describes many different ways the author uses the MIO. (SG)

  18. The ontic conception of scientific explanation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cory

    2015-12-01

    Wesley Salmon's version of the ontic conception of explanation is a main historical root of contemporary work on mechanistic explanation. This paper examines and critiques the philosophical merits of Salmon's version, and argues that his conception's most fundamental construct is either fundamentally obscure, or else reduces to a non-ontic conception of explanation. Either way, the ontic conception is a misconception. PMID:26568083

  19. Space shuttle main engine controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

  20. Main Parachute Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the testing of the Main Parachute for the Ares/CLV first stage in support of the Ares/Constellation program at the Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  1. Ladybugs of Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  2. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Concept Maps in Introductory Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are tools for organizing thoughts on the main ideas in a course. I present an example of a concept map that was created through the work of students in an introductory class and discuss major topics in statistics and relationships among them.

  4. [Main Cellular Redox Couples].

    PubMed

    Bilan, D S; Shokhina, A G; Lukyanov, S A; Belousov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Most of the living cells maintain the continuous flow of electrons, which provides them by energy. Many of the compounds are presented in a cell at the same time in the oxidized and reduced states, forming the active redox couples. Some of the redox couples, such as NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH, oxidized/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH), are universal, as they participate in adjusting of many cellular reactions. Ratios of the oxidized and reduced forms of these compounds are important cellular redox parameters. Modern research approaches allow setting the new functions of the main redox couples in the complex organization of cellular processes. The following information is about the main cellular redox couples and their participation in various biological processes.

  5. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  6. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  7. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  8. Difficult Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosbury, R.

    2005-12-01

    Beautiful colour images of the sky are both a blessing and a curse for the communication of astronomy to the public. While undoubtedly attractive, they can obscure the fact that discoveries are often made in astrophysics using techniques and measurements that are much more difficult to grasp and certainly less appealing to view. Should we try to explain such concepts as spectroscopy, polarimetry and interferometry, or is it a lost cause? The most effective approach to this problem may be to lead the audience to ask the question themselves: "But how do you know that?"

  9. Concept Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  10. Networks of Emotion Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Toivonen, Riitta; Kivelä, Mikko; Saramäki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/). PMID:22276099

  11. Technium concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Marc; Davies, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    Traditionally the economy of Wales has been based on the coal and steel industries. Recently, Wales has elected its own National Assembly and together with the Welsh Development Agency (WDA) and through a Regional Technology Plan, has prioritized the creation and development of a knowledge based economy. The culture of Wales has always placed emphasis on education and for a small nation, has a University sector with an excellent reputation for advanced research. The WDA and the University of Wales Swansea came together to establish Technium, which is an unique concept designed to bridge the gap between advanced University research and commercial exploitation. Technium was co-funded by the WDA and the European Regional Development Fund. The project is seen as the first phase of creating a network of sector specific Techniums across the country, all linked via state of the art telecomm-infrastructure to University centers of research excellence. This paper will describe two case studies, both in the Optics/Photonics field, of research centers being established in Technium by blue chip international companies. Those companies having located in Technium specifically because of the links to high quality university research. One company is Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) a global leader in Optoelectronic components. The second company, ICN Pharmaceuticals Inc, design and develop optical devices to be used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals for the treatment of a range of diseases. Working closely with the WDA and the University of Wales Swansea, these and other companies will pursue product development, sponsor postgraduate research and generate intellectual capital that will benefit the company, students and the region alike.

  12. 28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING NORTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  13. 29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING SOUTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  14. The Fuego System Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-rico, Cristóbal; Gonzalo, Jesús; Mariani, Andrea; Leibrandt, Wolfgang

    FUEGO is a satellite system intended to provide the firefighting forces in the world with early fire warning and fire monitoring capabilities. It is being conceived with the users, by fostering continuous user direction of the development process. This system concept is presented. We present the user requirements that have evolved from user consultation and have been confirmed in the First FUEGO Users Conference in Madrid. The sensor arrangement is discussed including the sort of algorithm envisaged and the necessary supporting spectral bands and sensitivity. Technological aspects are reviewed. The operational concept is briefly described. The architecture is shown to be flexible and adapted to user expectations. From the operational concept the satellite and ground segment requirements and design are presented, to show the feasibility in technical and programmatic terms. The main system issues are analysed for criticality and basic conclusions are derived. A summary of cost benefit analysis is presented. A satellite system is therefore proposed as an operational mission to support the forest firefighting activity.

  15. Logistic Regression: Concept and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokluk, Omay

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of logistic regression analysis is classification of individuals in different groups. The aim of the present study is to explain basic concepts and processes of binary logistic regression analysis intended to determine the combination of independent variables which best explain the membership in certain groups called dichotomous…

  16. Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S.; Saewert, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV. Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

  17. Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S.

    2006-11-20

    An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV, Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

  18. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  19. Oblique view, looking eastsoutheast, of main gatehouse, main entrance, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view, looking east-southeast, of main gatehouse, main entrance, and battery storage house. East side of canal wall in foreground - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  20. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  1. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  2. Reconnaissance of radioactive rocks of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, John M.; Narten, Perry F.

    1951-01-01

    The state of Maine was traversed with car-mounted Geiger-Mueller equipment in the late summer of 1948 and the radioactivity of approximately 4,600 miles of road was logged. All samples were analyzed, both in the field by comparing the radioactivity of each sample to the radioactivity of a stranded measured with a simple scaling modification of a portable counter, and in the Geological Survey’s Trace Elements Section Washington Laboratory. Differences between both types of analyses were negligible. The maximum equivalent uranium content of the most radioactive rocks thus analyzed was 0.008 percent. A 1,400-square-mile abnormally radioactive province in southwestern Maine was outlined. The outcrop data obtained from car traversing are evaluated statistically. Cumulative frequency distribution curves are drawn to show the distribution of outcrops at various levels of radioactivity, and straight-line extensions are made to show to maximum probable grade for various rock types and areas in Maine. A maximum grade of 0.055 percent equivalent uranium is thus predicted for the entire state. This prediction necessarily is a broad generalization because large areas of Main are inaccessible for car traversing. A concept of evaluation of an area for possible mineral deposits is proposed on the basis of lithology, and observed and indicated ranges in grade.

  3. Conceptions of Parents, Conceptions of Self, and Conceptions of God.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Different theorists have suggested that an individual's view of God may be related to one's view of one's father, one's mother, or one's self. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their conceptions of their father's and mother's permissiveness, authoritarianism,…

  4. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  5. [Charcot's epistemological concept].

    PubMed

    Lellouch, A

    1994-01-01

    Through a brilliant medical way, Charcot was, at the same time, rheumatologist, geriatric, clinician, pathologist - and mainly neuro-pathologist - ending as a psychiatrist (according to todays medical terminology). Here, we will point out how much scientific theory and philosophy may support an original concept very unusual during the second half of XIXth century medicine. Describing connection between biology and medicine according to Auguste Comte thoughte, the author is thoroughly going into the course introduced by Charcot: scientific medicine instead of empirical one; structural medical-anatomy against rudimentary approach and rising of experimental medicine; impact of human sciences on medical knowledge; appearance of specialists near general practitioners; idea of organic disturbances denying any 'faith healing". In fact, Charcot asserts that bedside instruction prevails against accurate sciences.

  6. [Health promotion. Concept development].

    PubMed

    Sito, A; Berkowska, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of health promotion in theory and practice is presented-from the Ottawa Charter in 1986, to the community based health promotion programmes, as the vision for the 21 Century. The historical mile stones in the process of change and the conceptualisation of health promotion are discussed with reference to the World WHO Conferences and documents from these conferences. These events and documents have been vital as guidelines for member countries, both for implementation of community based programmes, as well as for healthy public policy and for training, especially concerning evaluation. The paper also discusses the main trends in research; definitions of principal concepts are highlighted, concerning planning, implementation and evaluation of health promotion programmes.

  7. [Charcot's epistemological concept].

    PubMed

    Lellouch, A

    1994-01-01

    Through a brilliant medical way, Charcot was, at the same time, rheumatologist, geriatric, clinician, pathologist - and mainly neuro-pathologist - ending as a psychiatrist (according to todays medical terminology). Here, we will point out how much scientific theory and philosophy may support an original concept very unusual during the second half of XIXth century medicine. Describing connection between biology and medicine according to Auguste Comte thoughte, the author is thoroughly going into the course introduced by Charcot: scientific medicine instead of empirical one; structural medical-anatomy against rudimentary approach and rising of experimental medicine; impact of human sciences on medical knowledge; appearance of specialists near general practitioners; idea of organic disturbances denying any 'faith healing". In fact, Charcot asserts that bedside instruction prevails against accurate sciences. PMID:11640482

  8. [The concept of health].

    PubMed

    Segre, M; Ferraz, F C

    1997-10-01

    Objections to the present WHO (World Health Organization) definition of HEALTH, as "the state of perfect physical, mental and social well-being", are expressed. It is considered to be anachronistic, first because it aims at perfection which is unaltainelle because of district personality characteristics. As the main support for this idea, the necessary renunciation of part of man's drive to liberty in exchange for the lesser insecurity provided by social life (Freud, Castoriadis and McDougall), is groted. The validity of distinguishing between "soma", "psyche" and "society" is questioned and the concept of the "integrated man", alluding to Pierre Marty and to Freud himself is adapted, and situations are recalled in which the interaction of the three aspects mentioned above is actually evident. Finally, the notion of the quality of life, in accordance with an antipositivistic taken from Bion, point of view, is discussed, and the concept that reality is that of each human being, is adapted. This priority and the proposal to rescue subjectivism which was also observed by Foucault when he studied mental disease, leads to a last criticism of the present definition of health, based exclusively on external, objective evaluations. PMID:9629735

  9. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  10. [The concept of health].

    PubMed

    Segre, M; Ferraz, F C

    1997-10-01

    Objections to the present WHO (World Health Organization) definition of HEALTH, as "the state of perfect physical, mental and social well-being", are expressed. It is considered to be anachronistic, first because it aims at perfection which is unaltainelle because of district personality characteristics. As the main support for this idea, the necessary renunciation of part of man's drive to liberty in exchange for the lesser insecurity provided by social life (Freud, Castoriadis and McDougall), is groted. The validity of distinguishing between "soma", "psyche" and "society" is questioned and the concept of the "integrated man", alluding to Pierre Marty and to Freud himself is adapted, and situations are recalled in which the interaction of the three aspects mentioned above is actually evident. Finally, the notion of the quality of life, in accordance with an antipositivistic taken from Bion, point of view, is discussed, and the concept that reality is that of each human being, is adapted. This priority and the proposal to rescue subjectivism which was also observed by Foucault when he studied mental disease, leads to a last criticism of the present definition of health, based exclusively on external, objective evaluations.

  11. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  12. Self-Concepts, Sex, and Work Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Loyde W.; Yackee, Keith

    The relationship of self-concept and sex with work values was investigated. A two-factor, multivariate analysis of variance, with self-concept and sex as independent variables and work values as dependent variables, was performed on protocols collected from 99 rural elementary school pupils. No interaction was found. Both main effects were…

  13. Shift of Meaning and Students' Alternative Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen; Volke, Dagmar

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish a relationship between the shift of meaning of the concept oxidation that has taken place during the historical development, and students' alternative concepts. First Examination Board papers were examined. The result enabled us to specify the research question. In the main part of the study,…

  14. Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

  15. EXHAUST MAIN PERSONNEL EXPOSURE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Su

    1999-09-29

    The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

  16. Design of a prototype Advanced Main Combustion Chamber for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackey, J. D.; Myers, W. N.

    1992-01-01

    Development of a prototype advanced main combustion chamber is underway at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Advanced Main Combustion Chamber (AMCC) project is being approached utilizing a 'concurrent engineering' concept where groups from materials, manufacturing, stress, quality, and design are involved from the initiation of the project. The AMCC design has been tailored to be compatible with the investment casting process. Jacket, inlet/outlet manifolds, inlet/outlet neck coolant flow splitters, support ribs, actuator lugs, and engine controller mounting bracket will all be a part of the one-piece AMCC casting. Casting of the AMCC in a one-piece configuration necessitated a method of forming a liner in its structural jacket. A method of vacuum plasma spraying the liner is being developed. In 1994, the AMCC will be hot-fired on the Technology Test Bed Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  17. Concepts in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Poyhonen, Samuli

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is…

  18. Research-Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. J.; Kolb, W.

    1985-01-01

    Concepts ranked according to potential benefit/cost ratios. ARINC Researh Concept Evaluation Methodology (ARCEM) program provides powerful tool for organization and planning of research activities indicating which concepts provide greatest benefit for investment and determines number of concepts implemented to justify expenditures for development of generic technologies.

  19. Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

  20. Is there an exemplar theory of concepts?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gregory L

    2016-08-01

    It is common to describe two main theories of concepts: prototype theories, which rely on some form of summary description of a category, and exemplar theories, which claim that concepts are represented as remembered category instances. This article reviews a number of important phenomena in the psychology of concepts, arguing that they have no proposed exemplar explanation. In some of these cases, it is difficult to see how an exemplar theory would be adequate. The article concludes that exemplars are certainly important in some categorization judgments and in category-learning experiments, but that there is no exemplar theory of human concepts in a broad sense.

  1. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbit, H. A.; Tuegel, L. M.; Dodd, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Program was an analytical, design, and test program to demonstrate an injection concept applicable to an Isolated Combustion Compartment of a full-scale, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 engine. Several injector patterns were tested in a 3.4-in. combustor. Based on these results, features of the most promising injector design were incorporated into a 5.7-in. injector which was then hot-fire tested. In turn, a preliminary design of a 5-compartment 2D combustor was based on this pattern. Also the additional subscale injector testing and analysis was performed with an emphasis on improving analytical techniques and acoustic cavity design methodology. Several of the existing 3.5-in. diameter injectors were hot-fire tested with and without acoustic cavities for spontaneous and dynamic stability characteristics.

  2. ORFEUS-SPAS MAIN TELESCOPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Multi-Payload Processing Facility (MPPF) at KSC, technicians hoist the orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) II main telescope to a vertical position prior to installing it atop the Astronomy Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ASTRO-SPAS) platform. Two spectrographs share the main telescope: the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV) provided by the University of California at Berkeley, and the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph (FUV) designed by German institutions the University of Tubingen and Landessternwarte Heidelberg and built by German company Kayser-Threde. The main telescope has a primary mirror approximately one yard (one meter) in diameter, coated with iridium to improve its light-gathering power in the ultraviolet. During the flight of ORFEUS-SPAS II on Space Shuttle Mission STS- 80, these two spectrographs -- along with a third installed separately on the ASTRO-SPAS -- will gather data about the life cycle of stars.

  3. New Main Ring control system

    SciTech Connect

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Ducar, R.; Franck, A.; Gomilar, J.; Hendricks, B.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fermilab Main Ring control system has been operational for over sixteen years. Aging and obsolescence of the equipment make the maintenance difficult. Since the advent of the Tevatron, considerable upgrades have been made to the controls of all the Fermilab accelerators except the Main Ring. Modernization of the equipment and standardization of the hardware and software have thus become inevitable. The Tevatron CAMAC serial system has been chosen as a basic foundation in order to make the Main Ring control system compatible with the rest of the accelerator complex. New hardware pieces including intelligent CAMAC modules have been designed to satisfy unique requirements. Fiber optic cable and repeaters have been installed in order to accommodate new channel requirements onto the already saturated communication medium system. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Comfort measures: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Reference to the concept of comfort measures is growing in the nursing and medical literature; however, the concept of comfort measures is rarely defined. For the comfort work of nurses to be recognized, nurses must be able to identify and delineate the key attributes of comfort measures. A concept analysis using Rodgers' evolutionary method (2000) was undertaken with the goal of identifying the core attributes of comfort measures and thereby clarifying this concept. Health care literature was accessed from the CINAHL and PubMed databases. No restrictions were placed on publication dates. Four main themes of attributes for comfort measures were identified during the analysis. Comfort measures involve an active, strategic process including elements of "stepping in" and "stepping back," are both simple and complex, move from a physical to a holistic perspective and are a part of supportive care. The antecedents to comfort measures are comfort needs and the most common consequence of comfort measures is enhanced comfort. Although the concept of comfort measures is often associated with end-of-life care, this analysis suggests that comfort measures are appropriate for nursing care in all settings and should be increasingly considered in the clinical management of patients who are living with multiple, chronic comorbidities.

  5. Architectural Portfolio 2001: Main Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents descriptions and photographs of the following two American School and University Architectural Portfolio main winners for 2001: Chesterton, Indiana's Chesterton High School and Lied Library at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Included are each project's vital statistics, the architectural firm involved, and a list of designers.(GR)

  6. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  7. Main tank injection pressurization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.; Kendle, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program predicts performance of fluorine-hydrogen main tank injection pressurization system for full range of liquid-hydrogen-fueled space vehicles. Analytical model includes provisions for heat transfer, injectant jet penetration, and ullage gas mixing. Analysis predicts GF2 usage, ullage gas and tank wall temperatures, and LH2 evaporation.

  8. Creative Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Recommends the use of concept mapping in science teaching and proposes that it be presented as a creative activity. Includes a sample lesson plan of a potato stamp concept mapping activity for astronomy. (DDR)

  9. Race concepts in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category.

  10. Formal concept analysis and linguistic hedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belohlavek, Radim; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an application of linguistic hedges to formal concept analysis of data with fuzzy attributes. Formal concept analysis aims at extraction of particular (bi-)clusters, called formal concepts, from data. The clusters link collections of objects (extents) and attributes (intents), and have a clear interpretation due to a simple verbal description of the concept-forming operators. We insert linguistic hedges such as 'very' or 'extremely' in the description of the operators. In this way, linguistic hedges become parameters for formal concept analysis that control the number of clusters extracted from data. Namely, as we show theoretically as well as experimentally, stronger hedges result in a smaller number of clusters. The new concept-forming operators form Galois-like connections. We study their properties and axiomatize them. Then, we show that a concept lattice with hedges, i.e. the set of all formal concepts of the new operators is indeed a complete lattice which is isomorphic to a particular ordinary concept lattice. We describe the isomorphism and its inverse. These mappings serve as translation procedures. As a consequence, we obtain a theorem characterizing the structure of concept lattices with hedges which generalizes the well-known main theorem of ordinary concept lattices. The isomorphism and its inverse enable us to compute a concept lattice with hedges using algorithms for ordinary concept lattices. We demonstrate by experiments that when selecting various hedges from the strongest to weaker hedges, the reduction in size of the corresponding concept lattices is smooth. From a broader perspective, we argue that linguistic hedges represent mathematically and computationally a feasible way to parameterize methods for knowledge extraction from data that enable one to emphasize or to suppress extracted patterns while keeping their interpretation.

  11. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) is discussed. The focus is on those concepts that are sufficiently near-term that they could be developed for the Space Exploration Initiative. High-power (multi-megawatt) electric propulsion, solar sails, tethers, and extraterrestrial resource utilization concepts are discussed. A summary of these concepts and some general conclusions on their technology development needs are presented.

  12. Anhedonia: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nancy; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Anhedonia presents itself in a myriad of disease processes. To further develop our understanding of anhedonia and effective ways to manage it, the concept requires clear boundaries. This paper critically examined the current scientific literature and conducted a concept analysis of anhedonia to provide a more accurate and lucid understanding the concept. As part of the concept analysis, this paper also provides model, borderline, related, and contrary examples of anhedonia. PMID:23706888

  13. A Cross-Age Study of Junior High School Students' Conceptions of Basic Astronomy Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes junior high school students' astronomy conceptions by means of a written questionnaire and delineates the main findings. Focuses on the effect on climate of the relative positions of the earth, moon and sun. (Contains 41 references.) (DDR)

  14. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  15. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  16. Applications of Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Christina

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews three major uses of the concept-mapping strategies for postsecondary learning: the external representation of concept maps as an external scratch pad to represent major ideas and their organization, the mental construction of concept maps when students are seeking a time-efficient tool, and the electronic construction and…

  17. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

  18. Development of rotorcraft interior noise control concepts. Phase 3: Development of noise control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoerkie, Charles A.; Gintoli, P. J.; Ingraham, S. T.; Moore, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this research is the understanding of helicopter internal noise mechanisms and the development, design, and testing of noise control concepts which will produce significant reductions in the acoustic environment to which passengers are exposed. The Phase 3 effort involved the identification and evaluation of current and advanced treatment concepts, including isolation of structure-borne paths. In addition, a plan was devised for the full-scale evaluation of an isolation concept. Specific objectives were as follows: (1) identification and characterization of various noise control concepts; (2) implementation of noise control concepts within the S-76 SEA (statistical energy analysis) model; (3) definition and evaluation of a preliminary acoustic isolation design to reduce structure-borne transmission of acoustic frequency main gearbox gear clash vibrations into the airframe; (4) formulation of a plan for the full-scale validation of the isolation concept; and (5) prediction of the cabin noise environment with various noise control concepts installed.

  19. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  20. Investigating the Ocean-Climate System, Concept by Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decharon, A.; Karp-Boss, L.; Boss, E.; Graham, S.; Manahan, A.; Weller, H.

    2006-12-01

    In fall 2005, a new initiative was added to the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network. COSEE-Ocean Systems (OS) is a collaborative effort among the University of Maine (UMaine), University of New Hampshire, and Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences. Being thematic in nature, COSEE-OS has the flexibility to tackle topics that are important on the national scale, such as those highlighted in the recent "Ocean Literacy" campaign. COSEE-OS has the long-term goal of helping COSEE reach rural and inland audiences. We are creating and evaluating a series of interconnected tools and techniques to broaden understanding of oceans in the context of the earth and solar systems. This includes: - Building and training scientist-educator teams who work together to distinguish meaningful "key messages" and the K-12 audiences who would benefit most from exposure to these concepts; - Translating the concepts into innovative products, workshops, and courses that showcase oceans in the Earth-Sun system; - Working with NASA multimedia experts, developing immersive web-based interfaces that will be utilized by and / or customized for other COSEEs; and - Training in-service and pre-service teachers in using ocean phenomena as a vehicle to teach physical concepts using hands-on activities and inquiry based learning. Part of the COSEE-OS strategy is engaging teams with an educational tool called "concept mapping." Dr. Joseph Novak developed concept mapping in the 1960s as a technique for representing knowledge in graphical formats. Used as a group activity this allows COSEE-OS to gather vital information from scientists to construct multimedia products. Another benefit of this activity is helping scientists and educators test the utility of concept mapping for their instructional purposes. To complement the development of concept maps and associated multimedia, a UMaine COSEE-OS pilot workshop was held in July 2006. The workshop targeted middle- and high

  1. Concepts of the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenegger, L.

    2012-04-01

    The HZ around a single star has been calculated by several authors. Two concepts are commonly used throughout the literature for cloud free (see Kasting et al.1993, Underwood et al.2003) and cloudy atmospheres (Selsis et al.2007) which have been derived from the same model originally proposed by Kasting et al.(1993). The main differences among studies of the HZ are the imposed climatic constraints such as a CO2/H2O/N2 atmosphere with varying CO2/H2O/N2 concentrations (e.g., Earth's), or model atmospheres with high H2 concentrations (Gaidos&Pierrehumbert 2010) or limited water supply (Abe et al.2011). We discuss the implication of these constraints on the Habitable Zone and its resulting limits as well as detectable spectral features in a planet's rocky atmosphere that could be used to test our concept of the Habitable Zone.

  2. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  3. The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

  4. Puzzling Snowballs: Main Belt Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Meech, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Main belt comets (MBCs) are a class of newly discovered objects that exhibit comet-like appearances and yet are dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary main belt asteroids. The measured size and albedo of MBCs are similar to those of classical comets. At present, six MBCs have been discovered, namely 133P/Elst-Pizarro, 176P/LINEAR, 238P/Read, P/2008 R1, P/La Sagra and P/2006 VW139. The total number of active MBCs is estimated to be at the level of a few hundreds (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006). Several explanations for the activity of MBCs have been suggested. These include impact ejection, sublimation and rotational instability. However, since renewed activity has been observed in 133P and 238P at successive perihelion passages, the most likely explanation may be a thermally-driven process - e.g sublimation of exposed surface ice. Although the proximity of MBCs to the Sun (r ~ 3 AU) makes the survival of surface ice improbable, thermal models have shown that water ice is thermally stable under a regolith layer a few meters thick. The study of MBCs has recently been complicated by the discoveries of two asteroid collisional events (P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) and (596) Scheila) in 2010, where comet-like dust coma/tail have been attributed to recent impacts. If MBCs are indeed icy, they represent the closest and the third established reservoir of comets (after the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt). As such, they may have been an important source of water for the Earth's oceans. I will review the current state of MBC studies, present the latest observational results and discuss possible mechanisms that could produce the observed activity. I will also talk about current and future space missions that are dedicated or closely related to MBC studies.

  5. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  6. Main memory unit. [hybrid computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

  7. Main Dangers of Our Times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2003-03-01

    Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

  8. Long life valve design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. R.; Hall, A. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Valve concept evaluation, final candidate selection, design, manufacture, and demonstration testing of a pneumatically actuated 10-inch hybrid poppet butterfly shutoff valve are presented. Conclusions and recommendations regarding those valve characteristics and features which would serve to guide in the formulation of future valve procurements are discussed. The pertinent design goals were temperature range of plus 200 to minus 423 F, valve inlet pressure 35 psia, actuation pressure 750 psia, main seal leakage 3 x 0.00001 sccs at 35 psia valve inlet pressure, and a storage and operating life of 10 years. The valve was designed to be compatible with RP-1, propane, LH2, LO2, He, and N2.

  9. Children's Conceptions of Jesus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Karen; Freathy, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a recent study investigating young children's (aged 10-11) conceptions of Jesus in England. The overall picture revealed by the study is that whilst there was a general assent amongst pupils in our sample towards an ethical and humanistic conception of the historical Jesus, there was less of a consensus about…

  10. The Concept of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capurro, Rafael; Hjorland, Birger

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the status of the concept of information in information science, with reference to interdisciplinary trends. Highlights include defining scientific terms; studies and sources of the word information; the concept of information in the natural sciences, and in the humanities and social sciences; librarianship; information retrieval; and the…

  11. Badminton--Teaching Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Marilyn J.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching four basic badminton concepts along with the usual basic skill shots allows players to develop game strategy awareness as well as mechanical skills. These four basic concepts are: (1) ready position, (2) flight trajectory, (3) early shuttle contact, and (4) camouflage. (IAH)

  12. Learning Our Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Stanley Peters appreciates the centrality of concepts for everyday life, however, he fails to recognize their pedagogical dimension. He distinguishes concepts employed at the first-order (our ordinary language-use) from second-order conceptual clarification (conducted exclusively by academically trained philosophers). This distinction…

  13. Children's Concepts of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    A total of 122 middle-class White boys and girls aged 3 through 12 years were interviewed to determine the nature and the development of their concepts of death and the impact of experience on those concepts. (Author/BH)

  14. New Concepts of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Social Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The two-day Canadian conference focused on the topics: "Why are new concepts of work emerging?" and "How can we encourage desirable new work concepts in our society?" Following an introductory summary by David P. Ross, Stephen Peitchinis (Dean, School of Business Administration, University of Calgary) presented the economic circumstances of the…

  15. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  16. The Concept of Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Students are aware of the theoretical or abstract concept of density, but fail to understand its practical implication in that the thickness concentrated in a solid object is what constitutes density. A study of the density concept reveals its very practical and qualitative nature, and the students must look beyond theoretical equations to…

  17. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  18. Feminism: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Allan, H T

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concept of feminism in order to clarify a sociological concept for its use in nursing theory and practice. This analysis is carried out using the Walker & Avant (1988) model. It includes: a literature review, an overview of the uses of the concept drawn from the literature, the defining attributes and the justification of their choice, the cases to demonstrate the concept, and the concept criteria. The concept was chosen out of an interest in developing a feminist nursing theory and desire to enhance nursing practice. The literature search proved most fruitful in the sociological literature. The nursing sources were fewer and concerned with practice rather than articulating any feminist nursing theory. Many of these sources were sociologists and nurses. The concept of feminism was defined as the concern with gender equality and the promotion of equal rights for men and woman, the expression of these concerns through theory or action, and the valuing of individuals for their contributions to society rather than their biological or sexual characteristics or roles. Although the concept of feminism was defined and analysed within the model suggested by Walker & Avant, the author found that the concept became oversimplified, losing much of the richness of the literature. The author felt that, for any development of theory or practice, this analysis would have to be expanded. It is argued that their model is too restrictive as it is based on positivist philosophy which seeks to establish divisions where, in fact, there is a blurring of meaning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  20. What a Concept! Using Concept Mapping on Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Regina; Royer, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    When designed properly, concept mapping activities can engage students in meaningful learning. In the process of creating concept maps, students relate new information to more general concepts already held, develop fuller understandings of those general concepts, and recognize new relationships between concepts. Students engage in these activities…

  1. Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptions about Astronomical Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify prospective science teachers' conceptions on basic astronomical phenomena. A questionnaire consisting of nine open-ended questions was administered to 327 prospective science teachers. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive review of the literature and took into consideration the reported…

  2. Expert Concept Mapping Study on Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borner, Dirk; Glahn, Christian; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper introduces concept mapping as a structured participative conceptualization approach to identify clusters of ideas and opinions generated by experts within the domain of mobile learning. Utilizing this approach, the paper aims to contribute to a definition of key domain characteristics by identifying the main educational…

  3. [Main concepts of preventive health care for the air staff of sea-based aviation].

    PubMed

    Mel'nik, S G; Chulaevskiĭ, A O

    2013-08-01

    The authors researched the air-stuff and complex of adverse factors uncharacteristic for the air-staff of land-based aircraft. It was determined that adverse factors affect the air-staff foremost in 4-5 months of a blue-water sailing, except cardiovascular system diseases. In a month of a blue-water sailing was registered a hypotonic state. Systolic blood pressure varied from 100-105 mm Hg and lower, dystolic blood pressure varied from 60-65 mm Hg and lower. The lowest ranges of blood pressure were registered in three months after the beginning of the sailing. In the following, the hypotonic state, registered during the monthly medical examinations, remained till the end of the sailing. Normal averages of blood pressure were restored in two weeks after the end of sailing. Low red cell count (for more than 1100 points) was registered in 61.5% of patients, (for more than 550 points) in 38.4% of patients. Low white cell count (for more than 4800 points) was registered in 33.3% of patients, (for more than 3300 points) in 41% of patients, (for more than 1330 points) in 25% of patients. Input data was: red cell count--4250 points, white cell count--7300 points in 1 ml of blood. After the sailing haematological indices were restored. The authors suggested guidelines for primary and secondary disease prevention.

  4. A Proof of Concept: Grizzly, the LWRS Program Materials Aging and Degradation Pathway Main Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Spencer; Jeremey Busby; Richard Martineau; Brian Wirth

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear power currently provides a significant fraction of the United States’ non-carbon emitting power generation. In future years, nuclear power must continue to generate a significant portion of the nation’s electricity to meet the growing electricity demand, clean energy goals, and ensure energy independence. New reactors will be an essential part of the expansion of nuclear power. However, given limits on new builds imposed by economics and industrial capacity, the extended service of the existing fleet will also be required.

  5. Main Street Zero Energy Buildings: The Zero Energy Method in Concept and Practice: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Lobato, C.; Hootman, T.

    2010-07-01

    Ongoing work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicates that net-zero energy building (NZEB) status is both achievable and repeatable today. This paper presents a definition framework for classifying NZEBs and a real-life example that demonstrates how a large-scale office building can cost-effectively achieve net-zero energy.

  6. Main Street Net-Zero Energy Buildings: The Zero Energy Method in Concept and Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Lobato, C.; Hootman, T.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, large-scale, cost-effective net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs) were thought to lie decades in the future. However, ongoing work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicates that NZEB status is both achievable and repeatable today. This paper presents a definition framework for classifying NZEBs and a real-life example that demonstrates how a large-scale office building can cost-effectively achieve net-zero energy. The vision of NZEBs is compelling. In theory, these highly energy-efficient buildings will produce, during a typical year, enough renewable energy to offset the energy they consume from the grid. The NREL NZEB definition framework classifies NZEBs according to the criteria being used to judge net-zero status and the way renewable energy is supplied to achieve that status. We use the new U.S. Department of Energy/NREL 220,000-ft{sub 2} Research Support Facilities (RSF) building to illustrate why a clear picture of NZEB definitions is important and how the framework provides a methodology for creating a cost-effective NZEB. The RSF, scheduled to open in June 2010, includes contractual commitments to deliver a Leadership in Energy Efficiency and Design (LEED) Platinum Rating, an energy use intensity of 25 kBtu/ft{sub 2} (half that of a typical LEED Platinum office building), and net-zero energy status. We will discuss the analysis method and cost tradeoffs that were performed throughout the design and build phases to meet these commitments and maintain construction costs at $259/ft{sub 2}. We will discuss ways to achieve large-scale, replicable NZEB performance. Many passive and renewable energy strategies are utilized, including full daylighting, high-performance lighting, natural ventilation through operable windows, thermal mass, transpired solar collectors, radiant heating and cooling, and workstation configurations allow for maximum daylighting.

  7. The Main Concepts in the Recognition of Linguistic Rights in European States. Mercator Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Neus Oliveras

    This paper discusses the protection of linguistic rights, focusing on the constitutional and legal experience in Europe. It addresses state plurilingualism, then examines general principles (the legal status of languages, equality, and multilingualism in representative institutions). Next, it discusses recognition of linguistic rights (the right…

  8. New main reflector, subreflector and dual chamber concepts for compact range applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pistorius, C. W. I.; Burnside, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    A compact range is a facility used for the measurement of antenna radiation and target scattering problems. Most presently available parabolic reflectors do not produce ideal uniform plane waves in the target zone. Design improvements are suggested to reduce the amplitude taper, ripple and cross polarization errors. The ripple caused by diffractions from the reflector edges can be reduced by adding blended rolled edges and shaping the edge contour. Since the reflected edge continues smoothly from the parabola onto the rolled surface, rather than being abruptly terminated, the discontinuity in the reflected field is reduced which results in weaker diffracted fields. This is done by blending the rolled edges from the parabola into an ellipse. An algorithm which enables one to design optimum blended rolled edges was developed that is based on an analysis of the continuity of the surface radius of curvature and its derivatives across the junction. Futhermore, a concave edge contour results in a divergent diffracted ray pattern and hence less stray energy in the target zone. Design equations for three-dimensional reflectors are given. Various examples were analyzed using a new physical optics method which eliminates the effects of the false scattering centers on the incident shadow boundaries. A Gregorian subreflector system, in which both the subreflector and feed axes are tilted, results in a substantial reduction in the amplitude taper and cross polarization errors. A dual chamber configuration is proposed to eliminate the effects of diffraction from the subreflector and spillover from the feed. A computationally efficient technique, based on ray tracing and aperture integration, was developed to analyze the scattering from a lossy dielectric slab with a wedge termination.

  9. The Slovak National Bibliography; the Basic Conception and the Project of Main Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liba, Peter

    The Slovak National Bibliography consists of two separate bibliographies: (1) the contemporary national bibliography and (2) the retrospective national bibliography. The contemporary bibliography fulfills the following needs: (1) Provides registration and elaboration of Slovak books published on Slovak territory and books in Slovak published on…

  10. Concepts in Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Pöyhönen, Samuli

    2013-06-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is unwarranted. Hence, the strong analogy between scientific theory change and individual learning should be approached with caution. In addition, we argue that (2) research in psychology and cognitive science provides a promising theoretical basis for developing explanatory mechanistic models of conceptual change. Moreover, we argue that (3) arguments against deeper integration between the fields of psychology and conceptual change are not convincing, and that recent theoretical developments in the cognitive sciences might prove indispensable in filling in the details in mechanisms of conceptual change.

  11. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  12. Blazars: Artist Conception

    NASA Video Gallery

    What astronomers once thought were two blazar families may in fact be one, as shown in this artist's concept. Energy stored in the black hole during its salad days of intense accretion may later be...

  13. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Wind tunnel model of Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory concept on sting. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  14. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Display model of space station concept--Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory in Saturn S-IVB Orbit configuration. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  15. Libraries in Maine: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/maine.html Libraries in Maine To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Auburn Central Maine Community College Library 1250 Turner Street Auburn, ME 04210-6498 207- ...

  16. Concept analysis: resilience.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Dia, Mary Joy; DiNapoli, Jean Marie; Garcia-Ona, Leila; Jakubowski, Rita; O'Flaherty, Deirdre

    2013-12-01

    This paper will systematically analyze the concept of resilience using an integrated review of literature. The historical perspective, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of resilience will be reviewed. A theoretical and operational definition will be provided. The Walker and Avant method will be used to describe the cases. Finally, the use of concept map will capture the relationships among the attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empirical indicators through clustering and chaining. PMID:24238005

  17. Overcoming: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Barbara L.; Kirk, Keri; Gultekin, Laura; Baiardi, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an operational definition of overcoming as a first step in the systematic analysis of the concept. Using the method described by Walker and Avant (2005), the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of overcoming and its theoretical and practical application to nursing. Sample cases from clinical research illustrate the concept further. Further nursing research needs to test the theoretical relationships between overcoming and outcome variables. PMID:21806626

  18. [Mindfulness: A Concept Analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2016-04-01

    "Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing.

  19. Structural evaluation of maglev guideway concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, H.R.; Williams, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    The National Maglev Initiative (NMI) resulted in four distinctly different concepts. The structural systems of the concepts varied greatly, but in general were very complex. This paper evaluates the concepts as to their performance of selected criteria: constructability, reliability, maintainability, adaptability, and durability. Three of the systems used precast, prestressed concrete for the main load-carrying element. One system used aluminum. Only one system, system concept design (SCD-1) could be readily produced in existing precasting plants. None of the systems provided for easy adjustment of operating elements after construction. These systems require construction tolerances that are much more restrictive than conventional practice. Among the stated goals of the NMI concepts were: (1) it should anticipate upgrade; (2) it should be economically and financially attractive; and (3) it should be robust in terms of its susceptibility to adverse weather and its requirement for maintenance. This paper concludes that none of the four concepts adequately met these goals. However, some concepts could achieve the desired goals by relatively modest redesign.

  20. Translating the concepts behind gateways.

    PubMed

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The intention of this installment of IT World is to bring the various aspects of gateways into view. You can see how loosely the gateway term is used and how the meaning of the term has changed over time. Keep concepts of gateways in order by considering their main function. The main function for gateways is to convert from one set of communication protocols to some other set of communication protocols-thus allowing access to otherwise incompatible networks. These functions include: Protocol Conversion--When a message is prepared for transmission, each layer adds control information unique to the protocol used at that layer (see Figure 1). The gateway must be able to convert control information to the format the receiving network expects. Services affected may include message segmentation and reassembly, data flow control, and error detection and recovery. Protocol converters connect networks that use different communication protocols. Address Translation--Different networks may employ different network addressing schemes, mechanisms, and network address structures. The gateway must be able to interpret network addresses in one network and convert them into appropriate network addresses for the other network while holding the validity of the address resolution. Examples that include both protocol conversion and address translation are when a gateway converts a TCP/IP packet to a NetWare IPX packet and vice versa or from AppleTalk to DECnet, and so on. Message Format Conversion--Different networks can employ different message formats, maximum message sizes, or character codes. The gateway must be able to convert messages to an appropriate format, size, and coding for the receiving network. Examples are CGI and an email gateway (which is a layer 7-application layer-gateway). Keep these main concepts in mind while surfing the web trying to find out more information about what your gateways are up to!

  1. Exnuptial conception in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Werry, J S; Pearson, A S; Taylor, C M; Bonham, D G

    1974-04-24

    A survey was conducted in Auckland, New Zealand to obtain some information about exnuptial conception. The study subjects came from 2 main sources: antenatal clinics at the teaching obstetric hospital; and a hostel/hospital catering to unmarried mothers only. The clinic group was comprised of all unmarried primagravida attending over a 3 month period--Group 1 (n=92). Toward the end of this 3-month period it was decided to obtain contrast groups by interviewing all married primigravidae under the age of 23. About half of those interviewed in the married group had participated in "shotgun" weddings--Group 3 (n=22). Those who successfully avoided pregnancy before marriage formed Group 4 (n=23). The hostel group--Group 2 (n=22)--was necessarily somewhat different. The authorities allowed only volunteers to be interviewed, and the sample turned out to be ethnically and educationally advantaged over the clinic group. The hostel group was analyzed separately at all times. The data concerning conception was in the main retrospective and is subject to an unknown reminiscence error. Although not statistically significant, the study suggested that females who continue unmarried throughout their pregnancy are younger than those who marry because of the pregnancy (pregnant/married), and this latter group in turn are younger than those who manage to avoid pregnancy until after marriage (married/pregnant). If one excludes the highly selected hostel population, there was little difference across groups except that Catholics in general appear to be least successful in avoiding extranuptial conceptions, particularly those leading to "shotgun" weddings. The 3 clinic groups did not differ markedly in educational attainment or socioeconomic status as judged by the women's father's occupation so that advantaged status did not appear to protect against exnuptial preg nancy. Most had had some sex education, and mother and school were the primary sources of the information. Only 4 women

  2. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

  3. Space vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Michael; Meredith, Oliver; Brothers, Bobby

    1986-01-01

    Several concepts of chemical-propulsion Space Vehicles (SVs) for manned Mars landing missions are presented. For vehicle sizing purposes, several specific missions were chosen from opportunities in the late 1990's and early 2000's, and a vehicle system concept is then described which is applicable to the full range of missions and opportunities available. In general, missions utilizing planetary opposition alignments can be done with smaller vehicles than those utilizing planetary opposition alignments. The conjunction missions have a total mission time of about 3 years, including a required stay-time of about 60 days. Both types of missions might be desirable during a Mars program, the opposition type for early low-risk missions and/or for later unmanned cargo missions, and the conjunction type for more extensive science/exploration missions and/or for Mars base activities. Since the opposition missions appeared to drive the SV size more severely, there were probably more cases examined for them. Some of the concepts presented utilize all-propulsive braking, some utilize and all aerobraking approach, and some are hybrids. Weight statements are provided for various cases. Most of the work was done on 0-g vehicle concepts, but partial-g and 1-g concepts are also provided and discussed. Several options for habitable elements are shown, such as large-diameter modules and space station (SS) types of modules.

  4. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  5. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed. PMID:27024999

  6. Creating Heliophysics Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Center for Science Education at University of California Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory is creating concept maps for Heliophysics and would like to get input from scientists. The purpose of this effort is to identify key concepts related to Heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of Heliophysics might develop from Kindergarten through higher education. These maps are meant to tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards. It is hoped that the results of this effort will be useful for curriculum designers developing Heliophysics-related curriculum materials and classroom teachers using Heliophysics materials. The need for concept maps was identified as a result of product analysis undertaken by the NASA Heliophysics Forum Team. The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have as two of their goals to improve the characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate and Public Outreach (SMD E/PO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD E/PO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). An important part of this effort is receiving feedback from solar scientists regarding the inclusion of key concepts and their progression in the maps. This session will introduce the draft concept maps and elicit feedback from scientists.

  7. [Concepts of anthropological medicine].

    PubMed

    Petzold, E R; Petzold, U

    2001-01-01

    Medical anthropology is the teaching of the ill human being, of being ill; anthropological medicine is the realization of this teaching in practice. This concept was first developed and assessed in the "Gestaltkreis" and in the Pathosophy (44), in Medicine in Motion (39), and in the Bipersonality (10). The four most important concepts are represented, which have their origin and aim in anthropological medicine: anthropological medicine, Balint-work, family-oriented medicine, and salutogenesis. These concepts are exemplified in the Aachen psychosomatic liaison model, the Aachen Balint cooperation model, and the Aachen model of psychosomatic care. We wish to portray the meaning of these resources for the medicine of the future, since they have proven to be effective, cost-saving, and easy to be handled. In the latter part of our presentation, we will document this point with a pilot study conducted in Israel and in our own clinic in Aachen. PMID:11603206

  8. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  9. Basic concepts of depression

    PubMed Central

    Paykel, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1930s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed. PMID:18979941

  10. Basic concepts of depression.

    PubMed

    Paykel, Eugene S

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century, as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1980s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed.

  11. Telepresence work system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Telepresence has been used in the context of the ultimate in remote manipulation where the operator is provided with the sensory feedback and control to perform highly dexterous tasks. The concept of a Telepresence Work Station (TWS) for operation in space is described. System requirements, concepts, and a development approach are discussed. The TWS has the potential for application on the Space Shuttle, on the Orbit Maneuver Vehicle, on an Orbit Transfer Vehicle, and on the Space Station. The TWS function is to perform satellite servicing tasks and construction and assembly operations in the buildup of large spacecraft. The basic concept is a pair of dexterous arms controlled from a remote station by an operation with feedback. It may be evolved through levels of supervisory control to a smart adaptive robotic system.

  12. Mars Rover Concept Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTamaney, Louis S.; Harmon, Scott Y.

    1989-03-01

    FMC conducted a carefully structured study effort designed to develop an extensive set of mobility and navigation concepts for a planetary exploration vehicle. This focused study commenced with a requirements analysis that defined operational and functional requirements and constraints. Next, the physical system, its value system (evaluation parameters and design criteria) and the martian terrain design environment (surface models) were developed simultaneously. Mobility (the basic vehicle structure, suspension, and power train) and navigation (both global and local navigation including global reference, local terrain assessment, and guidance and control) concepts were developed independently and then integrated. Special attention was paid to the interdependency of navigation and locomotion in order to strike the appropriate balance between autonomy and mobility. Finally, the most promising concepts were subjected to a rigorous, structured evaluation process to derive the best candidate systems. To support the evaluation process, a three-layer computer model of the martian surface was developed. This model was based on the 1/64° Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Mars developed by USGS Flagstaff. Local surface roughness based on measured martian slope distribution and power spectral density was superimposed on the DEM. Rocks based on H. Moore's distribution model were then added. To assess performance, selected concepts were modeled using DADSR from Computer Aided Software Inc., and simulations were run with the vehicle traversing the martian surface model, including one meter high vertical steps and one meter wide crevasses . During the course of this study, over 300 mobility concepts and more than 400 navigation concepts generated during a series of brainstorming sessions evolved into three promising candidate systems. The evolution of these systems is discussed; design details, conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  13. Revisiting the matricellular concept

    PubMed Central

    Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Sage, E. Helene

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a matricellular protein was first proposed by Paul Bornstein in the mid-1990s to account for the non-lethal phenotypes of mice with inactivated genes encoding thrombospondin-1, tenascin-C, or SPARC. It was also recognized that these extracellular matrix proteins were primarily counter or de-adhesive. This review reappraises the matricellular concept after nearly two decades of continuous investigation. The expanded matricellular family as well as the diverse and often unexpected functions, cellular location, and interacting partners/receptors of matricellular proteins are considered. Development of therapeutic strategies that target matricellular proteins are discussed in the context of pathology and regenerative medicine. PMID:25064829

  14. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2011-01-01

    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the

  15. Teaching power concepts.

    PubMed

    Heineken, J; McCloskey, J C

    1985-01-01

    Concepts and strategies presented here provide nurses with a new perspective from which to analyze and interact with power dynamics. Understanding fundamental concepts of power will help nurses enjoy a more equal status and bargaining position within the community of health professionals and in health care delivery systems. As nurses integrate and utilize this content for enhancing professional practices and client services, our public image will also continue to be strengthened. In so doing, our power base and sphere of influence will also be broadened.

  16. Introduction: Bridging Concepts.

    PubMed

    Davids, Karel

    2015-12-01

    How can those in the history of science, history of technology, and economics communicate more with each other than they are accustomed? How can they become more globally oriented? While these three disciplines today have more convergent interests than in the past, there is still a large potential for further exchange and involvement to explore and exploit. The contributors to this Focus section discuss a number of concepts that may serve as tools to bring these three disciplines more closely together and ease their evolution in a less Eurocentric direction. These concepts include trading zones, interaction and formalization, production, and machines and self-organization. PMID:27024939

  17. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  18. Revisiting the matricellular concept.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E; Sage, E Helene

    2014-07-01

    The concept of a matricellular protein was first proposed by Paul Bornstein in the mid-1990s to account for the non-lethal phenotypes of mice with inactivated genes encoding thrombospondin-1, tenascin-C, or SPARC. It was also recognized that these extracellular matrix proteins were primarily counter or de-adhesive. This review reappraises the matricellular concept after nearly two decades of continuous investigation. The expanded matricellular family as well as the diverse and often unexpected functions, cellular location, and interacting partners/receptors of matricellular proteins are considered. Development of therapeutic strategies that target matricellular proteins are discussed in the context of pathology and regenerative medicine.

  19. Introduction: Bridging Concepts.

    PubMed

    Davids, Karel

    2015-12-01

    How can those in the history of science, history of technology, and economics communicate more with each other than they are accustomed? How can they become more globally oriented? While these three disciplines today have more convergent interests than in the past, there is still a large potential for further exchange and involvement to explore and exploit. The contributors to this Focus section discuss a number of concepts that may serve as tools to bring these three disciplines more closely together and ease their evolution in a less Eurocentric direction. These concepts include trading zones, interaction and formalization, production, and machines and self-organization.

  20. Artist concept of Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft is illustrated in artist concept. Gallileo, named for the Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician who is credited with construction of the first complete, practical telescope in 1620, will make detailed studies of Jupiter. A cooperative program with the Federal Republic of Germany the Galileo mission will amplify information acquired by two Voyager spacecraft in their brief flybys. Galileo is a two-element system that includes a Jupiter-orbiting observatory and an entry probe. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is Galileo project manager and builder of the main spacecraft. Ames Research Center (ARC) has responsibility for the entry probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company and General Electric. Galileo will be deployed from the payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during mission STS-34.

  1. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    PubMed

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  2. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    PubMed

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  3. Students' Conceptions of Function Transformation in a Dynamic Mathematical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh; Anabousy, Ahlam

    2015-01-01

    The study of function transformations helps students understand the function concept which is a basic and main concept in mathematics, but this study is problematic to school students as well as college students, especially when transformations are performed on non-basic functions. The current research tried to facilitate grade 9 students'…

  4. Life in the fast lane: fish and foodweb structure in the main channel of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.; Soluk, D.A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the main channel of the lower Illinois River and of the Mississippi River just upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Illinois River to describe the abundance, composition, and/or seasonal appearance of components of the main-channel community. Abundance of fishes in the main channel was high, especially adults. Most adult fishes were present in the main channel for either 3 or 4 seasons/y, indicating that fishes regularly reside in the main channel. We documented abundant zooplankton and benthic invertebrates in the main channel, and the presence of these food types in the diets of channel catfish and freshwater drum. All trophic levels were well represented in the main channel, indicating that the main channel supports a unique food web. The main channel also serves as an important energetic link with other riverine habitats (e.g., floodplains, secondary channels, backwater lakes) because of the mobility of resident fishes and because of the varied energy sources supplying this food web. It may be more realistic to view energy flow in large-river systems as a combination of 3 existing concepts, the river continuum concept (downstream transport), the flood pulse concept (lateral transport to the floodplain), and the riverine productivity model (autochthonous production). We urge additional research to quantify the links between the main channel and other habitat types in large rivers because of the apparent importance of main-channel processes in the overall structure and function of large-river ecosystems.

  5. Missing concepts in natural selection theory reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Ginnobili, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    The concept of fitness has generated a lot of discussion in philosophy of biology. There is, however, relative agreement about the need to distinguish at least two uses of the term: ecological fitness on the one hand, and population genetics fitness on the other. The goal of this paper is to give an explication of the concept of ecological fitness by providing a reconstruction of the theory of natural selection in which this concept was framed, that is, based on the way the theory was put to use in Darwin's main texts. I will contend that this reconstruction enables us to account for the current use of the theory of natural selection. The framework presupposed in the analysis will be that of metatheoretical structuralism. This framework will provide both a better understanding of the nature of ecological fitness and a more complete reconstruction of the theory. In particular, it will provide what I think is a better way of understanding how the concept of fitness is applied through heterogeneous cases. One of the major advantages of my way of thinking about natural selection theory is that it would not have the peculiar metatheoretical status that it has in other available views. I will argue that in order to achieve these goals it is necessary to make several concepts explicit, concepts that are frequently omitted in usual reconstructions. PMID:27385113

  6. Missing concepts in natural selection theory reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Ginnobili, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    The concept of fitness has generated a lot of discussion in philosophy of biology. There is, however, relative agreement about the need to distinguish at least two uses of the term: ecological fitness on the one hand, and population genetics fitness on the other. The goal of this paper is to give an explication of the concept of ecological fitness by providing a reconstruction of the theory of natural selection in which this concept was framed, that is, based on the way the theory was put to use in Darwin's main texts. I will contend that this reconstruction enables us to account for the current use of the theory of natural selection. The framework presupposed in the analysis will be that of metatheoretical structuralism. This framework will provide both a better understanding of the nature of ecological fitness and a more complete reconstruction of the theory. In particular, it will provide what I think is a better way of understanding how the concept of fitness is applied through heterogeneous cases. One of the major advantages of my way of thinking about natural selection theory is that it would not have the peculiar metatheoretical status that it has in other available views. I will argue that in order to achieve these goals it is necessary to make several concepts explicit, concepts that are frequently omitted in usual reconstructions.

  7. Nursing-sensitive indicators: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heslop, Liza; Lu, Sai

    2014-01-01

    Aim To report a concept analysis of nursing-sensitive indicators within the applied context of the acute care setting. Background The concept of ‘nursing sensitive indicators’ is valuable to elaborate nursing care performance. The conceptual foundation, theoretical role, meaning, use and interpretation of the concept tend to differ. The elusiveness of the concept and the ambiguity of its attributes may have hindered research efforts to advance its application in practice. Design Concept analysis. Data sources Using ‘clinical indicators’ or ‘quality of nursing care’ as subject headings and incorporating keyword combinations of ‘acute care’ and ‘nurs*’, CINAHL and MEDLINE with full text in EBSCOhost databases were searched for English language journal articles published between 2000–2012. Only primary research articles were selected. Methods A hybrid approach was undertaken, incorporating traditional strategies as per Walker and Avant and a conceptual matrix based on Holzemer's Outcomes Model for Health Care Research. Results The analysis revealed two main attributes of nursing-sensitive indicators. Structural attributes related to health service operation included: hours of nursing care per patient day, nurse staffing. Outcome attributes related to patient care included: the prevalence of pressure ulcer, falls and falls with injury, nosocomial selective infection and patient/family satisfaction with nursing care. Conclusion This concept analysis may be used as a basis to advance understandings of the theoretical structures that underpin both research and practical application of quality dimensions of nursing care performance. PMID:25113388

  8. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  9. "Disease entity" as the key theoretical concept of medicine.

    PubMed

    Hucklenbroich, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Philosophical debates about the concept of disease, particularly of mental disease, might benefit from reconsideration and a closer look at the established terminology and conceptual structure of contemporary medical pathology and clinical nosology. The concepts and principles of medicine differ, to a considerable extent, from the ideas and notions of philosophical theories of disease. In medical theory, the concepts of disease entity and pathologicity are, besides the concept of disease itself, of fundamental importance, and they are essentially connected to the concepts cause of disease or etiological factor, natural course or natural history of disease, and pathological disposition. It is the concept of disease entity that is of key importance for understanding medical pathology and theory of disease. Its central role is shown by a short reconstruction of its main features and its intrinsic connection to the concept of pathologicity. The meaning of pathologicity is elucidated by explicating the underlying criteria.

  10. The Concept of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of the ordinary concept of intelligence are few and far between in philosophical literature. Such analyses as there have been in recent years are heavily influenced by Ryle's suggestion that to act intelligently is to act "well" or "competently" in a particular domain. Here I show that there are serious problems with Ryle's account and…

  11. Team Building Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. It briefly explains how team building concepts affect businesses in new ways and how they help create an environment that provides job satisfaction for everyone and high-quality products for the…

  12. Some Core Contested Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  13. The Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, I. M.; Johnstone, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Reports a study of difficulties encountered by 14.5- to 15.0- year-old children in learning the mole concept with a programed instruction. Concludes that three respective disturbing factors were embedded in manipulation of molarity of solutions, balancing equations, and misapprehension that one mole of a compound always reacts with one mole of…

  14. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  15. Using Concept Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabell, John

    2008-01-01

    Concept cartoons are cognitive drawings or "visual disagreements" that use a cartoon-style design to present mathematical conversations inside speech bubbles. The viewpoints portrayed are all different and it is this difference that acts as a catalyst for further conversations, as learners talk together to discuss their thinking. They make…

  16. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  17. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  18. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  19. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  20. DSMS science operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connally, M. J.; Kuiper, T. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Science Operations Concept describes the vision for enabling the use of the DSMS, particularly the Deep Space Network (DSN) for direct science observations in the areas of radio astronomy, planetary radar, radio science and VLBI.

  1. Creativity: Concepts and Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rookey, T. Jerome

    The lack of a universal definition of creativity has led to the assessment of creativity according to the definition favored by the evaluator. These assessments fall into four groups. The first centers around the concept of the creative product; it assesses a tangible event or relationship that results from the creative process, which is implied…

  2. Nursing Concepts. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains the materials required to teach a course to prepare students for employment as practical nurses. The following topics are covered in seven instructional units: successful learning skills, positive self-concept, techniques for a balanced lifestyle, communication skills, legal and ethical issues, organizational and…

  3. Photoelectrochemistry: Introductory Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finklea, Harry O.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is based on the semiconductor electrode. It is the semiconductor's ability to absorb light and convert it to electrical and/or chemical energy that forms the basis for the semiconductor liquid-junction solar cell. To understand how this occurs, solid-state physics concepts are discussed. (Author/JN)

  4. Learning Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Yasmeen, Farah

    2004-01-01

    In order to learn the concept of statistical techniques one needs to run real experiments that generate reliable data. In practice, the data from some well-defined process or system is very costly and time consuming. It is difficult to run real experiments during the teaching period in the university. To overcome these difficulties, statisticians…

  5. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  6. The Concept of "Teachability."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that "teachability" is a speculative concept that has for its form and content the absolute, suggesting that its dialectical movement and speculative significance are mis-recognized when the illusionary nature of its constitutive moments is suppressed. The essay outlines the speculative nature of the master/slave relationship in Hegel's…

  7. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  8. Concepts in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sally

    Presented is a discussion of the components and concepts of an ecology typical of the coastal southeastern United States. Principles presented are applicable to other areas. The discussion includes several major sections: the environment, wildlife management, freshwater ecosystems, and the estuarine environment. Numerous figures and illustrations…

  9. What Is a Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    1975-01-01

    Article explores some of the key notions of the construct "concept" from the psychological and educational literature in order to demonstrate the need for standardization of definition and a more unified front in future investigations involving this important element in the study of cognition. (Author)

  10. Force Concept Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestenes, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports the rationale, design, validation, and uses of the "Force Concept Inventory," an instrument to assess the students' beliefs on force. Includes results and implications of two studies that compared the inventory with the "Mechanics Baseline." Includes a copy of the instrument. (MDH)

  11. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  12. Embodying Policy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces some of the key concepts that we have used in our research to help illuminate the multiple and different ways in which apparently ubiquitous health policies relating to obesity, exercise, diet and health are mediated and shaped both globally and nationally, as well as within regional, school and other contexts. The analyses…

  13. Concept of Operations: Essence

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, William J.

    2014-04-01

    This concept of operations is designed to give the reader a brief overview of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association’s Essence project and a description of the Essence device design. The data collected by the device, how the data are used, and how the data are protected are also discussed in this document.

  14. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  15. Advanced radiator concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem-Kirsop, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid droplet radiator and the liquid belt radiator currently under study by the NASA LeRC are discussed. These advanced concepts offer benefits in reduced mass, compact stowage, and ease of deployment. Operation and components of the radiators are described, heat transfer characteristics are discussed, and critical technologies are identified. The impact of the radiators on large power systems is also assessed.

  16. The Concept of "Bildung"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varkoy, Oivind

    2010-01-01

    In this article I will discuss the originally German term and concept of Bildung. The reason why I, as a Scandinavian, find such a discussion both interesting and important is that the trend of instrumentalism in modern educational politics and pedagogical thinking (at least in Scandinavian countries) is problematic; that is, looking on knowledge…

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF WATER MAIN INSPECTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a handout of a slide presentation that addresses improvement of water main inspection technology. The slide presentation addresses the need for improved inspection technology (e.g., 237,000 main breaks/yr); the limits on main break prevention; and, the adverse ...

  18. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is...

  19. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is...

  20. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is...

  1. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is...

  2. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is...

  3. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  4. Separations innovative concepts: Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.

    1988-05-01

    This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

  5. Concepts in Activities and Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this special issue make valuable contributions toward a scientific understanding of concepts that is broader than the traditional view that has focused on categorizing by individuals. I propose considering concepts for categorization as a special case of concepts. At their clearest, they can be referred to as "formal concepts," or…

  6. [Learning in online education: analysis of concept].

    PubMed

    de Holanda, Viviane Rolim; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at clarifying the concept learning in online education, expressed by the literature in the area of health. It is a study of analysis of concept, based on the Evolutionary Model, being highlighted attributes, background, consequents and substitute terms. Learning in the context of online education is characterized by a dynamic and continuous process of active construction of knowledge and acquisition of skills, with physical separation between students and teachers. Among the background events discussed stood out: interest and motivation in learning; dedication and time self-management; and interaction and communication tools. The main evident consequents were: student's autonomy; independent and active study; and construction of own knowledge. The prevailing substitute terms were collaborative learning and self-learning. The understanding of the concept can contribute to its implementation in nursing teaching activities in virtual environments. PMID:23887791

  7. [Learning in online education: analysis of concept].

    PubMed

    de Holanda, Viviane Rolim; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at clarifying the concept learning in online education, expressed by the literature in the area of health. It is a study of analysis of concept, based on the Evolutionary Model, being highlighted attributes, background, consequents and substitute terms. Learning in the context of online education is characterized by a dynamic and continuous process of active construction of knowledge and acquisition of skills, with physical separation between students and teachers. Among the background events discussed stood out: interest and motivation in learning; dedication and time self-management; and interaction and communication tools. The main evident consequents were: student's autonomy; independent and active study; and construction of own knowledge. The prevailing substitute terms were collaborative learning and self-learning. The understanding of the concept can contribute to its implementation in nursing teaching activities in virtual environments.

  8. Polyherbal formulation: Concept of ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Subramani; Thing, Gan Siaw; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam Arumugam

    2014-07-01

    Ayurveda is one of the traditional medicinal systems of Indian. The philosophy behind Ayurveda is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Ayurveda involves the use of natural elements to eliminate the root cause of the disease by restoring balance, at the same time create a healthy life-style to prevent the recurrence of imbalance. Herbal medicines have existed world-wide with long recorded history and they were used in ancient Chinese, Greek, Egyptian and Indian medicine for various therapies purposes. World Health Organization estimated that 80% of the word's inhabitants still rely mainly on traditional medicines for their health care. The subcontinent of India is well-known to be one of the major biodiversity centers with about 45,000 plant species. In India, about 15,000 medicinal plants have been recorded, in which the communities used 7,000-7,500 plants for curing different diseases. In Ayurveda, single or multiple herbs (polyherbal) are used for the treatment. The Ayurvedic literature Sarangdhar Samhita' highlighted the concept of polyherbalism to achieve greater therapeutic efficacy. The active phytochemical constituents of individual plants are insufficient to achieve the desirable therapeutic effects. When combining the multiple herbs in a particular ratio, it will give a better therapeutic effect and reduce the toxicity. This review mainly focuses on important of the polyherbalism and its clinical significance.

  9. Polyherbal formulation: Concept of ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Subramani; Thing, Gan Siaw; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam Arumugam

    2014-07-01

    Ayurveda is one of the traditional medicinal systems of Indian. The philosophy behind Ayurveda is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Ayurveda involves the use of natural elements to eliminate the root cause of the disease by restoring balance, at the same time create a healthy life-style to prevent the recurrence of imbalance. Herbal medicines have existed world-wide with long recorded history and they were used in ancient Chinese, Greek, Egyptian and Indian medicine for various therapies purposes. World Health Organization estimated that 80% of the word's inhabitants still rely mainly on traditional medicines for their health care. The subcontinent of India is well-known to be one of the major biodiversity centers with about 45,000 plant species. In India, about 15,000 medicinal plants have been recorded, in which the communities used 7,000-7,500 plants for curing different diseases. In Ayurveda, single or multiple herbs (polyherbal) are used for the treatment. The Ayurvedic literature Sarangdhar Samhita' highlighted the concept of polyherbalism to achieve greater therapeutic efficacy. The active phytochemical constituents of individual plants are insufficient to achieve the desirable therapeutic effects. When combining the multiple herbs in a particular ratio, it will give a better therapeutic effect and reduce the toxicity. This review mainly focuses on important of the polyherbalism and its clinical significance. PMID:25125878

  10. Polyherbal formulation: Concept of ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Subramani; Thing, Gan Siaw; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the traditional medicinal systems of Indian. The philosophy behind Ayurveda is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Ayurveda involves the use of natural elements to eliminate the root cause of the disease by restoring balance, at the same time create a healthy life-style to prevent the recurrence of imbalance. Herbal medicines have existed world-wide with long recorded history and they were used in ancient Chinese, Greek, Egyptian and Indian medicine for various therapies purposes. World Health Organization estimated that 80% of the word's inhabitants still rely mainly on traditional medicines for their health care. The subcontinent of India is well-known to be one of the major biodiversity centers with about 45,000 plant species. In India, about 15,000 medicinal plants have been recorded, in which the communities used 7,000-7,500 plants for curing different diseases. In Ayurveda, single or multiple herbs (polyherbal) are used for the treatment. The Ayurvedic literature Sarangdhar Samhita’ highlighted the concept of polyherbalism to achieve greater therapeutic efficacy. The active phytochemical constituents of individual plants are insufficient to achieve the desirable therapeutic effects. When combining the multiple herbs in a particular ratio, it will give a better therapeutic effect and reduce the toxicity. This review mainly focuses on important of the polyherbalism and its clinical significance. PMID:25125878

  11. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Ravi Kumar; Janice West; Vitali Lissianski; Neil Widmer; Vladimir Zamansky

    2001-01-01

    accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2000 and ending December 31, 2000. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, objectives of this program, and provides a summary of initial program activities covering program management and preliminary progress in first year tasks including lab- and bench-scale design, facilities preparation, and process/kinetic modeling. More over, the report presents and discusses preliminary results particularly form the bench-scale design and process modeling efforts including a process flow diagram that incorporates the AGC module with other vision-21 plant components with the objective of maximizing H{sub 2} production and process efficiency.

  12. Primary Teachers' Conceptions about the Concept of Volume: The Case of Volume-Measurable Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    In this paper part of the results obtained by a research project called "Primary Teachers' Thinking about the Concept of Volume and its Teaching", performed from 1997 to 2001, are reported. This paper focuses in one of the two main objectives of the aforementioned research: To describe the mental object volume of the participant teachers. The…

  13. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A free radical propulsion concept utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust was examined. The concept offered promise of a propulsion system operating at a theoretical impulse, with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, thus filling the gas existing between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas was transferred to the propellant via three body recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Power absorption by the microwave plasma discharge was in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressures. Gas temperatures inferred from gas dynamic equations showed much higher temperatures from microwave heating than from electrothermal heating. Spectroscopic analysis appeared to corroborate the inferred temperatures of one of the gases tested.

  14. TQM: the essential concepts.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality.

  15. [Loneliness: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Jen; Wang, Kwua-Yun; Chen, Chin-Mi

    2010-10-01

    Loneliness is a kind of mood that most people have experienced at one time or another. Individual experiences with loneliness as joyful or painful saturation are highly personal and can be defined only in such a context. Loneliness has differing effects on the long-term health of individuals. Although loneliness impacts greatly on individual health, there is little in the literature related to concept analyses of loneliness. The purpose of this article was to use Walker and Avant's (2005) concept analysis methodology to review conceptual definitions of loneliness, characteristics, antecedents and consequences; construct examples and establish empirical measurements. Results indicate that defining attributes of loneliness included an individual's subjective mood, descriptions of aloneness, depression, desolation or empty feelings, and the perception of the spirit isolated from others. It is hoped that nursing staffs may better understand loneliness through this article, provide an assessment of client loneliness as early as possible, and enhance client health condition. PMID:20878616

  16. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  17. Firefly system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Firefly' project has developed and implemented an infrared (IR) remote sensing prototype system based on the concept presented. The Firefly system produces images through smoke that will provide near real-time wildland fire information for fire management and suppression. The prototype will be tested through the 1991 fire season. Results of the testing will be incorporated into the final system design for operational use at the end of 1992.

  18. Artist's Concept of Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This artist's concept of the Voyager spacecraft with its antenna pointing to Earth. The identical Voyager spacecraft are three-axis stabilized systems that use celestial or gyro referenced attitude control to maintain pointing of the high-gain antennas toward Earth. The prime mission science payload consisted of 10 instruments (11 investigations including radio science). Only five investigator teams are still supported, though data are collected for two additional instruments.

  19. Some core contested concepts.

    PubMed

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  20. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor hub concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, P. G. C.

    1983-01-01

    Two variations of the helicopter bearingless main rotor hub concept are proposed as bases for further development in the preliminary design phase of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) program. This selection was the result of an evaluation of three bearingless hub concepts and two articulated hub concepts with elastomeric bearings. The characteristics of each concept were evaluated by means of simplified methodology. These characteristics included the assessment of stability, vulnerability, weight, drag, cost, stiffness, fatigue life, maintainability, and reliability.

  1. Water laws and concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1970-01-01

    Throughout human history various laws and customs have developed concerning the individual rights and rights in common to the waters of the earth. Many existing laws and concepts are clearly influenced by the environment in which they originated and reflect the relative abundance or scarcity of water. Many concepts reflect the people's original interests in the water and once established have been passed from generation to generation with little modification. Some laws and concepts have been carried by people in their migrations and colonial expansions to vastly different environments, with rather curious consequences. In many places water laws that had been well adapted to the natural environment have become less tenable because of man's activities in modifying that environment, or because of increasing use of water: Increasing consumptive use shifts the water economy toward lesser abundance or increasing deficiency; increasing nonconsumptive use results in pollution of the water resources, so that they become less suitable for other users. The water-rights systems in the United States vary from State to State: some are reasonably fitted to their environment, some have outlived their place in history, some are wasteful of water, some show favoritism to certain special interests or segments of the population. Water-use rights are universally recognized as real property, with constitutional protection against deprivation without due process of law.

  2. Politicizing science: conceptions of politics in science and technology studies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.

  3. 78 FR 70545 - KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC... the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for...

  4. Multimedia event detection using visual concept signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younessian, Ehsan; Quinn, Michael; Mitamura, Teruko; Hauptmann, Alex

    2013-03-01

    Multimedia Event Detection (MED) is a multimedia retrieval task with the goal of finding videos of a particular event in a large-scale Internet video archive, given example videos and text descriptions. In this paper, we mainly focus on an 'ad-hoc' scenario in MED where we do not use any example video. We aim to retrieve test videos based on their visual semantics using a Visual Concept Signature (VCS) generated for each event only derived from the event description provided as the query. Visual semantics are described using the Semantic INdexing (SIN) feature which represents the likelihood of predefined visual concepts in a video. To generate a VCS for an event, we project the given event description to a visual concept list using the proposed textual semantic similarity. Exploring SIN feature properties, we harmonize the generated visual concept signature and the SIN feature to improve retrieval performance. We conduct different experiments to assess the quality of generated visual concept signatures with respect to human expectation, and in the context of the MED task to retrieve the SIN feature of videos in the test dataset when we have no or only very few training videos.

  5. Experimental Concepts for Testing Seismic Hazard Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic hazard analysis is the primary interface through which useful information about earthquake rupture and wave propagation is delivered to society. To account for the randomness (aleatory variability) and limited knowledge (epistemic uncertainty) of these natural processes, seismologists must formulate and test hazard models using the concepts of probability. In this presentation, we will address the scientific objections that have been raised over the years against probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Owing to the paucity of observations, we must rely on expert opinion to quantify the epistemic uncertainties of PSHA models (e.g., in the weighting of individual models from logic-tree ensembles of plausible models). The main theoretical issue is a frequentist critique: subjectivity is immeasurable; ergo, PSHA models cannot be objectively tested against data; ergo, they are fundamentally unscientific. We have argued (PNAS, 111, 11973-11978) that the Bayesian subjectivity required for casting epistemic uncertainties can be bridged with the frequentist objectivity needed for pure significance testing through "experimental concepts." An experimental concept specifies collections of data, observed and not yet observed, that are judged to be exchangeable (i.e., with a joint distribution independent of the data ordering) when conditioned on a set of explanatory variables. We illustrate, through concrete examples, experimental concepts useful in the testing of PSHA models for ontological errors in the presence of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty. In particular, we describe experimental concepts that lead to exchangeable binary sequences that are statistically independent but not identically distributed, showing how the Bayesian concept of exchangeability generalizes the frequentist concept of experimental repeatability. We also address the issue of testing PSHA models using spatially correlated data.

  6. Fission Surface Power System Initial Concept Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA has embarked on a project to develop Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology. The primary goals of the project are to 1) develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options, 2) establish a hardwarebased technical foundation for FSP design concepts and reduce overall development risk, 3) reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates, and 4) generate the key products to allow NASA decision-makers to consider FSP as a preferred option for flight development. The FSP project was initiated in 2006 as the Prometheus Program and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission were phased-out. As a first step, NASA Headquarters commissioned the Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study to evaluate the potential for an affordable FSP development approach. With a cost-effective FSP strategy identified, the FSP team evaluated design options and selected a Preliminary Reference Concept to guide technology development. Since then, the FSP Preliminary Reference Concept has served as a point-of-departure for several NASA mission architecture studies examining the use of nuclear power and has provided the foundation for a series of "Pathfinder" hardware tests. The long-term technology goal is a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) integrated system test using full-scale components and a non-nuclear reactor simulator. The FSP team consists of Glenn Research Center (GRC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the DOE National Laboratories at Los Alamos (LANL), Idaho (INL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Sandia (SNL). The project is organized into two main elements: Concept Definition and Risk Reduction. Under Concept Definition, the team performs trade studies, develops analytical tools, and formulates system concepts. Under Risk

  7. Difficulties in Learning the Concept of Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, C.; Guisasola, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes students' main difficulties in learning the concept of electric field. Briefly describes the main conceptual profiles within which electric interactions can be interpreted and concludes that most students have difficulty using the idea of electric field. Contains 28 references. (DDR)

  8. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  9. Self-Concept Is a Concept Worth Considering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nora

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of self-concept in the pediatric rehabilitation research literature. There also is confusion and inconsistency in the definitions of and the terminology used to describe self-concept. What is agreed is that self-concept is multidimensional, comprising a child's perception of their personal…

  10. Teacher Self-Concept and Student Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edeburn, Carl E.; Landry, Richard G.

    This research concerns the changes in children's levels of self-concept over an academic year and whether these changes are related to the self-concept of their teachers. Data were generated from 16 self-contained classrooms in the third, fourth, and fifth grades of a midwestern city. Students' self-concepts were measured by the primary form of…

  11. Threshold Concepts and Conceptions: Student Learning in Introductory Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, April L.; Gilmore, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how insights from the broader education literature on threshold concepts and conceptions can be applied to improve the teaching of undergraduate introductory management courses. The authors propose that these courses are underpinned by the threshold conception, or "underlying game," that management is a practice informed by…

  12. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  13. The concept behind sugammadex.

    PubMed

    Epemolu, O; Bom, A

    2014-05-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. It allows rapid reversal of any degree of neuromuscular blockade induced by steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex acts by encapsulation of the neuromuscular blocking agent. This prevents the drug from acting on prejunctional and postjunctional nicotinic receptors, allowing acetylcholine to activate these receptors, and resulting in reversal of the neuromuscular blockade. Objective monitoring of the degree of neuromuscular blockade is strongly recommended to determine the optimal dose of sugammadex. A good understanding of the concept behind sugammadex is essential in order to use this reversal agent in clinical practice.

  14. On the gestalt concept.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Jost, Jürgen

    2006-08-01

    We define a gestalt as the invariants of a collection of patterns that can mutually be transformed into each other through a class of transformations encoded by, or conversely, determining that gestalt. The class of these transformations needs to satisfy structural regularities like the ones of the mathematical structure of a group. This makes an analysis of a gestalt possible in terms of relations between its representing patterns. While the gestalt concept has its origins in cognitive psychology, it has also important implications for morphology.

  15. Paraterraforming - The worldhouse concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard L. S.

    1992-08-01

    This paper discusses 'paraterraforming' as a means of creating and maintaining habitable environments on other planets. The 'worldhouse' concept of paraterraforming can be formulated within the existing boundaries of technological knowledge and can provide a quasi-unconstrained global habitable environment at significantly lower levels of materials requirement and economic cost. Construction can proceed on a modular basis. A coarse-grained assessment of the possibilities of paraterraforming Mars is presented. It is suggested that the establishment of a fully habitable worldhouse environment on the planet Mercury would be a much less difficult undertaking than taerraforming Venus and could be economically important for the human exploitation of the solar system.

  16. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  17. Open airscrew VTOL concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Tarczynski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The following concepts, based on using open airscrew(s) for VTOL maneuvers, are re-examined in light of current technology: (1) tip-driven helicopters, (2) compound helicopters; and (3) high-speed VTOL aircraft, represented by tiltrotors, tiltwings, retractoplanes and stoppable rotors. Criteria, permitting one to compare performance of aircraft using diverse lifting and propelling methods are established. Determination of currently possible performance, indication of near-future potentials, and comparison of those items with the baseline levels (as represented by contemporary shaft-driven helicopters, first generation tiltrotors, and commercial turboprop fixed-wind aircraft) constitutes bulk of this report.

  18. TRS-80 at the Maine State Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismer, Donald

    This report describes the applications and work flow of a TRS-80 microcomputer at the Maine State Library, and provides sample computer-generated records and programs used with the TRS-80. The machine was chosen for its price, availability, and compatibility with machines already in Maine's schools. It is used for mailing list management (with…

  19. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  20. Minicourse 18: Main Field Test Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skailand, Dawn

    This report describes the main field test of Minicourse 18: Teaching Reading as Decoding. The purposes of the main field test were: (1) to evaluate the effects of the course on the participating teachers, (2) to evaluate four reteach treatments on teacher skill acquisition, (3) to compare scores for central city and suburban teachers, and (4) to…

  1. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181...

  2. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181...

  3. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181...

  4. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181 Piscataquis County (part) see 40 CFR 81.181 Washington County AQCR...

  5. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181...

  6. European Sail Tower SPS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seboldt, W.; Klimke, M.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N.

    2001-03-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called "System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE&U)" a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called "European Sail Tower SPS" and consists mainly of deployable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such a SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to Earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150m × 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal light-weight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW e. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology development. The paper presents the technical concept

  7. Unprotected left main distal bifurcation lesion.

    PubMed

    Karavolias, George; Karyofillis, Panagiotis; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Voudris, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Left main coronary artery disease is a high-risk condition with significant mortality. Currently, bypass surgery is considered the gold-standard treatment for unprotected left main disease. The introduction of drugeluting stents for the treatment of coronary artery disease has proved to reduce the rates of restenosis and, consequently, the need for repeat revascularisation; therefore, recently, percutaneous coronary intervention in the unprotected left main using drug-eluting stents has been considered another therapeutic option for patients at high risk for bypass surgery, or for patients who simply refuse bypass surgery. Based on the updated guidelines on myocardial revascularisation of the European Society of Cardiology, treating left main lesions by angioplasty is feasible and safe in selected patients. In this case report we demonstrate the successful implantation of drug-eluting stents for the treatment of an unprotected left main bifurcation lesion in an 85-year-old patient with high perioperative risk.

  8. Concept Convergence in Empirical Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ontañón, Santiago; Plaza, Enric

    How to achieve shared meaning is a significant issue when more than one intelligent agent is involved in the same domain. We define the task of concept convergence, by which intelligent agents can achieve a shared, agreed-upon meaning of a concept (restricted to empirical domains). For this purpose we present a framework that, integrating computational argumentation and inductive concept learning, allows a pair of agents to (1) learn a concept in an empirical domain, (2) argue about the concept's meaning, and (3) reach a shared agreed-upon concept definition. We apply this framework to marine sponges, a biological domain where the actual definitions of concepts such as orders, families and species are currently open to discussion. An experimental evaluation on marine sponges shows that concept convergence is achieved, within a reasonable number of interchanged arguments, and reaching short and accurate definitions (with respect to precision and recall).

  9. Let's Teach Life Insurance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Larry D.

    1973-01-01

    The author presents arguments for teaching life insurance concepts as part of the business education curriculum. He also presents specific facts, "knowledges," understandings, and concepts as part of the learning process. (AG)

  10. ATR performance modeling concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Baker, Hyatt B.; Nolan, Adam R.; McGinnis, Ryan E.; Paulson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models are needed for automatic target recognition (ATR) development and use. ATRs consume sensor data and produce decisions about the scene observed. ATR performance models (APMs) on the other hand consume operating conditions (OCs) and produce probabilities about what the ATR will produce. APMs are needed for many modeling roles of many kinds of ATRs (each with different sensing modality and exploitation functionality combinations); moreover, there are different approaches to constructing the APMs. Therefore, although many APMs have been developed, there is rarely one that fits a particular need. Clarified APM concepts may allow us to recognize new uses of existing APMs and identify new APM technologies and components that better support coverage of the needed APMs. The concepts begin with thinking of ATRs as mapping OCs of the real scene (including the sensor data) to reports. An APM is then a mapping from explicit quantized OCs (represented with less resolution than the real OCs) and latent OC distributions to report distributions. The roles of APMs can be distinguished by the explicit OCs they consume. APMs used in simulations consume the true state that the ATR is attempting to report. APMs used online with the exploitation consume the sensor signal and derivatives, such as match scores. APMs used in sensor management consume neither of those, but estimate performance from other OCs. This paper will summarize the major building blocks for APMs, including knowledge sources, OC models, look-up tables, analytical and learned mappings, and tools for signal synthesis and exploitation.

  11. A TACSAT SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C. D.; Baker, C. J.; Keyte, G. E.; Murphy, L. M.

    1993-02-01

    The payload concept covered is that of a low cost, high performance radar sensor capable of detecting and recognizing static objects within an imaged scene of the Earth's surface using the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technique. The overall system is integrated with a TACSAT platform in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and, although only passing reference is made to this feature, the radar could also have a capability for the detection of Ground Moving Targets (GMTI). A parametric review of such a sensor in the light of the target and background features to be observed is provided. A design concept is included showing the possible hardware realization of a candidate system, as well as budgets for the mass, size, power, and pointing requirements of the instrument. Additional design features considered are the influence that short duration missions may have on hardware redundancy and the effect of short, low duty-cycle observation periods on solar array and battery sizing. The way towards a low cost R and D demonstrator system allowing a practical investigation of the key techniques and technologies is addressed.

  12. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

  13. PRSEUS Structural Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velicki, Alex; Jegley, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    A lighter, more robust airframe is one of the key technological advancements necessary for the successful launch of any large next-generation transport aircraft. Such a premise dictates that considerable improvements beyond current state-of-the-art aluminum structures is needed, and that improvements of this magnitude will require an extensive use of composite materials that are not only lightweight, but also economical to produce. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are developing a novel structural concept called the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. It is an integrally stiffened panel concept that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. In addition to improved structural performance, an important facet of this unique arrangement of stitched carbon fibers is its innovative manufacturing method that has the potential to lower fabrication costs by eliminating fasteners and autoclave cures. The rationale and development status for this new approach forms the basis of the work described in this paper. The test specimens described herein were fabricated, or are currently being fabricated, by The Boeing Company, while the structural analyses and testing tasks are being performed by NASA and Boeing personnel.

  14. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  15. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  16. Powerful concepts in global health

    PubMed Central

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we emphasize the importance of questioning the global validity of significant concepts underpinning global health policy. This implies questioning the concept of global health as such and accepting that there is no global definition of the global. Further, we draw attention to ‘quality’ and ‘empowerment’ as examples of world-forming concepts. These concepts are exemplary for the gentle and quiet forms of power that underpin our reasoning within global health. PMID:25674576

  17. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  18. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  19. Nonstandard Student Conceptions about Infinitesimals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This is a case study of an undergraduate calculus student's nonstandard conceptions of the real number line. Interviews with the student reveal robust conceptions of the real number line that include infinitesimal and infinite quantities and distances. Similarities between these conceptions and those of G. W. Leibniz are discussed and illuminated…

  20. Can We Feel Physics Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yucheng

    2010-01-01

    There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…

  1. On the Nature of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninnes, L. E.

    It is difficult to give a precise meaning to the term "concept" because to specify any sense to the term is already to be using concepts. It is impossible to talk about concepts without at the same time having made epistemological and metaphysical commitments. If the epistemological and metaphysical commitments are inadequate, then the sense given…

  2. Concept Learning through Image Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Yi-Chuan, Jane Hsieh

    This study explored computer-based image processing as a study strategy for middle school students' science concept learning. Specifically, the research examined the effects of computer graphics generation on science concept learning and the impact of using computer graphics to show interrelationships among concepts during study time. The 87…

  3. The Concept of Philosophical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…

  4. The Lexicography of Scholarly Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Raymond G.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the function of concepts in scholarly discourse. Topics include the genesis of Greenwood Press's concept dictionaries; the origins of modern rhetoric; the prescriptive nature of meaning in scholarly discourse; conceptual change, including logical positivism, introspection, and historicism; and interdisciplinary application of concepts.…

  5. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  6. [Main issues of psychoneuroimmunology: Part II].

    PubMed

    Mausch, K

    2000-01-01

    In psychoneuroimmunology links between psyche and the body are examined in the context of neurotransmitter, hormone and immuno-transmitter interaction. This allows for construction of models which show empirically verifiable links between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. The earlier concepts of stress by Cannon and Selye focused on the physical and mental strain influence on the action of the nervous and endocrine systems. Ursin, Olff and Schedlowski introduced the concept of stress extended by an immune system reaction, which is an integral part of the alarm phase. A change in the amount of NK cells and their stress-influenced activity is an important defense mechanism of the body. It constitutes a component of the preparation for defense against potential pathogen penetration.

  7. Correlates of consistent condom use with main-new and main-old sexual partners.

    PubMed

    Wiemann, Constance M; Chacko, Mariam R; Kozinetz, Claudia A; DiClemente, Ralph; Smith, Peggy B; Velasquez, Mary M; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2009-09-01

    An exploratory study identified correlates of consistent condom use for young women reporting Main-new or Main-old partners in the past 3 months: frequency of vaginal sex (across partner types); perceived likelihood of getting a STI (Main-new); age and STI history (Main-old). To enhance programmatic efficacy in community clinics, these key correlates of condom use for main partner types should be incorporated in STI risk reduction counseling. PMID:19699427

  8. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  9. Fostering Multimedia Learning with Collaborative Concept Mapping: The Effect of Cognitive Aid on Performance and on Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuña, Santiago Roger; Aymes, Gabriela López; Medrano, Carlos Sergio López

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of collaborative concept maps in multimedia learning tasks. Specifically, the effect of a cognitive aid (providing students a list of main concepts to generate a concept map) on the performance of collaborative concept mapping and on the level of collaboration in this task is discussed. The study was carried out with 57…

  10. Current NASA lunar base concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Connolly, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology has completed a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define a point design for an evolving lunar base that supports substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. This study addressed the following: systems level design; element requirements and conceptual design; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and operations concepts. The central base is assumed to be located equatorially on the lunar nearside north of the crater Moltke in Mare Tranquilliatis. The study considers an aggressive case with three main phases. The initial Man-Tended Phase established basic enabling facilities that include a modular habitat that periodically houses a crew of four. During the Experimental Phase, the base becomes permanently manned with the construction of a larger habitat that provides augmented workshop and laboratory volumes and housing for crew. The Operational Phase expands base capabilities to a substantially mature level while reducing reliance on Earth. The analysis classifies base characteristics into several major functional areas: Human Systems; Assembly and Construction; Energy Management; Launch and Landing; Surface Transportation; In-Situ Resources Utilization; User Accommodations; and Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management. Results of various NASA-sponsored studies were synthesized to meet requirements. The system level architecture was determined, the physical layout was developed from a set of proximity criteria and related functions, and the evlotuionary path of the base was analyzed. Conclusions include a summary of technology needs, design drivers, high leverage items, and important issues.

  11. X-15 artist's concept painting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This artist's conception by Stan Stokes of the X-15 #2 (56-6671) rocket aircraft is part of the NASA Art Program. First flown in 1959 from the NASA High Speed Flight Station (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center), the rocket-powered X-15 was developed to provide data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls and the physiological aspects of high speed, high altitude flight. Three were built by North American Aviation for NASA and the U.S. Air Force. They made a total of 199 flights during a highly successful research program lasting almost ten years, following which its speed and altitude records for winged aircraft remained unbroken until the Space Shuttle first returned from earth orbit in 1981. The X-15's main rocket engine provided thrust for the first 80 to 120 seconds of a 10 to 11 minute flight; the aircraft then glided to a 200 mph landing. The X-15 reached altitudes of 354,200 feet (67.08 miles) and a speed of 4,520 mph (Mach 6.7).

  12. Ways of probing situated concepts.

    PubMed

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J

    2010-02-01

    Two ways of eliciting conceptual content have been to instruct participants to list the intrinsic properties that concept exemplars possess or to report any thoughts that come to mind about the concept. It has been argued that the open, unconstrained probe is better able to elicit the situational information that concepts contain. We evaluated this proposal in two experiments comparing the two probes with regard to the content that they yield for object concepts at the superordinate and basic levels. The results showed that the open probe was better able to elicit situated conceptual knowledge and point out differences in the representations of superordinate and basic concepts.

  13. Basic Physical Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gütlich, Philipp; Bill, Eckhard; Trautwein, Alfred X.

    Mössbauer spectroscopy is based on recoilless emission and resonant absorption of γ-radiation by atomic nuclei. The aim of this chapter is to familiarize the reader with the concepts of nuclear γ-resonance and the Mössbauer effect, before we describe the experiments and relevant electric and magnetic hyperfine interactions in Chaps. 3 and 4. We prefer doing this by collecting formulae without deriving them; comprehensive and instructive descriptions have already been given at length in a number of introductory books ([7-39] in Chap. 1). Readers who are primarily interested in understanding their Mössbauer spectra without too much physical ballast may skip this chapter at first reading and proceed directly to Chap. 4. However, for the understanding of some aspects of line broadening and the preparation of optimized samples discussed in Chap. 3, the principles described here might be necessary.

  14. The Saturn management concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilstein, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Management of the Saturn launch vehicles was an evolutionary process, requiring constant interaction between NASA Headquarters, the Marshall Space Flight Center (particularly the Saturn 5 Program Office), and the various prime contractors. Successful Saturn management was a blend of the decades of experience of the von Braun team, management concepts from the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Government, and private industry. The Saturn 5 Program Office shared a unique relationship with the Apollo Program Office at NASA Headquarters. Much of the success of the Saturn 5 Program Office was based on its painstaking attention to detail, emphasis on individual responsibilities (backed up by comprehensive program element plans and management matrices), and a high degree of visibility as embodied in the Program Control Center.

  15. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  16. Introducing the CTA concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, B. S.; Actis, M.; Aghajani, T.; Agnetta, G.; Aguilar, J.; Aharonian, F.; Ajello, M.; Akhperjanian, A.; Alcubierre, M.; Aleksić, J.; Alfaro, R.; Aliu, E.; Allafort, A. J.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Amato, E.; Anderson, J.; Angüner, E. O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Armstrong, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Arrabito, L.; Asano, K.; Ashton, T.; Asorey, H. G.; Awane, Y.; Baba, H.; Babic, A.; Baby, N.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balbo, M.; Balis, D.; Balkowski, C.; Bamba, A.; Bandiera, R.; Barber, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basili, A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Baushev, A.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K. C.; Becker Tjus, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Belluso, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernard, F.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bhat, N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Bitossi, M.; Blake, S.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Blasi, P.; Bobkov, A.; Boccone, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bogacz, L.; Bogart, J.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix Gargallo, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borgland, A.; Borkowski, J.; Bose, R.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bouchet, L.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M.; Bringmann, T.; Brook, P.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buanes, T.; Buckley, J.; Buehler, R.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Camprecios, J.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Casanova, S.; Casiraghi, M.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chabanne, E.; Chadwick, P.; Champion, C.; Chen, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiappetti, L.; Chikawa, M.; Chitnis, V. R.; Chollet, F.; Chudoba, J.; Cieślar, M.; Cillis, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colin, P.; Colome, J.; Colonges, S.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Conforti, V.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corona, P.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Crimi, G.; Criswell, S. J.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Dafonseca, M.; Dale, O.; Daniel, M.; Darling, J.; Davids, I.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caprio, V.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de la Calle, I.; De La Vega, G. A.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Luca, A.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Naurois, M.; de Oliveira, Y.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Decock, G.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Della Volpe, D.; Demange, P.; Depaola, G.; Dettlaff, A.; Di Paola, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickherber, R.; Dickinson, H.; Diez-Blanco, V.; Digel, S.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Dohmke, M.; Domainko, W.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donat, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Drake, G.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Dumas, D.; Dumm, J.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Ebr, J.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Einecke, S.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Evans, P.; Falcone, A.; Fantinel, D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Fasola, G.; Favill, B.; Fede, E.; Federici, S.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Ferrando, P.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Fiorini, M.; Firpo Curcoll, R.; Flores, H.; Florin, D.; Focke, W.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Fornasa, M.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Franckowiak, A.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G.; Frei, R.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gabriele, R.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gallant, Y.; Gámez-García, J.; García, B.; Garcia López, R.; Gardiol, D.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Gebremedhin, L.; Geffroy, N.; Gerard, L.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Giannakaki, E.; Gianotti, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Gika, V.; Giommi, P.; Girard, N.; Giro, E.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Godinovic, N.; Golev, V.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gómez-Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, M. M.; González, A.; González, F.; González Muñoz, A.; Gothe, K. S.; Gougerot, M.; Graciani, R.; Grandi, P.; Grañena, F.; Granot, J.; Grasseau, G.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grégoire, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzinska, M.; Gruev, V.; Grünewald, S.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hakansson, N.; Hallgren, A.; Hamer Heras, N.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Harris, J.; Hassan, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Haubold, T.; Haupt, A.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henault, F.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hermel, R.; Herrero, A.; Hidaka, N.; Hinton, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holder, J.; Horns, D.; Horville, D.; Houles, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Huovelin, J.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Impiombato, D.; Incorvaia, S.; Inoue, S.; Inoue, Y.; Ioka, K.; Ismailova, E.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jeanney, C.; Jimenez, J. J.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, T.; Journet, L.; Juffroy, C.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kagaya, M.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Karastergiou, A.; Kärcher, K.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Kasperek, J.; Kastana, D.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kawanaka, N.; Kellner-Leidel, B.; Kelly, H.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D. B.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Kitamoto, K.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapic, C.; Knapp, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kocot, J.; Kodani, K.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, N.; Kominis, I.; Konno, Y.; Köppel, H.; Korohoda, P.; Kosack, K.; Koss, G.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Koul, R.; Kowal, G.; Koyama, S.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawzcynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Krepps, A.; Kretzschmann, A.; Krobot, R.; Krueger, P.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; Kuznetsov, A.; La Barbera, A.; La Palombara, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; Lacombe, K.; Lamanna, G.; Lande, J.; Languignon, D.; Lapington, J.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, W. H.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lelas, D.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leopold, D. J.; Lerch, T.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lipniacka, A.; Lockart, H.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lopez, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorca, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubinski, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Lüdecke, H.; Ludwin, J.; Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Lustermann, W.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Madejski, G. M.; Madhavan, A.; Mahabir, M.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Malaguti, G.; Maltezos, S.; Manalaysay, A.; Mancilla, A.; Mandat, D.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Mannheim, K.; Manthos, I.; Maragos, N.; Marcowith, A.; Mariotti, M.; Marisaldi, M.; Markoff, S.; Marszałek, A.; Martens, C.; Martí, J.; Martin, J.-M.; Martin, P.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, F.; Martínez, M.; Masserot, A.; Mastichiadis, A.; Mathieu, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattana, F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Maurin, G.; Maxfield, S.; Maya, J.; Mazin, D.; Mc Comb, L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; McKay, R.; Medina, C.; Melioli, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mihailidis, A.; Mineo, T.; Minuti, M.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Mognet, I.; Molinari, E.; Molinaro, M.; Montaruli, T.; Monteiro, I.; Moore, P.; Moralejo Olaizola, A.; Mordalska, M.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Mottez, F.; Moudden, Y.; Moulin, E.; Mrusek, I.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakajima, D.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Neise, D.; Nellen, L.; Neustroev, V.; Neyroud, N.; Nicastro, L.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nieto, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S.; Northrop, R.; Nosek, D.; Nowak, N.; Nozato, A.; O'Brien, P.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohm, S.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Okumura, A.; Olive, J.-F.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L. A.; Otte, N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Ozieblo, A.; Padilla, L.; Paiano, S.; Paillot, D.; Paizis, A.; Palanque, S.; Palatka, M.; Pallota, J.; Panagiotidis, K.; Panazol, J.-L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papayannis, A.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parks, G.; Parraud, J.-M.; Parsons, D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pech, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelassa, V.; Pelat, D.; Perez, M. d. C.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pichel, A.; Pita, S.; Pizzolato, F.; Platos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmanski, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Poutanen, J.; Prandini, E.; Prast, J.; Preece, R.; Profeti, F.; Prokoph, H.; Prouza, M.; Proyetti, M.; Puerto-Gimenez, I.; Pühlhofer, G.; Puljak, I.; Punch, M.; Pyzioł, R.; Quel, E. J.; Quinn, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Racero, E.; Rajda, P. J.; Ramon, P.; Rando, R.; Rannot, R. C.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reardon, P.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reitberger, K.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reville, B.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Richer, M. G.; Rico, J.; Ridky, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P. R.; Riviére, A.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Roeser, U.; Rohlfs, R.; Rojas, G.; Romano, P.; Romaszkan, W.; Romero, G. E.; Rosen, S.; Rosier Lees, S.; Ross, D.; Rouaix, G.; Rousselle, J.; Rousselle, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C.; Rupiński, M.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saemann, E. O.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakonaka, R.; Salini, A.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Sandoval, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartore, N.; Sasaki, H.; Satalecka, K.; Sawada, M.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schafer, J.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schure, K.; Schwab, T.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, J.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Schwemmer, S.; Segreto, A.; Seiradakis, J.-H.; Sembroski, G. H.; Seweryn, K.; Sharma, M.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shi, J.; Shibata, T.; Shibuya, A.; Shum, E.; Sidoli, L.; Sidz, M.; Sieiro, J.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Singh, B. B.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smareglia, R.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, J.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sol, H.; Sottile, G.; Sowiński, M.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Sterzel, M.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Strazzeri, E.; Stringhetti, L.; Suarez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Suric, T.; Sutcliffe, P.; Sykes, J.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, G.; Tammi, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tasan, J.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tezier, D.; Thuermann, D.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tiengo, A.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torii, K.; Tornikoski, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres, M.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Tovmassian, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Troyano, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Ueno, H.; Umehara, K.; Upadhya, S. S.; Usher, T.; Uslenghi, M.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van Driel, W.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbrouke, J.; Vanderwalt, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V.; Veberic, D.; Vegas, I.; Vercellone, S.; Vergani, S.; Veyssiére, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vincent, S.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; von Gunten, H.-P.; Vorobiov, S.; Vuerli, C.; Waegebaert, V.; Wagner, R.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, R.; Walther, T.; Warda, K.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Werner, M.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wiesand, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, D. A.; Willingale, R.; Winiarski, K.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wood, M.; Wörnlein, A.; Xiong, Q.; Yadav, K. K.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yebras, J. M.; Yelos, D.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zhao, A.; Zhou, X.; Ziętara, K.; Ziolkowski, J.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zurbach, C.; Żychowski, P.; CTA Consortium

    2013-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  17. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  18. Fluvial sediment concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    This report is the first of a series concerned with the measurement of and recording of information about fluvial sediment and with related environmental data needed to maintain and improve basic sediment knowledge. Concepts presented in this report involve (1) the physical characteristics of sediment which include aspects relative 'to weathering, soils, resistance to erosion, and particle size, (2) sediment erosion, transport, and deposition characteristics, which include aspects relative to fine sediment and overland flow, coarse sediment and streamflow, variations in stream sediment concentration, deposition, and denudation, (3) geomorphic considerations, which include aspects relative to the drainage basin, mass wasting, and channel properties, (4) economic aspects, and (5) data needs and program objectives to be attained through the use of several kinds of sediment records.

  19. Avicenna's concept of pain

    PubMed Central

    Tashani, Osama A.; Johnson, Mark I.

    2010-01-01

    Ibn Sina (Latin name – Avicenna, 980–1037) is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity) were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change) of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire. PMID:21483573

  20. Avicenna's concept of pain.

    PubMed

    Tashani, Osama A; Johnson, Mark I

    2010-09-08

    Ibn Sina (Latin name - Avicenna, 980-1037) is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity) were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change) of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire.

  1. Putting concepts into context.

    PubMed

    Yee, Eiling; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2016-08-01

    At first glance, conceptual representations (e.g., our internal notion of the object "lemon") seem static; we have the impression that there is something that the concept lemon "means" (a sour, yellow, football-shaped citrus fruit) and that this meaning does not vary. Research in semantic memory has traditionally taken this "static" perspective. Consequently, only effects demonstrated across a variety of contexts have typically been considered informative regarding the architecture of the semantic system. In this review, we take the opposite approach: We review instances of context-dependent conceptual activation at many different timescales-from long-term experience, to recent experience, to the current task goals, to the unfolding process of conceptual activation itself-and suggest that the pervasive effects of context across all of these timescales indicate that rather than being static, conceptual representations are constantly changing and are inextricably linked to their contexts. PMID:27282993

  2. Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.

  3. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  4. Substructure Main Bridge, River Piers A & V ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure - Main Bridge, River Piers A & V - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  5. NASA Now: Geology: Curiosity -- Main Science Goals

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Ashwin Vasavada, deputy project scientist for the Mars Science Laboratory, discusses the main science goals for Curiosity, including the investigation of the presence of water and evidence of l...

  6. Concept Map Structure, Gender and Teaching Methods: An Investigation of Students' Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstner, Sabine; Bogner, Franz X.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study deals with the application of concept mapping to the teaching and learning of a science topic with secondary school students in Germany. Purpose: The main research questions were: (1) Do different teaching approaches affect concept map structure or students' learning success? (2) Is the structure of concept maps influenced…

  7. A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

  8. Conquest or Reconquest? Students' Conceptions of Nation Embedded in a Historical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Cesar; Carretero, Mario; Rodriguez-Moneo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on university students' understanding of the concept of nation. First an analysis of this concept from a historiographical point of view is presented. This allows for distinguishing between different conceptions of the nation related to 3 main approaches: the romantic, the modernist, and the ethnosymbolic approaches. Based on…

  9. The Moon Village Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  10. Advocacy: exploring the concept.

    PubMed

    Mardell, A

    1996-10-01

    The concept of the nurse as the patient's advocate is one that has become popular in the last fifteen years or so in both North America and the United Kingdom, having its basis in nursing theory. The UKCC first embraced the concept, stating in the Code of Professional Conduct that nurses must; 'act always in such a manner so as to promote and safeguard the interests and well being of patients and clients'. This is a laudable principle and one that nurses cannot dispute as there are many members of our society who are weak and vulnerable and may be unable to speak up for themselves. But are nurses always in a position to be an advocate for their patients? As the nature of nursing is so diverse then the nature of advocacy will be different in the multifarious settings in which nurses practise. Can theatre nurses ever be in a position to act as an advocate for a patient who is often anaesthetised? What precisely is advocacy and is the Concise Oxford Dictionary definition of 'one who pleads for another' appropriate in the nursing context? Then there is the position of nurses in the healthcare organisation in which they practise. In advocating for their patients, nurses may find they are pleading a case for a patient, or a group of patients, that could bring the nurse into conflict with their medical colleagues or with the management of the organisation by whom they are employed. Additionally, they may not posses the skills and knowledge to advocate effectively under such circumstances. Nursing is littered with the casualties of such conflicts over the years, the most publicised of whom, in the UK, was probably Graham Pink who lost his job as a charge nurse after drawing public attention to what he considered to be an unacceptable standard of care in the hospital in which he worked. PMID:8974516

  11. Advocacy: exploring the concept.

    PubMed

    Mardell, A

    1996-10-01

    The concept of the nurse as the patient's advocate is one that has become popular in the last fifteen years or so in both North America and the United Kingdom, having its basis in nursing theory. The UKCC first embraced the concept, stating in the Code of Professional Conduct that nurses must; 'act always in such a manner so as to promote and safeguard the interests and well being of patients and clients'. This is a laudable principle and one that nurses cannot dispute as there are many members of our society who are weak and vulnerable and may be unable to speak up for themselves. But are nurses always in a position to be an advocate for their patients? As the nature of nursing is so diverse then the nature of advocacy will be different in the multifarious settings in which nurses practise. Can theatre nurses ever be in a position to act as an advocate for a patient who is often anaesthetised? What precisely is advocacy and is the Concise Oxford Dictionary definition of 'one who pleads for another' appropriate in the nursing context? Then there is the position of nurses in the healthcare organisation in which they practise. In advocating for their patients, nurses may find they are pleading a case for a patient, or a group of patients, that could bring the nurse into conflict with their medical colleagues or with the management of the organisation by whom they are employed. Additionally, they may not posses the skills and knowledge to advocate effectively under such circumstances. Nursing is littered with the casualties of such conflicts over the years, the most publicised of whom, in the UK, was probably Graham Pink who lost his job as a charge nurse after drawing public attention to what he considered to be an unacceptable standard of care in the hospital in which he worked.

  12. Space shuttle main engine: Hydraulic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, G.; Lamb, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    The hydraulic actuation system of the space shuttle main engine is discussed. The system consists of five electrohydraulic actuators and a single engine filter used to control the five different propellant valves, which in turn control thrust and mixture ratio of the space shuttle main engine. The hydraulic actuation system provides this control with a precision of 98.7 percent or an error in position no greater than 1.3 percent of full scale rotational travel for critical positions.

  13. SSME main injector 4000 Hertz phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    Several Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) have experienced very high acceleration responses measured in the main injector of the powerhead during static firings. Data from previous hot fire SSME tests relating to the 4000 hertz phenomenon were reviewed to provide a better understanding of the nature of this structural response. The objective was to technically understand the way this phenomenon works, recommend a fix and test the fix.

  14. Geomagnetic main field modeling using magnetohydrodynamic constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of physical constraints are investigated which may be approximately satisfied by the Earth's liquid core on models of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation. A previous report describes the methodology used to incorporate nonlinear equations of constraint into the main field model. The application of that methodology to the GSFC 12/83 field model to test the frozen-flux hypothesis and the usefulness of incorporating magnetohydrodynamic constraints for obtaining improved geomagnetic field models is described.

  15. Volumic visual perception: principally novel concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-01-01

    The general concept of volumic view (VV) as a universal property of space is introduced. VV exists in every point of the universe where electromagnetic (EM) waves can reach and a point or a quasi-point receiver (detector) of EM waves can be placed. Classification of receivers is given for the first time. They are classified into three main categories: biological, man-made non-biological, and mathematically specified hypothetical receivers. The principally novel concept of volumic perception is introduced. It differs chiefly from the traditional concept which traces back to Euclid and pre-Euclidean times and much later to Leonardo da Vinci and Giovanni Battista della Porta's discoveries and practical stereoscopy as introduced by C. Wheatstone. The basic idea of novel concept is that humans and animals acquire volumic visual data flows in series rather than in parallel. In this case the brain is free from extremely sophisticated real time parallel processing of two volumic visual data flows in order to combine them. Such procedure seems hardly probable even for humans who are unable to combine two primitive static stereoscopic images in one quicker than in a few seconds. Some people are unable to perform this procedure at all.

  16. Investigating Student Understanding of Physics Concepts and the Underlying Calculus Concepts in Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, John; Christensen, Warren; Mountcastle, Donald

    2010-03-01

    In work on student understanding of concepts in advanced thermal physics, we are exploring student understanding of the mathematics required for productive reasoning about the physics. By analysis of student use of mathematics in responses to conceptual physics questions, as well as analogous math questions stripped of physical meaning, we find evidence that students often enter upper-level physics courses lacking the assumed prerequisite mathematics knowledge and/or the ability to apply it productively in a physics context. Our focus is in two main areas: interpretation of P-V diagrams, requiring an understanding of integration, and material properties and the Maxwell relations, involving partial differentiation. We have also assessed these mathematical concepts among students in multivariable calculus. Calculus results support the findings among physics students: some observed difficulties are not just with transfer of math knowledge to physics contexts, but seem to have origins in the understanding of the math concepts themselves.

  17. An Investigation of Age and Gender Differences in Physical Self-Concept among Turkish Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asci, F. Hulya

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates age and gender differences in physical self-concept of Turkish university students. The Physical Self-Perception Profile was administered to participants for assessing physical self-concept. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect for gender, but no significant main effect for year in school. Univariate…

  18. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  19. Marine Occupations Conference (Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute, South Portland, Maine, April 5, 1974). Maine Sea Grant Bulletin 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of speeches, presented as the 1974 Marine Occupations Conference in South Portland, Maine, provides an overview of information regarding availability and kinds of careers in, as well as the educational requirements for, marine occupations. Also reviewed are the problems of developing marine resources, such as those involving…

  20. Alien Sunset (Artist Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Our solitary sunsets here on Earth might not be all that common in the grand scheme of things. New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed that mature planetary systems -- dusty disks of asteroids, comets and possibly planets -- are more frequent around close-knit twin, or binary, stars than single stars like our sun. That means sunsets like the one portrayed in this artist's photo concept, and more famously in the movie 'Star Wars,' might be quite commonplace in the universe.

    Binary and multiple-star systems are about twice as abundant as single-star systems in our galaxy, and, in theory, other galaxies. In a typical binary system, two stars of roughly similar masses twirl around each other like pair-figure skaters. In some systems, the two stars are very far apart and barely interact with each other. In other cases, the stellar twins are intricately linked, whipping around each other quickly due to the force of gravity.

    Astronomers have discovered dozens of planets that orbit around a single member of a very wide stellar duo. Sunsets from these worlds would look like our own, and the second sun would just look like a bright star in the night sky.

    But do planets exist in the tighter systems, where two suns would dip below a planet's horizon one by one? Unveiling planets in these systems is tricky, so astronomers used Spitzer to look for disks of swirling planetary debris instead. These disks are made of asteroids, comets and possibly planets. The rocky material in them bangs together and kicks up dust that Spitzer's infrared eyes can see. Our own solar system is swaddled in a similar type of disk.

    Surprisingly, Spitzer found more debris disks around the tightest binaries it studied (about 20 stars) than in a comparable sample of single stars. About 60 percent of the tight binaries had disks, while the single stars only had about 20 percent. These snug binary systems are as close or closer than just three times the

  1. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A

    1990-06-01

    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  2. Space mail recovery system design concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelezky, Michael; Doherr, Karl-Friedrich; Schoettle, Ulrich

    Future space utilization exhibit a significant demand for return of materials processed in space and quick access to the samples by users, which can best be accomplished by recoverable capsules. A conceptual study has been performed in pursuit of assessing the requirements of a landbased recovery of a small semi-ballistic reentry vehicle. Both a conventional recovery system and a steerable gliding chute concept have been evaluated and designed subject to given mission constraints. This paper discusses the design of the two recovery subsytems and describes the main technical features. Though of increased complexity, the second concept is the preferred choice because of its superior performance capabilities and its potential for future technology development.

  3. Analyzing phonetic confusions using formal concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Moreno, C; García-Moral, A I; Valverde-Albacete, F J

    2010-09-01

    Confusion matrices have been used as a tool for the analysis of speech perception or human speech recognition (HSR) for decades. However, they are rarely employed in automatic speech recognition (ASR) mainly due to the lack of a systematic procedure for their exploration. The generalization of formal concept analysis employed in this paper provides a conceptual interpretation of confusion matrices that enables the analysis of the structure of confusions for both human and machine performances. Generalized formal concept analysis transforms confusion matrices into ordered lattices of confusion events, supporting classic results in HSR that identify a hierarchy of virtual articulatory-acoustic channels. Translating this technique into ASR, a detailed map of the relationships among the speech units employed in the system can be traced to make different sources of confusions apparent: the influence of the lexicon, segmentation errors, dialectal variations or limitations of the feature extraction procedures, among others.

  4. Alternate Concepts Study Extension. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of alternate space shuttle concepts is presented. The two main program alternatives are: (1) phased booster development with an interim solid rocket engine cluster preceding the reusable booster and (2) phased orbiter development with modified avionics, vehicle subsystems, thermal protection system, and redesigned rocket engines. Diagrams of the various concepts are provided. The predicted spacecraft performance capabilities are reported. Project management proposals are submitted.

  5. 2 MW upgrade of the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2003-06-04

    In January 2002, the Fermilab Director initiated a design study for a high average power, modest energy proton facility. An intensity upgrade to Fermilab's 120-GeV Main Injector (MI) represents an attractive concept for such a facility, which would leverage existing beam lines and experimental areas and would greatly enhance physics opportunities at Fermilab and in the U.S. With a Proton Driver replacing the present Booster, the beam intensity of the MI is expected to be increased by a factor of five. Accompanied by a shorter cycle, the beam power would reach 2 MW. This would make the MI a more powerful machine than the SNS or the J-PARC. Moreover, the high beam energy (120 GeV) and tunable energy range (8-120 GeV) would make it a unique high power proton facility. The upgrade study has been completed and published. This paper gives a summary report.

  6. Distribution main rehabilitated with HDPE lining process

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, M. )

    1994-08-01

    Innovative use of a new HDPE lining technology recently saved Brooklyn Union Gas Co. 30% over conventional replacement costs. The company chose lining technology from United Pipeline Systems called Tite Liner to rehabilitate 2,500 ft of 20-in., 15 psig, bare steel main in Brooklyn's Bay Ridge section, an area spanning six city blocks and crossing three major avenues. The main is mechanically joined with no offsets or service connections. Due to surface and subsurface working space restrictions and the impact on costs, the company elected to employ the liner system in which a specially designed HDPE liner pipe is reduced to a smaller diameter through a rolldown box for insertion into a steel or cast iron main. A tight fit is attained as the liner is allowed to expand against the pipe wall after pull through.

  7. Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

    2006-03-15

    The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

  8. Seasonality of births for West Malaysia's two main racial groups.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J T; Ann, T B; Palan, V T

    1975-09-01

    Patterns of Malay and Chinese births occurring from January 1964 through December 1969 as registered by Malaysia's Department of Statistics were analyzed by comparing them with charts of major religious and secular holidays and with the marriage distributions (by month) of the 2 ethnic groups. For Malays there was a reduction in conc eptions associated with the Moslem month of Ramadan, a period of fasting. For the Chinese, number of conceptions peaked around the Chinese New Year, the main Chinese festival. For both groups the months of high marriage rates corresponded to months of high conception rates. Seasonal fluctuations in birthrates were higher for Malays than for the Chinese, which appeared to be due to the more pervasive effect of Islamic beliefs and practices on the Malay way of life. As the Malays constitute a more rural population, climate-related factors were considered as a possible explanation of their more extreme seasonal fluctuations, but the influence of climate could not be demonstrated for either the Malays or the Chinese.

  9. SLI Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Space Launch Initiative (SLI), NASA's priority developmental program focused on empowering America's leadership in space. SLI includes commercial, higher education, and defense partnerships and contracts to offer widespread participation in both the risk and success of developing our nation's next-generation reusable launch vehicle. This photo depicts an artist's concept of a future second-generation launch vehicle. For the SLI, architecture definition includes all components of the next-generation reusable launch system: Earth-to-orbit vehicles (the Space Shuttle is the first generation earth-to-orbit vehicle), crew transfer vehicles, transfer stages, ground processing systems, flight operations systems, and development of business case strategies. Three contractor teams have each been funded to develop potential second- generation reusable launch system architectures: The Boeing Company of Seal Beach, California; Lockheed Martin Corporation of Denver, Colorado along with a team including Northrop Grumman of El Segundo, California; and Orbital Sciences Corporation of Dulles, Virginia.

  10. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a free radical propulsion system, utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust, is analyzed. The system, operating at a theoretical impulse with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, is hypothesized to bridge the gap between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. A comparative methodology is outlined by which characteristics of chemical and electric propulsion for orbit raising mission can be investigated. It is noted that free radicals proposed in rockets previously met with difficulty and complexity in terms of storage requirements; the present study proposes to eliminate the storage requirements by using electric energy to achieve a continuous-flow product of free radicals which are recombined to produce a high velocity propellant. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas is transferred to the propellant via three-body-recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Microwave plasma discharge was found in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressure in preliminary experiments, and microwave heating compared to electrothermal heating showed much higher temperatures in gasdynamic equations.

  11. Basic concepts of epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Through epigenetic modifications, specific long-term phenotypic consequences can arise from environmental influence on slowly evolving genomic DNA. Heritable epigenetic information regulates nucleosomal arrangement around DNA and determines patterns of gene silencing or active transcription. One of the greatest challenges in the study of epigenetics as it relates to disease is the enormous diversity of proteins, histone modifications and DNA methylation patterns associated with each unique maladaptive phenotype. This is further complicated by a limitless combination of environmental cues that could alter the epigenome of specific cell types, tissues, organs and systems. In addition, complexities arise from the interpretation of studies describing analogous but not identical processes in flies, plants, worms, yeast, ciliated protozoans, tumor cells and mammals. This review integrates fundamental basic concepts of epigenetics with specific focus on how the epigenetic machinery interacts and operates in continuity to silence or activate gene expression. Topics covered include the connection between DNA methylation, methyl-CpG-binding proteins, transcriptional repression complexes, histone residues, histone modifications that mediate gene repression or relaxation, histone core variant stability, H1 histone linker flexibility, FACT complex, nucleosomal remodeling complexes, HP1 and nuclear lamins. PMID:22395460

  12. The PRISM concept

    SciTech Connect

    Circeo, L.J. Jr.; Jacobs, G.K.; Camacho, S.L.; Tixier, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    Contaminated soils and buried wastes represent one of the most widespread and costly remediation problems in the United States and other developed countries around the world. This concept of in situ remediation using a plasma arc torch should be directly applicable to many of the contaminated soil remediation needs described the DOE, EPA, and DoD. Plasma Remediation of In Situ Materials (PRISM) could provide a highly efficient, cost-effective, reliable and controllable technique to selectively melt and vitrify any contaminated/buried volume of soils, materials, or objects at any depth underground. If necessary, it could pinpoint underground objects such as buried drums for selective remediation. Plasma arc technology was developed over 30 years ago by NASA for the US space program to simulate reentry temperatures on heat shields. Only recently has this technology begun to emerge as a commercial tool in several industries such as steelmaking, metallurgy, precious metal recovery, and waste disposal. Conceptually, a plasma torch could be used on the ground surface or lowered to the bottom of a small diameter, cased borehole. By raising and operating the torch at progressively higher levels a column of contaminated material would be vitrified and converted into an environmentally safe, glassy residue, highly resistant to leaching. With proper borehole spacing the vitrified columns could be coalesced together to form a contiguous, homogeneous mass of vitrified material which is environmentally safe and highly resistant to leaching.

  13. Shared mission operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradlin, Gary L.; Rudd, Richard P.; Linick, Susan H.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, new JPL flight projects have developed a Mission Operations System (MOS) as unique as their spacecraft, and have utilized a mission-dedicated staff to monitor and control the spacecraft through the MOS. NASA budgetary pressures to reduce mission operations costs have led to the development and reliance on multimission ground system capabilities. The use of these multimission capabilities has not eliminated an ongoing requirement for a nucleus of personnel familiar with a given spacecraft and its mission to perform mission-dedicated operations. The high cost of skilled personnel required to support projects with diverse mission objectives has the potential for significant reduction through shared mission operations among mission-compatible projects. Shared mission operations are feasible if: (1) the missions do not conflict with one another in terms of peak activity periods, (2) a unique MOS is not required, and (3) there is sufficient similarity in the mission profiles so that greatly different skills would not be required to support each mission. This paper will further develop this shared mission operations concept. We will illustrate how a Discovery-class mission would enter a 'partner' relationship with the Voyager Project, and can minimize MOS development and operations costs by early and careful consideration of mission operations requirements.

  14. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ram; Mishra, Vibhash C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms “prostatitis”, “chronic prostatitis” and “chronic pelvic pain syndrome”. The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option “Related Articles”. Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK). National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration. PMID:19468353

  15. Concepts of fever.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, P A

    1998-09-28

    If asked to define fever, most physicians would offer a thermal definition, such as "fever is a temperature greater than...." In offering their definition, many would ignore the importance of the anatomic site at which temperature measurements are taken, as well as the diurnal oscillations that characterize body temperature. If queried about the history of clinical thermometry, few physicians could identify the source or explain the pertinacity of the belief that 98.6 degrees F (37.0 degrees C) has special meaning vis-à-vis normal body temperature. Fewer still could cite the origin of the thermometer or trace the evolution of modern concepts of clinical thermometry. Although many would have some knowledge of the fundamentals of thermoregulation and the role played by exogenous and endogenous pyrogens in the induction of fever, few would have more than a superficial knowledge of the broad biological activities of pyrogenic cytokines or know of the existence of an equally complex and important system of endogenous cryogens. A distinct minority would appreciate the obvious paradoxes inherent in an enlarging body of data concerned with the question of fever's adaptive value. The present review considers many of these issues in the light of current data. PMID:9759682

  16. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  17. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned.

  18. Bunch coalescing in the Fermilab Main Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.; Martin, P.; Meisner, K.; Miller, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    A new rf system has been installed in the Fermilab Main Ring to coalesce up to 13 individual bunches of protons or antiprotons into a single high-intensity bunch. The coalescing process consists of adiabatically reducing the h = 1113 Main Ring rf voltage from 1 MV to less than 1 kV, capturing the debunched beam in a linearized h = 53 and h = 106 bucket, rotating for a quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period, and then recapturing the beam in a single h = 1113 bucket. The new system will be described and the results of recent coalescing experiments will be compared with computer-generated particle tracking simulations.

  19. Circumportal pancreas with retroportal main pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yasushi; Ross, Andrew S; Traverso, L William

    2009-08-01

    There have been 6 cases of circumportal pancreas reported, and 2 of them had the main pancreatic duct in a retroportal dorsal portion. This extremely uncommon anomaly is asymptomatic and therefore incidentally discovered. For the surgeon, it is important to discover this during pancreatic resection so the pancreatic duct can be closed and fistula is avoided. We describe the third case where a circumportal pancreas had its main pancreatic duct passing under the portal vein. The duct was identified and ligated. A fistula did not occur.

  20. Least Bittern nesting record in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Paul U.; Longcore, Jerry R.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2001, we located an active Ixobrychus exilis (Least Bittern) nest in Bass Harbor marsh on Mount Desert Island, Hancock County, ME. Only 2 other descriptions of Least Bittern nests exist for Maine, although based on other breeding evidence, the species is known to breed elsewhere in the state. We found the nest in a 0.7-ha Typha sp. (cattail)-dominated area within a larger (3.5 ha) freshwater wetland located ≈120 m from an 88-ha estuary. During the breeding season, most Least Bitterns in Maine and elsewhere are found in wetlands of greater size, usually >10 ha.

  1. 33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section 334.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....30 Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. (a) The area. The test area or... during the period when sonobuoys are being dropped, an escort vessel or naval aircraft will be in...

  2. 78 FR 42556 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental... facilities (76 FR 72560; November 23, 2011) (EP Final Rule). The EP Final Rule was effective on December 23, 2011, with various implementation dates for each of the rule changes. Maine Yankee Atomic Power...

  3. Antenna Beam Coverage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The strawman Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) design calls for the use of a CONUS beam for transmission between the supplier and the satellite and for fixed beams for transmission between the basic personal terminal and the satellite. The satellite uses a 3 m main reflector for transmission at 20 GHz and a 2 m main reflector for reception at 30 GHz. There are several types of spot beams under consideration for the PASS system besides fixed beams. The beam pattern of a CONUS coverage switched beam is shown along with that of a scanning beam. A switched beam refers to one in which the signal from the satellite is connected alternatively to various feed horns. Scanning beams are taken to mean beams whose footprints are moved between contiguous regions in the beam's coverage area. The advantages and disadvantages of switched and/or scanning beams relative to fixed beams. The consequences of using switched/scanning in lieu of fixed beams in the PASS design and attempts are made to evaluate the listed advantages and disadvantages. Two uses of switched/scanning beams are examined. To illustrate the implications of switched beams use on PASS system design, operation at two beam scan rates is explored.

  4. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  5. Patient Experiences of Loneliness: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Karhe, Liisa; Kaunonen, Marja

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness is a painful experience for patients. To clarity the concept of patient loneliness, this study undertook an evolutionary concept analysis based on a literature search in the main relevant databases. We identified 7 dimensions in adult patients' experiences of loneliness. These dimensions of loneliness have different causes and theoretical foundations, which have different implications for patient care. Patients may be lonely in their different relationships, including those with nurses and doctors. Loneliness in relation to health care professionals is a new application of the concept of loneliness that provides a useful starting point for future research.

  6. Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

  7. Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  8. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

  10. Maine-Niles Association of Special Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by Maine-Niles Association of Special Recreation (Skokie, Illinois) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer, client…

  11. Total main rotor isolation system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halwes, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements for a preliminary design study and verification procedure for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are established. The system is developed and analyzed, and predesign drawings are created for an isolation system that achieves over 95 percent isolation of all six degrees of freedom.

  12. Project MAIN: Community Collaboration Benefits Senior Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Gerald F.

    1986-01-01

    Examines Project MAIN (Mobile Assistants in Nutrition), a 12-month demonstration project and the collaborative effort of an urban university, a high school, and a senior services agency, which employed students, ages 14 to 19, to research, plan, and operate a grocery delivery and escort service for elderly and disabled citizens. (BB)

  13. Human Babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995–2011

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert P.; Borelli, Timothy J.; Missaghi, Bayan; York, Brian J.; Kessler, Robert A.; Lubelczyk, Charles B.; Lacombe, Eleanor H.; Hayes, Catherine M.; Coulter, Michael S.; Rand, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    We observed an increase in the ratio of pathogenic Babesia microti to B. odocoilei in adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Maine. Risk for babesiosis was associated with adult tick abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence, and Lyme disease incidence. Our findings may help track risk and increase the focus on blood supply screening. PMID:25272145

  14. 40 CFR 81.413 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.413 Maine. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Acadia NP 37,503 65-278 USDI-NPS Moosehorn Wild 7,501 USDI-FWS (Edmunds Unit) (2,782)...

  15. 78 FR 20370 - Maine Disaster # ME-00035

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... State of Maine (FEMA-4108- DR), dated 03/25/2013. Incident: Severe Winter Storm, Snowstorm, and Flooding... disaster declaration on 03/25/2013, Private Non- Profit organizations that provide essential services of... Counties: Androscoggin, Cumberland, Knox, York. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage:...

  16. 76 FR 59177 - Maine Disaster #ME-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maine Disaster ME-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major ] disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of...

  17. Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine…

  18. Geomagnetic main field modeling with DMSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alken, P.; Maus, S.; Lühr, H.; Redmon, R. J.; Rich, F.; Bowman, B.; O'Malley, S. M.

    2014-05-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) launches and maintains a network of satellites to monitor the meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics environments. In the past decade, geomagnetic field modelers have focused much attention on magnetic measurements from missions such as CHAMP, Ørsted, and SAC-C. With the completion of the CHAMP mission in 2010, there has been a multiyear gap in satellite-based vector magnetic field measurements available for main field modeling. In this study, we calibrate the special sensor magnetometer instrument on board DMSP to create a data set suitable for main field modeling. These vector field measurements are calibrated to compute instrument timing shifts, scale factors, offsets, and nonorthogonality angles of the fluxgate magnetometer cores. Euler angles are then computed to determine the orientation of the vector magnetometer with respect to a local coordinate system. We fit a degree 15 main field model to the data set and compare with the World Magnetic Model and Ørsted scalar measurements. We call this model DMSP-MAG-1, and its coefficients and software are available for download at http://geomag.org/models/dmsp.html. Our results indicate that the DMSP data set will be a valuable source for main field modeling for the years between CHAMP and the recently launched Swarm mission.

  19. Space transportation main engine reliability and safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are used to illustrate the reliability engineering and aerospace safety of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). A technology developed is called Total Quality Management (TQM). The goal is to develop a robust design. Reducing process variability produces a product with improved reliability and safety. Some engine system design characteristics are identified which improves reliability.

  20. Eutrophication in the Gulf of Maine's waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf of Maine and its watershed encompass more than 170,000 km2 and is home to over 6.5 million Canadians and Americans. Despite its long-standing importance to fisheries and natural resources and current interest in exploration of wind and tide as renewable energy sources, ...

  1. Revolutionary Concepts for Helicopter Noise Reduction: SILENT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bryan; Cox, Charles; Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of a NASA initiative to reduce helicopter main rotor noise, a Phase 1 study has been performed of candidate noise reduction concepts. Both conventional and novel design technologies have been analyzed that reduce the community impact of helicopter operations. In this study the noise reduction potential and design implications are assessed for conventional means of noise reduction, e.g., tip speed reduction, tip shapes and airfoil tailoring, and for two innovative design concepts: modulated blade spacing and x-force control. Main rotor designs that incorporate modulated blade spacing are shown to have reduced peak noise levels in most flight operations. X-force control alters the helicopter's force balance whereby the miss distance between main rotor blades and shed vortices can be controlled. This control provides a high potential to mitigate BVI noise radiation. Each concept is evaluated using best practice design and analysis methods, achieving the study's aim to significantly reduce noise with minimal performance degradation and no vibration increase. It is concluded that a SILENT main rotor design, incorporating the modulated blade spacing concept, offers significantly reduced noise levels and the potential of a breakthrough in how a helicopter's sound is perceived and judged. The SILENT rotor represents a definite advancement in the state-of-the-art and is selected as the design concept for demonstration in Phase 2. A Phase 2 Implementation Plan is developed for whirl cage and wind tunnel evaluations of a scaled model SILENT rotor.

  2. [The concept of happiness].

    PubMed

    Yampey, N

    1980-12-01

    both concepts, i.e., happiness and health are correlated.

  3. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  4. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  5. Concept of paraneurons.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T

    1977-01-01

    Paraneurons are those cells which have not been designated as neurons but are recognized as closely related to neurons on the basis of their fine structure (possession of neurosecretion-like and synaptic vesicle-like granules/vacuoles), metabolism (production of neurosecretion- and neurotransmitter-like substances) and origin (evidenced or proposed neuroectodermal). Some paraneurons are mainly endocrine in function, while others are sensory. Some should be called interneurons. There are graduations between these types of paraneurons; also a definite boundary between neurons and paraneurons can not be determined. Different types of paraneurons (together with some related neurons) are shown in Figure 1. Comments and discussions were given on the neuron-like characteristics of the individual paraneurons.

  6. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  7. The concept of locking plates.

    PubMed

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  8. The concept of minimally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews Minimally Invasive Dentistry (MID) from a day-to-day dentistry perspective, focusing mostly on cariology and restorative dentistry, even though it embraces many aspects of dentistry. The concept of MID supports a systematic respect for the original tissue, including diagnosis, risk assessment, preventive treatment, and minimal tissue removal upon restoration. The motivation for MID emerges from the fact that fillings are not permanent and that the main reasons for failure are secondary caries and filling fracture. To address these flaws, there is a need for economical re-routing so that practices can survive on maintaining dental health and not only by operative procedures.

  9. Concept of software interface for BCI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svejda, Jaromir; Zak, Roman; Jasek, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology is intended to control external system by brain activity. One of main part of such system is software interface, which carries about clear communication between brain and either computer or additional devices connected to computer. This paper is organized as follows. Firstly, current knowledge about human brain is briefly summarized to points out its complexity. Secondly, there is described a concept of BCI system, which is then used to build an architecture of proposed software interface. Finally, there are mentioned disadvantages of sensing technology discovered during sensing part of our research.

  10. Crystal Field Theory and the Angular Overlap Model Applied to Hydrides of Main Group Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is how crystal field theory and the angular overlap model can be applied to very simple molecules which can then be used to introduce such concepts as bonding orbitals, MO diagrams, and Walsh diagrams. The main-group compounds are used as examples and a switch to the transition metal complexes. (KR)

  11. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Vladimir Zamansky; Linda Denton; Hana Loreth; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2001-07-01

    accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2001 and ending June 30, 2001. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, objectives of this program, and provides a summary of program activities covering program management and progress in first year tasks including lab- and bench-scale design, facilities preparation, and engineering studies.

  12. Non-diffracting super-airy beam with intensified main lobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Remez, Roei; Tsur, Yuval; Arie, Ady

    2016-04-01

    We study, theoretically and experimentally, the concept of non-diffracting super-Airy beam, where the main lobe of the beam is observed to be nearly half in size and with increased intensity compared to the main lobe of the Airy beam. However, reducing the main lobe size does not affect the transverse acceleration and non-spreading features of the beam. Furthermore, we observed that during propagation, super Airy main lobe shows faster self-reconstruction after an obstruction than the Airy main lobe. Therefore, we envision that specifically, a beam with a smaller lobe size and higher intensity can out-perform the Airy beam for applications such as nonlinear optics, curved plasma generation, laser micromachining, and micro- particle manipulation, while the faster reconstruction property of the super-Airy main lobe can surpass the Airy beam in applications of scattering and turbulent media.

  13. Spiropyran main-chain conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Michael; Komber, Hartmut

    2013-01-11

    The first main-chain conjugated copolymers based on alternating spiropyran (SP) and 9,9-dioctylfluorene (F8) units synthesized via Suzuki polycondensation (SPC) are presented. The reaction conditions of SPC are optimized to obtain materials of type P(para-SP-F8) with appreciably high molecular weights up to M(w) ≈ 100 kg mol(-1). (13)C NMR is used to identify the random orientation of the non-symmetric SP unit in P(p-SP-F8). Ultrasound-induced isomerization of P(p-SP-F8) to the corresponding merocyanine form P(p-MC-F8) yields a deep-red solution. This isomerization reaction is followed by (1)H NMR in solution using sonication, whereby the color increasingly changes to deep red. The possibility to incorporate multiple SP units into main-chain polymers significantly broadens existing SP-based polymeric architectures.

  14. Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

  15. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maine. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Anderson, W.; Foley, M.E.

    1993-07-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maine Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of Maine's nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $41.3 million, a $21.2 million decrease compared with that of 1990. Decreases in output and value were reported for most of the nonfuel minerals produced. The largest decreases in both production and value were for construction sand and gravel and dimension stone. Smaller decreases were estimated for both masonry and portland cement. Other mineral commodities produced in the State included common clay, gemstones, and peat. Perlite was shipped in from out-of-State and expanded at one plant in the State.

  16. Orbital evolution of the main Uranian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheylewegen, E.; Noyelles, B.

    2011-10-01

    Since Voyager 2 space mission, we know some properties of the main Uranian satellites (Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon): on the one hand, we observe an important resurfacing of both Miranda and Ariel, and on the other hand some strangenesses in the orbital elements such as the anomalously high inclinaison of Miranda or the anomalously high eccentricity of Ariel. The aim of this study is to use some modern methods including advances in computing resources to revise some studies developed in the last 20 years (see for instance [1], [2], [3], [4]). We therefore consider a model of a n-body problem which takes into account of the mutual perturbations of the five main satellites and of the planet Uranus and meet/improve some previous results.

  17. Main field and recent secular variation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    As Cain (1979) indicated might happen in the last IUGG quadrennial report, added resources were made available during the past few years and a real impulse was added to the geomagnetic work in the US by the launching of the MAGSAT Satellite. This new effort paid off in terms of new charts, additional long wavelength studies, and external source studies. As before, however, the future funding for new starts in geomagnetism does not look bright at the present time. A single MAGSAT in orbit a little more than seven months did wonders for main field (M.F.) charting, but did little or nothing for secular variation (S.V.) charting. It would take a number of repeated MAGSATS to help the S.V. picture. Meanwhile, the world magnetic observatory net and surface repeat stations remain as the main source of S.V. data. -from Author

  18. Early history of the Fermilab Main Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E.; /Fermilab

    1983-10-01

    This note is written in response to a request from Phil Livdahl for corrections, and additions to a TM he is writing on Staffing Levels at Fermilab during Initial Construction Years and to a note that Hank Hinterberger is preparing on milestones. In my spare time over the past few years I have taken the original files of the Main Ring Section, my own notes from that period, and various other collections of relevant paper, and arranged them in a set of 44 large loose leaf binders in chronological order. I call this set of volumes the 'Main Ring Chronological Archives'. In response to Phil's request I have recently skimmed through these records of the period and extracted a small subset of documents which relate to the specific questions that Phil is addressing: staffing. administration, and milestones.

  19. Advanced Turbulence Modeling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    The ZCET program developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is to study hydrogen/air injection concepts for aircraft gas turbine engines that meet conventional gas turbine performance levels and provide low levels of harmful NOx emissions. A CFD study for ZCET program has been successfully carried out. It uses the most recently enhanced National combustion code (NCC) to perform CFD simulations for two configurations of hydrogen fuel injectors (GRC- and Sandia-injector). The results can be used to assist experimental studies to provide quick mixing, low emission and high performance fuel injector designs. The work started with the configuration of the single-hole injector. The computational models were taken from the experimental designs. For example, the GRC single-hole injector consists of one air tube (0.78 inches long and 0.265 inches in diameter) and two hydrogen tubes (0.3 inches long and 0.0226 inches in diameter opposed at 180 degree). The hydrogen tubes are located 0.3 inches upstream from the exit of the air element (the inlet location for the combustor). To do the simulation, the single-hole injector is connected to a combustor model (8.16 inches long and 0.5 inches in diameter). The inlet conditions for air and hydrogen elements are defined according to actual experimental designs. Two crossing jets of hydrogen/air are simulated in detail in the injector. The cold flow, reacting flow, flame temperature, combustor pressure and possible flashback phenomena are studied. Two grid resolutions of the numerical model have been adopted. The first computational grid contains 0.52 million elements, the second one contains over 1.3 million elements. The CFD results have shown only about 5% difference between the two grid resolutions. Therefore, the CFD result obtained from the model of 1.3-million grid resolution can be considered as a grid independent numerical solution. Turbulence models built in NCC are consolidated and well tested. They can handle both coarse and

  20. Acadian dextral transpression in western Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, S.G. ); Marvinney, R.G. )

    1993-03-01

    Two groups of faults characterize the Acadian tectonic regime of northwestern Maine. The first group is largely dextral and reverse in nature and is represented by the Deep Pond (DPF) and Thrasher Peaks (TPF) faults in the Jackman area. The second is reverse in nature, and is represented by three faults in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. Taken together this fault system represents an Acadian dextral transpressive regime. Part of this regime includes an 11 km wide by 17 km long horst of Cambrian( ), Ordovician( ) and Late Silurian rocks in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. This horst is a part of a restraining bend. Associated with this bend is a deflection and rotation of the regional fault, fold axis and cleavage pattern. Orientations of these structures generally change from NE-SW in the Jackman area to N-S in the Caucomgomoc area. In westernmost Maine, the DPF and TPF both strike NE-SW, but the strikes rotate to ENE-WSW farther to the east in the Jackman area. The NW-dipping DPF separates Silurian rocks of the Frontenac Fm on the north from Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the south. Foliation associated with Acadian folding dips moderately (30--50 degrees) near the DPF and major folds are overturned and verge toward the SE along its entire length in Maine. This contrasts sharply with the dominant upright, NW-verging folds and sleep foliation which characterizes the Acadian throughout northwestern Maine. The NW-dipping TPF separates Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the north from Precambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Chain Lakes massif and Attean pluton, respectively, on the south. Along the TPF and DPF are kinematic indicators which suggest reverse and dextral components to movement.

  1. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution.

    PubMed

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  2. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  3. Optimizing PT Arun LNG main heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Irawan, B.

    1995-12-01

    The capacity of a LNG liquefaction unit has been increased by upgrading the refrigeration system, without making changes to the main heat exchanger (MHE). It is interesting, that after all modifications were completed, a higher refrigerant circulation alone could not increase LNG production. However, by optimizing the refrigerant component ratio, the UA of the MHE increased and LNG production improved. This technical evaluation will provide recommendations and show how the evaluation of the internal temperature profile helped optimize the MHE operating conditions.

  4. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  5. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution.

    PubMed

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries.

  6. Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

    1978-01-01

    The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

  7. Radiation shielding of the main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; Martin, P.S.

    1995-05-01

    The radiation shielding in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) complex has been carried out by adopting a number of prescribed stringent guidelines established by a previous safety analysis. Determination of the required amount of radiation shielding at various locations of the FMI has been done using Monte Carlo computations. A three dimensional ray tracing code as well as a code based upon empirical observations have been employed in certain cases.

  8. Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

  9. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  10. Doctoral Students' Conceptions of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Rod

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I report a study of the conceptions of research held by a sample of doctoral students at an Australian research-intensive university. I take a unique approach by using metaphor analysis to study the students' conceptions. The students in this study were recruited for an on-line survey in which they answered questions relating to…

  11. Student Conceptions of Oral Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joughin, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    A phonographic study of students' experience of oral presentations in an open learning theology programme constituted three contrasting conceptions of oral presentations--as transmission of ideas; as a test of students' understanding of what they were studying; and as a position to be argued. Each of these conceptions represented a combination of…

  12. Children's Death Concepts and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.

    1980-01-01

    Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…

  13. Multicultural Education, A Concept Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Shirley

    This paper explores some reasons why the concept of multicultural education did not exist until recently, what the concept is, and some directions that educational administrators might take to promote cultural pluralism in education. Social and political conditions which led to the idea of multicultural education are reviewed. It is argued that…

  14. A Chemistry Concept Reasoning Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Carrie A.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    A Chemistry Concept Reasoning Test was created and validated providing an easy-to-use tool for measuring conceptual understanding and critical scientific thinking of general chemistry models and theories. The test is designed to measure concept understanding comparable to that found in free-response questions requiring explanations over…

  15. Prison Rehabilitation: Concept Associates, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    A self-help project called Concept Associates, Inc., was started at Parish Prison in New Orleans. While most penal rehabilitation programs educate inmates and teach them a trade, the work of Concept is more thorough. The inmates aid each other with their problems by concentrating on inner changes and the power of positive thinking through four…

  16. Photogrammetric Analysis of CPAS Main Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric; Bretz, David

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown with a cluster of two to three Main parachutes. The instantaneous rate of descent varies based on parachute fly-out angles and geometric inlet area. Parachutes in a cluster oscillate between significant fly-out angles and colliding into each other. The former presents a sub-optimal inlet area and the latter lowers the effective drag area as the parachutes interfere with each other. The fly-out angles are also important in meeting a twist torque requirement. Understanding cluster behavior necessitates measuring the Mains with photogrammetric analysis. Imagery from upward looking cameras is analyzed to determine parachute geometry. Fly-out angles are measured from each parachute vent to an axis determined from geometry. Determining the scale of the objects requires knowledge of camera and lens calibration as well as features of known size. Several points along the skirt are tracked to compute an effective circumference, diameter, and inlet area as a function of time. The effects of this geometry are clearly seen in the system drag coefficient time history. Photogrammetric analysis is key in evaluating the effects of design features such as an Over-Inflation Control Line (OICL), Main Line Length Ratio (MLLR), and geometric porosity, which are varied in an attempt to minimize cluster oscillations. The effects of these designs are evaluated through statistical analysis.

  17. Fijian Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayal, Hem Chand; Lingam, Govinda Ishwar

    2015-01-01

    Teacher's conceptions are important as they could have a strong influence on their professional practices. This study set out to explore Fijian teacher's conceptions of assessment. Seventy teachers enrolled in an assessment course at a university in Fiji were involved in this study. Data was collected by asking teachers to write a reflection on…

  18. Concept Empiricism: A Methodological Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machery, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to Barsalou's, Damasio's, Glenberg's, Prinz' and others' work, neo-empiricism is gaining a deserved recognition in the psychology and philosophy of concepts. I argue, however, that neo-empiricists have underestimated the difficulty of providing evidence against the amodal approach to concepts and higher cognition. I highlight three key…

  19. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  20. Developing the Concept of Metalearning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman

    2004-01-01

    The idea of metalearning was originally used by John Biggs (1985) to describe the state of 'being aware of and taking control of one's own learning'. This paper explores the concept through collaborative enquiry involving researchers and higher education teachers. An evolved conception is proposed in which metalearning is a subconcept within…

  1. Science Club--A Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Issak, Nicole; Tesch, Katharina; Zehne, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a concept of a science club which was developed by two master's students as a part of their thesis and which has been developed and improved ever since. The extra-curricular concept emphasises pupils' individuality through focusing on problem based leaning, station learning, and mixed age groups. Having joined the…

  2. Systems Concept: A Practical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corgan, Virginia

    1974-01-01

    The importance of the systems concept is in its "management by objectives" approach. Outcomes are determined first, followed by assessment of input including student ability, available facilities and equipment, materials and techniques. An example applying the systems concept in an office practice class might be the preparation of a newsletter.…

  3. Mental Models of Boolean Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P.; Johnson-Laird, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    Negation, conjunction, and disjunction are major building blocks in the formation of concepts. This article presents a new model-based theory of these Boolean components. It predicts that individuals simplify the models of instances of concepts. Evidence corroborates the theory and challenges alternative accounts, such as those based on minimal…

  4. Free (Reactionless) Torque Generation - Or Free Propulsion Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjev, Bojidar

    2010-01-28

    The basic principle in Newtonian Mechanics is based upon equal and opposite forces. Placing the vectors of velocity, acceleration, force and momentum of interacting objects along a single line satisfies the claim it is a linear or a 1-D concept. Classical Mechanics states that there are two main kinds of motion, linear and angular motion. Similarly placing the vectors of angular velocity, angular acceleration, torque and angular momentum along a line in the case of rotation in fact brings a plane 2-D interaction to the well known 1-D Newtonian concept. This adaptation transforms Classical Mechanics into a 1-D concept as well and presents a conformation that the linear concept is the only possible one. The Laws of Conservation of Momentum and Angular Momentum are results of the 1-D concept. But the world contains 3 geometrical spatial dimensions. Within the 3-D world there can exist 1-D, 2-D and 3-D kinds of interaction. The question is how to believe that the 3-D world can really be composed of a 1-D interaction or interactions made equal to the 1-D concept only? Examine a gyroscope - the only one mechanical device that is capable of performing 3-D behavior. The problem is that a gyroscope cannot perform three permanent and unidirectional torques that are fixed in space acting about perpendicular axes. This impossibility conforms to a 1-D concept. The idea is to find a solution that can be achieved for the 3-D concept.

  5. Free (Reactionless) Torque Generation—Or Free Propulsion Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjev, Bojidar

    2010-01-01

    The basic principle in Newtonian Mechanics is based upon equal and opposite forces. Placing the vectors of velocity, acceleration, force and momentum of interacting objects along a single line satisfies the claim it is a linear or a 1-D concept. Classical Mechanics states that there are two main kinds of motion, linear and angular motion. Similarly placing the vectors of angular velocity, angular acceleration, torque and angular momentum along a line in the case of rotation in fact brings a plane 2-D interaction to the well known 1-D Newtonian concept. This adaptation transforms Classical Mechanics into a 1-D concept as well and presents a conformation that the linear concept is the only possible one. The Laws of Conservation of Momentum and Angular Momentum are results of the 1-D concept. But the world contains 3 geometrical spatial dimensions. Within the 3-D world there can exist 1-D, 2-D and 3-D kinds of interaction. The question is how to believe that the 3-D world can really be composed of a 1-D interaction or interactions made equal to the 1-D concept only? Examine a gyroscope—the only one mechanical device that is capable of performng 3-D behavior. The problem is that a gyroscope cannot perform three permanent and unidirectional torques that are fixed in space acting about perpendicular axes. This impossibility conforms to a 1-D concept. The idea is to find a solution that can be achieved for the 3-D concept.

  6. The bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning; Jørgensen, John L; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter S

    2004-05-01

    The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target. Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus is on main belt objects, but the mission profile will enable mapping of objects inside the Earth orbit as well.

  7. Coccolithophores in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Earlier this summer, trillions of calcite (limestone) coated phytoplankton, known as coccolithophores, appeared in the waters off the coast of Maine. This true color image of the coccolithophore bloom was acquired on July 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The bloom is the large bluish-green patch in the center of the image in the Gulf of Maine. Unlike any other plant in the ocean, coccolithophores surround themselves with microscopic plating made of calcite. These scales, known as coccoliths, are shaped like hubcaps and are only three one-thousandths of a millimeter in diameter. What coccoliths lack in size, they make up in volume. At any one time a single coccolithophore is attached to or surrounded by at least 30 scales. Additional coccoliths are dumped into the water when the coccolithophores multiply asexually, die or simply make too many scales. In areas with trillions of coccolithophores, the waters will turn an opaque turquoise from the dense cloud of coccoliths. (Click to read more about coccolithophores.) Though there are always coccoliths in the Gulf of Maine, the area hasn't seen a bloom like this one since 1989. Currently, NASA researchers are studying the bloom aboard a ferry in the gulf in an attempt to measure the bloom's density and depth. So far the bloom appears to be about 20 to 25 meters thick and contains nearly half a million tons of calcite. Image by Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; Data courtesy MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  8. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  9. Are Post-Main Sequence Planets Doomed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaver, E.

    2014-04-01

    Post-main sequence evolution directly affects the survival of planetary and sub-planetary mass bodies. Planets orbiting evolved stars undergo orbital evolution under the influence of tides and mass-loss, can be ejected, evaporated, and suffer multiple-body instabilities. The conditions on the planet surface are expected to be modified as well as the result of the evolution of the star. I will discuss the new limits that the theoretical studies allow us to set on the survival and habitability of planets as the star runs out of its hydrogen fuel.

  10. Space shuttle main engine hardware simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. G.; Hampton, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Huntsville Simulation Laboratory (HSL) provides a simulation facility to test and verify the space shuttle main engine (SSME) avionics and software system using a maximum complement of flight type hardware. The HSL permits evaluations and analyses of the SSME avionics hardware, software, control system, and mathematical models. The laboratory has performed a wide spectrum of tests and verified operational procedures to ensure system component compatibility under all operating conditions. It is a test bed for integration of hardware/software/hydraulics. The HSL is and has been an invaluable tool in the design and development of the SSME.

  11. Some peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Anderson, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty of the peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine contain an estimated 29,282,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat is chiefly sphagnum moss and reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. Analyses show that this same volume has high fuel value, low sulfur and high hydrogen contents compared with lignite and sub-bituminous coal, which may indicate that it also has potential for fuel use. On the basis of the metallic trace element content, one area within the region containing the 20 deposits has been delineated for further bedrock studies.

  12. Maine PACE Program Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Dana; Adamson, Joy M

    2015-01-30

    The ARRA EECBG BetterBuilding helped augment the existing Home Energy Savings Programs (HESP) and incentives with financing through a subordinate lien PACE and HUD PowerSaver programs. The program was designed to document innovative techniques to dramatically increase the number of homes participating in weatherization programs in participating towns. Maine will support new energy efficiency retrofit pilots throughout the state, designed to motivate a large number of homeowners to invest in comprehensive home energy efficiency upgrades to bring real solutions to market.

  13. Additively Manufactured Main Fuel Valve Housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was utilized to fabricate a liquid hydrogen valve housing typical of those found in rocket engines and main propulsion systems. The SLM process allowed for a valve geometry that would be difficult, if not impossible to fabricate by traditional means. Several valve bodies were built by different SLM suppliers and assembled with valve internals. The assemblies were then tested with liquid nitrogen and operated as desired. One unit was also burst tested and sectioned for materials analysis. The design, test results, and planned testing are presented herein.

  14. The status of the HOPE concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchiyama, Jirou; Eguchi, Akihiro

    1993-03-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has been studying an unmanned winged vehicle called the H-2 Orbiting Plane (HOPE). The HOPE will be launched by H-2 launch vehicle or H-2 derivative launch vehicle, and injected into low orbit. After a few days stay in space for access to the space station, HOPE will de-orbit and go back to a named landing site automatically. The concept of the 10-ton class vehicle launched by H-2 launch vehicle was prepared in 1988. However, its payload capability is not enough for the practical use of the space station expected at the beginning of the 21st century. Therefore, the concept of 20-ton class vehicle launched by the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB)-added H-2 launch vehicle without the second stage (Liquid Engine-5A (LE-5A) engine) was studied in 1989. This vehicle will be injected into low orbit by its own propulsion system. Its payload capability was estimated at 3 tons. In the study from 1990 to 1991, it was revealed that the reduction of the HOPE weight is the most important problem. At present, the shapes of the main wing, the orbital injection systems (reusable engine or expendable one), and the materials of the main structure (carbon/polyimide) are being studied to reduce the weight.

  15. Occupational Functionality: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Combs, Bryan; Heaton, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Occupational health nursing has evolved since the late 19th century and, with the inclusion of advanced practice nursing, has become essential to the health and safety of workers. A key component of the knowledge required of advanced practice occupational health nurses is an understanding of what it means for workers to be fit for duty The definition or concept of being fit for duty varies depending on the point-of-view of the health care provider. Health care providers across all professions must have a consistent understanding of what it means to be fit for duty Literature shows that professions and specialties that often collaborate have varying ideas about what it means to be fit for duty These differences highlight the need for a consistent concept that can be used across professions, is holistic, and incorporates other concepts critical to all points of view. To better understand fit for duty, a concept analysis, using the Walker and Avant framework, focused on the concept of occupational functionality (OF). Occupational functionality is best defined as the qualities of being suited to serve an occupational purpose efficiently and effectively within the physical, occupational, environmental, and psychological demands of a unique work setting. This concept analysis offers an initial step in understanding fit for duty and gives health care providers a concept that can be used across disciplines. PMID:27462030

  16. 33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section 334.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS §...

  17. AGC-1 Experiment and Final Preliminary Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Bratton; Tim Burchell

    2006-08-01

    This report details the experimental plan and design as of the preliminary design review for the Advanced Test Reactor Graphite Creep-1 graphite compressive creep capsule. The capsule will contain five graphite grades that will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory to determine the irradiation induced creep constants. Seven other grades of graphite will be irradiated to determine irradiated physical properties. The capsule will have an irradiation temperature of 900 C and a peak irradiation dose of 5.8 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} [E > 0.1 MeV], or 4.2 displacements per atom.

  18. Observed and Predicted Pier Scour in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lombard, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Pier-scour and related data were collected and analyzed for nine high river flows at eight bridges across Maine from 1997 through 2001. Six bridges had multiple piers. Fifteen of 23 piers where data were measured during a high flow had observed maximum scour depths ranging from 0.5 feet (ft) to 12.0 ft. No pier scour was observed at the remaining eight piers. The maximum predicted pier-scour depths associated with the 23 piers were computed using the equations in the Federal Highway Administration's Hydraulic Engineering Circular number 18 (HEC-18), with data collected for this study. The predicted HEC-18 maximum pier-scour depths were compared to the observed maximum pier-scour depths. The HEC-18 pier-scour equations are intended to be envelope equations, ideally never underpredicting scour depths and not appreciably overpredicting them. The HEC-18 pier-scour equations performed well for rivers in Maine. Twenty-two out of 23 pier-scour depths were overpredicted by 0.7 ft to 18.3 ft. One pier-scour depth was underpredicted by 4.5 ft. For one pier at each of two bridges, large amounts of debris lodged on the piers after high-flow measurements were made at those sites. The scour associated with the debris increased the maximum pier-scour depths by about 5 ft in each case.

  19. How to install main belts efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Ketz, J.

    1985-03-01

    Belt conveyors and mine cars form an integral part of the connecting link between an underground working area and the preparation plant. Problems in the link are sometimes neglected while attention is centered on the face. Eventually the neglect may cause the mine to shut down because its operating costs are too high. Mine operators can reduce the chances of such a calamity by correctly installing one of those key links, the main haulage belt conveyors. The following recommendations are based on the author's engineering experience in deep mines. The drive is the heart of the belt conveyor. Five components must be installed properly so that the mechanics can fine tune the belt conveyor drive. A concrete base is essential for a main haulage conveyor projected to be in service for more than 10 years. Beams with 6-in.-wide flanges should be welded to rails embedded in the concrete base. The drive is welded to the 6-in. beams for a permanent installation, and the beams allow dust to be cleaned from under the drive.

  20. Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2001-12-01

    Bruxism is a controversial phenomenon. Both its definition and the diagnostic procedure contribute to the fact that the literature about the aetiology of this disorder is difficult to interpret. There is, however, consensus about the multifactorial nature of the aetiology. Besides peripheral (morphological) factors, central (pathophysiological and psychological) factors can be distinguished. In the past, morphological factors, like occlusal discrepancies and the anatomy of the bony structures of the orofacial region, have been considered the main causative factors for bruxism. Nowadays, these factors play only a small role, if any. Recent focus is more on the pathophysiological factors. For example, bruxism has been suggested to be part of a sleep arousal response. In addition, bruxism appears to be modulated by various neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. More specifically, disturbances in the central dopaminergic system have been linked to bruxism. Further, factors like smoking, alcohol, drugs, diseases and trauma may be involved in the bruxism aetiology. Psychological factors like stress and personality are frequently mentioned in relation to bruxism as well. However, research to these factors comes to equivocal results and needs further attention. Taken all evidence together, bruxism appears to be mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.

  1. Pendulum Motion in Main Parachute Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Machin, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of a cluster of parachutes to a payload are notoriously difficult to predict. Often the payload is designed to be insensitive to the range of attitude and rates that might occur, but spacecraft generally do not have the mass and volume budgeted for this robust of a design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) implements a cluster of three mains for landing. During testing of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) design, it was discovered that with a cluster of two mains (a fault tolerance required for human rating) the capsule coupled to the parachute cluster could get into a limit cycle pendulum motion which would exceed the spacecraft landing capability. This pendulum phenomenon could not be predicted with the existing models and simulations. A three phased effort has been undertaken to understand the consequence of the pendulum motion observed, and explore potential design changes that would mitigate this phenomenon. This paper will review the early analysis that was performed of the pendulum motion observed during EDU testing, summarize the analysis ongoing to understand the root cause of the pendulum phenomenon, and discuss the modeling and testing that is being pursued to identify design changes that would mitigate the risk.

  2. Learning to use scientific concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Gordon

    2008-07-01

    In responding to the research on conceptual change, this article attempts to make two points. First, scientific concepts are not possessed by individuals; rather, they are part of a culture's resources, which individuals learn to use for their own or for group purposes. Second, particular concepts are most effectively mastered when the learner is deeply engaged in solving a problem for which they function as effective semiotic tools in achieving a solution. On these grounds, it is argued that the mastering of scientific concepts is best achieved through learning to use them in motivated inquiry.

  3. Healthcare regulatory concepts in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Robson Rocha de; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon

    2012-06-01

    The healthcare regulatory concepts used in Brazilian scientific publications on healthcare management were reviewed. A typo-logical classification for regulatory concepts was developed from the most current ideas in five disciplines: life sciences, law, economics, sociology and political science. Four ideas stood out: control, balance, adaptation and direction, with greatest emphasis on the technical nature of regulation. The political nature of regulation was secondary. It was considered that dis-cussion of healthcare regulatory concepts was connected with comprehension of the role that the state plays in this sector. De-finition of the forms of state intervention is the key convergence point between the different ways of conceptualizing healthcare regulation.

  4. Ephemerides of the main Uranian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, N. V.; Nikonchuk, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    A new model of motions of the five main Uranian satellites is developed. The model is based on all published observations made since the dates of the satellites' discoveries until 2008. The corresponding periods are 220 yr for Titania and Oberon, 160 yr for Ariel and Umbriel and 60 yr for Miranda. To fit the parameters of the satellites' motion, 30 139 observations were used, including those made by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as well as astrometric results of the photometric observations of mutual occultations and eclipses of the main Uranian satellites in 2007-2008. The model is elaborated by the numerical integration of equations of motions of the satellites where all necessary perturbating factors were taken into consideration. Basing on the model, new ephemerides of the main Uranian satellites were generated for the period from 1787 to 2031. The ephemerides are put to the MULTI-SAT ephemeris server. The root-mean-square residual of observed topocentric positions of the satellites and their ephemeris positions is 0.43 arcsec. Taking into account the weighting factors of the observations, this value is 0.12 arcsec. An attempt is also made to define from observations the parameters of the mechanical energy dissipation of the satellites' motion. The dissipation can be caused by both tides in the planet and by the tides in the satellites' bodies. Approximate values of the quadratic terms in the orbital longitudes are obtained. These values are equal to -(0.64 ± 0.11) × 10-11 d-2 for Ariel, -(0.08 ± 0.24) × 10-11 d-2 for Umbriel, -(0.29 ± 0.09) × 10-11 d-2 for Titania, -(0.32 ± 0.07) × 10-11 d-2 for Oberon and -(7.56 ± 1.15) × 10-11 d-2 for Miranda. The obtained parameters reveal deceleration in the orbital motion of the satellites, which results from the influence of the tides raised on the interior of Uranus that is rotating faster than the satellites.

  5. Preservice; Nigerian Science Teachers' Conceptions of Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oludipe, Bimbola; Oludipe, Daniel I.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to critically examine the conceptions students in the integrated science major and non-integrated science major have about integrated science. Participants were 187 student-teachers enrolled in a University of Education in South-West Nigeria. They all did integrated science at the Junior Secondary School (JSS)…

  6. Concept-Based Grammar Teaching: An Academic Responds to Azar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This response to Azar (this volume) intends to discuss from an academic's perspective the main points raised in her paper (i.e., grammar-based instruction and its relation to focus on form and error correction) and, to encourage a more concept-based approach to grammar instruction (CBT). A CBT approach to language development argues that the…

  7. Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools" provides a comprehensive view of the way competencies can be used to drive organizational e-learning, including the main conceptual elements, competency gap analysis, advanced related computing topics, the application of semantic Web technologies, and the integration of competencies…

  8. Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Metaphors about the Concept of "Mathematics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Ahmet; Yazlik, Derya Ozlem; Erdik, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to research mathematics teacher candidates' perceptions about the concept of "mathematics" through the use of metaphors. The research is conducted during 2012-2013 academic year, on a group of 111 mathematics teacher candidates at the Education Faculty of a University in Turkey. To collect the research…

  9. Family Functions' Distribution in Men and Women Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimova, Ramilya Sh.; Biktagirova, Gulnara F.

    2016-01-01

    Creating a happy family with a favorable psychological climate is important both for the individual and the society as a whole. One of the factors, that influence the creation of a welfare family, is the content of the spouses' concepts of the family, its functions and their possible distribution. The main purpose of this article is to identify…

  10. Learning to Play: A "Hedgehog Concept" for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    What is physical education and why does it exist? Despite its relatively long and storied history, consensus about the main purpose of physical education remains minimal. This article explores three questions, developed by Jim Collins in his best-selling book Good to Great, to help organizations identify a hedgehog concept, or primary reason for…

  11. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  12. Multilingual Knowledge-Based Concept Recognition in Textual Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierle, Martin; Trabold, Daniel

    With respect to the increasing volume of textual data which is available through digital resources today, the identification of the main concepts in those texts becomes increasingly important and can be seen as a vital step in the analysis of unstructured information.

  13. Apollo 15 main-parachute failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arabian, D. D.; Mechelay, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    In the investigation of the failure of one of the three main parachutes of the Apollo 15 spacecraft, which collapsed at approximately 1825 meters after operating properly from deployment at 3050 meters, three conditions considered to be possible causes of the failure were produced. The suspect conditions were the proximity of the forward heat shield that passed the spacecraft at approximately 1825 meters, the dumping of the reaction control system hypergolic propellants at approximately 1825 meters, and the failing of a riser link found on a recovered parachute. (The failed parachute was not recovered). The remaining two parachutes functioned as planned and averted a catastrophic failure. The conclusions concerning the cause of the failure are discussed.

  14. CBA main magnet power supply ripple reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, G.; Edwards, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The preliminary results of a development program to minimize beam perturbation resulting from ripple current generated by the CBA Main Magnet Power Supply are presented. The assessment of the magnitude and causes of the ripple generated led to a modification of the SCR Gate Driver and the addition of a bandpass amplifier correction loop which gave significant improvement. A description of the changes made and the results obtained are included. A second design approach was developed in which the timing of the SCR gate pulses is directly determined by a VCO. The results reported with this VCO Loop indicate superior performance particularly at frequencies below 60 Hz. A shunt transistor regulator design is proposed to minimize higher SCR switching frequency harmonics.

  15. Main sequence stars with asymmetric dark matter.

    PubMed

    Iocco, Fabio; Taoso, Marco; Leclercq, Florent; Meynet, Georges

    2012-02-10

    We study the effects of feebly or nonannihilating weakly interacting dark matter (DM) particles on stars that live in DM environments denser than that of our Sun. We find that the energy transport mechanism induced by DM particles can produce unusual conditions in the cores of main sequence stars, with effects which can potentially be used to probe DM properties. We find that solar mass stars placed in DM densities of ρ(χ)≥10(2) GeV/cm(3) are sensitive to spin-dependent scattering cross section σ(SD)≥10(-37) cm(2) and a DM particle mass as low as m(χ)=5 GeV, accessing a parameter range weakly constrained by current direct detection experiments.

  16. Intensity Limitations in Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.

    1997-06-01

    The design beam intensity of the FNAL Main Injector (MI) is 3 x 10{sup 13} ppp. This paper investigates possible limitations in the intensity upgrade. These include the space charge, transition crossing, microwave instability, coupled bunch instability, resistive wall, beam loading (static and transient), rf power, aperture (physical and dynamic), coalescing, particle losses and radiation shielding, etc. It seems that to increase the intensity by a factor of two from the design value is straightforward. Even a factor of five is possible provided that the following measures are to be taken: an rf power upgrade, a {gamma}{sub t}-jump system, longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, rf feedback and feedforward, stopband corrections and local shieldings.

  17. Main challenges for ITER optical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Vukolov, K. Yu.; Orlovskiy, I. I.; Alekseev, A. G.; Borisov, A. A.; Andreenko, E. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Neverov, V. S.

    2014-08-21

    The review is made of the problems of ITER optical diagnostics. Most of these problems will be related to the intensive neutron radiation from hot plasma. At a high level of radiation loads the most types of materials gradually change their properties. This effect is most critical for optical diagnostics because of degradation of optical glasses and mirrors. The degradation of mirrors, that collect the light from plasma, basically will be induced by impurity deposition and (or) sputtering by charge exchange atoms. Main attention is paid to the search of glasses for vacuum windows and achromatic lens which are stable under ITER irradiation conditions. The last results of irradiation tests in nuclear reactor of candidate silica glasses KU-1, KS-4V and TF 200 are presented. An additional problem is discussed that deals with the stray light produced by multiple reflections from the first wall of the intense light emitted in the divertor plasma.

  18. Space transportation main engine cycle assessment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.; Lyles, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) program selection process for a space transportation main engine (STME) power cycle is described in terms of the methodology employed. Low cost, robustness, and high reliability are the primary parameters for engine choice, suggesting simplicity of design and efficient fabrication methods as the crucial characteristics. An evaluation methodology is developed based on the Pugh (1981) process and the King (1989) matrices. The cycle configurations considered are the gas generator (GG), the closed expander, and the open expander. The cycle assessment team determined that the GG cycle is favored by most cycle discriminators, based on an assessment of the characteristics in terms of ALS goals. The lower development risk of the GG-cycle STME is consistent with the goals of the ALS program in terms of reliability and cost efficiency.

  19. Main challenges for ITER optical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukolov, K. Yu.; Orlovskiy, I. I.; Alekseev, A. G.; Borisov, A. A.; Andreenko, E. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Neverov, V. S.

    2014-08-01

    The review is made of the problems of ITER optical diagnostics. Most of these problems will be related to the intensive neutron radiation from hot plasma. At a high level of radiation loads the most types of materials gradually change their properties. This effect is most critical for optical diagnostics because of degradation of optical glasses and mirrors. The degradation of mirrors, that collect the light from plasma, basically will be induced by impurity deposition and (or) sputtering by charge exchange atoms. Main attention is paid to the search of glasses for vacuum windows and achromatic lens which are stable under ITER irradiation conditions. The last results of irradiation tests in nuclear reactor of candidate silica glasses KU-1, KS-4V and TF 200 are presented. An additional problem is discussed that deals with the stray light produced by multiple reflections from the first wall of the intense light emitted in the divertor plasma.

  20. The shuttle main engine: A first look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreur, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Anyone entering the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) team attends a two week course to become familiar with the design and workings of the engine. This course provides intensive coverage of the individual hardware items and their functions. Some individuals, particularly those involved with software maintenance and development, have felt overwhelmed by this volume of material and their lack of a logical framework in which to place it. To provide this logical framework, it was decided that a brief self-taught introduction to the overall operation of the SSME should be designed. To aid the people or new team members with an interest in the software, this new course should also explain the structure and functioning of the controller and its software. This paper presents a description of this presentation.

  1. [Optic neuromyelitis. Main differences with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Lopategui Cabezas, I; Cervantes Llano, M; Pentón Rol, G

    2008-06-01

    The optic neuromyelitis or syndrome of Devic is an inflammatory and autoimmune illness of the central nervous system. It is characterized by attacks of optic neuritis and myelitis, being able to produce blindness, great neurological disability and even the short term death. Until the moment an effective treatment doesn't exist, the therapy is centred in the treatment of the acute attacks, the medical prevention of the complications and the rehabilitation. This article is a revision of this not very common illness, considering that its prevalence in our country has gone in increase. We compare between the optic neuromyelitis and the multiple sclerosis, being based on the main ones characteristic clinical-epidemic that distinguishes these two pathologies, considered by many clinical variants of oneself illness. PMID:19295979

  2. Attachment: A Concept That Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giblin, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Explores the concept of "attachment" from the perspectives of love and work; marriage, parenting, and child development; triangles and the family emotional field; and evaluation instruments. (Author/JBJ)

  3. Concept Model on Topological Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ae, Tadashi; Kioi, Kazumasa

    2010-11-01

    We discuss a new model for concept based on topological learning, where the learning process on the neural network is represented by mathematical topology. The topological learning of neural networks is summarized by a quotient of input space and the hierarchical step induces a tree where each node corresponds to a quotient. In general, the concept acquisition is a difficult problem, but the emotion for a subject is represented by providing the questions to a person. Therefore, a kind of concept is captured by such data and the answer sheet can be mapped into a topology consisting of trees. In this paper, we will discuss a way of mapping the emotional concept to a topological learning model.

  4. Witnessed resuscitation: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    2006-03-01

    The science and practice of resuscitation is recognised and endorsed on an international level, yet for more than a decade it has appeared in the literature alongside words such as witnessing or witnessed to signify the practice of family presence during a resuscitation attempt. This paper explores the meaning of witnessed resuscitation using the process for concept analysis proposed by Rodgers. The term resuscitation is explored, followed by identification of relevant uses of the concept of witnessed resuscitation. The reader is introduced to conceptual variations that challenge the way in which the concept has become associated with family or relatives presence in the resuscitation room of an accident and emergency department. Conceptual clarity is further enhanced through the identification of references, antecedents and consequences of witnessed resuscitation and by providing a model case of the concept that includes its defining attributes.

  5. Modern Concepts of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, John L.

    1972-01-01

    The author calls for a whole new concept of physical education in the nation's schools. A change of lifestyle is needed, but also necessary are school programs that develop cardiovascular endurance fitness, not muscular fitness. (Editor)

  6. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  7. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  8. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  9. Teaching Depth of Field Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Frederick C.; Smith, Rodney J.

    1978-01-01

    This activity utilizes an overhead projector, a wax pencil, and a petri-dish to demonstrate the depth of field concept to students learning the use of the microscope. Illustrations and directions are included. (MA)

  10. Witnessed resuscitation: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    2006-03-01

    The science and practice of resuscitation is recognised and endorsed on an international level, yet for more than a decade it has appeared in the literature alongside words such as witnessing or witnessed to signify the practice of family presence during a resuscitation attempt. This paper explores the meaning of witnessed resuscitation using the process for concept analysis proposed by Rodgers. The term resuscitation is explored, followed by identification of relevant uses of the concept of witnessed resuscitation. The reader is introduced to conceptual variations that challenge the way in which the concept has become associated with family or relatives presence in the resuscitation room of an accident and emergency department. Conceptual clarity is further enhanced through the identification of references, antecedents and consequences of witnessed resuscitation and by providing a model case of the concept that includes its defining attributes. PMID:16043184

  11. Concept Maps Applied to Mars Exploration Public Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoffrey; Canas, Alberto; Shamma, David; Scargle, Jeffrey; Novak, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes CMEX Mars, an effort in the creation of a comprehensive set of concept maps to describe all aspects of Mars exploration. These concept maps, created using the CmapTools software developed by the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, are available on the Internet at http:/cmex.arc.nasa.gov/CMEX and are linked among themselves as well as to resources on the Internet. The work described took place mainly between 1998 and 2001 and combined the goals of: 1) developing a library of concept maps for educational outreach while also 2) refining the capabilities of the software used to create the interactive maps and 3) making them available on the Internet. Here we focus on the library of Mars exploration concept maps that has been created.

  12. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  13. Alternative divertor target concepts for next step fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazul, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    The operational conditions of a divertor target in the next steps of fusion devices are more severe in comparison with ITER. The current divertor designs and technologies have a limited application concerning these conditions, and so new design concepts/technologies are required. The main reasons which practically prevent the use of the traditional motionless solid divertor target are analyzed. We describe several alternative divertor target concepts in this paper. The comparative analysis of these concepts (including the advantages and the drawbacks) is made and the prospects for their practical implementation are prioritized. The concept of the swept divertor target with a liquid metal interlayer between the moving armour and motionless heat-sink is presented in more detail. The critical issues of this design are listed and outlined, and the possible experiments are presented.

  14. STS-86 Landing (Main Gear Touchdown)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis touches down on Runway 15 of the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to complete the nearly 11- day STS-86 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 5:55:09 p.m. EDT on Oct. 6, 1997. The unofficial mission-elapsed time at main gear touchdown was 10 days, 19 hours, 20 minutes and 50 seconds. The first two landing opportunities on Sunday were waved off because of weather concerns. The 87th Space Shuttle mission was the 40th landing of the Shuttle at KSC. On Sunday evening, the Space Shuttle program reached a milestone: The total flight time of the Shuttle passed the two-year mark. STS-86 was the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf replaced NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since mid-May. Foale returned to Earth on Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. The other crew members are Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Wolf is scheduled to remain on the Mir until the STS-89 Shuttle mission in January. Besides the docking and crew exchange, STS-86 included the transfer of more than three-and-a- half tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between the two orbiting spacecraft. Parazynski and Titov also conducted a spacewalk while Atlantis and the Mir were docked.

  15. Debiasing the Main-Belt Asteroid Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Timothy Bruce

    1998-12-01

    We present here two general techniques to remove observational selection effects from asteroid surveys. When applied to two specific asteroid surveys, these methods have allowed the first computation of the debiased distribution of asteroidal orbital elements and sizes for the first time. The first survey was conducted in 1960. Advances in computing have allowed the data to be re-analyzed using an existing computer program and given a much more rigorous statistical treatment. The survey was confined to the near-ecliptic at opposition, therefore its usefulness is limited with regard to highly inclined orbits. To compensate for this limitation, we conducted our own survey aimed specifically at high-inclination objects. Since these orbits are, in general, distributed differently than lower-inclination orbits, removing observational selection effects required creating a statistical technique using Monte-Carlo type simulations. The results of this work show no evidence for differing slopes of the size-frequency distribution throughout the asteroid belt, from the highly inclined Hungaria-type asteroids in the inner edge of the belt (1.8-2.0 AU), to the outer belt (3-3.5 AU). The slopes of the absolute-magnitude frequency distributions, being less than 0.5, show that the asteroidal size distribution is somewhat shallower than what would be predicted assuming the asteroids to be a collisionally evolved population of bodies with size-independent impact strengths. Also determined are rough numbers of asteroids in the main dynamical families of Eos, Maria, Themis, and Koronis, which comprise a significant fraction of the total number of objects in the main belt. This work has also resulted in the discovery of a new asteroid dynamical family, and possibly two new asteroid groups.

  16. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  17. Accretion onto Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Herczeg, Gregory; Calvet, Nuria

    2016-09-01

    Accretion through circumstellar disks plays an important role in star formation and in establishing the properties of the regions in which planets form and migrate. The mechanisms by which protostellar and protoplanetary disks accrete onto low-mass stars are not clear; angular momentum transport by magnetic fields is thought to be involved, but the low-ionization conditions in major regions of protoplanetary disks lead to a variety of complex nonideal magnetohydrodynamic effects whose implications are not fully understood. Accretion in pre-main-sequence stars of masses ≲1M⊙ (and in at least some 2–3-M⊙ systems) is generally funneled by the stellar magnetic field, which disrupts the disk at scales typically of order a few stellar radii. Matter moving at near free-fall velocities shocks at the stellar surface; the resulting accretion luminosities from the dissipation of kinetic energy indicate that mass addition during the T Tauri phase over the typical disk lifetime ˜3 Myr is modest in terms of stellar evolution, but is comparable to total disk reservoirs as estimated from millimeter-wave dust emission (˜10‑2 M⊙). Pre-main-sequence accretion is not steady, encompassing timescales ranging from approximately hours to a century, with longer-timescale variations tending to be the largest. Accretion during the protostellar phase—while the protostellar envelope is still falling onto the disk—is much less well understood, mostly because the properties of the central obscured protostar are difficult to estimate. Kinematic measurements of protostellar masses with new interfometric facilities should improve estimates of accretion rates during the earliest phases of star formation.

  18. Patents protect deepwater platform concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Khurana, S.

    1998-06-22

    Numerous deepwater platform concepts have patents that provide an inventor protection for his new ideas. But an inventor should not be discouraged by the fact that many patents exist. In fact, it may be advantageous to build on existing patents and prior art, and patent new ideas and concepts for reducing costs. Challenges still remain such as for optimizing drilling and production operations simultaneously on deepwater platforms for accessing and producing oil and gas reserves.

  19. TAPS design concepts: environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The engineering concepts used in the design, construction, and operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were often new and in many cases in the state of the art. To accommodate environmental concerns for operating a hot oil pipeline in permafrost soil, unique features were incorporated into TAPS. Design concepts include a sophisticated leak detection and internal pipeline monitoring system. Additional features for accommodating thaw-unstable soils, earthquakes, and river systems are described. (23 references)

  20. Developing an action concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  1. Status of the NGNP graphite creep experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 irradiated in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2014-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) very high temperature gas reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have three different compressive loads applied to the top half of three diametrically opposite pairs of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment.

  2. High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC): Proofs of Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christopher A.; Arney, Dale C.; Bassett, George Z.; Clark, James R.; Hennig, Anthony I.; Snyder, Jessica C.

    2015-01-01

    The atmosphere of Venus is an exciting destination for both further scientific study and future human exploration. A recent internal NASA study of a High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC) led to the development of an evolutionary program for the exploration of Venus, with focus on the mission architecture and vehicle concept for a 30-day crewed mission into Venus's atmosphere at 50 kilometers. Key technical challenges for the mission include performing the aerocapture maneuvers at Venus and Earth, inserting and inflating the airship at Venus during the entry sequence, and protecting the solar panels and structure from the sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. Two proofs of concept were identified that would aid in addressing some of the key technical challenges. To mitigate the threat posed by the sulfuric acid ambient in the atmosphere of Venus, a material was needed that could protect the systems while being lightweight and not inhibiting the performance of the solar panels. The first proof of concept identified candidate materials and evaluated them, finding FEP-Teflon (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene-Teflon) to maintain 90 percent transmittance to relevant spectra even after 30 days of immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid. The second proof of concept developed and verified a packaging algorithm for the airship envelope to inform the entry, descent, and inflation analysis.

  3. Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed

  4. Sedimentary framework of Penobscot Bay, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Scanlon, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of seismic-reflection profiles, along with previously collected sediment samples and geologic information from surrounding coastal areas, outline the characteristics, distribution, and history of the strata that accumulated within Penobscot Bay, Maine, during the complex period of glaciation, crustal movement, and sea-level change since late Wisconsinan time. Sediments that overlie the rugged, glacially eroded surface of Paleozoic bedrock range in thickness from near zero to more than 50 m and consist of four distinct units. 1. (1) Massive to partly stratified, coarse-grained drift forms thin (< 15 m) isolated patches along the walls and floors of bedrock troughs and constitutes a thick (up to 30 m), hummocky end moraine in the central part of the bay. The drift was deposited by the last ice sheet between 12,700 and 13,500 years ago during deglaciation and coastal submergence (due to crustal depression). 2. (2) Well-stratified, fine-grained glaciomarine deposits are concentrated in bedrock depressions beneath the main passages of the bay. During the period of ice retreat and marine submergence, these sediments settled to the sea floor, draped the irregular underlying surface of bedrock or drift, and accumulated without disturbance by physical or biologic processes. 3. (3) Heterogeneous fluvial deposits fill ancestral channels of the Penobscot River beneath the head of the bay. The channels were incised during a -40 m postglacial low stand of sea level (due to crustal rebound) and later were filled as base level was increased during Holocene time. 4. (4) Muddy marine sediments, which are homogeneous to weakly stratified and rich in organic matter, blanket older deposits within bathymetric depressions in the middle and lower reaches of the bay and cover a pronounced, gently dipping, erosional unconformity in the upper reach. These sediments were deposited during the Holocene transgression as sea level approached its present position and the bay became deeper

  5. Social Science Concepts and the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancett, Verna S.; And Others

    Intended to introduce teachers to the concept approach in teaching social studies materials, the five chapters of this publication discuss (1) a definition of "concept" and the term's relationship to facts and generalizations, (2) the function of concepts in the social sciences, (3) how concepts develop, (4) how concepts are related to inquiry and…

  6. Dynamic Light Scattering Based Microelectrophoresis: Main Prospects and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk

    2013-01-01

    Microelectrophoresis based on the dynamic light scattering (DLS) effect has been a major tool for assessing and controlling the conditions for stability of colloidal systems. However, both the DLS methods for characterization of the hydrodynamic size of dispersed submicron particles and the theory behind the electrokinetic phenomena are associated with fundamental and practical approximations that limit their sensitivity and information output. Some of these fundamental limitations, including the spherical approximation of DLS measurements and an inability of microelectrophoretic analyses of colloidal systems to detect discrete charges and differ between differently charged particle surfaces due to rotational diffusion and particle orientation averaging, are revisited in this work. Along with that, the main prospects of these two analytical methods are mentioned. A detailed review of the role of zeta potential in processes of biochemical nature is given too. It is argued that although zeta potential has been used as one of the main parameters in controlling the stability of colloidal dispersions, its application potentials are much broader. Manipulating surface charges of interacting species in designing complex soft matter morphologies using the concept of zeta potential, intensively investigated recently, is given as one of the examples. Branching out from the field of colloid chemistry, DLS and zeta potential analyses are now increasingly finding application in drug delivery, biotechnologies, physical chemistry of nanoscale phenomena and other research fields that stand on the frontier of the contemporary science. Coupling the DLS-based microelectrophoretic systems with complementary characterization methods is mentioned as one of the prosperous paths for increasing the information output of these two analytical techniques. PMID:23904690

  7. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    PubMed

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain. PMID:20067901

  8. Chemical quality of precipitation at Greenville, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smath, J.A.; Potter, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Weekly composite precipitation samples were collected at a rural site located in Greenville, Maine for analysis of trace metals and organic compounds. Samples collected during February 1982, through May 1984, were analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc and during February 1982, through March 1983, for chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, pthalate ester plasticizers, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Deposition rates were computed. Data reported by the NADP (National Atmospheric Deposition Program) was used to evaluate the general chemical quality of the precipitation. The precipitation had relatively high concentrations of hydrogen ions, sulfate, and nitrate, compared to other constituents. Of the trace metals included for analysis, only copper, lead, and zinc were consistently detected. Lead concentrations exceeded the U.S. EPA recommended limit for domestic water supply in three samples. High deposition rates for some of the metals were episodic. Alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane was the only organic compound that was consistently detected (maximum 120 nanograms/L). None of the other organic compounds were detected in any of the samples. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Main Building (4800) at Dryden FRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The X-1E research aircraft provides a striking view at the entrance of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-1E, one of the three original X-1 aircraft modified with a raised cockpit canopy and an ejection seat, was flown at the facility between 1953 and 1958 to investigate speeds at twice that of sound, and also to evaluate a thin wing designed for high-speed flight. The Dryden complex was originally established in 1946 as a small high-speed flight station to support the X-1 program. The X-1 was the first aircraft to fly at supersonic speeds. The main administrative building is to the rear of the X-1E and is the center of a research installation that has grown to more than 450 government employees and nearly 400 civilian contractors. Located on the northwest 'shore' of Rogers Dry Lake, the Dryden Center was built around the original administrative-hangar building constructed in 1954 at a cost of $3.8 million. Since then many additional support and operational facilities have been built including a number of unique test facilities such as the Thermalstructures Research Facility, Flow Visualization Facility, and the newest addition, the Integrated Test Facility.

  10. Primary Productivity in Meduxnekeag River, Maine, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.; Schalk, Charles W.; Kempf, Joshua P.

    2009-01-01

    During August and September 2005, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, specific conductance, streamflow, and light intensity (LI) were determined continuously at six sites defining five reaches on Meduxnekeag River above and below Houlton, Maine. These data were collected as input for a dual-station whole-stream metabolism model to evaluate primary productivity in the river above and below Houlton. The river receives nutrients and organic matter from tributaries and the Houlton wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Model output estimated gross and net primary productivity for each reach. Gross primary productivity (GPP) varied in each reach but was similar and positive among the reaches. GPP was correlated to LI in the four reaches above the WWTP but not in the reach below. Net primary productivity (NPP) decreased in each successive downstream reach and was negative in the lowest two reaches. NPP was weakly related to LI in the upper two reaches and either not correlated or negatively correlated in the lower three reaches. Relations among GPP, NPP, and LI indicate that the system is heterotrophic in the downstream reaches. The almost linear decrease in NPP (the increase in metabolism and respiration) indicates a cumulative effect of inputs of nutrients and organic matter from tributaries that drain agricultural land, the town of Houlton, and the discharges from the WWTP.

  11. Space shuttle main engine: Interactive design challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. P.; Wood, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The operating requirements established by NASA for the SSME were considerably more demanding than those for earlier rocket engines used in the military launch vehicles or Apollo program. The SSME, in order to achieve the high performance, low weight, long life, reusable objectives, embodied technical demands far in excess of its predecessor rocket engines. The requirements dictated the use of high combustion pressure and the staged combustion cycle which maximizes performance through total use of all propellants in the main combustion process. This approach presented a myriad of technical challenges for maximization of performance within attainable state of the art capabilities for operating pressures, operating temperatures and rotating machinery efficiencies. Controlling uniformity of the high pressure turbomachinery turbine temperature environment was a key challenge for thrust level and life capability demanding innovative engineering. New approaches in the design of the components were necessary to accommodate the multiple use, minimum maintenance objectives. Included were the use of line replaceable units to facilitate field maintenance automatic checkout and internal inspection capabilities.

  12. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  13. Space Shuttle Main Engine radio frequency emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. W.; Valenti, E. L.; Smith, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    Several approaches to develop a diagnostics system for monitoring the operational health of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are being evaluated. The ultimate goal is providing protection for the SSME as well as improving ground and flight test techniques. One scenario with some potential is measuring radio frequency (RF) emissions (if present) in the exhaust plume and correlating the data to engine health. An RF emissions detection system was therefore designed, the equipment leased, and the components integrated and checked out to conduct a quick-look investigation of RF emissions in the SSME exhaust plume. The system was installed on the A-1 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center, MS, and data were successfully acquired during SSME firings from May 3 to September 15, 1988. The experiments indicated that emitted radiation in the RF (20 to 470 MHz) spectrum definitely exists in the SSME exhaust plume, and is of such magnitude that it can be distinguished during the firing from background noise. Although additional efforts are necessary to assess the merit of this approach as a health monitoring technique, the potential is significant, and additional studies are recommended.

  14. Seismicity map of the State of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stover, C.W.; Barnhard, L.M.; Reagor, B.G.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    The earthquake data shown on this map and listed in table 1 are a list of earthquakes that were originally used in preparing the Seismic Risk Studies in the United States (Algermissen, 1969) which have been recompiled and updated through 1977.  These data have been reexamined which resulted in some revisions of epicenters and intensities as well as assignment of intensities to earthquakes that previously had none assigened.  Intensity values were updated from new and additional data soureces that were not available at the time of original compilation.  Some epicenters were relocated on the basis of new informaition.  The data shown in table 1 are estimates of the most accurate epicenter, magnitude, and intensity of each earthquake, on the basis of historical and current information.  Some of the aftershocks from large earthquakes are listed but are incomplete in many instances, especialy for ones that occurred before seismic instruments were in universal usage.  Only earthquakes located within the borders of the states of Maine are listed.  This map superceeds Miscellaneous Field Sudies Map MF-845.

  15. Interseismic coupling on the main Himalayan thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, V. L.; Avouac, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    We determine the slip rate and pattern of interseismic coupling on the Main Himalayan Thrust along the entire Himalayan arc based on a compilation of geodetic, interferometric synthetic aperture radar, and microseismicity data. We show that convergence is perpendicular to the arc and increases eastwards from 13.3 ± 1.7 mm/yr to 21.2 ± 2.0 mm/yr. These rates are comparable to geological and geomorphic estimates, indicating an essentially elastic geodetic surface strain. The interseismic uplift rate predicted from the coupling model closely mimics the topography, suggesting that a small percentage of the interseismic strain is permanent. We find that the fault is fully locked along its complete length over about 100 km width. We don't find any resolvable aseismic barrier that could affect the seismic segmentation of the arc and limit the along-strike propagation of seismic ruptures. The moment deficit builds up at a rate of 15.1 ± 1 × 1019 N m/yr for the entire length of the Himalaya.

  16. Main factors providing specificity of repair enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nevinsky, G A

    2011-01-01

    Specific and nonspecific DNA complex formation with human uracil-DNA glycosylase, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and apurine/apyrimidine endonuclease, as well as with E. coli 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase and RecA protein was analyzed using the method of stepwise increase in DNA-ligand complexity. It is shown that high affinity of these enzymes to any DNA (10(-4)-10(-8) M) is provided by a large number of weak additive contacts mainly with DNA internucleoside phosphate groups and in a less degree with bases of nucleotide links "covered" by protein globules. Enzyme interactions with specific DNA links are comparable in efficiency with weak unspecific contacts and provide only for one-two orders of affinity (10(-1)-10(-2) M), but these contacts are extremely important at stages of DNA and enzyme structural adaptation and catalysis proper. Only in the case of specific DNA individual for each enzyme alterations in DNA structure provide for efficient adjustment of reacting enzyme atoms and DNA orbitals with accuracy up to 10-15° and, as a result, for high reaction rate. Upon transition from nonspecific to specific DNA, reaction rate (k(cat)) increases by 4-8 orders of magnitude. Thus, stages of DNA and enzyme structural adaptation as well as catalysis proper are the basis of specificity of repair enzymes. PMID:21568843

  17. Emsian synorogenic paleogeography of the Maine Applachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.; Tucker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Acadian deformation front in the northern Appalachians of Maine and New Hampshire can now be closely located during the early Emsian (Early Devonian; 408-406 Ma). Tight correlations between paleontologically and isotopically dated rocks are possible only because of a new 408-Ma time scale tie point for the early Emsian. The deformation front lay between a belt of Lower Devonian flysch and molasse that were deposited in an Acadian foreland basin and had not yet been folded and a belt of early Emsian plutons that intruded folded Lower Devonian rocks. This plutonic belt includes the newly dated Ore Mountain gabbro (U/Pb; 406 Ma), which hosts magmatic-sulfide mineralization. Along the deformation front, a 407-Ma pluton that locally truncates Acadian folds (Katahdin) was the feeder to volcanic rocks (Traveler Rhyolite; 406-407 Ma) that are part of the foreland-basin succession involved in these same folds. The Emsian igneous rocks thus define a syncollisional magmatic province that straddled the deformation front. These findings bear on three alternative subduction geometries for the Acadian collision.

  18. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

  19. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  20. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, C.P.; Haines, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.