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Sample records for agc kinase family

  1. Schizosaccharomyces pombe AGC family kinase Gad8p forms a conserved signaling module with TOR and PDK1-like kinases

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Kubo, Yoshiya; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    The TOR protein is a phosphoinositide kinase-related kinase widely conserved among eukaryotes. Fission yeast tor1 encodes an ortholog of TOR, which is required for sexual development and growth under stressed conditions. We isolated gad8, which encodes a Ser/Thr kinase of the AGC family, as a high-copy suppressor of the sterility of a tor1 mutant. Disruption of gad8 caused phenotypes similar to those of tor1 disruption. Gad8p was less phosphorylated and its kinase activity was undetectable in tor1Δ cells. Three amino acid residues corresponding to conserved phosphorylation sites in the AGC family kinases, namely Thr387 in the activation loop, Ser527 in the turn motif and Ser546 in the hydrophobic motif, were important for the kinase activity of Gad8p. Tor1p was responsible for the phosphorylation of Ser527 and Ser546, whereas Ksg1p, a PDK1-like kinase, appeared to phosphorylate Thr387 directly. Altogether, Tor1p, Ksg1p and Gad8p appear to constitute a signaling module for sexual development and growth under stressed conditions in fission yeast, which resembles the mTOR–PDK1–S6K1 system in mammals and may represent a basic signaling module ubiquitous in eukaryotes. PMID:12805221

  2. The nuts and bolts of AGC protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Laura R; Komander, David; Alessi, Dario R

    2010-01-01

    The AGC kinase subfamily of protein kinases contains 60 members, including PKA, PKG and PKC. The family comprises some intensely examined protein kinases (such as Akt, S6K, RSK, MSK, PDK1 and GRK) as well as many less well-studied enzymes (such as SGK, NDR, LATS, CRIK, SGK494, PRKX, PRKY and MAST). Research has shed new light onto the architecture and regulatory mechanisms of these kinases. In addition, AGC kinases mediate diverse and important cellular functions, and their mutation and/or dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer and diabetes.

  3. Testing the promiscuity of commercial kinase inhibitors against the AGC kinase group using a split-luciferase screen.

    PubMed

    Jester, Benjamin W; Gaj, Alicia; Shomin, Carolyn D; Cox, Kurt J; Ghosh, Indraneel

    2012-02-23

    Using a newly developed competitive binding assay dependent upon the reassembly of a split reporter protein, we have tested the promiscuity of a panel of reported kinase inhibitors against the AGC group. Many non-AGC targeted kinase inhibitors target multiple members of the AGC group. In general, structurally similar inhibitors consistently exhibited activity toward the same target as well as toward closely related kinases. The inhibition data was analyzed to test the predictive value of either using identity scores derived from residues within 6 Å of the active site or identity scores derived from the entire kinase domain. The results suggest that the active site identity in certain cases may be a stronger predictor of inhibitor promiscuity. The overall results provide general guidelines for establishing inhibitor selectivity as well as for the future design of inhibitors that either target or avoid AGC kinases.

  4. Myotonin protein-kinase [AGC]n trinucleotide repeat in seven nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, G.; Sineo, L.; Pontieri, E. ||

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is due to a genomic instability of a trinucleotide [AGC]n motif, located at the 3{prime} UTR region of a protein-kinase gene (myotonin protein kinase, MT-PK). The [AGC] repeat is meiotically and mitotically unstable, and it is directly related to the manifestations of the disorder. Although a gene dosage effect of the MT-PK has been demonstrated n DM muscle, the mechanism(s) by which the intragenic repeat expansion leads to disease is largely unknown. This non-standard mutational event could reflect an evolutionary mechanism widespread among animal genomes. We have isolated and sequenced the complete 3{prime}UTR region of the MT-PK gene in seven primates (macaque, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, gibbon, owl monkey, saimiri), and examined by comparative sequence nucleotide analysis the [AGC]n intragenic repeat and the surrounding nucleotides. The genomic organization, including the [AGC]n repeat structure, was conserved in all examined species, excluding the gibbon (Hylobates agilis), in which the [AGC]n upstream sequence (GGAA) is replaced by a GA dinucleotide. The number of [AGC]n in the examined species ranged between 7 (gorilla) and 13 repeats (owl monkeys), with a polymorphism informative content (PIC) similar to that observed in humans. These results indicate that the 3{prime}UTR [AGC] repeat within the MT-PK gene is evolutionarily conserved, supporting that this region has important regulatory functions.

  5. Specific inhibition of AGC protein kinases by antibodies against C-terminal epitopes.

    PubMed

    Traincard, François; Giacomoni, Véronique; Veron, Michel

    2004-08-13

    The sequences contributing to the catalytic site of protein kinases are not all comprised within the highly conserved catalytic core. Thus, in mammalian cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), the C-terminal sequence participates in substrate binding. Using synthetic peptides mimicking the FxxF motif present at most C-termini of AGC kinases, we have raised highly specific antibodies which are potent and specific inhibitors of the catalytic activity of the cognate protein kinase. Taking into account the structure of PKA, these results point to the potential of the C-terminal region of protein kinases as a target for designing specific protein kinase inhibitors.

  6. PAK family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhuo-shen; Manser, Ed

    2012-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that are represented by six genes in humans (PAK 1–6), and are found in all eukaryotes sequenced to date. Genetic and knockdown experiments in frogs, fish and mice indicate group I PAKs are widely expressed, required for multiple tissue development, and particularly important for immune and nervous system function in the adult. The group II PAKs (human PAKs 4–6) are more enigmatic, but their restriction to metazoans and presence at cell-cell junctions suggests these kinases emerged to regulate junctional signaling. Studies of protozoa and fungal PAKs show that they regulate cell shape and polarity through phosphorylation of multiple cytoskeletal proteins, including microtubule binding proteins, myosins and septins. This chapter discusses what we know about the regulation of PAKs and their physiological role in different model organisms, based primarily on gene knockout studies. PMID:23162738

  7. Two Kinase Family Dramas

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Thomas A.; Hurley, James H.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Lietha and colleagues (2007) report the structure of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and reveal how FAK maintains an autoinhibited state. Together with the structure of another tyrosine kinase, ZAP-70 (Deindl et al., 2007), this work highlights the diversity of mechanisms that nature has evolved within the kinase superfamily to regulate their activity through autoinhibition. PMID:17574014

  8. The sphingoid long chain base phytosphingosine activates AGC-type protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including Ypk1, Ypk2, and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiping; Lester, Robert L; Dickson, Robert C

    2005-06-17

    The Pkh1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a homolog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), regulates downstream AGC-type protein kinases including Ypk1/2 and Pkc1, which control cell wall integrity, growth, and other processes. Phytosphingosine (PHS), a sphingoid long chain base, is hypothesized to be a lipid activator of Pkh1 and thereby controls the activity of Ypk1/2. Here we present biochemical evidence supporting this hypothesis, and in addition we demonstrate that PHS also stimulates autophosphorylation and activation of Ypk1/2. Greatest stimulation of Ypk1/2 phosphorylation and activity are achieved by inclusion of both PHS and Pkh1 in an in vitro kinase reaction. We also demonstrate for the first time that Pkh1 phosphorylates the Sch9 protein kinase in vitro and that such phosphorylation is stimulated by PHS. This is the first biochemical demonstration of Sch9 activators, and the results further support roles for long chain bases in heat stress resistance in addition to implying roles in chronological aging and cell size determination, since Sch9 functions in these processes. Thus, our data support a model in which PHS, rather than simply being an upstream activator of Pkh1, also activates kinases that are downstream targets of Pkh1 including Ypk1/2 and Sch9.

  9. AGC-2 Disassembly Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2014-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite Research and Development (R&D) Program is currently measuring irradiated material properties for predicting the behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades available for use within the cores of new very high temperature reactor designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, consisting of six irradiation capsules, will generate irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. The AGC experiment is designed to determine the changes to specific material properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, elastic modulus, mechanical strength, irradiation induced dimensional change rate, and irradiation creep for a wide variety of nuclear grade graphite types over a range of high temperature, and moderate doses. A series of six capsules containing graphite test specimens will be used to expose graphite test samples to a dose range from 1 to 7 dpa at three different temperatures (600, 900, and 1200°C) as described in the Graphite Technology Development Plan. Since irradiation induced creep within graphite components is considered critical to determining the operational life of the graphite core, some of the samples will also be exposed to an applied load to determine the creep rate for each graphite type under both temperature and neutron flux. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). AGC-1 and AGC-2 will be irradiated in the south flux trap and AGC-3–AGC-6 will be irradiated in the east flux trap. The change in flux traps is due to NGNP irradiation priorities requiring the AGC experiment to be moved to accommodate Fuel irradiation experiments. After irradiation, all six AGC capsules will be cooled in the ATR Canal, sized for shipment, and shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) where the capsule will be disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). During disassembly, the metallic

  10. Receptor-like kinases from Arabidopsis form a monophyletic gene family related to animal receptor kinases

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Shin-Han; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2001-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are proteins with a predicted signal sequence, single transmembrane region, and cytoplasmic kinase domain. Receptor-like kinases belong to a large gene family with at least 610 members that represent nearly 2.5% of Arabidopsis protein coding genes. We have categorized members of this family into subfamilies based on both the identity of the extracellular domains and the phylogenetic relationships between the kinase domains of subfamily members. Surprisingly, this structurally defined group of genes is monophyletic with respect to kinase domains when compared with the other eukaryotic kinase families. In an extended analysis, animal receptor kinases, Raf kinases, plant RLKs, and animal receptor tyrosine kinases form a well supported group sharing a common origin within the superfamily of serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases. Among animal kinase sequences, Drosophila Pelle and related cytoplasmic kinases fall within the plant RLK clade, which we now define as the RLK/Pelle family. A survey of expressed sequence tag records for land plants reveals that mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants have similar percentages of expressed sequence tags representing RLK/Pelle homologs, suggesting that the size of this gene family may have been close to the present-day level before the diversification of land plant lineages. The distribution pattern of four RLK subfamilies on Arabidopsis chromosomes indicates that the expansion of this gene family is partly a consequence of duplication and reshuffling of the Arabidopsis genome and of the generation of tandem repeats. PMID:11526204

  11. The receptor kinase family: primary structure of rhodopsin kinase reveals similarities to the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, W; Inglese, J; Palczewski, K; Onorato, J J; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J

    1991-01-01

    Light-dependent deactivation of rhodopsin as well as homologous desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors involves receptor phosphorylation that is mediated by the highly specific protein kinases rhodopsin kinase (RK) and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK), respectively. We report here the cloning of a complementary DNA for RK. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a high degree of homology to beta ARK. In a phylogenetic tree constructed by comparing the catalytic domains of several protein kinases, RK and beta ARK are located on a branch close to, but separate from the cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C subfamilies. From the common structural features we conclude that both RK and beta ARK are members of a newly delineated gene family of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinases that may function in diverse pathways to regulate the function of such receptors. Images PMID:1656454

  12. Kinases of the Src family: structure and functions.

    PubMed

    Tatosyan, A G; Mizenina, O A

    2000-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases of the Src family are involved in different signal transduction pathways in cells. The corresponding genes participate in such vital processes as growth, differentiation, adhesion, transcription, etc. Specific structural changes confer oncogenic properties to the Src protein. In this review, we summarize the available data on the structure, substrates, regulation mechanisms, and role of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases by the example of the src gene product (as the prototype member of this family) and a number of related proteins.

  13. AGC-3 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes; David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the third Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-3) irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule is third in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The general design of AGC-3 test capsule is similar to the AGC-2 test capsule, material property tests were conducted on graphite specimens prior to loading into the AGC-3 irradiation assembly. However the 6 major nuclear graphite grades in AGC-2 were modified; two previous graphite grades (IG-430 and H-451) were eliminated and one was added (Mersen’s 2114 was added). Specimen testing from three graphite grades (PCEA, 2114, and NBG-17) was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and specimen testing for two grades (IG-110 and NBG-18) were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from May 2011 to July 2013. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-3 irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule design requires "matched pair" creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-3 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce "matched pairs" of graphite samples above and below the AGC-3 capsule elevation mid-point to

  14. A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, M; Enders, G H; Wu, C L; Su, L K; Gorka, C; Nelson, C; Harlow, E; Tsai, L H

    1992-01-01

    The p34cdc2 protein kinase is known to regulate important transitions in the eukaryotic cell cycle. We have identified 10 human protein kinases based on their structural relation to p34cdc2. Seven of these kinases are novel and the products of five share greater than 50% amino acid sequence identity with p34cdc2. The seven novel genes are broadly expressed in human cell lines and tissues with each displaying some cell type or tissue specificity. The cdk3 gene, like cdc2 and cdk2, can complement cdc28 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that all three of these protein kinases can play roles in the regulation of the mammalian cell cycle. The identification of a large family of cdc2-related kinases opens the possibility of combinatorial regulation of the cell cycle together with the emerging large family of cyclins. Images PMID:1639063

  15. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes; W. David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-08-01

    This report described the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the second Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-2) irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule is the second in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. Similar to the AGC-1 specimen pre-irradiation examination report, material property tests were conducted on specimens from 18 nuclear graphite types but on an increased number of specimens (512) prior to loading into the AGC-2 irradiation assembly. All AGC-2 specimen testing was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from October 2009 to August 2010. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-2 irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule design requires “matched pair” creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-2 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce “matched pairs” of graphite samples above and below the AGC-2 capsule elevation mid-point to provide specimens with similar neutron dose levels.

  16. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  17. Rho family-associated kinases PAK1 and rock.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hiroshi; Nheu, Thao V; He, Hong; Hirokawa, Yumiko

    2003-01-01

    Rho family GTPases (Rho, Rac and CDC42) share around 30% sequence identity with RAS family GTPases, and are essential for RAS-induced malignant transformation, i.e., aberrant serum/anchorage-independent growth and actin cytoskeleton-linked morphological changes. Oncogenic RAS mutants such as v-Ha-RAS trigger cell cycle entry (G0-G1 transition) mainly by up-regulating cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), and down-regulating p27, a CDK inhibitor. Although both Rac and CDC42 are clearly activated by RAS, there is so far no evidence that RAS activates Rho. In this chapter, we will discuss the role of these Rho family GTPases and their effectors, in particular the Ser/Thr kinases PAK1 and Rock, in RAS-induced serum/anchorage-independent cell cycling, and discuss several potential therapeutics, peptides or chemical compounds, that could block this oncogenic cell cycle signalling pathway.

  18. X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bone Marrow Kinase in the X Chromosome: A Tec Family Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S.; Ahmed, Nazia; Burke, James; Chang, ChiehYing Y.; Gao, Mian; Tino, Joseph; Xie, Dianlin; Tebben, Andrew J.

    2012-06-27

    Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and PP2 at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-ordered protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors.

  19. AGC-1 Post Irradiation Examination Status

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank

    2011-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF), and examined at the INL Research Center (IRC) or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This is the first in a series of status reports on the progress of the AGC experiment. As the first capsule, AGC1 was irradiated from September 2009 to January 2011 to a maximum dose level of 6-7 dpa. The capsule was removed from ATR and transferred to the HFEF in April 2011 where the capsule was disassembled and test specimens extracted from the capsules. The first irradiated samples from AGC1 were shipped to the IRC in July 2011and initial post irradiation examination (PIE) activities were begun on the first 37 samples received. PIE activities continue for the remainder of the AGC1 specimen as they are received at the IRC.

  20. Mutations in Myosin Light Chain Kinase Cause Familial Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Guo, Dong-chuan; Cao, Jiumei; Gong, Limin; Kamm, Kristine E.; Regalado, Ellen; Li, Li; Shete, Sanjay; He, Wei-Qi; Zhu, Min-Sheng; Offermanns, Stephan; Gilchrist, Dawna; Elefteriades, John; Stull, James T.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific isoforms of α-actin and β-myosin heavy chain, two major components of the SMC contractile unit, cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections (FTAAD). To investigate whether mutations in the kinase that controls SMC contractile function (myosin light chain kinase [MYLK]) cause FTAAD, we sequenced MYLK by using DNA from 193 affected probands from unrelated FTAAD families. One nonsense and four missense variants were identified in MYLK and were not present in matched controls. Two variants, p.R1480X (c.4438C>T) and p.S1759P (c.5275T>C), segregated with aortic dissections in two families with a maximum LOD score of 2.1, providing evidence of linkage of these rare variants to the disease (p = 0.0009). Both families demonstrated a similar phenotype characterized by presentation with an acute aortic dissection with little to no enlargement of the aorta. The p.R1480X mutation leads to a truncated protein lacking the kinase and calmodulin binding domains, and p.S1759P alters amino acids in the α-helix of the calmodulin binding sequence, which disrupts kinase binding to calmodulin and reduces kinase activity in vitro. Furthermore, mice with SMC-specific knockdown of Mylk demonstrate altered gene expression and pathology consistent with medial degeneration of the aorta. Thus, genetic and functional studies support the conclusion that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in MYLK are associated with aortic dissections. PMID:21055718

  1. Aurora kinase family: a new target for anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Macarulla, Teresa; Ramos, Francisco Javier; Tabernero, Josep

    2008-06-01

    Aurora kinases (AK) are the name given to a family of Serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases. These proteins represent a novel family of kinases crucial for cell cycle control. The cell division process is one of the hallmarks of every living organism. Within the complete cell-cycle process, mitosis constitutes one of the most critical steps. The main purpose of mitosis is to segregate sister chromatics into two daughters cells. It is a complex biologic process, and errors in this mechanism can lead to genomic instability, a condition associated with tumorigenesis. This process is tightly regulated by several proteins, some of them acting as check-points that ultimately ensure the correct temporal and spatial coordination of this critical biologic process. Among this network of mitotic regulators, AK play a critical role in cellular division by controlling chromatid segregation. Three AK family members have been identified in mammalian cells: A, B, and C. These proteins are implicated in several vital events in mitosis. In experimental models, overexpression of AK can induce spindle defects, chromosome mis-segregation, and malignant transformation. Conversely, downregulation of AK expression cause mitotic arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell lines. The expression levels of human AK are increased in certain types of cancer including breast, colon, pancreatic, ovarian, and gastric tumors. This observation has lent an interest to this family of kinases as potential drug targets for development of new anticancer therapies. This review focuses in recent progress in the role of AK in tumorogenesis and the development of new anticancer drug against AK proteins. This manuscript also includes some relevant patents as well.

  2. The EGFR Family: Not So Prototypical Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, Mark A.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Ferguson, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was among the first receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) for which ligand binding was studied and for which the importance of ligand-induced dimerization was established. As a result, EGFR and its relatives have frequently been termed “prototypical” RTKs. Many years of mechanistic studies, however, have revealed that—far from being prototypical—the EGFR family is quite unique. As we discuss in this review, the EGFR family uses a distinctive “receptor-mediated” dimerization mechanism, with ligand binding inducing a dramatic conformational change that exposes a dimerization arm. Intracellular kinase domain regulation in this family is also unique, being driven by allosteric changes induced by asymmetric dimer formation rather than the more typical activation-loop phosphorylation. EGFR family members also distinguish themselves from other RTKs in having an intracellular juxtamembrane (JM) domain that activates (rather than autoinhibits) the receptor and a very large carboxy-terminal tail that contains autophosphorylation sites and serves an autoregulatory function. We discuss recent advances in mechanistic aspects of all of these components of EGFR family members, attempting to integrate them into a view of how RTKs in this important class are regulated at the cell surface. PMID:24691965

  3. FY-2010 AGC-1 Disassembly Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Philip L. Winston

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluencies, and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor and preirradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed.

  4. Signalling to cancer cell invasion through PAK family kinases.

    PubMed

    Whale, Andrew; Hashim, Fariesha Nur; Fram, Sally; Jones, Gareth E; Wells, Claire M

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cell metastasis involves a series of changes in cell behaviour, driven by oncogenic transformation, that leads to local tissue invasion, migration through extracellular matrix, entry into the vascular or lymphatic system and colonisation of distant sites. It is well established that the Rho family GTPases Rho, Rac and Cdc42 orchestrate many of the processes required during metastasis. The Rho family GTPases regulate cellular behaviour through their interaction with downstream effector proteins. The p-21 activated kinases (PAKs), effector proteins for Rac and Cdc42, are known to be important regulators of cell migration and invasion. There are six mammalian PAKs which can be divided into two groups: group I PAKs (PAK1-3) and group II PAKs (PAK4-6). Although the two PAK groups are architecturally similar there are differences in their mode of regulation suggesting their cellular functions are likely to be different. This review will focus on the latest evidence relating to the role of PAK family kinases in the cell signalling pathways that drive cancer cell migration and invasion.

  5. Structures of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase in active and inactive conformations suggest a mechanism of activation for TEC family kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Douglas J.; Liu, Yu-Ting; Arduini, Robert M.; Hession, Catherine A.; Miatkowski, Konrad; Wildes, Craig P.; Cullen, Patrick F.; Hong, Victor; Hopkins, Brian T.; Mertsching, Elisabeth; Jenkins, Tracy J.; Romanowski, Michael J.; Baker, Darren P.; Silvian, Laura F.

    2010-11-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of availability of a high resolution, ligand-bound BTK structure. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human BTK kinase domain bound to either Dasatinib (BMS-354825) at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution or to 4-amino-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolospyrimidin- 7-yl-cyclopentane at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. This data provides information relevant to the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting BTK and the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Analysis of the structural differences between the TEC and Src families of kinases near the Trp-Glu-Ile motif in the N-terminal region of the kinase domain suggests a mechanism of regulation of the TEC family members.

  6. Protein kinase d in the cardiovascular system: emerging roles in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Avkiran, Metin; Rowland, Alexandra J; Cuello, Friederike; Haworth, Robert S

    2008-02-01

    The protein kinase D (PKD) family is a recent addition to the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase group of serine/threonine kinases, within the protein kinase complement of the mammalian genome. Relative to their alphabetically superior cousins in the AGC group of kinases, namely the various isoforms of protein kinase A, protein kinase B/Akt, and protein kinase C, PKD family members have to date received limited attention from cardiovascular investigators. Nevertheless, increasing evidence now points toward important roles for PKD-mediated signaling pathways in the cardiovascular system, particularly in the regulation of myocardial contraction, hypertrophy and remodeling. This review provides a primer on PKD signaling, using information gained from studies in multiple cell types, and discusses recent data that suggest novel functions for PKD-mediated pathways in the heart and the circulation.

  7. Abl family kinases regulate FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Greuber, Emileigh K; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2012-12-01

    Phagocytosis of Ab-coated pathogens is mediated through FcγRs, which activate intracellular signaling pathways to drive actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. Abl and Arg define a family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that regulate actin-dependent processes in a variety of cell types, including those important in the adaptive immune response. Using pharmacological inhibition as well as dominant negative and knockout approaches, we demonstrate a role for the Abl family kinases in phagocytosis by macrophages and define a mechanism whereby Abl kinases regulate this process. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice lacking Abl and Arg kinases exhibit inefficient phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes and zymosan particles. Treatment with the Abl kinase inhibitors imatinib and GNF-2 or overexpression of kinase-inactive forms of the Abl family kinases also impairs particle internalization in murine macrophages, indicating Abl kinase activity is required for efficient phagocytosis. Further, Arg kinase is present at the phagocytic cup, and Abl family kinases are activated by FcγR engagement. The regulation of phagocytosis by Abl family kinases is mediated in part by the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Loss of Abl and Arg expression or treatment with Abl inhibitors reduced Syk phosphorylation in response to FcγR ligation. The link between Abl family kinases and Syk may be direct, as purified Arg kinase phosphorylates Syk in vitro. Further, overexpression of membrane-targeted Syk in cells treated with Abl kinase inhibitors partially rescues the impairment in phagocytosis. Together, these findings reveal that Abl family kinases control the efficiency of phagocytosis in part through the regulation of Syk function.

  8. Actions of Rho family small G proteins and p21-activated protein kinases on mitogen-activated protein kinase family members.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, J A; Xu, S; Hutchison, M R; Marcus, S; Cobb, M H

    1996-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are regulated by distinct extracellular stimuli. The currently known members include extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPKs), and p38 MAP kinases. We find that overexpression of the Ste20-related enzymes p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and PAK2 in 293 cells is sufficient to activate JNK/SAPK and to a lesser extent p38 MAP kinase but not ERK2. Rat MAP/ERK kinase kinase 1 can stimulate the activity of each of these MAP kinases. Although neither activated Rac nor the PAKs stimulate ERK2 activity, overexpression of either dominant negative Rac2 or the N-terminal regulatory domain of PAK1 inhibits Ras-mediated activation of ERK2, suggesting a permissive role for Rac in the control of the ERK pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Rac2, Cdc42hs, and RhoA synergize with an activated form of Raf to increase ERK2 activity. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized connection between Rho family small G proteins and the ERK pathway. PMID:8668187

  9. Negative regulation of ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, C; Carraway, K L

    2004-01-26

    Receptors of the EGF receptor or ErbB family of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases are frequently overexpressed in a variety of solid tumours, and the aberrant activation of their tyrosine kinase activities is thought to contribute to tumour growth and progression. Much effort has been put into developing inhibitors of ErbB receptors, and both antibody and small-molecule approaches have exhibited clinical success. Recently, a number of endogenous negative regulatory proteins have been identified that suppress the signalling activity of ErbB receptors in cells. These include intracellular RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligases such as cbl and Nrdp1 that mediate ErbB receptor degradation, and may include a wide variety of secreted and transmembrane proteins that suppress receptor activation by growth factor ligands. It will be of interest to determine the extent to which tumour cells suppress these pathways to promote their progression, and whether restoration of endogenous receptor-negative regulatory pathways may be exploited for therapeutic benefit.

  10. AGC1/2, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carriers.

    PubMed

    Amoedo, N D; Punzi, G; Obre, E; Lacombe, D; De Grassi, A; Pierri, C L; Rossignol, R

    2016-10-01

    In this review we discuss the structure and functions of the aspartate/glutamate carriers (AGC1-aralar and AGC2-citrin). Those proteins supply the aspartate synthesized within mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol in exchange for glutamate and a proton. A structure of an AGC carrier is not available yet but comparative 3D models were proposed. Moreover, transport assays performed by using the recombinant AGC1 and AGC2, reconstituted into liposome vesicles, allowed to explore the kinetics of those carriers and to reveal their specific transport properties. AGCs participate to a wide range of cellular functions, as the control of mitochondrial respiration, calcium signaling and antioxydant defenses. AGC1 might also play peculiar tissue-specific functions, as it was found to participate to cell-to-cell metabolic symbiosis in the retina. On the other hand, AGC1 is involved in the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in neurons and AGC gene or protein alterations were discovered in rare human diseases. Accordingly, a mice model of AGC1 gene knock-out presented with growth delay and generalized tremor, with myelinisation defects. More recently, AGC was proposed to play a crucial role in tumor metabolism as observed from metabolomic studies showing that the asparate exported from the mitochondrion by AGC1 is employed in the regeneration of cytosolic glutathione. Therefore, given the central role of AGCs in cell metabolism and human pathology, drug screening are now being developed to identify pharmacological modulators of those carriers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  11. AGC-2 Irradiation Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence C. Hull

    2012-07-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment (AGC-2) began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 149A on April 12, 2011, and ended with ATR Cycle 151B on May 5, 2012. The purpose of this report is to qualify AGC-2 irradiation monitoring data following INL Management and Control Procedure 2691, Data Qualification. Data that are Qualified meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Data that do not meet the requirements are Failed. Some data may not quite meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. These data are labeled as Trend. No Trend data were identified for the AGC-2 experiment. All thermocouples functioned throughout the AGC-2 experiment. There was one instance where spurious signals or instrument power interruption resulted in a recorded temperature value being well outside physical reality. This value was identified and labeled as Failed data. All other temperature data are Qualified. All helium and argon gas flow data are within expected ranges. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during reactor shutdown. All gas flow data are Qualified. At the start of the experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line increased to 200 ppmv then declined to less than 10 ppmv over a period of 5 days. This increase in moisture coincides with the initial heating of the experiment and drying of the system. Moisture slightly exceeded 10 ppmv three other times during the experiment. While these moisture values exceed the 10 ppmv threshold value, the reported measurements are considered accurate and to reflect moisture conditions in the capsule. All moisture data are Qualified. Graphite creep specimens are subjected to one of three loads, 393 lbf

  12. The Y’s that bind: negative regulators of Src family kinase activity in platelets

    PubMed Central

    NEWMAN, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases play important roles in platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding how Src family kinase activity is regulated in general, to describe what is known about mechanisms underlying SFK activation in platelets, and to discuss platelet proteins that contribute to SFK inactivation, particularly those that use phosphotyrosine-containing sequences to recruit phosphatases and kinases to sites of SFK activity. PMID:19630799

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis tarp is phosphorylated by src family tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Travis J; Dooley, Cheryl A; Mead, David J; Hackstadt, Ted

    2008-06-27

    The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp) is injected into the cytosol shortly after Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to a target cell and subsequently phosphorylated by an unidentified tyrosine kinase. A role for Tarp phosphorylation in bacterial entry is unknown. In this study, recombinant C. trachomatis Tarp was employed to identify the host cell kinase(s) required for phosphorylation. Each tyrosine rich repeat of L2 Tarp harbors a sequence similar to a Src and Abl kinase consensus target. Furthermore, purified p60-src, Yes, Fyn, and Abl kinases were able to phosphorylate Tarp. Mutagenesis of potential tyrosines within a single tyrosine rich repeat peptide indicated that both Src and Abl kinases phosphorylate the same residues suggesting that C. trachomatis Tarp may serve as a substrate for multiple host cell kinases. Surprisingly, chemical inhibition of Src and Abl kinases prevented Tarp phosphorylation in culture and had no measurable effect on bacterial entry into host cells.

  14. The Src family kinases: distinct functions of c-Src, Yes, and Fyn in the liver.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Roland; Sommerfeld, Annika; Häussinger, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    The Src family kinases Yes, Fyn, and c-Src play a pivotal role in regulating diverse liver functions such as bile flow, proteolysis, apoptosis, and proliferation and are regulated by anisoosmotic cell volume changes, death receptor ligands, and bile acids. For example, cell swelling leads to an integrin-sensed and focal adhesion kinase-mediated activation of c-Src-triggering choleresis, proteolysis inhibition, regulatory volume decrease via p38MAPK and proliferation via the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2. In contrast, hepatocyte shrinkage generates an almost instantaneous oxidative stress response that triggers the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the Src family kinases Fyn and Yes. Whereas Fyn activation mediates cholestasis, Yes triggers CD95 activation and apoptosis. This review will discuss the role of Src family kinases in the regulation of liver function with emphasis on their role in osmo-signaling and bile acid signaling.

  15. Structural basis for the mechanism and substrate specificity of glycocyamine kinase, a phosphagen kinase family member

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kap; Pullalarevu, Sadhana; Surabian, Karen Talin; Howard, Andrew; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Moult, John; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-03-12

    Glycocyamine kinase (GK), a member of the phosphagen kinase family, catalyzes the Mg{sup 2+}-dependent reversible phosphoryl group transfer of the N-phosphoryl group of phosphoglycocyamine to ADP to yield glycocyamine and ATP. This reaction helps to maintain the energy homeostasis of the cell in some multicelullar organisms that encounter high and variable energy turnover. GK from the marine worm Namalycastis sp. is heterodimeric, with two homologous polypeptide chains, {alpha} and {beta}, derived from a common pre-mRNA by mutually exclusive N-terminal alternative exons. The N-terminal exon of GK{beta} encodes a peptide that is different in sequence and is 16 amino acids longer than that encoded by the N-terminal exon of GK{alpha}. The crystal structures of recombinant GK{alpha}{beta} and GK{beta}{beta} from Namalycastis sp. were determined at 2.6 and 2.4 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In addition, the structure of the GK{beta}{beta} was determined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution in complex with a transition state analogue, Mg{sup 2+}-ADP-NO{sub 3}{sup -}-glycocyamine. Consistent with the sequence homology, the GK subunits adopt the same overall fold as that of other phosphagen kinases of known structure (the homodimeric creatine kinase (CK) and the monomeric arginine kinase (AK)). As with CK, the GK N-termini mediate the dimer interface. In both heterodimeric and homodimeric GK forms, the conformations of the two N-termini are asymmetric, and the asymmetry is different than that reported previously for the homodimeric CKs from several organisms. The entire polypeptide chains of GK{alpha}{beta} are structurally defined, and the longer N-terminus of the {beta} subunit is anchored at the dimer interface. In GK{beta}{beta} the 24 N-terminal residues of one subunit and 11 N-terminal residues of the second subunit are disordered. This observation is consistent with a proposal that the GK{alpha}{beta} amino acids involved in the interface formation were optimized once

  16. Functional Significance of Aurora Kinases-p53 Protein Family Interactions in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sasai, Kaori; Treekitkarnmongkol, Warapen; Kai, Kazuharu; Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Aurora kinases play critical roles in regulating spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis to ensure faithful segregation of chromosomes during mitotic cell division cycle. Molecular and cell biological studies have revealed that Aurora kinases, at physiological levels, orchestrate complex sequential cellular processes at distinct subcellular locations through functional interactions with its various substrates. Aberrant expression of Aurora kinases, on the other hand, cause defects in mitotic spindle assembly, checkpoint response activation, and chromosome segregation leading to chromosomal instability. Elevated expression of Aurora kinases correlating with chromosomal instability is frequently detected in human cancers. Recent genomic profiling of about 3000 human cancer tissue specimens to identify various oncogenic signatures in The Cancer Genome Atlas project has reported that recurrent amplification and overexpression of Aurora kinase-A characterize distinct subsets of human tumors across multiple cancer types. Besides the well-characterized canonical pathway interactions of Aurora kinases in regulating assembly of the mitotic apparatus and chromosome segregation, growing evidence also supports the notion that deregulated expression of Aurora kinases in non-canonical pathways drive transformation and genomic instability by antagonizing tumor suppressor and exacerbating oncogenic signaling through direct interactions with critical proteins. Aberrant expression of the Aurora kinases-p53 protein family signaling axes appears to be critical in the abrogation of p53 protein family mediated tumor suppressor pathways frequently deregulated during oncogenic transformation process. Recent findings reveal the existence of feedback regulatory loops in mRNA expression and protein stability of these protein families and their consequences on downstream effectors involved in diverse physiological functions, such as mitotic progression, checkpoint response

  17. Protective role for lipid modifications of Src-family kinases against chromosome missegregation

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Takuya; Soeda, Shuhei; Tsuda, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Chihiro; Aoyama, Kazumasa; Morinaga, Takao; Yuki, Ryuzaburo; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Src-family tyrosine kinases, which are expressed in various cell types, play critical roles in cell signalling at the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane through their lipid modifications. Src-family kinases are cotranslationally myristoylated and posttranslationally palmitoylated in the amino-terminal region. The Src-family member Lyn contains a myristoylation site at glycine-2 and a palmitoylation site at cysteine-3, whereas c-Src has a myristoylation site at glycine-2 but not any palmitoylation sites. However, little is known about the role for lipid modifications of Src-family kinases in cell division. Here, we show that non-lipid-modified Lyn and c-Src, Lyn(G2A/C3A) and c-Src(G2A), are delocalized from membranes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, which gives rise to a significant increase in the rate of chromosome missegregation, such as chromosome lagging and anaphase chromosome bridging, in a tyrosine kinase activity-dependent manner. Treatment with the Src inhibitor PP2 shows that the kinase activity of non-lipid-modified, non-membrane-bound Src during M phase is critical for giving rise to chromosome missegregation. Given that only a fraction of Src-family kinases fails in lipid modifications during biosynthesis, these results suggest that Src’s membrane anchorage through their lipid modifications from prophase to anaphase plays a protective role against induction of chromosome missegregation. PMID:27941902

  18. Phosphorylation of spore coat proteins by a family of atypical protein kinases

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Kim B.; Sreelatha, Anju; Durrant, Eric S.; ...

    2016-05-16

    The modification of proteins by phosphorylation occurs in all life forms and is catalyzed by a large superfamily of enzymes known as protein kinases. We recently discovered a family of secretory pathway kinases that phosphorylate extracellular proteins. One member, family with sequence similarity 20C (Fam20C), is the physiological Golgi casein kinase. While examining distantly related protein sequences, we observed low levels of identity between the spore coat protein H (CotH), and the Fam20C-related secretory pathway kinases. CotH is a component of the spore in many bacterial and eukaryotic species, and is required for efficient germination of spores in Bacillus subtilis;more » however, the mechanism by which CotH affects germination is unclear. In this paper, we show that CotH is a protein kinase. The crystal structure of CotH reveals an atypical protein kinase-like fold with a unique mode of ATP binding. Examination of the genes neighboring cotH in B. subtilis led us to identify two spore coat proteins, CotB and CotG, as CotH substrates. Furthermore, we show that CotH-dependent phosphorylation of CotB and CotG is required for the efficient germination of B. subtilis spores. Finally and collectively, our results define a family of atypical protein kinases and reveal an unexpected role for protein phosphorylation in spore biology.« less

  19. Phosphorylation of spore coat proteins by a family of atypical protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim B.; Sreelatha, Anju; Durrant, Eric S.; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Muszewska, Anna; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grynberg, Marcin; Yee, Samantha; Pogliano, Kit; Tomchick, Diana R.; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Dixon, Jack E.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.

    2016-01-01

    The modification of proteins by phosphorylation occurs in all life forms and is catalyzed by a large superfamily of enzymes known as protein kinases. We recently discovered a family of secretory pathway kinases that phosphorylate extracellular proteins. One member, family with sequence similarity 20C (Fam20C), is the physiological Golgi casein kinase. While examining distantly related protein sequences, we observed low levels of identity between the spore coat protein H (CotH), and the Fam20C-related secretory pathway kinases. CotH is a component of the spore in many bacterial and eukaryotic species, and is required for efficient germination of spores in Bacillus subtilis; however, the mechanism by which CotH affects germination is unclear. Here, we show that CotH is a protein kinase. The crystal structure of CotH reveals an atypical protein kinase-like fold with a unique mode of ATP binding. Examination of the genes neighboring cotH in B. subtilis led us to identify two spore coat proteins, CotB and CotG, as CotH substrates. Furthermore, we show that CotH-dependent phosphorylation of CotB and CotG is required for the efficient germination of B. subtilis spores. Collectively, our results define a family of atypical protein kinases and reveal an unexpected role for protein phosphorylation in spore biology. PMID:27185916

  20. Phosphorylation of spore coat proteins by a family of atypical protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kim B.; Sreelatha, Anju; Durrant, Eric S.; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Muszewska, Anna; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grynberg, Marcin; Yee, Samantha; Pogliano, Kit; Tomchick, Diana R.; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Dixon, Jack E.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.

    2016-05-16

    The modification of proteins by phosphorylation occurs in all life forms and is catalyzed by a large superfamily of enzymes known as protein kinases. We recently discovered a family of secretory pathway kinases that phosphorylate extracellular proteins. One member, family with sequence similarity 20C (Fam20C), is the physiological Golgi casein kinase. While examining distantly related protein sequences, we observed low levels of identity between the spore coat protein H (CotH), and the Fam20C-related secretory pathway kinases. CotH is a component of the spore in many bacterial and eukaryotic species, and is required for efficient germination of spores in Bacillus subtilis; however, the mechanism by which CotH affects germination is unclear. In this paper, we show that CotH is a protein kinase. The crystal structure of CotH reveals an atypical protein kinase-like fold with a unique mode of ATP binding. Examination of the genes neighboring cotH in B. subtilis led us to identify two spore coat proteins, CotB and CotG, as CotH substrates. Furthermore, we show that CotH-dependent phosphorylation of CotB and CotG is required for the efficient germination of B. subtilis spores. Finally and collectively, our results define a family of atypical protein kinases and reveal an unexpected role for protein phosphorylation in spore biology.

  1. Experience with joint AGC regulation. [Automatic Generation Control

    SciTech Connect

    Prowse, D.C.H. ); Koskela, P. ); Grove, T.A. ); Larson, L.R. )

    1994-11-01

    Operating generators on Automatic Generation Control to follow load fluctuations has often been considered an unavoidable cost of doing business. However, several months of testing and more than two years of commercial operation have demonstrated that there can be significant benefits in transferring AGC regulation from three predominantly thermal-based utilities to a fourth predominantly hydro-based utility. This arrangement called Joint AGC Regulation successfully transfers high frequency regulation components for reduced fuel and maintenance costs and allows dynamic interchange scheduling to achieve flexible generation scheduling and improved economic dispatch. Successful implementation involved development of a Joint AGC Regulation control strategy and an evaluation of the tangible and intangible costs of providing AGC regulation.

  2. AGC-2 Graphite Pre-irradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  3. The Wall-associated Kinase gene family in rice genomes.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Valter; Christoff, Ana Paula; de Lima, Júlio Cesar; de Ross, Bruno Comparsi Feijó; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogerio

    2014-12-01

    The environment is a dynamic system in which life forms adapt. Wall-Associated Kinases (WAK) are a subfamily of receptor-like kinases associated with the cell wall. These genes have been suggested as sensors of the extracellular environment and triggers of intracellular signals. They belong to the ePK superfamily with or without a conserved arginine before the catalytic subdomain VIB, which characterizes RD and non-RD WAKs. WAK is a large subfamily in rice. We performed an extensive comparison of WAK genes from A. thaliana (AtWAK), O. sativa japonica and indica subspecies (OsWAK). Phylogenetic studies and WAK domain characterization allowed for the identification of two distinct groups of WAK genes in Arabidopsis and rice. One group corresponds to a cluster containing only OsWAKs that most likely expanded after the monocot-dicot separation, which evolved into a non-RD kinase class. The other group comprises classical RD-kinases with both AtWAK and OsWAK representatives. Clusterization analysis using extracellular and kinase domains demonstrated putative functional redundancy for some genes, but also highlighted genes that could recognize similar extracellular stimuli and activate different cascades. The gene expression pattern of WAKs in response to cold suggests differences in the regulation of the OsWAK genes in the indica and japonica subspecies. Our results also confirm the hypothesis of functional diversification between A. thaliana and O. sativa WAK genes. Furthermore, we propose that plant WAKs constitute two evolutionarily related but independent subfamilies: WAK-RD and WAK-nonRD. Recognition of this structural division will further provide insights to understanding WAK functions and regulations.

  4. Conserved family of glycerol kinase loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Martinez Agosto, Julian A.; McCabe, Edward R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol, the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization. We analyzed the genome of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and identified five GK orthologs, including two loci with sequence homology to the mammalian Xp21 GK protein. Using a combination of sequence analysis and evolutionary comparisons of orthologs between species, we characterized functional domains in the protein required for GK activity. Our findings include additional conserved domains that suggest novel nuclear and mitochondrial functions for glycerol kinase in apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Investigation of GK function in Drosophila will inform us about the role of this enzyme in development and will provide us with a tool to examine genetic modifiers of human metabolic disorders. PMID:16545593

  5. The Protein Kinase RSK Family - Roles in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    of the prodrug, kaempferol 3-O-(2",3",4"-tri-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranoside)(3Ac- SL0101), a novel inhibitor of the Ser/Thr protein kinase, RSK...Y, Holman NJ, Hecht SM, Lannigan DA. Synthesis of the prodrug, kaempferol 3-O-(2", 3", 4"-tri-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranoside) (3Ac-SLO1 01), a novel

  6. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  7. The Ime2 protein kinase family in fungi: more duties than just meiosis.

    PubMed

    Irniger, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    Ime2 of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to a family of conserved protein kinases displaying sequence similarities to both cyclin-dependent kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Ime2 has a pivotal role for meiosis and sporulation. The involvement of this protein kinase in the regulation of various key events in meiosis, such as the initiation of DNA replication, the expression of meiosis-specific genes and the passage through the two consecutive rounds of nuclear divisions has been characterized in detail. More than 20 years after the identification of the IME2 gene, a recent report has provided the first evidence for a function of this gene outside of meiosis, which is the regulation of pseudohyphal growth. In the last few years, Ime2-related protein kinases from various fungal species were studied. Remarkably, these homologues are not generally required for meiosis, but instead have other specific tasks. In filamentous ascomycete species, Ime2 homologues are involved in the inhibition of fruiting body formation in response to environmental signals. In the pathogenic basidiomycetes Ustilago maydis and Cryptococcus neoformans, members of this kinase family apparently have primary roles in regulating mating. Thus, Ime2-related kinases exhibit an amazing variety in controlling sexual developmental programs in fungi.

  8. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of WNK kinase gene family in rice.

    PubMed

    Manuka, Rakesh; Saddhe, Ankush Ashok; Kumar, Kundan

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases represent one of the largest gene families involved in diverse regulatory functions. WNK (With No Lysine) kinases are members of ser/thr protein kinase family, which lack conserved catalytic lysine (K) residue at protein kinase subdomain II and is replaced by either asparagine, serine or glycine residues. They are involved in regulation of flowering time, circadian rhythms and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we have identified 9 members of WNK in rice, showed resemblance to Arabidopsis and human WNK and clustered into five main clades phylogenetically. The predicted genes structure, bonafide conserved signature motif and domains strongly support their identity, as members of WNK kinase family. We have analyzed their chromosomal distribution, physio-chemical properties, subcellular localizations and cis-elements in the promoter regions in silico. Further, transcript analysis of OsWNK by qRT-PCR revealed their differential regulation in tissue specific and abiotic stresses libraries. In conclusion, the identification of nine OsWNK and transcript level expression pattern under abiotic stress using qRT-PCR in rice will significantly contribute towards the understanding of WNK genes in monocots and thus provide a set up for functional genomics studies of WNK protein kinases.

  9. A novel family of serine/threonine kinases participating in spermiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kueng, P; Nikolova, Z; Djonov, V; Hemphill, A; Rohrbach, V; Boehlen, D; Zuercher, G; Andres, A C; Ziemiecki, A

    1997-12-29

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the spectacular cytodifferentiation observed during spermiogenesis are poorly understood. We have recently identified a murine testis-specific serine kinase (tssk) 1, constituting a novel subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. Using low stringency screening we have isolated and molecularly characterized a second closely related family member, tssk 2, which is probably the orthologue of the human DGS-G gene. Expression of tssk 1 and tssk 2 was limited to the testis of sexually mature males. Immunohistochemical staining localized both kinases to the cytoplasm of late spermatids and to structures resembling residual bodies. tssk 1 and tssk 2 were absent in released sperms in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules and the epididymis, demonstrating a tight window of expression restricted to the last stages of spermatid maturation. In vitro kinase assays of immunoprecipitates containing either tssk 1 or tssk 2 revealed no autophosphorylation of the kinases, however, they led to serine phosphorylation of a coprecipitating protein of approximately 65 kD. A search for interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system with tssk 1 and tssk 2 cDNA as baits and a prey cDNA library from mouse testis, led to the isolation of a novel cDNA, interacting specifically with both tssk 1 and tssk 2, and encoding the coprecipitated 65-kD protein phosphorylated by both kinases. Interestingly, expression of the interacting clone was also testis specific and paralleled the developmental expression observed for the kinases themselves. These results represent the first demonstration of the involvement of a distinct kinase family, the tssk serine/threonine kinases, together with a substrate in the cytodifferentiation of late spermatids to sperms.

  10. Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK): structure, regulation, and functions.

    PubMed

    Julian, Linda; Olson, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK) were originally identified as effectors of the RhoA small GTPase. (1)(-) (5) They belong to the AGC family of serine/threonine kinases (6) and play vital roles in facilitating actomyosin cytoskeleton contractility downstream of RhoA and RhoC activation. Since their discovery, ROCK kinases have been extensively studied, unveiling their manifold functions in processes including cell contraction, migration, apoptosis, survival, and proliferation. Two mammalian ROCK homologs have been identified, ROCK1 (also called ROCK I, ROKβ, Rho-kinase β, or p160ROCK) and ROCK2 (also known as ROCK II, ROKα, or Rho kinase), hereafter collectively referred to as ROCK. In this review, we will focus on the structure, regulation, and functions of ROCK.

  11. Src family kinase activity regulates adhesion, spreading and migration of pancreatic endocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Di Florio, Alessia; Capurso, Gabriele; Milione, Massimo; Panzuto, Francesco; Geremia, Raffaele; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Sette, Claudio

    2007-03-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumours (PETs) are rare and 'indolent' neoplasms that usually develop metastatic lesions and exhibit poor response to standard medical treatments. Few studies have investigated pathways responsible for PET cell growth and invasion and no alternative therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In a recent microarray analysis for genes up-regulated in PETs, we have described the up-regulation of soluble Src family tyrosine kinases in this neoplasia, which may represent potentially promising candidates for therapy. Herein, we have investigated the expression and function of Src family kinases in PETS and PET cell lines. Western blot analysis indicated that Src is highly abundant in the PET cell lines CM and QGP-1. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses showed that Src is up-regulated also in human PET lesions. Pharmacological inhibition of Src family kinases by the specific inhibitor PP2 strongly interfered with adhesion, spreading and migration of PET cell lines. Accordingly, the actin cytoskeleton was profoundly altered after inhibition of Src kinases, whereas even prolonged incubation with PP2 exerted no effect on cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis of PET cells. A transient increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of a subset of proteins was observed in QGP-1 cells adhering to the plate, with a peak at 75 min after seeding, when approximately 80% of cells were attached. Inhibition of Src kinases caused a dramatic reduction in the phosphorylation of proteins with different molecular weight that were isolated from the cell extracts by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation or pull-down with the SH2 domain of Src. Among them, the docking protein p130Cas interacted with Src and is a major substrate of the Src kinases in QGP-1 cells undergoing adhesion. Our results suggest that Src kinases play a specific role during adhesion, spreading and migration of PET cells and may indicate therapeutical approaches directed to limiting the metastatic

  12. Phosphorylation of Dok1 by Abl family kinases inhibits CrkI transforming activity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Khong Y.; Yin, Taofei; Machida, Kazuya; Wu, Yi I.; Mayer, Bruce J.

    2014-01-01

    The Crk SH2/SH3 adaptor and the Abl nonreceptor tyrosine kinase were first identified as oncoproteins, and both can induce tumorigenesis when overexpressed or mutationally activated. We previously reported the surprising finding that inhibition or knockdown of Abl family kinases enhanced transformation of mouse fibroblasts by CrkI. Abl family inhibitors are currently used or are being tested for treatment of human malignancies, and our finding raised concerns that such inhibitors might actually promote the growth of tumors overexpressing CrkI. Here, we identify the Dok1 adaptor as the key effector for the enhancement of CrkI transformation by Abl inhibition. We show that phosphorylation of tyrosines 295 and 361 of Dok1 by Abl family kinases suppresses CrkI transforming activity, and that upon phosphorylation these tyrosines bind the SH2 domains of the Ras inhibitor p120 RasGAP. Knockdown of RasGAP resulted in a similar enhancement of CrkI transformation, consistent with a critical role for Ras activity. Imaging studies using a FRET sensor of Ras activation revealed alterations in the localization of activated Ras in CrkI-transformed cells. Our results support a model in which Dok1 phosphorylation normally suppresses localized Ras pathway activity in Crk-transformed cells via recruitment and/or activation of RasGAP, and that preventing this negative feedback mechanism by inhibiting Abl family kinases leads to enhanced transformation by Crk. PMID:25043303

  13. A Role for the Tec Family Tyrosine Kinase Txk in T Cell Activation and Thymocyte Selection

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Connie L.; Rabin, Ronald L.; Grinberg, Alexander; Tsay, Henry C.; Farber, Joshua; Love, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    Recent data indicate that several members of the Tec family of protein tyrosine kinases function in antigen receptor signal transduction. Txk, a Tec family protein tyrosine kinase, is expressed in both immature and mature T cells and in mast cells. By overexpressing Txk in T cells throughout development, we found that Txk specifically augments the phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1–mediated calcium signal transduction pathway upon T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement. Although Txk is structurally different from inducible T cell kinase (Itk), another Tec family member expressed in T cells, expression of the Txk transgene could partially rescue defects in positive selection and signaling in itk−/− mice. Conversely, in the itk+/+ (wild-type) background, overexpression of Txk inhibited positive selection of TCR transgenic thymocytes, presumably due to induction of cell death. These results identify a role for Txk in TCR signal transduction, T cell development, and selection and suggest that the Tec family kinases Itk and Txk perform analogous functions. PMID:10562318

  14. Structural Insights into the HWE Histidine Kinase Family: The Brucella Blue Light-Activated Histidine Kinase Domain.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Jimena; Arrar, Mehrnoosh; Sycz, Gabriela; Cerutti, María Laura; Berguer, Paula M; Paris, Gastón; Estrín, Darío Ariel; Martí, Marcelo Adrián; Klinke, Sebastián; Goldbaum, Fernando Alberto

    2016-03-27

    In response to light, as part of a two-component system, the Brucella blue light-activated histidine kinase (LOV-HK) increases its autophosphorylation, modulating the virulence of this microorganism. The Brucella histidine kinase (HK) domain belongs to the HWE family, for which there is no structural information. The HWE family is exclusively present in proteobacteria and usually coupled to a wide diversity of light sensor domains. This work reports the crystal structure of the Brucella HK domain, which presents two different dimeric assemblies in the asymmetric unit: one similar to the already described canonical parallel homodimers (C) and the other, an antiparallel non-canonical (NC) dimer, each with distinct relative subdomain orientations and dimerization interfaces. Contrary to these crystallographic structures and unlike other HKs, in solution, the Brucella HK domain is monomeric and still active, showing an astonishing instability of the dimeric interface. Despite this instability, using cross-linking experiments, we show that the C dimer is the functionally relevant species. Mutational analysis demonstrates that the autophosphorylation activity occurs in cis. The different relative subdomain orientations observed for the NC and C states highlight the large conformational flexibility of the HK domain. Through the analysis of these alternative conformations by means of molecular dynamics simulations, we also propose a catalytic mechanism for Brucella LOV-HK.

  15. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  16. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Laurence C.

    2014-08-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear-grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC-3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. The report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data following MCP-2691. This report also documents whether AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data meet the requirements for data collection as specified in technical and functional requirements documents and quality assurance (QA) plans. Data handling is described showing how data are passed from the data collection experiment to the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) team. The data structure is described, including data batches, components, attributes, and response variables. The description of the approach to data qualification includes the steps taken to qualify the data and the specific tests used to verify that the data meet requirements. Finally, the current status of the data received by NDMAS from the AGC-3 experiment is presented with summarized information on test results and resolutions. This report addresses all of the irradiation monitoring data collected during the AGC-3 experiment.

  17. Completing the structural family portrait of the human EphB tyrosine kinase domains

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Ross C; Debreczeni, Judit E; Truman, Caroline M; McAlister, Mark S; Attwood, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    The EphB receptors have key roles in cell morphology, adhesion, migration and invasion, and their aberrant action has been linked with the development and progression of many different tumor types. Their conflicting expression patterns in cancer tissues, combined with their high sequence and structural identity, present interesting challenges to those seeking to develop selective therapeutic molecules targeting this large receptor family. Here, we present the first structure of the EphB1 tyrosine kinase domain determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.5Å. Our comparative crystalisation analysis of the human EphB family kinases has also yielded new crystal forms of the human EphB2 and EphB4 catalytic domains. Unable to crystallize the wild-type EphB3 kinase domain, we used rational engineering (based on our new structures of EphB1, EphB2, and EphB4) to identify a single point mutation which facilitated its crystallization and structure determination to 2.2 Å. This mutation also improved the soluble recombinant yield of this kinase within Escherichia coli, and increased both its intrinsic stability and catalytic turnover, without affecting its ligand-binding profile. The partial ordering of the activation loop in the EphB3 structure alludes to a potential cis-phosphorylation mechanism for the EphB kinases. With the kinase domain structures of all four catalytically competent human EphB receptors now determined, a picture begins to emerge of possible opportunities to produce EphB isozyme-selective kinase inhibitors for mechanistic studies and therapeutic applications. PMID:24677421

  18. Inhibition of Src family kinases with dasatinib blocks migration and invasion of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Ralf; Mesa, Tania; Vultur, Adina; Lee, Frank; Jove, Richard

    2008-11-01

    Src family kinases (SFK) are involved in regulating a multitude of biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival, depending on the cellular context. Therefore, although SFKs are currently being investigated as potential targets for treatment strategies in various cancers, the biological responses to inhibition of SFK signaling in any given tumor type are not predictable. Dasatinib (BMS-354825) is a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor with potent antiproliferative activity against hematologic malignancies harboring activated BCR-ABL. In this study, we show that dasatinib blocks migration and invasion of human melanoma cells without affecting proliferation and survival. Moreover, dasatinib completely inhibits SFK kinase activity at low nanomolar concentrations in all eight human melanoma cell lines investigated. In addition, two known downstream targets of SFKs, focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated substrate (p130(CAS)), are inhibited with similar concentrations and kinetics. Consistent with inhibition of these signaling pathways and invasion, dasatinib down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. We also provide evidence that dasatinib directly inhibits kinase activity of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is overexpressed and/or overactive in many solid tumors, including melanoma. Thus, SFKs and downstream signaling are implicated as having key roles in migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

  19. An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

  20. Molecular pathways: targeting the kinase effectors of RHO-family GTPases.

    PubMed

    Prudnikova, Tatiana Y; Rawat, Sonali J; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    RHO GTPases, members of the RAS superfamily of small GTPases, are adhesion and growth factor-activated molecular switches that play important roles in tumor development and progression. When activated, RHO-family GTPases such as RAC1, CDC42, and RHOA, transmit signals by recruiting a variety of effector proteins, including the protein kinases PAK, ACK, MLK, MRCK, and ROCK. Genetically induced loss of RHO function impedes transformation by a number of oncogenic stimuli, leading to an interest in developing small-molecule inhibitors that either target RHO GTPases directly, or that target their downstream protein kinase effectors. Although inhibitors of RHO GTPases and their downstream signaling kinases have not yet been widely adopted for clinical use, their potential value as cancer therapeutics continues to facilitate pharmaceutical research and development and is a promising therapeutic strategy.

  1. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    SciTech Connect

    Windes, William Enoch; Swank, W. David; Rohrbaugh, David T.; Cottle, David L.

    2015-08-01

    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  2. Structure and inhibitor specificity of the PCTAIRE-family kinase CDK16

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Clarke, Sarah E.; Shehata, Saifeldin N.; Krojer, Tobias; Sharpe, Timothy D.; vonDelft, Frank; Sakamoto, Kei

    2017-01-01

    CDK16 (also known as PCTAIRE1 or PCTK1) is an atypical member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family that has emerged as a key regulator of neurite outgrowth, vesicle trafficking and cancer cell proliferation. CDK16 is activated through binding to cyclin Y via a phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 interaction and has a unique consensus substrate phosphorylation motif compared with conventional CDKs. To elucidate the structure and inhibitor-binding properties of this atypical CDK, we screened the CDK16 kinase domain against different inhibitor libraries and determined the co-structures of identified hits. We discovered that the ATP-binding pocket of CDK16 can accommodate both type I and type II kinase inhibitors. The most potent CDK16 inhibitors revealed by cell-free and cell-based assays were the multitargeted cancer drugs dabrafenib and rebastinib. An inactive DFG-out binding conformation was confirmed by the first crystal structures of CDK16 in separate complexes with the inhibitors indirubin E804 and rebastinib, respectively. The structures revealed considerable conformational plasticity, suggesting that the isolated CDK16 kinase domain was relatively unstable in the absence of a cyclin partner. The unusual structural features and chemical scaffolds identified here hold promise for the development of more selective CDK16 inhibitors and provide opportunity to better characterise the role of CDK16 and its related CDK family members in various physiological and pathological contexts. PMID:28057719

  3. Structure and inhibitor specificity of the PCTAIRE-family kinase CDK16.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Clarke, Sarah E; Shehata, Saifeldin N; Krojer, Tobias; Sharpe, Timothy D; von Delft, Frank; Sakamoto, Kei; Bullock, Alex N

    2017-02-20

    CDK16 (also known as PCTAIRE1 or PCTK1) is an atypical member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family that has emerged as a key regulator of neurite outgrowth, vesicle trafficking and cancer cell proliferation. CDK16 is activated through binding to cyclin Y via a phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 interaction and has a unique consensus substrate phosphorylation motif compared with conventional CDKs. To elucidate the structure and inhibitor-binding properties of this atypical CDK, we screened the CDK16 kinase domain against different inhibitor libraries and determined the co-structures of identified hits. We discovered that the ATP-binding pocket of CDK16 can accommodate both type I and type II kinase inhibitors. The most potent CDK16 inhibitors revealed by cell-free and cell-based assays were the multitargeted cancer drugs dabrafenib and rebastinib. An inactive DFG-out binding conformation was confirmed by the first crystal structures of CDK16 in separate complexes with the inhibitors indirubin E804 and rebastinib, respectively. The structures revealed considerable conformational plasticity, suggesting that the isolated CDK16 kinase domain was relatively unstable in the absence of a cyclin partner. The unusual structural features and chemical scaffolds identified here hold promise for the development of more selective CDK16 inhibitors and provide opportunity to better characterise the role of CDK16 and its related CDK family members in various physiological and pathological contexts.

  4. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling in tumor cells by small molecule Src family kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bartscht, Tobias; Rosien, Benjamin; Rades, Dirk; Kaufmann, Roland; Biersack, Harald; Lehnerta, Hendrik; Ungefroren, Hendrik

    2017-01-02

    In a series of studies carried out over the last couple of years in various cell types, it was observed that the experimentally used Src family kinase inhibitors PP1 and PP2 and the clinically used Src/Abl inhibitors AZM475271 and dasatinib are potent inhibitors of TGF-β mediated cellular responses such as Smad and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, Smad-dependent transcriptional activation, growth inhibition, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell motility. While for PP1/PP2 it was demonstrated shown that these agents directly inhibit the kinase activity of the TGF-β type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5, the mechanism of the anti-TGF-β effect of AZM475271 and dasatinib is less clear. In contrast, the anti-TGF-β effect of yet another Src/Abl inhibitor, bosutinib, is more variable with respect to the type of the TGF-β response and the cell type affected, and lacks a clear dose-dependency. In the light of their strong anti-activin receptor-like kinase 5 kinase effect, PP1 and PP2 should not be used when studying the role of c-Src as downstream mediators in TGF-β/activin receptor-like kinase 5 signaling. On the other hand, based upon in vitro findings, it is conceivable that part of the therapeutic effects of AZM475271 and dasatinib seen in preclinical and clinical studies with solid tumors was caused by inhibition of prometastatic TGF-β rather than Src signaling. If AZM475271 and dasatinib can indeed act as dual Src / TGF-β inhibitors in vivo, this may be beneficial for prevention of metastatic disease in more advanced tumor stages.

  5. The TAM family: phosphatidylserine sensing receptor tyrosine kinases gone awry in cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, Douglas K; DeRyckere, Deborah; Davies, Kurtis D; Earp, H Shelton

    2014-12-01

    The TYRO3, AXL (also known as UFO) and MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are aberrantly expressed in multiple haematological and epithelial malignancies. Rather than functioning as oncogenic drivers, their induction in tumour cells predominately promotes survival, chemoresistance and motility. The unique mode of maximal activation of this RTK family requires an extracellular lipid–protein complex. For example, the protein ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), binds to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) that is externalized on apoptotic cell membranes, which activates MERTK on macrophages. This triggers engulfment of apoptotic material and subsequent anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In tumours, autocrine and paracrine ligands and apoptotic cells are abundant, which provide a survival signal to the tumour cell and favour an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive microenvironment. Thus, TAM kinase inhibition could stimulate antitumour immunity, reduce tumour cell survival, enhance chemosensitivity and diminish metastatic potential.

  6. Structural Characterization of the Predominant Family of Histidine Kinase Sensor Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Hendrickson, W

    2010-01-01

    Histidine kinase (HK) receptors are used ubiquitously by bacteria to monitor environmental changes, and they are also prevalent in plants, fungi, and other protists. Typical HK receptors have an extracellular sensor portion that detects a signal, usually a chemical ligand, and an intracellular transmitter portion that includes both the kinase domain itself and the site for histidine phosphorylation. While kinase domains are highly conserved, sensor domains are diverse. HK receptors function as dimers, but the molecular mechanism for signal transduction across cell membranes remains obscure. In this study, eight crystal structures were determined from five sensor domains representative of the most populated family, family HK1, found in a bioinformatic analysis of predicted sensor domains from transmembrane HKs. Each structure contains an inserted repeat of PhoQ/DcuS/CitA (PDC) domains, and similarity between sequence and structure is correlated across these and other double-PDC sensor proteins. Three of the five sensors crystallize as dimers that appear to be physiologically relevant, and comparisons between ligated structures and apo-state structures provide insights into signal transmission. Some HK1 family proteins prove to be sensors for chemotaxis proteins or diguanylate cyclase receptors, implying a combinatorial molecular evolution.

  7. Structural characterization of the predominant family of histidine kinase sensor domains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2010-07-16

    Histidine kinase (HK) receptors are used ubiquitously by bacteria to monitor environmental changes, and they are also prevalent in plants, fungi, and other protists. Typical HK receptors have an extracellular sensor portion that detects a signal, usually a chemical ligand, and an intracellular transmitter portion that includes both the kinase domain itself and the site for histidine phosphorylation. While kinase domains are highly conserved, sensor domains are diverse. HK receptors function as dimers, but the molecular mechanism for signal transduction across cell membranes remains obscure. In this study, eight crystal structures were determined from five sensor domains representative of the most populated family, family HK1, found in a bioinformatic analysis of predicted sensor domains from transmembrane HKs. Each structure contains an inserted repeat of PhoQ/DcuS/CitA (PDC) domains, and similarity between sequence and structure is correlated across these and other double-PDC sensor proteins. Three of the five sensors crystallize as dimers that appear to be physiologically relevant, and comparisons between ligated structures and apo-state structures provide insights into signal transmission. Some HK1 family proteins prove to be sensors for chemotaxis proteins or diguanylate cyclase receptors, implying a combinatorial molecular evolution.

  8. Dynamics of the Tec-family tyrosine kinase SH3 domains.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Justin M; Tarafdar, Sreya; Joseph, Raji E; Andreotti, Amy H; Smithgall, Thomas E; Engen, John R; Wales, Thomas E

    2016-04-01

    The Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain is an important regulatory domain found in many signaling proteins. X-ray crystallography and NMR structures of SH3 domains are generally conserved but other studies indicate that protein flexibility and dynamics are not. We previously reported that based on hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX MS) studies, there is variable flexibility and dynamics among the SH3 domains of the Src-family tyrosine kinases and related proteins. Here we have extended our studies to the SH3 domains of the Tec family tyrosine kinases (Itk, Btk, Tec, Txk, Bmx). The SH3 domains of members of this family augment the variety in dynamics observed in previous SH3 domains. Txk and Bmx SH3 were found to be highly dynamic in solution by HX MS and Bmx was unstructured by NMR. Itk and Btk SH3 underwent a clear EX1 cooperative unfolding event, which was localized using pepsin digestion and mass spectrometry after hydrogen exchange labeling. The unfolding was localized to peptide regions that had been previously identified in the Src-family and related protein SH3 domains, yet the kinetics of unfolding were not. Sequence alignment does not provide an easy explanation for the observed dynamics behavior, yet the similarity of location of EX1 unfolding suggests that higher-order structural properties may play a role. While the exact reason for such dynamics is not clear, such motions can be exploited in intra- and intermolecular binding assays of proteins containing the domains.

  9. Action of the Src family kinase inhibitor, dasatinib (BMS-354825), on human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sangkil; Kim, Donghwa; Cheng, Jin Q; Zhang, Shumin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Buettner, Ralf; Mirosevich, Janni; Lee, Francis Y; Jove, Richard

    2005-10-15

    Src family kinases (SFK) are currently being investigated as targets for treatment strategies in various cancers. The novel SFK/Abl inhibitor, dasatinib (BMS-354825), is a promising therapeutic agent with oral bioavailability. Dasatinib has been shown to inhibit growth of Bcr-Abl-dependent chronic myeloid leukemia xenografts in nude mice. Dasatinib also has been shown to have activity against cultured human prostate and breast cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which dasatinib acts on epithelial tumor cells remains unknown. In this study, we show that dasatinib blocks the kinase activities of the SFKs, Lyn, and Src, in human prostate cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated substrate (p130(CAS)) signaling downstream of SFKs are also inhibited at similar concentrations of dasatinib. Consistent with inhibition of these signaling pathways, dasatinib suppresses cell adhesion, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Therefore, dasatinib has potential as a therapeutic agent for metastatic prostate cancers harboring activated SFK and focal adhesion kinase signaling.

  10. A flexible AGC algorithm for the Hellenic interconnected system

    SciTech Connect

    Vournas, C.D.; Dialynas, E.N.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Machias, A.V.; Souflis, J.L.; Papadias, B.C.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes a flexible AGC algorithm that has been developed for the Hellenic Interconnected system. The algorithm includes the three well known LFC types (flat frequency; flat tie-line; and tie-line bias), and introduces four operating modes that depend on the magnitude of the measured ACE. These modes are the steady state operating mode, the normal operation mode and two distinct emergency modes. The LFC stability margins are calculated for the case of slow-acting, flat frequency control. The effects of integral feedback are also considered and analyzed. An approximate economic dispatch algorithm is presented, that makes use of a predetermined table of the economic loading of units. Simulation results are reported that demonstrate a satisfactory operation of the developed AGC system. Finally, detailed transient stability program simulations demonstrate that a number of ACE measurements per measuring period are necessary to avoid dangerous false emergencies.

  11. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) phosphorylates the small SPOC family protein Spenito.

    PubMed

    Dewald, D N; Steinmetz, E L; Walldorf, U

    2014-12-01

    The Drosophila homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) is a versatile regulator involved in a variety of pathways, such as Notch and Wingless signalling, thereby acting in processes including the promotion of eye development or control of cell numbers in the nervous system. In vertebrates, extensive studies have related its homologue HIPK2 to important roles in the control of p53-mediated apoptosis and tumour suppression. Spenito (Nito) belongs to the group of small SPOC family proteins and has a role, amongst others, as a regulator of Wingless signalling downstream of Armadillo. In the present study, we show that both proteins have an enzyme-substrate relationship, adding a new interesting component to the broad range of Hipk interactions, and we map several phosphorylation sites of Nito. Furthermore, we were able to define a preliminary consensus motif for Hipk target sites, which will simplify the identification of new substrates of this kinase.

  12. AGC-1 Pre-Irradiation Data Report Status

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2011-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All samples in the experiment will be fully characterized before irradiation, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and then re-examined to determine the irradiation induced changes to key materials properties in the different graphite grades. The information generated during the AGC experiment will be utilized for NRC licensing of NGNP reactor designs, shared with international collaborators in the Generation IV Information Forum (GIF), and eventually utilized in ASME design code for graphite nuclear applications. This status report will describe the process the NGNP Graphite R&D program has developed to record the AGC1 pre-irradiation examination data.

  13. Regulation of floral patterning and organ identity by Arabidopsis ERECTA-family receptor kinase genes.

    PubMed

    Bemis, Shannon M; Lee, Jin Suk; Shpak, Elena D; Torii, Keiko U

    2013-12-01

    Due to the lack of cell migration, plant organogenesis relies on coordinated cell proliferation, cell growth, and differentiation. A flower possesses a complex structure, with sepals and petals constituting the perianth, and stamens and pistils where male and female gametophytes differentiate. While advances have been made in our understanding of gene regulatory networks controlling flower development, relatively little is known of how cell-cell coordination influences floral organ specification. The Arabidopsis ERECTA (ER)-family receptor kinases, ER, ER-LIKE1 (ERL1), and ERL2, regulate inflorescence architecture, organ shape, and epidermal stomatal patterning. Here it is reported that ER-family genes together regulate floral meristem organization and floral organ identity. The stem cell marker CLAVATA3 exhibits misplaced expression in the floral meristems of the er erl1 erl2 mutant. Strikingly, homeotic conversion of sepals to carpels was observed in er erl1 erl2 flowers. Consistently, ectopic expression of AGAMOUS, which determines carpel identity, was detected in er erl1 erl2 flower primordia. Among the known downstream components of ER-family receptor kinases in stomatal patterning, YODA (YDA) is also required for proper floral patterning. YDA and the ER-family show complex, synergistic genetic interactions: er erl1 erl2 yda quadruple mutant plants become extremely small, callus-like masses. While a constitutively active YDA fully rescues stomatal clustering in er erl1 erl2, it only partially rescues er erl1 erl2 flower defects. The study suggests that ER-family signalling is crucial for ensuring proper expression domains of floral meristem and floral organ identity determinants, and further implies the existence of a non-canonical downstream pathway.

  14. Analysis of Somatic Mutations in Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms of Activation in the ErbB Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Andrew J.; Telesco, Shannon E.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The ErbB/EGFR/HER family of kinases consists of four homologous receptor tyrosine kinases which are important regulatory elements in many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Somatic mutations in, or over-expression of, the ErbB family is found in many cancers and is correlated with a poor prognosis; particularly, clinically identified mutations found in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of ErbB1 have been shown to increase its basal kinase activity and patients carrying these mutations respond remarkably to the small tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Here, we analyze the potential effects of the currently catalogued clinically identified mutations in the ErbB family kinase domains on the molecular mechanisms of kinase activation. Recently, we identified conserved networks of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions characteristic to the active and inactive conformation, respectively. Here, we show that the clinically identified mutants influence the kinase activity in distinctive fashion by affecting the characteristic interaction networks. PMID:21701703

  15. VEGF165-induced vascular permeability requires NRP1 for ABL-mediated SRC family kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Lampropoulou, Anastasia; Senatore, Valentina; Brash, James T.; Liyanage, Sidath E.; Raimondi, Claudio; Bainbridge, James W.

    2017-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoform VEGF165 stimulates vascular growth and hyperpermeability. Whereas blood vessel growth is essential to sustain organ health, chronic hyperpermeability causes damaging tissue edema. By combining in vivo and tissue culture models, we show here that VEGF165-induced vascular leakage requires both VEGFR2 and NRP1, including the VEGF164-binding site of NRP1 and the NRP1 cytoplasmic domain (NCD), but not the known NCD interactor GIPC1. In the VEGF165-bound receptor complex, the NCD promotes ABL kinase activation, which in turn is required to activate VEGFR2-recruited SRC family kinases (SFKs). These results elucidate the receptor complex and signaling hierarchy of downstream kinases that transduce the permeability response to VEGF165. In a mouse model with choroidal neovascularisation akin to age-related macular degeneration, NCD loss attenuated vessel leakage without affecting neovascularisation. These findings raise the possibility that targeting NRP1 or its NCD interactors may be a useful therapeutic strategy in neovascular disease to reduce VEGF165-induced edema without compromising vessel growth. PMID:28289053

  16. Differential Phosphoproteomics of Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling: Identification of Src Family Kinase-Mediated Phosphorylation Events

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Activation of signal transduction by the receptor tyrosine kinase, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), results in a cascade of protein−protein interactions that rely on the occurrence of specific tyrosine phosphorylation events. One such protein recruited to the activated receptor complex is the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Src, which is involved in both initiation and termination of further signaling events. To gain a further understanding of the tyrosine phosphorylation events that occur during FGF signaling, with a specific focus on those that are dependent on Src family kinase (SFK) activity, we have applied SILAC combined with chemical inhibition of SFK activity to search for phosphorylation events that are dependent on SFK activity in FGF stimulated cells. In addition, we used a more targeted approach to carry out high coverage phosphopeptide mapping of one Src substrate protein, the multifunctional adaptor Dok1, and to identify SFK-dependent Dok1 binding partners. From these analyses we identify 80 SFK-dependent phosphorylation events on 40 proteins. We further identify 18 SFK-dependent Dok1 interactions and 9 SFK-dependent Dok1 phosphorylation sites, 6 of which had not previously been known to be SFK-dependent. PMID:20225815

  17. Changes in dynamics upon oligomerization regulate substrate binding and allostery in amino acid kinase family members.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Enrique; Crehuet, Ramon; Bahar, Ivet

    2011-09-01

    Oligomerization is a functional requirement for many proteins. The interfacial interactions and the overall packing geometry of the individual monomers are viewed as important determinants of the thermodynamic stability and allosteric regulation of oligomers. The present study focuses on the role of the interfacial interactions and overall contact topology in the dynamic features acquired in the oligomeric state. To this aim, the collective dynamics of enzymes belonging to the amino acid kinase family both in dimeric and hexameric forms are examined by means of an elastic network model, and the softest collective motions (i.e., lowest frequency or global modes of motions) favored by the overall architecture are analyzed. Notably, the lowest-frequency modes accessible to the individual subunits in the absence of multimerization are conserved to a large extent in the oligomer, suggesting that the oligomer takes advantage of the intrinsic dynamics of the individual monomers. At the same time, oligomerization stiffens the interfacial regions of the monomers and confers new cooperative modes that exploit the rigid-body translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the intact monomers. The present study sheds light on the mechanism of cooperative inhibition of hexameric N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase by arginine and on the allosteric regulation of UMP kinases. It also highlights the significance of the particular quaternary design in selectively determining the oligomer dynamics congruent with required ligand-binding and allosteric activities.

  18. The Unique Domain Forms a Fuzzy Intramolecular Complex in Src Family Kinases.

    PubMed

    Arbesú, Miguel; Maffei, Mariano; Cordeiro, Tiago N; Teixeira, João M C; Pérez, Yolanda; Bernadó, Pau; Roche, Serge; Pons, Miquel

    2017-03-16

    The N-terminal regulatory region of c-Src including the SH4, Unique, and SH3 domains adopts a compact, yet highly dynamic, structure that can be described as an intramolecular fuzzy complex. Most of the long-range interactions within the Unique domain are also observed in constructs lacking the structured SH3, indicating a considerable degree of preorganization of the disordered Unique domain. Here we report that members of the Src family of kinases (SFK) share well-conserved sequence features involving aromatic residues in their Unique domains. This observation contrasts with the supposed lack of sequence homology implied by the name of these domains and suggests that the other members of SFK also have a regulatory region involving their Unique domains. We argue that the Unique domain of each SFK is sensitive to specific input signals, encoded by each specific sequence, but the entire family shares a common mechanism for connecting the disordered and structured domains.

  19. The Numerical Studies Program for the Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE) for Spacelab Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlis, W. W. (Editor); Davis, M. H. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric general circulation experiment (AGCE) numerical design for Spacelab flights was studied. A spherical baroclinic flow experiment which models the large scale circulations of the Earth's atmosphere was proposed. Gravity is simulated by a radial dielectric body force. The major objective of the AGCE is to study nonlinear baroclinic wave flows in spherical geometry. Numerical models must be developed which accurately predict the basic axisymmetric states and the stability of nonlinear baroclinic wave flows. A three dimensional, fully nonlinear, numerical model and the AGCE based on the complete set of equations is required. Progress in the AGCE numerical design studies program is reported.

  20. Characterization of a new family of cyclin-dependent kinase activators

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Progression through the cell cycle is regulated by CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases), which associate with activating partners, named cyclins, to efficiently phosphorylate substrates. We previously reported the identification of RINGO, a Xenopus protein that can activate CDK1 and CDK2 despite lack of sequence similarity to cyclins, which plays a role in the regulation of the meiotic cell cycle in oocytes. In the present study we report the characterization of four mammalian RINGO proteins, which are 53–68% identical with Xenopus RINGO in a central core of about 75 residues. We show that all RINGO family members can bind to and activate CDK1 and CDK2, albeit with different efficiencies, but they do not bind to CDK4 or CDK6. The core RINGO sequences are critical for CDK activation. We also identified key residues in CDK2 that are required for RINGO binding. All RINGO proteins can also bind the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1, but with an inverse efficiency of their ability to bind to CDK1. Our results identify a new family of mammalian proteins that can activate CDKs and therefore potentially function as cell cycle regulators. The ability of RINGO proteins to activate CDK1 and CDK2 suggest also cyclin-independent roles for these kinases. PMID:15574121

  1. The cyclin-dependent kinase family in the social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate eukaryotic cell cycle progression. Their ability to modulate the cell cycle has made them an attractive target for anti-cancer therapies. Cdk protein function has been studied in a variety of Eukaryotes ranging from yeast to humans. In the social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum, several homologues of mammalian Cdks have been identified and characterized. The life cycle of this model organism is comprised of a feeding stage where single cells grow and divide mitotically as they feed on their bacterial food source and a multicellular developmental stage that is induced by starvation. Thus it is a valuable system for studying a variety of cellular and developmental processes. In this review I summarize the current knowledge of the Cdk protein family in Dictyostelium by highlighting the research efforts focused on the characterization of Cdk1, Cdk5, and Cdk8 in this model Eukaryote. Accumulated evidence indicates that each protein performs distinct functions during the Dictyostelium life cycle with Cdk1 being required for growth and Cdk5 and Cdk8 being required for processes that occur during development. Recent studies have shown that Dictyostelium Cdk5 shares attributes with mammalian Cdk5 and that the mammalian Cdk inhibitor roscovitine can be used to inhibit Cdk5 activity in Dictyostelium. Together, these results show that Dictyostelium can be used as a model system for studying Cdk protein function.

  2. Haemophilus ducreyi targets Src family protein tyrosine kinases to inhibit phagocytic signaling.

    PubMed

    Mock, Jason R; Vakevainen, Merja; Deng, Kaiping; Latimer, Jo L; Young, Jennifer A; van Oers, Nicolai S C; Greenberg, Steven; Hansen, Eric J

    2005-12-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, has been shown to inhibit phagocytosis of both itself and secondary targets in vitro. Immunodepletion of LspA proteins from H. ducreyi culture supernatant fluid abolished this inhibitory effect, indicating that the LspA proteins are necessary for the inhibition of phagocytosis by H. ducreyi. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that macrophages incubated with wild-type H. ducreyi, but not with a lspA1 lspA2 mutant, were unable to complete development of the phagocytic cup around immunoglobulin G-opsonized targets. Examination of the phosphotyrosine protein profiles of these two sets of macrophages showed that those incubated with wild-type H. ducreyi had greatly reduced phosphorylation levels of proteins in the 50-to-60-kDa range. Subsequent experiments revealed reductions in the catalytic activities of both Lyn and Hck, two members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases that are known to be involved in the proximal signaling steps of Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Additional experiments confirmed reductions in the levels of both active Lyn and active Hck in three different immune cell lines, but not in HeLa cells, exposed to wild-type H. ducreyi. This is the first example of a bacterial pathogen that suppresses Src family protein tyrosine kinase activity to subvert phagocytic signaling in hostcells.

  3. Polyphosphate-dependent synthesis of ATP and ADP by the family-2 polyphosphate kinases in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nocek, Boguslaw; Kochinyan, Samvel; Proudfoot, Michael; Brown, Greg; Evdokimova, Elena; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Edwards, Aled M; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2008-11-18

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by high-energy bonds. It is found in all organisms and has been proposed to serve as an energy source in a pre-ATP world. This ubiquitous and abundant biopolymer plays numerous and vital roles in metabolism and regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms for most activities of polyP remain unknown. In prokaryotes, the synthesis and utilization of polyP are catalyzed by 2 families of polyP kinases, PPK1 and PPK2, and polyphosphatases. Here, we present structural and functional characterization of the PPK2 family. Proteins with a single PPK2 domain catalyze polyP-dependent phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, whereas proteins containing 2 fused PPK2 domains phosphorylate AMP to ADP. Crystal structures of 2 representative proteins, SMc02148 from Sinorhizobium meliloti and PA3455 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed a 3-layer alpha/beta/alpha sandwich fold with an alpha-helical lid similar to the structures of microbial thymidylate kinases, suggesting that these proteins share a common evolutionary origin and catalytic mechanism. Alanine replacement mutagenesis identified 9 conserved residues, which are required for activity and include the residues from both Walker A and B motifs and the lid. Thus, the PPK2s represent a molecular mechanism, which potentially allow bacteria to use polyP as an intracellular energy reserve for the generation of ATP and survival.

  4. Thy1 (CD90) controls adipogenesis by regulating activity of the Src family kinase, Fyn

    PubMed Central

    Woeller, Collynn F.; O’Loughlin, Charles W.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Feldon, Steven E.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide obesity rates are at epidemic levels, and new insight into the regulation of obesity and adipogenesis are required. Thy1 (CD90), a cell surface protein with an enigmatic function, is expressed on subsets of fibroblasts and stem cells. We used a diet-induced obesity model to show that Thy1-null mice gain weight at a faster rate and gain 30% more weight than control C57BL/6 mice. During adipogenesis, Thy1 expression is lost in mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Overexpression of Thy1 blocked adipocyte formation and reduced mRNA and protein expression of an adipocyte marker, fatty acid-binding protein 4, by 5-fold. Although preadipocyte fibroblasts expressed Thy1 mRNA and protein, adipocytes from mouse and human fat tissue had almost undetectable Thy1 levels. Thy1 decreases the activity of the adipogenic transcription factor PPARγ by more than 60% as shown by PPARγ-dependent reporter assays. Using both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we show Thy1 expression dampens PPARγ by inhibiting the activity of the Src-family kinase, Fyn. Thus, these studies reveal Thy1 blocks adipogenesis and PPARγ by inhibiting Fyn and support the idea that Thy1 is a novel therapeutic target in obesity.—Woeller, C. F., O’Loughlin, C. W., Pollock, S. J., Thatcher, T. H., Feldon, S. E., Phipps, R. P. Thy1 (CD90) controls adipogenesis by regulating activity of the Src family kinase, Fyn. PMID:25416548

  5. Differential expression of the FAK family kinases in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis synovial tissues

    PubMed Central

    Shahrara, Shiva; Castro-Rueda, Hernan P; Haines, G Kenneth; Koch, Alisa E

    2007-01-01

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family kinases, including FAK and proline-rich kinase 2 (Pyk)2, are the predominant mediators of integrin αvβ3 signaling events that play an important role in cell adhesion, osteoclast pathology, and angiogenesis, all processes important in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Using immunohistochemical and western blot analysis, we studied the distribution of phospho (p)FAK, pPyk2, pSrc, pPaxillin and pPLCγ in the synovial tissue (ST) from patients with RA, osteoarthritis (OA) and normal donors (NDs) as well as in RA ST fibroblasts and peripheral blood differentiated macrophages (PB MΦs) treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or interleukin-1β (IL1β). RA and OA STs showed a greater percentage of pFAK on lining cells and MΦs compared with ND ST. RA ST fibroblasts expressed pFAK at baseline, which increased with TNFα or IL1β stimulation. Pyk2 and Src were phosphorylated more on RA versus OA and ND lining cells and MΦs. pPyk2 was expressed on RA ST fibrobasts but not in MΦs at baseline, however it was upregulated upon TNFα or IL1β activation in both cell types. pSrc was expressed in RA ST fibroblasts and MΦs at baseline and was further increased by TNFα or IL1β stimulation. pPaxillin and pPLCγ were upregulated in RA versus OA and ND lining cells and sublining MΦs. Activation of the FAK family signaling cascade on RA and OA lining cells may be responsible for cell adhesion and migration into the diseased STs. Therapies targeting this novel signaling pathway may be beneficial in RA. PMID:17963503

  6. Members of a Novel Kinase Family (DUF1537) Can Recycle Toxic Intermediates into an Essential Metabolite.

    PubMed

    Thiaville, Jennifer J; Flood, Jake; Yurgel, Svetlana; Prunetti, Laurence; Elbadawi-Sidhu, Mona; Hutinet, Geoffrey; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhang, Xinshuai; Ganesan, Venkateswaran; Reddy, Patrick; Fiehn, Oliver; Gerlt, J A; Hunt, John F; Copley, Shelley D; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-08-19

    DUF1537 is a novel family of kinases identified by comparative genomic approaches. The family is widespread and found in all sequenced plant genomes and 16% of sequenced bacterial genomes. DUF1537 is not a monofunctional family and contains subgroups that can be separated by phylogenetic and genome neighborhood context analyses. A subset of the DUF1537 proteins is strongly associated by physical clustering and gene fusion with the PdxA2 family, demonstrated here to be a functional paralog of the 4-phosphohydroxy-l-threonine dehydrogenase enzyme (PdxA), a central enzyme in the synthesis of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) in proteobacteria. Some members of this DUF1537 subgroup phosphorylate l-4-hydroxythreonine (4HT) into 4-phosphohydroxy-l-threonine (4PHT), the substrate of PdxA, in vitro and in vivo. This provides an alternative route to PLP from the toxic antimetabolite 4HT that can be directly generated from the toxic intermediate glycolaldehyde. Although the kinetic and physical clustering data indicate that these functions in PLP synthesis are not the main roles of the DUF1537-PdxA2 enzymes, genetic and physiological data suggest these side activities function has been maintained in diverse sets of organisms.

  7. Expansion of the Receptor-Like Kinase/Pelle Gene Family and Receptor-Like Proteins in Arabidopsis1[w

    PubMed Central

    Shin-Han, Shiu; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2003-01-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are a family of transmembrane proteins with versatile N-terminal extracellular domains and C-terminal intracellular kinases. They control a wide range of physiological responses in plants and belong to one of the largest gene families in the Arabidopsis genome with more than 600 members. Interestingly, this gene family constitutes 60% of all kinases in Arabidopsis and accounts for nearly all transmembrane kinases in Arabidopsis. Analysis of four fungal, six metazoan, and two Plasmodium sp. genomes indicates that the family was represented in all but fungal genomes, indicating an ancient origin for the family with a more recent expansion only in the plant lineages. The RLK/Pelle family can be divided into several subfamilies based on three independent criteria: the phylogeny based on kinase domain sequences, the extracellular domain identities, and intron locations and phases. A large number of receptor-like proteins (RLPs) resembling the extracellular domains of RLKs are also found in the Arabidopsis genome. However, not all RLK subfamilies have corresponding RLPs. Several RLK/Pelle subfamilies have undergone differential expansions. More than 33% of the RLK/Pelle members are found in tandem clusters, substantially higher than the genome average. In addition, 470 of the RLK/Pelle family members are located within the segmentally duplicated regions in the Arabidopsis genome and 268 of them have a close relative in the corresponding regions. Therefore, tandem duplications and segmental/whole-genome duplications represent two of the major mechanisms for the expansion of the RLK/Pelle family in Arabidopsis. PMID:12805585

  8. Molecular dynamics analysis of conserved hydrophobic and hydrophilic bond-interaction networks in ErbB family kinases.

    PubMed

    Shih, Andrew J; Telesco, Shannon E; Choi, Sung-Hee; Lemmon, Mark A; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2011-06-01

    The EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)/ErbB/HER (human EGFR) family of kinases contains four homologous receptor tyrosine kinases that are important regulatory elements in key signalling pathways. To elucidate the atomistic mechanisms of dimerization-dependent activation in the ErbB family, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the intracellular kinase domains of three members of the ErbB family (those with known kinase activity), namely EGFR, ErbB2 (HER2) and ErbB4 (HER4), in different molecular contexts: monomer against dimer and wild-type against mutant. Using bioinformatics and fluctuation analyses of the molecular dynamics trajectories, we relate sequence similarities to correspondence of specific bond-interaction networks and collective dynamical modes. We find that in the active conformation of the ErbB kinases, key subdomain motions are co-ordinated through conserved hydrophilic interactions: activating bond-networks consisting of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges. The inactive conformations also demonstrate conserved bonding patterns (albeit less extensive) that sequester key residues and disrupt the activating bond network. Both conformational states have distinct hydrophobic advantages through context-specific hydrophobic interactions. We show that the functional (activating) asymmetric kinase dimer interface forces a corresponding change in the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions that characterize the inactivating bond network, resulting in motion of the αC-helix through allostery. Several of the clinically identified activating kinase mutations of EGFR act in a similar fashion to disrupt the inactivating bond network. The present molecular dynamics study reveals a fundamental difference in the sequence of events in EGFR activation compared with that described for the Src kinase Hck.

  9. Rho-Kinase in Development and Heart Failure: Insights From Genetic Models

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianjian; Zhang, Lumin; Wei, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) belongs to the AGC (protein kinase A/protein kinase G/protein kinase C, PKA/PKG/PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases and is a major downstream effector of small GTPase RhoA. Rho-kinase is involved in a wide range of fundamental cellular functions such as contraction, adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are assumed to be functionally redundant, based largely on the major common activators, the high degree of homology within the kinase domain, and studies from overexpression with kinase constructs and chemical inhibitors (e.g., Y27632 and fasudil), which inhibit both ROCK1 and ROCK2. Gene targeting and RNA interference approaches allow further dissection of distinct cellular, physiologic, and pathophysiologic functions of the two ROCK isoforms. This review focuses on the current understanding of ROCK isoform biology, with a particular emphasis on their functions in mouse development and the pathogenesis of heart failure. PMID:21327630

  10. Inhibition of SRC family kinases reduces myeloid-derived suppressor cells in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Deng, Wei-Wei; Yu, Guang-Tao; Bu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Ma, Si-Rui; Wu, Lei; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2017-03-01

    SRC family kinases (SFKs), a group of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, modulate multiple cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. SFKs display aberrant activity in progressive stages of human cancers. However, the precise role of SFKs in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) signaling network is far from clear. In this study, we found that the inhibition of SFKs activity by dasatinib effectively reduced the tumor size and population of MDSCs in the HNSCC mouse model. Molecular analysis indicates that phosphorylation of LYN, rather than SRC, was inhibited by dasatinib treatment. Next, we analyzed LYN expression by immunostaining and found that it was overexpressed in the human HNSCC specimens. Moreover, LYN expression in stromal cells positively correlated with myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) makers CD11b and CD33 in human HNSCC. The dual positive expression of LYN in epithelial and stromal cells (EPI(+) SRT(+) ) was associated with unfavorable overall survival of HNSCC patients. These findings indicate that SFKs may be a potential target for an effective immunotherapy of HNSCC by decreasing MDSCs and moreover, LYN will have an impact on such therapeutic strategy.

  11. Inhibiting EGF receptor or SRC family kinase signaling overcomes BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Girotti, Maria R; Pedersen, Malin; Sanchez-Laorden, Berta; Viros, Amaya; Turajlic, Samra; Niculescu-Duvaz, Dan; Zambon, Alfonso; Sinclair, John; Hayes, Andrew; Gore, Martin; Lorigan, Paul; Springer, Caroline; Larkin, James; Jorgensen, Claus; Marais, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We generated cell lines resistant to BRAF inhibitors and show that the EGF receptor (EGFR)–SRC family kinase (SFK)–STAT3 signaling pathway was upregulated in these cells. In addition to driving proliferation of resistant cells, this pathway also stimulated invasion and metastasis. EGFR inhibitors cooperated with BRAF inhibitors to block the growth of the resistant cells in vitro and in vivo, and monotherapy with the broad specificity tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib blocked growth and metastasis in vivo. We analyzed tumors from patients with intrinsic or acquired resistance to vemurafenib and observed increased EGFR and SFK activity. Furthermore, dasatinib blocked the growth and metastasis of one of the resistant tumors in immunocompromised mice. Our data shows that BRAF inhibitor-mediated activation of EFGR/SFK/STAT3 signaling can mediate resistance in BRAF mutant melanoma patients. We describe two treatments that appear to overcome this resistance and could deliver therapeutic efficacy in drug-resistant BRAF mutant melanoma patients. PMID:23242808

  12. SRC family kinase FYN promotes the neuroendocrine phenotype and visceral metastasis in advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Margarit; Duan, Peng; Lichterman, Jake; Huang, Jen-Ming; Smith, Bethany; You, Sungyong; Nandana, Srinivas; Chu, Gina Chia-Yi; Mink, Sheldon; Josson, Sajni; Liu, Chunyan; Morello, Matteo; Jones, Lawrence W. M.; Kim, Jayoung; Freeman, Michael R.; Bhowmick, Neil; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Chung, Leland W.K.; Posadas, Edwin M.

    2015-01-01

    FYN is a SRC family kinase (SFK) that has been shown to be up-regulated in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues and cell lines. In this study, we observed that FYN is strongly up-regulated in human neuroendocrine PCa (NEPC) tissues and xenografts, as well as cells derived from a NEPC transgenic mouse model. In silico analysis of FYN expression in prostate cancer cell line databases revealed an association with the expression of neuroendocrine (NE) markers such as CHGA, CD44, CD56, and SYP. The loss of FYN abrogated the invasion of PC3 and ARCaPM cells in response to MET receptor ligand HGF. FYN also contributed to the metastatic potential of NEPC cells in two mouse models of visceral metastasis with two different cell lines (PC3 and TRAMPC2-RANKL). The activation of MET appeared to regulate neuroendocrine (NE) features as evidenced by increased expression of NE markers in PC3 cells with HGF. Importantly, the overexpression of FYN protein in DU145 cells was directly correlated with the increase of CHGA. Thus, our data demonstrated that the neuroendocrine differentiation that occurs in PCa cells is, at least in part, regulated by FYN kinase. Understanding the role of FYN in the regulation of NE markers will provide further support for ongoing clinical trials of SFK and MET inhibitors in castration-resistant PCa patients. PMID:26624980

  13. Early redox, Src family kinase, and calcium signaling integrate wound responses and tissue regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sa Kan; Freisinger, Christina M; LeBert, Danny C; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2012-10-15

    Tissue injury can lead to scar formation or tissue regeneration. How regenerative animals sense initial tissue injury and transform wound signals into regenerative growth is an unresolved question. Previously, we found that the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn functions as a redox sensor in leukocytes that detects H(2)O(2) at wounds in zebrafish larvae. In this paper, using zebrafish larval tail fins as a model, we find that wounding rapidly activated SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia. The immediate SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia was important for late epimorphic regeneration of amputated fins. Wound-induced activation of SFKs in epithelia was dependent on injury-generated H(2)O(2). A SFK member, Fynb, was responsible for fin regeneration. This work provides a new link between early wound responses and late regeneration and suggests that redox, SFK, and calcium signaling are immediate "wound signals" that integrate early wound responses and late epimorphic regeneration.

  14. Comparison and correlation of binding mode of ATP in the kinase domains of Hexokinase family

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Yellapu Nanda; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Sowjenya, Gopal; Rao, Valasani Koteswara; Yeswanth, Sthanikam; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Pradeepkiran, Jangampalli Adi; Sarma, PVGK; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2012-01-01

    Hexokinases (HKs) are the enzymes that catalyses the ATP dependent phosphorylation of Hexose sugars to Hexose-6-Phosphate (Hex-6-P). There exist four different forms of HKs namely HK-I, HK-II, HK-III and HK-IV and all of them share a common ATP binding site core surrounded by more variable sequence that determine substrate affinities. Although they share a common binding site but they differ in their kinetic functions, hence the present study is aimed to analyze the binding mode of ATP. The analysis revealed that the four ATP binding domains are showing 13 identical, 7 similar and 6 dissimilar residues with similar structural conformation. Molecular docking of ATP into the kinase domains using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) soft ware tool clearly showed the variation in the binding mode of ATP with variable docking scores. This probably explains the variable phosphorylation rates among hexokinases family. PMID:22829728

  15. Src family kinases involved in CXCL12-induced loss of acute morphine analgesia.

    PubMed

    Rivat, Cyril; Sebaihi, Soumia; Van Steenwinckel, Juliette; Fouquet, Stéphane; Kitabgi, Patrick; Pohl, Michel; Melik Parsadaniantz, Stéphane; Reaux-Le Goazigo, Annabelle

    2014-05-01

    Functional interactions between the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and opioid receptors have been reported in the brain, leading to a decreased morphine analgesic activity. However the cellular mechanisms responsible for this loss of opioid analgesia are largely unknown. Here we examined whether Src family-kinases (SFK)-linked mechanisms induced by CXCR4 contributed to the loss of acute morphine analgesia and could represent a new physiological anti-opioid signaling pathway. In this way, we showed by immunohistochemistry and western blot that CXCL12 rapidly activated SFK phosphorylation in vitro in primary cultured lumbar rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) but also in vivo in the DRG and the spinal cord. We showed that SFK activation occurred in a sub population of sensory neurons, in spinal microglia but also in spinal nerve terminals expressing mu-(MOR) and delta-opioid (DOR) receptor. In addition we described that CXCR4 is detected in MOR- and DOR-immunoreactive neurons in the DRG and spinal cord. In vivo, we demonstrated that an intrathecal administration of CXCL12 (1μg) significantly attenuated the subcutaneous morphine (4mg/kg) analgesia. Conversely, pretreatment with a potent CXCR4 antagonist (5μg) significantly enhanced morphine analgesia. Similar effects were obtained after an intrathecal injection of a specific SFK inhibitor, PP2 (10μg). Furthermore, PP2 abrogated CXCL12-induced decrease in morphine analgesia by suppressing SFK activation in the spinal cord. In conclusion, our data highlight that CXCL12-induced loss of acute morphine analgesia is linked to Src family kinases activation.

  16. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylation of familial prion protein mutants exacerbates conversion into amyloid structure.

    PubMed

    Rouget, Raphaël; Sharma, Gyanesh; LeBlanc, Andréa C

    2015-02-27

    Familial prion protein (PrP) mutants undergo conversion from soluble and protease-sensitive to insoluble and partially protease-resistant proteins. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylation of wild type PrP (pPrP) at serine 43 induces a conversion of PrP into aggregates and fibrils. Here, we investigated whether familial PrP mutants are predisposed to Cdk5 phosphorylation and whether phosphorylation of familial PrP mutants increases conversion. PrP mutants representing three major familial PrP diseases and different PrP structural domains were studied. We developed a novel in vitro kinase reaction coupled with Thioflavin T binding to amyloid structure assay to monitor phosphorylation-dependent amyloid conversion. Although non-phosphorylated full-length wild type or PrP mutants did not convert into amyloid, Cdk5 phosphorylation rapidly converted these into Thioflavin T-positive structures following first order kinetics. Dephosphorylation partially reversed conversion. Phosphorylation-dependent conversion of PrP from α-helical structures into β-sheet structures was confirmed by circular dichroism. Relative to wild type pPrP, most PrP mutants showed increased rate constants of conversion. In contrast, non-phosphorylated truncated PrP Y145X (where X represents a stop codon) and Q160X mutants converted spontaneously into Thioflavin T-positive fibrils after a lag phase of over 20 h, indicating nucleation-dependent polymerization. Phosphorylation reduced the lag phase by over 50% and thus accelerated the formation of the nucleating event. Consistently, phosphorylated Y145X and phosphorylated Q160X exacerbated conversion in a homologous seeding reaction, whereas WT pPrP could not seed WT PrP. These results demonstrate an influence of both the N terminus and the C terminus of PrP on conversion. We conclude that post-translational modifications of the flexible N terminus of PrP can cause or exacerbate PrP mutant conversion.

  17. Src Family Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Regulates FilGAP through Association with RBM10

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hazuki; Tsutsumi, Koji; Nakazawa, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Hattori, Seisuke; Ohta, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    FilGAP is a Rac-specific GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that suppresses lamellae formation. In this study, we have identified RBM10 (RNA Binding Motif domain protein 10) as a FilGAP-interacting protein. Although RBM10 is mostly localized in the nuclei in human melanoma A7 cells, forced expression of Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn induced translocation of RBM10 from nucleus into cell peripheries where RBM10 and FilGAP are co-localized. The translocation of RBM10 from nucleus appears to require catalytic activity of Fyn since kinase-negative Fyn mutant failed to induce translocation of RBM10 in A7 cells. When human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells are spreading on collagen-coated coverslips, endogenous FilGAP and RBM10 were localized at the cell periphery with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. RBM10 appears to be responsible for targeting FilGAP at the cell periphery because depletion of RBM10 by siRNA abrogated peripheral localization of FilGAP during cell spreading. Association of RBM10 with FilGAP may stimulate RacGAP activity of FilGAP. First, forced expression of RBM10 suppressed FilGAP-mediated cell spreading on collagen. Conversely, depletion of endogenous RBM10 by siRNA abolished FilGAP-mediated suppression of cell spreading on collagen. Second, FilGAP suppressed formation of membrane ruffles induced by Fyn and instead produced spiky cell protrusions at the cell periphery. This protrusive structure was also induced by depletion of Rac, suggesting that the formation of protrusions may be due to suppression of Rac by FilGAP. We found that depletion of RBM10 markedly reduced the formation of protrusions in cells transfected with Fyn and FilGAP. Finally, depletion of RBM10 blocked FilGAP-mediated suppression of ruffle formation induced by EGF. Taken together, these results suggest that Src family tyrosine kinase signaling may regulate FilGAP through association with RBM10. PMID:26751795

  18. Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitors suppress Nav1.1 expression in cultured rat spiral ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiying; Zeng, Qingjiao; Yao, Chen; Cai, Zheng; Wei, Tingjia; Huang, Zhihui; Su, Jiping

    2016-03-01

    Src family kinases regulate neuronal voltage-gated Na(+) channels, which generate action potentials. The mechanisms of action, however, remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the effects of Src family kinases on Nav1.1 mRNA and protein expression in spiral ganglion neurons. Immunofluorescence staining techniques detected Nav1.1 expression in the spiral ganglion neurons. Additionally, quantitative PCR and western blot techniques were used to analyze Nav1.1 mRNA and protein expression, respectively, in spiral ganglion neurons following exposure to Src family kinase inhibitors PP2 (1 and 10 μM) and SU6656 (0.1 and 1 μM) for different lengths of time (6 and 24 h). In the spiral ganglion neurons, Nav1.1 protein expression was detected in the somas and axons. The Src family kinase inhibitors PP2 and SU6665 significantly decreased Nav1.1 mRNA and protein expression (p < 0.05), respectively, in the spiral ganglion neurons, and changes in expression were not dependent on time or dose (p > 0.05).

  19. Activin receptor-like kinases: a diverse family playing an important role in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loomans, Holli A; Andl, Claudia D

    2016-01-01

    The role and function of the members of the TGFβ superfamily has been a substantial area of research focus for the last several decades. During that time, it has become apparent that aberrations in TGFβ family signaling, whether through the BMP, Activin, or TGFβ arms of the pathway, can result in tumorigenesis or contribute to its progression. Downstream signaling regulates cellular growth under normal physiological conditions yet induces diverse processes during carcinogenesis, ranging from epithelial- to-mesenchymal transition to cell migration and invasion to angiogenesis. Due to these observations, the question has been raised how to utilize and target components of these signaling pathways in cancer therapy. Given that these cascades include both ligands and receptors, there are multiple levels at which to interfere. Activin receptor-like kinases (ALKs) are a group of seven type I receptors responsible for TGFβ family signal transduction and are utilized by many ligands within the superfamily. The challenge lies in specifically targeting the often-overlapping functional effects of BMP, Activin, or TGFβ signaling during cancer progression. This review focuses on the characteristic function of the individual receptors within each subfamily and their recognized roles in cancer. We next explore the clinical utility of therapeutically targeting ALKs as some have shown partial responses in Phase I clinical trials but disappointing outcomes when used in Phase II studies. Finally, we discuss the challenges and future directions of this body of work. PMID:27904762

  20. LIG Family Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Associated Proteins Modulate Growth Factor Signals During Neural Development

    PubMed Central

    Mandai, Kenji; Guo, Ting; Hillaire, Coryse St.; Meabon, James S.; Kanning, Kevin C.; Bothwell, Mark; Ginty, David D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Genome-wide screens were performed to identify transmembrane proteins that mediate axonal growth, guidance and target field innervation of somatosensory neurons. One gene, Linx (alias Islr2), encoding a leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin (LIG) family protein, is expressed in a subset of developing sensory and motor neurons. Domain and genomic structures of Linx and other LIG family members suggest that they are evolutionarily related to Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Several LIGs, including Linx are expressed in subsets of somatosensory and motor neurons and select members interact with TrkA and Ret RTKs. Moreover, axonal projection defects in mice harboring a null mutation in Linx resemble those in mice lacking Ngf, TrkA and Ret. In addition, Linx modulates NGF–TrkA- and GDNF–GFRα1/Ret-mediated axonal extension in cultured sensory and motor neurons, respectively. These findings show that LIGs physically interact with RTKs and modulate their activities to control axonal extension, guidance and branching. PMID:19755105

  1. LIG family receptor tyrosine kinase-associated proteins modulate growth factor signals during neural development.

    PubMed

    Mandai, Kenji; Guo, Ting; St Hillaire, Coryse; Meabon, James S; Kanning, Kevin C; Bothwell, Mark; Ginty, David D

    2009-09-10

    Genome-wide screens were performed to identify transmembrane proteins that mediate axonal growth, guidance and target field innervation of somatosensory neurons. One gene, Linx (alias Islr2), encoding a leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin (LIG) family protein, is expressed in a subset of developing sensory and motor neurons. Domain and genomic structures of Linx and other LIG family members suggest that they are evolutionarily related to Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Several LIGs, including Linx, are expressed in subsets of somatosensory and motor neurons, and select members interact with TrkA and Ret RTKs. Moreover, axonal projection defects in mice harboring a null mutation in Linx resemble those in mice lacking Ngf, TrkA, and Ret. In addition, Linx modulates NGF-TrkA- and GDNF-GFRalpha1/Ret-mediated axonal extension in cultured sensory and motor neurons, respectively. These findings show that LIGs physically interact with RTKs and modulate their activities to control axonal extension, guidance and branching.

  2. Telencephalin protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis by activating the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heping; Wu, Dapeng; Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiang; Peng, Yi; Hu, Zhiping

    2012-10-05

    Telencephalin is a neural glycoprotein that reduces apoptosis induced by amyloid beta protein in the human neural tumor cell line PAJU. In this study, we examined the role of the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in this process. Western blot analysis demonstrated that telencephalin, phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B were not expressed in PAJU cells transfected with empty plasmid, while they were expressed in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid. After treatment with 1.0 nM amyloid beta protein 42, expression of telencephalin and phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B in the transfected cells gradually diminished, while levels of phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin increased. In addition, the high levels of telencephalin, phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B expression in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid could be suppressed by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These findings indicate that telencephalin activates the ezrin/radixin/moesin family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway and protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis.

  3. The Extremely Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxy AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John Joseph; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) sample, which consists of ultra-low HI mass galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast-Acting ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. SHIELD is a multi-configuration Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) study of the neutral gas content and dynamics of galaxies with HI masses in the range of 106-107 M⊙. Our spectral data were obtained using the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) on the Mayall 4-m telescope as part of a systematic study of the nebular abundances in the SHIELD galaxy sample. These observations enable measurement of the temperature sensitive [OIII]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a "direct" oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxy with an oxygen abundance comparable to such objects as I Zw 18, SBS 0335-052W, Leo P, and DDO 68 - the lowest metallicity star-forming systems known. It is worth noting that two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies currently recognized were discovered via the ALFALFA blind HI survey. These XMD galaxies are potential analogues to the first star-forming systems, which through hierarchical accretion processes built up the large galaxies we observe today in the local Universe. Detailed analysis of such XMD systems offers observational constraint to models of galactic evolution and star formation histories to allow a better understanding of the processes that govern the chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies.

  4. Regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Mcl-1 by S6 kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Savitha

    2017-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) plays an important role in breast cancer cell survival and chemoresistance. We have previously shown that knockdown of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase-2 (S6K2), which acts downstream of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), enhanced breast cancer cell death by apoptotic stimuli. The increase in cell death by S6K2 depletion was partly due to inactivation of Akt. In the present study, we investigated if S6K2 regulates Mcl-1, which acts downstream of Akt. Silencing of S6K2 but not S6K1 in T47D cells decreased Mcl-1 level, and potentiated apoptosis induced by TRAIL and doxorubicin. Knockdown of S6K2 also decreased the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xl. Depletion of the tumor suppressor protein PDCD4 (programmed cell death 4), which regulates translation of several anti-apoptotic proteins, reversed downregulation of Bcl-xl but not Mcl-1 and failed to reverse the effect of S6K2 knockdown on potentiation of doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Downregulation of Mcl-1 by S6K2 knockdown was partly restored by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Overexpression of catalytically-active Akt or knockdown of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3)-β, a substrate for Akt, had little effect on Mcl-1 downregulation caused by S6K2 deficiency. Silencing of S6K2 increased the level of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and knockdown of JNK1 increased basal Mcl-1 level and partly reversed the effect of S6K2 knockdown on Mcl-1 downregulation. JNK1 knockdown also had a modest effect in attenuating the increase in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis caused by S6K2 deficiency. These results suggest that S6K2 regulates apoptosis via multiple mechanisms, and involves both Akt and JNK. PMID:28301598

  5. The PR5K receptor protein kinase from Arabidopsis thaliana is structurally related to a family of plant defense proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Zafian, P; Choudhary, M; Lawton, M

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana gene that codes for a receptor related to antifungal pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The PR5K gene codes for a predicted 665-amino acid polypeptide that comprises an extracellular domain related to the PR5 proteins, a central transmembrane-spanning domain, and an intracellular protein-serine/threonine kinase. The extracellular domain of PR5K (PR5-like receptor kinase) is most highly related to acidic PR5 proteins that accumulate in the extracellular spaces of plants challenged with pathogenic microorganisms. The kinase domain of PR5K is related to a family of protein-serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the expression of self-incompatibility and disease resistance. PR5K transcripts accumulate at low levels in all tissues examined, although particularly high levels are present in roots and inflorescence stems. Treatments that induce authentic PR5 proteins had no effect on the level of PR5K transcripts, suggesting that the receptor forms part of a preexisting surveillance system. When the kinase domain of PR5K was expressed in Escherichia coli, the resulting polypeptide underwent autophosphorylation, consistent with its predicted enzyme activity. These results are consistent with PR5K encoding a functional receptor kinase. Moreover, the structural similarity between the extracellular domain of PR5K and the antimicrobial PR5- proteins suggests a possible interaction with common or related microbial targets. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8637920

  6. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated intestinal epithelial cell migration requires Src family kinase-dependent p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Frey, Mark R; Golovin, Anastasia; Polk, D Brent

    2004-10-22

    Members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of ligands and their receptors regulate migration and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. However, our understanding of the signal transduction pathways determining these responses is incomplete. In this study we tested the hypothesis that p38 is required for EGF-stimulated intestinal epithelial monolayer restitution. EGF-stimulated migration in a wound closure model required continuous presence of ligand for several hours for maximal response, suggesting a requirement for sustained signal transduction pathway activation. In this regard, prolonged exposure of cells to EGF activated p38 for up to 5 h. Furthermore genetic or pharmacological blockade of p38 signaling inhibited the ability of EGF to accelerate wound closure. Interestingly p38 inhibition was associated with increased EGF-stimulated ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation, suggesting that p38 regulates the balance of proliferation/migration signaling in response to EGF receptor activity. Activation of p38 in intestinal epithelial cells through EGF receptor was abolished by blockade of Src family tyrosine kinase signaling but not inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or protein kinase C. Taken together, these data suggest that Src family kinase-dependent p38 activation is a key component of a signaling switch routing EGF-stimulated responses to epithelial cell migration/restitution rather than proliferation during wound closure.

  7. Novel mutation in the PANK2 gene leads to pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration in a Pakistani family.

    PubMed

    Saleheen, Danish; Ali, Tuba; Aly, Zarmeneh; Khealani, Bhojo; Frossard, Philippe M

    2007-10-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration is an autosomal-recessive disorder associated with the accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia. The disease presents with dystonia, rigidity, and gait impairment, leading to restriction of activities and loss of ambulation. The disorder is caused by defective iron metabolism associated with mutations in the PANK2 gene, which codes for the pantothenate kinase enzyme. We report on a mutation screen conducted in two siblings to establish a molecular diagnosis of the disease and a genetic test for the family.

  8. Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and CDPK-related kinase (CRK) gene families in tomato: genome-wide identification and functional analyses in disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Peng; Xu, You-Ping; Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Liu, Tian-Yu; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and CDPK-related kinases (CRKs) play multiple roles in plant. Nevertheless, genome-wide identification of these two families is limited to several plant species, and role of CRKs in disease resistance remains unclear. In this study, we identified the CDPK and CRK gene families in genome of the economically important crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and analyzed their function in resistance to various pathogens. Twenty-nine CDPK and six CRK genes were identified in tomato genome. Both SlCDPK and SlCRK proteins harbored an STKc_CAMK type protein kinase domain, while only SlCDPKs contained EF-hand type Ca(2+) binding domain(s). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that plant CRK family diverged early from CDPKs, and shared a common ancestor gene with subgroup IV CDPKs. Subgroup IV SlCDPK proteins were basic and their genes contained 11 introns, which were distinguished from other subgroups but similar to CRKs. Subgroup I SlCDPKs generally did not carry an N-terminal myristoylation motif while those of the remaining subgroups and SlCRKs universally did. SlCDPK and SlCRK genes were differently responsive to pathogenic stimuli. Furthermore, silencing analyses demonstrated that SlCDPK18 and SlCDPK10 positively regulated nonhost resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and host resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, respectively, while SlCRK6 positively regulated resistance to both Pst DC3000 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in tomato. In conclusion, CRKs apparently evolved from CDPK lineage, SlCDPK and SlCRK genes regulate a wide range of resistance and SlCRK6 is the first CRK gene proved to function in plant disease resistance.

  9. Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

  10. “Stop Ne(c)king around”: How interactomics contributes to functionally characterize Nek family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Gabriela Vaz; Perez, Arina Marina; de Souza, Edmárcia Elisa; Basei, Fernanda Luisa; Papa, Priscila Ferreira; Melo Hanchuk, Talita Diniz; Cardoso, Vanessa Bomfim; Kobarg, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Aside from Polo and Aurora, a third but less studied kinase family involved in mitosis regulation is the never in mitosis-gene A (NIMA)-related kinases (Neks). The founding member of this family is the sole member NIMA of Aspergillus nidulans, which is crucial for the initiation of mitosis in that organism. All 11 human Neks have been functionally assigned to one of the three core functions established for this family in mammals: (1) centrioles/mitosis; (2) primary ciliary function/ciliopathies; and (3) DNA damage response (DDR). Recent findings, especially on Nek 1 and 8, showed however, that several Neks participate in parallel in at least two of these contexts: primary ciliary function and DDR. In the core section of this in-depth review, we report the current detailed functional knowledge on each of the 11 Neks. In the discussion, we return to the cross-connections among Neks and point out how our and other groups’ functional and interactomics studies revealed that most Neks interact with protein partners associated with two if not all three of the functional contexts. We then raise the hypothesis that Neks may be the connecting regulatory elements that allow the cell to fine tune and synchronize the cellular events associated with these three core functions. The new and exciting findings on the Nek family open new perspectives and should allow the Neks to finally claim the attention they deserve in the field of kinases and cell cycle biology. PMID:24921005

  11. Lipid Raft- and Src Family Kinase-Dependent Entry of Coxsackievirus B into Human Placental Trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2013-01-01

    Maternal-fetal transmission of group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) during pregnancy has been associated with a number of diverse pathological outcomes, including hydrops fetalis, fetal myocarditis, meningoencephalitis, neurodevelopmental delays, congenital skin lesions, miscarriage, and/or stillbirth. Throughout pregnancy, the placenta forms a critical antimicrobial protective barrier at the maternal-fetal interface. Despite the severity of diseases accompanying fetal CVB infections, little is known regarding the strategies used by CVB to gain entry into placental trophoblasts. Here we used both a trophoblast cell line and primary human trophoblasts to demonstrate the mechanism by which CVB gains entry into polarized placental trophoblasts. Our studies revealed that the kinetics of CVB entry into placental trophoblasts are similar to those previously described for polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Likewise, CVB entry into placental trophoblasts requires decay-accelerating factor (DAF) binding and involves relocalization of the virus from the apical surface to intercellular tight junctions. In contrast, we have identified a divergent mechanism for CVB entry into polarized trophoblasts that is clathrin, caveolin-1, and dynamin II independent but requires intact lipid rafts. In addition, we found that members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases were required for CVB entry. Our studies highlight the complexity of viral entry into human placental trophoblasts and may serve as a model for mechanisms used by diverse pathogens to penetrate the placental barrier. PMID:23720726

  12. Cholesterol depletion inhibits src family kinase-dependent calcium mobilization and apoptosis induced by rituximab crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Unruh, Tammy L; Li, Haidong; Mutch, Cathlin M; Shariat, Neda; Grigoriou, Lana; Sanyal, Ratna; Brown, Christopher B; Deans, Julie P

    2005-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab produces objective clinical responses in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and antibody-based autoimmune diseases. Mechanisms mediating B-cell depletion by rituximab are not completely understood and may include direct effects of signalling via the target antigen CD20. Like most but not all CD20 mAbs, rituximab induces a sharp change in the solubility of the CD20 protein in the non-ionic detergent Triton-X-100, reflecting a dramatic increase in the innate affinity of CD20 for membrane raft signalling domains. Apoptosis induced by rituximab hypercrosslinking has been shown to require src family kinases (SFK), which are enriched in rafts. In this report we provide experimental evidence that SFK-dependent apoptotic signals induced by rituximab are raft dependent. Cholesterol depletion prevented the association of hypercrosslinked CD20 with detergent-insoluble rafts, and attenuated both calcium mobilization and apoptosis induced with rituximab. CD20 cocapped with the raft-associated transmembrane adaptor LAB/NTAL after hypercrosslinking with CD20 mAbs, regardless of their ability to induce a change in the affinity of CD20 for rafts. Taken together, the data demonstrate that CD20 hypercrosslinking via rituximab activates SFKs and downstream signalling events by clustering membrane rafts in which antibody-bound CD20 is localized in a high-affinity configuration. PMID:16162271

  13. Casein Kinase Iδ Mutations in Familial Migraine and Advanced Sleep Phase

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, K. C.; Bates, Emily A.; Shapiro, Robert E.; Zyuzin, Jekaterina; Hallows, William C.; Huang, Yong; Lee, Hsien-Yang; Jones, Christopher R.; Fu, Ying-Hui; Charles, Andrew C.; Ptáček, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a common disabling disorder with a significant genetic component, characterized by severe headache and often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and light sensitivity. We identified two families, each with a distinct missense mutation in the gene encoding casein kinase Iδ (CKIδ), in which the mutation cosegregated with both the presence of migraine and advanced sleep phase. The resulting alterations (T44A and H46R) occurred in the conserved catalytic domain of CKIδ, where they caused reduced enzyme activity. Mice engineered to carry the CKIδ-T44A allele were more sensitive to pain after treatment with the migraine trigger nitroglycerin. CKIδ-T44A mice also exhibited a reduced threshold for cortical spreading depression (believed to be the physiological analog of migraine aura) and greater arterial dilation during cortical spreading depression. Astrocytes from CKIδ-T44A mice showed increased spontaneous and evoked calcium signaling. These genetic, cellular, physiological, and behavioral analyses suggest that decreases in CKIδ activity can contribute to the pathogenesis of migraine. PMID:23636092

  14. Hierarchical Disabled-1 Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Src family Kinase Activation and Neurite Formation

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Sachin; Gao, Zhihua; Monckton, Elizabeth; Glubrecht, Darryl; Godbout, Roseline

    2013-01-01

    There are two developmentally regulated alternatively spliced forms of Disabled-1 (Dab1) in the chick retina: an early form (Dab1-E) expressed in retinal precursor cells and a late form (Dab1-L) expressed in neuronal cells. The main difference between these two isoforms is the absence of two Src family kinase (SFK) recognition sites in Dab1-E. Both forms retain two Abl/Crk/Nck recognition sites implicated in the recruitment of SH2 domain-containing signaling proteins. One of the Dab1-L-specific SFK recognition sites, at tyrosine(Y)-198, has been shown to be phosphorylated in Reelin-stimulated neurons. Here, we use Reelin-expressing primary retinal cultures to investigate the role of the four Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation sites on overall tyrosine phosphorylation, Dab1 phosphorylation, SFK activation and neurite formation. We show that Y198 is essential but not sufficient for maximal Dab1 phosphorylation, SFK activation and neurite formation, with Y232 and Y220 playing particularly important roles in SFK activation and neuritogenesis, and Y185 having modifying effects secondary to Y232 and Y220. Our data support a role for all four Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation sites in mediating the spectrum of activities associated with Reelin-Dab1 signaling in neurons. PMID:17350651

  15. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases

    PubMed Central

    Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-01-01

    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport, allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, polar auxin transport is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell-to-cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the ‘non-genomic’ regulation of auxin transport, putting an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some Receptor-Like Kinases (RLK) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in polar auxin transport, noticing that there are likely RLKs involved in coordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  16. A Robust Distributed Multipoint Fiber Optic Gas Sensor System Based on AGC Amplifier Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Rende; Tao, Xuechen; Wang, Guangwei; Wang, Pengpeng

    2016-01-01

    A harsh environment-oriented distributed multipoint fiber optic gas sensor system realized by automatic gain control (AGC) technology is proposed. To improve the photoelectric signal reliability, the electronic variable gain can be modified in real time by an AGC closed-loop feedback structure to compensate for optical transmission loss which is caused by the fiber bend loss or other reasons. The deviation of the system based on AGC structure is below 4.02% when photoelectric signal decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is 20 times lower than the ordinary differential system. In addition, the AGC circuit with the same electric parameters can keep the baseline intensity of signals in different channels of the distributed multipoint sensor system at the same level. This avoids repetitive calibrations and streamlines the installation process. PMID:27483267

  17. Aurora kinase A is a possible target of OSU‑03012 to destabilize MYC family proteins.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andres; Wang, Jennie; Lomahan, Sarah; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Grenlin, Laura; Suganami, Akiko; Tamura, Yutaka; Ikegaki, Naohiko

    2014-09-01

    OSU-03012, a 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) inhibitor, destabilizes MYCN and MYC proteins in neuroblastoma cells. However, AKT phosphorylation is barely detectable in neuroblastoma cells under normal culture conditions whether treated with OSU-03012 or not. This observation suggests that PDK1 is not the main target of OSU-03012 to destabilize MYC and MYCN in neuroblastoma cells. In the present study, we explored one of the possible mechanisms by which OSU-03012 destabilizes MYC and MYCN. Since Aurora kinase A is reported to phosphorylate GSK3β, leading to its inactivation, we hypothesized that one of the targets of OSU-03012 is Aurora kinase A. Comparative analysis of OSU-03012 and VX-680, a potent and specific inhibitor of Aurora kinases, showed that both inhibitors destabilized MYC and MYCN and were significantly growth suppressive to neuroblastoma cell lines. In silico molecular docking analysis further showed that the calculated interaction energy between Aurora kinase A and OSU-03012 was -109.901 kcal/mol, which was lower than that (-89.273 kcal/mol) between Aurora kinase A and FXG, an Aurora kinase-specific inhibitor. Finally, an in vitro Aurora kinase A inhibition assay using a recombinant Aurora kinase A showed that OSU-03012 significantly inhibited Aurora kinase A, although it was weaker in potency than that of VX-680. Thus, OSU-03012 has a likelihood of binding to and inhibiting Aurora kinase A in vivo. These results suggest that OSU-03012 affects multiple cellular targets, including Aurora kinase A, to exhibit its growth suppressive and MYC and MYCN-destabilizing effects on neuroblastoma and other cancer cells.

  18. Abelson Family Tyrosine Kinases Regulate the Function of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Nicotinic Synapses on Autonomic NeuronsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Jayakar, Selwyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Abelson family kinases (AFKs; Abl1, Abl2) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs) implicated in cancer, but they also have important physiological roles that include regulating synaptic structure and function. Recent studies using Abl-deficient mice and the antileukemia drug STI571 [imatinib mesylate (Gleevec); Novartis], which potently and selectively blocks Abl kinase activity, implicate AFKs in regulating presynaptic neurotransmitter release in hippocampus and postsynaptic clustering of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in muscle. Here, we tested whether AFKs are relevant for regulating nAChRs and nAChR-mediated synapses on autonomic neurons. AFK immunoreactivity was detected in ciliary ganglion (CG) lysates and neurons, and STI571 application blocked endogenous Abl tyrosine kinase activity. With similar potency, STI571 specifically reduced whole-cell current responses generated by both nicotinic receptor subtypes present on CG neurons (α3*- and α7-nAChRs) and lowered the frequency and amplitude of α3*-nAChR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents. Quantal analysis indicated that the synaptic perturbations were postsynaptic in origin, and confocal imaging experiments revealed they were unaccompanied by changes in nAChR clustering or alignment with presynaptic terminals. The results indicate that in autonomic neurons, Abl kinase activity normally supports postsynaptic nAChR function to sustain nAChR-mediated neurotransmission. Such consequences contrast with the influence of Abl kinase activity on presynaptic function and synaptic structure in hippocampus and muscle, respectively, demonstrating a cell-specific mechanism of action. Finally, because STI571 potently inhibits Abl kinase activity, the autonomic dysfunction side effects associated with its use as a chemotherapeutic agent may result from perturbed α3*- and/or α7-nAChR function. PMID:21502378

  19. Escherichia coli UMP-kinase, a member of the aspartokinase family, is a hexamer regulated by guanine nucleotides and UTP.

    PubMed

    Serina, L; Blondin, C; Krin, E; Sismeiro, O; Danchin, A; Sakamoto, H; Gilles, A M; Bârzu, O

    1995-04-18

    The pyrH gene, encoding UMP-kinase from Escherichia coli, was cloned using as a genetic probe the property of the carAB operon to be controlled for its expression by the concentration of cytoplasmic UTP. The open reading frame of the pyrH gene of 723 bp was found to be identical to that of the smbA gene [Yamanaka, K., et al. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 7517-7526], previously described as being involved in chromosome partitioning in E. coli. The bacterial UMP-kinase did not display significant sequence similarity to known nucleoside monophosphate kinases. On the contrary, it exhibited similarity with three families of enzymes including aspartokinases, glutamate kinases, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa carbamate kinase. UMP-kinase overproduced in E. coli was purified to homogeneity and analyzed for its structural and catalytic properties. The protein consists of six identical subunits, each of 240 amino acid residues (the N-terminal methionine residue is missing in the expressed protein). Upon excitation at 295 nm, the bacterial enzyme exhibits a fluorescence emission spectrum with maximum at 332 nm which indicates that the single tryptophan residue of the protein (Trp119) is located in a hydrophobic environment. Like other enzymes involved in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides, UMP-kinase of E. coli is subject to regulation by nucleotides: GTP is an allosteric activator, whereas UTP serves as an allosteric inhibitor. UTP and UDP, but none of the other nucleotides tested such as GTP, ATP, and UMP, enhanced the fluorescence of the protein. The sigmoidal shape of the dose-response curve indicated cooperativity in binding of UTP and UDP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Structural basis of the regulatory mechanism of the plant CIPK family of protein kinases controlling ion homeostasis and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Sanjuan, Antonio; Sanchez-Barrena, Maria Jose; Gonzalez-Rubio, Juana Maria; Moreno, Maria; Ragel, Paula; Jimenez, Marta; Pardo, Jose M.; Martinez-Ripoll, Martin; Quintero, Francisco J.; Albert, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells have developed specific protective molecular machinery against environmental stresses. The family of CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPK) and their interacting activators, the calcium sensors calcineurin B-like (CBLs), work together to decode calcium signals elicited by stress situations. The molecular basis of biological activation of CIPKs relies on the calcium-dependent interaction of a self-inhibitory NAF motif with a particular CBL, the phosphorylation of the activation loop by upstream kinases, and the subsequent phosphorylation of the CBL by the CIPK. We present the crystal structures of the NAF-truncated and pseudophosphorylated kinase domains of CIPK23 and CIPK24/SOS2. In addition, we provide biochemical data showing that although CIPK23 is intrinsically inactive and requires an external stimulation, CIPK24/SOS2 displays basal activity. This data correlates well with the observed conformation of the respective activation loops: Although the loop of CIPK23 is folded into a well-ordered structure that blocks the active site access to substrates, the loop of CIPK24/SOS2 protrudes out of the active site and allows catalysis. These structures together with biochemical and biophysical data show that CIPK kinase activity necessarily requires the coordinated releases of the activation loop from the active site and of the NAF motif from the nucleotide-binding site. Taken all together, we postulate the basis for a conserved calcium-dependent NAF-mediated regulation of CIPKs and a variable regulation by upstream kinases. PMID:25288725

  1. Structural basis of the regulatory mechanism of the plant CIPK family of protein kinases controlling ion homeostasis and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Sanjuan, Antonio; Sanchez-Barrena, Maria Jose; Gonzalez-Rubio, Juana Maria; Moreno, Maria; Ragel, Paula; Jimenez, Marta; Pardo, Jose M; Martinez-Ripoll, Martin; Quintero, Francisco J; Albert, Armando

    2014-10-21

    Plant cells have developed specific protective molecular machinery against environmental stresses. The family of CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPK) and their interacting activators, the calcium sensors calcineurin B-like (CBLs), work together to decode calcium signals elicited by stress situations. The molecular basis of biological activation of CIPKs relies on the calcium-dependent interaction of a self-inhibitory NAF motif with a particular CBL, the phosphorylation of the activation loop by upstream kinases, and the subsequent phosphorylation of the CBL by the CIPK. We present the crystal structures of the NAF-truncated and pseudophosphorylated kinase domains of CIPK23 and CIPK24/SOS2. In addition, we provide biochemical data showing that although CIPK23 is intrinsically inactive and requires an external stimulation, CIPK24/SOS2 displays basal activity. This data correlates well with the observed conformation of the respective activation loops: Although the loop of CIPK23 is folded into a well-ordered structure that blocks the active site access to substrates, the loop of CIPK24/SOS2 protrudes out of the active site and allows catalysis. These structures together with biochemical and biophysical data show that CIPK kinase activity necessarily requires the coordinated releases of the activation loop from the active site and of the NAF motif from the nucleotide-binding site. Taken all together, we postulate the basis for a conserved calcium-dependent NAF-mediated regulation of CIPKs and a variable regulation by upstream kinases.

  2. The Medicago truncatula lysin [corrected] motif-receptor-like kinase gene family includes NFP and new nodule-expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Barre, Annick; Ben Amor, Besma; Bersoult, Anne; Soriano, Lidia Campos; Mirabella, Rossana; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Ghérardi, Michèle; Huguet, Thierry; Geurts, René; Dénarié, Jean; Rougé, Pierre; Gough, Clare

    2006-09-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors are key symbiotic signals responsible for starting the nodulation process in host legume plants. Of the six Medicago truncatula genes controlling a Nod factor signaling pathway, Nod Factor Perception (NFP) was reported as a candidate Nod factor receptor gene. Here, we provide further evidence for this by showing that NFP is a lysin [corrected] motif (LysM)-receptor-like kinase (RLK). NFP was shown both to be expressed in association with infection thread development and to be involved in the infection process. Consistent with deviations from conserved kinase domain sequences, NFP did not show autophosphorylation activity, suggesting that NFP needs to associate with an active kinase or has unusual functional characteristics different from classical kinases. Identification of nine new M. truncatula LysM-RLK genes revealed a larger family than in the nonlegumes Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) or rice (Oryza sativa) of at least 17 members that can be divided into three subfamilies. Three LysM domains could be structurally predicted for all M. truncatula LysM-RLK proteins, whereas one subfamily, which includes NFP, was characterized by deviations from conserved kinase sequences. Most of the newly identified genes were found to be expressed in roots and nodules, suggesting this class of receptors may be more extensively involved in nodulation than was previously known.

  3. Opa+ Neisseria gonorrhoeae Exhibits Reduced Survival in Human Neutrophils Via Src Family Kinase-Mediated Bacterial Trafficking Into Mature Phagolysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. Brittany; Ball, Louise M.; Daily, Kylene P.; Martin, Jennifer N.; Columbus, Linda; Criss, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary During gonorrheal infection, there is a heterogeneous population of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) varied in their expression of opacity-associated (Opa) proteins. While Opa proteins are important for bacterial attachment and invasion of epithelial cells, Opa+ Gc has a survival defect after exposure to neutrophils. Here, we use constitutively Opa- and OpaD+ Gc in strain background FA1090 to show that Opa+ Gc is more sensitive to killing inside adherent, chemokine-treated primary human neutrophils due to increased bacterial residence in mature, degradative phagolysosomes that contain primary and secondary granule antimicrobial content. Although Opa+ Gc stimulates a potent oxidative burst, neutrophil killing of Opa+ Gc was instead attributable to non-oxidative components, particularly neutrophil proteases and the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Blocking interaction of Opa+ Gc with carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) or inhibiting Src family kinase signaling, which is downstream of CEACAM activation, enhanced the survival of Opa+ Gc in neutrophils. Src family kinase signaling was required for fusion of Gc phagosomes with primary granules to generate mature phagolysosomes. Conversely, ectopic activation of Src family kinases or coinfection with Opa+ Gc resulted in decreased survival of Opa- Gc in neutrophils. From these results, we conclude that Opa protein expression is an important modulator of Gc survival characteristics in neutrophils by influencing phagosome dynamics and thus bacterial exposure to neutrophils’ full antimicrobial arsenal. PMID:25346239

  4. The CLK family kinases, CLK1 and CLK2, phosphorylate and activate the tyrosine phosphatase, PTP-1B.

    PubMed

    Moeslein, F M; Myers, M P; Landreth, G E

    1999-09-17

    The protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP-1B is an important regulator of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and is itself regulated by phosphorylation. We report that PTP-1B and its yeast analog, YPTP, are phosphorylated and activated by members of the CLK family of dual specificity kinases. CLK1 and CLK2 phosphorylation of PTP-1B in vitro activated the phosphatase activity approximately 3-5-fold using either p-nitrophenol phosphate, or tyrosine-phosphorylated myelin basic protein as substrates. Co-expression of CLK1 or CLK2 with PTP-1B in HEK 293 cells led to a 2-fold stimulation of phosphatase activity in vivo. Phosphorylation of PTP-1B at Ser(50) by CLK1 or CLK2 is responsible for its enzymatic activation. These findings suggest that phosphorylation at Ser(50) by serine threonine kinases may regulate the activation of PTP-1B in vivo. We also show that CLK1 and CLK2 phosphorylate and activate the S. cerevisiae PTP-1B family member, YPTP1. CLK1 phosphorylation of YPTP1 led to a 3-fold stimulation of phosphatase activity in vitro. We demonstrate that CLK phosphorylation of Ser(83) on YPTP1 is responsible for the activation of this enzyme. These findings demonstrate that the CLK kinases activate PTP-1B family members, and this phosphatase may be an important cellular target for CLK action.

  5. Modes of Action and Functions of ERECTA-family Receptor-like Kinases in Plant Organ Growth and Development

    SciTech Connect

    TORII, Keiko U.

    2012-05-01

    Higher plants constitute the central resource for renewable lignocellulose biomass that can supplement for the world's depleting stores of fossil fuels. As such, understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms of plant organ growth will provide key knowledge and genetic resources that enables manipulation of plant biomass feedstock for better growth and productivity. The goal of this proposal is to understand how cell proliferation and growth are coordinated during aboveground organ morphogenesis, and how cell-cell signaling mediated by a family of receptor kinases coordinates plant organogenesis. The well-established model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used for our research to facilitate rapid progress. Specifically, we focus on how ERECTA-family leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RLKs) interact in a synergistic manner to promote organogenesis and pattern formation in Arabidopsis. This project was highly successful, resulted in fourteen publications including nine peer-reviewed original research articles. One provisional US patent has been filed through this DOE funding. We have addressed the critical roles for a family of receptor kinases in coordinating proliferation and differentiation of plants, and we successfully elucidated the downstream targets of this signaling pathway in specifying stomatal patterning.

  6. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Selective 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase-1 (PDK1) Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Jesus R.; Becker, Christopher J.; Blackledge, Charles W.; Duquenne, Celine; Feng, Yanhong; Grant, Seth W.; Heerding, Dirk; Li, William H.; Miller, William H.; Romeril, Stuart P.; Scherzer, Daryl; Shu, Arthur; Bobko, Mark A.; Chadderton, Antony R.; Dumble, Melissa; Gardiner, Christine M.; Gilbert, Seth; Liu, Qi; Rabindran, Sridhar K.; Sudakin, Valery; Xiang, Hong; Brady, Pat G.; Campobasso, Nino; Ward, Paris; Axten, Jeffrey M.

    2014-10-02

    Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1(PDK1) is a master regulator of the AGC family of kinases and an integral component of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. As this pathway is among the most commonly deregulated across all cancers, a selective inhibitor of PDK1 might have utility as an anticancer agent. Herein we describe our lead optimization of compound 1 toward highly potent and selective PDK1 inhibitors via a structure-based design strategy. The most potent and selective inhibitors demonstrated submicromolar activity as measured by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates as well as antiproliferative activity against a subset of AML cell lines. In addition, reduction of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates was demonstrated in vivo in mice bearing OCl-AML2 xenografts. These observations demonstrate the utility of these molecules as tools to further delineate the biology of PDK1 and the potential pharmacological uses of a PDK1 inhibitor.

  7. Ror family receptor tyrosine kinases regulate the maintenance of neural progenitor cells in the developing neocortex.

    PubMed

    Endo, Mitsuharu; Doi, Ryosuke; Nishita, Michiru; Minami, Yasuhiro

    2012-04-15

    The Ror family receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Ror1 and Ror2, have been shown to play crucial roles in developmental morphogenesis by acting as receptors or co-receptors to mediate Wnt5a-induced signaling. Although Ror1, Ror2 and Wnt5a are expressed in the developing brain, little is known about their roles in the neural development. Here we show that Ror1, Ror2 and their ligand Wnt5a are highly expressed in neocortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of Ror1, Ror2 or Wnt5a in cultured NPCs isolated from embryonic neocortex results in the reduction of βIII-tubulin-positive neurons that are produced from NPCs possibly through the generation of T-box brain 2 (Tbr2)-positive intermediate progenitors. BrdU-labeling experiments further reveal that the proportion of proliferative and neurogenic NPCs, which are positive for neural progenitor cell marker (Pax6) but negative for glial cell marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein; GFAP), is reduced within a few days in culture following knockdown of these molecules, suggesting that Ror1, Ror2 and Wnt5a regulate neurogenesis through the maintenance of NPCs. Moreover, we show that Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) is involved in Wnt5a-Ror1 and Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in NPCs, and that suppressed expression of Dvl2 indeed reduces the proportion of proliferative and neurogenic NPCs. Interestingly, suppressed expression of either Ror1 or Ror2 in NPCs in the developing neocortex results in the precocious differentiation of NPCs into neurons, and their forced expression results in delayed differentiation. Collectively, these results indicate that Wnt5a-Ror1 and Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling pathways play roles in maintaining proliferative and neurogenic NPCs during neurogenesis of the developing neocortex.

  8. Role of a hippocampal SRC-family kinase-mediated glutamatergic mechanism in drug context-induced cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaohu; Arguello, Amy A; Wells, Audrey M; Reittinger, Andrew M; Fuchs, Rita A

    2013-12-01

    Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) is necessary for drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in an animal model of drug relapse. Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest that the Src family of tyrosine kinases critically regulates glutamatergic cellular functions within the DH. Thus, Src-family kinases in the DH may similarly control contextual cocaine-seeking behavior. To test this hypothesis, rats were trained to lever press for un-signaled cocaine infusions in a distinct context followed by extinction training in a different context. Cocaine-seeking behavior (non-reinforced active lever pressing) was then assessed in the previously cocaine-paired and extinction contexts after AP5 (N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) antagonist; 0.25 or 2.5 μg/0.5 μl/hemisphere), PP2 (Src-family kinase inhibitor; 6.25 or 62.5 ng/0.5 μl/hemisphere), Ro25-6981 (NR2B subunit-containing NMDAR antagonist; 0.2 or 2 μg/0.5 μl/hemisphere), or vehicle administration into the DH. Administration of AP5, PP2, or Ro25-6981 into the DH dose-dependently impaired drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior relative to vehicle, without altering instrumental behavior in the extinction context or food-reinforced instrumental responding and general motor activity in control experiments. Cocaine-seeking behavior during the first 20 min of the test session in the cocaine-paired context was associated with an increase in NR2B subunit activation, and intra-DH PP2 pretreatment disrupted this relationship. Together, these findings suggest that Src-family kinase activation, NMDAR stimulation, and likely Src-family kinase-mediated NR2B subunit-containing NMDAR activation in the DH are necessary for incentive motivational and/or memory processes that promote contextual cocaine-seeking behavior.

  9. Modulation of enzymatic activity of Src-family kinases in bovine T cells transformed by Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Fich, C; Klauenberg, U; Fleischer, B; Bröker, B M

    1998-08-01

    After infection with sporozoites of the protozoon Theileria parva (Tp) bovine T cells are readily transformed to permanent growth in vivo and in vitro. Their transformed state depends on the constant presence of the parasite but membrane signals remain important. Non-receptor tyrosine kinases play a critical role in the transduction of membrane signals in haematopoietic cells. We have investigated Src-family kinases in bovine T cells transformed by Tp. The T cell receptor-associated tyrosine kinase p60fyn had high activity in all cell lines tested. In addition, weak phosphorylation of 2 novel bands was observed associated with Fyn. In contrast to Fyn, enzymatic activity of p56lck, which in T cells has an essential role in signalling, was low. Furthermore, 1 of 3 Tp transformed cell lines was completely devoid of p56lck indicating that the enzyme is not necessary for the Tp dependent growth of the T cells. In addition to p60fyn and p56lck weak enzymatic activity of 1 splice variant of p53/56lyn was observed after infection of T cells with Tp. These data show that growth transformation by Tp influences kinase activity in bovine T cells. However, they also prove that p56lck does not play an essential role in the transformation mechanism.

  10. SRC family kinase (SFK) inhibition reduces rhabdomyosarcoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo and triggers p38 MAP kinase-mediated differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Casini, Nadia; Forte, Iris Maria; Mastrogiovanni, Gianmarco; Pentimalli, Francesca; Angelucci, Adriano; Festuccia, Claudio; Tomei, Valentina; Ceccherini, Elisa; Di Marzo, Domenico; Schenone, Silvia; Botta, Maurizio; Giordano, Antonio; Indovina, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Recent data suggest that SRC family kinases (SFKs) could represent potential therapeutic targets for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children. Here, we assessed the effect of a recently developed selective SFK inhibitor (a pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivative, called SI221) on RMS cell lines. SI221, which showed to be mainly effective against the SFK member YES, significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis, without affecting non-tumor cells, such as primary human skin fibroblasts and differentiated C2C12 cells. Moreover, SI221 decreased in vitro cell migration and invasion and reduced tumor growth in a RMS xenograft model. SFK inhibition also induced muscle differentiation in RMS cells by affecting the NOTCH3 receptor-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) axis, which regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Overall, our findings suggest that SFK inhibition, besides reducing RMS cell growth and invasive potential, could also represent a differentiation therapeutic strategy for RMS. PMID:25762618

  11. Phosphorylation of Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2A at Thr84 by Casein Kinase 1 Family Kinases Controls the Specific Retrieval of Synaptotagmin-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Gordon, Sarah L.; Fritsch, Maximilian J.; Esoof, Noor; Campbell, David G.; Gourlay, Robert; Velupillai, Srikannathasan; Macartney, Thomas; Peggie, Mark; van Aalten, Daan M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) is a ubiquitous component of synaptic vesicles (SVs). It has roles in both SV trafficking and neurotransmitter release. We demonstrate that Casein kinase 1 family members, including isoforms of Tau–tubulin protein kinases (TTBK1 and TTBK2), phosphorylate human SV2A at two constellations of residues, namely Cluster-1 (Ser42, Ser45, and Ser47) and Cluster-2 (Ser80, Ser81, and Thr84). These residues are also phosphorylated in vivo, and the phosphorylation of Thr84 within Cluster-2 is essential for triggering binding to the C2B domain of human synaptotagmin-1. We show by crystallographic and other analyses that the phosphorylated Thr84 residue binds to a pocket formed by three conserved Lys residues (Lys314, Lys326, and Lys328) on the surface of the synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain. Finally, we observed dysfunctional synaptotagmin-1 retrieval during SV endocytosis by ablating its phospho-dependent interaction with SV2A, knockdown of SV2A, or rescue with a phosphorylation-null Thr84 SV2A mutant in primary cultures of mouse neurons. This study reveals fundamental details of how phosphorylation of Thr84 on SV2A controls its interaction with synaptotagmin-1 and implicates SV2A as a phospho-dependent chaperone required for the specific retrieval of synaptotagmin-1 during SV endocytosis. PMID:25673844

  12. Aldosterone regulates cellular turnover and mitogen-activated protein kinase family expression in the neonatal rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Bae, In Sun; Jang, Gi Young; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that aldosterone is a potent mitogenic signal regulating genes involved in antiapoptosis, cell proliferation and growth. We investigated the role of endogenous aldosterone in renal development, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family expression. Newborn rats were treated with either spironolactone (200 mg/kg/d) in olive oil or only olive oil for 7 days. TUNEL assay and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) stain were performed on kidney sections. Immunoblots, immunohistochemical (IHC) stain, and reverse transcriptase-PCR for MAPKs were performed. PCNA-positive proliferating cells decreased and apoptotic cells increased significantly with spironolactone (P < 0.05). In the spironolactone-treated group, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-2 expression increased, whereas extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)-2 and p38 expressions decreased in immunoblots (P < 0.05) and IHC stain. ERK-2 and p38 mRNA expressions increased in the spironolactone-treated group (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that aldosterone blockade in the developing kidney decreases cellular proliferation, increases apoptosis, and modulates the expressions of JNK-2, ERK-2, and p38. Aldosterone possibly participates in renal development and MAPK family may serve as, in part, the signaling intermediate through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the developing kidney. J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 724-733, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Functional activation of Src family kinase yes protein is essential for the enhanced malignant properties of human melanoma cells expressing ganglioside GD3.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Kazunori; Tsuji, Momoko; Hotta, Hiroshi; Ohkawa, Yuki; Takahashi, Masataka; Shibuya, Hidenobu; Nakashima, Hideyuki; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Noboru; Hattori, Hisashi; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Keiko; Furukawa, Koichi

    2011-05-27

    The possible roles of Src family kinases in the enhanced malignant properties of melanomas related to GD3 expression were analyzed. Among Src family kinases only Yes, not Fyn or Src, was functionally involved in the increased cell proliferation and invasion of GD3-expressing transfectant cells (GD3+). Yes was located upstream of p130Cas and paxillin and at an equivalent level to focal adhesion kinase. Yes underwent autophosphorylation even before serum treatment and showed stronger kinase activity in GD3+ cells than in GD3- cells following serum treatment. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Yes bound to focal adhesion kinase or p130Cas more strongly in GD3+ cells than in GD3- cells. As a possible mechanism for the enhancing effects of GD3 on cellular phenotypes, it was shown that majority of Yes was localized in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts in GD3+ cells even before serum treatment, whereas it was scarcely detected in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts in GD3- cells. An in vitro kinase assay of Yes revealed that coexistence of GD3 with Yes in membranous environments enhances the kinase activity of GD3- cell-derived Yes toward enolase, p125, and Yes itself. Knockdown of GD3 synthase resulted in the alleviation of tumor phenotypes and reduced activation levels of Yes. Taken together, these results suggest a role of GD3 in the regulation of Src family kinases.

  14. Damage to lens fiber cells causes TRPV4-dependent Src family kinase activation in the epithelium.

    PubMed

    Shahidullah, M; Mandal, A; Delamere, N A

    2015-11-01

    The bulk of the lens consists of tightly packed fiber cells. Because mature lens fibers lack mitochondria and other organelles, lens homeostasis relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells at the anterior surface. The detection of various signaling pathways in lens epithelial cells suggests they respond to stimuli that influence lens function. Focusing on Src Family Kinases (SFKs) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), we tested whether the epithelium can sense and respond to an event that occurs in fiber mass. The pig lens was subjected to localized freeze-thaw (FT) damage to fibers at posterior pole then the lens was incubated for 1-10 min in Krebs solution at 37 °C. Transient SFK activation in the epithelium was detectable at 1 min. Using a western blot approach, the ion channel TRPV4 was detected in the epithelium but was sparse or absent in fiber cells. Even though TRPV4 expression appears low at the actual site of FT damage to the fibers, SFK activation in the epithelium was suppressed in lenses subjected to FT damage then incubated with the TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 (10 μM). Na,K-ATPase activity was examined because previous studies report changes of Na,K-ATPase activity associated with SFK activation. Na,K-ATPase activity doubled in the epithelium removed from FT-damaged lenses and the response was prevented by HC067047 or the SFK inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Similar changes were observed in response to fiber damage caused by injection of 5 μl hyperosmotic NaCl or mannitol solution beneath the surface of the posterior pole. The findings point to a TRPV4-dependent mechanism that enables the epithelial cells to detect remote damage in the fiber mass and respond within minutes by activating SFK and increasing Na,K-ATPase activity. Because TRPV4 channels are mechanosensitive, we speculate they may be stimulated by swelling of the lens structure caused by damage to the fibers. Increased Na,K-ATPase activity gives the lens greater capacity to

  15. Control of vascular smooth muscle function by Src-family kinases and reactive oxygen species in health and disease.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Charles E; Knock, Greg A

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now recognised as second messenger molecules that regulate cellular function by reversibly oxidising specific amino acid residues of key target proteins. Amongst these are the Src-family kinases (SrcFKs), a multi-functional group of non-receptor tyrosine kinases highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). In this review we examine the evidence supporting a role for ROS-induced SrcFK activity in normal VSM contractile function and in vascular remodelling in cardiovascular disease. VSM contractile responses to G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation, as well as hypoxia in pulmonary artery, are shown to be dependent on both ROS and SrcFK activity. Specific phosphorylation targets are identified amongst those that alter intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, including transient receptor potential channels, voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and various types of K(+) channels, as well as amongst those that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics and myosin phosphatase activity, including focal adhesion kinase, protein tyrosine kinase-2, Janus kinase, other focal adhesion-associated proteins, and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors. We also examine a growing weight of evidence in favour of a key role for SrcFKs in multiple pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic signalling pathways relating to oxidative stress and vascular remodelling, with a particular focus on pulmonary hypertension, including growth-factor receptor transactivation and downstream signalling, hypoxia-inducible factors, positive feedback between SrcFK and STAT3 signalling and positive feedback between SrcFK and NADPH oxidase dependent ROS production. We also discuss evidence for and against the potential therapeutic targeting of SrcFKs in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  16. Differential effects on cell motility, embryonic stem cell self-renewal and senescence by diverse Src kinase family inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Tamm, Christoffer Galito, Sara Pijuan Anneren, Cecilia

    2012-02-15

    The Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (SFKs) has been shown to play an intricate role in embryonic stem (ES) cell maintenance. In the present study we have focused on the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the vastly different effects induced by various commonly used SFK inhibitors. We show that several diverse cell types, including fibroblasts completely lacking SFKs, cannot undergo mitosis in response to SU6656 and that this is caused by an unselective inhibition of Aurora kinases. In contrast, PP2 and PD173952 block motility immediately upon exposure and forces cells to grow in dense colonies. The subsequent halt in proliferation of fibroblast and epithelial cells in the center of the colonies approximately 24 h post-treatment appears to be caused by cell-to-cell contact inhibition rather than a direct effect of SFK kinase inhibition. Interestingly, in addition to generating more homogenous and dense ES cell cultures, without any diverse effect on proliferation, PP2 and PD173652 also promote ES cell self-renewal by reducing the small amount of spontaneous differentiation typically observed under standard ES cell culture conditions. These effects could not be mirrored by the use of Gleevec, a potent inhibitor of c-Abl and PDGFR kinases that are also inhibited by PP2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SFK inhibitor SU6656 induces senescence in mouse ES cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SU6656 inhibits mitosis in a SFK-independent manner via cross-selectivity for Aurora kinases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SFK inhibitor PP2 impairs cell motility in various cell lines, including mouse ES cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ensuing impeded motility, PP2 inhibits proliferation of various cells lines except for mouse ES cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SFK inhibitors PP2 and PD173952 impede spontaneous differentiation in standard mouse ES culture maintenance.

  17. The Src family kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn are critical for the generation of the in vivo inflammatory environment without a direct role in leukocyte recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Miklós; Németh, Tamás; Jakus, Zoltán; Sitaru, Cassian; Simon, Edina; Futosi, Krisztina; Botz, Bálint; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Lowell, Clifford A.

    2014-01-01

    Although Src family kinases participate in leukocyte function in vitro, such as integrin signal transduction, their role in inflammation in vivo is poorly understood. We show that Src family kinases play a critical role in myeloid cell–mediated in vivo inflammatory reactions. Mice lacking the Src family kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn in the hematopoietic compartment were completely protected from autoantibody-induced arthritis and skin blistering disease, as well as from the reverse passive Arthus reaction, with functional overlap between the three kinases. Though the overall phenotype resembled the leukocyte recruitment defect observed in β2 integrin–deficient (CD18−/−) mice, Hck−/−Fgr−/−Lyn−/− neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages had no cell-autonomous in vivo or in vitro migration defect. Instead, Src family kinases were required for the generation of the inflammatory environment in vivo and for the release of proinflammatory mediators from neutrophils and macrophages in vitro, likely due to their role in Fcγ receptor signal transduction. Our results suggest that infiltrating myeloid cells release proinflammatory chemokine, cytokine, and lipid mediators that attract further neutrophils and monocytes from the circulation in a CD18-dependent manner. Src family kinases are required for the generation of the inflammatory environment but not for the intrinsic migratory ability of myeloid cells. PMID:25225462

  18. Partial pyruvate kinase deficiency aggravates the phenotypic expression of band 3 deficiency in a family with hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, Rob; van Oirschot, Brigitte A; Veldthuis, Martijn; Dobbe, Johannes G; Streekstra, Geert J; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schutgens, Roger E G; van Wijk, Richard

    2015-03-01

    In a family with mild dominant spherocytosis, affected members showed partial band 3 deficiency. The index patient showed more severe clinical symptoms than his relatives, and his red blood cells displayed concomitant low pyruvate kinase activity. We investigated the contribution of partial PK deficiency to the phenotypic expression of mutant band 3 in this family. Pyruvate kinase deficiency and band 3 deficiency were characterized by DNA analysis. Results of red cell osmotic fragility testing, the results of cell deformability obtained by the Automated Rheoscope and Cell Analyzer and the results obtained by Osmotic Gradient Ektacytometry, which is a combination of these tests, were related to the red cell ATP content. Spherocytosis in this family was due to a novel heterozygous mutation in SLC4A1, the gene for band 3. Reduced PK activity of the index patient was attributed to a novel mutation in PKLR inherited from his mother, who was without clinical symptoms. Partial PK deficiency was associated with decreased red cell ATP content and markedly increased osmotic fragility. This suggests an aggravating effect of low ATP levels on the phenotypic expression of band 3 deficiency.

  19. On the conservation of the slow conformational dynamics within the amino acid kinase family: NAGK the paradigm.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Enrique; Crehuet, Ramon; Bahar, Ivet

    2010-04-08

    N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) is the structural paradigm for examining the catalytic mechanisms and dynamics of amino acid kinase family members. Given that the slow conformational dynamics of the NAGK (at the microseconds time scale or slower) may be rate-limiting, it is of importance to assess the mechanisms of the most cooperative modes of motion intrinsically accessible to this enzyme. Here, we present the results from normal mode analysis using an elastic network model representation, which shows that the conformational mechanisms for substrate binding by NAGK strongly correlate with the intrinsic dynamics of the enzyme in the unbound form. We further analyzed the potential mechanisms of allosteric signalling within NAGK using a Markov model for network communication. Comparative analysis of the dynamics of family members strongly suggests that the low-frequency modes of motion and the associated intramolecular couplings that establish signal transduction are highly conserved among family members, in support of the paradigm sequence-->structure-->dynamics-->function.

  20. [Analysis of creatine kinase variation in some members of the family Acipenseridae].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, E V

    2008-04-01

    Creatine kinase (E.C. 2.7.3.2) was examined in stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus Pallas, Russian sturgeon A. gueldenstaedtii Brandt, European sterlet A. ruthenus L., Siberian sterlet A. ruthenus marsiglii Brandt, and great sturgeon (beluga) Huso huso L., using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two loci for creatine kinase were identified: CK-A* in white skeletal muscle and CK-C* in stomach wall muscle. Most species proved to be monomorphic at the CK-A* locus, showing the same phenotype represented by a single band. Heterogeneity and polymorphism in creatine kinase, determined by the CK-A* locus, were found only in Russian sturgeon. Based on the results of densitometric analysis of band staining intensity, we have advanced a hypothesis that synthesis of subunits of the CK-A* product in this species was controlled by eight genes. However, the genotype frequencies in the sample were significantly different from those theoretically expected upon free and independent gene recombination. The results of this study support the hypothesis on the absence of heterodimeric creatine kinase molecules in the skeletal muscle of Russian sturgeon. Locus CK-C* in sterlet was revealed as a single, intensely stained, rapidly migrating fraction, whereas in Russian sturgeon, the enzyme activity in this zone was very weak. No creatine kinase was found in liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, and intestine mucous tunic.

  1. Phage-peptide display identifies the interferon-responsive, death-activated protein kinase family as a novel modifier of MDM2 and p21WAF1.

    PubMed

    Burch, Lindsay R; Scott, Mary; Pohler, Elizabeth; Meek, David; Hupp, Ted

    2004-03-12

    Phage-peptide display is a versatile tool for identifying novel protein-protein interfaces. Our previous work highlighted the selection of phage-peptides that bind to specific isoforms of MDM2 protein and in this work we subjected the putative MDM2-binding proteins to phage-peptide display to expand further on putative protein interaction maps. One peptide that bound MDM2 had significant homology to members of the death-activated protein kinase (DAPK) family, an enzyme family of no known direct link to the p53 pathway. We examined whether a nuclear member of the DAPK family named DAPK3 or ZIP kinase had direct links to the p53 pathway. ZIP kinase was cloned, purified, and the enzyme was able to phosphorylate MDM2 at Ser166, a site previously reported to be modified by Akt kinase, thus demonstrating that ZIP kinase is a bona fide MDM2-binding protein. Native ZIP kinase fractions were then subjected to phage-peptide display and one ZIP kinase consensus peptide motif was identified in p21(WAF1). ZIP kinase phosphorylates p21(WAF1) at Thr145 and alanine-substituted mutations in the p21(WAF1) phosphorylation site alter its ability to be phosphorylated by ZIP kinase. Thus, although ZIP kinase consensus sites were then defined as containing a minimal RKKx(T/S) consensus motif, alternate contacts in ZIP kinase binding are implicated, since amino acid residues surrounding the phospho-acceptor site can effect the specific activity of the kinase. Transfected ZIPK can promote the phosphorylation of p21(WAF1) at Thr145 in vivo and can increase the half-life of p21(WAF1), while the half-life of p21(WAF1[T145A]) is not effected by ZIP kinase. Thus, phage-peptide display identified an interferon-responsive protein kinase family as a novel modifier of two components of the p53 pathway, MDM2 and p21(WAF1), and underscores the utility of phage-peptide display for gaining novel insights into biochemical pathways.

  2. Regulation of the formin Bnr1 by septins anda MARK/Par1-family septin-associated kinase.

    PubMed

    Buttery, Shawnna M; Kono, Keiko; Stokasimov, Ema; Pellman, David

    2012-10-01

    Formin-family proteins promote the assembly of linear actin filaments and are required to generate cellular actin structures, such as actin stress fibers and the cytokinetic actomyosin contractile ring. Many formin proteins are regulated by an autoinhibition mechanism involving intramolecular binding of a Diaphanous inhibitory domain and a Diaphanous autoregulatory domain. However, the activation mechanism for these Diaphanous-related formins (DRFs) is not completely understood. Although small GTPases play an important role in relieving autoinhibition, other factors likely contribute. Here we describe a requirement for the septin Shs1 and the septin-associated kinase Gin4 for the localization and in vivo activity of the budding yeast DRF Bnr1. In budding yeast strains in which the other formin, Bni1, is conditionally inactivated, the loss of Gin4 or Shs1 results in the loss of actin cables and cell death, similar to the loss of Bnr1. The defects in these strains can be suppressed by constitutive activation of Bnr1. Gin4 is involved in both the localization and activation of Bnr1, whereas the septin Shs1 is required for Bnr1 activation but not its localization. Gin4 promotes the activity of Bnr1 independently of the Gin4 kinase activity, and Gin4 lacking its kinase domain binds to the critical localization region of Bnr1. These data reveal novel regulatory links between the actin and septin cytoskeletons.

  3. Src family kinase mediated negative regulation of hematopoietic stem cell mobilization involves both intrinsic and microenvironmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Borneo, Jovencio; Munugalavadla, Veerendra; Sims, Emily Catherine; Vemula, Sasidhar; Orschell, Christie M.; Yoder, Merv; Kapur, Reuben

    2007-01-01

    Objective The intracellular signals that contribute to G-CSF receptor induced stem cell mobilization are poorly characterized. Methods We show enhanced G-CSF induced mobilization of stem cells in mice deficient in the expression of Src family kinases (SFK−/−), which is associated with hypersensitivity of SFK−/− bone marrow cells to G-CSF as well as sustained activation of Stat3. Results A proteome map of the bone marrow fluid derived from wildtype and SFK−/− mice revealed a significant global reduction in the number of proteins in SFK−/− mice compared to controls, which was associated with elevated MMP-9 levels, reduced SDF-1 expression, and enhanced break down of VCAM-1. Transplantation of wildtype or SFK−/− stem cells into wildtype mice and treatment with G-CSF recapitulated the G-CSF induced increase in stem cell mobilization noted in SFK−/− non-transplanted mice; however, the increase was significantly less. G-CSF treatment of SFK−/− mice engrafted with wildtype stem cells also demonstrated a modest increase in stem cell mobilization compared to controls, however the observed increase was greatest in mice completely devoid of SFKs. Conclusions These data suggest an involvement of both hematopoietic intrinsic and microenvironmental factors in Src kinase mediated mobilization of stem cells and identify Src kinases as potential targets for modulating stem cell mobilization. PMID:17588471

  4. Competition between members of the tribbles pseudokinase protein family shapes their interactions with mitogen activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hongtao; Shuaib, Aban; Leon, David Davila De; Angyal, Adrienn; Salazar, Maria; Velasco, Guillermo; Holcombe, Mike; Dower, Steven K.; Kiss-Toth, Endre

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal regulation of intracellular signalling networks is key to normal cellular physiology; dysregulation of which leads to disease. The family of three mammalian tribbles proteins has emerged as an important controller of signalling via regulating the activity of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), the PI3-kinase induced signalling network and E3 ubiquitin ligases. However, the importance of potential redundancy in the action of tribbles and how the differences in affinities for the various binding partners may influence signalling control is currently unclear. We report that tribbles proteins can bind to an overlapping set of MAPK-kinases (MAPKK) in live cells and dictate the localisation of the complexes. Binding studies in transfected cells reveal common regulatory mechanisms and suggest that tribbles and MAPKs may interact with MAPKKs in a competitive manner. Computational modelling of the impact of tribbles on MAPK activation suggests a high sensitivity of this system to changes in tribbles levels, highlighting that these proteins are ideally placed to control the dynamics and balance of activation of concurrent signalling pathways. PMID:27600771

  5. Specific oncogenic activity of the Src-family tyrosine kinase c-Yes in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sancier, Florence; Dumont, Aurélie; Sirvent, Audrey; Paquay de Plater, Ludmilla; Edmonds, Thomas; David, Géraldine; Jan, Michel; de Montrion, Catherine; Cogé, Francis; Léonce, Stéphane; Burbridge, Michael; Bruno, Alain; Boutin, Jean A; Lockhart, Brian; Roche, Serge; Cruzalegui, Francisco

    2011-02-24

    c-Yes, a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family, is found highly activated in colon carcinoma but its importance relative to c-Src has remained unclear. Here we show that, in HT29 colon carcinoma cells, silencing of c-Yes, but not of c-Src, selectively leads to an increase of cell clustering associated with a localisation of β-catenin at cell membranes and a reduction of expression of β-catenin target genes. c-Yes silencing induced an increase in apoptosis, inhibition of growth in soft-agar and in mouse xenografts, inhibition of cell migration and loss of the capacity to generate liver metastases in mice. Re-introduction of c-Yes, but not c -Src, restores transforming properties of c-Yes depleted cells. Moreover, we found that c-Yes kinase activity is required for its role in β-catenin localisation and growth in soft agar, whereas kinase activity is dispensable for its role in cell migration. We conclude that c-Yes regulates specific oncogenic signalling pathways important for colon cancer progression that is not shared with c-Src.

  6. Constitutively active ABL family kinases, TEL/ABL and TEL/ARG, harbor distinct leukemogenic activities in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yokota, A; Hirai, H; Shoji, T; Maekawa, T; Okuda, K

    2017-04-07

    ABL (ABL1) and ARG (ABL2) are highly homologous to each other in overall domain structure and amino acid sequence, with the exception of their C-termini. As with ABL, translocations that fuse ARG to ETV6/TEL have been identified in patients with leukemia. To assess the in vivo leukemogenic activity of constitutively active ABL and ARG, we generated a bone marrow (BM) transplantation model using the chimeric forms TEL/ABL and TEL/ARG, which have comparable kinase activities. TEL/ABL rapidly induced fatal myeloid leukemia in recipient mice, whereas recipients of TEL/ARG-transduced cells did not develop myeloid leukemia; instead, they succumbed to a long-latency infiltrative mastocytosis that could be adoptively transferred to secondary recipients. Swapping of the C-termini of ABL and ARG altered disease latency and phenotypes. In a detailed in vitro study, TEL/ARG strongly promoted mast cell differentiation in response to SCF or IL-3, whereas TEL/ABL preferentially induced myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. These results indicate that ABL and ARG kinase activate distinct differentiation pathways to induce specific diseases in vivo, i.e., myeloid leukemia and mastocytosis, respectively. Further elucidation of the differences in their properties should provide important insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of oncogenes of the ABL kinase family.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 07 April 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.114.

  7. Reliability improvements of the Guri Hydroelectric Power Plant computer control system AGC and AVC

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, F.; Pescina, M. ); Llort, G. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the computer control system of a large hydroelectric powerplant and the reliability improvements made to the automatic generation control (AGC) and automatic voltage control (AVC) programs. hardware and software modifications were required to improve the interface between the powerplant and the regional load dispatch office. These modifications, and their impact on the AGC and AVC reliability, are also discussed. The changes that have been implemented are recommended for inclusion in new powerplant computer control systems, and as an upgrade feature for existing control systems.

  8. Data Report on Post-Irradiation Dimensional Change of AGC-1 Samples

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the initial dimensional changes for loaded and unloaded AGC-1 samples. The dimensional change for all samples is presented as a function of dose. The data is further presented by graphite type and applied load levels to illustrate the differences between graphite forming processes and stress levels within the graphite components. While the three different loads placed on the samples have been verified [ ref: Larry Hull’s report] verification of the AGC-1 sample temperatures and dose levels are expected in the summer of 2012. Only estimated dose and temperature values for the samples are presented in this report to allow a partial analysis of the results.

  9. Functional Conservation in the SIAMESE-RELATED Family of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors in Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narender; Harashima, Hirofumi; Kalve, Shweta; Bramsiepe, Jonathan; Wang, Kai; Sizani, Bulelani L; Bertrand, Laura L; Johnson, Matthew C; Faulk, Christopher; Dale, Renee; Simmons, L Alice; Churchman, Michelle L; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kato, Naohiro; Dasanayake, Maheshi; Beemster, Gerrit; Schnittger, Arp; Larkin, John C

    2015-11-01

    The best-characterized members of the plant-specific SIAMESE-RELATED (SMR) family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors regulate the transition from the mitotic cell cycle to endoreplication, also known as endoreduplication, an altered version of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated without cell division. Some other family members are implicated in cell cycle responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the functions of most SMRs remain unknown, and the specific cyclin-dependent kinase complexes inhibited by SMRs are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a diverse group of SMRs, including an SMR from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, can complement an Arabidopsis thaliana siamese (sim) mutant and that both Arabidopsis SIM and P. patens SMR can inhibit CDK activity in vitro. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis SIM can bind to and inhibit both CDKA;1 and CDKB1;1. Finally, we show that SMR2 acts to restrict cell proliferation during leaf growth in Arabidopsis and that SIM, SMR1/LGO, and SMR2 play overlapping roles in controlling the transition from cell division to endoreplication during leaf development. These results indicate that differences in SMR function in plant growth and development are primarily due to differences in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, rather than to differences in fundamental biochemical function.

  10. HMGB1 increases permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer via RAGE and Src family tyrosine kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenchang; Liu, Yiyun; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ruyuan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Jun; Mao, Enqiang; Tang, Yaoqing

    2012-02-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was recently established as a proinflammatory mediator of sepsis, and its potential role in the pathogenesis of sepsis remains elusive. In the present study, we determined whether HMGB1 increases the permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer in sepsis. Permeability was measured from fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran 40-kDa flux across the endothelial cell monolayer at control and after HMGB1 administration. We found that HMGB1 increased human umbilical vein endothelial cell permeability to FITC-dextran 40 kDa in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. HMGB1 induced the mRNA transcription and protein expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Blockade of cell surface receptors RAGE with specific neutralizing antibodies and RAGE siRNA or blockade of Src family tyrosine kinase with inhibitor PP2 significantly reduced HMGB1-induced hyperpermeability of endothelial cell monolayer. Our data demonstrate that (1) HMGB1 increases permeability of endothelial cell monolayer in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and (2) HMGB1-induced hyperpermeability is mediated through RAGE and Src family tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. These findings may have implications for therapeutic interventions in patients with sepsis.

  11. Functional Conservation in the SIAMESE-RELATED Family of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors in Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Bertrand, Laura L.; Johnson, Matthew C.; Dale, Renee; Simmons, L. Alice; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kato, Naohiro; Dassanayake, Maheshi; Schnittger, Arp

    2015-01-01

    The best-characterized members of the plant-specific SIAMESE-RELATED (SMR) family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors regulate the transition from the mitotic cell cycle to endoreplication, also known as endoreduplication, an altered version of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated without cell division. Some other family members are implicated in cell cycle responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the functions of most SMRs remain unknown, and the specific cyclin-dependent kinase complexes inhibited by SMRs are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a diverse group of SMRs, including an SMR from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, can complement an Arabidopsis thaliana siamese (sim) mutant and that both Arabidopsis SIM and P. patens SMR can inhibit CDK activity in vitro. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis SIM can bind to and inhibit both CDKA;1 and CDKB1;1. Finally, we show that SMR2 acts to restrict cell proliferation during leaf growth in Arabidopsis and that SIM, SMR1/LGO, and SMR2 play overlapping roles in controlling the transition from cell division to endoreplication during leaf development. These results indicate that differences in SMR function in plant growth and development are primarily due to differences in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, rather than to differences in fundamental biochemical function. PMID:26546445

  12. Structure of Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with the Kinase Inhibitor Balanol

    SciTech Connect

    Tesmer, John J.G.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lodowski, David T.; Steinhagen, Henning; Huber, Jochen

    2010-07-19

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. To better understand how nanomolar inhibition and selectivity for GRK2 might be achieved, we have determined crystal structures of human GRK2 in complex with G{beta}{gamma} in the presence and absence of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. The selectivity of balanol among human GRKs is assessed.

  13. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  14. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-30

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  15. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik

    2016-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 106-107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  16. SHIELD II: AGC 198507 - An Extremely Rare Low-Mass Galaxy Interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolina Borg Stevens, Karin; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Teich, Yaron; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. New HST imaging of one of these sample galaxies, AGC 198507, has revealed it to be a very rare interacting system; to our knowledge this is one of only a few known interactions in this extreme mass range. WSRT imaging indicates that the bulk of the HI is associated with the more luminous AGC 198507, while low surface brightness gas extends toward and coincides with the less luminous companion, which is separated by roughly 1.5 kpc from AGC 198507. Here we present new VLA B configuration HI imaging that allows us to localize the HI gas, to examine the rotational dynamics of AGC 198507, and to study the nature of star formation in this unique low-mass interacting system.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis and Evolution of the Pto-Like Protein Kinase (PLPK) Gene Family in Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Jelli; Jahn, Molly; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-01-01

    The tomato Pto gene, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase (STK) domain-containing protein, confers resistance to bacterial speck disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). In this study, in vivo recognition assays using PVX constructs showed that AvrPto was specifically recognized in the pepper genotypes. This AvrPto recognition caused a nonhost hypersensitive response (HR) and localization of the PVX::AvrPto fusion protein to inoculated pepper leaf tissues, which indicates the presence of a similar Pto recognition mechanism in pepper as in tomato. However, genome-wide analysis in pepper revealed no Pto clade corresponding to that in tomato, suggesting an alternative system for Pto recognition in pepper. Nevertheless, 25 Pto-like protein kinases (PLPKs) with a highly conserved STK domain have been identified in the pepper genome. For the majority of the amino acid sites in the STK domain of Ptos and PLPKs, nonsynonymous (dN) to synonymous (dS) nucleotide substitution ratios (ω) were less than one, suggesting that purifying selection played a predominant role in the evolutionary process. However, some amino acid sites were found to be subjected to episodic positive selection in the course of evolution of Pto homologs, and, thus, different evolutionary processes might have shaped the Pto gene family in plants. Based on RNA-seq data, PLPK genes and other Pto pathway genes, such as Prf, Pti1, Pti5, and Pti6 were expressed in all tested pepper genotypes. Therefore, the nonhost HR against Pst in pepper may be due to the recognition of the AvrPto effector by a PLPK homolog, and subsequent action of downstream components of the Pto signaling pathway. However, the possibility remains that the recognition of AvrPto in pepper plants may involve activities of other receptor like kinases (RLKs). The identification of the PLPKs in this study will serve as a foundation for further efforts to understand the roles of PLPKs in nonhost resistance. PMID:27536870

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of Perilla frutescens in activated human neutrophils through two independent pathways: Src family kinases and Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Leu, Yann-Lii; Fang, Yu; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Sung, Wei-Che; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chung, Pei-Jen; Lee, Ming-Chung; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Yang, Hsuan-Wu; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2015-01-01

    The leaves of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. have been traditionally used as an herbal medicine in East Asian countries to treat a variety diseases. In this present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of P. frutescens extract (PFE) on N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated human neutrophils and the underlying mechanisms. PFE (1, 3, and 10 μg/ml) inhibited superoxide anion production, elastase release, reactive oxygen species formation, CD11b expression, and cell migration in fMLF-activated human neutrophils in dose-dependent manners. PFE inhibited fMLF-induced phosphorylation of the Src family kinases (SFKs), Src (Tyr416) and Lyn (Tyr396), and reduced their enzymatic activities. Both PFE and PP2 (a selective inhibitor of SFKs) reduced the phosphorylation of Burton’s tyrosine kinases (Tyr223) and Vav (Tyr174) in fMLF-activated human neutrophils. Additionally, PFE decreased intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i), whereas PP2 prolonged the time required for [Ca2+]i to return to its basal level. Our findings indicated that PFE effectively regulated the inflammatory activities of fMLF-activated human neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory effects of PFE on activated human neutrophils were mediated through two independent signaling pathways involving SFKs (Src and Lyn) and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. PMID:26659126

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of Perilla frutescens in activated human neutrophils through two independent pathways: Src family kinases and Calcium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Leu, Yann-Lii; Fang, Yu; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Sung, Wei-Che; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chung, Pei-Jen; Lee, Ming-Chung; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Yang, Hsuan-Wu; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2015-12-14

    The leaves of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. have been traditionally used as an herbal medicine in East Asian countries to treat a variety diseases. In this present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of P. frutescens extract (PFE) on N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated human neutrophils and the underlying mechanisms. PFE (1, 3, and 10 μg/ml) inhibited superoxide anion production, elastase release, reactive oxygen species formation, CD11b expression, and cell migration in fMLF-activated human neutrophils in dose-dependent manners. PFE inhibited fMLF-induced phosphorylation of the Src family kinases (SFKs), Src (Tyr416) and Lyn (Tyr396), and reduced their enzymatic activities. Both PFE and PP2 (a selective inhibitor of SFKs) reduced the phosphorylation of Burton's tyrosine kinases (Tyr223) and Vav (Tyr174) in fMLF-activated human neutrophils. Additionally, PFE decreased intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i), whereas PP2 prolonged the time required for [Ca(2+)]i to return to its basal level. Our findings indicated that PFE effectively regulated the inflammatory activities of fMLF-activated human neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory effects of PFE on activated human neutrophils were mediated through two independent signaling pathways involving SFKs (Src and Lyn) and mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+).

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Lianzhe; Ding, Zehong; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Xupo; Zeng, Changying; Wei, Yunxie; Zhao, Hongliang; Peng, Ming; Hu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play central roles in plant developmental processes, hormone signaling transduction, and responses to abiotic stress. However, no data are currently available about the MAPK family in cassava, an important tropical crop. Herein, 21 MeMAPK genes were identified from cassava. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MeMAPKs could be classified into four subfamilies. Gene structure analysis demonstrated that the number of introns in MeMAPK genes ranged from 1 to 10, suggesting large variation among cassava MAPK genes. Conserved motif analysis indicated that all MeMAPKs had typical protein kinase domains. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that MeMAPK genes showed differential expression patterns in distinct tissues and in response to drought stress between wild subspecies and cultivated varieties. Interaction networks and co-expression analyses revealed that crucial pathways controlled by MeMAPK networks may be involved in the differential response to drought stress in different accessions of cassava. Expression of nine selected MAPK genes showed that these genes could comprehensively respond to osmotic, salt, cold, oxidative stressors, and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. These findings yield new insights into the transcriptional control of MAPK gene expression, provide an improved understanding of abiotic stress responses and signaling transduction in cassava, and lead to potential applications in the genetic improvement of cassava cultivars. PMID:27625666

  1. Plasmodium induced by SU6656, an Src family kinase inhibitor, is accompanied by a contractile ring defect.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Ono, Michio; Bito, Haruhiko; Mikami, Taro; Sawada, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that SU6656, a potent Src family kinase inhibitor, has the ability to induce multinucleation at a high frequency in diverse cells: rat skin fibroblasts, bone marrow adherent cells, 5F9A mesenchymal stem cell-like clones, 2C5 tracheal epithelial cells and MDCK epithelial cells from dog kidney. To gain insight into the mechanism of multinucleation, we observed the process by time-lapse and confocal microscopy. These multinuclei generally seem to exist independently in one cell without any connections with each other. By time-lapse microscopy, multinucleated cells were found to be formed through the mechanism of plasmodium: karyokinesis without cytokinesis. The observation of EGFP-actin transfected cells by time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy suggested that plasmodium occurred with deficient contractile ring formation. Although we examined the differentiation of these cells, the multinucleated cells could not be categorized into any type of cell in vivo known to exhibit multinuclei.

  2. Regulation of PI-3-Kinase and Akt Signaling in T Lymphocytes and Other Cells by TNFR Family Molecules

    PubMed Central

    So, Takanori; Croft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt (protein kinase B) is a common response triggered by a range of membrane-bound receptors on many cell types. In T lymphocytes, the PI3K-Akt pathway promotes clonal expansion, differentiation, and survival of effector cells and suppresses the generation of regulatory T cells. PI3K activation is tightly controlled by signals through the T cell receptor (TCR) and the co-stimulatory receptor CD28, however sustained and periodic signals from additional co-receptors are now being recognized as critical contributors to the activation of this pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that many members of the Tumor Necrosis Factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, TNFR2 (TNFRSF1B), OX40 (TNFRSF4), 4-1BB (TNFRSF9), HVEM (TNFRSF14), and DR3 (TNFRSF25), that are constitutive or inducible on T cells, can directly or indirectly promote activity in the PI3K-Akt pathway. We discuss recent data which suggests that ligation of one TNFR family molecule organizes a signalosome, via TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) adapter proteins in T cell membrane lipid microdomains, that results in the subsequent accumulation of highly concentrated depots of PI3K and Akt in close proximity to TCR signaling units. We propose this may be a generalizable mechanism applicable to other TNFR family molecules that will result in a quantitative contribution of these signalosomes to enhancing and sustaining PI3K and Akt activation triggered by the TCR. We also review data that other TNFR molecules, such as CD40 (TNFRSF5), RANK (TNFRSF11A), FN14 (TNFRSF12A), TACI (TNFRSF13B), BAFFR (TNFRSF13C), and NGFR (TNFRSF16), contribute to the activation of this pathway in diverse cell types through a similar ability to recruit PI3K or Akt into their signaling complexes. PMID:23760533

  3. Requirement and Redundancy of the Src Family Kinases Fyn and Lyn in Perforin-Dependent Killing of Cryptococcus neoformans by NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oykhman, Paul; Timm-McCann, Martina; Xiang, Richard F.; Islam, Anowara; Li, Shu Shun; Stack, Danuta; Huston, Shaunna M.; Ma, Ling Ling

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells directly recognize and kill fungi, such as the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, via cytolytic mechanisms. However, the precise signaling pathways governing this NK cell microbicidal activity and the implications for fungal recognition are still unknown. Previously, it was reported that NK cell anticryptococcal activity is mediated through a conserved phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (PI3K-ERK1/2) pathway. Using YT (a human NK-like cell line) and primary human NK cells, we sought to identify the upstream, receptor-proximal signaling elements that led to fungal cytolysis. We demonstrate that Src family kinases were activated in response to C. neoformans. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition with an Src kinase inhibitor blocked C. neoformans-induced downstream activation of PI3K and ERK1/2 and abrogated cryptococcal killing. At the same time, the inhibitor disrupted the polarization of perforin-containing granules toward the NK cell-cryptococcal synapse but had no effect on conjugate formation between the organism and the NK cell. Finally, small interfering RNA (siRNA) double (but not single) knockdown of two Src family kinases, Fyn and Lyn, blocked cryptococcal killing. Together these data demonstrate a mechanism whereby the Src family kinases, Fyn and Lyn, redundantly mediate anticryptococcal activity through the activation of PI3K and ERK1/2, which in turn facilitates killing by inducing the polarization of perforin-containing granules to the NK cell-cryptococcal synapse. PMID:23918783

  4. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pamela Y; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S; Herbert, De'Broski R; Craft, Joseph E; Flavell, Richard A; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G; Torgerson, Dara G; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-04-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell-specificPros1knockouts phenocopied the loss ofTyro3 Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses.

  5. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pamela Y.; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A.; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D.; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S.; Herbert, De’Broski R.; Craft, Joseph E.; Flavell, Richard A.; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G.; Torgerson, Dara G.; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2016-01-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by Tyro3 in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell–specific Pros1 knockouts phenocopied the loss of Tyro3. Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses. PMID:27034374

  6. Arabidopsis ERECTA-family receptor kinases mediate morphological alterations stimulated by activation of NB-LRR-type UNI proteins.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoyuki; Igari, Kadunari; Bogenschutz, Naomi L; Torii, Keiko U; Tasaka, Masao

    2011-05-01

    Shoot apical meristems (SAMs), which maintain stem cells at the tips of stems, and axillary meristems (AMs), which arise at leaf axils for branch formation, play significant roles in the establishment of plant architecture. Previously, we showed that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of NB-LRR (nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat)-type UNI proteins affects plant morphology through modulation of the regulation of meristems. However, information about genes involved in the processes was still lacking. Here, we report that ERECTA (ER) receptor kinase family members cooperatively mediate the morphological alterations that are stimulated by activation of UNI proteins. uni-1D is a gain-of-function mutation in the UNI gene and uni-1D mutants exhibit early termination of inflorescence stem growth and also formation of extra AMs at leaf axils. The former defect involves modulation of the SAM activity and is suppressed by er mutation. Though the AM phenotype is not affected by a single er mutation, it is suppressed by simultaneous mutations of ER-family members. It was previously shown that trans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins were involved in the morphological phenotypes of uni-1D mutants and that expression of CYP735A2, which is essential for biosynthesis of tZ-type cytokinins, was modulated in uni-1D mutants. We show that this modulation of CYP735A2 expression requires activities of ER-family members. Moreover, the ER activity in UNI-expressing cells contributes to all morphological phenotypes of uni-1D mutants, suggesting that a cross-talk between ER-family-dependent and UNI-triggered signaling pathways plays a significant role in the morphological alterations observed in uni-1D mutants.

  7. Src-family-tyrosine kinase Lyn is critical for TLR2-mediated NF-κB activation through the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Belaidouni, Nadia; Grimaldi, David; Pene, Frederic; Chafey, Philippe; Comba, Béatrice; Camoin, Luc; Bismuth, Georges; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    TLR2 has a prominent role in host defense against a wide variety of pathogens. Stimulation of TLR2 triggers MyD88-dependent signaling to induce NF-κB translocation, and activates a Rac1-PI 3-kinase dependent pathway that leads to transactivation of NF-κB through phosphorylation of the P65 NF-κB subunit. This transactivation pathway involves tyrosine phosphorylations. The role of the tyrosine kinases in TLR signaling is controversial, with discrepancies between studies using only chemical inhibitors and knockout mice. Here, we show the involvement of the tyrosine-kinase Lyn in TLR2-dependent activation of NF-κB in human cellular models, by using complementary inhibition strategies. Stimulation of TLR2 induces the formation of an activation cluster involving TLR2, CD14, PI 3-kinase and Lyn, and leads to the activation of AKT. Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase is essential to the control of PI 3-kinase biological activity upstream of AKT and thereby to the transactivation of NF-κB. Thus, Lyn kinase activity is crucial in TLR2-mediated activation of the innate immune response in human mononuclear cells.

  8. Identification of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK): A multi-functional gene family in Rafflesia cantleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Safoora; Goh, Hoe-Han; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Rafflesia, a parasitic plant that belongs to the Rafflesiaceae family, is notable for producing the largest flowers in the world. This study focused on identification of Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) due to their vital roles in plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and hormone signaling. RNA-seq data generated from three bud stages of Rafflesia cantleyi ie BS1, BS2, and BS3 and were assembled. Based on the BLAST searches of Rafflesia unique transcripts (UTs) to Arabidopsis TAIR database, a total of 14 unique transcripts (UTs) were identified as CDPK1 to CDPK5, CDPK7 to CDPK11, CDPK16, CDPK18, CDPK19, and CDPK28. These genes are expressed at all three bud stages of R. cantleyi with up-regulation pattern at BS1 vs. BS2 and BS2 vs. BS3. This result shows that the expression of CDPK gene family increases by developmental progress in Rafflesia in order to regulate biochemical and molecular changes at the cellular level in response to exposure to environmental changes. However, CDPKs functions in plants growth and defense process still need more experimental evidence to deeply understand their biological roles in R. cantleyi.

  9. Clinical, imaging, and molecular findings in a sample of Mexican families with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Morales-Briceño, H; Chacón-Camacho, O F; Pérez-González, E A; Arteaga-Vázquez, J; Rodríguez-Violante, M; Cervantes-Arriaga, A; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Zenteno, J C; Mutchinick, O M

    2015-03-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by iron accumulation in the brain, because of mutations in the PANK2 gene. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 11 patients from five Mexican families with PKAN disease are reported. Sequencing of PANK2 confirmed the diagnosis. The 11 patients had dysarthria associated with dystonia and Parkinsonism in six. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the 'eye-of-the-tiger' sign in all patients. Three different mutations were identified, a novel one (p.A469P) and two (p.G219V and p.N404I) very rare. Homozygous sibs for the p.G219V mutation had a severe disease progression with early death. Dystonia predominated in the p.A469P/p.N404I compound heterozygous patients. Homozygous for p.N404I showed Parkinsonism, tics and personality and speech disorders. Early and late disease onset and variable expression was present in carriers of the different identified mutations. The 'eye-of-the-tiger' is an excellent neuroimaging hallmark to predict PANK2 mutations. We detected a 'cluster' of patients harboring the p.N404I mutation, strongly suggesting a founder effect for this mutation. This is the first familial clinical-genetic PKAN disease study accomplished in Mexico.

  10. Src Family Kinase Links Insulin Signaling to Short Term Regulation of Na,K-ATPase in Nonpigmented Ciliary Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; Mandal, Amritlal; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2017-06-01

    Insulin has been shown to elicit changes of Na,K-ATPase activity in various tissues. Na,K-ATPase in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE) plays a role in aqueous humor secretion and changes of Na,K-ATPase activity impact the driving force. Because we detect a change of NPE Na,K-ATPase activity in response to insulin, studies were carried out to examine the response mechanism. Ouabain-sensitive rubidium (Rb) uptake by cultured NPE cells, measured as a functional index of Na,K-ATPase-mediated inward potassium transport, was found to increase in cells exposed for 5 min to insulin. The maximally effective concentration was 100 nM. An intrinsic increase of Na,K-ATPase activity evident as a >2-fold increase in the rate of ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis in homogenates obtained from cells exposed to 100 nM insulin for 5 min was also observed. Insulin-treated cells exhibited Akt, Src family kinase (SFK), ERK1/2, and p38 activation, all of which were prevented by a pI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002. The Rb uptake and Na,K-ATPase activity response to insulin both were abolished by PP2, an SFK inhibitor which also prevented p38 and ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. The Akt inhibitor MK-2206 did not change the Na,K-ATPase response to insulin. The findings suggest insulin activates pI3K-dependent Akt and SFK signaling pathways that are separate. ERK1/2 and p38 activation is secondary to and dependent on SFK activation. The increase of Na,K-ATPase activity is dependent on activation of the SFK pathway. The findings are consistent with previous studies that indicate a link between Na,K-ATPase activity and SFK signaling. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1489-1500, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evolution of the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Protein Kinase Family in C3 and C4 Flaveria spp.1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Aldous, Sophia H.; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Waldera-Lupa, Daniel M.; Stühler, Kai; Mallmann, Julia; Groth, Georg; Gowik, Udo; Westhoff, Peter; Arsova, Borjana

    2014-01-01

    The key enzyme for C4 photosynthesis, Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase (PEPC), evolved from nonphotosynthetic PEPC found in C3 ancestors. In all plants, PEPC is phosphorylated by Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Protein Kinase (PPCK). However, differences in the phosphorylation pattern exist among plants with these photosynthetic types, and it is still not clear if they are due to interspecies differences or depend on photosynthetic type. The genus Flaveria contains closely related C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 species, which are evolutionarily young and thus well suited for comparative analysis. To characterize the evolutionary differences in PPCK between plants with C3 and C4 photosynthesis, transcriptome libraries from nine Flaveria spp. were used, and a two-member PPCK family (PPCKA and PPCKB) was identified. Sequence analysis identified a number of C3- and C4-specific residues with various occurrences in the intermediates. Quantitative analysis of transcriptome data revealed that PPCKA and PPCKB exhibit inverse diel expression patterns and that C3 and C4 Flaveria spp. differ in the expression levels of these genes. PPCKA has maximal expression levels during the day, whereas PPCKB has maximal expression during the night. Phosphorylation patterns of PEPC varied among C3 and C4 Flaveria spp. too, with PEPC from the C4 species being predominantly phosphorylated throughout the day, while in the C3 species the phosphorylation level was maintained during the entire 24 h. Since C4 Flaveria spp. evolved from C3 ancestors, this work links the evolutionary changes in sequence, PPCK expression, and phosphorylation pattern to an evolutionary phase shift of kinase activity from a C3 to a C4 mode. PMID:24850859

  12. Differential Requirement for Src-family Tyrosine Kinases in the Initiation, Progression and Metastasis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Irwin H.; Peresie, Jennifer; Eng, Kevin H.; Foster, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) recurrence after androgen ablation therapy (ADT) remains a significant cause of mortality in aging men. Malignant progression and metastasis are typically driven by genetic and epigenetic changes controlled by the androgen receptor (AR). However, evidence suggests that activated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, including those of the Src family (SFK), directly phosphorylate AR, thereby activating its transcriptional activity in the absence of serum androgen levels. To ascertain whether CaP progression and metastasis require SFK members an autochthonous transgenic adenocarcinoma (AD) of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model was crossed into Src-, Lyn- or Fyn-null backgrounds. Primary-site CaP formation was dependent on Src, to a lesser extent, Lyn, but not Fyn. Only Src−/−;TRAMP prostate tumors were marked by reactive stroma. SFK deficiency did not affect progression to neuroendocrine (NE) disease, although there were fewer new cancer cases initiating after 34 weeks in the SFK−/−;TRAMP mice compared to TRAMP controls. Fifteen to 21% of older (>33 weeks) Lyn- or Fyn-null TRAMP mice lacking primary-site tumors suffered from aggressive metastatic AD growths, compared with 3% of TRAMP mice. Taken with the data that TRAMP mice lacking Src or Lyn exhibited fewer macroscopic metastases compared to Fyn−/−;TRAMP and TRAMP controls, this suggests that SFK can either promote or suppress specific parameters of metastatic growth, possibly depending on cross-talk with primary tumors. These data identify critical, yet potentially opposing roles played by various SFKs in the initiation and metastatic potential of CaP using the TRAMP model. Implications: Genetically defined mouse models indicate a critical role for Src tyrosine kinase in prostate cancer initiation and metastatic progression. PMID:25053806

  13. Core-shell structured Ag@C for direct electrochemistry and hydrogen peroxide biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shuxian; Long, Yumei; Li, Weifeng; Tu, Yifeng; Deng, Anping

    2013-10-15

    Ag@C core-shell nano-composites have been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal method and are further explored for protein immobilization and bio-sensing. The electrochemical behavior of immobilized horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on Ag@C modified indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode and its application as H₂O₂ sensor are investigated. Electrochemical and UV-vis spectroscopic measurements demonstrated that Ag@C nano-composites provide excellent matrixes for the adsorption of HRP and the entrapped HRP retains its bioactivities. It is found that on the HRP-Ag@C/ITO electrode, HRP exhibited a fast electron transfer process and good electrocatalytic reduction toward H₂O₂. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responds to H₂O₂ concentration in the range of 5.0×10⁻⁷-1.4×10⁻⁴ M with a detection limit of 2.0×10⁻⁷ M (S/N=3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(app)(M)) of the biosensor is calculated to be 3.75×10⁻⁵ M, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward H₂O₂. In addition, the HRP-Ag@C/ITO bio-electrode shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. Thus, the core-shell structured Ag@C is an attractive material for application in the fabrication of biosensors due to its direct electrochemistry and functionalized surface for efficient immobilization of bio-molecules.

  14. Capacitive deionization of seawater effected by nano Ag and Ag@C on graphene.

    PubMed

    Cai, P-F; Su, C-J; Chang, W-T; Chang, F-C; Peng, C-Y; Sun, I-W; Wei, Y-L; Jou, C-J; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Drinking water shortage has become worse in recent decades. A new capacitive deionization (CDI) method for increasing water supplies through the effective desalination of seawater has been developed. Silver as nano Ag and Ag@C which was prepared by carbonization of the Ag(+)-β-cyclodextrin complex at 573 K for 30 min can add the antimicrobial function into the CDI process. The Ag@C and Ag nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Ag@C/rGO and nano Ag/rGO) were used as the CDI electrodes. The nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can reduce the charging resistant, and enhance the electrosorption capability. Better CDI efficiencies with the nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can therefore be obtained. When reversed the voltage, the electrodes can be recovered up to 90% within 5 min. This work presents the feasibility for the nano Ag and Ag@C on rGO electrodes applied in CDI process to produce drinking water from seawater or saline water.

  15. NV Energy Large-Scale Photovoltaic Integration Study: Intra-Hour Dispatch and AGC Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Meng, Da; Guo, Xinxin; Jin, Chunlian; Samaan, Nader A.

    2013-01-02

    The uncertainty and variability with photovoltaic (PV) generation make it very challenging to balance power system generation and load, especially under high penetration cases. Higher reserve requirements and more cycling of conventional generators are generally anticipated for large-scale PV integration. However, whether the existing generation fleet is flexible enough to handle the variations and how well the system can maintain its control performance are difficult to predict. The goal of this project is to develop a software program that can perform intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulation, by which the balancing operations of a system can be simulated to answer the questions posed above. The simulator, named Electric System Intra-Hour Operation Simulator (ESIOS), uses the NV Energy southern system as a study case, and models the system’s generator configurations, AGC functions, and operator actions to balance system generation and load. Actual dispatch of AGC generators and control performance under various PV penetration levels can be predicted by running ESIOS. With data about the load, generation, and generator characteristics, ESIOS can perform similar simulations and assess variable generation integration impacts for other systems as well. This report describes the design of the simulator and presents the study results showing the PV impacts on NV Energy real-time operations.

  16. Serine/Threonine Kinase 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1) as a Key Regulator of Cell Migration and Cancer Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Di Blasio, Laura; Gagliardi, Paolo A.; Puliafito, Alberto; Primo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Dissecting the cellular signaling that governs the motility of eukaryotic cells is one of the fundamental tasks of modern cell biology, not only because of the large number of physiological processes in which cell migration is crucial, but even more so because of the pathological ones, in particular tumor invasion and metastasis. Cell migration requires the coordination of at least four major processes: polarization of intracellular signaling, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and membrane extension, focal adhesion and integrin signaling and contractile forces generation and rear retraction. Among the molecular components involved in the regulation of locomotion, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been shown to exert fundamental role. A pivotal node of such pathway is represented by the serine/threonine kinase 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDPK1 or PDK1). PDK1, and the majority of its substrates, belong to the AGC family of kinases (related to cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1, cyclic Guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C), and control a plethora of cellular processes, downstream either to PI3K or to other pathways, such as RAS GTPase-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Interestingly, PDK1 has been demonstrated to be crucial for the regulation of each step of cell migration, by activating several proteins such as protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt), myotonic dystrophy-related CDC42-binding kinases alpha (MRCKα), Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLCγ1) and β3 integrin. Moreover, PDK1 regulates cancer cell invasion as well, thus representing a possible target to prevent cancer metastasis in human patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the various mechanisms by which PDK1 controls the cell migration process, from cell polarization to actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion regulation, and finally, to discuss the evidence supporting a

  17. The Aspergillus fumigatus SchA(SCH9) kinase modulates SakA(HOG1) MAP kinase activity and it is essential for virulence.

    PubMed

    Alves de Castro, Patrícia; Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Dolan, Stephen K; Oliveira Manfiolli, Adriana; Brown, Neil Andrew; Jones, Gary W; Doyle, Sean; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M; Squina, Fábio Márcio; Caldana, Camila; Singh, Ashutosh; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Goldman, Gustavo H

    2016-11-01

    The serine-threonine kinase TOR, the Target of Rapamycin, is an important regulator of nutrient, energy and stress signaling in eukaryotes. Sch9, a Ser/Thr kinase of AGC family (the cAMP-dependent PKA, cGMP- dependent protein kinase G and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C family), is a substrate of TOR. Here, we characterized the fungal opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Sch9 homologue (SchA). The schA null mutant was sensitive to rapamycin, high concentrations of calcium, hyperosmotic stress and SchA was involved in iron metabolism. The ΔschA null mutant showed increased phosphorylation of SakA, the A. fumigatus Hog1 homologue. The schA null mutant has increased and decreased trehalose and glycerol accumulation, respectively, suggesting SchA performs different roles for glycerol and trehalose accumulation during osmotic stress. The schA was transcriptionally regulated by osmotic stress and this response was dependent on SakA and MpkC. The double ΔschA ΔsakA and ΔschA ΔmpkC mutants were more sensitive to osmotic stress than the corresponding parental strains. Transcriptomics and proteomics identified direct and indirect targets of SchA post-exposure to hyperosmotic stress. Finally, ΔschA was avirulent in a low dose murine infection model. Our results suggest there is a complex network of interactions amongst the A. fumigatus TOR, SakA and SchA pathways.

  18. The Aspergillus fumigatus SchASCH9 kinase modulates SakAHOG1 MAP kinase activity and it is essential for virulence

    PubMed Central

    Alves de Castro, Patrícia; dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Dolan, Stephen K.; Manfiolli, Adriana Oliveira; Brown, Neil Andrew; Jones, Gary W.; Doyle, Sean; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M.; Squina, Fábio Márcio; Caldana, Camila; Singh, Ashutosh; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Goldman, Gustavo H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The serine-threonine kinase TOR, the Target of Rapamycin, is an important regulator of nutrient, energy and stress signaling in eukaryotes. Sch9, a Ser/Thr kinase of AGC family (the cAMP-dependent PKA, cGMP- dependent protein kinase G and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C family), is a substrate of TOR. Here, we characterized the fungal opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Sch9 homologue (SchA). The schA null mutant was sensitive to rapamycin, high concentrations of calcium, hyperosmotic stress and SchA was involved in iron metabolism. The ΔschA null mutant showed increased phosphorylation of SakA, the A. fumigatus Hog1 homologue. The schA null mutant has increased and decreased trehalose and glycerol accumulation, respectively, suggesting SchA performs different roles for glycerol and trehalose accumulation during osmotic stress. The schA was transcriptionally regulated by osmotic stress and this response was dependent on SakA and MpkC. The double ΔschA ΔsakA and ΔschA ΔmpkC mutants were more sensitive to osmotic stress than the corresponding parental strains. Transcriptomics and proteomics identified direct and indirect targets of SchA post-exposure to hyperosmotic stress. Finally, ΔschA was avirulent in a low dose murine infection model. Our results suggest there is a complex network of interactions amongst the A. fumigatus TOR, SakA and SchA pathways. PMID:27538790

  19. Identification of a BET family Bromodomain / Casein Kinase II / TAF-containing complex as a regulator of mitotic condensin function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Rothbart, Scott B.; Silva, Andrea C.; Vanoosthuyse, Vincent; Radovani, Ernest; Kislinger, Thomas; Roguev, Assen; Ryan, Colm J.; Xu, Jiewei; Jahari, Harlizawati; Hardwick, Kevin G.; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Fillingham, Jeffrey S.; Strahl, Brian D.; Bouhassira, Eric E.; Edelmann, Winfried; Keogh, Michael-Christopher

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Condensin is a central regulator of mitotic genome structure, with mutants showing poorly condensed chromosomes and profound segregation defects. Here we identify NCT complex, comprising the Nrc1 BET-family tandem bromodomain protein (SPAC631.02), Casein Kinase II (CKII) and several TAFs, as a regulator of condensin function. We show that NCT and condensin bind similar genomic regions, but only briefly co-localize during the periods of chromosome condensation and decondensation. This pattern of NCT binding at the core centromere, the region of maximal condensin enrichment, tracks the abundance of acetylated histone H4, as regulated by the Hat1-Mis16 acetyltransferase complex and recognized by the first Nrc1 bromodomain. Strikingly, mutants in NCT or Hat1-Mis16 restore the formation of segregation-competent chromosomes in cells containing defective condensin. These results are consistent with a model where NCT targets CKII to chromatin in a cell cycle-directed manner to modulate the activity of condensin during chromosome condensation and decondensation. PMID:24565511

  20. Androgen Receptor Activation in Castration-Recurrent Prostate Cancer: The Role of Src-Family and Ack1 Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Irwin H.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing appreciation that castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CR-CaP) is driven by the continued expression of androgen receptor (AR). AR activation in CR-CaP through various mechanisms, including AR overexpression, expression of AR splice variants or mutants, increased expression of co-regulator proteins, and by post-translational modification, allows for the induction of AR-regulated genes in response to very low levels of tissue-expressed, so-called intracrine androgens, resulting in pathways that mediate CaP proliferation, anti-apoptosis and oncogenic aggressiveness. The current review focuses on the role played by Src-family (SFK) and Ack1 non-receptor tyrosine kinases in activating AR through direct phosphorylation, respectively, on tyrosines 534 or 267, and how these modifications facilitate progression to CR-CaP. The fact that SFK and Ack1 are central mediators for multiple growth factor receptor signaling pathways that become activated in CR-CaP, especially in the context of metastatic growth in the bone, has contributed to recent therapeutic trials using SFK/Ack1 inhibitors in monotherapy or in combination with antagonists of the AR activation axis. PMID:24948875

  1. Dynamics of PLCγ and Src Family Kinase 1 Interactions during Nuclear Envelope Formation Revealed by FRET-FLIM

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Richard D.; Applebee, Christopher; Poccia, Dominic L.; Larijani, Banafshé

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) breaks down and reforms during each mitotic cycle. A similar process happens to the sperm NE following fertilisation. The formation of the NE in both these circumstances involves endoplasmic reticulum membranes enveloping the chromatin, but PLCγ-dependent membrane fusion events are also essential. Here we demonstrate the activation of PLCγ by a Src family kinase (SFK1) during NE assembly. We show by time-resolved FRET for the first time the direct in vivo interaction and temporal regulation of PLCγ and SFK1 in sea urchins. As a prerequisite for protein activation, there is a rapid phosphorylation of PLCγ on its Y783 residue in response to GTP in vitro. This phosphorylation is dependent upon SFK activity; thus Y783 phosphorylation and NE assembly are susceptible to SFK inhibition. Y783 phosphorylation is also observed on the surface of the male pronucleus (MPN) in vivo during NE formation. Together the corroborative in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate the phosphorylation and activation of PLCγ by SFK1 during NE assembly. We discuss the potential generality of such a mechanism. PMID:22848394

  2. SUCROSE NON-FERMENTING 1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 2 (SNRK2): A FAMILY OF PROTEIN KINASES INVOLVED IN HYPEROSMOTIC STRESS SIGNALING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our understanding of plant adaptation to abiotic stresses, which include drought, salinity, non-optimal temperatures and poor soil nutrition, is still limiting although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the gene players and signaling partners. Several protein kinases get acti...

  3. YES, a Src Family Kinase, Is a Proximal Glucose-specific Activator of Cell Division Cycle Control Protein 42 (Cdc42) in Pancreatic Islet β Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Stephanie M.; Dineen, Stacey L.; Wang, Zhanxiang; Thurmond, Debbie C.

    2014-01-01

    Second-phase insulin secretion sustains insulin release in the face of hyperglycemia associated with insulin resistance, requiring the continued mobilization of insulin secretory granules to the plasma membrane. Cdc42, the small Rho family GTPase recognized as the proximal glucose-specific trigger to elicit second-phase insulin secretion, signals downstream to activate the p21-activated kinase (PAK1), which then signals to Raf-1/MEK/ERK to induce filamentous actin (F-actin) remodeling, to ultimately mobilize insulin granules to the plasma membrane. However, the steps required to initiate Cdc42 activation in a glucose-specific manner in β cells have remained elusive. Toward this, we identified the involvement of the Src family kinases (SFKs), based upon the ability of SFK inhibitors to block glucose-stimulated Cdc42 and PAK1 activation events as well as the amplifying pathway of glucose-stimulated insulin release, in MIN6 β cells. Indeed, subsequent studies performed in human islets revealed that SFK phosphorylation was induced only by glucose and within 1 min of stimulation before the activation of Cdc42 at 3 min. Furthermore, pervanadate treatment validated the phosphorylation event to be tyrosine-specific. Although RT-PCR showed β cells to express five different SFK proteins, only two of these, YES and Fyn kinases, were found localized to the plasma membrane, and of these two, only YES kinase underwent glucose-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation. Immunodetection and RNAi analyses further established YES kinase as a proximal glucose-specific signal in the Cdc42-signaling cascade. Identification of YES kinase provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the sustainment of insulin secretion via granule mobilization/replenishment and F-actin remodeling. PMID:24610809

  4. YES, a Src family kinase, is a proximal glucose-specific activator of cell division cycle control protein 42 (Cdc42) in pancreatic islet β cells.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Stephanie M; Dineen, Stacey L; Wang, Zhanxiang; Thurmond, Debbie C

    2014-04-18

    Second-phase insulin secretion sustains insulin release in the face of hyperglycemia associated with insulin resistance, requiring the continued mobilization of insulin secretory granules to the plasma membrane. Cdc42, the small Rho family GTPase recognized as the proximal glucose-specific trigger to elicit second-phase insulin secretion, signals downstream to activate the p21-activated kinase (PAK1), which then signals to Raf-1/MEK/ERK to induce filamentous actin (F-actin) remodeling, to ultimately mobilize insulin granules to the plasma membrane. However, the steps required to initiate Cdc42 activation in a glucose-specific manner in β cells have remained elusive. Toward this, we identified the involvement of the Src family kinases (SFKs), based upon the ability of SFK inhibitors to block glucose-stimulated Cdc42 and PAK1 activation events as well as the amplifying pathway of glucose-stimulated insulin release, in MIN6 β cells. Indeed, subsequent studies performed in human islets revealed that SFK phosphorylation was induced only by glucose and within 1 min of stimulation before the activation of Cdc42 at 3 min. Furthermore, pervanadate treatment validated the phosphorylation event to be tyrosine-specific. Although RT-PCR showed β cells to express five different SFK proteins, only two of these, YES and Fyn kinases, were found localized to the plasma membrane, and of these two, only YES kinase underwent glucose-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation. Immunodetection and RNAi analyses further established YES kinase as a proximal glucose-specific signal in the Cdc42-signaling cascade. Identification of YES kinase provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the sustainment of insulin secretion via granule mobilization/replenishment and F-actin remodeling.

  5. The activity and stability of the intrinsically disordered Cip/Kip protein family are regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Steve; Lelli, Moreno; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors includes p21Cip1, p27Kip1 and p57Kip2. Their kinase inhibitory activities are mediated by a homologous N-terminal kinase-inhibitory domain (KID). The Cdk inhibitory activity and stability of p27 have been shown to be regulated by a two-step phosphorylation mechanism involving a tyrosine residue within the KID and a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus. We show that these residues are conserved in p21 and p57, suggesting that a similar phosphorylation cascade regulates these Cdk inhibitors. However, the presence of a cyclin binding motif within its C-terminus alters the regulatory interplay between p21 and Cdk2/cyclin A, and its responses to tyrosine phosphorylation and altered p21:Cdk2/cyclin A stoichiometry. We also show that the Cip/Kip proteins can be phosphorylated in vitro by representatives of many non-receptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) sub-families, suggesting that NRTKs may generally regulate the activity and stability of these Cdk inhibitors. Our results further suggest that the Cip/Kip proteins integrate signals from various NRTK pathways and cell cycle regulation. PMID:25463440

  6. Knockout of the PKN Family of Rho Effector Kinases Reveals a Non-redundant Role for PKN2 in Developmental Mesoderm Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Quétier, Ivan; Marshall, Jacqueline J.T.; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Lachmann, Sylvie; Casamassima, Adele; Franco, Claudio; Escuin, Sarah; Worrall, Joseph T.; Baskaran, Priththivika; Rajeeve, Vinothini; Howell, Michael; Copp, Andrew J.; Stamp, Gordon; Rosewell, Ian; Cutillas, Pedro; Gerhardt, Holger; Parker, Peter J.; Cameron, Angus J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In animals, the protein kinase C (PKC) family has expanded into diversely regulated subgroups, including the Rho family-responsive PKN kinases. Here, we describe knockouts of all three mouse PKN isoforms and reveal that PKN2 loss results in lethality at embryonic day 10 (E10), with associated cardiovascular and morphogenetic defects. The cardiovascular phenotype was not recapitulated by conditional deletion of PKN2 in endothelial cells or the developing heart. In contrast, inducible systemic deletion of PKN2 after E7 provoked collapse of the embryonic mesoderm. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which arise from the embryonic mesoderm, depend on PKN2 for proliferation and motility. These cellular defects are reflected in vivo as dependence on PKN2 for mesoderm proliferation and neural crest migration. We conclude that failure of the mesoderm to expand in the absence of PKN2 compromises cardiovascular integrity and development, resulting in lethality. PMID:26774483

  7. Regulation of voltage-gated sodium current by endogenous Src family kinases in cochlear spiral ganglion neurons in culture.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuang; Pflueger, Melissa; Lin, Shuang-Xiu; Groveman, Bradley R; Su, Jiping; Yu, Xian-Min

    2012-04-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+)channels have been found to be regulated by Src family kinases(SFKs).However, how these channels are regulated by SFKs in cochlear spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) remains unknown.Here, we report that altering the activity of endogenous SFKs modulated voltage-gated Na+, but not K+, currents recorded in embryonic SGNs in culture. Voltage-gated Na+ current was suppressed by inhibition of endogenous SFKs or just Src and potentiated by the activation of these enzymes. Detailed investigations showed that under basal conditions, SFK inhibitor application did not significantly affect the voltage-dependent activation, but shifted the steady-state inactivation curves of Na+ currents and delayed the recovery of Na+ currents from inactivation. Application of Src specific inhibitor, Src40–58,not only shifted the inactivation curve but also delayed the recovery of Na+ currents and moved the voltage-dependent activation curve towards the left. The pre-inhibition of SFKs occluded all the effects induced by Src40–58 application, except the left shift of the activation curve. The activation of SFKs did not change either steady-state inactivation or recovery of Na+ currents, but caused the left shift of the activation curve.SFK inhibitor application effectively prevented all the effects induced by SFK activation, suggesting that both the voltage-dependent activation and steady-state inactivation of Na+ current are subjects of SFK regulation. The different effects induced by activation versus inhibition of SFKs implied that under basal conditions, endogenously active and inactive SFKs might be differentially involved in the regulation of voltage-gated Na+ channels in SGNs.

  8. [Mechanism Underlying Increased Expression of a Member of the Serine/Threonine Kinase Family (Citron kinase) Induced by HIV-1 Infection].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiwei; Mi, Zeyun; Zhao, Jianyuan; Zhou, Jinming; Li, Xiaoyu; Cen, Shan

    2015-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection changes transcriptional profiles and regulates. the factors and machinery of the host that facilitate viral replication. Our previous study suggested that the serine/threonine kinase citron kinase (citK) promotes HIV-1 egress. To ascertain if HIV-1 infection affects citK expression in primary cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped HIV-1 vector NL4-3-luc viruses, which resulted in remarkably increased expression of citK. citK overexpression led to a more than two-fold increase in HIV-1 production, whereas a significant decrease was observed when citK was depleted in CD4+ T cells. Infection with HIV-1 pseudoviruses induced increases in the mRNA and protein levels of citK by 2. 5- and 2. 7-fold in HEK293T cells, respectively. By cloning the 5-kb promoter of citK into a luciferase reporter system and transfecting the construct into HEK293T cells, enhanced luciferase activity was observed during HIV-1 infection. Taken together, these data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection upregulates citK expression at the transcriptional level, and thereby renders the host more susceptible to invasion by HIV-1.

  9. Molecular characterisation of the STRUBBELIG-RECEPTOR FAMILY of genes encoding putative leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Eyüboglu, Banu; Pfister, Karen; Haberer, Georg; Chevalier, David; Fuchs, Angelika; Mayer, Klaus FX; Schneitz, Kay

    2007-01-01

    Background Receptor-like kinases are a prominent class of surface receptors that regulate many aspects of the plant life cycle. Despite recent advances the function of most receptor-like kinases remains elusive. Therefore, it is paramount to investigate these receptors. The task is complicated by the fact that receptor-like kinases belong to a large monophyletic family with many sub-clades. In general, functional analysis of gene family members by reverse genetics is often obscured by several issues, such as redundancy, subtle or difficult to detect phenotypes in mutants, or by decision problems regarding suitable biological and biochemical assays. Therefore, in many cases additional strategies have to be employed to allow inference of hypotheses regarding gene function. Results We approached the function of genes encoding the nine-member STRUBBELIG-RECEPTOR FAMILY (SRF) class of putative leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases. Sequence comparisons show overall conservation but also divergence in predicted functional domains among SRF proteins. Interestingly, SRF1 undergoes differential splicing. As a result, SRF1 is predicted to exist in a standard receptor configuration and in a membrane-anchored receptor-like version that lacks most of the intracellular domain. Furthermore, SRF1 is characterised by a high degree of polymorphism between the Ler and Col accessions. Two independent T-DNA-based srf4 mutants showed smaller leaves while 35S::SRF4 plants displayed enlarged leaves. This is in addition to the strubbelig phenotype which has been described before. Additional single and several key double mutant combinations did not reveal obvious mutant phenotypes. Ectopic expression of several SRF genes, using the 35S promoter, resulted in male sterility. To gain possible insights into SRF gene function we employed a computational analysis of publicly available microarray data. We performed global expression profiling, coexpression analysis, and an analysis of the

  10. Metaplasticity gated through differential regulation of GluN2A versus GluN2B receptors by Src family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Trepanier, Catherine; Sidhu, Bikram; Xie, Yu-Feng; Li, Hongbin; Lei, Gang; Salter, Michael W; Orser, Beverley A; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Jackson, Michael F; MacDonald, John F

    2012-01-01

    Metaplasticity is a higher form of synaptic plasticity that is essential for learning and memory, but its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report that metaplasticity of transmission at CA1 synapses in the hippocampus is mediated by Src family kinase regulation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). We found that stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulated the absolute contribution of GluN2A-versus GluN2B-containing NMDARs in CA1 neurons: pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide 1 receptors (PAC1Rs) selectively recruited Src kinase, phosphorylated GluN2ARs, and enhanced their functional contribution; dopamine 1 receptors (D1Rs) selectively stimulated Fyn kinase, phosphorylated GluN2BRs, and enhanced these currents. Surprisingly, PAC1R lowered the threshold for long-term potentiation while long-term depression was enhanced by D1R. We conclude that metaplasticity is gated by the activity of GPCRs, which selectively target subtypes of NMDARs via Src kinases. PMID:22187052

  11. Down-regulation of the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 1 AGC1 inhibits proliferation and N-acetylaspartate synthesis in Neuro2A cells.

    PubMed

    Profilo, Emanuela; Peña-Altamira, Luis Emiliano; Corricelli, Mariangela; Castegna, Alessandra; Danese, Alberto; Agrimi, Gennaro; Petralla, Sabrina; Giannuzzi, Giulia; Porcelli, Vito; Sbano, Luigi; Viscomi, Carlo; Massenzio, Francesca; Palmieri, Erika Mariana; Giorgi, Carlotta; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Virgili, Marco; Palmieri, Luigi; Zeviani, Massimo; Pinton, Paolo; Monti, Barbara; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Lasorsa, Francesco Massimo

    2017-02-21

    The mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 1 (AGC1) catalyzes a Ca(2+)-stimulated export of aspartate to the cytosol in exchange for glutamate, and is a key component of the malate-aspartate shuttle which transfers NADH reducing equivalents from the cytosol to mitochondria. By sustaining the complete glucose oxidation, AGC1 is thought to be important in providing energy for cells, in particular in the CNS and muscle where this protein is mainly expressed. Defects in the AGC1 gene cause AGC1 deficiency, an infantile encephalopathy with delayed myelination and reduced brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels, the precursor of myelin synthesis in the CNS. Here, we show that undifferentiated Neuro2A cells with down-regulated AGC1 display a significant proliferation deficit associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration, and are unable to synthesize NAA properly. In the presence of high glutamine oxidation, cells with reduced AGC1 restore cell proliferation, although oxidative stress increases and NAA synthesis deficit persists. Our data suggest that the cellular energetic deficit due to AGC1 impairment is associated with inappropriate aspartate levels to support neuronal proliferation when glutamine is not used as metabolic substrate, and we propose that delayed myelination in AGC1 deficiency patients could be attributable, at least in part, to neuronal loss combined with lack of NAA synthesis occurring during the nervous system development.

  12. The role of Misshapen NCK-related kinase (MINK), a novel Ste20 family kinase, in the IRES-mediated protein translation of human enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Leong, Shi Yun; Ong, Bryan Kit Teck; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-03-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) commonly causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in young children, and occasional occurrences of neurological complications can be fatal. In this study, a high-throughput cell-based screening on the serine/threonine kinase siRNA library was performed to identify potential antiviral agents against EV71 replication. Among the hits, Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK) was selected for detailed analysis due to its strong inhibitory profile and novelty. In the investigation of the stage at which MINK is involved in EV71 replication, virus RNA transfection in MINK siRNA-treated cells continued to cause virus inhibition despite bypassing the normal entry pathway, suggesting its involvement at the post-entry stage. We have also shown that viral RNA and protein expression level was significantly reduced upon MINK silencing, suggesting its involvement in viral protein synthesis which feeds into viral RNA replication process. Through proteomic analysis and infection inhibition assay, we found that the activation of MINK was triggered by early replication events, instead of the binding and entry of the virus. Proteomic analysis on the activation profile of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) indicated that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was stimulated by EV71 infection upon MINK activation. Luciferase reporter assay further revealed that the translation efficiency of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) was reduced after blocking the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation on the effect of MINK silencing on heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) localisation demonstrated that cytoplasmic relocalisation of hnRNP A1 upon EV71 infection may be facilitated via the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway which then positively regulates the translation of viral RNA transcripts. These novel findings hence suggest that MINK plays a functional role in the IRES-mediated translation of EV71 viral RNA and may provide a potential target for the

  13. A new solvate of afatinib, a specific inhibitor of the ErbB family of tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Matthias; de Araujo, Gabriel Lima Barros; Parker, Trev; Singh Rai, Amrinder; Byrn, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Afatinib (systematic name: N-{4-(3-chloro-4-fluoro­anilino)-7-[(tetra­hydro­furan-3-yl)­oxy]quinazolin-6-yl}-4-(di­methyl­amino)­but-2-enamide), is a specific in­hibitor of the ErbB family of tyrosine kinases. The free base form crystallizes from aceto­nitrile as a mixed water–aceto­nitrile solvent, C24H25ClFN5O3·0.25C2H3N·2H2O. It crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit of the chiral space group P4212, but exhibits close to perfect pseudo-inversion symmetry, emulating P4/ncc that relates the two mol­ecules to each other. Exact inversion symmetry is however broken by swapping of oxygen and CH2 moieties of the outer tetra­hydro­furanyl substituents of the two independent mol­ecules. This can, in turn, be traced back to C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O inter­actions of the aceto­nitrile solvent mol­ecules with the tetra­hydro­furan oxygen and CH2 units. In the crystal, neighboring mol­ecules are connected via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the secondary amine and the amide keto O atom. Additional hydrogen bonds are formed through the water solvent mol­ecules, which are engaged in O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds connecting to the di­methyl­amino N atom, the amide keto O atom, and one of the quinazoline N atoms of a neighboring mol­ecule, leading to an intricate three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded superstructure. There are two types of channels stretching along the direction of the c axis; one along the fourfold rotational axis, occupied by aceto­nitrile solvent mol­ecules situated on that axis, and parallel channels which are not occupied by any solvent. PMID:28316823

  14. Good clinical response to gefitinib in a non-small cell lung cancer patient harboring a rare somatic epidermal growth factor gene point mutation; codon 768 AGC > ATC in exon 20 (S768I).

    PubMed

    Masago, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Shiro; Irisa, Kaoru; Kim, Yung Hak; Ichikawa, Masataka; Mio, Tadashi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2010-11-01

    Recently, two small-molecule kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor have proven effective in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. There are specific activating mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor related to the sensitivity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, it is unknown whether rare mutations in the N-lobe (exons 18-20) and the C-lobe (exon 21) of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain other than L858R in exon 21 and the in-frame deletion in exon 19 may predict the effectiveness of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We reported a case of non-small cell lung cancer harboring a rare epidermal growth factor somatic mutation, codon 768 AGC > ATC in exon 20 (S768I), who showed a good clinical response to gefitinib. Therefore, we may suggest that this rare mutation (S768I in exon 20) may not be an insensitive epidermal growth factor receptor somatic mutation in vivo.

  15. Unbiased screen for interactors of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 supports a common pathway for sporadic and familial Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Beilina, Alexandria; Rudenko, Iakov N.; Kaganovich, Alice; Civiero, Laura; Chau, Hien; Kalia, Suneil K.; Kalia, Lorraine V.; Lobbestael, Evy; Chia, Ruth; Ndukwe, Kelechi; Ding, Jinhui; Nalls, Mike A.; Olszewski, Maciej; Hauser, David N.; Kumaran, Ravindran; Lozano, Andres M.; Baekelandt, Veerle; Greene, Lois E.; Taymans, Jean-Marc; Greggio, Elisa; Cookson, Mark R.; Nalls, Mike A.; Plagnol, Vincent; Martinez, Maria; Hernandez, Dena G; Sharma, Manu; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Saad, Mohamad; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Schulte, Claudia; Lesage, Suzanne; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Sigurlaug; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berendse, Henk W; Berg, Daniela; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M A; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bas; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Bras, Jose M; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E; Cookson, Mark R; Cooper, J Mark; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Deloukas, Panos; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T; van Dijk, Karin D; Dillman, Allissa; Durif, Frank; Dürr, Alexandra; Edkins, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan R; Foltynie, Thomas; Gao, Jianjun; Gardner, Michelle; Gibbs, J Raphael; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Gústafsson, Ómar; Harris, Clare; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michele; Huang, Xuemei; Huber, Heiko; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; München, Helmholtz Zentrum; Jónsson, Pálmi V; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lichtner, Peter; München, Helmholtz Zentrum; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morris, Huw R; Morrison, Karen E; Mudanohwo, Ese; O’Sullivan, Sean S; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Pollak, Pierre; Post, Bart; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Shaw, Karen; Shoulson, Ira; Sidransky, Ellen; Smith, Colin; Spencer, Chris C A; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockton, Joanna D; Strange, Amy; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, Carlie M; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Tison, François; Trabzuni, Daniah; Traynor, Bryan J; Uitterlinden, André G; Velseboer, Daan; Vidailhet, Marie; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams, Nigel; Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Stefánsson, Kári; Hardy, John; Heutink, Peter; Brice, Alexis; Gasser, Thomas; Singleton, Andrew B; Wood, Nicholas W; Chinnery, Patrick F; Arepalli, Sampath; Cookson, Mark R; Dillman, Allissa; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gibbs, J Raphael; Hernandez, Dena G; Johnson, Robert; Longo, Dan L; Majounie, Elisa; Nalls, Michael A; O’Brien, Richard; Singleton, Andrew B; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Zielke, H Ronald; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause inherited Parkinson disease (PD), and common variants around LRRK2 are a risk factor for sporadic PD. Using protein–protein interaction arrays, we identified BCL2-associated athanogene 5, Rab7L1 (RAB7, member RAS oncogene family-like 1), and Cyclin-G–associated kinase as binding partners of LRRK2. The latter two genes are candidate genes for risk for sporadic PD identified by genome-wide association studies. These proteins form a complex that promotes clearance of Golgi-derived vesicles through the autophagy–lysosome system both in vitro and in vivo. We propose that three different genes for PD have a common biological function. More generally, data integration from multiple unbiased screens can provide insight into human disease mechanisms. PMID:24510904

  16. Family with sequence similarity member 20C is the primary but not the only kinase for the small-integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins in bone.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiudong; Yan, Wenjuan; Tian, Ye; Ma, Pan; Opperman, Lynne A; Wang, Xiaofang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have identified family with sequence similarity member 20C (FAM20C) as a kinase that phosphorylates the Ser in Ser-X-Glu/phospho-Ser (pSer) motifs in the small-integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs). There is no in vivo evidence that validates this finding, and it is unclear whether FAM20C is the only kinase for SIBLINGs. We extracted bone noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) from Fam20C-knockout (KO) mice and analyzed the phosphorylation levels. The total NCPs were separated into osteopontin-, bone sialoprotein-, and dentin matrix protein-1-enriched fractions by anion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, native PAGE, and Western immunoblot analysis. The NCP phosphorylation level in the KO mice was lower than that in the wild-type (WT). On the native gel, the SIBLINGs from KO mice showed a lower migration rate (Mr) than those from the WT. Calf intestine phosphatase treatment shifted SIBLINGs from the WT mice to the level adjacent to the KO, but failed to shift the latter, suggesting a phosphorylation loss of SIBLINGs in the KO mice. Mass spectrometry identified less pSers in the SIBLINGs from the KO mice [including the region of the acidic Ser- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) peptides]. In an intriguing finding, several pSers in the Ser-X-Glu motifs in the KO mice maintained their phosphorylation, whereas several others in non-Ser-X-Glu motifs did not. Phospho-Tyrs and phospho-Thrs in the SIBLINGs did not appear to be associated with FAM20C. Our results indicate that FAM20C is the primary, but not the only, kinase for the SIBLINGs.-Yang, X., Yan, W., Tian, Y., Ma, P., Opperman, L. A., Wang, X. Family with sequence similarity member 20C is the primary but not the only kinase for the small-integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins in bone.

  17. Degradation by Cullin3 and effect on WNK kinases suggest a role of KLHL2 in the pathogenesis of Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chong; Meermeier, Nicholas P.; Terker, Andrew S.; Blankenstein, Katharina I.; Singer, Jeffrey D.; Hadchouel, Juliette; Ellison, David H.; Yang, Chao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in WNK1 and WNK4, and in components of the Cullin-Ring Ligase system, kelch-like 3 (KLHL3) and Cullin3 (CUL3), can cause the rare hereditary disease, Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt). The disease is characterized by overactivity of the renal sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), which is phosphorylated and activated by the WNK-stimulated Ste20-type kinases, SPAK and OSR1. WNK kinases themselves can be targeted for ubiquitination and degradataion by the CUL3-KLHL3 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. It is unclear, however, why there are significant differences in phenotypic severity among FHHt patients with mutations in different genes. It was reported that kelch-like 2 (KLHL2), a homolog of KLHL3, can also target WNK kinases for ubiquitation and degradation, and may play a special role in the systemic vasculature. Our recent study revealed the disease mutant CUL3 exhibits enhanced degradation of its adaptor protein KLHL3, potentially resulting in accumulation of WNK kinases secondarily. To investigate if KLHL2 plays a role in FHHt, we studied the effect of wild type and FHHt mutant CUL3 on degradation of KLHL2 and WNK kinase proteins in HEK293 cells. Although CUL3 facilitates KLHL2 degradation, the disease mutant CUL3 is more active in this regard. KLHL2 facilitated the degradation of wild type but not disease mutant WNK4 protein. These results suggest that KLHL2 likely plays a role in the pathogenesis of FHHt, and aggravates the phenotype caused by mutations in CUL3 and WNK4. PMID:26607111

  18. Discovery of pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives as CMGC family protein kinase inhibitors: Design, synthesis, inhibitory potency and X-ray co-crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Esvan, Yannick J; Zeinyeh, Wael; Boibessot, Thibaut; Nauton, Lionel; Théry, Vincent; Knapp, Stefan; Chaikuad, Apirat; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Anizon, Fabrice; Giraud, Francis; Moreau, Pascale

    2016-08-08

    The design and synthesis of new pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives is described as well as their protein kinase inhibitory potencies toward five CMGC family members (CDK5, CK1, GSK3, CLK1 and DYRK1A). The interest for this original tricyclic heteroaromatic scaffold as modulators of CLK1/DYRK1A activity was validated by nanomolar potencies (compounds 12 and 13). CLK1 co-crystal structures with two inhibitors revealed the binding mode of these compounds within the ATP-binding pocket.

  19. Molecular analysis of SmFes, a tyrosine kinase of Schistosoma mansoni orthologous to the members of the Fes/Fps/Fer family.

    PubMed

    Ludolf, Fernanda; Bahia, Diana; Andrade, Luiza F; Cousin, Alexandre; Capron, Monique; Dissous, Colette; Pierce, Raymond J; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2007-08-17

    A novel protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) was identified in Schistosoma mansoni and designated SmFes. SmFes exhibits the characteristic features of Fes/Fps/Fer (fes, feline sarcoma; fps, Fujinami poultry sarcoma; fer, fes related) PTKs, containing three coiled-coil regions, an SH2 (Src-homology-2) and a TK (tyrosine kinase catalytic) domain signature. SmFes is the first gene from the Fes/Fps/Fer family identified in S. mansoni, and is a single copy gene. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SmFes is most closely related to its invertebrate orthologues. The assembly of the SmFes cDNA and genomic sequences indicated the presence of 18 introns in SmFes. Comparison of its genomic structure with those of human Fps/Fes and Drosophila Fps indicates that intron positions are conserved within the region encoding the kinase domain. Analysis of partial cDNA clones showed the presence of a 9 bp insertion at the 3' end of exon 10, producing two different cDNA populations, pointed as an alternative splicing event. In addition, an allele of SmFes containing a 15 bp insertion was observed in the genomic sequence. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that the overall transcription level of SmFes is rather low in all parasite developmental stages. Moreover, SmFes mRNA levels decrease progressively after cercarial transformation, consistent with a role for the corresponding protein in the early stages of infection.

  20. The DYRK-family kinase Pom1 phosphorylates the F-BAR protein Cdc15 to prevent division at cell poles

    PubMed Central

    Ullal, Pranav; McDonald, Nathan A.; Chen, Jun-Song; Lo Presti, Libera; Roberts-Galbraith, Rachel H.; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Division site positioning is critical for both symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. In many organisms, positive and negative signals cooperate to position the contractile actin ring for cytokinesis. In rod-shaped fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells, division at midcell is achieved through positive Mid1/anillin-dependent signaling emanating from the central nucleus and negative signals from the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase family kinase Pom1 at the cell poles. In this study, we show that Pom1 directly phosphorylates the F-BAR protein Cdc15, a central component of the cytokinetic ring. Pom1-dependent phosphorylation blocks Cdc15 binding to paxillin Pxl1 and C2 domain protein Fic1 and enhances Cdc15 dynamics. This promotes ring sliding from cell poles, which prevents septum assembly at the ends of cells with a displaced nucleus or lacking Mid1. Pom1 also slows down ring constriction. These results indicate that a strong negative signal from the Pom1 kinase at cell poles converts Cdc15 to its closed state, destabilizes the actomyosin ring, and thus promotes medial septation. PMID:26553932

  1. Testbed-based Performance Evaluation of Attack Resilient Control for AGC

    SciTech Connect

    Ashok, Aditya; Sridhar, Siddharth; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Wang, Pengyuan Wang; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2016-09-22

    The modern electric power grid is a complex cyber-physical system whose reliable operation is enabled by a wide-area monitoring and control infrastructure. This infrastructure, supported by an extensive communication backbone, enables several control applications functioning at multiple time scales to ensure the grid is maintained within stable operating limits. Recent events have shown that vulnerabilities in this infrastructure may be exploited to manipulate the data being exchanged. Such a scenario could cause the associated control application to mis-operate, potentially causing system-wide instabilities. There is a growing emphasis on looking beyond traditional cybersecurity solutions to mitigate such threats. In this paper we perform a testbed-based validation of one such solution - Attack Resilient Control (ARC) - on Iowa State University's \\textit{PowerCyber} testbed. ARC is a cyber-physical security solution that combines domain-specific anomaly detection and model-based mitigation to detect stealthy attacks on Automatic Generation Control (AGC). In this paper, we first describe the implementation architecture of the experiment on the testbed. Next, we demonstrate the capability of stealthy attack templates to cause forced under-frequency load shedding in a 3-area test system. We then validate the performance of ARC by measuring its ability to detect and mitigate these attacks. Our results reveal that ARC is efficient in detecting stealthy attacks and enables AGC to maintain system operating frequency close to its nominal value during an attack. Our studies also highlight the importance of testbed-based experimentation for evaluating the performance of cyber-physical security and control applications.

  2. Assignment of function to a domain of unknown function: DUF1537 is a new kinase family in catabolic pathways for acid sugars

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinshuai; Carter, Michael S.; Vetting, Matthew W.; San Francisco, Brian; Zhao, Suwen; Al-Obaidi, Nawar F.; Solbiati, Jose O.; Thiaville, Jennifer J.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Almo, Steven C.; Gerlt, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Using a large-scale “genomic enzymology” approach, we (i) assigned novel ATP-dependent four-carbon acid sugar kinase functions to members of the DUF1537 protein family (domain of unknown function; Pfam families PF07005 and PF17042) and (ii) discovered novel catabolic pathways for d-threonate, l-threonate, and d-erythronate. The experimentally determined ligand specificities of several solute binding proteins (SBPs) for TRAP (tripartite ATP-independent permease) transporters for four-carbon acids, including d-erythronate and l-erythronate, were used to constrain the substrates for the catabolic pathways that degrade the SBP ligands to intermediates in central carbon metabolism. Sequence similarity networks and genome neighborhood networks were used to identify the enzyme components of the pathways. Conserved genome neighborhoods encoded SBPs as well as permease components of the TRAP transporters, members of the DUF1537 family, and a member of the 4-hydroxy-l-threonine 4-phosphate dehydrogenase (PdxA) oxidative decarboxylase, class II aldolase, or ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, large subunit (RuBisCO) superfamily. Because the characterized substrates of members of the PdxA, class II aldolase, and RuBisCO superfamilies are phosphorylated, we postulated that the members of the DUF1537 family are novel ATP-dependent kinases that participate in catabolic pathways for four-carbon acid sugars. We determined that (i) the DUF1537/PdxA pair participates in a pathway for the conversion of d-threonate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and CO2 and (ii) the DUF1537/class II aldolase pair participates in pathways for the conversion of d-erythronate and l-threonate (epimers at carbon-3) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and CO2. The physiological importance of these pathways was demonstrated in vivo by phenotypic and genetic analyses. PMID:27402745

  3. ZmCPK1, a calcium-independent kinase member of the Zea mays CDPK gene family, functions as a negative regulator in cold stress signalling.

    PubMed

    Weckwerth, Philipp; Ehlert, Britta; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been shown to play important roles in plant environmental stress signal transduction. We report on the identification of ZmCPK1 as a member of the maize (Zea mays) CDPK gene family involved in the regulation of the maize cold stress response. Based upon in silico analysis of the Z. mays cv. B73 genome, we identified that the maize CDPK gene family consists of 39 members. Two CDPK members were selected whose gene expression was either increased (Zmcpk1) or decreased (Zmcpk25) in response to cold exposure. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that ZmCPK1 displays calcium-independent protein kinase activity. The C-terminal calcium-binding domain of ZmCPK1 was sufficient to mediate calcium independency of a previously calcium-dependent enzyme in chimeric ZmCPK25-CPK1 proteins. Furthermore, co-transfection of maize mesophyll protoplasts with active full-length ZmCPK1 suppressed the expression of a cold-induced marker gene, Zmerf3 (ZmCOI6.21). In accordance, heterologous overexpression of ZmCPK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana yielded plants with altered acclimation-induced frost tolerance. Our results identify ZmCPK1 as a negative regulator of cold stress signalling in maize.

  4. Inhibitors of the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase family (CaMKP and CaMKP-N)

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Takao, Toshihiko; Nimura, Takaki; Sugiyama, Yasunori; Numano, Takamasa; Shigeri, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Takanobu; Kameshita, Isamu Ishida, Atsuhiko

    2007-11-23

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP) and its nuclear isoform CaMKP-N are unique Ser/Thr protein phosphatases that negatively regulate the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) cascade by dephosphorylating multifunctional CaMKI, II, and IV. However, the lack of specific inhibitors of these phosphatases has hampered studies on these enzymes in vivo. In an attempt to obtain specific inhibitors, we searched inhibitory compounds and found that Evans Blue and Chicago Sky Blue 6B served as effective inhibitors for CaMKP. These compounds also inhibited CaMKP-N, but inhibited neither protein phosphatase 2C, another member of PPM family phosphatase, nor calcineurin, a typical PPP family phosphatase. The minimum structure required for the inhibition was 1-amino-8-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid. When Neuro2a cells cotransfected with CaMKIV and CaMKP-N were treated with these compounds, the dephosphorylation of CaMKIV was strongly suppressed, suggesting that these compounds could be used as potent inhibitors of CaMKP and CaMKP-N in vivo as well as in vitro.

  5. Syk and Src Family Kinases Regulate C-type Lectin Receptor 2 (CLEC-2)-mediated Clustering of Podoplanin and Platelet Adhesion to Lymphatic Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitt, Alice Y.; Poulter, Natalie S.; Gitz, Eelo; Navarro-Nuñez, Leyre; Wang, Ying-Jie; Hughes, Craig E.; Thomas, Steven G.; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Douglas, Michael R.; Owen, Dylan M.; Jackson, David G.; Dustin, Michael L.; Watson, Steve P.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of C-type lectin receptor 2 (CLEC-2) on platelets with Podoplanin on lymphatic endothelial cells initiates platelet signaling events that are necessary for prevention of blood-lymph mixing during development. In the present study, we show that CLEC-2 signaling via Src family and Syk tyrosine kinases promotes platelet adhesion to primary mouse lymphatic endothelial cells at low shear. Using supported lipid bilayers containing mobile Podoplanin, we further show that activation of Src and Syk in platelets promotes clustering of CLEC-2 and Podoplanin. Clusters of CLEC-2-bound Podoplanin migrate rapidly to the center of the platelet to form a single structure. Fluorescence lifetime imaging demonstrates that molecules within these clusters are within 10 nm of one another and that the clusters are disrupted by inhibition of Src and Syk family kinases. CLEC-2 clusters are also seen in platelets adhered to immobilized Podoplanin using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. These findings provide mechanistic insight by which CLEC-2 signaling promotes adhesion to Podoplanin and regulation of Podoplanin signaling, thereby contributing to lymphatic vasculature development. PMID:25368330

  6. A Complex Interplay of Tandem- and Whole-Genome Duplication Drives Expansion of the L-Type Lectin Receptor Kinase Gene Family in the Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    Govers, Francine; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Schranz, M. Eric

    2015-01-01

    The comparative analysis of plant gene families in a phylogenetic framework has greatly accelerated due to advances in next generation sequencing. In this study, we provide an evolutionary analysis of the L-type lectin receptor kinase and L-type lectin domain proteins (L-type LecRKs and LLPs) that are considered as components in plant immunity, in the plant family Brassicaceae and related outgroups. We combine several lines of evidence provided by sequence homology, HMM-driven protein domain annotation, phylogenetic analysis, and gene synteny for large-scale identification of L-type LecRK and LLP genes within nine core-eudicot genomes. We show that both polyploidy and local duplication events (tandem duplication and gene transposition duplication) have played a major role in L-type LecRK and LLP gene family expansion in the Brassicaceae. We also find significant differences in rates of molecular evolution based on the mode of duplication. Additionally, we show that LLPs share a common evolutionary origin with L-type LecRKs and provide a consistent gene family nomenclature. Finally, we demonstrate that the largest and most diverse L-type LecRK clades are lineage-specific. Our evolutionary analyses of these plant immune components provide a framework to support future plant resistance breeding. PMID:25635042

  7. A complex interplay of tandem- and whole-genome duplication drives expansion of the L-type lectin receptor kinase gene family in the brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Hofberger, Johannes A; Nsibo, David L; Govers, Francine; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Schranz, M Eric

    2015-01-28

    The comparative analysis of plant gene families in a phylogenetic framework has greatly accelerated due to advances in next generation sequencing. In this study, we provide an evolutionary analysis of the L-type lectin receptor kinase and L-type lectin domain proteins (L-type LecRKs and LLPs) that are considered as components in plant immunity, in the plant family Brassicaceae and related outgroups. We combine several lines of evidence provided by sequence homology, HMM-driven protein domain annotation, phylogenetic analysis, and gene synteny for large-scale identification of L-type LecRK and LLP genes within nine core-eudicot genomes. We show that both polyploidy and local duplication events (tandem duplication and gene transposition duplication) have played a major role in L-type LecRK and LLP gene family expansion in the Brassicaceae. We also find significant differences in rates of molecular evolution based on the mode of duplication. Additionally, we show that LLPs share a common evolutionary origin with L-type LecRKs and provide a consistent gene family nomenclature. Finally, we demonstrate that the largest and most diverse L-type LecRK clades are lineage-specific. Our evolutionary analyses of these plant immune components provide a framework to support future plant resistance breeding.

  8. G1 cell cycle arrest due to the inhibition of erbB family receptor tyrosine kinases does not require the retinoblastoma protein

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, Andrea J. . E-mail: Andrea.Gonzales@pfizer.com; Fry, David W.

    2005-02-01

    The erbB receptor family (EGFr, erbB-2, erbB-3, and erbB-4) consists of transmembrane glycoproteins that transduce extracellular signals to the nucleus when activated. erbB family members are widely expressed in epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuronal cells and contribute to the proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival of these cell types. The present study evaluates the effects of erbB family signaling on cell cycle progression and the role that pRB plays in regulating this process. ErbB family RTK activity was inhibited by PD 158780 in the breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. PD 158780 (0.5 {mu}M) inhibited EGF-stimulated and heregulin-stimulated autophosphorylation and caused a G1 cell cycle arrest within 24 h, which correlated with hypophosporylation of pRB. MCF10A cells lacking functional pRB retained the ability to arrest in G1 when treated with PD 158780. Both cell lines showed induction of p27{sup KIP1} protein when treated with PD 158780 and increased association of p27{sup KIP1} with cyclin E-CDK2. Furthermore, CDK2 kinase activity was dramatically inhibited with drug treatment. Changes in other pRB family members were noted with drug treatment, namely a decrease in p107 and an increase in p130. These findings show that the G1 arrest induced through inhibition of erbB family RTK activity does not require functional pRB.

  9. Ag/C nanoparticles as an cathode catalyst for a zinc-air battery with a flowing alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jia-Jun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    The cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded by the four-electron pathway mechanism on larger Ag particles (174 nm), and that the ORR proceeded by the four-electron pathway and the two-electron pathway mechanisms on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm), simultaneously. The kinetics towards ORR was measured at a rotating disk electrode (RDE) with Ag/C electrode. The number of exchanged electrons for the ORR was found to be close to four on larger Ag particles (174 nm) and close to three on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm). The zinc-air battery with Ag/C catalysts (25.9 nm) was fabricated and examined.

  10. Dual inhibition of Janus and Src family kinases by novel indirubin derivative blocks constitutively-activated Stat3 signaling associated with apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sangkil; Wen, Wei; Schroeder, Anne; Herrmann, Andreas; Yu, Hua; Cheng, Xinlai; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Li, Hongzhi; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Jove, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Constitutively-activated JAK/Stat3 or Src/Stat3 signaling plays a crucial role in tumor cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and immune suppression. Activated JAK/Stat3 or Src/Stat3 has been validated as a promising molecular target for cancer therapy. However, prolonged inhibition of Src family kinases (SFKs) leads to reactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcript 3 (Stat3) and tumor cell survival through altered JAK/Stat3 interaction. This compensatory feedback suggests that dual inhibition of Janus kinases (JAKs) and SFKs might be a promising strategy for targeting downstream Stat3 signaling in the clinic. In this study, we identify that the natural product derivative E738 is a novel dual inhibitor of JAKs and SFKs. The IC(50) values of E738 against recombinant JAKs and SFKs in vitro are in the ranges of 0.7-74.1 nM and 10.7-263.9 nM, respectively. We observed that phosphorylation of both Jak2 and Src was substantially inhibited in the submicromolar range by E738 in cultured human pancreatic tumor cells, followed by blockade of downstream Stat3 activation. E738 down-regulated expression of the Stat3 target proteins Mcl-1 and survivin, associated with induction of apoptosis. Computational models and molecular dynamics simulations of E738/Tyk2 or E738/Src in silico suggest that E738 inhibits both tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) and Src as an ATP-competitive ligand. Moreover, the planar E738 molecule demonstrates a strong binding affinity in the compact ATP-binding site of Tyk2. In sum, E738 is the first dual inhibitor of JAKs and SFKs, followed by inhibition of Stat3 signaling. Thus, according to in vitro experiments, E738 is a promising new therapeutic agent for human pancreatic cancer treatment by blocking both oncogenic pathways simultaneously.

  11. The Drosophila TIPE family member Sigmar interacts with the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen and modulates JNK signaling, cytoskeletal remodeling and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chittaranjan, Suganthi; Xu, Jing; Kuzyk, Michael; Dullat, Harpreet K; Wilton, James; DeVorkin, Lindsay; Lebovitz, Chandra; Morin, Gregg B; Marra, Marco A; Gorski, Sharon M

    2015-04-02

    TNFAIP8 and other mammalian TIPE family proteins have attracted increased interest due to their associations with disease-related processes including oncogenic transformation, metastasis, and inflammation. The molecular and cellular functions of TIPE family proteins are still not well understood. Here we report the molecular and genetic characterization of the Drosophila TNFAIP8 homolog, CG4091/sigmar. Previous gene expression studies revealed dynamic expression of sigmar in larval salivary glands prior to histolysis. Here we demonstrate that in sigmar loss-of-function mutants, the salivary glands are morphologically abnormal with defects in the tubulin network and decreased autophagic flux. Sigmar localizes subcellularly to microtubule-containing projections in Drosophila S2 cells, and co-immunoprecipitates with the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen, a regulator of the JNK pathway. Further, the Drosophila TNF ligand Eiger can induce sigmar expression, and sigmar loss-of-function leads to altered localization of pDJNK in salivary glands. Together, these findings link Sigmar to the JNK pathway, cytoskeletal remodeling and autophagy activity during salivary gland development, and provide new insights into TIPE family member function.

  12. The Drosophila TIPE family member Sigmar interacts with the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen and modulates JNK signaling, cytoskeletal remodeling and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Chittaranjan, Suganthi; Xu, Jing; Kuzyk, Michael; Dullat, Harpreet K.; Wilton, James; DeVorkin, Lindsay; Lebovitz, Chandra; Morin, Gregg B.; Marra, Marco A.; Gorski, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    TNFAIP8 and other mammalian TIPE family proteins have attracted increased interest due to their associations with disease-related processes including oncogenic transformation, metastasis, and inflammation. The molecular and cellular functions of TIPE family proteins are still not well understood. Here we report the molecular and genetic characterization of the Drosophila TNFAIP8 homolog, CG4091/sigmar. Previous gene expression studies revealed dynamic expression of sigmar in larval salivary glands prior to histolysis. Here we demonstrate that in sigmar loss-of-function mutants, the salivary glands are morphologically abnormal with defects in the tubulin network and decreased autophagic flux. Sigmar localizes subcellularly to microtubule-containing projections in Drosophila S2 cells, and co-immunoprecipitates with the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen, a regulator of the JNK pathway. Further, the Drosophila TNF ligand Eiger can induce sigmar expression, and sigmar loss-of-function leads to altered localization of pDJNK in salivary glands. Together, these findings link Sigmar to the JNK pathway, cytoskeletal remodeling and autophagy activity during salivary gland development, and provide new insights into TIPE family member function. PMID:25836674

  13. Novel homozygous PANK2 mutation causing atypical pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) in a Cypriot family.

    PubMed

    Tanteles, George A; Spanou-Aristidou, Elena; Antoniou, Chloe; Christophidou-Anastasiadou, Violetta; Kleopa, Kleopas A

    2014-05-15

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is the commonest, recessively inherited form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) resulting from mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) gene on chromosome 20. PKAN is usually rapidly progressive, presenting in the vast majority in the first decade of life (classic form). A rarer, later onset and slowly progressive (atypical) PKAN form also exists. We present two siblings of Cypriot descent, a 27-year-old man and his clinically asymptomatic younger sister, both of whom were found to be homozygous for a novel c.695A>G (p.Asp232Gly) missense mutation in exon 2 of the PANK2 gene. The index patient presented with a 5-year history of slowly progressive gait disturbance, dysarthria, mild axial rigidity and bradykinesia. His brain MRI scan revealed the characteristic "eye-of-the-tiger" sign. Atypical genetically confirmed PKAN cases are sparsely reported and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a progressive extrapyramidal syndrome particularly if the radiographic findings are suggestive of iron accumulation. Effective treatment strategies for PKAN are not currently available and symptomatic therapy is often unsatisfactory. However, early diagnosis including the presymptomatic stage is important for genetic counseling and will be crucial for testing novel therapeutics in the future.

  14. The p21-activated kinase PAK is negatively regulated by POPX1 and POPX2, a pair of serine/threonine phosphatases of the PP2C family.

    PubMed

    Koh, Cheng-Gee; Tan, E-Jean; Manser, Edward; Lim, Louis

    2002-02-19

    The Rho GTPases are involved in many signaling pathways and cellular functions, including the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, regulation of transcription, cell motility, and cell division. The p21 (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase PAK mediates a number of biological effects downstream of these Rho GTPases (reviewed by [1]). The phosphorylation state of mammalian PAK is highly regulated: upon binding of GTPases, PAK is potently activated by autophosphorylation at multiple sites, although the mechanisms of PAK downregulation are not known. We now report two PP2C-like serine/threonine phosphatases (POPX1 and POPX2) that efficiently inactivate PAK. POPX1 was isolated as a binding partner for the PAK interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor PIX. The dephosphorylating activity of POPX correlates with an ability to block the in vivo effects of active PAK. Consonant with these effects on PAK, POPX can also inhibit actin stress fiber breakdown and morphological changes driven by active Cdc42(V12). The association of the POPX phosphatases with PAK complexes may allow PAK to cycle rapidly between active and inactive states; it represents a unique regulatory component of the signaling pathways of the PAK kinase family.

  15. Src Family Kinases Modulate the Loss of Endothelial Barrier Function in Response to TNF-α: Crosstalk with p38 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Anthony M.; Martino, Nina; Alsaffar, Hiba; Vincent, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of Src Family Kinase (SFK) signaling is required for the increase in endothelial permeability induced by a variety of cytokines and growth factors. However, we previously demonstrated that activation of endogenous SFKs by expression of dominant negative C-terminal Src Kinase (DN-Csk) is not sufficient to decrease endothelial adherens junction integrity. Basal SFK activity has been observed in normal venular endothelia and was not associated with increased basal permeability. The basal SFK activity however was found to contribute to increased sensitivity of the venular endothelium to inflammatory mediator-induced leakage. How SFK activation achieves this is still not well understood. Here, we show that SFK activation renders human dermal microvascular endothelial cells susceptible to low doses of TNF-α. Treatment of DN-Csk-expressing cells with 50 pg/ml TNF-α induced a loss of TEER as well as drastic changes in the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion proteins. This synergistic effect was independent of ROCK or NF-κB activity. TNF-α-induced p38 signaling was required for the synergistic effect on barrier function, and activation of the p38 MAPK alone was also able to induce changes in permeability only in monolayers with active SFKs. These results suggest that the activation of endogenous levels of SFK renders the endothelial barrier more susceptible to low, physiologic doses of TNF-α through activation of p38 which leads to a loss of endothelial tight junctions. PMID:27603666

  16. Yak1p, a DYRK family kinase, translocates to the nucleus and phosphorylates yeast Pop2p in response to a glucose signal

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, Hisao; Shimizu-Yoshida, Yuki; Omori, Akira; Iwashita, Shintaro; Katoh, Mariko; Sakai, Akira

    2001-01-01

    POP2 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a component of a protein complex that regulates the transcription of many genes. We found that the 97th threonine residue (Thr 97) of Pop2p was phosphorylated upon glucose limitation. The Thr 97 phosphorylation occurred within 2 min after removing glucose and was reversed within 1 min after the readdition of glucose. The effects of hexokinase mutations and glucose analogs indicate that this phosphorylation is dependent on glucose phosphorylating activity. We purified a protein kinase that phosphorylates a peptide containing Thr 97 of Pop2p and identified it as Yak1p, a DYRK family kinase. Phosphorylation of Pop2p was barely detectable in a yak1Δ strain. We found that Yak1p interacted with Bmh1p and Bmh2p only in the presence of glucose. A GFP-Yak1p fusion protein shuttled rapidly between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in response to glucose. A strain with alanine substituted for Thr 97 in Pop2p showed overgrowth in the postdiauxic transition and failed to stop the cell cycle at G1 phase in response to glucose deprivation. Thus, Yak1p and Pop2p are part of a novel glucose-sensing system in yeast that is involved in growth control in response to glucose availability. PMID:11358866

  17. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families

    PubMed Central

    Vercellati, Cristina; Marcello, Anna Paola; Zaninoni, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Mirra, Nadia; Curcio, Cristina; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma; Bianchi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy. PMID:28367341

  18. Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease in a family without polycystic kidney disease associated with a novel missense protein kinase C substrate 80K-H mutation.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Drenth, Joost P H; Te Morsche, Rene H M; González, Pedro; Peces, Carlos

    2005-12-28

    Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is characterized by the presence of multiple bile duct-derived epithelial cysts scattered in the liver parenchyma. PLD can manifest itself in patients with severe autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Isolated autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD) is genetically distinct from PLD associated with ADPKD, although it may have similar pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. Recently, mutations in two causative genes for ADPLD, independently from ADPKD, have been identified. We report here a family (a mother and her daughter) with a severe form of ADPLD not associated with ADPKD produced by a novel missense protein kinase C substrate 80K-H (PRKCSH) mutation (R281W). This mutation causes a severe phenotype, since the two affected subjects manifested signs of portal hypertension. Doppler sonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are effective in documenting the underlying lesions in a non-invasive way.

  19. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene family from banana suggest involvement of specific members in different stages of fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Asif, Mehar Hasan; Lakhwani, Deepika; Pathak, Sumya; Bhambhani, Sweta; Bag, Sumit K; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important components of the tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade and play an important role in plant growth and development. Although members of the MAPK gene family have been identified in model plants, little information is available regarding this gene family in fruit crops. In this study, we carried out a computational analysis using the Musa Genome database to identify members of the MAPK gene family in banana, an economically important crop and the most popular fruit worldwide. Our analysis identified 25 members of the MAP kinase (MAPK or MPK) gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of MPKs in Arabidopsis, Oryza, and Populus have classified these MPKs into four subgroups. The presence of conserved domains in the deduced amino acid sequences, phylogeny, and genomic organization strongly support their identity as members of the MPK gene family. Expression analysis during ethylene-induced banana fruit ripening suggests the involvement of several MPKs in the ethylene signal transduction pathway that are necessary for banana fruit ripening. Analysis of the cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions and the involvement of the identified MPKs in various cellular processes, as analyzed using Pathway Studio, suggest a role for the banana MPK gene family in diverse functions related to growth, development, and the stress response. This report is the first concerning the identification of members of a gene family and the elucidation of their role in various processes using the Musa Genome database.

  20. Detection of an Optical Counterpart to the ALFALFA Ultra-compact High-velocity Cloud AGC 249525

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, William; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Cannon, John M.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the detection at >98% confidence of an optical counterpart to AGC 249525, an ultra-compact high-velocity cloud (UCHVC) discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey blind neutral hydrogen survey. UCHVCs are compact, isolated H i clouds with properties consistent with their being nearby low-mass galaxies, but without identified counterparts in extant optical surveys. Analysis of the resolved stellar sources in deep g- and i-band imaging from the WIYN pODI camera reveals a clustering of possible red giant branch stars associated with AGC 249525 at a distance of 1.64 ± 0.45 Mpc. Matching our optical detection with the H i synthesis map of AGC 249525 from Adams et al. shows that the stellar overdensity is exactly coincident with the highest-density H i contour from that study. Combining our optical photometry and the H i properties of this object yields an absolute magnitude of -7.1≤slant {M}V≤slant -4.5, a stellar mass between 2.2+/- 0.6× {10}4 {M}ȯ and 3.6+/- 1.0× {10}5 {M}ȯ , and an H i to stellar mass ratio between 9 and 144. This object has stellar properties within the observed range of gas-poor ultra-faint dwarfs in the Local Group, but is gas-dominated.

  1. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  2. Controlling Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation: An Analysis of AGC Capabilities Under New Performance Based Compensation Policy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, J.; Pao, L. Y.; Fleming, P.; Ela, E.

    2015-02-01

    As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio there has been an increased interest for wind turbines to control their active power output to provide ancillary services which support grid reliability. One of these ancillary services is the provision of frequency regulation, also referred to as secondary frequency control or automatic generation control (AGC), which is often procured through markets which recently adopted performance-based compensation. A wind turbine with a control system developed to provide active power ancillary services can be used to provide frequency regulation services. Simulations have been performed to determine the AGC tracking performance at various power schedule set-points, participation levels, and wind conditions. The performance metrics used in this study are based on those used by several system operators in the US. Another metric that is analyzed is the damage equivalent loads (DELs) on turbine structural components, though the impacts on the turbine electrical components are not considered. The results of these single-turbine simulations show that high performance scores can be achieved when there is sufficient wind resource available. The capability of a wind turbine to rapidly and accurately follow power commands allows for high performance even when tracking rapidly changing AGC signals. As the turbine de-rates to meet decreased power schedule set-points there is a reduction in the DELs, and the participation in frequency regulation has a negligible impact on these loads.

  3. Controlling Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation: An Analysis of AGC Capabilities Under New Performance Based Compensation Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, Jacob; Pao, Lucy Y.; Fleming, Paul; Ela, Erik

    2014-11-13

    As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio there has been an increased interest for wind turbines to control their active power output to provide ancillary services which support grid reliability. One of these ancillary services is the provision of frequency regulation, also referred to as secondary frequency control or automatic generation control (AGC), which is often procured through markets which recently adopted performance-based compensation. A wind turbine with a control system developed to provide active power ancillary services can be used to provide frequency regulation services. Simulations have been performed to determine the AGC tracking performance at various power schedule set-points, participation levels, and wind conditions. The performance metrics used in this study are based on those used by several system operators in the US. Another metric that is analyzed is the damage equivalent loads (DELs) on turbine structural components, though the impacts on the turbine electrical components are not considered. The results of these single-turbine simulations show that high performance scores can be achieved when there are insufficient wind resources available. The capability of a wind turbine to rapidly and accurately follow power commands allows for high performance even when tracking rapidly changing AGC signals. As the turbine de-rates to meet decreased power schedule set-points there is a reduction in the DELs, and the participation in frequency regulation has a negligible impact on these loads.

  4. Double-differential recording and AGC using microcontrolled variable gain ASIC.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Robert; Deng, Shin-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Low-power wearable recording of biopotentials requires acquisition front-ends with high common-mode rejection for interference suppression and adjustable gain to provide an optimum signal range to a cascading analogue-to-digital stage. A microcontroller operated double-differential (DD) recording setup and automatic gain control circuit (AGC) are discussed which reject common-mode interference and provide tunable gain, thus compensating for imbalance and variation in electrode interface impedance. Custom-designed variable gain amplifiers (ASIC) are used as part of the recording setup. The circuit gain and balance is set by the timing of microcontroller generated clock signals. Measured results are presented which confirm that improved common-mode rejection is achieved compared to a single differential amplifier in the presence of input network imbalance. Practical measured examples further validate gain control suitable for biopotential recording and power-line rejection for wearable ECG and EMG recording. The prototype front-end consumes 318 μW including amplifiers and microcontroller.

  5. Polymer Assisted Core-shell Ag-C nanoparticles Synthesis via Green hydrothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James; Mishra, Sanjay

    2009-03-01

    Core-Shell Ag-C nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of glucose through a one-pot green hydrothermal wet chemical process. An aqueous solution of glucose and Ag nitrate was hydrothermally treated to produce porous carbonaceous shell over silver core nanoparticles. The growth of carbon shells was regulated by either of the polymers (poly) vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) or poly vinyl alcohol (PVA). The two polymers were compared to take a measure of different tunable sizes of cores, and shells. The effects of hydrothermal temperature, time, and concentration of reagents on the final formation of nanostructures were studied using UV-vis extinction spectra, transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy. The polymer molecules were found to be incorporated into carbonaceous shell. The resulting opacity of the shell was found to be hydrothermal time and temperature dependent. The shell structure was found to be more uniform with PVP than PVA. Furthermore, the polymer concentration was found to influence size and shape of the core-silver particles as well. The core-shelled nanoparticles have surfaces with organic groups capable of assembling with different reagents that could be useful in drug-delivery, optical nanodevices or biochemistry.

  6. A calcium/calmodulin-regulated member of the receptor-like kinase family confers cold tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianbao; Chaudhuri, Shubho; Yang, Lihua; Du, Liqun; Poovaiah, B W

    2010-03-05

    Cold is a limiting environmental factor that adversely affects plant growth and productivity. Calcium/calmodulin-mediated signaling is believed to play a pivotal role in plant response to cold stress, but its exact role is not clearly understood. Here, we report that CRLK1, a novel calcium/calmodulin-regulated receptor-like kinase, is crucial for cold tolerance in plants. CRLK1 has two calmodulin-binding sites with different affinities as follows: one located at residues 369-390 with a K(d) of 25 nm, and the other located at residues 28-112 with a K(d) of 160 nm. Calcium/calmodulin stimulated the kinase activity, but the addition of chlorpromazine, a calmodulin antagonist, blocked its stimulation. CRLK1 is mainly localized in the plasma membrane, and its expression is stimulated by cold and hydrogen peroxide treatments. Under normal growth conditions, there is no noticeable phenotypic difference between wild-type and crlk1 knock-out mutant plants. However, as compared with wild-type plants, the crlk1 knock-out mutants exhibited an increased sensitivity to chilling and freezing temperatures. Northern analysis showed that the induction of cold-responsive genes, including CBF1, RD29A, COR15a, and KIN1 in crlk1 mutants, is delayed as compared with wild-type plants. These results indicate that CRLK1 is a positive regulator of cold tolerance in plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that CRLK1 plays a role in bridging calcium/calmodulin signaling and cold signaling.

  7. Regulation of plant vascular stem cells by endodermis-derived EPFL-family peptide hormones and phloem-expressed ERECTA-family receptor kinases.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoyuki; Tasaka, Masao

    2013-12-01

    Plant vasculatures are complex tissues consisting of (pro)cambium, phloem, and xylem. The (pro)cambium serves as vascular stem cells that produce all vascular cells. The Arabidopsis ERECTA (ER) receptor kinase is known to regulate the architecture of inflorescence stems. It was recently reported that the er mutation enhances a vascular phenotype induced by a mutation of TDR/PXY, which plays a significant role in procambial proliferation, suggesting that ER participates in vascular development. However, detailed molecular mechanisms of the ER-dependent vascular regulation are largely unknown. Here, this work found that ER and its paralogue, ER-LIKE1, were redundantly involved in procambial development of inflorescence stems. Interestingly, their activity in the phloem was sufficient for vascular regulation. Furthermore, two endodermis-derived peptide hormones, EPFL4 and EPFL6, were redundantly involved in such regulation. It has been previously reported that EPFL4 and EPFL6 act as ligands of phloem-expressed ER for stem elongation. Therefore, these findings indicate that cell-cell communication between the endodermis and the phloem plays an important role in procambial development as well as stem elongation. Interestingly, similar EPFL-ER modules control two distinct developmental events by slightly changing their components: the EPFL4/6-ER module for stem elongation and the EPFL4/6-ER/ERL1 module for vascular development.

  8. Functional characterization of a member of alanine or glycine: cation symporter family in halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Bualuang, Aporn; Kageyama, Hakuto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins of amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily transport amino acids and amines across membranes and play important roles in the regulation of cellular processes. The alanine or glycine: cation symporter (AGCS) family belongs to APC superfamily and is found in prokaryotes, but its substrate specificity remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that a halotolerant cyanobacterium, Aphanothece halophytica has two putative ApagcS genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of genes, ApagcS1, exhibited high homology to Pseudomonas AgcS. The ApagcS1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli JW4166 which is deficient in glycine uptake. Kinetics studies in JW4166 revealed that ApAgcS1 is a sodium-dependent glycine transporter. Competition experiments showed the significant inhibition by glutamine, asparagine, and glycine. The level of mRNA for ApagcS1 was induced by NaCl and nitrogen-deficient stresses. Uptake of glutamine by ApAgcS1 was also observed. Based on these data, the physiological role of ApAgcS1 was discussed.

  9. Identification of an erythrocyte pyruvate kinase variant in a family from Latium with non-spherocytic congenital haemolytic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Papa, G; De Laurenzi, A; Isacchi, G C; Bonifazi, G; Parziale, L; Salvati, A M

    1979-01-01

    Erythrocyte PK deficiency was detected in a family from Latium in Italy. This PK variant is characterized by normal or increased activity immediately after blood collection, instability to storage, to heat and to urea. Only in the propositus the mutant enzyme exhibited an increased Michaelis constant for PEP, slightly increased inhibition by ATP and an altered optimum pH value. The kinetic anomaly was only partially corrected by activation with F-1, 6-DP and by addition of 2-ME. From these results it can be concluded that in the family observed two distinct erythrocyte PK alterations were demonstrable: instability in the propositus and his father; low affinity for PEP and altered optimum pH value only in the propositus.

  10. The src-family protein-tyrosine kinase p59hck is located on the secretory granules in human neutrophils and translocates towards the phagosome during cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Möhn, H; Le Cabec, V; Fischer, S; Maridonneau-Parini, I

    1995-01-01

    The src-family protein-tyrosine kinase p59hck is mainly expressed in neutrophils; however, its functional role in these cells is unknown. Several other src-family members are localized on secretory vesicles and have been proposed to regulate intracellular traffic. We have established here the subcellular localization of p59hck in human neutrophils. Immunoblotting of subcellular fractions showed that approx. 60% of the p59hck per cell is localized on the secretory granules; the other 40% is distributed equally between non-granular membranes and the cytosol. Immunofluorescence of neutrophils and HL60 cells suggests that the p59hck-positive granules are azurophil granules. Granular p59hck is highly susceptible to degradation by an azurophil-granule proteinase. Different forms of p59hck occur in the three subcellular compartments: a 61 kDa form is mainly found in the granules, a 59 kDa form is predominant in the non-granular membranes, whereas cytosolic p59hck migrates as a doublet at 63 kDa. During the process of phagocytosis-linked degranulation, induced by serum-opsonized zymosan in neutrophils or HL60 cells, granular p59hck translocates towards the phagosome. The subcellular localization of p59hck suggests that the enzyme could be involved in the regulation of the degranulation process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7626033

  11. Genome-Wide Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family across Fungal Lineage Shows Presence of Novel and Diverse Activation Loop Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Mohanta, Nibedita; Parida, Pratap; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Ponpandian, Lakshmi Narayanan; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is characterized by the presence of the T-E-Y, T-D-Y, and T-G-Y motifs in its activation loop region and plays a significant role in regulating diverse cellular responses in eukaryotic organisms. Availability of large-scale genome data in the fungal kingdom encouraged us to identify and analyse the fungal MAPK gene family consisting of 173 fungal species. The analysis of the MAPK gene family resulted in the discovery of several novel activation loop motifs (T-T-Y, T-I-Y, T-N-Y, T-H-Y, T-S-Y, K-G-Y, T-Q-Y, S-E-Y and S-D-Y) in fungal MAPKs. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that fungal MAPKs are non-polymorphic, had evolved from their common ancestors around 1500 million years ago, and are distantly related to plant MAPKs. We are the first to report the presence of nine novel activation loop motifs in fungal MAPKs. The specificity of the activation loop motif plays a significant role in controlling different growth and stress related pathways in fungi. Hence, the presences of these nine novel activation loop motifs in fungi are of special interest. PMID:26918378

  12. Mutation analysis of the gene encoding Bruton`s tyrosine kinase in a family with a sporadic case of X-linked agammaglobulinemia reveals three female carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Hagemann, T.L.; Kwan, Sau-Ping; Assa`ad, A.H.

    1995-11-06

    Bruton`s tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been identified as the protein responsible for the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). We and others have cloned the gene for Btk and recently reported the genomic organization. Nineteen exons were positioned within the 37 kb gene. With the sequence data derived from our genomic map, we have designed a PCR based assay to directly identify mutations of the Btk gene in germline DNA of patients with XLA. In this report, the assay was used to analyze a family with a sporadic case of XLA to determine if other female relatives carry the disease. A four base-pair deletion was found in the DNA of the affected boy and was further traced through three generations. With the direct identification of the mutations responsible for XLA, we can now diagnose conclusively the disease and identify the immunologically normal female carriers. This same technique can easily be applied to prenatal diagnosis in families where the mutation can be identified. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  13. ERECTA-family receptor kinase genes redundantly prevent premature progression of secondary growth in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl.

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Shuka; Tasaka, Masao; Torii, Keiko U; Uchida, Naoyuki

    2017-03-01

    Secondary growth is driven by continuous cell proliferation and differentiation of the cambium that acts as vascular stem cells, producing xylem and phloem to expand vascular tissues laterally. During secondary growth of hypocotyls in Arabidopsis thaliana, the xylem undergoes a drastic phase transition from a parenchyma-producing phase to a fiber-producing phase at the appropriate time. However, it remains to be fully elucidated how progression of secondary growth is properly controlled. We focused on phenotypes of hypocotyl vasculatures caused by double mutation in ERECTA (ER) and ER-LIKE1 (ERL1) receptor-kinase genes to elucidate their roles in secondary growth. ER and ERL1 redundantly suppressed excessive radial growth of the hypocotyl vasculature during secondary growth. ER and ERL1 also prevented premature initiation of the fiber differentiation process mediated by the NAC SECONDARY WALL THICKENING PROMOTING FACTORs in the hypocotyl xylem. Upon floral transition, the hypocotyl xylem gained a competency to respond to GA in a BREVIPEDICELLUS-dependent manner, which was a prerequisite for fiber differentiation. However, even after the floral transition, ER and ERL1 prevented precocious initiation of the GA-mediated fiber formation. Collectively, our findings reveal that ER and ERL1 redundantly prevent premature progression of sequential events in secondary growth.

  14. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal trigger distinct signals for map family kinases and caspase activation in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Akhand, A A; Hossain, K; Mitsui, H; Kato, M; Miyata, T; Inagi, R; Du, J; Takeda, K; Kawamoto, Y; Suzuki, H; Kurokawa, K; Nakashima, I

    2001-07-01

    Carbonyl compounds with diverse carbon skeletons may be differentially related to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In this study, we compared intracellular signals delivered into cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), which differ only by a methyl group. Depending on their concentrations, GO and MGO promoted phosphorylations of ERK1 and ERK2, which were blocked by the protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors herbimycin A and staurosporine, thereby being PTK-dependent. GO and MGO also induced phosphorylations of JNK, p38 MAPK, and c-Jun, either PTK-dependently (GO) or -independently (MGO). Next, we found that MGO, but not GO, induced degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as the intracellular substrate of caspase-3. Curcumin and SB203580, which inhibit JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but not herbimycin A/staurosporine, prevented the MGO-induced PARP degradation. We then found that MGO, but not GO, reduced the intracellular glutathione level, and that cysteine, but not cystine, inhibited the MGO-mediated activation of ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, or c-Jun more extensively than did lysine or arginine. In addition, all the signals triggered by GO and MGO were blocked by amino guanidine (AG), which traps carbonyls. These results demonstrated that GO and MGO triggered two distinct signal cascades, one for PTK-dependent control of ERK and another for PTK-independent redox-linked activation of JNK/p38 MAPK and caspases in HUVECs, depending on the structure of the carbon skeleton of the chemicals.

  15. Regulation of protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) signalling by the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor: Implications for thromboxane- and androgen- dependent neoplastic and epigenetic responses in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Aine G; Mulvaney, Eamon P; Kinsella, B Therese

    2017-04-01

    The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A2 and its T Prostanoid receptor (the TP) are increasingly implicated in prostate cancer (PCa). Mechanistically, we recently discovered that both TPα and TPβ form functional signalling complexes with members of the protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) family, AGC- kinases essential for the epigenetic regulation of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcription and promising therapeutic targets for treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Critically, similar to androgens, activation of the PRKs through the TXA2/TP signalling axis induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr11 (H3Thr11), a marker of androgen-induced chromatin remodelling and transcriptional activation, raising the possibility that TXA2-TP signalling can mimic and/or enhance AR-induced cellular changes even in the absence of circulating androgens such as in CRPC. Hence the aim of the current study was to investigate whether TXA2/TP-induced PRK activation can mimic and/or enhance AR-mediated cellular responses in the model androgen-responsive prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP cell line. We reveal that TXA2/TP signalling can act as a neoplastic- and epigenetic-regulator, promoting and enhancing both AR-associated chromatin remodelling (H3Thr11 phosphorylation, WDR5 recruitment and acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16) and AR-mediated transcriptional activation (e.g of the KLK3/prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2 genes) through mechanisms involving TPα/TPβ mediated-PRK1 and PRK2, but not PRK3, signalling complexes. Overall, these data demonstrate that TPα/TPβ can act as neoplastic and epigenetic regulators by mimicking and/or enhancing the actions of androgens within the prostate and provides further mechanistic insights into the role of the TXA2/TP signalling axis in PCa, including potentially in CRPC.

  16. Bisubstrate fluorescent probes and biosensors in binding assays for HTS of protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uri, Asko; Lust, Marje; Vaasa, Angela; Lavogina, Darja; Viht, Kaido; Enkvist, Erki

    2010-03-01

    Conjugates of adenosine mimics and d-arginine-rich peptides (ARCs) are potent inhibitors of protein kinases (PKs) from the AGC group. Labeling ARCs with fluorescent dyes or immobilizing on chip surfaces gives fluorescent probes (ARC-Photo) and biosensors that can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) of inhibitors of protein kinases. The bisubstrate character (simultaneous association with both binding sites of the kinase) and high affinity of ARCs allow ARC-based probes and sensors to be used for characterization of inhibitors targeted to either binding site of the kinase with affinities in whole nanomolar to micromolar range. The ability to penetrate cell plasma membrane and bind to the target kinase fused with a fluorescent protein leads to the possibility to use ARC-Photo probes for high content screening (HCS) of inhibitors in cellular milieu with detection of intensity of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two fluorophores.

  17. Src family kinases mediate betel quid-induced oral cancer cell motility and could be a biomarker for early invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Hung, Chih-Chang; Huang, Kai-Lieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Chiang, Wei-Fan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Yen, Ching-Yu; Wu, Yu-Jen; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Jou, Yuh-Shan

    2008-12-01

    Betel quid (BQ)-chewing oral cancer is a prevalent disease in many countries of Southeast Asia. Yet, the precise disease mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BQ extract-induced cell motility in three oral cancer cells (Ca9-22, SAS, and SCC9) presumably involves the Src family kinases (SFKs). Besides, BQ extract can markedly induce cell migration of wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) but not MEFs lacking three SFK members, namely, Src, Yes, and Fyn, indicating the requirement of SFKs for BQ-induced cell motility. Betel quid extract can also elevate cellular SFK activities because phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 at the catalytic domain is increased, which in turn promotes phosphorylation of an in vitro substrate, enolase. Furthermore, we identified that areca nut, a major component of BQ, is the key factor accounting for BQ-induced cell migration and invasion through SFKs-mediated signaling pathways. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, particularly in BQ-chewing cases, the activity of SFKs was significantly higher in tumor-adjacent mucosa than that in solid tumor areas (P < .01). These results suggest a possible role of SFKs in tumor-host interface and thus in early tumor invasion in vivo. Consistent with this is the observation that activation of SFKs is colocalized with invasive tumor fronts in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Together, we conclude that SFKs may represent a potential biomarker of invasion and therapeutic target in BQ-induced oral cancer.

  18. Src-Family Kinases Are Activated in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Promote the Survival of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Kalyankrishna, Shailaja; Wislez, Marie; Thilaganathan, Nishan; Saigal, Babita; Wei, Wei; Ma, Long; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Johnson, Faye M.; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2007-01-01

    The role of Src-family kinases (SFKs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been fully defined. Here we addressed this question by examining SFK phosphorylation in NSCLC biopsy samples and using genetic and pharmacological approaches to inhibit SFK expression and activity in cultured NSCLC cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of NSCLC biopsy samples using a Tyr416 phosphorylation-specific, pan-SFK antibody revealed staining in 123 (33%) of 370 tumors. Because c-Src is known to be both an upstream activator and downstream mediator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we next investigated SFK phosphorylation in a panel of NSCLC cell lines, including ones that depend on EGFR for survival. The EGFR-dependent NSCLC cell lines HCC827 and H3255 had increased phosphorylation of SFKs, and treatment of these cells with an SFK inhibitor (PP1 or SKI-606) induced apoptosis. PP1 decreased phosphorylation of EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3 and strikingly enhanced apoptosis by gefitinib, an EGFR inhibitor. HCC827 cells transfected with c-Src short hairpin RNA exhibited diminished phosphorylation of EGFR and ErbB2 and decreased sensitivity to apoptosis by PP1 or gefitinib. We conclude that SFKs are activated in NSCLC biopsy samples, promote the survival of EGFR-dependent NSCLC cells, and should be investigated as therapeutic targets in NSCLC patients. PMID:17200208

  19. Src Family Kinase Inhibitors Antagonize the Toxicity of Multiple Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, James C.; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Wanner, Laura M.; Peyser, Brian D.; Du, Hao T.; Gomba, Glenn Y.; Kota, Krishna P.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Gussio, Rick; Kane, Christopher D.; Tessarollo, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the causative agents of botulism, are potent inhibitors of neurotransmitter release from motor neurons. There are currently no drugs to treat BoNT intoxication after the onset of the disease symptoms. In this study, we explored how modulation of key host pathways affects the process of BoNT intoxication in human motor neurons, focusing on Src family kinase (SFK) signaling. Motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells were treated with a panel of SFK inhibitors and intoxicated with BoNT serotypes A, B, or E (which are responsible for >95 % of human botulism cases). Subsequently, it was found that bosutinib, dasatinib, KX2-391, PP1, PP2, Src inhibitor-1, and SU6656 significantly antagonized all three of the serotypes. Furthermore, the data indicated that the treatment of hES-derived motor neurons with multiple SFK inhibitors increased the antagonistic effect synergistically. Mechanistically, the small molecules appear to inhibit BoNTs by targeting host pathways necessary for intoxication and not by directly inhibiting the toxins’ proteolytic activity. Importantly, the identified inhibitors are all well-studied with some in clinical trials while others are FDA-approved drugs. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of targeting host neuronal pathways, rather than the toxin’s enzymatic components, to antagonize multiple BoNT serotypes in motor neurons. PMID:25782580

  20. Histoplasma capsulatum-Induced Cytokine Secretion in Lung Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Host Integrins, Src-Family Kinase Activation, and Membrane Raft Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Maza, Paloma K.; Suzuki, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that causes histoplasmosis, a human systemic mycosis with worldwide distribution. In the present work, we demonstrate that H. capsulatum yeasts are able to induce cytokine secretion by the human lung epithelial cell line A549 in integrin- and Src-family kinase (SFK)-dependent manners. This conclusion is supported by small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed to α3 and α5 integrins, and PP2, an inhibitor of SFK activation. siRNA and PP2 reduced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in H. capsulatum-infected A549 cell cultures. In addition, α3 and α5 integrins from A549 cells were capable of associating with H. capsulatum yeasts, and this fungus promotes recruitment of these integrins and SFKs to A549 cell membrane rafts. Corroborating this finding, membrane raft disruption with the cholesterol-chelator methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced the levels of integrins and SFKs in these cell membrane domains. Finally, pretreatment of A549 cells with the cholesterol-binding compound, and also a membrane raft disruptor, filipin, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 levels in A549-H.capsulatum cultures. Taken together, these results indicate that H. capsulatum yeasts induce secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 in human lung epithelial cells by interacting with α3 and α5 integrins, recruiting these integrins to membrane rafts, and promoting SFK activation. PMID:27148251

  1. The inhibition of tube formation in a collagen-fibrinogen, three-dimensional gel by cleaved kininogen (HKa) and HK domain 5 (D5) is dependent on Src family kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yuchuan; Sainz, Irma M.; Wu Yi; Pixley, Robin; Espinola, Ricardo G.; Hassan, Sarmina; Khan, Mohammad M.; Colman, Robert W.

    2008-02-15

    Cleaved high molecular weight kininogen (HKa), as well as its domain 5 (D5), inhibits migration and proliferation induced by angiogenic factors and induces apoptosis in vitro. To study its effect on tube formation we utilized a collagen-fibrinogen, three-dimensional gel, an in vitro model of angiogenesis. HKa, GST-D5 and D5 had a similar inhibitory effect of tube length by 90 {+-} 4.5%, 86 {+-} 5.5% and 77 {+-} 12.9%, respectively. D5-derived synthetic peptides: G440-H455 H475-H485 and G486-K502 inhibited tube length by 51 {+-} 3.7%, 54 {+-} 3.8% and 77 {+-} 1.7%, respectively. By a comparison of its inhibitory potency and its sequences, a functional sequence of HKa was defined to G486-G496. PP2, a Src family kinase inhibitor, prevented tube formation in a dose-dependent manner (100-400 nM), but PP3 at 5 {mu}M, an inactive analogue of PP2, did not. HKa and D5 inhibited Src 416 phosphorylation by 62 {+-} 12.3% and 83 {+-} 6.1%, respectively. The C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) inhibits Src kinase activity. Using a siRNA to Csk, expression of Csk was down-regulated by 86 {+-} 7.0%, which significantly increased tube length by 27 {+-} 5.8%. The addition of HKa and D5 completely blocked this effect. We further showed that HKa inhibited Src family kinase activity by disrupting the complex of uPAR, {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin and Src. Our results indicate that the anti-angiogenic effect of HKa and D5 is mediated at least in part through Src family kinases and identify a potential novel target for therapeutic inhibition of neovascularization in cancer and inflammatory arthritis.

  2. Flexible Ag-C60 nano-biosensors based on surface plasmon coupled emission for clinical and forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Mulpur, Pradyumna; Yadavilli, Sairam; Mulpur, Praharsha; Kondiparthi, Neeharika; Sengupta, Bishwambhar; Rao, Apparao M; Podila, Ramakrishna; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2015-10-14

    The relatively low sensitivity of fluorescence detection schemes, which are mainly limited by the isotropic nature of fluorophore emission, can be overcome by utilizing surface plasmon coupled emission (SPCE). In this study, we demonstrate directional emission from fluorophores on flexible Ag-C60 SPCE sensor platforms for point-of-care sensing, in healthcare and forensic sensing scenarios, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than traditional fluorescence sensing schemes. Adopting the highly sensitive Ag-C60 SPCE platform based on glass and novel low-cost flexible substrates, we report the unambiguous detection of acid-fast Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacteria at densities as low as 20 Mtb mm(-2); from non-acid-fast bacteria (e.g., E. coli and S. aureus), and the specific on-site detection of acid-fast sperm cells in human semen samples. In combination with the directional emission and high-sensitivity of SPCE platforms, we also demonstrate the utility of smartphones that can replace expensive and cumbersome detectors to enable rapid hand-held detection of analytes in resource-limited settings; a much needed critical advance to biosensors, for developing countries.

  3. A critical role of Src family kinase in SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated bone-marrow progenitor cell recruitment to the ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Min; Huang, Kai; Zhou, Junlan; Yan, Dewen; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C; Miller, Richard J; Kishore, Raj; Losordo, Douglas W; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-04-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal-cell derived factor 1 (SDF-1) play a crucial role in directing progenitor cell (PC) homing to ischemic tissue. The Src family protein kinases (SFK) can be activated by, and serve as effectors of, G proteins. In this study we sought to determine whether SFK play a role in SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated PC homing. First, we investigated whether SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling activates SFK. Bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BM MNCs) were isolated from WT and BM-specific CXCR4-KO mice and treated with SDF-1 and/or CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. SDF-1 treatment rapidly induced phosphorylation (activation) of hematopoietic Src (i.e., Lyn, Fgr, and Hck) in WT cells but not in AMD3100-treated cells or CXCR4-KO cells. Then, we investigated whether SFK are involved in SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated PC chemotaxis. In a combined chemotaxis and endothelial-progenitor-cell (EPC) colony assay, Src inhibitor SU6656 dose-dependently inhibited the SDF-1-induced migration of colony-forming EPCs. Next, we investigated whether SFK play a role in SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated BM PC homing to the ischemic heart. BM MNCs from CXCR4BAC:eGFP reporter mice were i.v. injected into WT and SDF-1BAC:SDF1-RFP transgenic mice following surgically-induced myocardial infarction (MI). eGFP(+) MNCs and eGFP(+)c-kit(+) PCs that were recruited in the infarct border zone in SDF-1BAC:SDF1-RFP recipients were significantly more than that in WT recipients. Treatments of mice with SU6656 significantly reduced eGFP(+) and eGFP(+)c-kit(+) cell recruitment in both WT and SDF-1BAC:RFP recipients and abrogated the difference between the two groups. Remarkably, PCs isolated from BM-specific C-terminal Src kinase (CSK)-KO (Src activated) mice were recruited more efficiently than PCs from WT PCs in the WT recipients. In conclusion, SFK are activated by SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and play an essential role in SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated BM PC chemotactic response and ischemic cardiac recruitment.

  4. A putative bifunctional histidine kinase/phosphatase of the HWE family exerts positive and negative control on the Sinorhizobium meliloti general stress response.

    PubMed

    Sauviac, Laurent; Bruand, Claude

    2014-07-01

    The EcfG-type sigma factor RpoE2 is the regulator of the general stress response in Sinorhizobium meliloti. RpoE2 activity is negatively regulated by two NepR-type anti-sigma factors (RsiA1/A2), themselves under the control of two anti-anti-sigma factors (RsiB1/B2) belonging to the PhyR family of response regulators. The current model of RpoE2 activation suggests that in response to stress, RsiB1/B2 are activated by phosphorylation of an aspartate residue in their receiver domain. Once activated, RsiB1/B2 become able to interact with the anti-sigma factors and release RpoE2, which can then associate with the RNA polymerase to transcribe its target genes. The purpose of this work was to identify and characterize proteins involved in controlling the phosphorylation status of RsiB1/B2. Using in vivo approaches, we show that the putative histidine kinase encoded by the rsiC gene (SMc01507), located downstream from rpoE2, is able to both positively and negatively regulate the general stress response. In addition, our data suggest that the negative action of RsiC results from inhibition of RsiB1/B2 phosphorylation. From these observations, we propose that RsiC is a bifunctional histidine kinase/phosphatase responsible for RsiB1/B2 phosphorylation or dephosphorylation in the presence or absence of stress, respectively. Two proteins were previously proposed to control PhyR phosphorylation in Caulobacter crescentus and Sphingomonas sp. strain FR1. However, these proteins contain a Pfam:HisKA_2 domain of dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer, whereas S. meliloti RsiC harbors a Pfam:HWE_HK domain instead. Therefore, this is the first report of an HWE_HK-containing protein controlling the general stress response in Alphaproteobacteria.

  5. [Tyrosine kinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases have emerged as important potential targets in oncology. Starting from basic structures such as anilino-quinazoline, numerous compounds have been synthesised, with the help of tyrosine kinase crystallography, which has allowed to optimise protein-ligand interactions. The catalytic domains of all kinases present similar three-dimensional structures, which explains that it may be difficult to identify molecules having a high specificity for a given tyrosine kinase. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are relatively specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as géfitinib and erlotinib; other are mainly active against platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and the receptor KIT, such as imatinib or nilotinib, and other against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors involved in angiogenesis, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. The oral formulation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors is well accepted by the patients but may generate sometimes compliance problems requiring pharmacokinetic monitoring. This chemical family is in full expansion and several dozens of compounds have entered clinical trials.

  6. TLR4 Signaling Is Coupled to SRC Family Kinase Activation, Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Zonula Adherens Proteins, and Opening of the Paracellular Pathway in Human Lung Microvascular Endothelia*

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ping; Angelini, Daniel J.; Yang, Shiqi; Xia, Guanjun; Cross, Alan S.; Mann, Dean; Bannerman, Douglas D.; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Goldblum, Simeon E.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key mediator in the vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections. LPS opens the paracellular pathway in pulmonary vascular endothelia through protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We now have identified the protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and their substrates required for LPS-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and opening of the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls). LPS disrupted barrier integrity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and prior broad spectrum PTK inhibition was protective. LPS increased tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins, VE-cadherin, γ-catenin, and p120ctn. Two SRC family PTK (SFK)-selective inhibitors, PP2 and SU6656, blocked LPS-induced increments in tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and p120ctn and paracellular permeability. In HMVEC-Ls, c-SRC, YES, FYN, and LYN were expressed at both mRNA and protein levels. Selective small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of c-SRC, FYN, or YES diminished LPS-induced SRC Tyr416 phosphorylation, tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and p120ctn, and barrier disruption, whereas knockdown of LYN did not. For VE-cadherin phosphorylation, knockdown of either c-SRC or FYN provided total protection, whereas YES knockdown was only partially protective. For p120ctn phosphorylation, knockdown of FYN, c-SRC, or YES each provided comparable but partial protection. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was expressed both on the surface and intracellular compartment of HMVEC-Ls. Prior knockdown of TLR4 blocked both LPS-induced SFK activation and barrier disruption. These data indicate that LPS recognition by TLR4 activates the SFKs, c-SRC, FYN, and YES, which, in turn, contribute to tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins to open the endothelial paracellular pathway. PMID:18326860

  7. Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Gene Family in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun; Guo, Wenjin; Lu, Junxing; Yu, Hao; Qu, Cunmin; Tang, Zhanglin; Li, Jiana; Chai, Yourong; Liang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are fundamental signal transduction modules in plants, controlling cell division, development, hormone signaling, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although MAPKs have been investigated in several plant species, a comprehensive analysis of the MAPK gene family has hitherto not been performed in Brassica rapa. In this study, we identified 32 MAPKs in the B. rapa genome by conducting BLASTP and syntenic block analyses, and screening for the essential signature motif (TDY or TEY) of plant MAPK proteins. Of the 32 BraMAPK genes retrieved from the Brassica Database, 13 exhibited exon splicing errors, excessive splicing of the 5' sequence, excessive retention of the 5' sequence, and sequencing errors of the 3' end. Phylogenetic trees of the 32 corrected MAPKs from B. rapa and of MAPKs from other plants generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods suggested that BraMAPKs could be divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D). Gene number expansion was observed for BraMAPK genes in groups A and D, which may have been caused by the tandem duplication and genome triplication of the ancestral genome of the Brassica progenitor. Except for five members of the BraMAPK10 subfamily, the identified BraMAPKs were expressed in most of the tissues examined, including callus, root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that at least six and five BraMAPKs were induced or repressed by various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments, respectively, suggesting their potential roles in the abiotic stress response and various hormone signal transduction pathways in B. rapa. This study provides valuable insight into the putative physiological and biochemical functions of MAPK genes in B. rapa.

  8. Angiotensin II-induced protein kinase D activates the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors and promotes StAR mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Olala, Lawrence O; Choudhary, Vivek; Johnson, Maribeth H; Bollag, Wendy B

    2014-07-01

    Aldosterone synthesis is initiated upon the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the cholesterol is hydrolyzed to pregnenolone. This process is the rate-limiting step in acute aldosterone production and is mediated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein. We have previously shown that angiotensin II (AngII) activation of the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) promotes acute aldosterone production in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells, but the mechanism remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the downstream signaling effectors of AngII-stimulated PKD activity. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of the constitutively active serine-to-glutamate PKD mutant enhances, whereas the dominant-negative serine-to-alanine PKD mutant inhibits, AngII-induced StAR mRNA expression relative to the vector control. PKD has been shown to phosphorylate members of the activating transcription factor (ATF)/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) family of leucine zipper transcription factors, which have been shown previously to bind the StAR proximal promoter and induce StAR mRNA expression. In primary glomerulosa cells, AngII induces ATF-2 and CREB phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, overexpression of the constitutively active PKD mutant enhances the AngII-elicited phosphorylation of ATF-2 and CREB, and the dominant-negative mutant inhibits this response. Furthermore, the constitutively active PKD mutant increases the binding of phosphorylated CREB to the StAR promoter. Thus, these data provide insight into the previously reported role of PKD in AngII-induced acute aldosterone production, providing a mechanism by which PKD may be mediating steroidogenesis in primary bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells.

  9. Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Gene Family in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hao; Qu, Cunmin; Tang, Zhanglin; Li, Jiana; Chai, Yourong; Liang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are fundamental signal transduction modules in plants, controlling cell division, development, hormone signaling, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although MAPKs have been investigated in several plant species, a comprehensive analysis of the MAPK gene family has hitherto not been performed in Brassica rapa. In this study, we identified 32 MAPKs in the B. rapa genome by conducting BLASTP and syntenic block analyses, and screening for the essential signature motif (TDY or TEY) of plant MAPK proteins. Of the 32 BraMAPK genes retrieved from the Brassica Database, 13 exhibited exon splicing errors, excessive splicing of the 5' sequence, excessive retention of the 5' sequence, and sequencing errors of the 3' end. Phylogenetic trees of the 32 corrected MAPKs from B. rapa and of MAPKs from other plants generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods suggested that BraMAPKs could be divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D). Gene number expansion was observed for BraMAPK genes in groups A and D, which may have been caused by the tandem duplication and genome triplication of the ancestral genome of the Brassica progenitor. Except for five members of the BraMAPK10 subfamily, the identified BraMAPKs were expressed in most of the tissues examined, including callus, root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that at least six and five BraMAPKs were induced or repressed by various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments, respectively, suggesting their potential roles in the abiotic stress response and various hormone signal transduction pathways in B. rapa. This study provides valuable insight into the putative physiological and biochemical functions of MAPK genes in B. rapa. PMID:26173020

  10. Chronic Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels enhance delayed rectifier K+ currents via activating Src family tyrosine kinase in rat hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yoon-Sil; Jeon, Sang-Chan; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Eun, Su-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Excessive influx and the subsequent rapid cytosolic elevation of Ca2+ in neurons is the major cause to induce hyperexcitability and irreversible cell damage although it is an essential ion for cellular signalings. Therefore, most neurons exhibit several cellular mechanisms to homeostatically regulate cytosolic Ca2+ level in normal as well as pathological conditions. Delayed rectifier K+ channels (IDR channels) play a role to suppress membrane excitability by inducing K+ outflow in various conditions, indicating their potential role in preventing pathogenic conditions and cell damage under Ca2+-mediated excitotoxic conditions. In the present study, we electrophysiologically evaluated the response of IDR channels to hyperexcitable conditions induced by high Ca2+ pretreatment (3.6 mM, for 24 hours) in cultured hippocampal neurons. In results, high Ca2+-treatment significantly increased the amplitude of IDR without changes of gating kinetics. Nimodipine but not APV blocked Ca2+-induced IDR enhancement, confirming that the change of IDR might be targeted by Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) rather than NMDA receptors (NMDARs). The VDCC-mediated IDR enhancement was not affected by either Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) or small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels). Furthermore, PP2 but not H89 completely abolished IDR enhancement under high Ca2+ condition, indicating that the activation of Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) is required for Ca2+-mediated IDR enhancement. Thus, SFKs may be sensitive to excessive Ca2+ influx through VDCCs and enhance IDR to activate a neuroprotective mechanism against Ca2+-mediated hyperexcitability in neurons. PMID:28280420

  11. Profile-QSAR: a novel meta-QSAR method that combines activities across the kinase family to accurately predict affinity, selectivity, and cellular activity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Eric; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Sullivan, David; Jansen, Johanna

    2011-08-22

    Profile-QSAR is a novel 2D predictive model building method for kinases. This "meta-QSAR" method models the activity of each compound against a new kinase target as a linear combination of its predicted activities against a large panel of 92 previously studied kinases comprised from 115 assays. Profile-QSAR starts with a sparse incomplete kinase by compound (KxC) activity matrix, used to generate Bayesian QSAR models for the 92 "basis-set" kinases. These Bayesian QSARs generate a complete "synthetic" KxC activity matrix of predictions. These synthetic activities are used as "chemical descriptors" to train partial-least squares (PLS) models, from modest amounts of medium-throughput screening data, for predicting activity against new kinases. The Profile-QSAR predictions for the 92 kinases (115 assays) gave a median external R²(ext) = 0.59 on 25% held-out test sets. The method has proven accurate enough to predict pairwise kinase selectivities with a median correlation of R²(ext) = 0.61 for 958 kinase pairs with at least 600 common compounds. It has been further expanded by adding a "C(k)XC" cellular activity matrix to the KxC matrix to predict cellular activity for 42 kinase driven cellular assays with median R²(ext) = 0.58 for 24 target modulation assays and R²(ext) = 0.41 for 18 cell proliferation assays. The 2D Profile-QSAR, along with the 3D Surrogate AutoShim, are the foundations of an internally developed iterative medium-throughput screening (IMTS) methodology for virtual screening (VS) of compound archives as an alternative to experimental high-throughput screening (HTS). The method has been applied to 20 actual prospective kinase projects. Biological results have so far been obtained in eight of them. Q² values ranged from 0.3 to 0.7. Hit-rates at 10 uM for experimentally tested compounds varied from 25% to 80%, except in K5, which was a special case aimed specifically at finding "type II" binders, where none of the compounds were predicted to be

  12. Structure-Based Network Analysis of Activation Mechanisms in the ErbB Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: The Regulatory Spine Residues Are Global Mediators of Structural Stability and Allosteric Interactions

    PubMed Central

    James, Kevin A.; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2014-01-01

    The ErbB protein tyrosine kinases are among the most important cell signaling families and mutation-induced modulation of their activity is associated with diverse functions in biological networks and human disease. We have combined molecular dynamics simulations of the ErbB kinases with the protein structure network modeling to characterize the reorganization of the residue interaction networks during conformational equilibrium changes in the normal and oncogenic forms. Structural stability and network analyses have identified local communities integrated around high centrality sites that correspond to the regulatory spine residues. This analysis has provided a quantitative insight to the mechanism of mutation-induced “superacceptor” activity in oncogenic EGFR dimers. We have found that kinase activation may be determined by allosteric interactions between modules of structurally stable residues that synchronize the dynamics in the nucleotide binding site and the αC-helix with the collective motions of the integrating αF-helix and the substrate binding site. The results of this study have pointed to a central role of the conserved His-Arg-Asp (HRD) motif in the catalytic loop and the Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) motif as key mediators of structural stability and allosteric communications in the ErbB kinases. We have determined that residues that are indispensable for kinase regulation and catalysis often corresponded to the high centrality nodes within the protein structure network and could be distinguished by their unique network signatures. The optimal communication pathways are also controlled by these nodes and may ensure efficient allosteric signaling in the functional kinase state. Structure-based network analysis has quantified subtle effects of ATP binding on conformational dynamics and stability of the EGFR structures. Consistent with the NMR studies, we have found that nucleotide-induced modulation of the residue interaction networks is not limited to the

  13. Pyk2 and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases compensate for the loss of FAK in fibronectin-stimulated signaling events but Pyk2 does not fully function to enhance FAK- cell migration.

    PubMed Central

    Sieg, D J; Ilić, D; Jones, K C; Damsky, C H; Hunter, T; Schlaepfer, D D

    1998-01-01

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) links transmembrane integrin receptors to intracellular signaling pathways. We show that expression of the FAK-related PTK, Pyk2, is elevated in fibroblasts isolated from murine fak-/- embryos (FAK-) compared with cells from fak+/+ embryos (FAK+). Pyk2 was localized to perinuclear regions in both FAK+ and FAK- cells. Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation was enhanced by fibronectin (FN) stimulation of FAK- but not FAK+ cells. Increased Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation paralleled the time-course of Grb2 binding to Shc and activation of ERK2 in FAK- cells. Pyk2 in vitro autophosphorylation activity was not enhanced by FN plating of FAK- cells. However, Pyk2 associated with active Src-family PTKs after FN but not poly-L-lysine replating of the FAK- cells. Overexpression of both wild-type (WT) and kinase-inactive (Ala457), but not the autophosphorylation site mutant (Phe402) Pyk2, enhanced endogenous FN-stimulated c-Src in vitro kinase activity in FAK- cells, but only WT Pyk2 overexpression enhanced FN-stimulated activation of co-transfected ERK2. Interestingly, Pyk2 overexpression only weakly augmented FAK- cell migration to FN whereas transient FAK expression promoted FAK- cell migration to FN efficiently compared with FAK+ cells. Significantly, repression of endogenous Src-family PTK activity by p50(csk) overexpression inhibited FN-stimulated cell spreading, Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation, Grb2 binding to Shc, and ERK2 activation in the FAK- but not in FAK+ cells. These studies show that Pyk2 and Src-family PTKs combine to promote FN-stimulated signaling events to ERK2 in the absence of FAK, but that these signaling events are not sufficient to overcome the FAK- cell migration defects. PMID:9774338

  14. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  15. Stimulation of Src family protein-tyrosine kinases as a proximal and mandatory step for SYK kinase-dependent phospholipase Cgamma2 activation in lymphoma B cells exposed to low energy electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Dibirdik, I; Kristupaitis, D; Kurosaki, T; Tuel-Ahlgren, L; Chu, A; Pond, D; Tuong, D; Luben, R; Uckun, F M

    1998-02-13

    Here, we present evidence that exposure of DT40 lymphoma B cells to low energy electromagnetic field (EMF) results in a tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLC-gamma2) leading to increased inositol phospholipid turnover. B cells rendered PLC-gamma2-deficient by targeted disruption of the PLC-gamma2 gene as well as PLC-gamma2-deficient cells reconstituted with Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain mutant PLC-gamma2 did not show any increase in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate levels after EMF exposure, providing direct evidence that PLC-gamma2 is responsible for EMF-induced stimulation of inositol phospholipid turnover, and its SH2 domains are essential for this function. B cells rendered SYK-deficient by targeted disruption of the syk gene did not show PLC-gamma2 activation in response to EMF exposure. The C-terminal SH2 domain of SYK kinase is essential for its ability to activate PLC-gamma2. SYK-deficient cells reconstituted with a C-terminal SH2 domain mutant syk gene failed to elicit increased inositol phospholipid turnover after EMF exposure, whereas SYK-deficient cells reconstituted with an N-terminal SH2 domain mutant syk gene showed a normal EMF response. LYN kinase is essential for the initiation of this biochemical signaling cascade. Lymphoma B cells rendered LYN-deficient through targeted disruption of the lyn gene did not elicit enhanced inositol phospholipid turnover after EMF exposure. Introduction of the wild-type (but not a kinase domain mutant) mouse fyn gene into LYN-deficient B cells restored their EMF responsiveness. B cells reconstituted with a SH2 domain mutant fyn gene showed a normal EMF response, whereas no increase in inositol phospholipid turnover in response to EMF was noticed in LYN-deficient cells reconstituted with a SH3 domain mutant fyn gene. Taken together, these results indicate that EMF-induced PLC-gamma2 activation is mediated by LYN-regulated stimulation of SYK, which acts downstream of LYN kinase and

  16. Unwinding the Wnt action of casein kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Yim, Daniel G R; Virshup, David M

    2013-06-01

    The casein kinase 1 (CK1) family, a major intracellular serine/threonine kinase, is implicated in multiple pathways; however, understanding its regulation has proven challenging. A recent study published in Science identifying allosteric activation of CK1 by the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 expands our understanding of the control of this abundant kinase family.

  17. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide increases tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins and opens the paracellular pathway in lung microvascular endothelia through TLR4, TRAF6, and src family kinase activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: LPS is a key mediator in vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections and opens the pulmonary vascular endothelial paracellular pathway through protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activation. We asked which PTKs and signaling molecules mediate LPS-induced endothel...

  18. Structure of the pseudokinase-kinase domains from protein kinase TYK2 reveals a mechanism for Janus kinase (JAK) autoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Lupardus, Patrick J; Ultsch, Mark; Wallweber, Heidi; Bir Kohli, Pawan; Johnson, Adam R; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2014-06-03

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are receptor-associated multidomain tyrosine kinases that act downstream of many cytokines and interferons. JAK kinase activity is regulated by the adjacent pseudokinase domain via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report the 2.8-Å structure of the two-domain pseudokinase-kinase module from the JAK family member TYK2 in its autoinhibited form. We find that the pseudokinase and kinase interact near the kinase active site and that most reported mutations in cancer-associated JAK alleles cluster in or near this interface. Mutation of residues near the TYK2 interface that are analogous to those in cancer-associated JAK alleles, including the V617F and "exon 12" JAK2 mutations, results in increased kinase activity in vitro. These data indicate that JAK pseudokinases are autoinhibitory domains that hold the kinase domain inactive until receptor dimerization stimulates transition to an active state.

  19. Cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  20. Genome-Wide Identification of Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase Gene Family in Plant Lineage Shows Presence of Novel D-x-D and D-E-L Motifs in EF-Hand Domain

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Tapan K.; Mohanta, Nibedita; Mohanta, Yugal K.; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Calcium ions are considered ubiquitous second messengers in eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration are modulated by various signals such as hormones and biotic and abiotic stresses. Modulation of Ca2+ ion leads to stimulation of calcium dependent protein kinase genes (CPKs), which results in regulation of gene expression and therefore mediates plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we reported the CPK gene family of 40 different plant species (950 CPK genes) and provided a unified nomenclature system for all of them. In addition, we analyzed their genomic, biochemical and structural conserved features. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the kinase domain, auto-inhibitory domain and EF-hands regions of regulatory domains are highly conserved in nature. Additionally, the EF-hand domains of higher plants were found to contain four D-x-D and two D-E-L motifs, while lower eukaryotic plants had two D-x-D and one D-x-E motifs in their EF-hands. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CPK genes are clustered into four different groups. By studying the CPK gene family across the plant lineage, we provide the first evidence of the presence of D-x-D motif in the calcium binding EF-hand domain of CPK proteins. PMID:26734045

  1. Silver nanoparticles sensitized C60(Ag@C60) as efficient electrocatalysts for hydrazine oxidation: Implication for hydrogen generation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narwade, Shankar S.; Mulik, Balaji B.; Mali, Shivsharan M.; Sathe, Bhaskar R.

    2017-02-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs; 10 ± 0.5 nm) sensitized Fullerene (C60; 15 ±2 nm) nanocatalysts (Ag@C60) for the first time showing efficient electroatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine demonstrating activity comparable to that of Pt in acidic, neutral and basic media. The performance is comparable with the best available electrocatalytic system and plays a vital role in the overall hydrogen generation reactions from hydrazine as a one of the fuel cell reaction. The materials are synthesized by a simple and scalable synthetic route involving acid functionalization of C60 followed by chemical reduction of Ag+ ions in ethylene glycol at high temperature. The distributation of Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) (morphological information) on C60, bonding, its crystal structure, along with activity towards hydrazine oxidation (electrocatalytic) is studied using TEM, XRD, UV-vis, XPS, FTIR and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) studies, respectively. The observed efficient electrocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized electrode is attributed to the co-operative response and associated structural defects due to their oxidative functionalization along with thier cooperative functioning at nanodimensions.

  2. Understanding the Polo Kinase machine.

    PubMed

    Archambault, V; Lépine, G; Kachaner, D

    2015-09-10

    The Polo Kinase is a central regulator of cell division required for several events of mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition to a kinase domain (KD), Polo-like kinases (Plks) comprise a Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions with targets and regulators of Plks. In all organisms that contain Plks, one Plk family member fulfills several essential functions in the regulation of cell division, and here we refer to this conserved protein as Polo Kinase (Plk1 in humans). The PBD and the KD are capable of both cooperation and mutual inhibition in their functions. Crystal structures of the PBD, the KD and, recently, a PBD-KD complex have helped understanding the inner workings of the Polo Kinase. In parallel, an impressive array of molecular mechanisms has been found to mediate the regulation of the protein. Moreover, the targeting of Polo Kinase in the development of anti-cancer drugs has yielded several molecules with which to chemically modulate Polo Kinase to study its biological functions. Here we review our current understanding of the protein function and regulation of Polo Kinase as a fascinating molecular device in control of cell division.

  3. The Src family tyrosine kinases src and yes have differential effects on inflammation-induced apoptosis in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nelin, Leif D; White, Hilary A; Jin, Yi; Trittmann, Jennifer K; Chen, Bernadette; Liu, Yusen

    2016-05-01

    Endothelial cells are essential for normal lung function: they sense and respond to circulating factors and hemodynamic alterations. In inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, endothelial cell apoptosis is an inciting event in pathogenesis and a prominent pathological feature. Endothelial cell apoptosis is mediated by circulating inflammatory factors, which bind to receptors on the cell surface, activating signal transduction pathways, leading to caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. We hypothesized that yes and src have differential effects on caspase-3 activation in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (hPMVEC) due to differential downstream signaling effects. To test this hypothesis, hPMVEC were treated with siRNA against src (siRNAsrc), siRNA against yes (siRNAyes), or their respective scramble controls. After recovery, the hPMVEC were treated with cytomix (LPS, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ). Treatment with cytomix induced activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. Treatment with siRNAsrc blunted cytomix-induced ERK activation and enhanced cleaved caspase-3 levels, while treatment with siRNAyes enhanced cytomix-induced ERK activation and attenuated levels of cleaved caspase-3. Inhibition of the ERK pathway using U0126 enhanced cytomix-induced caspase-3 activity. Treatment of hPMVEC with cytomix induced Akt activation, which was inhibited by siRNAsrc. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway using LY294002 prevented cytomix-induced ERK activation and augmented cytomix-induced caspase-3 cleavage. Together, our data demonstrate that, in hPMVEC, yes activation blunts the ERK cascade in response to cytomix, resulting in greater apoptosis, while cytomix-induced src activation induces the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, which leads to activation of Akt and ERK and attenuation of apoptosis.

  4. Assignment of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) to 15q26 using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.R.; Chen, X.N.; Doege, K.; Grover, J.; Roughley, P.J.

    1993-05-01

    The large aggregating proteoglycan aggrecan is a major structural component of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage. Recent cDNA cloning of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) reveals a core protein of at least 2316 amino acids characterized by several distinct structural domains. Two globular domains, termed G1 and G2, are present at the amino terminus of the molecule and a third, termed G3, is present at the carboxy terminus. The G1 domain is homologous in structure to the cartilage link protein and accounts for the aggregating potential of aggrecan through its ability to interact with hyaluronic acid. The aggrecan gene is known to consist of 15 exons, with each exon encoding a distinct functional region of the mature protein. However, while the link protein gene is known to reside on chromosome 5 in the human, the location of the aggrecan gene is currently undetermined in any species. The probe (pAGG2) for the aggrecan gene was mapped on chromosome band 15q26, most likely in the subregion of 15q26.1, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clear signals were noted on both chromatids of chromosome band 15q26 in over 80% of the 300 metaphase cells examined in three independent experiments using pAGG2. No other sites of hybridization were noted on both chromatids of any other chromosome band. The precise band location was identified by using chromsomes of about 650 bands and employing fluorescence reverse banding with chromomycin A3 and distamycin. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Aurora kinase inhibitors as anticancer molecules.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed at detectable levels in all somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases leads to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Preclinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed.

  6. Aurora Kinase inhibitors as Anticancer Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed in detectable levels in somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases lead to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Pre-clinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed. PMID:20863917

  7. Effects of doxepin on gene expressions of Bcl-2 family, TNF-α, MAP kinase 14, and Akt1 in the hippocampus of rats exposed to stress.

    PubMed

    Reisi, Parham; Eidelkhani, Nastaran; Rafiee, Laleh; Kazemi, Mohammad; Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah

    2017-02-01

    Stress is one of the effective factors in the development of depressive disorders that performs some parts of its effects by affecting hippocampus. Since doxepin has been shown to have neuroprotective effects, in this study, we focused on the effects of doxepin on the expression of involved genes in neuronal survival and plasticity in the rat hippocampus following chronic stress. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, the control, the stress, the stress-doxepin 1 mg/kg and the stress-doxepin 5 mg/kg, respectively. To induce stress, the rats were placed within adjustable restraint chambers for 6 h/day, for 21 days. Before daily induction of the stress, rats received an i.p. injection of doxepin. At the end of experiments, expression of Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14) and serine-threonine protein kinase AKT1 genes were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the hippocampus. Results showed significant enhancements in expression of Bax, Bad and Bcl-2 genes in the stressed rats, whereas expression of TNF-α, MAPK14, and AKT1 genes didn't show significant differences. Doxepin could decrease the expression of Bax and Bad genes in the stress group, but had no significant effects on the expression of other genes. The present findings indicated that doxepin can probably change the pattern of gene expression in the hippocampus to maintain neurons against destructive effects of stress.

  8. Effects of doxepin on gene expressions of Bcl-2 family, TNF-α, MAP kinase 14, and Akt1 in the hippocampus of rats exposed to stress

    PubMed Central

    Reisi, Parham; Eidelkhani, Nastaran; Rafiee, Laleh; Kazemi, Mohammad; Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah

    2017-01-01

    Stress is one of the effective factors in the development of depressive disorders that performs some parts of its effects by affecting hippocampus. Since doxepin has been shown to have neuroprotective effects, in this study, we focused on the effects of doxepin on the expression of involved genes in neuronal survival and plasticity in the rat hippocampus following chronic stress. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, the control, the stress, the stress-doxepin 1 mg/kg and the stress-doxepin 5 mg/kg, respectively. To induce stress, the rats were placed within adjustable restraint chambers for 6 h/day, for 21 days. Before daily induction of the stress, rats received an i.p. injection of doxepin. At the end of experiments, expression of Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14) and serine-threonine protein kinase AKT1 genes were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the hippocampus. Results showed significant enhancements in expression of Bax, Bad and Bcl-2 genes in the stressed rats, whereas expression of TNF-α, MAPK14, and AKT1 genes didn’t show significant differences. Doxepin could decrease the expression of Bax and Bad genes in the stress group, but had no significant effects on the expression of other genes. The present findings indicated that doxepin can probably change the pattern of gene expression in the hippocampus to maintain neurons against destructive effects of stress. PMID:28255309

  9. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  10. Aurora kinases: novel therapy targets in cancers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anqun; Gao, Keyu; Chu, Laili; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Jing; Zheng, Junnian

    2017-01-29

    Aurora kinases, a family of serine/threonine kinases, consisting of Aurora A (AURKA), Aurora B (AURKB) and Aurora C (AURKC), are essential kinases for cell division via regulating mitosis especially the process of chromosomal segregation. Besides regulating mitosis, Aurora kinases have been implicated in regulating meiosis. The deletion of Aurora kinases could lead to failure of cell division and impair the embryonic development. Overexpression or gene amplification of Aurora kinases has been clarified in a number of cancers. And a growing number of studies have demonstrated that inhibition of Aurora kinases could potentiate the effect of chemotherapies. For the past decades, a series of Aurora kinases inhibitors (AKIs) developed effectively repress the progression and growth of many cancers both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that Aurora kinases could be a novel therapeutic target. In this review, we'll first briefly present the structure, localization and physiological functions of Aurora kinases in mitosis, then describe the oncogenic role of Aurora kinases in tumorigenesis, we shall finally discuss the outcomes of AKIs combination with conventional therapy.

  11. MST kinases in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cancer, endothelial malformations, and autoimmune disease. PMID:26370497

  12. Targeting Drug-Sensitive and -Resistant Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Inhibition of Src Family Kinases Lowers Disease Burden and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Pallavi; Rajmani, R S; Verma, Garima; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Kumar, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    In view of emerging drug resistance among bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the development of novel therapeutic strategies is increasingly being sought. A recent paradigm in antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug development is to target the host molecules that are crucial for intracellular survival of the pathogen. We previously showed the importance of Src tyrosine kinases in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Here, we report that inhibition of Src significantly reduced survival of H37Rv as well as multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extremely drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis in THP-1 macrophages. Src inhibition was also effective in controlling M. tuberculosis infection in guinea pigs. In guinea pigs, reduced M. tuberculosis burden due to Src inhibition also led to a marked decline in the disease pathology. In agreement with the theoretical framework of host-directed approaches against the pathogen, Src inhibition was equally effective against an XDR strain in controlling infection in guinea pigs. We propose that Src inhibitors could be developed into effective host-directed anti-TB drugs, which could be indiscriminately used against both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. IMPORTANCE The existing treatment regimen for tuberculosis (TB) suffers from deficiencies like high doses of antibiotics, long treatment duration, and inability to kill persistent populations in an efficient manner. Together, these contribute to the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Recently, several host factors were identified which help intracellular survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within the macrophage. These factors serve as attractive targets for developing alternate therapeutic strategies against M. tuberculosis. This strategy promises to be effective against drug-resistant strains. The approach also has potential to considerably lower the risk of emergence of new drug-resistant strains. We explored tyrosine kinase Src as a

  13. Members of the nuclear factor 1 family and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 bind to overlapping sequences of the L-II element on the rat pyruvate kinase L gene promoter and regulate its expression.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Tanaka, T; Noguchi, T

    1997-06-15

    The L-II element (-149 to -126 bp) in the enhancer unit of the rat pyruvate kinase L (PKL) gene is required for cell-type-specific transcription and induction by carbohydrates. This element was found to bind multiple nuclear proteins with different heat stabilities. A heat-labile factor was shown to be hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4 by the electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) using various competitor DNAs and anti-HNF4 serum. A heat-stable factor was purified from rat liver nuclear extract and was resolved as two protein bands migrating at about 33 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gels. Peptide sequence analysis revealed that these proteins were nuclear factor (NF) 1-L and NF1/Red1. The heat-stable factor was also identified as a member of the NF1 family by using various competitor DNAs and anti-NF1 serum in an EMSA. In addition, we found that a factor bound to the accessory site of the rat S14 gene, which is necessary for carbohydrate responsiveness of this gene, was also a member of the NF1 family, raising the possibility that the NF1 family is involved in the carbohydrate regulation of gene transcription by interactions with other proteins. The NF1 family members and HNF4 interacted with overlapping sequences of the L-II element, wherein the 5' half-site was more critical for NF1 binding, and the 3' site was more important for HNF4 binding. Co-transfection of a vector expressing either NF1-L or NF1/Red1 repressed the transcription of the PKL enhancer unit-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion gene in HepG2 cells, whereas co-transfection of a vector expressing HNF4 activated the transcription of the same reporter gene. Furthermore NF1 family members antagonized the effect of HNF4 on PKL enhancer unit-CAT fusion gene expression when both expression plasmids were co-transfected. We conclude that NF1 family members and HNF4 regulate transcription of the PKL gene in an opposing manner by binding overlapping sequences of the L-II element.

  14. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B) gene variants in AIP mutation-negative familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds.

    PubMed

    Tichomirowa, Maria A; Lee, Misu; Barlier, Anne; Daly, Adrian F; Marinoni, Ilaria; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Naves, Luciana A; Rodien, Patrice; Rohmer, Vincent; Faucz, Fabio Rueda; Caron, Philippe; Estour, Bruno; Lecomte, Pierre; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Penfornis, Alfred; Yaneva, Maria; Guitelman, Mirtha; Castermans, Emily; Verhaege, Catherine; Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Tabarin, Antoine; Fajardo Montañana, Carmen; Delemer, Brigitte; Kerlan, Veronique; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Cortet Rudelli, Christine; Archambeaud, Françoise; Zacharieva, Sabine; Theodoropoulou, Marily; Brue, Thierry; Enjalbert, Alain; Bours, Vincent; Pellegata, Natalia S; Beckers, Albert

    2012-06-01

    Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) occurs in families and is unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. Mutations in AIP account only for 15-25% of FIPA families. CDKN1B mutations cause MEN4 in which affected patients can suffer from pituitary adenomas. With this study, we wanted to assess whether mutations in CDKN1B occur among a large cohort of AIP mutation-negative FIPA kindreds. Eighty-eight AIP mutation-negative FIPA families were studied and 124 affected subjects underwent sequencing of CDKN1B. Functional analysis of putative CDKN1B mutations was performed using in silico and in vitro approaches. Germline CDKN1B analysis revealed two nucleotide changes: c.286A>C (p.K96Q) and c.356T>C (p.I119T). In vitro, the K96Q change decreased p27 affinity for Grb2 but did not segregate with pituitary adenoma in the FIPA kindred. The I119T substitution occurred in a female patient with acromegaly. p27(I119T) shows an abnormal migration pattern by SDS-PAGE. Three variants (p.S56T, p.T142T, and c.605+36C>T) are likely nonpathogenic because In vitro effects were not seen. In conclusion, two patients had germline sequence changes in CDKN1B, which led to functional alterations in the encoded p27 proteins in vitro. Such rare CDKN1B variants may contribute to the development of pituitary adenomas, but their low incidence and lack of clear segregation with affected patients make CDKN1B sequencing unlikely to be of use in routine genetic investigation of FIPA kindreds. However, further characterization of the role of CDKN1B in pituitary tumorigenesis in these and other cases could help clarify the clinicopathological profile of MEN4.

  15. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook.

    PubMed

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions.

  16. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions. PMID:26734566

  17. P21 activated kinases

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Chetan K; Minden, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    The p21 activated kinases (Paks) are well known effector proteins for the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. The Paks contain 6 members, which fall into 2 families of proteins. The first family consists of Paks 1, 2, and 3, and the second consists of Paks 4, 5, and 6. While some of the Paks are ubiquitously expressed, others have more restrictive tissue specificity. All of them are found in the nervous system. Studies using cell culture, transgenic mice, and knockout mice, have revealed important roles for the Paks in cytoskeletal organization and in many aspects of cell growth and development. This review discusses the basic structures of the Paks, and their roles in cell growth, development, and in cancer. PMID:24658305

  18. Apoptosis of HL-60 human leukemia cells induced by Asiatic acid through modulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 family proteins and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiuling; Lv, Tingting; Chen, Yan; Wen, Lu; Zhang, Junli; Jiang, Xudong; Liu, Fang

    2015-07-01

    The toxicities of conventional chemotherapeutic agents to normal cells restrict their dosage and clinical efficacy in acute leukemia; therefore, it is important to develop novel chemotherapeutics, including natural products, which selectively target cancer-specific pathways. The present study aimed to explore the effect of the chemopreventive agent asiatic acid (AA) on the proliferation and apoptotic rate of the leukemia cell line HL-60 and investigated the mechanisms underlying its anti-tumor activity. The effect of AA on the proliferation of HL-60 cells was evaluated using the MTT assay. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining followed by flow cytometric analysis as well as Hoechst 33258 staining were used to analyze the apoptotic rate of the cells. Furthermore, changes of survivin, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 expressions were detected by western blot analysis. AA blocked the growth of HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50-value of AA on HL-60 cells was 46.67 ± 5.08 µmol/l for 24 h. AA induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited in the presence of Z-DEVD-FMK, a specific inhibitor of caspase. The anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and survivin were downregulated by AA in a dose-dependent manner. Concurrently, AA inhibited ERK and p38 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, while JNK phosphorylation was not affected. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the p38 and ERK pathways, as well as modulation of Bcl-2 family and survivin proteins were key regulators of apoptosis induced in HL-60 cells in response to AA.

  19. Protein Kinases in Mammary Gland Development and Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    differ among CaM kinase family members include their subcellular localization , regulation by autophosphorylation, and regulation by other proteins. In...addition, CaM kinases have unique amino- and carboxyl- terminal domains that contribute to kinase-specific differences in subcellular localization ...chromosomal localization of Punc, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, (Submitted). 14. Hennings, H., Glick, A., Lowry, D., Krsmanovic, L

  20. Molecular Mechanism of Selectivity among G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Thal, David M.; Yeow, Raymond Y.; Schoenau, Christian; Huber, Jochen; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-07-11

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of cell physiology and control processes ranging from glucose homeostasis to contractility of the heart. A major mechanism for the desensitization of activated GPCRs is their phosphorylation by GPCR kinases (GRKs). Overexpression of GRK2 is strongly linked to heart failure, and GRK2 has long been considered a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Several lead compounds developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals show high selectivity for GRK2 and therapeutic potential for the treatment of heart failure. To understand how these drugs achieve their selectivity, we determined crystal structures of the bovine GRK2-G{beta}{gamma} complex in the presence of two of these inhibitors. Comparison with the apoGRK2-G{beta}{gamma} structure demonstrates that the compounds bind in the kinase active site in a manner similar to that of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. Both balanol and the Takeda compounds induce a slight closure of the kinase domain, the degree of which correlates with the potencies of the inhibitors. Based on our crystal structures and homology modeling, we identified five amino acids surrounding the inhibitor binding site that we hypothesized could contribute to inhibitor selectivity. However, our results indicate that these residues are not major determinants of selectivity among GRK subfamilies. Rather, selectivity is achieved by the stabilization of a unique inactive conformation of the GRK2 kinase domain.

  1. Association of protein kinase Cmu with type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Toker, A; Wong, K; Marignani, P A; Johannes, F J; Cantley, L C

    1998-09-04

    Protein kinase Cmu (PKCmu), also named protein kinase D, is an unusual member of the PKC family that has a putative transmembrane domain and pleckstrin homology domain. This enzyme has a substrate specificity distinct from other PKC isoforms (Nishikawa, K., Toker, A., Johannes, F. J., Songyang, Z., and Cantley, L. C. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 952-960), and its mechanism of regulation is not yet clear. Here we show that PKCmu forms a complex in vivo with a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. A region of PKCmu between the amino-terminal transmembrane domain and the pleckstrin homology domain is shown to be involved in the association with the lipid kinases. Interestingly, a kinase-dead point mutant of PKCmu failed to associate with either lipid kinase activity, indicating that autophosphorylation may be required to expose the lipid kinase interaction domain. Furthermore, the subcellular distribution of the PKCmu-associated lipid kinases to the particulate fraction depends on the presence of the amino-terminal region of PKCmu including the predicted transmembrane region. These results suggest a novel model in which the non-catalytic region of PKCmu acts as a scaffold for assembly of enzymes involved in phosphoinositide synthesis at specific membrane locations.

  2. Ascofuranone stimulates expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor through the modulation of mitogen activated protein kinase family members in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocyte cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Chae; Cho, Hyun-Ji

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibitors for MEK and JNK increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone significantly suppressed phosho-ERK, while increasing phospho-p38. -- Abstract: Ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic, was originally isolated as a hypolipidemic substance from a culture broth of the phytopathogenic fungus, Ascochyta visiae. Adiponectin is mainly synthesized by adipocytes. It relieves insulin resistance by decreasing the plasma triglycerides and improving glucose uptake, and has anti-atherogenic properties. Here, we found that ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, a major transcription factor for adiponectin, in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocytes cell line, without promoting accumulation of lipid droplets. Ascofuranone induced expression of adiponectin, and increases the promoter activity of adiponectin and PPRE, PPAR response element, as comparably as a PPAR{gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone, that stimulates lipid accumulation in the preadipocyte cell line. Moreover, inhibitors for MEK and JNK, like ascofuranone, considerably increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, while a p38 inhibitor significantly suppressed. Ascofuranone significantly suppressed ERK phosphorylation, while increasing p38 phosphorylation, during adipocyte differentiation program. These results suggest that ascofuranone regulates the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} through the modulation of MAP kinase family members.

  3. Cucumis sativus L-type lectin receptor kinase (CsLecRK) gene family response to Phytophthora melonis, Phytophthora capsici and water immersion in disease resistant and susceptible cucumber cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingquan; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xiaomei; He, Xiaoming; Sun, Baojuan; Zhong, Yujuan; Liang, Zhaojuan; Luo, Shaobo; Lin, Yu'e

    2014-10-10

    L-type lectin receptor kinase (LecRK) proteins are an important family involved in diverse biological processes such as pollen development, senescence, wounding, salinity and especially in innate immunity in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco. Till date, LecRK proteins or genes of cucumber have not been reported. In this study, a total of 25 LecRK genes were identified in the cucumber genome, unequally distributed across its seven chromosomes. According to similarity comparison of their encoded proteins, the Cucumis sativus LecRK (CsLecRK) genes were classified into six major clades (from Clade I to CladeVI). Expression of CsLecRK genes were tested using QRT-PCR method and the results showed that 25 CsLecRK genes exhibited different responses to abiotic (water immersion) and biotic (Phytophthora melonis and Phytophthora capsici inoculation) stresses, as well as that between disease resistant cultivar (JSH) and disease susceptible cultivar (B80). Among the 25 CsLecRK genes, we found CsLecRK6.1 was especially induced by P. melonis and P. capsici in JSH plants. All these results suggested that CsLecRK genes may play important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses.

  4. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia after stenting by over-expression of p15: a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Segev, Amit; Nili, Nafiseh; Qiang, Beiping; Osherov, Azriel B; Giordano, Frank J; Jaffe, Ronen; Gauldie, Jack; Sparkes, John D; Fraser, Ashley R; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Butany, Jagdish; Strauss, Bradley H

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the role of p15(Ink4), a member of the INK4 family of CDK inhibitors on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation, cell cycle progression and intimal hyperplasia after stenting. Aortic VSMCs transduced with either adenovirus encoding for p15(Ink4) or β-galactosidase were assessed for DNA synthesis, cell cycle progression, and pRb phosphorylation. Rabbit carotid arteries were stented and treated with peri-adventitial delivery of saline or adenovirus encoding for p15(Ink4) or β-galactosidase. p15(Ink4) transgene and protein expression were evaluated at 24 h and 72 h, respectively. In-stent cell proliferation was evaluated by BrdU at day 7. Histomorphometric analysis of in-stent intimal hyperplasia was performed at 10 weeks. Human p15(Ink4) DNA was detected in transduced VSMCs at 24h. p15(Ink4) over-expression reduced VSMCs DNA synthesis by 60%. Cell cycle progression was inhibited, with a 30% increase in G1 population accompanied by inhibition of pRb phosphorylation. Human p15(Ink4) transgene was identified in transduced stented arteries but not in control arteries. p15(Ink4) immunostaining was increased and cell proliferation significantly reduced by 50% in p15(Ink4) transduced arteries. Intimal cross-sectional area (CSA) of p15(Ink4)-treated group was significantly lower than the β-gal treated and non-transduced groups (p=0.008). There were no differences in the intimal or medial inflammatory response between groups. p15(Ink4) over-expression blocks cell cycle progression leading to inhibition of VSMCs proliferation. Peri-adventitial delivery of p15(Ink4) significantly inhibits in-stent intimal hyperplasia.

  5. Homo- and heterodimerization of ROCO kinases: LRRK2 kinase inhibition by the LRRK2 ROCO fragment.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christian L; Rovelli, Giorgio; Springer, Wolfdieter; Schall, Christoph; Gasser, Thomas; Kahle, Philipp J

    2009-11-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of autosomal-dominant familial and late-onset sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a large multi-domain protein featuring a GTP-binding C-terminal of Ras of complex proteins (ROC) (ROCO) domain combination unique for the ROCO protein family, directly followed by a kinase domain. Dimerization is a well-established phenomenon among protein kinases. Here, we confirm LRRK2 self-interaction, and provide evidence for general homo- and heterodimerization potential among the ROCO kinase family (LRRK2, LRRK1, and death-associated protein kinase 1). The ROCO domain was critically, though not exclusively involved in dimerization, as a LRRK2 deletion mutant lacking the ROCO domain retained dimeric properties. GTP binding did not appear to influence ROCO(LRRK2) self-interaction. Interestingly, ROCO(LRRK2) fragments exerted an inhibitory effect on both wild-type and the elevated G2019S LRRK2 autophosphorylation activity. Insertion of PD mutations into ROCO(LRRK2) reduced self-interaction and led to a reduction of LRRK2 kinase inhibition. Collectively, these results suggest a functional link between ROCO interactions and kinase activity of wild-type and mutant LRRK2. Importantly, our finding of ROCO(LRRK2) fragment-mediated LRRK2 kinase inhibition offers a novel lead for drug design and thus might have important implications for new therapeutic avenues in PD.

  6. Transactivation of ErbB Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Is Inhibited by Angiotensin-(1-7) via Its Mas Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saghir; Chandrasekhar, Bindu; Attur, Sreeja; Dhaunsi, Gursev S.; Yousif, Mariam H. M.; Benter, Ibrahim F.

    2015-01-01

    Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB) family members, namely EGFR and ErbB2, appears important in the development of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction. Angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)] can prevent the development of hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications partly through inhibiting EGFR transactivation. Here, we investigated whether Ang-(1–7) can inhibit transactivation of ErbB2 as well as other ErbB receptors in vivo and in vitro. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were chronically treated with Ang-(1–7) or AG825, a selective ErbB2 inhibitor, for 4 weeks and mechanistic studies performed in the isolated mesenteric vasculature bed as well as in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Ang-(1–7) or AG825 treatment inhibited diabetes-induced phosphorylation of ErbB2 receptor at tyrosine residues Y1221/22, Y1248, Y877, as well as downstream signaling via ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, ROCK, eNOS and IkB-α in the mesenteric vascular bed. In VSMCs cultured in high glucose (25 mM), Ang-(1–7) inhibited src-dependent ErbB2 transactivation that was opposed by the selective Mas receptor antagonist, D-Pro7-Ang-(1–7). Ang-(1–7) via Mas receptor also inhibited both Angiotensin II- and noradrenaline/norephinephrine-induced transactivation of ErbB2 and/or EGFR receptors. Further, hyperglycemia-induced transactivation of ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptors could be attenuated by Ang-(1–7) that could be prevented by D-Pro7-Ang-(1–7) in VSMC. These data suggest that Ang-(1–7) via its Mas receptor acts as a pan-ErbB inhibitor and might represent a novel general mechanism by which Ang-(1–7) exerts its beneficial effects in many disease states including diabetes-induced vascular complications. PMID:26536590

  7. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  8. A functional interplay between the small GTPase Rab11a and mitochondria-shaping proteins regulates mitochondrial positioning and polarization of the actin cytoskeleton downstream of Src family kinases.

    PubMed

    Landry, Marie-Claude; Champagne, Claudia; Boulanger, Marie-Chloé; Jetté, Alexandra; Fuchs, Margit; Dziengelewski, Claire; Lavoie, Josée N

    2014-01-24

    It is believed that mitochondrial dynamics is coordinated with endosomal traffic rates during cytoskeletal remodeling, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. The adenovirus early region 4 ORF4 protein (E4orf4) subverts signaling by Src family kinases (SFK) to perturb cellular morphology, membrane traffic, and organellar dynamics and to trigger cell death. Using E4orf4 as a model, we uncovered a functional connection between mitochondria-shaping proteins and the small GTPase Rab11a, a key regulator of polarized transport via recycling endosomes. We found that E4orf4 induced dramatic changes in the morphology of mitochondria along with their mobilization at the vicinity of a polarized actin network typifying E4orf4 action, in a manner controlled by SFK and Rab11a. Mitochondrial remodeling was associated with increased proximity between Rab11a and mitochondrial membranes, changes in fusion-fission dynamics, and mitochondrial relocalization of the fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which was regulated by the Rab11a effector protein FIP1/RCP. Knockdown of FIP1/RCP or inhibition of Drp1 markedly impaired mitochondrial remodeling and actin assembly, involving Rab11a-mediated mitochondrial dynamics in E4orf4-induced signaling. A similar mobilization of mitochondria near actin-rich structures was mediated by Rab11 and Drp1 in viral Src-transformed cells and contributed to the biogenesis of podosome rosettes. These findings suggest a role for Rab11a in the trafficking of Drp1 to mitochondria upon SFK activation and unravel a novel functional interplay between Rab11a and mitochondria during reshaping of the cell cytoskeleton, which would facilitate mitochondria redistribution near energy-requiring actin-rich structures.

  9. Evolutionary Ancestry of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases and Choline Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shenshen; Safaei, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins catalyzed by protein kinases in eukaryotes supports an important role for eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) in the emergence of nucleated cells in the third superkingdom of life. Choline kinases (ChKs) could also be critical in the early evolution of eukaryotes, because of their function in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is unique to eukaryotic membranes. However, the genomic origins of ePKs and ChKs are unclear. The high degeneracy of protein sequences and broad expansion of ePK families have made this fundamental question difficult to answer. In this study, we identified two class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with high similarities to consensus amino acid sequences of human protein-serine/threonine kinases. Comparisons of primary and tertiary structures supported that ePKs and ChKs evolved from a common ancestor related to glutaminyl aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which may have been one of the key factors in the successful of emergence of ancient eukaryotic cells from bacterial colonies. PMID:26742849

  10. Isolation of Drosophila genes encoding G protein-coupled receptor kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Cassill, J A; Whitney, M; Joazeiro, C A; Becker, A; Zuker, C S

    1991-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are regulated via phosphorylation by a variety of protein kinases. Recently, termination of the active state of two such receptors, the beta-adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin, has been shown to be mediated by agonist- or light-dependent phosphorylation of the receptor by members of a family of protein-serine/threonine kinases (here referred to as G protein-coupled receptor kinases). We now report the isolation of a family of genes encoding a set of Drosophila protein kinases that appear to code for G protein-coupled receptor kinases. These proteins share a high degree of sequence homology with the bovine beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. The presence of a conserved family of G protein-coupled receptor kinases in vertebrates and invertebrates points to the central role of these kinases in signal transduction cascades. Images PMID:1662381

  11. Characterizing land condition variability in Ferlo, Senegal (2001-2009) using multi-temporal 1-km Apparent Green Cover (AGC) SPOT Vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, B.; Gilabert, M. A.; García-Haro, F. J.; Faye, A.; Meliá, J.

    2011-04-01

    The ecosystem state or 'land condition' can be characterized by a set of attributes, which show variations at different temporal scales. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) based on the wavelet transform (WT) has been implemented to examine the land condition of a dryland region in Ferlo (Senegal) over the period 2001-2009. This methodology has proven to be useful for smoothing time series while considering those temporal resolutions that incorporate information about the vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, time series of the 1-km Apparent Green Cover (AGC) from the 10-day composites SPOT Vegetation (VGT) data are analyzed. Two relevant outputs from the MRA, A1 (de-noised) and the A6 (inter-annual) components have served us for characterizing the annual vegetation production and assess the long-term variation, respectively. In a first stage, the vegetation seasonality (or intra-annual variation) over the area is described by using several metrics related to vegetation phenology derived from the de-noised time series ( A1). In a second phase, the temporal variability of the inter-annual component series ( A6) is accomplished to detect potential vegetation changes over the considered period. A Mann-Kendall test has been applied to confirm the significance of the observed inter-annual changes. A higher number of significant pixels (86%) are obtained when considering the inter-annual component in the trend analysis instead of the original time-series (47%). The results confirm a general greening up over the period 2001-2009, not fully explained by precipitation, as well as rather local negative trends. The Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE) ratio computed using the AGC as a proxy of vegetation production has been considered to further analyze the detected changes. Inter-annual changes in RUE provide a potential method of separating vegetation declines due to lack of rainfall from declines associated with degradation. Some spots of negative values in inter-annual RUE changes

  12. Teaching resources. Protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Avrom

    2005-02-22

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering the structure and function of protein kinases and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the genomics and evolutionary relationships among kinases and then proceeds to describe the structure-function relationships of specific kinases, the molecular mechanisms underlying substrate specificity, and selected issues in regulation of kinase activity.

  13. RTKdb: database of receptor tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Grassot, Julien; Mouchiroud, Guy; Perrière, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK) are transmembrane receptors specifically found in metazoans. They represent an excellent model for studying evolution of cellular processes in metazoans because they encompass large families of modular proteins and belong to a major family of contingency generating molecules in eukaryotic cells: the protein kinases. Because tyrosine kinases have been under close scrutiny for many years in various species, they are associated with a wealth of information, mainly in mammals. Presently, most categories of RTK were identified in mammals, but in a near future other model species will be sequenced, and will bring us RTKs from other metazoan clades. Thus, collecting RTK sequences would provide a good starting point as a new model for comparative and evolutionary studies applying to multigene families. In this context, we are developing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase database (RTKdb), which is the only database on tyrosine kinase receptors presently available. In this database, protein sequences from eight model metazoan species are organized under the format previously used for the HOVERGEN, HOBACGEN and NUREBASE systems. RTKdb can be accessed through the PBIL (Pôle Bioinformatique Lyonnais) World Wide Web server at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/RTKdb/, or through the FamFetch graphical user interface available at the same address. PMID:12520021

  14. Chromosome dynamics: new light on Aurora B kinase function.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Katie B; Salmon, E D

    2002-07-09

    Aurora B family kinases play an essential role in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Recent work suggests that the kinase activity is required for bipolar chromosome orientation, kinetochore assembly, spindle checkpoint and microtubule dynamics. Aurora B also has additional functions in chromosome condensation and cohesion.

  15. Interaction of SNF1 Protein Kinase with Its Activating Kinase Sak1▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Xinjing; Carlson, Marian

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1 protein kinase, a member of the SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family, is activated by three kinases, Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1, which phosphorylate the Snf1 catalytic subunit on Thr-210 in response to glucose limitation and other stresses. Sak1 is the primary Snf1-activating kinase and is associated with Snf1 in a complex. Here we examine the interaction of Sak1 with SNF1. We report that Sak1 coimmunopurifies with the Snf1 catalytic subunit from extracts of both glucose-replete and glucose-limited cultures and that interaction occurs independently of the phosphorylation state of Snf1 Thr-210, Snf1 catalytic activity, and other SNF1 subunits. Sak1 interacts with the Snf1 kinase domain, and nonconserved sequences C terminal to the Sak1 kinase domain mediate interaction with Snf1 and augment the phosphorylation and activation of Snf1. The Sak1 C terminus is modified in response to glucose depletion, dependent on SNF1 activity. Replacement of the C terminus of Elm1 (or Tos3) with that of Sak1 enhanced the ability of the Elm1 kinase domain to interact with and phosphorylate Snf1. These findings indicate that the C terminus of Sak1 confers its function as the primary Snf1-activating kinase and suggest that the physical association of Sak1 with SNF1 facilitates responses to environmental change. PMID:21216941

  16. The ErbB Kinase Domain: Structural Perspectives into Kinase Activation and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Ron; Zhang, Xuewu

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its family members, ErbB2, ErB3 and ErB4, are receptor tyrosine kinases which send signals into the cell to regulate many critical processes including development, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Central to the signaling of these receptors is their intracellular kinase domain, which is activated by ligand-induced dimerization of the receptor and phosphorylates several tyrosine residues in the C-terminal tail. The phosphorylated tail then recruits other signaling molecules and relays the signal to downstream pathways. A model of the autoinhibition, activation and feedback inhibition mechanisms for the ErbB kinase domain has emerged from a number of recent structural studies. Meanwhile, recent clinical studies have revealed the relationship between specific ErbB kinase mutations and the responsiveness to kinase inhibitor drugs. We will review these regulation mechanisms of the ErbB kinase domain, and discuss the binding specificity of kinase inhibitors and the effects of kinase domain mutations found in cancer patients from a structural perspective. PMID:18761339

  17. Interaction of phospholipase D1 with a casein-kinase-2-like serine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Ganley, I G; Walker, S J; Manifava, M; Li, D; Brown, H A; Ktistakis, N T

    2001-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD)1 was phosphorylated in vivo and by an associated kinase in vitro following immunoprecipitation. Both phosphorylation events were greatly reduced in a catalytically inactive point mutant in which the serine residue at position 911 was converted into alanine (S911A). The kinase could be enriched from detergent-extracted brain membranes and bind and phosphorylate PLD1 that was immunoprecipitated from COS-7 cells. Using in-gel kinase assays we determined that the size of the kinase is approximately 40 kDa and that PLD1 is more effective than S911A in binding the kinase. Preliminary analysis of the phosphorylation sites on PLD1 suggested that the kinase belongs to the casein kinase 2 (CK2) family. Consistent with this, we found that the kinase could utilize GTP, and could be inhibited by heparin and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB). Membrane fractions from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that inducibly express PLD1 contained an endogenous kinase activity that phosphorylated PLD1 using GTP and was inhibited by DRB. Direct evidence that the kinase is CK2 came from observations that immunoprecipitates using PLD1 antibodies contained immunoreactive CK2alpha, and immunoprecipitates using CK2alpha antibodies contained immunoreactive PLD1. Co-expression of PLD1 in COS-7 cells with the two recombinant CK2 subunits, alpha or beta, suggests that the association of PLD1 with the kinase is through the beta subunit. Supporting this, phosphorylation of PLD1 by purified recombinant CK2alpha was enhanced by purified recombinant CK2beta. Assays measuring PLD1 catalytic activity following phosphorylation by CK2 suggest that this phosphorylation event does not influence PLD1-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine in vitro. PMID:11171116

  18. Brassinosteroid regulated kinases (BRKs) that mediate brassinosteroid signal transduction and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Tang, Wenqiang

    2013-09-24

    The present invention identifies a novel family of kinases regulated by brassinosteroids, referred to as BRKs (brassinosteroid regulated kinases) or BSKs (brassinosteroid signaling kinases). The present invention provides methods for modulating the response of a plant cell to a brassinosteroid using BRKs.

  19. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  20. Mixed - Lineage Protein kinases (MLKs) in inflammation, metabolism, and other disease states.

    PubMed

    Craige, Siobhan M; Reif, Michaella M; Kant, Shashi

    2016-09-01

    Mixed lineage kinases, or MLKs, are members of the MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, which were originally identified among the activators of the major stress-dependent mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), JNK and p38. During stress, the activation of JNK and p38 kinases targets several essential downstream substrates that react in a specific manner to the unique stressor and thus determine the fate of the cell in response to a particular challenge. Recently, the MLK family was identified as a specific modulator of JNK and p38 signaling in metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the MLK family of kinases appears to be involved in a very wide spectrum of disorders. This review discusses the newly identified functions of MLKs in multiple diseases including metabolic disorders, inflammation, cancer, and neurological diseases.

  1. Salicylic acid activates a 48-kD MAP kinase in tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Klessig, D F

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway leading to pathogenesis-related gene induction has previously been demonstrated using kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Here, we show that in tobacco suspension cells, SA induced a rapid and transient activation of a 48-kD kinase that uses myelin basic protein as a substrate. This kinase is called the p48 SIP kinase (for SA-Induced Protein kinase). Biologically active analogs of SA, which induce pathogenesis-related genes and enhanced resistance, also activated this kinase, whereas inactive analogs did not. Phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue(s) in the SIP kinase was associated with its activation. The SIP kinase was purified to homogeneity from SA-treated tobacco suspension culture cells. The purified SIP kinase is strongly phosphorylated on a tyrosine residue(s), and treatment with either protein tyrosine or serine/threonine phosphatases abolished its activity. Using primers corresponding to the sequences of internal tryptic peptides, we cloned the SIP kinase gene. Analysis of the SIP kinase sequence indicates that it belongs to the MAP kinase family and that it is distinct from the other plant MAP kinases previously implicated in stress responses, suggesting that different members of the MAP kinase family are activated by different stresses. PMID:9165755

  2. Exploring Missense Mutations in Tyrosine Kinases Implicated with Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Sami, Neha; Kumar, Vijay; Islam, Asimul; Ali, Sher; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Imtaiyaz

    2016-08-20

    Protein kinases are one of the largest families of evolutionarily related proteins and the third most common protein class of human genome. All the protein kinases share the same structural organization. They are made up of an extracellular domain, transmembrane domain and an intra cellular kinase domain. Missense mutations in these kinases have been studied extensively and correlated with various neurological disorders. Individual mutations in the kinase domain affect the functions of protein. The enhanced or reduced expression of protein leads to hyperactivation or inactivation of the signalling pathways, resulting in neurodegeneration. Here, we present extensive analyses of missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase focussing on the neurodegenerative diseases encompassing structure function relationship. This is envisaged to enhance our understanding about the neurodegeneration and possible therapeutic measures.

  3. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling is coupled to src family kinase activation, tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins, and opening of the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key mediator in the vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections. LPS opens the paracellular pathway in pulmonary vascular endothelia through protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We now have identified the protein tyrosine kinase (PT...

  4. Deficient glucose and glutamine metabolism in Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12 knockout mice contributes to altered visual function

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Laura; Du, Jianhai; Hurley, James B.; Satrústegui, Jorgina; de la Villa, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the vision phenotype of mice lacking Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier mutated in global cerebral hypomyelination (OMIM 612949). Methods We tested overnight dark-adapted control and aralar-deficient mice for the standard full electroretinogram (ERG) response. The metabolic stress of dark-adaptation was reduced by 5 min illumination after which the ERG response was monitored in darkness. We used the electrical response to two identical saturating light flashes (paired-flash stimulation) to isolate the inner retina and photoreceptor responses. Retinal morphology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry of antibodies against retinal cells, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) labeling. Results Aralar plays a pivotal role in retina metabolism as aralar provides de novo synthesis pathway for glutamine, protects glutamate from oxidation, and is required for efficient glucose oxidative metabolism. Aralar-deficient mice are not blind as their retinas have light-evoked activity. However, we report an approximate 50% decrease in the ERG amplitude response in the light-evoked activity of dark-adapted retinas from aralar-deficient mice, in spite of normal retina histology. The defective response is partly reversed by exposure to a brief illumination period, which lowers the metabolic stress of dark-adaptation. The metabolic stress and ERG alteration takes place primarily in photoreceptors, but the response to two flashes applied in fast succession also revealed an alteration in synaptic transmission consistent with an imbalance of glutamate and an energy deficit in the inner retina neurons. Conclusions We propose that compromised glucose oxidation and altered glutamine and glutamate metabolism in the absence of aralar are responsible for the phenotype reported. PMID:27746674

  5. The phylogenetically invariant ACAGAGA and AGC sequences of U6 small nuclear RNA are more tolerant of mutation in human cells than in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Datta, B; Weiner, A M

    1993-01-01

    U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is the most highly conserved of the five spliceosomal snRNAs that participate in nuclear mRNA splicing. The proposal that U6 snRNA plays a key catalytic role in splicing [D. Brow and C. Guthrie, Nature (London) 337:14-15, 1989] is supported by the phylogenetic conservation of U6, the sensitivity of U6 to mutation, cross-linking of U6 to the vicinity of the 5' splice site, and genetic evidence for extensive base pairing between U2 and U6 snRNAs. We chose to mutate the phylogenetically invariant 41-ACAGAGA-47 and 53-AGC-55 sequences of human U6 because certain point mutations within the homologous regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae U6 selectively block the first or second step of mRNA splicing. We found that both sequences are more tolerant to mutation in human cells (assayed by transient expression in vivo) than in S. cerevisiae (assayed by effects on growth or in vitro splicing). These differences may reflect different rate-limiting steps in the particular assays used or differential reliance on redundant RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. The ability of mutations in U6 nucleotides A-45 and A-53 to selectively block step 2 of splicing in S. cerevisiae had previously been construed as evidence that these residues might participate directly in the second chemical step of splicing; an indirect, structural role seems more likely because the equivalent mutations have no obvious phenotype in the human transient expression assay. Images PMID:8355689

  6. Calcium-regulation of mitochondrial respiration maintains ATP homeostasis and requires ARALAR/AGC1-malate aspartate shuttle in intact cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Folch, Irene; Rueda, Carlos B; Amigo, Ignacio; del Arco, Araceli; Saheki, Takeyori; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2013-08-28

    Neuronal respiration is controlled by ATP demand and Ca2+ but the roles played by each are unknown, as any Ca2+ signal also impacts on ATP demand. Ca2+ can control mitochondrial function through Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial carriers, the aspartate-glutamate and ATP-Mg/Pi carriers, ARALAR/AGC1 and SCaMC-3, respectively, or in the matrix after Ca2+ transport through the Ca2+ uniporter. We have studied the role of Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in intact mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and in response to increased workload caused by increases in [Na+]cyt (veratridine, high-K+ depolarization) and/or [Ca2+]cyt (carbachol). Respiration in nonstimulated neurons on 2.5-5 mm glucose depends on ARALAR-malate aspartate shuttle (MAS), with a 46% drop in aralar KO neurons. All stimulation conditions induced increased OCR (oxygen consumption rate) in the presence of Ca2+, which was prevented by BAPTA-AM loading (to preserve the workload), or in Ca2+-free medium (which also lowers cell workload). SCaMC-3 limits respiration only in response to high workloads and robust Ca2+ signals. In every condition tested Ca2+ activation of ARALAR-MAS was required to fully stimulate coupled respiration by promoting pyruvate entry into mitochondria. In aralar KO neurons, respiration was stimulated by veratridine, but not by KCl or carbachol, indicating that the Ca2+ uniporter pathway played a role in the first, but not in the second condition, even though KCl caused an increase in [Ca2+]mit. The results suggest a requirement for ARALAR-MAS in priming pyruvate entry in mitochondria as a step needed to activate respiration by Ca2+ in response to moderate workloads.

  7. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  8. The Structure of Lombricine Kinase: Implications for Phosphagen Conformational Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, D. Jeffrey; Kirillova, Olga; Clark, Shawn A.; Davulcu, Omar; Fabiola, Felcy; Xie, Qing; Somasundaram, Thayumanasamy; Ellington, W. Ross; Chapman, Michael S.

    2012-05-29

    Lombricine kinase is a member of the phosphagen kinase family and a homolog of creatine and arginine kinases, enzymes responsible for buffering cellular ATP levels. Structures of lombricine kinase from the marine worm Urechis caupo were determined by x-ray crystallography. One form was crystallized as a nucleotide complex, and the other was substrate-free. The two structures are similar to each other and more similar to the substrate-free forms of homologs than to the substrate-bound forms of the other phosphagen kinases. Active site specificity loop 309-317, which is disordered in substrate-free structures of homologs and is known from the NMR of arginine kinase to be inherently dynamic, is resolved in both lombricine kinase structures, providing an improved basis for understanding the loop dynamics. Phosphagen kinases undergo a segmented closing on substrate binding, but the lombricine kinase ADP complex is in the open form more typical of substrate-free homologs. Through a comparison with prior complexes of intermediate structure, a correlation was revealed between the overall enzyme conformation and the substrate interactions of His{sup 178}. Comparative modeling provides a rationale for the more relaxed specificity of these kinases, of which the natural substrates are among the largest of the phosphagen substrates.

  9. CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is structurally related to other nucleoside monophosphate kinases.

    PubMed

    Bucurenci, N; Sakamoto, H; Briozzo, P; Palibroda, N; Serina, L; Sarfati, R S; Labesse, G; Briand, G; Danchin, A; Bărzu, O; Gilles, A M

    1996-02-02

    CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is a monomeric protein of 225 amino acid residues. The protein exhibits little overall sequence similarities with other known NMP kinases. However, residues involved in binding of substrates and/or in catalysis were found conserved, and sequence comparison suggested conservation of the global fold found in adenylate kinases or in several CMP/UMP kinases. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity, crystallized, and analyzed for its structural and catalytic properties. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6(3), have unit cell parameters a = b = 82.3 A and c = 60.7 A, and diffract x-rays to a 1.9 A resolution. The bacterial enzyme exhibits a fluorescence emission spectrum with maximum at 328 nm upon excitation at 295 nm, which suggests that the single tryptophan residue (Trp30) is located in a hydrophobic environment. Substrate specificity studies showed that CMP kinase from E. coli is active with ATP, dATP, or GTP as donors and with CMP, dCMP, and arabinofuranosyl-CMP as acceptors. This is in contrast with CMP/UMP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum, an enzyme active on CMP or UMP but much less active on the corresponding deoxynucleotides. Binding of CMP enhanced the affinity of E. coli CMP kinase for ATP or ADP, a particularity never described in this family of proteins that might explain inhibition of enzyme activity by excess of nucleoside monophosphate.

  10. Activation of the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ALK by zinc.

    PubMed

    Bennasroune, Aline; Mazot, Pierre; Boutterin, Marie-Claude; Vigny, Marc

    2010-08-06

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase essentially and transiently expressed during development of the central and peripheral nervous system. The nature of the cognate ligand of this receptor in Vertebrates is still a matter of debate. During synaptic transmission the release of ionic zinc found in vesicles of certain glutamatergic and gabaergic terminals may act as a neuromodulator by binding to pre- or post-synaptic receptors. Recently, zinc has been shown to activate the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB, independently of neurotrophins. This activation occurs via increasing the Src family kinase activity. In the present study, we investigated whether the ALK activity could be modulated by extracellular zinc. We first showed that zinc alone rapidly activates ALK. This activation is dependent of ALK tyrosine kinase activity and dimerization of the receptor but is independent of Src family kinase activity. In contrast, addition of sodium pyrithione, a zinc ionophore, led to a further activation of ALK. This stronger activation is dependent of Src family kinase but independent of ALK activity and dimerization. In conclusion, zinc could constitute an endogenous ligand of ALK in vertebrates.

  11. Protein Kinases and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M.; Barger, Steven W.; Sarkar, Sumit; Paule, Merle G.; Ali, Syed F.; Imam, Syed Z.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the lack of new drug candidates for the treatment of major neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease has intensified the search for drugs that can be repurposed or repositioned for such treatment. Typically, the search focuses on drugs that have been approved and are used clinically for other indications. Kinase inhibitors represent a family of popular molecules for the treatment and prevention of various cancers, and have emerged as strong candidates for such repurposing because numerous serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the pathobiology of Parkinson’s disease. This review focuses on various kinase-dependent pathways associated with the expression of Parkinson’s disease pathology, and evaluates how inhibitors of these pathways might play a major role as effective therapeutic molecules. PMID:27657053

  12. A Broad Specificity Nucleoside Kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, Sarah R.; Kumar, Abhinav; Price, Carol W.; Columbus, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of Ta0880, determined at 1.91 A resolution, from Thermoplasma acidophilum revealed a dimer with each monomer composed of an α/β /α sandwich domain and a smaller lid domain. The overall fold belongs to the PfkB family of carbohydrate kinases (a family member of the Ribokinase clan) which include ribokinases, 1-phosphofructokinases, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, inosine/guanosine kinases, frutokinases, adenosine kinases, and many more. Based on its general fold, Ta0880 had been annotated as a ribokinase-like protein. Using a coupled pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase assay, the activity of Ta0880 was assessed against a variety of ribokinase/pfkB-like family substrates; activity was not observed for ribose, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate. Based on structural similarity with nucleoside kinases (NK) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjNK, PDB 2C49 and 2C4E) and Burkholderia thailandensis (BtNK, PDB 3B1O), nucleoside kinase activity was investigated. Ta0880 (TaNK) was confirmed to have nucleoside kinase activity with an apparent KM for guanosine of 0.21 μM and catalytic efficiency of 345,000 M−1 s−1. These three NKs have significantly different substrate, phosphate donor, and cation specificities and comparisons of specificity and structure identified residues likely responsible for the nucleoside substrate selectivity. Phylogenetic analysis identified three clusters within the PfkB family and indicates that TaNK represents a new sub-family with broad nucleoside specificities. PMID:23161756

  13. A broad specificity nucleoside kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Sarah R; Kumar, Abhinav; Price, Carol W; Columbus, Linda

    2013-04-01

    The crystal structure of Ta0880, determined at 1.91 Å resolution, from Thermoplasma acidophilum revealed a dimer with each monomer composed of an α/β/α sandwich domain and a smaller lid domain. The overall fold belongs to the PfkB family of carbohydrate kinases (a family member of the Ribokinase clan) which include ribokinases, 1-phosphofructokinases, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, inosine/guanosine kinases, fructokinases, adenosine kinases, and many more. Based on its general fold, Ta0880 had been annotated as a ribokinase-like protein. Using a coupled pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase assay, the activity of Ta0880 was assessed against a variety of ribokinase/pfkB-like family substrates; activity was not observed for ribose, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate. Based on structural similarity with nucleoside kinases (NK) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjNK, PDB 2C49, and 2C4E) and Burkholderia thailandensis (BtNK, PDB 3B1O), nucleoside kinase activity was investigated. Ta0880 (TaNK) was confirmed to have nucleoside kinase activity with an apparent KM for guanosine of 0.21 μM and catalytic efficiency of 345,000 M(-1) s(-1) . These three NKs have significantly different substrate, phosphate donor, and cation specificities and comparisons of specificity and structure identified residues likely responsible for the nucleoside substrate selectivity. Phylogenetic analysis identified three clusters within the PfkB family and indicates that TaNK is a member of a new sub-family with broad nucleoside specificities. Proteins 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Kinase cascades regulating entry into apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1997-01-01

    All cells are constantly exposed to conflicting environment cues that signal cell survival or cell death. Survival signals are delivered by autocrine or paracrine factors that actively suppress a default death pathway. In addition to survival factor withdrawal, cell death can be triggered by environmental stresses such as heat, UV light, and hyperosmolarity or by dedicated death receptors (e.g., FAS/APO-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] receptors) that are counterparts of growth factor or survival receptors at the cell surface. One of the ways that cells integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli is by phosphorylation (or dephosphorylation) of cellular constituents by interacting cascades of serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases (and phosphatases). Survival factors (e.g., growth factors and mitogens) activate receptor tyrosine kinases and selected mitogen-activated, cyclin-dependent, lipid-activated, nucleic acid-dependent, and cyclic AMP-dependent kinases to promote cell survival and proliferation, whereas environmental stress (or death factors such as FAS/APO-1 ligand and TNF-alpha) activates different members of these kinase families to inhibit cell growth and, under some circumstances, promote apoptotic cell death. Because individual kinase cascades can interact with one another, they are able to integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli and provide a link between cell surface receptors and the biochemical pathways leading to cell proliferation or cell death. PMID:9106363

  15. Molecular Physiology of SPAK and OSR1: Two Ste20-Related Protein Kinases Regulating Ion Transport

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Kenneth B.; Delpire, Eric

    2015-01-01

    SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress responsive kinase) are members of the germinal center kinase VI sub-family of the mammalian Ste20 (Sterile20)-related protein kinase family. Although there are 30 enzymes in this protein kinase family, their conservation across the fungi, plant and animal kingdom confirms their evolutionary importance. Already, a large volume of work has accumulated on the tissue distribution, binding partners, signaling cascades, and physiological roles of mammalian SPAK and OSR1 in multiple organ systems. After reviewing this basic information, we will examine newer studies that demonstrate the pathophysiological consequences to SPAK and/or OSR1 disruption, discuss the development and analysis of genetically-engineered mouse models, and address the possible role these serine/threonine kinases might have in cancer proliferation and migration. PMID:23073627

  16. Genome-Wide Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Sarcocystis neurona Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Murungi, Edwin K; Kariithi, Henry M

    2017-03-21

    The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a degenerative neurological disease of horses. Due to its host range expansion, S. neurona is an emerging threat that requires close monitoring. In apicomplexans, protein kinases (PKs) have been implicated in a myriad of critical functions, such as host cell invasion, cell cycle progression and host immune response evasion. Here, we used various bioinformatics methods to define the kinome of S. neurona and phylogenetic relatedness of its PKs to other apicomplexans. We identified 97 putative PKs clustering within the various eukaryotic kinase groups. Although containing the universally-conserved PKA (AGC group), S. neurona kinome was devoid of PKB and PKC. Moreover, the kinome contains the six-conserved apicomplexan CDPKs (CAMK group). Several OPK atypical kinases, including ROPKs 19A, 27, 30, 33, 35 and 37 were identified. Notably, S. neurona is devoid of the virulence-associated ROPKs 5, 6, 18 and 38, as well as the Alpha and RIO kinases. Two out of the three S. neurona CK1 enzymes had high sequence similarities to Toxoplasma gondii TgCK1-α and TgCK1-β and the Plasmodium PfCK1. Further experimental studies on the S. neurona putative PKs identified in this study are required to validate the functional roles of the PKs and to understand their involvement in mechanisms that regulate various cellular processes and host-parasite interactions. Given the essentiality of apicomplexan PKs in the survival of apicomplexans, the current study offers a platform for future development of novel therapeutics for EPM, for instance via application of PK inhibitors to block parasite invasion and development in their host.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Sarcocystis neurona Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Edwin K.; Kariithi, Henry M.

    2017-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a degenerative neurological disease of horses. Due to its host range expansion, S. neurona is an emerging threat that requires close monitoring. In apicomplexans, protein kinases (PKs) have been implicated in a myriad of critical functions, such as host cell invasion, cell cycle progression and host immune response evasion. Here, we used various bioinformatics methods to define the kinome of S. neurona and phylogenetic relatedness of its PKs to other apicomplexans. We identified 97 putative PKs clustering within the various eukaryotic kinase groups. Although containing the universally-conserved PKA (AGC group), S. neurona kinome was devoid of PKB and PKC. Moreover, the kinome contains the six-conserved apicomplexan CDPKs (CAMK group). Several OPK atypical kinases, including ROPKs 19A, 27, 30, 33, 35 and 37 were identified. Notably, S. neurona is devoid of the virulence-associated ROPKs 5, 6, 18 and 38, as well as the Alpha and RIO kinases. Two out of the three S. neurona CK1 enzymes had high sequence similarities to Toxoplasma gondii TgCK1-α and TgCK1-β and the Plasmodium PfCK1. Further experimental studies on the S. neurona putative PKs identified in this study are required to validate the functional roles of the PKs and to understand their involvement in mechanisms that regulate various cellular processes and host-parasite interactions. Given the essentiality of apicomplexan PKs in the survival of apicomplexans, the current study offers a platform for future development of novel therapeutics for EPM, for instance via application of PK inhibitors to block parasite invasion and development in their host. PMID:28335576

  18. Protein kinase C-associated kinase regulates NF-κB activation through inducing IKK activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Schifano, Matthew; Oleksyn, David; Jordan, Craig T; Ryan, Daniel; Insel, Richard; Zhao, Jiyong; Chen, Luojing

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-κB induced by extracellular stimuli requires IKKα and IKKβ kinase activity. How IKKα and IKKβ are activated by various upstream signaling molecules is not fully understood. We previously showed that protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as DIK/RIP4), which belongs to the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family, mediates the B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF)-induced NF-κB activation in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines. Here we have investigated the mechanism underlying NF-κB activation regulated by PKK. Our results suggest that PKK can activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB activation pathways. PKK associates with IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells and induces activation of both IKKα and IKKβ via phosphorylation of their serine residues 176/180 and 177/181, respectively. Unlike other members of the RIP family that activate NF-κB through a kinase-independent pathway, PKK appears to activate IKK and NF-κB mainly in a kinase-dependent manner. Suppression of PKK expression by RNA interference inhibits phosphorylation of IKKα and IKKβ as well as activation of NF-κB in human cancer cell lines. Thus, PKK regulates NF-κB activation by modulating activation of IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells. We propose that PKK may provide a critical link between IKK activation and various upstream signaling cascades, and may represent a potential target for inhibiting abnormal NF-κB activation in human cancers.

  19. Complex kinase requirements for Chlamydia trachomatis Tarp phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Mehlitz, Adrian; Banhart, Sebastian; Hess, Simone; Selbach, Matthias; Meyer, Thomas F

    2008-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis translocates the effector protein Tarp (translocated actin-recruiting phosphoprotein) into the host cell cytoplasm where it is quickly tyrosine phosphorylated. Abl and Src kinases have been implicated in Tarp phosphorylation; however, we observed that the situation is more complex. Chemical inhibition of Src family kinases confirmed a role for these kinases in Tarp phosphorylation. Infection of Src, Yes, Fyn (SYF)-deficient cells showed a dampened, but incompletely blocked, Tarp phosphorylation. Inhibition of Abl in an SYF background still did not completely block Tarp phosphorylation. Consequently, we tested additional kinases and found that Syk, but not Btk or Jak2, is a potent kinase of Tarp in vitro. Inhibition of Syk in an SYF background further blocked Tarp phosphorylation. Under these conditions, inclusion formation still proceeded normally. These data reveal a highly promiscuous substrate property of Tarp and set the stage for further functional characterization of Tarp phosphorylation during host cell infection.

  20. Targeting the HER-kinase axis in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gross, Mitchell E; Shazer, Ronald L; Agus, David B

    2004-02-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases controls critical pathways involved in the differentiation, growth, division, and motility of normal epithelial cells. Most human solid tumors are of epithelial origin. The process of malignant transformation and progression in many cancers may depend on activation of ligands and receptors that function as part of the HER-kinase pathway. This signaling axis has earned increased attention because of the development of antibodies and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that specifically target components of the HER-kinase axis for cancer therapy. This review focuses on the basic biology underlying HER-kinase pathway activation and the current state of development for agents that target this axis. In particular, the importance of pan-HER inhibitors is discussed.

  1. Diacylglycerol kinases in membrane trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) belong to a family of cytosolic kinases that regulate the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG), converting it into phosphatidic acid (PA). There are 10 known mammalian DGK isoforms, each with a different tissue distribution and substrate specificity. These differences allow regulation of cellular responses by fine-tuning the delicate balance of cellular DAG and PA. DGK isoforms are best characterized as mediators of signal transduction and immune function. However, since recent studies reveal that DAG and PA are also involved in the regulation of endocytic trafficking, it is therefore anticipated that DGKs also plays an important role in membrane trafficking. In this review, we summarize the literature discussing the role of DGK isoforms at different stages of endocytic trafficking, including endocytosis, exocytosis, endocytic recycling, and transport from/to the Golgi apparatus. Overall, these studies contribute to our understanding of the involvement of PA and DAG in endocytic trafficking, an area of research that is drawing increasing attention in recent years. PMID:27057419

  2. MAPKAP kinase-2; a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Stokoe, D; Campbell, D G; Nakielny, S; Hidaka, H; Leevers, S J; Marshall, C; Cohen, P

    1992-01-01

    A novel protein kinase, which was only active when phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), has been purified 85,000-fold to homogeneity from rabbit skeletal muscle. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, was distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence. MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylated glycogen synthase at Ser7 and the equivalent serine (*) in the peptide KKPLNRTLS*VASLPGLamide whose sequence is similar to the N terminus of glycogen synthase. MAPKAP kinase-2 was resolved into two monomeric species of apparent molecular mass 60 and 53 kDa that had similar specific activities and substrate specificities. Peptide sequences of the 60 and 53 kDa species were identical, indicating that they are either closely related isoforms or derived from the same gene. MAP kinase activated the 60 and 53 kDa forms of MAPKAP kinase-2 by phosphorylating the first threonine residue in the sequence VPQTPLHTSR. Furthermore, Mono Q chromatography of extracts from rat phaeochromocytoma and skeletal muscle demonstrated that two MAP kinase isoforms (p42mapk and p44mapk) were the only enzymes in these cells that were capable of reactivating MAPKAP kinase-2. These results indicate that MAP kinase activates at least two distinct protein kinases, suggesting that it represents a point at which the growth factor-stimulated protein kinase cascade bifurcates. Images PMID:1327754

  3. Functional mutations in 5′UTR of the BMPR2 gene identified in Chinese families with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenting; Liu, Chunli; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Nuofu; Hadadi, Cyrus; Huang, Junyi; Zhong, Nanshan; Lu, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive pulmonary vasculopathy with significant morbidity and mortality. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) has been well recognized as the principal gene responsible for heritable and sporadic PAH. Four unrelated Chinese patients with PAH and their family members, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, were genetically evaluated by sequencing all exons and the flanking regions of BMPR2. Functionality of the aberrant mutations at the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of BMPR2 in the families with PAH was determined by site mutation, transient transfection, and promoter-reporter assays. Four individual mutations in the BMPR2 gene were identified in the 4 families, respectively: 10-GGC repeats, 13-GGC repeats, 4-AGC repeats in 5′UTR, and a novel missense mutation in exon 7 (c.961C>T; p.Arg321X). Moreover, we demonstrated that (1) these 5′UTR mutations decreased the transcription of BMPR2 and (2) the GGC repeats and AGC repeats in BMPR2 5′UTR bore functional binding sites of EGR-1 and MYF5, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of functional BMPR2 5′UTR mutations in familial patients with PAH and further indicating that EGR-1 and MYF5 are potential targets for correcting these genetic abnormalities for PAH therapy. PMID:27162618

  4. Protein Kinases in Mammary Gland Development and Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    cellular process including cell motility, metabolism, proliferation and differentiation. Aberrant expression or mutations in kinases has been shown to...transduction cascades leading to differentiation in normal breast tissue. Carcinogenic transformation often results from mutations or aberrant...expression of molecules such as c- erbB2 /HER2/neu, the EGF receptor, the FGF receptor family, and Met(I-4).1-4 The aforementioned kinases are examples of the

  5. Two YxxL segments of a single immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in the CD3zeta molecule differentially activate calcium mobilization and mitogen-activated protein kinase family pathways.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, N; Matsuda, S; Reinherz, E L; Koyasu, S

    2000-06-01

    Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM), consisting of two YxxL segments, transmit signals leading to IL-2 gene activation in T cells. We investigated here the functional difference in signal transduction between these two YxxL segments in the CD3zeta membrane-proximal ITAM. N-terminal YxxL mutants failed to induce ZAP-70 phosphorylation, elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation even in the presence of CD28 co-stimulation, whereas a mutant of the leucine residue at the C-terminal YxxL segment retained the ability to induce these events although this mutation abrogated the ability to induce IL-2 gene activation. In marked contrast to ERK activation, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was observed in all mutants when co-stimulated with CD28. The mutant of the leucine residue at the C-terminal YxxL segment had a defect in the transcriptional activation at the NF-AT cis-element, which was restored to wild-type level by addition of a Ca2+ ionophore, suggesting that the intensity and/or duration of [Ca2+]i elevation defines the threshold of T cell activation in this mutant. Our data collectively indicate that the activation pathways of ERK, JNK and Ca2+ mobilization are differentially regulated through YxxL segments of an ITAM.

  6. Second-generation inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Christina; Tsui, Stella T; Liu, Delong

    2016-09-02

    Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical effector molecule for B cell development and plays a major role in lymphoma genesis. Ibrutinib is the first-generation BTK inhibitor. Ibrutinib has off-target effects on EGFR, ITK, and Tec family kinases, which explains the untoward effects of ibrutinib. Resistance to ibrutinib was also reported. The C481S mutation in the BTK kinase domain was reported to be a major mechanism of resistance to ibrutinib. This review summarizes the clinical development of novel BTK inhibitors, ACP-196 (acalabrutinib), ONO/GS-4059, and BGB-3111.

  7. Potential of casein kinase I in digestive cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Cristina; Chai, Jianyuan

    2009-01-01

    Casein kinase I is a group of ubiquitous Serine/Threonine kinases that have been implicated in both normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. Recent findings in colon and pancreatic cancer have brought tremendous attention to these molecules as potential therapeutic targets in treatment of digestive cancers. In this review, we summarize up to date what is known about this family of kinases and their involvement in carcinogenesis and other pathological conditions. Our emphasis is on their implications in digestive cancers and their potential for cancer screening and therapy. PMID:21160770

  8. Mechanism of substrate specificity of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases

    PubMed Central

    Muftuoglu, Yagmur; Xue, Yi; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Dianqing; Ha, Ya

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK) family of enzymes is primarily responsible for converting singly phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol derivatives to phosphatidylinositol bisphosphates. As such, these kinases are central to many signaling and membrane trafficking processes in the eukaryotic cell. The three types of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases are homologous in sequence but differ in catalytic activities and biological functions. Type I and type II kinases generate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate, respectively, whereas the type III kinase produces phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate from phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Based on crystallographic analysis of the zebrafish type I kinase PIP5Kα, we identified a structural motif unique to the kinase family that serves to recognize the monophosphate on the substrate. Our data indicate that the complex pattern of substrate recognition and phosphorylation results from the interplay between the monophosphate binding site and the specificity loop: the specificity loop functions to recognize different orientations of the inositol ring, whereas residues flanking the phosphate binding Arg244 determine whether phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate is exclusively bound and phosphorylated at the 5-position. This work provides a thorough picture of how PIPKs achieve their exquisite substrate specificity. PMID:27439870

  9. Trends in kinase selectivity: insights for target class-focused library screening.

    PubMed

    Posy, Shana L; Hermsmeier, Mark A; Vaccaro, Wayne; Ott, Karl-Heinz; Todderud, Gordon; Lippy, Jonathan S; Trainor, George L; Loughney, Deborah A; Johnson, Stephen R

    2011-01-13

    A kinome-wide selectivity screen of >20000 compounds with a rich representation of many structural classes has been completed. Analysis of the selectivity patterns for each class shows that a broad spectrum of structural scaffolds can achieve specificity for many kinase families. Kinase selectivity and potency are inversely correlated, a trend that is also found in a large set of kinase functional data. Although selective and nonselective compounds are mostly similar in their physicochemical characteristics, we identify specific features that are present more frequently in compounds that bind to many kinases. Our results support a scaffold-oriented approach for building compound collections to screen kinase targets.

  10. Antiproliferative effect of Aurora kinase targeting in mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Crispi, Stefania; Fagliarone, Claudia; Biroccio, Annamaria; D'Angelo, Carmen; Galati, Rossella; Sacchi, Ada; Vincenzi, Bruno; Baldi, Alfonso; Verdina, Alessandra

    2010-12-01

    The Aurora proteins are a small family of serine/threonine kinase that function in various stages of mitosis. Current interest in Aurora kinase relates to its role in tumours, and its potential as a therapeutic target. In this work we studied the expression of Aurora kinases A and B and related genes in human mesothelioma tissues and in five mesothelioma cell lines. Moreover, we analyzed the effects of ZM447439 (ZM), an Aurora kinase inhibitor, on cellular growth. Results evidenced an over-expression of Aurora kinase A and related genes in human mesothelioma tissues and an over-expression of Aurora kinases A and B in all cell lines. Moreover, we demonstrated that ZM447439 was able to inhibit cell growth in all cell lines and that this inhibition was due to a specific effect as demonstrated by the reduction in the level of Histone H3 phosphorylation. Our findings support a role of Aurora kinase in mesothelioma and the possibility of using Aurora kinase inhibitors in therapeutic modalities.

  11. The specificities of protein kinase inhibitors: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Jenny; McLauchlan, Hilary; Elliott, Matthew; Cohen, Philip

    2003-01-01

    We have previously examined the specificities of 28 commercially available compounds, reported to be relatively selective inhibitors of particular serine/threonine-specific protein kinases [Davies, Reddy, Caivano and Cohen (2000) Biochem. J. 351, 95-105]. In the present study, we have extended this analysis to a further 14 compounds. Of these, indirubin-3'-monoxime, SP 600125, KT 5823 and ML-9 were found to inhibit a number of protein kinases and conclusions drawn from their use in cell-based assays are likely to be erroneous. Kenpaullone, Alsterpaullone, Purvalanol, Roscovitine, pyrazolopyrimidine 1 (PP1), PP2 and ML-7 were more specific, but still inhibited two or more protein kinases with similar potency. Our results suggest that the combined use of Roscovitine and Kenpaullone may be useful for identifying substrates and physiological roles of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, whereas the combined use of Kenpaullone and LiCl may be useful for identifying substrates and physiological roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3. The combined use of SU 6656 and either PP1 or PP2 may be useful for identifying substrates of Src family members. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate, one of the main polyphenolic constituents of tea, inhibited two of the 28 protein kinases in the panel, dual-specificity, tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A; IC(50)=0.33 microM) and p38-regulated/activated kinase (PRAK; IC(50)=1.0 microM). PMID:12534346

  12. The Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) Promotes Clustering and Activation of EphA3 Receptors in GABAergic Interneurons to Induce Ras Homolog Gene Family, Member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK)-mediated Growth Cone Collapse.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Chelsea S; Kümper, Maike; Temple, Brenda S; Maness, Patricia F

    2016-12-16

    Establishment of a proper balance of excitatory and inhibitory connectivity is achieved during development of cortical networks and adjusted through synaptic plasticity. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA3 regulate the perisomatic synapse density of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons in the mouse frontal cortex through ephrin-A5-induced growth cone collapse. In this study, it was demonstrated that binding of NCAM and EphA3 occurred between the NCAM Ig2 domain and EphA3 cysteine-rich domain (CRD). The binding interface was further refined through molecular modeling and mutagenesis and shown to be comprised of complementary charged residues in the NCAM Ig2 domain (Arg-156 and Lys-162) and the EphA3 CRD (Glu-248 and Glu-264). Ephrin-A5 induced co-clustering of surface-bound NCAM and EphA3 in GABAergic cortical interneurons in culture. Receptor clustering was impaired by a charge reversal mutation that disrupted NCAM/EphA3 association, emphasizing the importance of the NCAM/EphA3 binding interface for cluster formation. NCAM enhanced ephrin-A5-induced EphA3 autophosphorylation and activation of RhoA GTPase, indicating a role for NCAM in activating EphA3 signaling through clustering. NCAM-mediated clustering of EphA3 was essential for ephrin-A5-induced growth cone collapse in cortical GABAergic interneurons, and RhoA and a principal effector, Rho-associated protein kinase, mediated the collapse response. This study delineates a mechanism in which NCAM promotes ephrin-A5-dependent clustering of EphA3 through interaction of the NCAM Ig2 domain and the EphA3 CRD, stimulating EphA3 autophosphorylation and RhoA signaling necessary for growth cone repulsion in GABAergic interneurons in vitro, which may extend to remodeling of axonal terminals of interneurons in vivo.

  13. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  14. Orphan kinases turn eccentric

    PubMed Central

    Mikolcevic, Petra; Rainer, Johannes; Geley, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK) are a highly conserved, but poorly characterized, subgroup of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). They are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions that are involved in cyclin binding. Vertebrate genomes contain three highly similar PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK1,2,3, a.k.a., CDK16,17,18), which are most abundant in post-mitotic cells in brain and testis. Consistent with this restricted expression pattern, PCTK1 (CDK16) has recently been shown to be essential for spermatogenesis. PCTAIREs are activated by cyclin Y (CCNY), a highly conserved single cyclin fold protein. By binding to N-myristoylated CCNY, CDK16 is targeted to the plasma membrane. Unlike conventional cyclin-CDK interactions, binding of CCNY to CDK16 not only requires the catalytic domain, but also domains within the N-terminal extension. Interestingly, phosphorylation within this domain blocks CCNY binding, providing a novel means of cyclin-CDK regulation. By using these functional characteristics, we analyzed “PCTAIRE” sequence containing protein kinase genes in genomes of various organisms and found that CCNY and CCNY-dependent kinases are restricted to eumetazoa and possibly evolved along with development of a central nervous system. Here, we focus on the structure and regulation of PCTAIREs and discuss their established functions. PMID:22895054

  15. Hormone signaling linked to silkmoth sex pheromone biosynthesis involves Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of the insect PAT family protein Bombyx mori lipid storage droplet protein-1(BmLsd)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structurally-related members of the PAT family of proteins, which are so name based on similarity amongst perilipin, adipophilin/adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP), and tail-interacting protein of 47 kilodaltons (TIP47), are cytoplasmic lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins charac...

  16. Nuclear localization of Lyn tyrosine kinase mediated by inhibition of its kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Kikuko; Nakayama, Yuji; Togashi, Yuuki; Obata, Yuuki; Kuga, Takahisa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2008-11-01

    Src-family kinases, cytoplasmic enzymes that participate in various signaling events, are found at not only the plasma membrane but also subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and late endosomes/lysosomes. Lyn, a member of the Src-family kinases, is known to play a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle control in the nucleus. However, it is still unclear how the localization of Lyn to the nucleus is regulated. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the distribution of Lyn between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in epitheloid HeLa cells and hematopoietic THP-1 cells. Lyn was definitely detected in purified nuclei by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. Nuclear accumulation of Lyn was enhanced upon treatment of cells with leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of Crm1-mediated nuclear export. Moreover, Lyn mutants lacking the sites for lipid modification were highly accumulated in the nucleus upon LMB treatment. Intriguingly, inhibition of the kinase activity of Lyn by SU6656, Csk overexpression, or point mutation in the ATP-binding site induced an increase in nuclear Lyn levels. These results suggest that Lyn being imported into and rapidly exported from the nucleus preferentially accumulates in the nucleus by inhibition of the kinase activity and lipid modification.

  17. Small substrate, big surprise: fold, function and phylogeny of dihydroxyacetone kinases.

    PubMed

    Erni, B; Siebold, C; Christen, S; Srinivas, A; Oberholzer, A; Baumann, U

    2006-04-01

    Dihydroxyacetone (Dha) kinases are a family of sequence-conserved enzymes which utilize either ATP (in animals, plants and eubacteria) or phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP, in eubacteria) as their source of high-energy phosphate. The kinases consist of two domains/subunits: DhaK, which binds Dha covalently in hemiaminal linkage to the Nepsilon2 of a histidine, and DhaL, an eight-helix barrel that contains the nucleotide-binding site. The PEP-dependent kinases comprise a third subunit, DhaM, which rephosphorylates in situ the firmly bound ADP cofactor. DhaM serves as the shuttle for the transfer of phosphate from the bacterial PEP: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) to the Dha kinase. The DhaL and DhaK subunits of the PEP-dependent Escherichia coli kinase act as coactivator and corepressor of DhaR, a transcription factor from the AAA(+) family of enhancerbinding proteins. In Gram-positive bacteria genes for homologs of DhaK and DhaL occur in operons for putative transcription factors of the TetR and DeoR families. Proteins with the Dha kinase fold can be classified into three families according to phylogeny and function: Dha kinases, DhaK and DhaL homologs (paralogs) associated with putative transcription regulators of the TetR and DeoR families, and proteins with a circularly permuted domain order that belong to the DegV family.

  18. Molecular cloning of plant transcripts encoding protein kinase homologs.

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, M A; Yamamoto, R T; Hanks, S K; Lamb, C J

    1989-01-01

    Oligonucleotides, corresponding to conserved regions of animal protein-serine/threonine kinases, were used to isolate cDNAs encoding plant homologs in the dicot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and the monocot rice (Oryzae sativa L.). The C-terminal regions of the deduced polypeptides encoded by the bean (PVPK-1) and rice (G11A) cDNAs, prepared from mRNAs of suspension cultures and leaves, respectively, contain features characteristic of the catalytic domains of eukaryotic protein-serine/threonine kinases, indicating that these cDNAs encode plant protein kinases. The putative catalytic domains are most closely related to cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases and the protein kinase C family, suggesting the plant homologs may likewise transduce extracellular signals. However, outside these domains, PVPK-1 and G11A exhibit no homology either to each other or to regulatory domains of other protein kinases, indicating the plant homologs are modulated by other signals. PVPK-1 corresponds to a 2.4-kb transcript in suspension cultured bean cells. Southern blots of genomic DNA indicate that PVPK-1 and G11A correspond to single copy genes that form part of a family of related plant sequences. Images PMID:2541432

  19. Visualizing autophosphorylation in histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Casino, Patricia; Miguel-Romero, Laura; Marina, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most widespread regulatory mechanism in signal transduction. Autophosphorylation in a dimeric sensor histidine kinase is the first step in two-component signalling, the predominant signal-transduction device in bacteria. Despite being the most abundant sensor kinases in nature, the molecular bases of the histidine kinase autophosphorylation mechanism are still unknown. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that autophosphorylation can occur in two directions, cis (intrasubunit) or trans (intersubunit) within the dimeric histidine kinase. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complete catalytic machinery of a chimeric histidine kinase. The structure shows an asymmetric histidine kinase dimer where one subunit is caught performing the autophosphorylation reaction. A structure-guided functional analysis on HK853 and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic mechanism of histidine kinase autophosphorylation, which seems to be common independently of the reaction directionality.

  20. The Predikin webserver: improved prediction of protein kinase peptide specificity using structural information

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Neil F. W.

    2008-01-01

    The Predikin webserver allows users to predict substrates of protein kinases. The Predikin system is built from three components: a database of protein kinase substrates that links phosphorylation sites with specific protein kinase sequences; a perl module to analyse query protein kinases and a web interface through which users can submit protein kinases for analysis. The Predikin perl module provides methods to (i) locate protein kinase catalytic domains in a sequence, (ii) classify them by type or family, (iii) identify substrate-determining residues, (iv) generate weighted scoring matrices using three different methods, (v) extract putative phosphorylation sites in query substrate sequences and (vi) score phosphorylation sites for a given kinase, using optional filters. The web interface provides user-friendly access to each of these functions and allows users to obtain rapidly a set of predictions that they can export for further analysis. The server is available at http://predikin.biosci.uq.edu.au. PMID:18477637

  1. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors in Oncology Clinical Trials: Current State of the Progress.

    PubMed

    Falchook, Gerald S; Bastida, Christel C; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-12-01

    The Aurora kinase family of kinases (Aurora A, B, and C) are involved in multiple mitotic events, and aberrant expression of these kinases is associated with tumorigenesis. Aurora A and Aurora B are validated anticancer targets, and the development of Aurora kinase inhibitors has progressed from preclinical to clinical studies. A variety of Aurora A, B and pan-Aurora kinase inhibitors have entered the clinic. The main side effects include febrile neutropenia, stomatitis, gastrointestinal toxicity, hypertension, and fatigue. Responses including complete remissions have been described in diverse, advanced malignancies, most notably ovarian cancer and acute myelogenous leukemia. This review highlights the biologic rationale for Aurora kinase as a target, and clinical trials involving Aurora kinase inhibitors, with particular emphasis on published early phase studies, and the observed anti-tumor activity of these agents.

  2. The molecular basis of targeting protein kinases in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of targeted anticancer therapies with small molecule kinase inhibitors. First, we discuss why a single constitutively active kinase emanating from a variety of aberrant genetic alterations is capable of transforming a normal cell, leading it to acquire the hallmarks of a cancer cell. To draw attention to the fact that kinase inhibition in targeted cancer therapeutics differs from conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, we exploit a conceptual framework explaining why suppressed kinase activity will selectively kill only the so-called oncogene 'addicted' cancer cell, while sparing the healthy cell. Second, we introduce the protein kinase superfamily in light of its common active conformation with precisely positioned structural elements, and the diversified auto-inhibitory conformations among the kinase families. Understanding the detailed activation mechanism of individual kinases is essential to relate the observed oncogenic alterations to the elevated constitutively active state, to identify the mechanism of consequent drug resistance, and to guide the development of the next-generation inhibitors. To clarify the vital importance of structural guidelines in studies of oncogenesis, we explain how somatic mutations in EGFR result in kinase constitutive activation. Third, in addition to the common theme of secondary (acquired) mutations that prevent drug binding from blocking a signaling pathway which is hijacked by the aberrant activated kinase, we discuss scenarios of drug resistance and relapse by compensating lesions that bypass the inactivated pathway in a vertical or horizontal fashion. Collectively, these suggest that the future challenge of cancer therapy with small molecule kinase inhibitors will rely on the discovery of distinct combinations of optimized drugs to target individual subtypes of different cancers.

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases: Function, structure, and inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Boura, Evzen Nencka, Radim

    2015-10-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key member of the phosphoinositide family. PI4P defines the membranes of Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) and regulates trafficking to and from the Golgi. Humans have two type II PI4Ks (α and β) and two type III enzymes (α and β). Recently, the crystal structures were solved for both type II and type III kinase revealing atomic details of their function. Importantly, the type III PI4Ks are hijacked by +RNA viruses to create so-called membranous web, an extensively phosphorylated and modified membrane system dedicated to their replication. Therefore, selective and potent inhibitors of PI4Ks have been developed as potential antiviral agents. Here we focus on the structure and function of PI4Ks and their potential in human medicine.

  4. Ror receptor tyrosine kinases: orphans no more

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jennifer L.; Kuntz, Steven G.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Ror proteins are a conserved family of tyrosine kinase receptors that function in developmental processes, including skeletal and neuronal development, cell movement, and cell polarity. While Ror (receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor) proteins were originally named because the associated ligand and signaling pathway were unknown, recent studies in multiple species now establish that Ror proteins are Wnt receptors. Depending on the cellular context, Ror proteins can either activate or repress transcription of Wnt target genes and can modulate Wnt signaling by sequestering Wnt ligands. New evidence implicates Ror proteins in planar cell polarity (PCP), an alternative Wnt pathway. Here, we review the progress made in understanding these mysterious proteins and in particular we focus on their function as Wnt receptors. PMID:18848778

  5. Mechanistic framework for establishment, maintenance, and alteration of cell polarity in plants.

    PubMed

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Cell polarity establishment, maintenance, and alteration are central to the developmental and response programs of nearly all organisms and are often implicated in abnormalities ranging from patterning defects to cancer. By residing at the distinct plasma membrane domains polar cargoes mark the identities of those domains, and execute localized functions. Polar cargoes are recruited to the specialized membrane domains by directional secretion and/or directional endocytic recycling. In plants, auxin efflux carrier PIN proteins display polar localizations in various cell types and play major roles in directional cell-to-cell transport of signaling molecule auxin that is vital for plant patterning and response programs. Recent advanced microscopy studies applied to single cells in intact plants reveal subcellular PIN dynamics. They uncover the PIN polarity generation mechanism and identified important roles of AGC kinases for polar PIN localization. AGC kinase family members PINOID, WAG1, and WAG2, belonging to the AGC-3 subclass predominantly influence the polar localization of PINs. The emerging mechanism for AGC-3 kinases action suggests that kinases phosphorylate PINs mainly at the plasma membrane after initial symmetric PIN secretion for eventual PIN internalization and PIN sorting into distinct ARF-GEF-regulated polar recycling pathways. Thus phosphorylation status directs PIN translocation to different cell sides. Based on these findings a mechanistic framework evolves that suggests existence of cell side-specific recycling pathways in plants and implicates AGC3 kinases for differential PIN recruitment among them for eventual PIN polarity establishment, maintenance, and alteration.

  6. Kinase Inhibitors from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Skropeta, Danielle; Pastro, Natalie; Zivanovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinases play a critical role in cell regulation and their deregulation is a contributing factor in an increasing list of diseases including cancer. Marine sponges have yielded over 70 novel compounds to date that exhibit significant inhibitory activity towards a range of protein kinases. These compounds, which belong to diverse structural classes, are reviewed herein, and ordered based upon the kinase that they inhibit. Relevant synthetic studies on the marine natural product kinase inhibitors have also been included. PMID:22073013

  7. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) and human papillomavirus (HPV) as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC): a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shu-Yuan; Rodgers, William H.; Kauderer, James; Bonfiglio, Thomas A.; Walker, Joan L.; Darcy, Kathleen M.; Carter, Randy; Hatae, Masayuji; Levine, Lyuba; Spirtos, Nick M; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection is strongly linked to cervical neoplasia but its role in detecting glandular lesions is unclear. In the cervix, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is expressed in cervical neoplasia, but rarely in the benign cervix. The diagnostic utility of these biomarkers was evaluated in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC). H-HPV was detected using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) in liquid based cytology and CA-IX immunoreactivity was studied on conventional Pap smears. Of 403 patients, 111 (28%) were positive for significant cervical lesions (SCLs) including CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. CA-IX testing alone (n=403) had a sensitivity of 75%, 95%, or 65% for SCLs, significant glandular lesions (GLs) or squamous lesions (SLs), respectively, with a specificity of 88%, and a false negative rate (FNR defined as one minus negative predictive value) of 10%. Testing for H-HPV (n=122) had a sensitivity of 97%, 100%, or 96% for SCLs, GLs or SLs, respectively, with a specificity of 87%, and a FNRof 1%. The combination of CA-IX and H-HPV testing (n=122), collectively, had the same sensitivity, specificity and FNR for SCLs, GLs or SLs as H-HPV testing alone. The conclusions of this study are that both H-HPV and CA-IX testing are useful diagnostic markers for GLs. However, H-HPV testing is a better diagnostic marker for SLs. The combination of CA-IX with H-HPV testing does not improve the diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC diagnosis over that of H-HPV testing alone. PMID:19670419

  8. Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Tests and Procedures Family therapy By Mayo Clinic Staff Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that helps family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided ...

  9. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  10. Electromagnetic field-induced stimulation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Kristupaitis, D; Dibirdik, I; Vassilev, A; Mahajan, S; Kurosaki, T; Chu, A; Tuel-Ahlgren, L; Tuong, D; Pond, D; Luben, R; Uckun, F M

    1998-05-15

    Here we present evidence that exposure of DT40 lymphoma B-cells to low energy electromagnetic fields (EMF) results in activation of phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC-gamma2), leading to increased inositol phospholipid turnover. PLC-gamma2 activation in EMF-stimulated cells is mediated by stimulation of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the Src-related TEC family of protein tyrosine kinases, which acts downstream of LYN kinase and upstream of PLC-gamma2. B-cells rendered BTK-deficient by targeted disruption of the btk gene did not show enhanced PLC-gamma2 activation in response to EMF exposure. Introduction of the wild-type (but not a kinase domain mutant) human btk gene into BTK-deficient B-cells restored their EMF responsiveness. Thus, BTK exerts a pivotal and mandatory function in initiation of EMF-induced signaling cascades in B-cells.

  11. Resistance to HER2-directed antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Joan T

    2011-01-01

    The antibody trastuzumab and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib are approved by the FDA for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. These anti-HER2 drugs are changing the natural history of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. However, therapeutic resistance to trastuzumab or lapatinib, as either single-agents or in combination with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting, typically occurs within months of starting therapy. Several mechanisms of trastuzumab-resistance have been reported that include signaling from other HER receptors, signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) outside of the HER (ErbB) family, increased phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling, and the presence of truncated forms of HER2. Mechanisms of resistance to lapatinib also point to increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling as well as derepression/activation of compensatory survival pathways. In this review, we discuss how these models and mechanisms enhance our understanding of the clinical resistance to HER2-directed therapies. PMID:21307659

  12. Clinical experience with aurora kinase inhibitors: a review.

    PubMed

    Boss, David S; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2009-08-01

    The aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases comprises three members, designated auroras A, B, and C. Auroras A and B are essential components of the mitotic pathway, ensuring proper chromosome assembly, formation of the mitotic spindle, and cytokinesis. The role of aurora C is less clear. Overexpression of aurora A and B has been observed in several tumor types, and has been linked with a poor prognosis of cancer patients. Several small molecules targeting aurora kinases A and B or both have been evaluated preclinically and in early phase I trials. In this review we aim to summarize the most recent advances in the development of aurora kinase inhibitors, with a focus on the clinical data.

  13. Structural dynamic analysis of apo and ATP-bound IRAK4 kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

    2014-07-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases that play an important role as signaling mediators in the signal transduction facilitated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor families. Among IRAK family members, IRAK4 is one of the drug targets for diseases related to the TLR and IL-1R signaling pathways. Experimental evidence suggests that the IRAK4 kinase domain is phosphorylated in its activation loop at T342, T345, and S346 in the fully activated state. However, the molecular interactions of subdomains within the active and inactive IRAK4 kinase domain are poorly understood. Hence, we employed a long-range molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to compare apo IRAK4 kinase domains (phosphorylated and unphosphorylated) and ATP-bound phosphorylated IRAK4 kinase domains. The MD results strongly suggested that lobe uncoupling occurs in apo unphosphorylated IRAK4 kinase via the disruption of the R334/T345 and R310/T345 interaction. In addition, apo unphosphorylated trajectory result in high mobility, particularly in the N lobe, activation segment, helix αG, and its adjoining loops. The Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) and His-Arg-Asp (HRD) conserved kinase motif analysis showed the importance of these motifs in IRAK4 kinase activation. This study provides important information on the structural dynamics of IRAK4 kinase, which will aid in inhibitor development.

  14. Efficacy of the Irreversible ErbB Family Blocker Afatinib in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI)–Pretreated Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastases or Leptomeningeal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tufman, Amanda; Wehler, Thomas; Pelzer, Theo; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Schütz, Martin; Serke, Monika; Stöhlmacher-Williams, Jan; Märten, Angela; Maria Huber, Rudolf; Dickgreber, Nicolas J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Afatinib is an effective first-line treatment in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and has shown activity in patients progressing on EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). First-line afatinib is also effective in patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. Here we report on outcomes of pretreated NSCLC patients with CNS metastasis who received afatinib within a compassionate use program. Methods: Patients with NSCLC progressing after at least one line of chemotherapy and one line of EGFR-TKI treatment received afatinib. Medical history, patient demographics, EGFR mutational status, and adverse events including tumor progression were documented. Results: From 2010 to 2013, 573 patients were enrolled and 541 treated with afatinib. One hundred patients (66% female; median age, 60 years) had brain metastases and/or leptomeningeal disease with 74% having documented EGFR mutation. Median time to treatment failure for patients with CNS metastasis was 3.6 months, and did not differ from a matched group of 100 patients without CNS metastasis. Thirty-five percent (11 of 31) of evaluable patients had a cerebral response, five (16%) responded exclusively in brain. Response duration (range) was 120 (21–395) days. Sixty-six percent (21 of 32) of patients had cerebral disease control on afatinib. Data from one patient with an impressive response showed an afatinib concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of nearly 1 nMol. Conclusion: Afatinib appears to penetrate into the CNS with concentrations high enough to have clinical effect on CNS metastases. Afatinib may therefore be an effective treatment for heavily pretreated patients with EGFR-mutated or EGFR–TKI-sensitive NSCLC and CNS metastasis. PMID:25247337

  15. Secondary kinase reactions catalyzed by yeast pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Leblond, D J; Robinson, J L

    1976-06-07

    1. Yeast pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) catalyzes, in addition to the primary, physiologically important reaction, three secondary kinase reactions, the ATP-dependent phosphorylations of fluoride (fluorokinase), hydroxylamine (hydroxylamine kinase) and glycolate (glycolate kinase). 2. These reactions are accelerated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, the allosteric activator of the primary reaction. Wth Mg2+ as the required divalent cation, none of these reactions are observed in the absence of fructose-biphosphate. With Mn2+, fructose-bisphosphate is required for the glycolate kinase reaction, but merely stimulates the other reactions. 3. The effect of other divalent cations and pH on three secondary kinase reactions was also examined. 4. Results are compared with those obtained from muscle pyruvate kinase and the implications of the results for the mechanism of the yeast enzyme are discussed.

  16. Targeting kinases with anilinopyrimidines: discovery of N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives as selective inhibitors of class III receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gandin, Valentina; Ferrarese, Alessandro; Dalla Via, Martina; Marzano, Cristina; Chilin, Adriana; Marzaro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors are attractive drugs/drug candidates for the treatment of cancer. The most recent literature has highlighted the importance of multi target kinase inhibitors, although a correct balance between specificity and non-specificity is required. In this view, the discovery of multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors with subfamily selectivity is a challenging goal. Herein we present the synthesis and the preliminary kinase profiling of a set of novel 4-anilinopyrimidines. Among the synthesized compounds, the N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives selectively targeted some members of class III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Starting from the structure of hit compound 19 we synthesized a further compound with an improved affinity toward the class III receptor tyrosine kinase members and endowed with a promising antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo in a murine solid tumor model. Molecular modeling simulations were used in order to rationalize the behavior of the title compounds. PMID:26568452

  17. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID.

    PubMed

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inês C R; Willige, Björn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-06-19

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the--in many cells--asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  18. Role of a Novel PH-Kinase Domain Interface in PKB/Akt Regulation: Structural Mechanism for Allosteric Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Peter J; Larijani, Banafshé

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) belongs to the AGC superfamily of related serine/threonine protein kinases. It is a key regulator downstream of various growth factors and hormones and is involved in malignant transformation and chemo-resistance. Full-length PKB protein has not been crystallised, thus studying the molecular mechanisms that are involved in its regulation in relation to its structure have not been simple. Recently, the dynamics between the inactive and active conformer at the molecular level have been described. The maintenance of PKB's inactive state via the interaction of the PH and kinase domains prevents its activation loop to be phosphorylated by its upstream activator, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). By using a multidisciplinary approach including molecular modelling, classical biochemical assays, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)/two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), a detailed model depicting the interaction between the different domains of PKB in its inactive conformation was demonstrated. These findings in turn clarified the molecular mechanism of PKB inhibition by AKT inhibitor VIII (a specific allosteric inhibitor) and illustrated at the molecular level its selectivity towards different PKB isoforms. Furthermore, these findings allude to the possible function of the C-terminus in sustaining the inactive conformer of PKB. This study presents essential insights into the quaternary structure of PKB in its inactive conformation. An understanding of PKB structure in relation to its function is critical for elucidating its mode of activation and discovering how to modulate its activity. The molecular mechanism of inhibition of PKB activation by the specific drug AKT inhibitor VIII has critical implications for determining the mechanism of inhibition of other allosteric inhibitors and for opening up opportunities for the design of new generations of modulator drugs. PMID:19166270

  19. Prohibitin (PHB) inhibits apoptosis in rat granulosa cells (GCs) through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the Bcl family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thompson, Winston E; Welch, Crystal; Thomas, Kelwyn; Matthews, Roland

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian ovarian follicular development is tightly regulated by crosstalk between cell death and survival signals, which include both endocrine and intra-ovarian regulators. Whether the follicle ultimately ovulates or undergoes atresia is dependent on the expression and actions of factors promoting follicular cell proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Prohibitin (PHB) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that is abundantly expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and associated with GC differentiation and apoptosis. The current study was designed to characterize the regulation of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic factors in undifferentiated rat GCs (gonadotropin independent phase) governed by PHB. Microarray technology was initially employed to identify potential apoptosis-related genes, whose expression levels within GCs were altered by either staurosporine (STS) alone or STS in presence of ectopically over-expressed PHB. Next, immunoblot studies were performed to examine the expression patterns of selective Bcl-2 family members identified by the microarray analysis, which are commonly regulated in the intrinsic-apoptotic pathway. These studies were designed to measure protein levels of Bcl2 family in relation to expression of the acidic isoform (phosphorylated) PHB and the components of MEK-Erk1/2 pathway. These studies indicated that over-expression of PHB in undifferentiated GCs inhibit apoptosis which concomitantly results in an increased level of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl2 and Bclxl, reduced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and inhibition of caspase-3 activity. In contrast, silencing of PHB expression resulted in change of mitochondrial morphology from the regular reticular network to a fragmented form, which enhanced sensitization of these GCs to the induction of apoptosis. Collectively, these studies have provided new insights on the PHB-mediated anti-apoptotic mechanism, which occurs in undifferentiated GCs through a PHB → Mek-Erk1

  20. Polyomavirus middle-T antigen associates with the kinase domain of Src-related tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Dunant, N M; Senften, M; Ballmer-Hofer, K

    1996-01-01

    Middle-T antigen of mouse polyomavirus, an oncogenic DNA virus, associates with and activates the cellular tyrosine kinases c-Src, c-Yes, and Fyn. This interaction is essential for polyomavirus-mediated transformation of cells in culture and tumor formation in animals. To determine the domain of c-Src directing association with middle-T, mutant c-Src proteins lacking the amino-terminal unique domain and the myristylation signal, the SH2 domain, the SH3 domain, or all three of these domains were coexpressed with middle-T in NIH 3T3 cells. All mutants were found to associate with middle-T, demonstrating that the kinase domain of c-Src, including the carboxy-terminal regulatory tail, is sufficient for association with middle-T. Moreover, we found that Hck, another member of the Src kinase family, does not bind middle-T, while chimeric kinases consisting of the amino-terminal domains of c-Src fused to the kinase domain of Hck or the amino-terminal domains of Hck fused to the kinase domain of c-Src associated with middle-T. Hck mutated at its carboxy-terminal regulatory residue, tyrosine 501, was also found to associate with middle-T. These results suggest that in Hck, the postulated intramolecular interaction between the carboxy-terminal regulatory tyrosine and the SH2 domain prevents association with middle-T. This intramolecular interaction apparently also limits the ability of c-Src to associate with middle-T, since removal of the SH2 or SH3 domain increases the efficiency with which middle-T binds c-Src. PMID:8627648

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  3. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  4. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  5. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  6. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  7. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  8. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  9. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  10. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  11. Functional screen identifies kinases driving prostate cancer visceral and bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Faltermeier, Claire M; Drake, Justin M; Clark, Peter M; Smith, Bryan A; Zong, Yang; Volpe, Carmen; Mathis, Colleen; Morrissey, Colm; Castor, Brandon; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-01-12

    Mutationally activated kinases play an important role in the progression and metastasis of many cancers. Despite numerous oncogenic alterations implicated in metastatic prostate cancer, mutations of kinases are rare. Several lines of evidence suggest that nonmutated kinases and their pathways are involved in prostate cancer progression, but few kinases have been mechanistically linked to metastasis. Using a mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics dataset in concert with gene expression analysis, we selected over 100 kinases potentially implicated in human metastatic prostate cancer for functional evaluation. A primary in vivo screen based on overexpression of candidate kinases in murine prostate cells identified 20 wild-type kinases that promote metastasis. We queried these 20 kinases in a secondary in vivo screen using human prostate cells. Strikingly, all three RAF family members, MERTK, and NTRK2 drove the formation of bone and visceral metastasis confirmed by positron-emission tomography combined with computed tomography imaging and histology. Immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays indicated that these kinases are highly expressed in human metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer tissues. Our functional studies reveal the strong capability of select wild-type protein kinases to drive critical steps of the metastatic cascade, and implicate these kinases in possible therapeutic intervention.

  12. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Danai, Laura V.; DiStefano, Marina T.; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K.; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo. After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  13. Roles of tyrosine kinase-, 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathways in ethanol-induced contractions of rat aortic smooth muscle: possible relation to alcohol-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-wei; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Tao; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2002-08-01

    Insights into the relations between and among ethanol-induced contractions in rat aorta, tyrosine kinases (including src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI-3Ks), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and regulation of intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) were investigated in the present study. Ethanol-induced concentration-dependent contractions in isolated rat aortic rings were attenuated greatly by pretreatment of the arteries with low concentrations of an antagonist of protein tyrosine kinases (genistein), an src homology domain 2 (SH2) inhibitor peptide, a highly specific antagonist of p38 MAPK (SB-203580), a potent, selective antagonist of two specific MAPK kinases-MEK1/MEK2 (U0126)-and a selective antagonist of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) (PD-98059), as well as by treatment with wortmannin or LY-294002 (both are selective antagonists of PI-3Ks). Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC(50)) levels obtained for these seven antagonists were consistent with reported inhibition constant (Ki) values for these tyrosine kinase, MAPK, and MAPKK antagonists. Ethanol-induced transient and sustained increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in primary single smooth muscle cells from rat aorta were markedly attenuated in the presence of genistein, an SH2 domain inhibitor peptide, SB-203580, U0126, PD-98059, wortmannin, and LY-294002. A variety of specific antagonists of known endogenously formed vasoconstrictors did not inhibit or attenuate either the ethanol-induced contractions or the elevations of [Ca(2+)](i). Results of the present study support the suggestion that activation of tyrosine kinases (including the src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), PI-3Ks, and MAPK seems to play an important role in ethanol-induced contractions and the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells from rat aorta. These signaling pathways thus may be important in hypertension in human beings associated with chronic alcohol

  14. Temporal quantitation of mutant Kit tyrosine kinase signaling attenuated by a novel thiophene kinase inhibitor OSI-930.

    PubMed

    Petti, Filippo; Thelemann, April; Kahler, Jen; McCormack, Siobhan; Castaldo, Linda; Hunt, Tony; Nuwaysir, Lydia; Zeiske, Lynn; Haack, Herbert; Sullivan, Laura; Garton, Andrew; Haley, John D

    2005-08-01

    OSI-930, a potent thiophene inhibitor of the Kit, KDR, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, was used to selectively inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of juxtamembrane mutant Kit in the mast cell leukemia line HMC-1. Inhibition of Kit kinase activity resulted in a rapid dephosphorylation of Kit and inhibition of the downstream signaling pathways. Attenuation of Ras-Raf-Erk (phospho-Erk, phospho-p38), phosphatidyl inositol-3' kinase (phospho-p85, phospho-Akt, phospho-S6), and signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathways (phospho-STAT3/5/6) were measured by affinity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, by immunoblot, and by tissue microarrays of fixed cell pellets. To more globally define additional components of Kit signaling temporally altered by kinase inhibition, a novel multiplex quantitative isobaric peptide labeling approach was used. This approach allowed clustering of proteins by temporal expression patterns. Kit kinase, which dephosphorylates rapidly upon kinase inhibition, was shown to regulate both Shp-1 and BDP-1 tyrosine phosphatases and the phosphatase-interacting protein PSTPIP2. Interactions with SH2 domain adapters [growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2), Cbl, Slp-76] and SH3 domain adapters (HS1, cortactin, CD2BP3) were attenuated by inhibition of Kit kinase activity. Functional crosstalk between Kit and the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Fes/Fps, Fer, Btk, and Syk was observed. Inhibition of Kit modulated phosphorylation-dependent interactions with pathways controlling focal adhesion (paxillin, leupaxin, p130CAS, FAK1, the Src family kinase Lyn, Wasp, Fhl-3, G25K, Ack-1, Nap1, SH3P12/ponsin) and septin-actin complexes (NEDD5, cdc11, actin). The combined use of isobaric protein quantitation and expression clustering, immunoblot, and tissue microarray strategies allowed temporal measurement signaling pathways modulated by mutant Kit inhibition in a model of mast cell

  15. A high-throughput radiometric kinase assay

    PubMed Central

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C.; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant kinase signaling has been implicated in a number of diseases. While kinases have become attractive drug targets, only a small fraction of human protein kinases have validated inhibitors. Screening libraries of compounds against a kinase or kinases of interest is routinely performed during kinase inhibitor development to identify promising scaffolds for a particular target and to identify kinase targets for compounds of interest. Screening of more focused compound libraries may also be conducted in the later stages of inhibitor development to improve potency and optimize selectivity. The dot blot kinase assay is a robust, high-throughput kinase assay that can be used to screen a number of small molecule compounds against one kinase of interest or several kinases. Here, a protocol for a dot blot kinase assay used for measuring insulin receptor kinase activity is presented. This protocol can be readily adapted for use with other protein kinases. PMID:26501904

  16. KINATEST-ID: a pipeline to develop phosphorylation-dependent terbium sensitizing kinase assays.

    PubMed

    Lipchik, Andrew M; Perez, Minervo; Bolton, Scott; Dumrongprechachan, Vasin; Ouellette, Steven B; Cui, Wei; Parker, Laurie L

    2015-02-25

    Nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases (NRTKs) are essential for cellular homeostasis and thus are a major focus of current drug discovery efforts. Peptide substrates that can enhance lanthanide ion luminescence upon tyrosine phosphorylation enable rapid, sensitive screening of kinase activity, however design of suitable substrates that can distinguish between tyrosine kinase families is a huge challenge. Despite their different substrate preferences, many NRTKs are structurally similar even between families. Furthermore, the development of lanthanide-based kinase assays is hampered by incomplete understanding of how to integrate sequence selectivity with metal ion binding, necessitating laborious iterative substrate optimization. We used curated proteomic data from endogenous kinase substrates and known Tb(3+)-binding sequences to build a generalizable in silico pipeline with tools to generate, screen, align, and select potential phosphorylation-dependent Tb(3+)-sensitizing substrates that are most likely to be kinase specific. We demonstrated the approach by developing several substrates that are selective within kinase families and amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS) applications. Overall, this strategy represents a pipeline for developing efficient and specific assays for virtually any tyrosine kinase that use HTS-compatible lanthanide-based detection. The tools provided in the pipeline also have the potential to be adapted to identify peptides for other purposes, including other enzyme assays or protein-binding ligands.

  17. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Interaction Protein Functions as an A-kinase Anchoring Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Hundsrucker, Christian; Skroblin, Philipp; Christian, Frank; Zenn, Hans-Michael; Popara, Viola; Joshi, Mangesh; Eichhorst, Jenny; Wiesner, Burkhard; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Reif, Bernd; Rosenthal, Walter; Klussmann, Enno

    2010-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) include a family of scaffolding proteins that target protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins to cellular compartments and thereby confine the activities of the associated proteins to distinct regions within cells. AKAPs bind PKA directly. The interaction is mediated by the dimerization and docking domain of regulatory subunits of PKA and the PKA-binding domain of AKAPs. Analysis of the interactions between the dimerization and docking domain and various PKA-binding domains yielded a generalized motif allowing the identification of AKAPs. Our bioinformatics and peptide array screening approaches based on this signature motif identified GSKIP (glycogen synthase kinase 3β interaction protein) as an AKAP. GSKIP directly interacts with PKA and GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β). It is widely expressed and facilitates phosphorylation and thus inactivation of GSK3β by PKA. GSKIP contains the evolutionarily conserved domain of unknown function 727. We show here that this domain of GSKIP and its vertebrate orthologues binds both PKA and GSK3β and thereby provides a mechanism for the integration of PKA and GSK3β signaling pathways. PMID:20007971

  18. Recognition of a PP2C interaction motif in several plant protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ohta, Masaru; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2007-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) constitute a major class of phosphatases in plants. PP2Cs play important roles in many signaling pathways by countering the action of specific protein kinases. In addition to their role in several environmental stress-related signal transduction pathways, they are also involved in plant metabolism. Protein phosphatases often physically associate with their protein kinase counterparts. One approach to understanding PP2C function is to identify their interacting protein kinases. We describe a yeast two-hybrid assay system used in our lab to determine the interaction between members of the PP2C family and protein kinases in the SOS2 family. This chapter and the cited articles describing related work might be of help in discovering interactions between other protein phosphatases and kinases.

  19. Structure of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Michalska, Karolina; Cuff, Marianne E.; Tesar, Christine; Feldmann, Brian; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2011-08-01

    The crystal structure of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from the De Ley–Doudoroff pathway of galactose metabolism has been determined at 2.1 Å resolution. In most organisms, efficient d-galactose utilization requires the highly conserved Leloir pathway that converts d-galactose to d-glucose 1-phosphate. However, in some bacterial and fungal species alternative routes of d-galactose assimilation have been identified. In the so-called De Ley–Doudoroff pathway, d-galactose is metabolized into pyruvate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate in five consecutive reactions carried out by specific enzymes. The penultimate step in this pathway involves the phosphorylation of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate to 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate 6-phosphate catalyzed by 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase, with ATP serving as a phosphoryl-group donor. Here, a crystal structure of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae determined at 2.1 Å resolution is reported, the first structure of an enzyme from the De Ley–Doudoroff pathway. Structural comparison indicates that the enzyme belongs to the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/hsc70/actin) family of phosphotransferases. The protein is composed of two α/β domains, each of which contains a core common to all family members. Additional elements introduced between conserved structural motifs define the unique features of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase and possibly determine the biological function of the protein.

  20. Parkinson's disease-associated mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 augment kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    West, Andrew B.; Moore, Darren J.; Biskup, Saskia; Bugayenko, Artem; Smith, Wanli W.; Ross, Christopher A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) cause late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) with a clinical appearance indistinguishable from idiopathic PD. Initial studies suggest that LRRK2 mutations are the most common yet identified determinant of PD susceptibility, transmitted in an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance. Herein, we characterize the LRRK2 gene and transcript in human brain and subclone the predominant ORF. Exogenously expressed LRRK2 protein migrates at ≈280 kDa and is present largely in the cytoplasm but also associates with the mitochondrial outer membrane. Familial-linked mutations G2019S or R1441C do not have an obvious effect on protein steady-state levels, turnover, or localization. However, in vitro kinase assays using full-length recombinant LRRK2 reveal an increase in activity caused by familial-linked mutations in both autophosphorylation and the phosphorylation of a generic substrate. These results suggest a gain-of-function mechanism for LRRK2-linked disease with a central role for kinase activity in the development of PD. PMID:16269541

  1. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  2. Familial hypertriglyceridemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000397.htm Familial hypertriglyceridemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial hypertriglyceridemia is a common disorder passed down through families. ...

  3. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  4. Family Arguments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  5. Preclinical validation of a novel compound targeting p70S6 kinase in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Segatto, Ilenia; Massarut, Samuele; Boyle, Robert; Baldassarre, Gustavo; Walker, David; Belletti, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a frequent and treatable disease. However, when recurrent, breast cancer often becomes refractory to therapy and progresses into metastatic forms that are typically incurable. Thus, understanding and targeting the critical pathways underlying breast cancer recurrence is urgently needed to eradicate primary disease and achieve better prognosis. Recently, we have demonstrated that the ribosomal protein p70S6K is activated in residual breast cancer cells as a result of post-surgical inflammation and that interfering with its activity in the peri-operative setting strongly suppresses recurrence in a mouse model. In order to develop clinically-exploitable treatments targeting p70S6K, we have tested a newly generated compound, called FS-115. FS-115 potently inhibited p70S6K1 (IC50 35nM) with high selectivity over other AGC kinases or PI3K pathway kinases. In vitro, treatment with FS-115 efficiently blocked p70S6K activity in breast cancer cell lines and impaired colony formation and anchorage independent growth. Pharmacokinetic profiling showed that FS-115 exhibited high oral bioavailability, optimal plasma distribution and high brain penetrance. In nude mice, FS-115 strongly suppressed tumor take-rate and primary tumor growth. Oral dosing with FS-115 in a peri-operative schedule was effective in decreasing local recurrence of breast cancer and a long-term treatment schedule was well tolerated and efficiently suppressed distant metastasis formation. Altogether, we propose that FS-115 might be a good candidate for the treatment of breast cancer patients at high risk to relapse. Summary Statement Our results confirm that inhibition of p70S6K represents a valuable opportunity for restraining loco-regional relapse and metastasis in breast cancer and identify in FS-115 a promising candidate-inhibitor to move from preclinical to clinical treatments. PMID:27155197

  6. Aurora Kinases Throughout Plant Development.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Annika K; Demidov, Dmitri; Lermontova, Inna; Beeckman, Tom; Van Damme, Daniël

    2016-01-01

    Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved key mitotic determinants in all eukaryotes. Yeasts contain a single Aurora kinase, whereas multicellular eukaryotes have at least two functionally diverged members. The involvement of Aurora kinases in human cancers has provided an in-depth mechanistic understanding of their roles throughout cell division in animal and yeast models. By contrast, understanding Aurora kinase function in plants is only starting to emerge. Nevertheless, genetic, cell biological, and biochemical approaches have revealed functional diversification between the plant Aurora kinases and suggest a role in formative (asymmetric) divisions, chromatin modification, and genome stability. This review provides an overview of the accumulated knowledge on the function of plant Aurora kinases as well as some major challenges for the future.

  7. LRRK2: from kinase to GTPase to microtubules and back.

    PubMed

    Blanca Ramírez, Marian; Lara Ordóñez, Antonio Jesús; Fdez, Elena; Hilfiker, Sabine

    2017-02-08

    Mutations in the Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are intimately linked to both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is a large protein kinase able to bind and hydrolyse GTP. A wealth of in vitro studies have established that the distinct pathogenic LRRK2 mutants differentially affect those enzymatic activities, either causing an increase in kinase activity without altering GTP binding/GTP hydrolysis, or displaying no change in kinase activity but increased GTP binding/decreased GTP hydrolysis. Importantly, recent studies have shown that all pathogenic LRRK2 mutants display increased kinase activity towards select kinase substrates when analysed in intact cells. To understand those apparently discrepant results, better insight into the cellular role(s) of normal and pathogenic LRRK2 is crucial. Various studies indicate that LRRK2 regulates numerous intracellular vesicular trafficking pathways, but the mechanism(s) by which the distinct pathogenic mutants may equally interfere with such pathways has largely remained elusive. Here, we summarize the known alterations in the catalytic activities of the distinct pathogenic LRRK2 mutants and propose a testable working hypothesis by which the various mutants may affect membrane trafficking events in identical ways by culminating in increased phosphorylation of select substrate proteins known to be crucial for membrane trafficking between specific cellular compartments.

  8. Targeting kinase signaling pathways with constrained peptide scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hanold, Laura E; Fulton, Melody D; Kennedy, Eileen J

    2017-02-07

    Kinases are amongst the largest families in the human proteome and serve as critical mediators of a myriad of cell signaling pathways. Since altered kinase activity is implicated in a variety of pathological diseases, kinases have become a prominent class of proteins for targeted inhibition. Although numerous small molecule and antibody-based inhibitors have already received clinical approval, several challenges may still exist with these strategies including resistance, target selection, inhibitor potency and in vivo activity profiles. Constrained peptide inhibitors have emerged as an alternative strategy for kinase inhibition. Distinct from small molecule inhibitors, peptides can provide a large binding surface area that allows them to bind shallow protein surfaces rather than defined pockets within the target protein structure. By including chemical constraints within the peptide sequence, additional benefits can be bestowed onto the peptide scaffold such as improved target affinity and target selectivity, cell permeability and proteolytic resistance. In this review, we highlight examples of diverse chemistries that are being employed to constrain kinase-targeting peptide scaffolds and highlight their application to modulate kinase signaling as well as their potential clinical implications.

  9. Guanidinium-based derivatives: searching for new kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Diez-Cecilia, Elena; Kelly, Brendan; Perez, Concepcion; Zisterer, Daniela M; Nevin, Daniel K; Lloyd, David G; Rozas, Isabel

    2014-06-23

    Considering the structural similarities between the kinase inhibitor sorafenib and 4,4'-bis-guanidinium derivatives previously prepared by Rozas and co., which display interesting cytotoxicity in cancer cells, we have studied whether this activity could result from kinase inhibition. Five new families have been prepared consisting of unsubstituted and aryl-substituted 3,4'-bis-guanidiniums, 3,4'-bis-2-aminoimidazolinium and 3-acetamide-4'-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethylphenyl)guanidinium derivatives. Cytotoxicity (measuring the IC50 values) and apoptosis studies in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells were carried out for these compounds. Additionally, their potential inhibitory effect was explored on a panel of kinases known to be involved in apoptotic pathways. The previously prepared cytotoxic 4,4'-bis-guanidiniums did not inhibit any of these kinases; however, some of the novel 3,4'-substituted derivatives showed a high percentage inhibition of RAF-1/MEK-1, for which the potential mode of binding was evaluated by docking studies. The interesting antitumour properties showed by these compounds open up new exciting lines of investigation for kinase inhibitors as anticancer agents and also highlights the relevance of the guanidinium moiety for protein kinase inhibitors chemical design.

  10. Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that family literacy programs can provide opportunities for educational success for parents and children. The benefits reaped by the children in family literacy workshops are presented.

  11. Connecting the speckles: Splicing kinases and their role in tumorigenesis and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Corkery, Dale P; Holly, Alice C; Lahsaee, Sara; Dellaire, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing in higher eukaryotes enhances transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Its regulation is mediated by a complex RNA-protein network that is essential for the maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis. Disruptions to this regulatory network underlie a host of human diseases and contribute to cancer development and progression. The splicing kinases are an important family of pre-mRNA splicing regulators, , which includes the CDC-like kinases (CLKs), the SRSF protein kinases (SRPKs) and pre-mRNA splicing 4 kinase (PRP4K/PRPF4B). These splicing kinases regulate pre-mRNA splicing via phosphorylation of spliceosomal components and serine-arginine (SR) proteins, affecting both their nuclear localization within nuclear speckle domains as well as their nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling. Here we summarize the emerging evidence that splicing kinases are dysregulated in cancer and play important roles in both tumorigenesis as well as therapeutic response to radiation and chemotherapy.

  12. Structural insight into the mechanism of synergistic autoinhibition of SAD kinases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-Xiang; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Wang, Jue; Chen, Lei; Ding, Mei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The SAD/BRSK kinases participate in various important life processes, including neural development, cell cycle and energy metabolism. Like other members of the AMPK family, SAD contains an N-terminal kinase domain followed by the characteristic UBA and KA1 domains. Here we identify a unique autoinhibitory sequence (AIS) in SAD kinases, which exerts autoregulation in cooperation with UBA. Structural studies of mouse SAD-A revealed that UBA binds to the kinase domain in a distinct mode and, more importantly, AIS nestles specifically into the KD-UBA junction. The cooperative action of AIS and UBA results in an ‘αC-out' inactive kinase, which is conserved across species and essential for presynaptic vesicle clustering in C. elegans. In addition, the AIS, along with the KA1 domain, is indispensable for phospholipid binding. Taken together, these data suggest a model for synergistic autoinhibition and membrane activation of SAD kinases. PMID:26626945

  13. Structural insight into the mechanism of synergistic autoinhibition of SAD kinases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Xiang; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Wang, Jue; Chen, Lei; Ding, Mei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2015-12-02

    The SAD/BRSK kinases participate in various important life processes, including neural development, cell cycle and energy metabolism. Like other members of the AMPK family, SAD contains an N-terminal kinase domain followed by the characteristic UBA and KA1 domains. Here we identify a unique autoinhibitory sequence (AIS) in SAD kinases, which exerts autoregulation in cooperation with UBA. Structural studies of mouse SAD-A revealed that UBA binds to the kinase domain in a distinct mode and, more importantly, AIS nestles specifically into the KD-UBA junction. The cooperative action of AIS and UBA results in an 'αC-out' inactive kinase, which is conserved across species and essential for presynaptic vesicle clustering in C. elegans. In addition, the AIS, along with the KA1 domain, is indispensable for phospholipid binding. Taken together, these data suggest a model for synergistic autoinhibition and membrane activation of SAD kinases.

  14. Src kinases and ERK activate distinct responses to Stitcher receptor tyrosine kinase signaling during wound healing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tsarouhas, Vasilios; Yao, Liqun; Samakovlis, Christos

    2014-04-15

    Metazoans have evolved efficient mechanisms for epidermal repair and survival following injury. Several cellular responses and key signaling molecules that are involved in wound healing have been identified in Drosophila, but the coordination of cytoskeletal rearrangements and the activation of gene expression during barrier repair are poorly understood. The Ret-like receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Stitcher (Stit, also known as Cad96Ca) regulates both re-epithelialization and transcriptional activation by Grainy head (Grh) to induce restoration of the extracellular barrier. Here, we describe the immediate downstream effectors of Stit signaling in vivo. Drk (Downstream of receptor kinase) and Src family tyrosine kinases bind to the same docking site in the Stit intracellular domain. Drk is required for the full activation of transcriptional responses but is dispensable for re-epithelialization. By contrast, Src family kinases (SFKs) control both the assembly of a contractile actin ring at the wound periphery and Grh-dependent activation of barrier-repair genes. Our analysis identifies distinct pathways mediating injury responses and reveals an RTK-dependent activation mode for Src kinases and their central functions during epidermal wound healing in vivo.

  15. The cysteine-cluster motif of c-Yes, Lyn and FAK as a suppressive module for the kinases.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Senga, Takeshi; Oo, Myat Lin; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Biswas, Md Helal Uddin; Mon, Naing Naing; Huang, Pengyu; Ito, Satoko; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2008-04-01

    The Src family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases plays a critical role in the progression of human cancers so that the development of its specific inhibitors is important as a therapeutic tool. We previously reported that cysteine residues in the cysteine-cluster (CC) motif of v-Src were critical for the kinase inactivation by the SH-alkylating agents such as N-(9-acridinyl) maleimide (NAM), whereas other cysteine residues were dispensable. We found similar CC-motifs in other Src-family kinases and a non-Src-family kinase, FAK. In this study, we explored the function of the CC-motif in Yes, Lyn and FAK. While Src has four cysteines in the CC-motif, c-Yes and Lyn have three and two of the four cysteines, respectively. Two conserved cysteines of the Src family kinases, corresponding to Cys487 and Cys498 of Src, were essential for the resistance to the inactivation of the kinase activity by NAM, whereas the first cysteine of c-Yes, which is absent in Lyn, was less important. FAK has similar CC-motifs with two cysteines and both cysteines were again essential for the resistance to the inactivation of the kinase activity by NAM. Taken together, modification of cysteine residues of the CC-motif causes a repressor effect on the catalytic activity of the Src family kinases and FAK.

  16. Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.

    PubMed

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel.

  17. Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  18. Muslim families and family therapy.

    PubMed

    Daneshpour, M

    1998-07-01

    Muslim immigrant families living in the United States may well come to the attention of mental health professionals. This article examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The most significant differences in value systems between the Muslim and Anglo-American cultures is Muslim families' preference for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Systemic thinking, which deals with the pattern of relationships, is valid for all families regardless of cultural differences. However, the preferred directions of change for Muslim families need to be integrated into the assessment and goals for family therapy.

  19. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  20. Activity and regulation by growth factors of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (elongation factor 2-kinase) in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parmer, T G; Ward, M D; Yurkow, E J; Vyas, V H; Kearney, T J; Hait, W N

    1999-01-01

    Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (CaM kinase III, elongation factor-2 kinase) is a unique member of the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase family. Activation of CaM kinase III leads to the selective phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) and transient inhibition of protein synthesis. Recent cloning and sequencing of CaM kinase III revealed that this enzyme represents a new superfamily of protein kinases. The activity of CaM kinase III is selectively activated in proliferating cells; inhibition of the kinase blocked cells in G0/G1-S and decreased viability. To determine the significance of CaM kinase III in breast cancer, we measured the activity of the kinase in human breast cancer cell lines as well as in fresh surgical specimens. The specific activity of CaM kinase III in human breast cancer cell lines was equal to or greater than that seen in a variety of cell lines with similar rates of proliferation. The specific activity of CaM kinase III was markedly increased in human breast tumour specimens compared with that of normal adjacent breast tissue. The activity of this enzyme was regulated by breast cancer mitogens. In serum-deprived MDA-MB-231 cells, the combination of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated cell proliferation and activated CaM kinase III to activities observed in the presence of 10% serum. Inhibition of enzyme activity blocked cell proliferation induced by growth factors. In MCF-7 cells separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, CaM kinase III was increased in S-phase over that of other phases of the cell cycle. In summary, the activity of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase III is controlled by breast cancer mitogens and appears to be constitutively activated in human breast cancer. These results suggest that CaM kinase III may contribute an important link between growth factor/receptor interactions, protein synthesis and the induction of cellular proliferation in human breast

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase associates with an insulin receptor substrate-1 serine kinase distinct from its intrinsic serine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cengel, K A; Kason, R E; Freund, G G

    1998-01-01

    Serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has been proposed as a counter-regulatory mechanism in insulin and cytokine signalling. Here we report that IRS-1 is phosphorylated by a wortmannin insensitive phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-associated serine kinase (PAS kinase) distinct from PI 3-kinase serine kinase. We found that PI 3-kinase immune complexes contain 5-fold more wortmannin-insensitive serine kinase activity than SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and IRS-1 immune complexes. Affinity chromatography of cell lysates with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein for the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase showed that PAS kinase associated with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase. This interaction required unoccupied SH2 domain(s) but did not require the PI 3-kinase p110 subunit binding domain. In terms of function, PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1 and, after insulin stimulation, PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1 in PI 3-kinase-IRS-1 complexes. Phosphopeptide mapping showed that insulin-dependent in vivo sites of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation were comparable to those of PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1. More importantly, PAS kinase-dependent phosphorylation of IRS-1 reduced by 4-fold the ability of IRS-1 to act as an insulin receptor substrate. Taken together, these findings indicate that: (a) PAS kinase is distinct from the intrinsic serine kinase activity of PI 3-kinase, (b) PAS kinase associates with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase through SH2 domain interactions, and (c) PAS kinase is an IRS-1 serine kinase that can reduce the ability of IRS-1 to serve as an insulin receptor substrate. PMID:9761740

  2. Protein Kinases of the Hippo Pathway: Regulation and Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Avruch, Joseph; Zhou, Dawang; Fitamant, Julien; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Mou, Fan; Barrufet, Laura Regué

    2012-01-01

    The “Hippo” signaling pathway has emerged as a major regulator of cell proliferation and survival in metazoans. The pathway, as delineated by genetic and biochemical studies in Drosophila, consists of a kinase cascade regulated by cell-cell contact and cell polarity that inhibits the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie and its proliferative, anti-differentiation, antiapoptotic transcriptional program. The core pathway components are the GC kinase Hippo, which phosphorylates the noncatalytic polypeptide Mats/Mob1 and, with the assistance of the scaffold protein Salvador, phosphorylates the ndr-family kinase Lats. In turn phospho-Lats, after binding to phospho-Mats, autoactivates and phosphorylates Yorkie, resulting in its nuclear exit. Hippo also uses the scaffold protein Furry and a different Mob protein to control another ndr-like kinase, the morphogenetic regulator Tricornered. Architecturally homologous kinase cascades consisting of a GC kinase, a Mob protein, a scaffolding polypeptide and an ndr-like kinase are well described in yeast; in S. cerevisiae e.g., the MEN pathway promotes mitotic exit whereas the RAM network, using a different GC kinase, Mob protein, scaffold and ndr-like kinase, regulates cell polarity and morphogenesis. In mammals, the Hippo orthologues Mst1 and Mst2 utilize the Salvador ortholog WW45/Sav1 and other scaffolds to regulate the kinases Lats1/Lats2 and ndr1/ndr2. As in Drosophila, murine Mst1/Mst2, in a redundant manner, negatively regulate the Yorkie ortholog YAP in the epithelial cells of the liver and gut; loss of both Mst1 and Mst2 results in hyperproliferation and tumorigenesis that can be largely negated by reduction or elimination of YAP. Despite this conservation, considerable diversification in pathway composition and regulation is already evident; in skin e.g., YAP phosphorylation is independent of Mst1Mst2 and Lats1Lats2. Moreover, in lymphoid cells, Mst1/Mst2, under the control of the Rap1 GTPase and independent of YAP

  3. Crystal Structures of Putative Sugar Kinases from Synechococcus Elongatus PCC 7942 and Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuan; Li, Mei; Chang, Wenrui

    2016-01-01

    The genome of the Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 encodes a putative sugar kinase (SePSK), which shares 44.9% sequence identity with the xylulose kinase-1 (AtXK-1) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence alignment suggests that both kinases belong to the ribulokinase-like carbohydrate kinases, a sub-family of FGGY family carbohydrate kinases. However, their exact physiological function and real substrates remain unknown. Here we solved the structures of SePSK and AtXK-1 in both their apo forms and in complex with nucleotide substrates. The two kinases exhibit nearly identical overall architecture, with both kinases possessing ATP hydrolysis activity in the absence of substrates. In addition, our enzymatic assays suggested that SePSK has the capability to phosphorylate D-ribulose. In order to understand the catalytic mechanism of SePSK, we solved the structure of SePSK in complex with D-ribulose and found two potential substrate binding pockets in SePSK. Using mutation and activity analysis, we further verified the key residues important for its catalytic activity. Moreover, our structural comparison with other family members suggests that there are major conformational changes in SePSK upon substrate binding, facilitating the catalytic process. Together, these results provide important information for a more detailed understanding of the cofactor and substrate binding mode as well as the catalytic mechanism of SePSK, and possible similarities with its plant homologue AtXK-1. PMID:27223615

  4. Muslim Families and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneshpour, Manijeh

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The differences in value systems are the Muslim families' preferences for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Suggests that directions for change for Muslims need to…

  5. Germinal-center kinase-like kinase co-crystal structure reveals a swapped activation loop and C-terminal extension.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Douglas; Rushe, Mia; M Arduini, Robert; Lukacs, Christine; Atkins, Kateri; Sun, Xin; Little, Kevin; Cullivan, Michael; Paramasivam, Murugan; Patterson, Thomas A; Hesson, Thomas; D McKee, Timothy; May-Dracka, Tricia L; Xin, Zhili; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea; Bhisetti, Govinda R; Lyssikatos, Joseph P; Silvian, Laura F

    2017-02-01

    Germinal-center kinase-like kinase (GLK, Map4k3), a GCK-I family kinase, plays multiple roles in regulating apoptosis, amino acid sensing, and immune signaling. We describe here the crystal structure of an activation loop mutant of GLK kinase domain bound to an inhibitor. The structure reveals a weakly associated, activation-loop swapped dimer with more than 20 amino acids of ordered density at the carboxy-terminus. This C-terminal PEST region binds intermolecularly to the hydrophobic groove of the N-terminal domain of a neighboring molecule. Although the GLK activation loop mutant crystallized demonstrates reduced kinase activity, its structure demonstrates all the hallmarks of an "active" kinase, including the salt bridge between the C-helix glutamate and the catalytic lysine. Our compound displacement data suggests that the effect of the Ser170Ala mutation in reducing kinase activity is likely due to its effect in reducing substrate peptide binding affinity rather than reducing ATP binding or ATP turnover. This report details the first structure of GLK; comparison of its activation loop sequence and P-loop structure to that of Map4k4 suggests ideas for designing inhibitors that can distinguish between these family members to achieve selective pharmacological inhibitors.

  6. Identification and characterization of the role of c-terminal Src kinase in dengue virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rinki; Agrawal, Tanvi; Khan, Naseem Ahmed; Nakayama, Yuji; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R.

    2016-01-01

    We screened a siRNA library targeting human tyrosine kinases in Huh-7 cells and identified c-terminal Src kinase (Csk) as one of the kinases involved in dengue virus replication. Knock-down of Csk expression by siRNAs or inhibition of Csk by an inhibitor reduced dengue virus RNA levels but did not affect viral entry. Csk partially colocalized with viral replication compartments. Dengue infection was drastically reduced in cells lacking the three ubiquitous src family kinases, Src, Fyn and Yes. Csk knock-down in these cells failed to block dengue virus replication suggesting that the effect of Csk is via regulation of Src family kinases. Csk was found to be hyper-phosphorylated during dengue infection and inhibition of protein kinase A led to a block in Csk phosphorylation and dengue virus replication. Overexpression studies suggest an important role for the kinase and SH3 domains in this process. Our results identified a novel role for Csk as a host tyrosine kinase involved in dengue virus replication and provide further insights into the role of host factors in dengue replication. PMID:27457684

  7. Functional analysis of the T-cell-restricted protein tyrosine kinase Txk.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J H; Sutmuller, R P; Sims, M J; Cooksley, S

    1998-01-01

    T lymphocytes express a range of tyrosine kinases that are involved in signalling processes driving cell activation, proliferation and differentation. Two tyrosine kinases expressed only in T cells, the Itk/Emt and Txk gene products, are members of the Tec family of kinases. The role of Tec kinases in cellular function is poorly understood, although a Tec kinase specific to B cells, Btk, is essential for B-cell development. To explore the contribution of the T-cell-specific Tec kinases to lymphocyte function, we have expressed human Txk in the baculovirus system and conducted the first characterization of its activity. We find that Txk exhibits a substrate preference in vitro quite distinct from that of the major T-cell kinases Lck and ZAP70, suggesting that Tec-family kinases might act on a distinct range of substrates. We also investigated the interactions of Txk with the cytoplasmic domains of the key signalling molecules CD3zeta, CD28 and CTLA4 and find that none of these are phosphorylated by Txk, nor are they ligands for the SH2 or SH3 domains of Txk. We conclude that it is unlikely that Txk has a role in the early signal transduction events associated with these key pathways controlling T-cell activation. PMID:9761724

  8. Targeting the interaction of Aurora kinases and SIRT1 mediated by Wnt signaling pathway in colorectal cancer: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyan, Boopathi; Jagadeesan, Kaviya; Ramakrishnan, Sabitha; Mathan, Ganeshan

    2016-08-01

    The Aurora kinases belong to the family of serine/threonine kinase, a central regulator of mitosis and their expression increased during G2/M phase. It is classified into Aurora A, B and C, each has distinct roles in cellular processes, which includes regulation of spindle assembly, function of centrosomes, cytoskeleton and cytokinesis. During cancer growth, their rapid increase makes most attractive marker for cancer treatment at present. However Aurora A kinase is known to be a marker for cancer therapy, the most important serine/threonine kinase of Aurora B kinase involvement in cancer is still inadequate. Subsequently, the recent findings revealed that the class III histone deacetylase of SIRT1 is a key regulator to activate Aurora kinases from S phase damaged DNA through Wnt signaling pathway. Even if both Aurora A kinase and SIRT1 serve as a marker for cancer therapy, the present review reveals it is interaction in Wnt signaling pathway that solely for colorectal cancer.

  9. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  10. ERK kinases modulate the activation of PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs) in DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Yan, Judy; Tang, Damu

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is the critical surveillance mechanism in maintaining genome integrity. The mechanism activates checkpoints to prevent cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA lesions, and mediates lesion repair. DDR is coordinated by three apical PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs), including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA dependent protein kinase). These kinases are activated in response to specific DNA damage or lesions, resulting in checkpoint activation and DNA lesion repair. While it is clear that the pathways of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK are the core components of DDR, there is accumulating evidence revealing the involvement of other cellular pathways in regulating DDR; this is in line with the concept that in addition to being a nuclear event DDR is also a cellular process. One of these pathways is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. ERK is a converging point of multiple signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adding to this list of pathways is the recent development of ERK in DDR. The ERK kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) contribute to the proper execution of DDR in terms of checkpoint activation and the repair of DNA lesions. This review summarizes the contributions of ERK to DDR with emphasis on the relationship of ERK kinases with the activation of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs.

  11. Pharmacological modulation of protein kinases as a new approach to treat addiction to cocaine and opiates.

    PubMed

    García-Pardo, María Pilar; Roger-Sanchez, Concepción; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, Jose; Aguilar, María Asunción

    2016-06-15

    Drug addiction shares brain mechanisms and molecular substrates with learning and memory processes, such as the stimulation of glutamate receptors and their downstream signalling pathways. In the present work we provide an up-to-date review of studies that have demonstrated the implication of the main memory-related calcium-dependent protein kinases in opiate and cocaine addiction. The effects of these drugs of abuse in different animal models of drug reward, dependence and addiction are altered by manipulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, particularly extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), the protein kinase C (PKC) family (including PKMζ), cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and its downstream target mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), heat-shock proteins (Hsp) and other enzymes and proteins. Research suggests that drugs of abuse induce dependence and addiction by modifying the signalling pathways that involve these memory-related protein kinases, and supports the idea that drug addiction is an excessive aberrant learning disorder in which the maladaptive memory of drug-associated cues maintains compulsive drug use and contributes to relapse. Moreover, the studies we review offer new pharmacological strategies to treat opiate and cocaine dependence based on the manipulation of these protein kinases. In particular, disruption of reconsolidation of drug-related memories may have a high therapeutic value in the treatment of drug addiction.

  12. Kinase Inhibitor Screening Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 as Potential Modulators of TDP-43 Cytosolic Accumulation during Cell Stress.

    PubMed

    Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L; Parker, Sarah J; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Duncan, Clare; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal processing of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major factor in neuronal degeneration during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is unclear how changes to TDP-43, including nuclear to cytosolic translocation and subsequent accumulation, are controlled in these diseases. TDP-43 is a member of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) RNA binding protein family and is known to associate with cytosolic RNA stress granule proteins in ALS and FTLD. hnRNP trafficking and accumulation is controlled by the action of specific kinases including members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, little is known about how kinase pathways control TDP-43 movement and accumulation. In this study, we used an in vitro model of TDP-43-positve stress granule formation to screen for the effect of kinase inhibitors on TDP-43 accumulation. We found that while a number of kinase inhibitors, particularly of the MAPK pathways modulated both TDP-43 and the global stress granule marker, human antigen R (HuR), multiple inhibitors were more specific to TDP-43 accumulation, including inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Close correlation was observed between effects of these inhibitors on TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR, but often with different effects on HuR accumulation. This may indicate a potential interaction between TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR. CDK inhibitors were also found to reverse pre-formed TDP-43-positive stress granules and both CDK and GSK3 inhibitors abrogated the accumulation of C-terminal TDP-43 (219-414) in transfected cells. Further studies are required to confirm the specific kinases involved and whether their action is through phosphorylation of the TDP-43 binding partner hnRNP K. This knowledge provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms controlling abnormal cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation and may herald new opportunities

  13. Structural Comparison of Human Mammalian Ste20-Like Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Record, Christopher J.; Chaikuad, Apirat; Rellos, Peter; Das, Sanjan; Pike, Ashley C. W.; Fedorov, Oleg; Marsden, Brian D.; Knapp, Stefan; Lee, Wen Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Background The serine/threonine mammalian Ste-20 like kinases (MSTs) are key regulators of apoptosis, cellular proliferation as well as polarization. Deregulation of MSTs has been associated with disease progression in prostate and colorectal cancer. The four human MSTs are regulated differently by C-terminal regions flanking the catalytic domains. Principal Findings We have determined the crystal structure of kinase domain of MST4 in complex with an ATP-mimetic inhibitor. This is the first structure of an inactive conformation of a member of the MST kinase family. Comparison with active structures of MST3 and MST1 revealed a dimeric association of MST4 suggesting an activation loop exchanged mechanism of MST4 auto-activation. Together with a homology model of MST2 we provide a comparative analysis of the kinase domains for all four members of the human MST family. Significance The comparative analysis identified new structural features in the MST ATP binding pocket and has also defined the mechanism for autophosphorylation. Both structural features may be further explored for inhibitors design. Enhanced version This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1. PMID:20730082

  14. Structure of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Karolina; Cuff, Marianne E.; Tesar, Christine; Feldmann, Brian; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    In most organisms, efficient d-galactose utilization requires the highly conserved Leloir pathway that converts d-galactose to d-glucose 1-phosphate. However, in some bacterial and fungal species alternative routes of d-galactose assimilation have been identified. In the so-called De Ley–Doudoroff pathway, d-galactose is metabolized into pyruvate and d-­glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate in five consecutive reactions carried out by specific enzymes. The penultimate step in this pathway involves the phosphorylation of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate to 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate 6-phosphate catalyzed by 2-­oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase, with ATP serving as a phosphoryl-group donor. Here, a crystal structure of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae determined at 2.1 Å resolution is reported, the first structure of an enzyme from the De Ley–Doudoroff pathway. Structural comparison indicates that the enzyme belongs to the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/hsc70/actin) family of phosphotransferases. The protein is composed of two α/β domains, each of which contains a core common to all family members. Additional elements introduced between conserved structural motifs define the unique features of 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase and possibly determine the biological function of the protein. PMID:21795809

  15. Family Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Deployment & Transition Home » Health & Wellness » Family Violence Family Violence Recognize the warning signs . Know how to report. ... Love Every Day Making Relationships Work National Domestic Violence Hotline Signs of Child Abuse INSTALLATION PROGRAM DIRECTORY ...

  16. Functions of Aurora kinase C in meiosis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Quartuccio, Suzanne M; Schindler, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian genome encodes three Aurora kinase protein family members: A, B, and C. While Aurora kinase A (AURKA) and B (AURKB) are found in cells throughout the body, significant protein levels of Aurora kinase C (AURKC) are limited to cells that undergo meiosis (sperm and oocyte). Despite its discovery nearly 20 years ago, we know little about the function of AURKC compared to that of the other 2 Aurora kinases. This lack of understanding can be attributed to the high sequence homology between AURKB and AURKC preventing the use of standard approaches to understand non-overlapping and meiosis I (MI)-specific functions of the two kinases. Recent evidence has revealed distinct functions of AURKC in meiosis and may aid in our understanding of why chromosome segregation during MI often goes awry in oocytes. Many cancers aberrantly express AURKC, but because we do not fully understand AURKC function in its normal cellular context, it is difficult to predict the biological significance of this expression on the disease. Here, we consolidate and update what is known about AURKC signaling in meiotic cells to better understand why it has oncogenic potential.

  17. Aurora kinase inhibitors--rising stars in cancer therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Dar, Altaf A; Goff, Laura W; Majid, Shahana; Berlin, Jordan; El-Rifai, Wael

    2010-02-01

    Standard therapeutic approaches of cytotoxics and radiation in cancer are not only highly toxic, but also of limited efficacy in treatment of a significant number of cancer patients. The molecular analysis of the cancer genomes have shown a remarkable complexity and pointed to key genomic and epigenomic alterations in cancer. These discoveries are paving the way for targeted therapy approaches. However, although there are a large number of potential targets, only a few can regulate key cellular functions and intersect multiple signaling networks. The Aurora kinase family members (A, B, and C) are a collection of highly related and conserved serine-threonine kinases that fulfill these criteria, being key regulators of mitosis and multiple signaling pathways. Alterations in Aurora kinase signaling are associated with mitotic errors and have been closely linked to chromosomal aneuploidy in cancer cells. Several studies have shown amplification and/or overexpression of Aurora kinase A and B in hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Over the past several years, Aurora kinases have become attractive targets. Several ongoing clinical trials and bench-based research are assessing the unique therapeutic potential of Aurora-based targeted therapy.

  18. Identification of kinases, phosphatases, and phosphorylation sites in human and porcine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Brett R; Gray, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    Multiple inter-connected signaling pathways, involving kinases and phosphatases, form a framework that controls sperm motility, function, and fertilizing ability. Methods that give a broad view of the proteomic landscape may prove valuable in uncovering new crosstalk connections, as well as in discovering new proteins within this regulatory framework. A multi-immunoblotting strategy was utilized to evaluate this concept on human and porcine spermatozoa samples. In human and porcine spermatozoa, a diversity of kinases were identified including protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase B (PKB), isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), calmodulin-dependent kinases (CAMK), casein kinase (CK), and isoforms of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3). Several phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase (PP)-1, PP2A, PP2C, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (MKP-1), were identified in human spermatozoa. The phosphorylation epitopes recognized belonged to members of the MAPK family, in addition to α and β isoforms of GSK3 and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Proteomic approaches that allow a broad view may aid in understanding the crosstalk between signaling systems in spermatozoal physiology.

  19. Crystal structure of domain-swapped STE20 OSR1 kinase domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2009-09-15

    OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive-1) and SPAK (Ste20/Sps1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) belong to the GCK-VI subfamily of Ste20 group kinases. OSR1 and SPAK are key regulators of NKCCs (Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/2Cl{sup -} cotransporters) and activated by WNK family members (with-no-lysine kinase), mutations of which are known to cause Gordon syndrome, an autosomal dominant form of inherited hypertension. The crystal structure of OSR1 kinase domain has been solved at 2.25 {angstrom}. OSR1 forms a domain-swapped dimer in an inactive conformation, in which P+1 loop and {alpha}EF helix are swapped between dimer-related monomers. Structural alignment with nonswapped Ste20 TAO2 kinase indicates that the integrity of chemical interactions in the kinase domain is well preserved in the domain-swapped interfaces. The OSR1 kinase domain has now been added to a growing list of domain-swapped protein kinases recently reported, suggesting that the domain-swapping event provides an additional layer of complexity in regulating protein kinase activity.

  20. Separate nuclear genes encode cytosolic and mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Troll, H; Winckler, T; Lascu, I; Müller, N; Saurin, W; Véron, M; Mutzel, R

    1993-12-05

    We have previously isolated cDNA clones for the gip17 gene encoding the cytosolic nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum, and partial cDNAs for guk, a second member of the NDP kinase gene family (Wallet, V., Mutzel, R., Troll, H., Barzu, O., Wurster, B., Véron, M., and Lacombe, M. L. (1990) J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 80, 1199-1202). We now characterize genomic DNA clones for both NDP kinase genes, and we show that guk defines a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial NDP kinase. Isolated D. discoideum mitochondria contain 3% of the total cellular NDP kinase activity. Antibodies which specifically recognize and inhibit the activity of either cytosolic or mitochondrial NDP kinase unambiguously distinguish between these activities. The nascent mitochondrial NDP kinase contains a presequence of 57 amino acids that is removed during import into the organelle as shown by determination of the NH2 terminus of the mature protein from mitochondria. The genes for mitochondrial and cytosolic NDP kinases contain four and two introns, respectively. The positions of the of the introns in the gene for the cytosolic enzyme match exactly the positions of the second and fourth introns in the coding region of its mitochondrial homologue. From these results we conclude that the isozymes diverged from a common ancestor, and we discuss possible phylogenetic pathways for the evolution of cytosolic and organelle NDP kinases.

  1. Aurora-A Kinase: A Potent Oncogene and Target for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Min; Wang, Chunli; He, Bin; Yang, Mengying; Tong, Mengying; Long, Zijie; Liu, Bing; Peng, Fei; Xu, Lingzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Dapeng; Lei, Haixin; Subrata, Sen; Kelley, Keith W; Lam, Eric W-F; Jin, Bilian; Liu, Quentin

    2016-11-01

    The Aurora kinase family is comprised of three serine/threonine kinases, Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C. Among these, Aurora-A and Aurora-B play central roles in mitosis, whereas Aurora-C executes unique roles in meiosis. Overexpression or gene amplification of Aurora kinases has been reported in a broad range of human malignancies, pointing to their role as potent oncogenes in tumorigenesis. Aurora kinases therefore represent promising targets for anticancer therapeutics. A number of Aurora kinase inhibitors (AKIs) have been generated; some of which are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Recent studies have unveiled novel unexpected functions of Aurora kinases during cancer development and the mechanisms underlying the anticancer actions of AKIs. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances in Aurora-A kinase research and targeted cancer therapy, focusing on the oncogenic roles and signaling pathways of Aurora-A kinases in promoting tumorigenesis, the recent preclinical and clinical AKI data, and potential alternative routes for Aurora-A kinase inhibition.

  2. Polo-like kinases: structural variations lead to multiple functions.

    PubMed

    Zitouni, Sihem; Nabais, Catarina; Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Guerrero, Adán; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica

    2014-07-01

    Members of the polo-like kinase (PLK) family are crucial regulators of cell cycle progression, centriole duplication, mitosis, cytokinesis and the DNA damage response. PLKs undergo major changes in abundance, activity, localization and structure at different stages of the cell cycle. They interact with other proteins in a tightly controlled spatiotemporal manner as part of a network that coordinates key cell cycle events. Their essential roles are highlighted by the fact that alterations in PLK function are associated with cancers and other diseases. Recent knowledge gained from PLK crystal structures, evolution and interacting molecules offers important insights into the mechanisms that underlie their regulation and activity, and suggests novel functions unrelated to cell cycle control for this family of kinases.

  3. Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontos, Lynn Balster

    1992-01-01

    Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…

  4. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the…

  5. The centrosome-associated Aurora/Ipl-like kinase family.

    PubMed

    Goepfert, T M; Brinkley, B R

    2000-01-01

    Because of the well-known role of the centrosome and mitotic apparatus in genome partitioning in normal cells, defects in pathways essential for mitotic regulation are likely implicated in the cascade of events leading to aneuploidy and neoplasia. Exogenous overexpression of AIM-1, for example, produces multinuclearity in human cells and increased ploidy as well as aneuploidy (Tatsuka et al., 1998). Overexpression in colorectal tumor cell lines is thought to have a causal relationship with multinuclearity and increased ploidy. Cytokinesis error caused by AIM-1 overexpression is a major factor in the predisposition to cancer. As previously mentioned, the involvement of BTAK/aur2/AIK in centrosome amplification and its oncogenic activity are compelling. Aur2 has also been implicated in oncogenesis, and defects in kinetochore function leading to chromosome instability in human tumors should not be minimized (Farruggio et al., 1999). Further studies are needed to provide a clearer definition of how these kinetic proteins are linked and regulated in normal mitosis and cancer. Thus, Boveri appears to have been correct in formulating his early hypothesis that a defective mitotic apparatus and centrosome number were central and causative in chromosome missegregation and cancer. One hundred years later, at the onset of a new millennium and with light-years of advanced technology in our favor, we are just now beginning to piece together the enzymes, substrates, and signaling pathways that support and explain his long-ignored but prophetic claim.

  6. Targeting SRC Family Kinases in HSP90 in Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    or ganetespib treatment for effects on cell viability in vitro (Major Task 1). Representative data illustrating one of the cell line models (H1299...pM through 100 µM. After an additional 72 hours, CellTiterBlue was used to measure cell viability . Figure 2 shows representative curves, averaged...vitro, with an IC50 of 10 nM, and reducing the viability by 70% at 30-50 nM. 2) Dasatinib was less effective in these cells , with an IC50 of 100 nM

  7. The Protein Kinase RSK Family - Roles in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    pKH3RSK2 using Xba I and Xma I and subcloned into ARR2PBKbpA with an EcoR I/Xba I linker. The HA-tagged RSK1 was digested from pKH3RSK2 using Xba I and...EcoR1 and subcloned into ARR2PBKbpA with an EcoR I /Xba I linker. The inserts were sequenced by the University of Virginia Biomolecular Research

  8. Italian families and family interventions.

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2014-06-01

    In Italy, as in many countries, relatives are closely involved in caring for persons with physical and mental disorders. The Italian scenario lends itself to routine involvement of family members in psychiatric treatment because, despite becoming smaller and smaller, Italian families keep close ties, and men and women do not leave the parental home until relatively late. The authors describe the impact of international family psychosocial research on the Italian mental health services (MHSs) and the main psychosocial interventions currently in use, including family psychoeducational interventions and the "Milan family therapy approach." They also highlight the contribution Italian researchers have given to the study of important variables in integrated mental disorder care, such as family burden of care, relatives' attitudes, family functioning, and satisfaction with the MHSs. Finally, they discuss the difficulties of implementing and disseminating family interventions within the Italian MHS, despite the growing evidence of their effectiveness.

  9. Isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Macioszek, J.; Anderson, L.E. ); Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts. Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast.

  10. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  11. Phosphorylation of myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase by Rho-kinase in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Y; Fukata, Y; Oshiro, N; Amano, M; Nakamura, T; Ito, M; Matsumura, F; Inagaki, M; Kaibuchi, K

    1999-11-29

    Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which is activated by the small GTPase Rho, phosphorylates myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase and thereby inactivates the phosphatase activity in vitro. Rho-kinase is thought to regulate the phosphorylation state of the substrates including myosin light chain (MLC), ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family proteins and adducin by their direct phosphorylation and by the inactivation of myosin phosphatase. Here we identified the sites of phosphorylation of MBS by Rho-kinase as Thr-697, Ser-854 and several residues, and prepared antibody that specifically recognized MBS phosphorylated at Ser-854. We found by use of this antibody that the stimulation of MDCK epithelial cells with tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced the phosphorylation of MBS at Ser-854 under the conditions in which membrane ruffling and cell migration were induced. Pretreatment of the cells with Botulinum C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase (C3), which is thought to interfere with Rho functions, or Rho-kinase inhibitors inhibited the TPA- or HGF-induced MBS phosphorylation. The TPA stimulation enhanced the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated MBS in the cytoplasm and membrane ruffling area of MDCK cells. In migrating MDCK cells, phosphorylated MBS as well as phosphorylated MLC at Ser-19 were localized in the leading edge and posterior region. Phosphorylated MBS was localized on actin stress fibers in REF52 fibroblasts. The microinjection of C3 or dominant negative Rho-kinase disrupted stress fibers and weakened the accumulation of phosphorylated MBS in REF52 cells. During cytokinesis, phosphorylated MBS, MLC and ERM family proteins accumulated at the cleavage furrow, and the phosphorylation level of MBS at Ser-854 was increased. Taken together, these results indicate that MBS is phosphorylated by Rho-kinase downstream of Rho in vivo, and suggest that myosin phosphatase and Rho-kinase spatiotemporally regulate the

  12. Dealing with osmostress through MAP kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    de Nadal, Eulàlia; Alepuz, Paula M.; Posas, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    In response to changes in the extracellular environment, cells coordinate intracellular activities to maximize their probability of survival and proliferation. Eukaryotic cells, from yeast to mammals, transduce diverse extracellular stimuli through the cell by multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Exposure of cells to increases in extracellular osmolarity results in rapid activation of a highly conserved family of MAPKs, known as stress-activated MAPKs (SAPKs). Activation of SAPKs is essential for the induction of adaptive responses required for cell survival upon osmostress. Recent studies have begun to shed light on the broad effects of SAPK activation in the modulation of several aspects of cell physiology, ranging from the control of gene expression to the regulation of cell division. PMID:12151331

  13. Baculovirus protein PK2 subverts eIF2α kinase function by mimicry of its kinase domain C-lobe

    PubMed Central

    Li, John J.; Cao, Chune; Fixsen, Sarah M.; Young, Janet M.; Bando, Hisanori; Elde, Nels C.; Katsuma, Susumu; Dever, Thomas E.; Sicheri, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) by eIF2α family kinases is a conserved mechanism to limit protein synthesis under specific stress conditions. The baculovirus-encoded protein PK2 inhibits eIF2α family kinases in vivo, thereby increasing viral fitness. However, the precise mechanism by which PK2 inhibits eIF2α kinase function remains an enigma. Here, we probed the mechanism by which PK2 inhibits the model eIF2α kinase human RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as well as native insect eIF2α kinases. Although PK2 structurally mimics the C-lobe of a protein kinase domain and possesses the required docking infrastructure to bind eIF2α, we show that PK2 directly binds the kinase domain of PKR (PKRKD) but not eIF2α. The PKRKD–PK2 interaction requires a 22-residue N-terminal extension preceding the globular PK2 body that we term the “eIF2α kinase C-lobe mimic” (EKCM) domain. The functional insufficiency of the N-terminal extension of PK2 implicates a role for the adjacent EKCM domain in binding and inhibiting PKR. Using a genetic screen in yeast, we isolated PK2-activating mutations that cluster to a surface of the EKCM domain that in bona fide protein kinases forms the catalytic cleft through sandwiching interactions with a kinase N-lobe. Interaction assays revealed that PK2 associates with the N- but not the C-lobe of PKRKD. We propose an inhibitory model whereby PK2 engages the N-lobe of an eIF2α kinase domain to create a nonfunctional pseudokinase domain complex, possibly through a lobe-swapping mechanism. Finally, we show that PK2 enhances baculovirus fitness in insect hosts by targeting the endogenous insect heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI)–like eIF2α kinase. PMID:26216977

  14. Genome-wide analysis of lectin receptor-like kinases in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yongil; Labbé, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; Yang, Xiaohan; Jawdy, Sara S.; Kennedy, Megan; Johnson, Jenifer; Sreedasyam, Avinash; Schmutz, Jeremy; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Chen, Jin -Gui

    2016-09-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) belong to a large protein family with over 600 members in Arabidopsis and over 1000 in rice. Among RLKs, the lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) possess a characteristic extracellular carbohydrate-binding lectin domain and play important roles in plant development and innate immunity. In addition, there are 75 and 173 LecRLKs in Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. However, little is known about LecRLKs in perennial woody plants.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of lectin receptor-like kinases in Populus

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yongil; Labbé, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; ...

    2016-09-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) belong to a large protein family with over 600 members in Arabidopsis and over 1000 in rice. Among RLKs, the lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) possess a characteristic extracellular carbohydrate-binding lectin domain and play important roles in plant development and innate immunity. In addition, there are 75 and 173 LecRLKs in Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. However, little is known about LecRLKs in perennial woody plants.

  16. Benzimidazole derivatives as kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garuti, Laura; Roberti, Marinella; Bottegoni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Benzimidazole is a common kinase inhibitor scaffold and benzimidazole-based compounds interact with enzymes by multiple binding modes. In some cases, the benzimidazole acts as part of the hinge-binding motif, in others it has a scaffolding role without evidence for direct hinge binding. Several of these compounds are ATP-competitive inhibitors and show high selectivity by exploiting unique structural properties that distinguish one kinase from the majority of other kinases. However, the high specificity for a single target is not always sufficient. Thus another approach, called multi-target therapy, has been developed over the last few years. The simultaneous inhibition of various kinases may be useful because the disease is attacked at several relevant targets. Moreover, if a kinase becomes drug-resistant, a multitargeted drug can act on the other kinases. Some benzimidazole derivatives are multi-target inhibitors. In this article benzimidazole inhibitors are reported with their mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationship (SAR) and biological properties.

  17. CUL3 and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Thibaud; Kleiss, Charlotte; Sumara, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational mechanisms drive fidelity of cellular processes. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination of substrates represent very common, covalent, posttranslational modifications and are often co-regulated. Phosphorylation may play a critical role both by directly regulating E3-ubiquitin ligases and/or by ensuring specificity of the ubiquitination substrate. Importantly, many kinases are not only critical regulatory components of these pathways but also represent themselves the direct ubiquitination substrates. Recent data suggest the role of CUL3-based ligases in both proteolytic and non-proteolytic regulation of protein kinases. Our own recent study identified the mitotic kinase PLK1 as a direct target of the CUL3 E3-ligase complex containing BTB-KELCH adaptor protein KLHL22.1 In this study, we aim at gaining mechanistic insights into CUL3-mediated regulation of the substrates, in particular protein kinases, by analyzing mechanisms of interaction between KLHL22 and PLK1. We find that kinase activity of PLK1 is redundant for its targeting for CUL3-ubiquitination. Moreover, CUL3/KLHL22 may contact 2 distinct motifs within PLK1 protein, consistent with the bivalent mode of substrate targeting found in other CUL3-based complexes. We discuss these findings in the context of the existing knowledge on other protein kinases and substrates targeted by CUL3-based E3-ligases. PMID:24067371

  18. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  19. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    kinase . This grant proposal will explore the resistance to small molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors mediated by the... molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors is potentially mediated by the Pim-1 protein kinase , and that unique Pim protein kinase inhibitors that can in...application is essential for the development of this combined chemotherapeutic strategy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small Molecule AKT Inhibitors ,

  20. [Effects of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase b/bone morphogenetic protein-15 pathway on the follicular development in the mammalian ovary].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-qing; Chen, Li-yun; Zhang, Zheng-hong; wang, Zheng-chao

    2013-04-01

    In mammals, ovarian follicle is made of an oocyte with its surrounding granulosa cells and theca cells. Follicular growth and development is a highly coordinated programmable process, which guarantees the normal oocyte maturation and makes it having the fertilizing capacity. The paracrine and autocrine between oocytes and granulosa cells are essential for the follicular development to provide a suitable microenvironment. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase /protein kinase B is one of these important regulatory signaling pathways during this developmental process, and bone morphogenetic protein-15 an oocyte-specific secreted signal molecule, which regulates the follicular development by paracrine in the mammalian ovary. The present article overviewed the role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / protein kinase B signaling during the follicular development based on our previous investigation about protein kinase B /forkhead transcription factor forkhead family of transcription factors -3a, and then focused on the regulatory effects of bone morphogenetic protein-15, as a downstream signal molecule of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / forkhead family of transcription factors -3a pathway, on ovarian follicular development, which helped to further understand the molecular mechanism regulating the follicular development and to treat ovarian diseases like infertility.

  1. Commitment to the CD4 lineage mediated by extracellular signal-related kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase and lck signaling.

    PubMed

    Sharp, L L; Hedrick, S M

    1999-12-15

    The development of T cells results in a concordance between the specificity of the TCR for MHC class I and class II molecules and the expression of CD8 and CD4 coreceptors. Based on analogy to simple metazoan models of organ development and lineage commitment, we sought to determine whether extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway signaling acts as an inductive signal for the CD4 lineage. Here, we show that, by altering the intracellular signaling involving the Erk/MAP kinase pathway, T cells with specificity for MHC class I can be diverted to express CD4, and, conversely, T cells with specificity for MHC class II can be diverted to express CD8. Furthermore, we find that activation of the src-family tyrosine kinase, p56lck is an upstream mediator of lineage commitment. These results suggest a simple mechanism for lineage commitment in T cell development.

  2. Biphasic functions of the kinase-defective Ephb6 receptor in cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Obama, Hiroya; Kelly, Meghan L; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Nakamoto, Masaru

    2005-08-12

    EphB6 is a unique member in the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases in that its kinase domain contains several alterations in conserved amino acids and is catalytically inactive. Although EphB6 is expressed both in a variety of embryonic and adult tissues, biological functions of this receptor are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the function of EphB6 in cell adhesion and migration. We demonstrated that EphB6 exerted biphasic effects in response to different concentrations of the ephrin-B2 ligand; EphB6 promoted cell adhesion and migration when stimulated with low concentrations of ephrin-B2, whereas it induced repulsion and inhibited migration upon stimulation with high concentrations of ephrin-B2. A truncated EphB6 receptor lacking the cytoplasmic domain showed monophasic-positive effects on cell adhesion and migration, indicating that the cytoplasmic domain is essential for the negative effects. EphB6 is constitutively associated with the Src family kinase Fyn. High concentrations of ephrin-B2 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of EphB6 through an Src family kinase activity. These results indicate that EphB6 can both positively and negatively regulate cell adhesion and migration, and suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor by an Src family kinase acts as the molecular switch for the functional transition.

  3. S-nitrosylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) regulates its kinase activity and dendrite growth during neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Yu, Pei-Chun; Tsang, Anthony H K; Chen, Yu; Fu, Amy K Y; Fu, Wing-Yu; Chung, Kenny K; Ip, Nancy Y

    2010-10-27

    Precise regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, is critical for proper neuronal development and functions. Cdk5 is activated through its association with the neuron-specific activator p35 or p39. Nonetheless, how its kinase activity is regulated in neurons is not well understood. In this study, we found that Cdk5 activity is regulated by S-nitrosylation, a post-translational modification of protein that affects a plethora of neuronal functions. S-nitrosylation of Cdk5 occurs at Cys83, which is one of the critical amino acids within the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase. Upon S-nitrosylation, Cdk5 exhibits reduced kinase activity, whereas mutation of Cys83 to Ala on Cdk5 renders the kinase refractory to such inhibition. Importantly, S-nitrosylated Cdk5 can be detected in the mouse brain, and blocking the S-nitrosylation of Cdk5 in cultured hippocampal neurons enhances dendritic growth and branching. Together, our findings reveal an important role of S-nitrosylation in regulating Cdk5 kinase activity and dendrite growth in neurons during development.

  4. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration in two Chinese children: identification of a novel PANK2 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Chan, K Y; Lam, C W; Lee, L P; Tong, S F; Yuen, Y P

    2008-02-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (formerly Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome), the most prevalent form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, is a rare degenerative brain disease characterised by predominantly extrapyramidal dysfunction resulting from mutations in the PANK2 (pantothenate kinase 2) gene. Using DNA mutation analysis, the authors identified a novel missense mutation (P354L) in exon 4 of the PANK2 gene in an adolescent with classic pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. DNA-based diagnosis of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration plays a key role in determination, and can make the diagnosis more simply, directly, and economically because it obviates the need for unnecessary biochemical tests. Once pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration-like symptoms are identified, mutation analysis and target screening for the family of the proband can provide efficient and accurate evidence of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration inheritance.

  5. Polo kinase regulates the localization and activity of the chromosomal passenger complex in meiosis and mitosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carmena, Mar; Lombardia, Miguel Ortiz; Ogawa, Hiromi; Earnshaw, William C

    2014-11-01

    Cell cycle progression is regulated by members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), Polo and Aurora families of protein kinases. The levels of expression and localization of the key regulatory kinases are themselves subject to very tight control. There is increasing evidence that crosstalk between the mitotic kinases provides for an additional level of regulation. We have previously shown that Aurora B activates Polo kinase at the centromere in mitosis, and that the interaction between Polo and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) component INCENP is essential in this activation. In this report, we show that Polo kinase is required for the correct localization and activity of the CPC in meiosis and mitosis. Study of the phenotype of different polo allele combinations compared to the effect of chemical inhibition revealed significant differences in the localization and activity of the CPC in diploid tissues. Our results shed new light on the mechanisms that control the activity of Aurora B in meiosis and mitosis.

  6. Aurora kinase inhibition induces PUMA via NF-κB to kill colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Knickelbein, Kyle; He, Kan; Chen, Dongshi; Dudgeon, Crissy; Shu, Yongqian; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Aurora kinases play a key role in mitosis and are frequently overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells. Inhibition of aurora kinases results in mitotic arrest and death of cancer cells, and has been explored as an anticancer strategy. However, how aurora inhibition kills cancer cells is poorly understood. In this study, we found that inhibition of aurora kinases by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors led to induction of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein, in colorectal cancer cells irrespective of p53 status. Deficiency in PUMA increased polyploidy, improved cell survival, and abrogated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by aurora kinase inhibitors. In response to aurora kinase inhibition, PUMA was directly activated by p65 through the canonical NF-κB pathway following AKT inhibition. Furthermore, PUMA was necessary for the chemosensitization and in vivo antitumor effects of aurora kinase inhibitors in colon cancer cells. These results suggest that PUMA induction mediates the apoptotic response to mitotic arrest imposed by aurora kinase inhibition, and may be a useful indicator for the anticancer activity of aurora kinase inhibitors.

  7. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Elbing, Karin; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-02-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. These kinases, Sak1, Tos3 and Elm2 do not appear to require the presence of additional subunits for activity. Sak1 and Snf1 co-purify and co-elute in size exclusion chromatography, demonstrating that these two proteins form a stable complex. The Snf1-activating kinases phosphorylate the activation loop threonine of Snf1 in vitro with great specificity and are able to do so in the absence of beta and gamma subunits of the Snf1 heterotrimer. Finally, we showed that the Snf1 kinase domain isolated from bacteria as a GST fusion protein can be activated in vitro and shows substrate specificity in the absence of its beta and gamma subunits.

  8. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. These kinases, Sak1, Tos3 and Elm2 do not appear to require the presence of additional subunits for activity. Sak1 and Snf1 co-purify and co-elute in size exclusion chromatography, demonstrating that these two proteins form a stable complex. The Snf1-activating kinases phosphorylate the activation loop threonine of Snf1 in vitro with great specificity and are able to do so in the absence of β and γ subunits of the Snf1 heterotrimer. Finally, we showed that the Snf1 kinase domain isolated from bacteria as a GST fusion protein can be activated in vitro and shows substrate specificity in the absence of its β and γ subunits. PMID:16201971

  9. Computational Insights for the Discovery of Non-ATP Competitive Inhibitors of MAP Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Schnieders, Michael J.; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Yan, Chunli; Dalby, Kevin N.; Ren, Pengyu

    2014-01-01

    Due to their role in cellular signaling mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases represent targets of pharmaceutical interest. However, the majority of known MAP kinase inhibitors compete with cellular ATP and target an ATP binding pocket that is highly conserved in the 500 plus representatives of the human protein kinase family. Here we review progress toward the development of non-ATP competitive MAP kinase inhibitors for the extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), the c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3) and the p38 MAPKs (α, β, γ, and δ). Special emphasis is placed on the role of computational methods in the drug discovery process for MAP kinases. Topics include recent advances in X-ray crystallography theory that improve the MAP kinase structures essential to structure-based drug discovery, the use of molecular dynamics to understand the conformational heterogeneity of the activation loop and inhibitors discovered by virtual screening. The impact of an advanced polarizable force field such as AMOEBA used in conjunction with sophisticated kinetic and thermodynamic simulation methods is also discussed. PMID:22316156

  10. Protein kinase C is essential for viability of the rice blast fungus M agnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Tina J.; Wood, Mark E.; Soanes, Darren M.; Csukai, Michael; Corran, Andrew John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Protein kinase C constitutes a family of serine–threonine kinases found in all eukaryotes and implicated in a wide range of cellular functions, including regulation of cell growth, cellular differentiation and immunity. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence which indicate that protein kinase C is essential for viability of M agnaporthe oryzae. First, all attempts to generate a target deletion of PKC 1, the single copy protein kinase C‐encoding gene, proved unsuccessful. Secondly, conditional gene silencing of PKC 1 by RNA interference led to severely reduced growth of the fungus, which was reversed by targeted deletion of the Dicer2‐encoding gene, MDL 2. Finally, selective kinase inhibition of protein kinase C by targeted allelic replacement with an analogue‐sensitive PKC 1AS allele led to specific loss of fungal viability in the presence of the PP1 inhibitor. Global transcriptional profiling following selective PKC inhibition identified significant changes in gene expression associated with cell wall re‐modelling, autophagy, signal transduction and secondary metabolism. When considered together, these results suggest protein kinase C is essential for growth and development of M . oryzae with extensive downstream targets in addition to the cell integrity pathway. Targeting protein kinase C signalling may therefore prove an effective means of controlling rice blast disease. PMID:26192090

  11. Multiplexing terbium- and europium-based TR-FRET readouts to increase kinase assay capacity.

    PubMed

    Horton, Robert A; Vogel, Kurt W

    2010-09-01

    Identification and characterization of kinase inhibitor potency and selectivity is often an iterative process in which a library of compounds is first screened against a single kinase, and hits from that screen are then profiled against other kinases to determine specificity. By developing kinase assays that employ either a terbium- or a europium-based time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) readout, one can take advantage of the distinct emission properties of these labels to develop assays for 2 kinases that can be performed simultaneously in the same well. This not only increases the information content provided per assay well but can immediately provide information on compound specificity. The authors have applied this strategy to the development of multiplexed assays for 2 examples systems: EGFR and IKKbeta, as well as lipid kinase family members mTOR and PIK3C3. They demonstrate the ability of these multiplexed assays to characterize selective kinase inhibitors in a dose-response mode, with no difference in results obtained from traditional single kinase assays performed separately.

  12. Copurification of casein kinase II with transcription factor ATF/E4TF3.

    PubMed Central

    Wada, T; Takagi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Kawase, H; Hiramoto, M; Ferdous, A; Takayama, M; Lee, K A; Hurst, H C; Handa, H

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a simple method to purify sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins directly from crude cell extracts by using DNA affinity latex beads. The method enabled us to purify not only DNA-binding proteins, but also their associated proteins. Using beads bearing the ATF/E4TF3 site from the adenovirus E4 gene promoter, a protein kinase activity was copurified with the ATF/E4TF3 family. We found that the kinase interacted with ATF1 in vitro efficiently. The kinase did not bind directly to DNA. The kinase mainly phosphorylated ATF1 on serine 36, which was one of target amino acids for casein kinase (CK) II. Biological features of the kinase were the same as those of CKII and an anti-CKII serum reacted with the kinase, indicating that the kinase was CKII. Moreover, it was clearly shown that one of CKII subunits, the CKII alpha protein bound to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion ATF1 but not GST in vitro. It has been reported that a specific CKII inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribo-furanosylbenzimidazole (DRB) inhibits transcription by RNA polymerase II [Zandomeni et al., (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 3414-3419]. Taken together, these results suggest that ATF/E4TF3 may recruit the CKII activity to a transcription initiation machinery and stimulate transcription. PMID:8600455

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the kinase domain of human tousled-like kinase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Garrote, Ana M.; Redondo, Pilar; Montoya, Guillermo; Muñoz, Inés G.

    2014-02-19

    The C-terminal kinase domain of TLK2 (a human tousled-like kinase) has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-γ-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4{sub 1}22 and cubic P2{sub 1}3. Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in chromatin dynamics, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and chromosome segregation. The two members of the family reported in humans, namely TLK1 and TLK2, localize to the cell nucleus and are capable of forming homo- or hetero-oligomers by themselves. To characterize the role of TLK2, its C-terminal kinase domain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-γ-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4{sub 1}22 and cubic P2{sub 1}3. The latter produced the best diffracting crystal (3.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation), with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 126.05 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contained one protein molecule, with a Matthews coefficient of 4.59 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 73.23%.

  14. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-06-30

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson's group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src-transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src-associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month.

  15. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  16. Endothelial Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 Is Critical for Lymphatic Vascular Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chang-An; Danai, Laura V.; Yawe, Joseph C.; Gujja, Sharvari; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lymphatic vascular development and function are not well understood. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. Here, we show that constitutive loss of EC Map4k4 in mice causes postnatal lethality due to chylothorax, suggesting that Map4k4 is required for normal lymphatic vascular function. Mice constitutively lacking EC Map4k4 displayed dilated lymphatic capillaries, insufficient lymphatic valves, and impaired lymphatic flow; furthermore, primary ECs derived from these animals displayed enhanced proliferation compared with controls. Yeast 2-hybrid analyses identified the Ras GTPase-activating protein Rasa1, a known regulator of lymphatic development and lymphatic endothelial cell fate, as a direct interacting partner for Map4k4. Map4k4 silencing in ECs enhanced basal Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activities, and primary ECs lacking Map4k4 displayed enhanced lymphatic EC marker expression. Taken together, these results reveal that EC Map4k4 is critical for lymphatic vascular development by regulating EC quiescence and lymphatic EC fate. PMID:27044870

  17. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anish; Rajan, Arun; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS ‘Driver mutations’ are essential for carcinogenesis as well as tumor progression as they confer a selective growth advantage to cancer cells. Identification of driver mutations in growth related protein kinases, especially tyrosine kinases have led to clinical development of an array of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in various malignancies, including lung cancer. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinases have proven to be of meaningful clinical benefit, while inhibition of several other tyrosine kinases have been of limited clinical benefit, thus far. An improved understanding of tyrosine kinase biology has also led to faster drug development, identification of resistance mechanisms and ways to overcome resistance. In this review, we discuss the clinical data supporting the use and practical aspects of management of patients on epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22520981

  18. Roles within the Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  19. Improving Family Communications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  20. PREX1 Protein Function Is Negatively Regulated Downstream of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation by p21-activated Kinases (PAKs).

    PubMed

    Barrows, Douglas; He, John Z; Parsons, Ramon

    2016-09-16

    Downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation, the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchange factor (PREX) family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activates Rho GTPases, leading to important roles for PREX proteins in numerous cellular processes and diseases, including cancer. PREX1 and PREX2 GEF activity is activated by the second messengers PIP3 and Gβγ, and further regulation of PREX GEF activity occurs by phosphorylation. Stimulation of receptor tyrosine kinases by neuregulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) leads to the phosphorylation of PREX1; however, the kinases that phosphorylate PREX1 downstream of these ligands are not known. We recently reported that the p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are activated by GTP-bound Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), mediate the phosphorylation of PREX2 after insulin receptor activation. Here we show that certain phosphorylation events on PREX1 after insulin, neuregulin, and IGF1 treatment are PAK-dependent and lead to a reduction in PREX1 binding to PIP3 Like PREX2, PAK-mediated phosphorylation also negatively regulates PREX1 GEF activity. Furthermore, the onset of PREX1 phosphorylation was delayed compared with the phosphorylation of AKT, supporting a model of negative feedback downstream of PREX1 activation. We also found that the phosphorylation of PREX1 after isoproterenol and prostaglandin E2-mediated GPCR activation is partially PAK-dependent and likely also involves protein kinase A, which is known to reduce PREX1 function. Our data point to multiple mechanisms of PREX1 negative regulation by PAKs within receptor tyrosine kinase and GPCR-stimulated signaling pathways that have important roles in diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

  1. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  2. Family Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulczyn, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Reunifying children placed in foster care with their birth parents is a primary goal of the child welfare system. Yet, relatively little is known about the reunification process. This article analyzes new data on trends in family reunification and discovers: (1) Although most children still exit foster care through family reunification, exit…

  3. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of…

  4. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  5. Family, Extended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jessica Rae

    2006-01-01

    Parents are a child's first and most influential teacher. People hear this truism often, yet nowhere has the author seen it more taken to heart than at Tower Street Elementary School. The school's efforts to form a true partnership with students' families--from involving families in the first day of school, to the principal making home visits, to…

  6. Family Potyviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

  7. Structure, biochemistry, and biology of PAK kinases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Sanawar, Rahul; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Feng

    2017-03-20

    PAKs, p21-activated kinases, play central roles and act as converging junctions for discrete signals elicited on the cell surface and for a number of intracellular signaling cascades. PAKs phosphorylate a vast number of substrates and act by remodeling cytoskeleton, employing scaffolding, and relocating to distinct subcellular compartments. PAKs affect wide range of processes that are crucial to the cell from regulation of cell motility, survival, redox, metabolism, cell cycle, proliferation, transformation, stress, inflammation, to gene expression. Understandably, their dysregulation disrupts cellular homeostasis and severely impacts key cell functions, and many of those are implicated in a number of human diseases including cancers, neurological disorders, and cardiac disorders. Here we provide an overview of the members of the PAK family and their current status. We give special emphasis to PAK1 and PAK4, the prototypes of groups I and II, for their profound roles in cancer, the nervous system, and the heart. We also highlight other family members. We provide our perspective on the current advancements, their growing importance as strategic therapeutic targets, and our vision on the future of PAKs.

  8. Targeted inhibition of Src kinase signaling attenuates pancreatic tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Nagathihalli S.; Smith, J. Joshua; Revetta, Frank; Washington, M. Kay; Merchant, Nipun B.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated Src expression correlates with malignant potential and metastatic disease in many tumors including pancreas cancer. We sought to characterize the molecular effects of Src kinase inhibition with dasatinib (BMS-354825) a novel, multi-targeted kinase inhibitor that targets Src family kinases, in pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). We identified sensitive and resistant PDA cell lines to dasatinib treatment and tested the molecular effects of Src inhibition in vitro and in vivo. We show for the first time that cellular localization of Src expression impacts survival in patients with PDA. Pancreas tumors with increased membranous expression of Src result in decreased survival compared with tumors that have increased cytoplasmic Src expression. Src kinase inhibition with dasatinib markedly inhibits cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle progression and anchorage independent growth and stimulates apoptosis. This is accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of Src, FAK, paxillin, AKT, STAT3, ERK, JNK and MAPK, as well as decreased cyclinD1 expression in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, siRNA to Src results in significant decrease in cell proliferation, invasion and migration of pancreas cancer cells. Dasatinib treatment also inhibits in vivo pancreas tumor growth. Mechanisms of resistance to Src inhibition appear to be related to a lack of inhibition of STAT3 and MAPK signaling. These results establish a mechanistic rationale for Src inhibition with dasatinib as a therapeutic target in the treatment of pancreas cancer and identify potential biomarkers of resistance to Src inhibition. PMID:20682659

  9. PIM kinases as therapeutic targets against advanced melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Shannan, Batool; Watters, Andrea; Chen, Quan; Mollin, Stefan; Dörr, Markus; Meggers, Eric; Xu, Xiaowei; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Perego, Michela; Li, Ling; Benci, Joseph; Krepler, Clemens; Brafford, Patricia; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Zhi; Zhang, Gao; Liu, Qin; Yin, Xiangfan; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Herlyn, Meenhard; Vultur, Adina

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma show encouraging results in the clinic; however, not all patients respond equally and tumor resistance still poses a challenge. To identify novel therapeutic targets for melanoma, we screened a panel of structurally diverse organometallic inhibitors against human-derived normal and melanoma cells. We observed that a compound that targets PIM kinases (a family of Ser/Thr kinases) preferentially inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, invasion, and viability in adherent and three-dimensional (3D) melanoma models. Assessment of tumor tissue from melanoma patients showed that PIM kinases are expressed in pre- and post-treatment tumors, suggesting PIM kinases as promising targets in the clinic. Using knockdown studies, we showed that PIM1 contributes to melanoma cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo; however, the presence of PIM2 and PIM3 could also influence the outcome. The inhibition of all PIM isoforms using SGI-1776 (a clinically-available PIM inhibitor) reduced melanoma proliferation and survival in preclinical models of melanoma. This was potentiated in the presence of the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 and in the presence of PI3K inhibitors. Our findings suggest that PIM inhibitors provide promising additions to the targeted therapies available to melanoma patients. PMID:27448973

  10. On the molecular mechanisms of mitotic kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Richard; Fry, Andrew; Haq, Tamanna; Yeoh, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    During mitosis, human cells exhibit a peak of protein phosphorylation that alters the behaviour of a significant proportion of proteins, driving a dramatic transformation in the cell's shape, intracellular structures and biochemistry. These mitotic phosphorylation events are catalysed by several families of protein kinases, including Auroras, Cdks, Plks, Neks, Bubs, Haspin and Mps1/TTK. The catalytic activities of these kinases are activated by phosphorylation and through protein–protein interactions. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of the structural basis of mitotic kinase activation mechanisms. This review aims to provide a clear and comprehensive primer on these mechanisms to a broad community of researchers, bringing together the common themes, and highlighting specific differences. Along the way, we have uncovered some features of these proteins that have previously gone unreported, and identified unexplored questions for future work. The dysregulation of mitotic kinases is associated with proliferative disorders such as cancer, and structural biology will continue to play a critical role in the development of chemical probes used to interrogate disease biology and applied to the treatment of patients. PMID:23226601

  11. MoKCa database—mutations of kinases in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Christopher J.; Gao, Qiong; Mitsopoulous, Costas; Zvelebil, Marketa; Pearl, Laurence H.; Pearl, Frances M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the protein kinase family are amongst the most commonly mutated genes in human cancer, and both mutated and activated protein kinases have proved to be tractable targets for the development of new anticancer therapies The MoKCa database (Mutations of Kinases in Cancer, http://strubiol.icr.ac.uk/extra/mokca) has been developed to structurally and functionally annotate, and where possible predict, the phenotypic consequences of mutations in protein kinases implicated in cancer. Somatic mutation data from tumours and tumour cell lines have been mapped onto the crystal structures of the affected protein domains. Positions of the mutated amino-acids are highlighted on a sequence-based domain pictogram, as well as a 3D-image of the protein structure, and in a molecular graphics package, integrated for interactive viewing. The data associated with each mutation is presented in the Web interface, along with expert annotation of the detailed molecular functional implications of the mutation. Proteins are linked to functional annotation resources and are annotated with structural and functional features such as domains and phosphorylation sites. MoKCa aims to provide assessments available from multiple sources and algorithms for each potential cancer-associated mutation, and present these together in a consistent and coherent fashion to facilitate authoritative annotation by cancer biologists and structural biologists, directly involved in the generation and analysis of new mutational data. PMID:18986996