Science.gov

Sample records for agcam agricultural camera

  1. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  2. An airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  3. Lights, Camera, AG-Tion: Promoting Agricultural and Environmental Education on Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    Viewing of online videos and television segments has become a popular and efficient way for Extension audiences to acquire information. This article describes a unique approach to teaching on camera that may help Extension educators communicate their messages with comfort and personality. The S.A.L.A.D. approach emphasizes using relevant teaching…

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Heikki; Pellikka, Ismo; Pesonen, Liisa; Tuominen, Sakari; Heikkilä, Jan; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with the light weight UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in the SPIE Proc. 7474 and 7668. In forest and agriculture applications the recording of multispectral images at a few wavelength bands is in most cases adequate. The possibility to calculate a digital elevation model of the forest area and crop fields provides means to estimate the biomass and perform forest inventory. The full UAS multispectral imaging system will consist of a high resolution false color imager and a FPI based hyperspectral imager which can be used at resolutions from VGA (480 x 640 pixels) up to 5 Mpix at wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at user selectable spectral resolutions in the range 10...40 nm @ FWHM. The resolution is determined by the order at which the Fabry- Perot interferometer is used. The overlap between successive images of the false color camera is 70...80% which makes it possible to calculate the digital elevation model of the target area. The field of view of the false color camera is typically 80 degrees and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 5 cm. The field of view of the hyperspectral imager is presently is 26 x 36 degrees and ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 3.5 cm. The UAS system has been tried in summer 2011 in Southern Finland for the forest and agricultural areas. During the first test campaigns the false color camera and hyperspectral imager were flown over the target areas at separate flights. The design and calibration of the hyperspectral imager will be shortly explained. The test flight campaigns on forest and crop fields and their preliminary results are also presented in this paper.

  5. Strategy for the Development of a Smart NDVI Camera System for Outdoor Plant Detection and Agricultural Embedded Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dworak, Volker; Selbeck, Joern; Dammer, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Matthias; Zarezadeh, Ali Akbar; Bobda, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The application of (smart) cameras for process control, mapping, and advanced imaging in agriculture has become an element of precision farming that facilitates the conservation of fertilizer, pesticides, and machine time. This technique additionally reduces the amount of energy required in terms of fuel. Although research activities have increased in this field, high camera prices reflect low adaptation to applications in all fields of agriculture. Smart, low-cost cameras adapted for agricultural applications can overcome this drawback. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each image pixel is an applicable algorithm to discriminate plant information from the soil background enabled by a large difference in the reflectance between the near infrared (NIR) and the red channel optical frequency band. Two aligned charge coupled device (CCD) chips for the red and NIR channel are typically used, but they are expensive because of the precise optical alignment required. Therefore, much attention has been given to the development of alternative camera designs. In this study, the advantage of a smart one-chip camera design with NDVI image performance is demonstrated in terms of low cost and simplified design. The required assembly and pixel modifications are described, and new algorithms for establishing an enhanced NDVI image quality for data processing are discussed. PMID:23348037

  6. Strategy for the development of a smart NDVI camera system for outdoor plant detection and agricultural embedded systems.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Volker; Selbeck, Joern; Dammer, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Matthias; Zarezadeh, Ali Akbar; Bobda, Christophe

    2013-01-24

    The application of (smart) cameras for process control, mapping, and advanced imaging in agriculture has become an element of precision farming that facilitates the conservation of fertilizer, pesticides, and machine time. This technique additionally reduces the amount of energy required in terms of fuel. Although research activities have increased in this field, high camera prices reflect low adaptation to applications in all fields of agriculture. Smart, low-cost cameras adapted for agricultural applications can overcome this drawback. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each image pixel is an applicable algorithm to discriminate plant information from the soil background enabled by a large difference in the reflectance between the near infrared (NIR) and the red channel optical frequency band. Two aligned charge coupled device (CCD) chips for the red and NIR channel are typically used, but they are expensive because of the precise optical alignment required. Therefore, much attention has been given to the development of alternative camera designs. In this study, the advantage of a smart one-chip camera design with NDVI image performance is demonstrated in terms of low cost and simplified design. The required assembly and pixel modifications are described, and new algorithms for establishing an enhanced NDVI image quality for data processing are discussed.

  7. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  8. Preliminary investigation of Large Format Camera photography utility in soil mapping and related agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Hudnall, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Space Shuttle Large Format Camera (LFC) color, IR/color, and B&W images in large-scale soil mapping is discussed and illustrated with sample photographs from STS 41-6 (October 1984). Consideration is given to the characteristics of the film types used; the photographic scales available; geometric and stereoscopic factors; and image interpretation and classification for soil-type mapping (detecting both sharp and gradual boundaries), soil parent material topographic and hydrologic assessment, natural-resources inventory, crop-type identification, and stress analysis. It is suggested that LFC photography can play an important role, filling the gap between aerial and satellite remote sensing.

  9. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  10. In Situ 3D Segmentation of Individual Plant Leaves Using a RGB-D Camera for Agricultural Automation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chunlei; Wang, Longtan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Lee, Jang-Myung

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a challenging task of 3D segmentation of individual plant leaves from occlusions in the complicated natural scene. Depth data of plant leaves is introduced to improve the robustness of plant leaf segmentation. The low cost RGB-D camera is utilized to capture depth and color image in fields. Mean shift clustering is applied to segment plant leaves in depth image. Plant leaves are extracted from the natural background by examining vegetation of the candidate segments produced by mean shift. Subsequently, individual leaves are segmented from occlusions by active contour models. Automatic initialization of the active contour models is implemented by calculating the center of divergence from the gradient vector field of depth image. The proposed segmentation scheme is tested through experiments under greenhouse conditions. The overall segmentation rate is 87.97% while segmentation rates for single and occluded leaves are 92.10% and 86.67%, respectively. Approximately half of the experimental results show segmentation rates of individual leaves higher than 90%. Nevertheless, the proposed method is able to segment individual leaves from heavy occlusions. PMID:26295395

  11. Camera Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    The camera presents an excellent way to illustrate principles of geometrical optics. Basic camera optics of the single-lens reflex camera are discussed, including interchangeable lenses and accessories available to most owners. Several experiments are described and results compared with theoretical predictions or manufacturer specifications.…

  12. Cardiac cameras.

    PubMed

    Travin, Mark I

    2011-05-01

    Cardiac imaging with radiotracers plays an important role in patient evaluation, and the development of suitable imaging instruments has been crucial. While initially performed with the rectilinear scanner that slowly transmitted, in a row-by-row fashion, cardiac count distributions onto various printing media, the Anger scintillation camera allowed electronic determination of tracer energies and of the distribution of radioactive counts in 2D space. Increased sophistication of cardiac cameras and development of powerful computers to analyze, display, and quantify data has been essential to making radionuclide cardiac imaging a key component of the cardiac work-up. Newer processing algorithms and solid state cameras, fundamentally different from the Anger camera, show promise to provide higher counting efficiency and resolution, leading to better image quality, more patient comfort and potentially lower radiation exposure. While the focus has been on myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography, increased use of positron emission tomography is broadening the field to include molecular imaging of the myocardium and of the coronary vasculature. Further advances may require integrating cardiac nuclear cameras with other imaging devices, ie, hybrid imaging cameras. The goal is to image the heart and its physiological processes as accurately as possible, to prevent and cure disease processes.

  13. CCD Camera

    DOEpatents

    Roth, Roger R.

    1983-01-01

    A CCD camera capable of observing a moving object which has varying intensities of radiation eminating therefrom and which may move at varying speeds is shown wherein there is substantially no overlapping of successive images and wherein the exposure times and scan times may be varied independently of each other.

  14. CCD Camera

    DOEpatents

    Roth, R.R.

    1983-08-02

    A CCD camera capable of observing a moving object which has varying intensities of radiation emanating therefrom and which may move at varying speeds is shown wherein there is substantially no overlapping of successive images and wherein the exposure times and scan times may be varied independently of each other. 7 figs.

  15. Caught on Camera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the benefits of and rules to be followed when using surveillance cameras for school security. Discusses various camera models, including indoor and outdoor fixed position cameras, pan-tilt zoom cameras, and pinhole-lens cameras for covert surveillance. (EV)

  16. Determining Camera Gain in Room Temperature Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua Cogliati

    2010-12-01

    James R. Janesick provides a method for determining the amplification of a CCD or CMOS camera when only access to the raw images is provided. However, the equation that is provided ignores the contribution of dark current. For CCD or CMOS cameras that are cooled well below room temperature, this is not a problem, however, the technique needs adjustment for use with room temperature cameras. This article describes the adjustment made to the equation, and a test of this method.

  17. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  18. Novel fundus camera design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehoog, Edward A.

    A fundus camera a complex optical system that makes use of the principle of reflex free indirect ophthalmoscopy to image the retina. Despite being in existence as early as 1900's, little has changed in the design of a fundus camera and there is minimal information about the design principles utilized. Parameters and specifications involved in the design of fundus camera are determined and their affect on system performance are discussed. Fundus cameras incorporating different design methods are modeled and a performance evaluation based on design parameters is used to determine the effectiveness of each design strategy. By determining the design principles involved in the fundus camera, new cameras can be designed to include specific imaging modalities such as optical coherence tomography, imaging spectroscopy and imaging polarimetry to gather additional information about properties and structure of the retina. Design principles utilized to incorporate such modalities into fundus camera systems are discussed. Design, implementation and testing of a snapshot polarimeter fundus camera are demonstrated.

  19. Making Ceramic Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squibb, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  20. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  1. Those Nifty Digital Cameras!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1996-01-01

    Describes digital photography--an electronic imaging technology that merges computer capabilities with traditional photography--and its uses in education. Discusses how a filmless camera works, types of filmless cameras, advantages and disadvantages, and educational applications of the consumer digital cameras. (AEF)

  2. Digital Pinhole Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancor, Rachael; Lancor, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article we describe how the classic pinhole camera demonstration can be adapted for use with digital cameras. Students can easily explore the effects of the size of the pinhole and its distance from the sensor on exposure time, magnification, and image quality. Instructions for constructing a digital pinhole camera and our method for…

  3. 2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING WEST TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 7. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY CAMERA INSIDE CAMERA CAR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 6. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT INSIDE CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT INSIDE CAMERA CAR WITH CAMERA MOUNT IN FOREGROUND. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Tower Camera Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Moudry, D

    2005-01-01

    The tower camera in Barrow provides hourly images of ground surrounding the tower. These images may be used to determine fractional snow cover as winter arrives, for comparison with the albedo that can be calculated from downward-looking radiometers, as well as some indication of present weather. Similarly, during spring time, the camera images show the changes in the ground albedo as the snow melts. The tower images are saved in hourly intervals. In addition, two other cameras, the skydeck camera in Barrow and the piling camera in Atqasuk, show the current conditions at those sites.

  7. Traffic camera system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Toshi

    1997-04-01

    The intelligent transportation system has generated a strong need for the development of intelligent camera systems to meet the requirements of sophisticated applications, such as electronic toll collection (ETC), traffic violation detection and automatic parking lot control. In order to achieve the highest levels of accuracy in detection, these cameras must have high speed electronic shutters, high resolution, high frame rate, and communication capabilities. A progressive scan interline transfer CCD camera, with its high speed electronic shutter and resolution capabilities, provides the basic functions to meet the requirements of a traffic camera system. Unlike most industrial video imaging applications, traffic cameras must deal with harsh environmental conditions and an extremely wide range of light. Optical character recognition is a critical function of a modern traffic camera system, with detection and accuracy heavily dependent on the camera function. In order to operate under demanding conditions, communication and functional optimization is implemented to control cameras from a roadside computer. The camera operates with a shutter speed faster than 1/2000 sec. to capture highway traffic both day and night. Consequently camera gain, pedestal level, shutter speed and gamma functions are controlled by a look-up table containing various parameters based on environmental conditions, particularly lighting. Lighting conditions are studied carefully, to focus only on the critical license plate surface. A unique light sensor permits accurate reading under a variety of conditions, such as a sunny day, evening, twilight, storms, etc. These camera systems are being deployed successfully in major ETC projects throughout the world.

  8. Miniaturized fundus camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliss, Christine; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Flynn, John T.; Pratisto, Hans S.; Niederer, Peter F.

    2003-07-01

    We present a miniaturized version of a fundus camera. The camera is designed for the use in screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). There, but also in other applications a small, light weight, digital camera system can be extremely useful. We present a small wide angle digital camera system. The handpiece is significantly smaller and lighter then in all other systems. The electronics is truly portable fitting in a standard boardcase. The camera is designed to be offered at a compatible price. Data from tests on young rabbits' eyes is presented. The development of the camera system is part of a telemedicine project screening for ROP. Telemedical applications are a perfect application for this camera system using both advantages: the portability as well as the digital image.

  9. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  10. GRACE star camera noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Nate

    2016-08-01

    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  11. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOEpatents

    Wang, C.L.

    1984-09-28

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (uv to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 keV x-rays.

  12. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOEpatents

    Wang, C.L.

    1989-03-21

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras is disclosed. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1,000 KeV x-rays. 3 figs.

  13. Analytical multicollimator camera calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration with the U.S. Geological survey multicollimator determines the calibrated focal length, the point of symmetry, the radial distortion referred to the point of symmetry, and the asymmetric characteristiecs of the camera lens. For this project, two cameras were calibrated, a Zeiss RMK A 15/23 and a Wild RC 8. Four test exposures were made with each camera. Results are tabulated for each exposure and averaged for each set. Copies of the standard USGS calibration reports are included. ?? 1978.

  14. Streak camera meeting summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.; Bliss, David E.

    2014-09-01

    Streak cameras are important for high-speed data acquisition in single event experiments, where the total recorded information (I) is shared between the number of measurements (M) and the number of samples (S). Topics of this meeting included: streak camera use at the national laboratories; current streak camera production; new tube developments and alternative technologies; and future planning. Each topic is summarized in the following sections.

  15. Ringfield lithographic camera

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    1998-01-01

    A projection lithography camera is presented with a wide ringfield optimized so as to make efficient use of extreme ultraviolet radiation from a large area radiation source (e.g., D.sub.source .apprxeq.0.5 mm). The camera comprises four aspheric mirrors optically arranged on a common axis of symmetry with an increased etendue for the camera system. The camera includes an aperture stop that is accessible through a plurality of partial aperture stops to synthesize the theoretical aperture stop. Radiation from a mask is focused to form a reduced image on a wafer, relative to the mask, by reflection from the four aspheric mirrors.

  16. Digital Electronic Still Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Samuel D.; Yeates, Herbert D.

    1993-01-01

    Digital electronic still camera part of electronic recording, processing, tansmitting, and displaying system. Removable hard-disk drive in camera serves as digital electronic equivalent of photographic film. Images viewed, analyzed, or transmitted quickly. Camera takes images of nearly photographic quality and stores them in digital form. Portable, hand-held, battery-powered unit designed for scientific use. Camera used in conjunction with playback unit also serving as transmitting unit if images sent to remote station. Remote station equipped to store, process, and display images. Digital image data encoded with error-correcting code at playback/transmitting unit for error-free transmission to remote station.

  17. LSST Camera Optics Design

    SciTech Connect

    Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N

    2012-05-24

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

  18. Digital camera simulation.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Joyce E; Catrysse, Peter B; Wandell, Brian A

    2012-02-01

    We describe a simulation of the complete image processing pipeline of a digital camera, beginning with a radiometric description of the scene captured by the camera and ending with a radiometric description of the image rendered on a display. We show that there is a good correspondence between measured and simulated sensor performance. Through the use of simulation, we can quantify the effects of individual digital camera components on system performance and image quality. This computational approach can be helpful for both camera design and image quality assessment.

  19. CCD Luminescence Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliott, Tom

    1987-01-01

    New diagnostic tool used to understand performance and failures of microelectronic devices. Microscope integrated to low-noise charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera to produce new instrument for analyzing performance and failures of microelectronics devices that emit infrared light during operation. CCD camera also used to indentify very clearly parts that have failed where luminescence typically found.

  20. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

    1999-05-11

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

  1. Compact Solar Camera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juergens, Albert

    1980-01-01

    Describes a compact solar camera built as a one-semester student project. This camera is used for taking pictures of the sun and moon and for direct observation of the image of the sun on a screen. (Author/HM)

  2. The DSLR Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkó, Ernő; Argyle, R. W.

    Cameras have developed significantly in the past decade; in particular, digital Single-Lens Reflex Cameras (DSLR) have appeared. As a consequence we can buy cameras of higher and higher pixel number, and mass production has resulted in the great reduction of prices. CMOS sensors used for imaging are increasingly sensitive, and the electronics in the cameras allows images to be taken with much less noise. The software background is developing in a similar way—intelligent programs are created for after-processing and other supplementary works. Nowadays we can find a digital camera in almost every household, most of these cameras are DSLR ones. These can be used very well for astronomical imaging, which is nicely demonstrated by the amount and quality of the spectacular astrophotos appearing in different publications. These examples also show how much post-processing software contributes to the rise in the standard of the pictures. To sum up, the DSLR camera serves as a cheap alternative for the CCD camera, with somewhat weaker technical characteristics. In the following, I will introduce how we can measure the main parameters (position angle and separation) of double stars, based on the methods, software and equipment I use. Others can easily apply these for their own circumstances.

  3. Camera Operator and Videographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Television, video, and motion picture camera operators produce images that tell a story, inform or entertain an audience, or record an event. They use various cameras to shoot a wide range of material, including television series, news and sporting events, music videos, motion pictures, documentaries, and training sessions. Those who film or…

  4. Dry imaging cameras.

    PubMed

    Indrajit, Ik; Alam, Aftab; Sahni, Hirdesh; Bhatia, Mukul; Sahu, Samaresh

    2011-04-01

    Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow.

  5. 7. VAL CAMERA STATION, INTERIOR VIEW OF CAMERA MOUNT, COMMUNICATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VAL CAMERA STATION, INTERIOR VIEW OF CAMERA MOUNT, COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT AND STORAGE CABINET. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Stations, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 3. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH THE VAL TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Ringfield lithographic camera

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1998-09-08

    A projection lithography camera is presented with a wide ringfield optimized so as to make efficient use of extreme ultraviolet radiation from a large area radiation source (e.g., D{sub source} {approx_equal} 0.5 mm). The camera comprises four aspheric mirrors optically arranged on a common axis of symmetry. The camera includes an aperture stop that is accessible through a plurality of partial aperture stops to synthesize the theoretical aperture stop. Radiation from a mask is focused to form a reduced image on a wafer, relative to the mask, by reflection from the four aspheric mirrors. 11 figs.

  8. The Mars observer camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Masursky, H.; Veverka, J.; Soulanille, T.; Ravine, M.

    1987-01-01

    A camera designed to operate under the extreme constraints of the Mars Observer Mission was selected by NASA in April, 1986. Contingent upon final confirmation in mid-November, the Mars Observer Camera (MOC) will begin acquiring images of the surface and atmosphere of Mars in September-October 1991. The MOC incorporates both a wide angle system for low resolution global monitoring and intermediate resolution regional targeting, and a narrow angle system for high resolution selective surveys. Camera electronics provide control of image clocking and on-board, internal editing and buffering to match whatever spacecraft data system capabilities are allocated to the experiment. The objectives of the MOC experiment follow.

  9. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  10. Kitt Peak speckle camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Mcalister, H. A.; Robinson, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    The speckle camera in regular use at Kitt Peak National Observatory since 1974 is described in detail. The design of the atmospheric dispersion compensation prisms, the use of film as a recording medium, the accuracy of double star measurements, and the next generation speckle camera are discussed. Photographs of double star speckle patterns with separations from 1.4 sec of arc to 4.7 sec of arc are shown to illustrate the quality of image formation with this camera, the effects of seeing on the patterns, and to illustrate the isoplanatic patch of the atmosphere.

  11. Do speed cameras reduce collisions?

    PubMed

    Skubic, Jeffrey; Johnson, Steven B; Salvino, Chris; Vanhoy, Steven; Hu, Chengcheng

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of speed cameras along a 26 mile segment in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Motor vehicle collisions were retrospectively identified according to three time periods - before cameras were placed, while cameras were in place and after cameras were removed. A 14 mile segment in the same area without cameras was used for control purposes. Five cofounding variables were eliminated. In this study, the placement or removal of interstate highway speed cameras did not independently affect the incidence of motor vehicle collisions.

  12. Advanced CCD camera developments

    SciTech Connect

    Condor, A.

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  13. The MKID Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, P. R.; Czakon, N. G.; Day, P. K.; Duan, R.; Gao, J.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S.; Hollister, M.; LeDuc, H. G.; Mazin, B.; Noroozian, O.; Nguyen, H. T.; Sayers, J.; Schlaerth, J.; Vaillancourt, J. E.; Vayonakis, A.; Wilson, P.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2009-12-01

    The MKID Camera project is a collaborative effort of Caltech, JPL, the University of Colorado, and UC Santa Barbara to develop a large-format, multi-color millimeter and submillimeter-wavelength camera for astronomy using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). These are superconducting, micro-resonators fabricated from thin aluminum and niobium films. We couple the MKIDs to multi-slot antennas and measure the change in surface impedance produced by photon-induced breaking of Cooper pairs. The readout is almost entirely at room temperature and can be highly multiplexed; in principle hundreds or even thousands of resonators could be read out on a single feedline. The camera will have 576 spatial pixels that image simultaneously in four bands at 750, 850, 1100 and 1300 microns. It is scheduled for deployment at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory in the summer of 2010. We present an overview of the camera design and readout and describe the current status of testing and fabrication.

  14. The Complementary Pinhole Camera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissonnette, D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an experiment based on the principles of rectilinear motion of light operating in a pinhole camera that projects the image of an illuminated object through a small hole in a sheet to an image screen. (MDH)

  15. Spacecraft camera image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamel, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Graul, Donald W. (Inventor); Chan, Fred N. T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system for achieving spacecraft camera (1, 2) image registration comprises a portion external to the spacecraft and an image motion compensation system (IMCS) portion onboard the spacecraft. Within the IMCS, a computer (38) calculates an image registration compensation signal (60) which is sent to the scan control loops (84, 88, 94, 98) of the onboard cameras (1, 2). At the location external to the spacecraft, the long-term orbital and attitude perturbations on the spacecraft are modeled. Coefficients (K, A) from this model are periodically sent to the onboard computer (38) by means of a command unit (39). The coefficients (K, A) take into account observations of stars and landmarks made by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2) themselves. The computer (38) takes as inputs the updated coefficients (K, A) plus synchronization information indicating the mirror position (AZ, EL) of each of the spacecraft cameras (1, 2), operating mode, and starting and stopping status of the scan lines generated by these cameras (1, 2), and generates in response thereto the image registration compensation signal (60). The sources of periodic thermal errors on the spacecraft are discussed. The system is checked by calculating measurement residuals, the difference between the landmark and star locations predicted at the external location and the landmark and star locations as measured by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2).

  16. Neutron cameras for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Batistoni, P.

    1998-12-31

    Neutron cameras with horizontal and vertical views have been designed for ITER, based on systems used on JET and TFTR. The cameras consist of fan-shaped arrays of collimated flight tubes, with suitably chosen detectors situated outside the biological shield. The sight lines view the ITER plasma through slots in the shield blanket and penetrate the vacuum vessel, cryostat, and biological shield through stainless steel windows. This paper analyzes the expected performance of several neutron camera arrangements for ITER. In addition to the reference designs, the authors examine proposed compact cameras, in which neutron fluxes are inferred from {sup 16}N decay gammas in dedicated flowing water loops, and conventional cameras with fewer sight lines and more limited fields of view than in the reference designs. It is shown that the spatial sampling provided by the reference designs is sufficient to satisfy target measurement requirements and that some reduction in field of view may be permissible. The accuracy of measurements with {sup 16}N-based compact cameras is not yet established, and they fail to satisfy requirements for parameter range and time resolution by large margins.

  17. 1. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING NORTH TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Deployable Wireless Camera Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Jones, Jack; Sherrit, Stewart; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, low-power camera dart has been designed and tested for context imaging of sampling sites and ground surveys from an aerobot or an orbiting spacecraft in a microgravity environment. The camera penetrators also can be used to image any line-of-sight surface, such as cliff walls, that is difficult to access. Tethered cameras to inspect the surfaces of planetary bodies use both power and signal transmission lines to operate. A tether adds the possibility of inadvertently anchoring the aerobot, and requires some form of station-keeping capability of the aerobot if extended examination time is required. The new camera penetrators are deployed without a tether, weigh less than 30 grams, and are disposable. They are designed to drop from any altitude with the boost in transmitting power currently demonstrated at approximately 100-m line-of-sight. The penetrators also can be deployed to monitor lander or rover operations from a distance, and can be used for surface surveys or for context information gathering from a touch-and-go sampling site. Thanks to wireless operation, the complexity of the sampling or survey mechanisms may be reduced. The penetrators may be battery powered for short-duration missions, or have solar panels for longer or intermittent duration missions. The imaging device is embedded in the penetrator, which is dropped or projected at the surface of a study site at 90 to the surface. Mirrors can be used in the design to image the ground or the horizon. Some of the camera features were tested using commercial "nanny" or "spy" camera components with the charge-coupled device (CCD) looking at a direction parallel to the ground. Figure 1 shows components of one camera that weighs less than 8 g and occupies a volume of 11 cm3. This camera could transmit a standard television signal, including sound, up to 100 m. Figure 2 shows the CAD models of a version of the penetrator. A low-volume array of such penetrator cameras could be deployed from an

  19. The VISTA IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Gavin B.; Caldwell, Martin; Ward, Kim; Whalley, Martin S.; Burke, Kevin; Lucas, John M.; Richards, Tony; Ferlet, Marc; Edeson, Ruben L.; Tye, Daniel; Shaughnessy, Bryan M.; Strachan, Mel; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Leclerc, Melanie R.; Gallie, Angus; Bezawada, Nagaraja N.; Clark, Paul; Bissonauth, Nirmal; Luke, Peter; Dipper, Nigel A.; Berry, Paul; Sutherland, Will; Emerson, Jim

    2004-09-01

    The VISTA IR Camera has now completed its detailed design phase and is on schedule for delivery to ESO"s Cerro Paranal Observatory in 2006. The camera consists of 16 Raytheon VIRGO 2048x2048 HgCdTe arrays in a sparse focal plane sampling a 1.65 degree field of view. A 1.4m diameter filter wheel provides slots for 7 distinct science filters, each comprising 16 individual filter panes. The camera also provides autoguiding and curvature sensing information for the VISTA telescope, and relies on tight tolerancing to meet the demanding requirements of the f/1 telescope design. The VISTA IR camera is unusual in that it contains no cold pupil-stop, but rather relies on a series of nested cold baffles to constrain the light reaching the focal plane to the science beam. In this paper we present a complete overview of the status of the final IR Camera design, its interaction with the VISTA telescope, and a summary of the predicted performance of the system.

  20. THE DARK ENERGY CAMERA

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Alvarez, O.; Angstadt, R.; Annis, J. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Honscheid, K.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Bonati, M.; Antonik, M.; Brooks, D.; Ballester, O.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Beaufore, L.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bigelow, B.; Boprie, D.; Campa, J.; Castander, F. J.; Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2015-11-15

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.°2 diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4 m telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five-element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane of 250 μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 megapixel focal plane comprises 62 2k × 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k × 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 μm × 15 μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.″263 pixel{sup −1}. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 s with 6–9 electron readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  1. The Dark Energy Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.

    2015-04-11

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250-μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2k x 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k x 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15μm x 15μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.263" per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  2. Satellite camera image navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamel, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Graul, Donald W. (Inventor); Savides, John (Inventor); Hanson, Charles W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Pixels within a satellite camera (1, 2) image are precisely located in terms of latitude and longitude on a celestial body, such as the earth, being imaged. A computer (60) on the earth generates models (40, 50) of the satellite's orbit and attitude, respectively. The orbit model (40) is generated from measurements of stars and landmarks taken by the camera (1, 2), and by range data. The orbit model (40) is an expression of the satellite's latitude and longitude at the subsatellite point, and of the altitude of the satellite, as a function of time, using as coefficients (K) the six Keplerian elements at epoch. The attitude model (50) is based upon star measurements taken by each camera (1, 2). The attitude model (50) is a set of expressions for the deviations in a set of mutually orthogonal reference optical axes (x, y, z) as a function of time, for each camera (1, 2). Measured data is fit into the models (40, 50) using a walking least squares fit algorithm. A transformation computer (66 ) transforms pixel coordinates as telemetered by the camera (1, 2) into earth latitude and longitude coordinates, using the orbit and attitude models (40, 50).

  3. The Dark Energy Camera

    DOE PAGES

    Flaugher, B.

    2015-04-11

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250-μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar.more » The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2k x 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k x 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15μm x 15μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.263" per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.« less

  4. Neutron counting with cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  5. CAOS-CMOS camera.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M Junaid

    2016-06-13

    Proposed and experimentally demonstrated is the CAOS-CMOS camera design that combines the coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager platform with the CMOS multi-pixel optical sensor. The unique CAOS-CMOS camera engages the classic CMOS sensor light staring mode with the time-frequency-space agile pixel CAOS imager mode within one programmable optical unit to realize a high dynamic range imager for extreme light contrast conditions. The experimentally demonstrated CAOS-CMOS camera is built using a digital micromirror device, a silicon point-photo-detector with a variable gain amplifier, and a silicon CMOS sensor with a maximum rated 51.3 dB dynamic range. White light imaging of three different brightness simultaneously viewed targets, that is not possible by the CMOS sensor, is achieved by the CAOS-CMOS camera demonstrating an 82.06 dB dynamic range. Applications for the camera include industrial machine vision, welding, laser analysis, automotive, night vision, surveillance and multispectral military systems.

  6. HIGH SPEED CAMERA

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, B.T. Jr.; Davis, W.C.

    1957-12-17

    This patent relates to high speed cameras having resolution times of less than one-tenth microseconds suitable for filming distinct sequences of a very fast event such as an explosion. This camera consists of a rotating mirror with reflecting surfaces on both sides, a narrow mirror acting as a slit in a focal plane shutter, various other mirror and lens systems as well as an innage recording surface. The combination of the rotating mirrors and the slit mirror causes discrete, narrow, separate pictures to fall upon the film plane, thereby forming a moving image increment of the photographed event. Placing a reflecting surface on each side of the rotating mirror cancels the image velocity that one side of the rotating mirror would impart, so as a camera having this short a resolution time is thereby possible.

  7. Selective-imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Landa, Joseph; Cha, Jae H.; Krapels, Keith A.

    2015-05-01

    How can we design cameras that image selectively in Full Electro-Magnetic (FEM) spectra? Without selective imaging, we cannot use, for example, ordinary tourist cameras to see through fire, smoke, or other obscurants contributing to creating a Visually Degraded Environment (VDE). This paper addresses a possible new design of selective-imaging cameras at firmware level. The design is consistent with physics of the irreversible thermodynamics of Boltzmann's molecular entropy. It enables imaging in appropriate FEM spectra for sensing through the VDE, and displaying in color spectra for Human Visual System (HVS). We sense within the spectra the largest entropy value of obscurants such as fire, smoke, etc. Then we apply a smart firmware implementation of Blind Sources Separation (BSS) to separate all entropy sources associated with specific Kelvin temperatures. Finally, we recompose the scene using specific RGB colors constrained by the HVS, by up/down shifting Planck spectra at each pixel and time.

  8. Electronic Still Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, S. Douglas (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A handheld, programmable, digital camera is disclosed that supports a variety of sensors and has program control over the system components to provide versatility. The camera uses a high performance design which produces near film quality images from an electronic system. The optical system of the camera incorporates a conventional camera body that was slightly modified, thus permitting the use of conventional camera accessories, such as telephoto lenses, wide-angle lenses, auto-focusing circuitry, auto-exposure circuitry, flash units, and the like. An image sensor, such as a charge coupled device ('CCD') collects the photons that pass through the camera aperture when the shutter is opened, and produces an analog electrical signal indicative of the image. The analog image signal is read out of the CCD and is processed by preamplifier circuitry, a correlated double sampler, and a sample and hold circuit before it is converted to a digital signal. The analog-to-digital converter has an accuracy of eight bits to insure accuracy during the conversion. Two types of data ports are included for two different data transfer needs. One data port comprises a general purpose industrial standard port and the other a high speed/high performance application specific port. The system uses removable hard disks as its permanent storage media. The hard disk receives the digital image signal from the memory buffer and correlates the image signal with other sensed parameters, such as longitudinal or other information. When the storage capacity of the hard disk has been filled, the disk can be replaced with a new disk.

  9. Electronic still camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, S. Douglas

    1992-09-01

    A handheld, programmable, digital camera is disclosed that supports a variety of sensors and has program control over the system components to provide versatility. The camera uses a high performance design which produces near film quality images from an electronic system. The optical system of the camera incorporates a conventional camera body that was slightly modified, thus permitting the use of conventional camera accessories, such as telephoto lenses, wide-angle lenses, auto-focusing circuitry, auto-exposure circuitry, flash units, and the like. An image sensor, such as a charge coupled device ('CCD') collects the photons that pass through the camera aperture when the shutter is opened, and produces an analog electrical signal indicative of the image. The analog image signal is read out of the CCD and is processed by preamplifier circuitry, a correlated double sampler, and a sample and hold circuit before it is converted to a digital signal. The analog-to-digital converter has an accuracy of eight bits to insure accuracy during the conversion. Two types of data ports are included for two different data transfer needs. One data port comprises a general purpose industrial standard port and the other a high speed/high performance application specific port. The system uses removable hard disks as its permanent storage media. The hard disk receives the digital image signal from the memory buffer and correlates the image signal with other sensed parameters, such as longitudinal or other information. When the storage capacity of the hard disk has been filled, the disk can be replaced with a new disk.

  10. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  11. Laser Range Camera Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Storjohann, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an imaging model that was derived for use with a laser range camera (LRC) developed by the Advanced Intelligent Machines Division of Odetics. However, this model could be applied to any comparable imaging system. Both the derivation of the model and the determination of the LRC's intrinsic parameters are explained. For the purpose of evaluating the LRC's extrinsic parameters, i.e., its external orientation, a transformation of the LRC's imaging model into a standard camera's (SC) pinhole model is derived. By virtue of this transformation, the evaluation of the LRC's external orientation can be found by applying any SC calibration technique.

  12. Underwater camera with depth measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Lin, Keng-Ren; Tsui, Chi L.; Schipf, David; Leang, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an RGB-D (video + depth) camera that provides three-dimensional image data for use in the haptic feedback of a robotic underwater ordnance recovery system. Two camera systems were developed and studied. The first depth camera relies on structured light (as used by the Microsoft Kinect), where the displacement of an object is determined by variations of the geometry of a projected pattern. The other camera system is based on a Time of Flight (ToF) depth camera. The results of the structural light camera system shows that the camera system requires a stronger light source with a similar operating wavelength and bandwidth to achieve a desirable working distance in water. This approach might not be robust enough for our proposed underwater RGB-D camera system, as it will require a complete re-design of the light source component. The ToF camera system instead, allows an arbitrary placement of light source and camera. The intensity output of the broadband LED light source in the ToF camera system can be increased by putting them into an array configuration and the LEDs can be modulated comfortably with any waveform and frequencies required by the ToF camera. In this paper, both camera were evaluated and experiments were conducted to demonstrate the versatility of the ToF camera.

  13. Photogrammetric camera calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.; Ziemann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Section 2 (Calibration) of the document "Recommended Procedures for Calibrating Photogrammetric Cameras and Related Optical Tests" from the International Archives of Photogrammetry, Vol. XIII, Part 4, is reviewed in the light of recent practical work, and suggestions for changes are made. These suggestions are intended as a basis for a further discussion. ?? 1984.

  14. Make a Pinhole Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane K.; Novati, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    On Earth, using ordinary visible light, one can create a single image of light recorded over time. Of course a movie or video is light recorded over time, but it is a series of instantaneous snapshots, rather than light and time both recorded on the same medium. A pinhole camera, which is simple to make out of ordinary materials and using ordinary…

  15. Anger Camera Firmware

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-19

    The firmware is responsible for the operation of Anger Camera Electronics, calculation of position, time of flight and digital communications. It provides a first stage analysis of 48 signals from 48 analog signals that have been converted to digital values using A/D convertors.

  16. Mars Observer camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Masursky, H.; Veverka, J.; Ravine, M. A.; Soulanille, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Mars Observer camera (MOC) is a three-component system (one narrow-angle and two wide-angle cameras) designed to take high spatial resolution pictures of the surface of Mars and to obtain lower spatial resolution, synoptic coverage of the planet's surface and atmosphere. The cameras are based on the 'push broom' technique; that is, they do not take 'frames' but rather build pictures, one line at a time, as the spacecraft moves around the planet in its orbit. MOC is primarily a telescope for taking extremely high resolution pictures of selected locations on Mars. Using the narrow-angle camera, areas ranging from 2.8 km x 2.8 km to 2.8 km x 25.2 km (depending on available internal digital buffer memory) can be photographed at about 1.4 m/pixel. Additionally, lower-resolution pictures (to a lowest resolution of about 11 m/pixel) can be acquired by pixel averaging; these images can be much longer, ranging up to 2.8 x 500 km at 11 m/pixel. High-resolution data will be used to study sediments and sedimentary processes, polar processes and deposits, volcanism, and other geologic/geomorphic processes.

  17. Snapshot polarimeter fundus camera.

    PubMed

    DeHoog, Edward; Luo, Haitao; Oka, Kazuhiko; Dereniak, Eustace; Schwiegerling, James

    2009-03-20

    A snapshot imaging polarimeter utilizing Savart plates is integrated into a fundus camera for retinal imaging. Acquired retinal images can be processed to reconstruct Stokes vector images, giving insight into the polarization properties of the retina. Results for images from a normal healthy retina and retinas with pathology are examined and compared.

  18. Jack & the Video Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlan, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This article narrates how the use of video camera has transformed the life of Jack Williams, a 10-year-old boy from Colorado Springs, Colorado, who has autism. The way autism affected Jack was unique. For the first nine years of his life, Jack remained in his world, alone. Functionally non-verbal and with motor skill problems that affected his…

  19. Spas color camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toffales, C.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures to be followed in assessing the performance of the MOS color camera are defined. Aspects considered include: horizontal and vertical resolution; value of the video signal; gray scale rendition; environmental (vibration and temperature) tests; signal to noise ratios; and white balance correction.

  20. Advanced Virgo phase cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schaaf, L.; Agatsuma, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Gebyehu, M.; van den Brand, J.

    2016-05-01

    A century after the prediction of gravitational waves, detectors have reached the sensitivity needed to proof their existence. One of them, the Virgo interferometer in Pisa, is presently being upgraded to Advanced Virgo (AdV) and will come into operation in 2016. The power stored in the interferometer arms raises from 20 to 700 kW. This increase is expected to introduce higher order modes in the beam, which could reduce the circulating power in the interferometer, limiting the sensitivity of the instrument. To suppress these higher-order modes, the core optics of Advanced Virgo is equipped with a thermal compensation system. Phase cameras, monitoring the real-time status of the beam constitute a critical component of this compensation system. These cameras measure the phases and amplitudes of the laser-light fields at the frequencies selected to control the interferometer. The measurement combines heterodyne detection with a scan of the wave front over a photodetector with pin-hole aperture. Three cameras observe the phase front of these laser sidebands. Two of them monitor the in-and output of the interferometer arms and the third one is used in the control of the aberrations introduced by the power recycling cavity. In this paper the working principle of the phase cameras is explained and some characteristic parameters are described.

  1. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  2. The LSST Camera Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Kirk; Kahn, Steven A.; Nordby, Martin; Burke, David; O'Connor, Paul; Oliver, John; Radeka, Veljko; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    The LSST camera is a wide-field optical (0.35-1um) imager designed to provide a 3.5 degree FOV with better than 0.2 arcsecond sampling. The detector format will be a circular mosaic providing approximately 3.2 Gigapixels per image. The camera includes a filter mechanism and, shuttering capability. It is positioned in the middle of the telescope where cross-sectional area is constrained by optical vignetting and heat dissipation must be controlled to limit thermal gradients in the optical beam. The fast, f/1.2 beam will require tight tolerances on the focal plane mechanical assembly. The focal plane array operates at a temperature of approximately -100 C to achieve desired detector performance. The focal plane array is contained within an evacuated cryostat, which incorporates detector front-end electronics and thermal control. The cryostat lens serves as an entrance window and vacuum seal for the cryostat. Similarly, the camera body lens serves as an entrance window and gas seal for the camera housing, which is filled with a suitable gas to provide the operating environment for the shutter and filter change mechanisms. The filter carousel can accommodate 5 filters, each 75 cm in diameter, for rapid exchange without external intervention.

  3. Ultraminiature television camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deterville, R. J.; Drago, N.

    1967-01-01

    Ultraminiature television camera with a total volume of 20.25 cubic inches, requires 28 vdc power, operates on UHF and accommodates standard 8-mm optics. It uses microelectronic assembly packaging techniques and contains a magnetically deflected and electrostatically focused vidicon, automatic gain control circuit, power supply, and transmitter.

  4. The PAU Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, R.; Ballester, O.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Castilla, J.; Crocce, M.; de Vicente, J.; Delfino, M.; Fernández, E.; Fosalba, P.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztañaga, E.; Grañena, F.; Jiménez, J.; Madrid, F.; Maiorino, M.; Martí, P.; Miquel, R.; Neissner, C.; Ponce, R.; Sánchez, E.; Serrano, S.; Sevilla, I.; Tonello, N.; Troyano, I.

    2011-11-01

    The PAU Camera (PAUCam) is a wide-field camera designed to be mounted at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) prime focus, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in the island of La Palma (Canary Islands).Its primary function is to carry out a cosmological survey, the PAU Survey, covering an area of several hundred square degrees of sky. Its purpose is to determine positions and distances using photometric redshift techniques. To achieve accurate photo-z's, PAUCam will be equipped with 40 narrow-band filters covering the range from 450 to850 nm, and six broad-band filters, those of the SDSS system plus the Y band. To fully cover the focal plane delivered by the telescope optics, 18 CCDs 2k x 4k are needed. The pixels are square of 15 μ m size. The optical characteristics of the prime focus corrector deliver a field-of-view where eight of these CCDs will have an illumination of more than 95% covering a field of 40 arc minutes. The rest of the CCDs will occupy the vignetted region extending the field diameter to one degree. Two of the CCDs will be devoted to auto-guiding.This camera have some innovative features. Firstly, both the broad-band and the narrow-band filters will be placed in mobile trays, hosting 16 such filters at most. Those are located inside the cryostat at few millimeters in front of the CCDs when observing. Secondly, a pressurized liquid nitrogen tank outside the camera will feed a boiler inside the cryostat with a controlled massflow. The read-out electronics will use the Monsoon architecture, originally developed by NOAO, modified and manufactured by our team in the frame of the DECam project (the camera used in the DES Survey).PAUCam will also be available to the astronomical community of the WHT.

  5. Image Sensors Enhance Camera Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to miniaturize cameras on spacecraft while maintaining scientific image quality. Fossum s team founded a company to commercialize the resulting CMOS active pixel sensor. Now called the Aptina Imaging Corporation, based in San Jose, California, the company has shipped over 1 billion sensors for use in applications such as digital cameras, camera phones, Web cameras, and automotive cameras. Today, one of every three cell phone cameras on the planet feature Aptina s sensor technology.

  6. Do Speed Cameras Reduce Collisions?

    PubMed Central

    Skubic, Jeffrey; Johnson, Steven B.; Salvino, Chris; Vanhoy, Steven; Hu, Chengcheng

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of speed cameras along a 26 mile segment in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Motor vehicle collisions were retrospectively identified according to three time periods – before cameras were placed, while cameras were in place and after cameras were removed. A 14 mile segment in the same area without cameras was used for control purposes. Five cofounding variables were eliminated. In this study, the placement or removal of interstate highway speed cameras did not independently affect the incidence of motor vehicle collisions. PMID:24406979

  7. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-04-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  8. Automated Camera Array Fine Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouse, Daniel; Padgett, Curtis; Ansar, Adnan; Cheng, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Using aerial imagery, the JPL FineCalibration (JPL FineCal) software automatically tunes a set of existing CAHVOR camera models for an array of cameras. The software finds matching features in the overlap region between images from adjacent cameras, and uses these features to refine the camera models. It is not necessary to take special imagery of a known target and no surveying is required. JPL FineCal was developed for use with an aerial, persistent surveillance platform.

  9. Streak camera receiver definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Hunkler, L. T., Sr.; Letzring, S. A.; Jaanimagi, P.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed streak camera definition studies were made as a first step toward full flight qualification of a dual channel picosecond resolution streak camera receiver for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter and Ranging System (GLRS). The streak camera receiver requirements are discussed as they pertain specifically to the GLRS system, and estimates of the characteristics of the streak camera are given, based upon existing and near-term technological capabilities. Important problem areas are highlighted, and possible corresponding solutions are discussed.

  10. LSST Camera Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, K; Hale, L; Whistler, W

    2006-06-05

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a unique, three-mirror, modified Paul-Baker design with an 8.4m primary, a 3.4m secondary, and a 5.0m tertiary feeding a camera system that includes corrector optics to produce a 3.5 degree field of view with excellent image quality (<0.3 arcsecond 80% encircled diffracted energy) over the entire field from blue to near infra-red wavelengths. We describe the design of the LSST camera optics, consisting of three refractive lenses with diameters of 1.6m, 1.0m and 0.7m, along with a set of interchangeable, broad-band, interference filters with diameters of 0.75m. We also describe current plans for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing these lenses and filters.

  11. Combustion pinhole camera system

    DOEpatents

    Witte, Arvel B.

    1984-02-21

    A pinhole camera system utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

  12. Combustion pinhole camera system

    DOEpatents

    Witte, A.B.

    1984-02-21

    A pinhole camera system is described utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor. 2 figs.

  13. Hemispherical Laue camera

    DOEpatents

    Li, James C. M.; Chu, Sungnee G.

    1980-01-01

    A hemispherical Laue camera comprises a crystal sample mount for positioning a sample to be analyzed at the center of sphere of a hemispherical, X-radiation sensitive film cassette, a collimator, a stationary or rotating sample mount and a set of standard spherical projection spheres. X-radiation generated from an external source is directed through the collimator to impinge onto the single crystal sample on the stationary mount. The diffracted beam is recorded on the hemispherical X-radiation sensitive film mounted inside the hemispherical film cassette in either transmission or back-reflection geometry. The distances travelled by X-radiation diffracted from the crystal to the hemispherical film are the same for all crystal planes which satisfy Bragg's Law. The recorded diffraction spots or Laue spots on the film thereby preserve both the symmetry information of the crystal structure and the relative intensities which are directly related to the relative structure factors of the crystal orientations. The diffraction pattern on the exposed film is compared with the known diffraction pattern on one of the standard spherical projection spheres for a specific crystal structure to determine the orientation of the crystal sample. By replacing the stationary sample support with a rotating sample mount, the hemispherical Laue camera can be used for crystal structure determination in a manner previously provided in conventional Debye-Scherrer cameras.

  14. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1997-01-21

    A gamma ray camera is disclosed for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array. 6 figs.

  15. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1997-01-01

    A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

  16. Orbiter Camera Payload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Components for an orbiting camera payload system (OCPS) include the large format camera (LFC), a gas supply assembly, and ground test, handling, and calibration hardware. The LFC, a high resolution large format photogrammetric camera for use in the cargo bay of the space transport system, is also adaptable to use on an RB-57 aircraft or on a free flyer satellite. Carrying 4000 feet of film, the LFC is usable over the visible to near IR, at V/h rates of from 11 to 41 milliradians per second, overlap of 10, 60, 70 or 80 percent and exposure times of from 4 to 32 milliseconds. With a 12 inch focal length it produces a 9 by 18 inch format (long dimension in line of flight) with full format low contrast resolution of 88 lines per millimeter (AWAR), full format distortion of less than 14 microns and a complement of 45 Reseau marks and 12 fiducial marks. Weight of the OCPS as supplied, fully loaded is 944 pounds and power dissipation is 273 watts average when in operation, 95 watts in standby. The LFC contains an internal exposure sensor, or will respond to external command. It is able to photograph starfields for inflight calibration upon command.

  17. The DRAGO gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorini, C.; Gola, A.; Peloso, R.; Longoni, A.; Lechner, P.; Soltau, H.; Strueder, L.; Ottobrini, L.; Martelli, C.; Lui, R.; Madaschi, L.; Belloli, S.

    2010-04-15

    In this work, we present the results of the experimental characterization of the DRAGO (DRift detector Array-based Gamma camera for Oncology), a detection system developed for high-spatial resolution gamma-ray imaging. This camera is based on a monolithic array of 77 silicon drift detectors (SDDs), with a total active area of 6.7 cm{sup 2}, coupled to a single 5-mm-thick CsI(Tl) scintillator crystal. The use of an array of SDDs provides a high quantum efficiency for the detection of the scintillation light together with a very low electronics noise. A very compact detection module based on the use of integrated readout circuits was developed. The performances achieved in gamma-ray imaging using this camera are reported here. When imaging a 0.2 mm collimated {sup 57}Co source (122 keV) over different points of the active area, a spatial resolution ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 mm was measured. The depth-of-interaction capability of the detector, thanks to the use of a Maximum Likelihood reconstruction algorithm, was also investigated by imaging a collimated beam tilted to an angle of 45 deg. with respect to the scintillator surface. Finally, the imager was characterized with in vivo measurements on mice, in a real preclinical environment.

  18. D Hyperspectral Frame Imager Camera Data in Photogrammetric Mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkeläinen, A.; Saari, H.; Hippi, I.; Sarkeala, J.; Soukkamäki, J.

    2013-08-01

    A new 2D hyperspectral frame camera system has been developed by VTT (Technical Research Center of Finland) and Rikola Ltd. It contains frame based and very light camera with RGB-NIR sensor and it is suitable for light weight and cost effective UAV planes. MosaicMill Ltd. has converted the camera data into proper format for photogrammetric processing, and camera's geometrical accuracy and stability are evaluated to guarantee required accuracies for end user applications. MosaicMill Ltd. has also applied its' EnsoMOSAIC technology to process hyperspectral data into orthomosaics. This article describes the main steps and results on applying hyperspectral sensor in orthomosaicking. The most promising results as well as challenges in agriculture and forestry are also described.

  19. A low-cost dual-camera imaging system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available remote sensing platform as low-cost and easy-to-use consumer-grade cameras are being increasingly used for aerial imaging. In this article, we report on a dual-camera imaging system we recently assembled that can capture RGB and near-infrared (NIR) i...

  20. Efficacy of novel robotic camera vs a standard laparoscopic camera.

    PubMed

    Strong, Vivian E M; Hogle, Nancy J; Fowler, Dennis L

    2005-12-01

    To improve visualization during minimal access surgery, a novel robotic camera has been developed. The prototype camera is totally insertable, has 5 degrees of freedom, and is remotely controlled. This study compared the performance of laparoscopic surgeons using both a laparoscope and the robotic camera. The MISTELS (McGill Inanimate System for the Training and Evaluation of Laparoscopic Skill) tasks were used to test six laparoscopic fellows and attending surgeons. Half the surgeons used the laparoscope first and half used the robotic camera first. Total scores from the MISTELS sessions in which the laparoscope was used were compared with the sessions in which the robotic camera was used and then analyzed with a paired t test (P < .05 was considered significant). All six surgeons tested showed no significant difference in their MISTELS task performance on the robotic camera compared with the standard laparoscopic camera. The mean MISTELS score of 963 for all subjects who used a laparoscope and camera was not significantly different than the mean score of 904 for the robotic camera (P = .17). This new robotic camera prototype allows for equivalent performance on a validated laparoscopic assessment tool when compared with performance using a standard laparoscope.

  1. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  2. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  3. Universal ICT Picosecond Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Vitaly B.; Syrtzev, V. N.; Tolmachyov, A. M.; Feldman, Gregory G.; Chernyshov, N. A.

    1989-06-01

    The paper reports on the design of an ICI camera operating in the mode of linear or three-frame image scan. The camera incorporates two tubes: time-analyzing ICI PIM-107 1 with cathode S-11, and brightness amplifier PMU-2V (gain about 104) for the image shaped by the first tube. The camera is designed on the basis of streak camera AGAT-SF3 2 with almost the same power sources, but substantially modified pulse electronics. Schematically, the design of tube PIM-107 is depicted in the figure. The tube consists of cermet housing 1, photocathode 2 made in a separate vacuum volume and introduced into the housing by means of a manipulator. In a direct vicinity of the photocathode, accelerating electrode is located made of a fine-structure grid. An electrostatic lens formed by focusing electrode 4 and anode diaphragm 5 produces a beam of electrons with a "remote crossover". The authors have suggested this term for an electron beam whose crossover is 40 to 60 mm away from the anode diaphragm plane which guarantees high sensitivity of scan plates 6 with respect to multiaperture framing diaphragm 7. Beyond every diaphragm aperture, a pair of deflecting plates 8 is found shielded from compensation plates 10 by diaphragm 9. The electronic image produced by the photocathode is focused on luminescent screen 11. The tube is controlled with the help of two saw-tooth voltages applied in antiphase across plates 6 and 10. Plates 6 serve for sweeping the electron beam over the surface of diaphragm 7. The beam is either allowed toward the screen, or delayed by the diaphragm walls. In such a manner, three frames are obtained, the number corresponding to that of the diaphragm apertures. Plates 10 serve for stopping the compensation of the image streak sweep on the screen. To avoid overlapping of frames, plates 8 receive static potentials responsible for shifting frames on the screen. Changing the potentials applied to plates 8, one can control the spacing between frames and partially or

  4. Neutron Imaging Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley; deNolfo, G. A.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron Imaging Camera (NIC) is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics applications. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approximately 0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of fast neutrons, En > 0.5 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the proton and triton fragments resulting from (sup 3)He(n,p) (sup 3)H interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The performance of the NIC from laboratory and accelerator tests is presented.

  5. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and inter-camera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Eendebak, Pieter T.; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.

    2015-10-01

    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many cameras, or for frequent ad-hoc deployments of cameras, the cost of this calibration is high. This creates a barrier for the use of video analytics. Automating the calibration allows for a short configuration time, and the use of video analytics in a wider range of scenarios, including ad-hoc crisis situations and large scale surveillance systems. We show an autocalibration method entirely based on pedestrian detections in surveillance video in multiple non-overlapping cameras. In this paper, we show the two main components of automatic calibration. The first shows the intra-camera geometry estimation that leads to an estimate of the tilt angle, focal length and camera height, which is important for the conversion from pixels to meters and vice versa. The second component shows the inter-camera topology inference that leads to an estimate of the distance between cameras, which is important for spatio-temporal analysis of multi-camera tracking. This paper describes each of these methods and provides results on realistic video data.

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Engineering Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Justin N.; Thiessen, David L.; Pourangi, Ali M.; Kobzeff, Peter A.; Lee, Steven W.; Dingizian, Arsham; Schwochert, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, which launched to Mars in 2011, is equipped with a set of 12 engineering cameras. These cameras are build-to-print copies of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) cameras, which were sent to Mars in 2003. The engineering cameras weigh less than 300 grams each and use less than 3 W of power. Images returned from the engineering cameras are used to navigate the rover on the Martian surface, deploy the rover robotic arm, and ingest samples into the rover sample processing system. The navigation cameras (Navcams) are mounted to a pan/tilt mast and have a 45-degree square field of view (FOV) with a pixel scale of 0.82 mrad/pixel. The hazard avoidance cameras (Haz - cams) are body-mounted to the rover chassis in the front and rear of the vehicle and have a 124-degree square FOV with a pixel scale of 2.1 mrad/pixel. All of the cameras utilize a frame-transfer CCD (charge-coupled device) with a 1024x1024 imaging region and red/near IR bandpass filters centered at 650 nm. The MSL engineering cameras are grouped into two sets of six: one set of cameras is connected to rover computer A and the other set is connected to rover computer B. The MSL rover carries 8 Hazcams and 4 Navcams.

  7. PAU camera: detectors characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

  8. Stereoscopic camera design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David J.; Jones, Christopher K.; Stewart, James N.; Smith, Alan

    2002-05-01

    It is clear from the literature that the majority of work in stereoscopic imaging is directed towards the development of modern stereoscopic displays. As costs come down, wider public interest in this technology is expected to increase. This new technology would require new methods of image formation. Advances in stereo computer graphics will of course lead to the creation of new stereo computer games, graphics in films etc. However, the consumer would also like to see real-world stereoscopic images, pictures of family, holiday snaps etc. Such scenery would have wide ranges of depth to accommodate and would need also to cope with moving objects, such as cars, and in particular other people. Thus, the consumer acceptance of auto/stereoscopic displays and 3D in general would be greatly enhanced by the existence of a quality stereoscopic camera. This paper will cover an analysis of existing stereoscopic camera designs and show that they can be categorized into four different types, with inherent advantages and disadvantages. A recommendation is then made with regard to 3D consumer still and video photography. The paper will go on to discuss this recommendation and describe its advantages and how it can be realized in practice.

  9. NFC - Narrow Field Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Gorková, S.

    2015-01-01

    We have been introducing a low-cost CCTV video system for faint meteor monitoring and here we describe the first results from 5 months of two-station operations. Our system called NFC (Narrow Field Camera) with a meteor limiting magnitude around +6.5mag allows research on trajectories of less massive meteoroids within individual parent meteor showers and the sporadic background. At present 4 stations (2 pairs with coordinated fields of view) of NFC system are operated in the frame of CEMeNt (Central European Meteor Network). The heart of each NFC station is a sensitive CCTV camera Watec 902 H2 and a fast cinematographic lens Meopta Meostigmat 1/50 - 52.5 mm (50 mm focal length and fixed aperture f/1.0). In this paper we present the first results based on 1595 individual meteors, 368 of which were recorded from two stations simultaneously. This data set allows the first empirical verification of theoretical assumptions for NFC system capabilities (stellar and meteor magnitude limit, meteor apparent brightness distribution and accuracy of single station measurements) and the first low mass meteoroid trajectory calculations. Our experimental data clearly showed the capabilities of the proposed system for low mass meteor registration and for calculations based on NFC data to lead to a significant refinement in the orbital elements for low mass meteoroids.

  10. HONEY -- The Honeywell Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, C. A.; Wilkins, T. N.

    The Honeywell model 3000 colour graphic recorder system (hereafter referred to simply as Honeywell) has been bought by Starlink for producing publishable quality photographic hardcopy from the IKON image displays. Full colour and black & white images can be recorded on positive or negative 35mm film. The Honeywell consists of a built-in high resolution flat-faced monochrome video monitor, a red/green/blue colour filter mechanism and a 35mm camera. The device works on the direct video signals from the IKON. This means that changing the brightness or contrast on the IKON monitor will not affect any photographs that you take. The video signals from the IKON consist of separate red, green and blue signals. When you take a picture, the Honeywell takes the red, green and blue signals in turn and displays three pictures consecutively on its internal monitor. It takes an exposure through each of three filters (red, green and blue) onto the film in the camera. This builds up the complete colour picture on the film. Honeywell systems are installed at nine Starlink sites, namely Belfast (locally funded), Birmingham, Cambridge, Durham, Leicester, Manchester, Rutherford, ROE and UCL.

  11. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    DOEpatents

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  12. Neutron Imaging Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; DeNolfo, Georgia; Floyd, Sam; Krizmanic, John; Link, Jason; Son, Seunghee; Guardala, Noel; Skopec, Marlene; Stark, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We describe the Neutron Imaging Camera (NIC) being developed for DTRA applications by NASA/GSFC and NSWC/Carderock. The NIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics applications. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approximately 0.4 mm resolution. 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of fast neutrons, E(sub N) > 0.5 MeV. arc reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the proton and triton fragments resulting from 3He(n,p)3H interactions in the 3-DTI volume. We present angular and energy resolution performance of the NIC derived from accelerator tests.

  13. Mars Exploration Rover engineering cameras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maki, J.N.; Bell, J.F.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.; Schwochert, M.; Litwin, T.; Willson, R.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Maimone, M.; Baumgartner, E.; Collins, A.; Wadsworth, M.; Elliot, S.T.; Dingizian, A.; Brown, D.; Hagerott, E.C.; Scherr, L.; Deen, R.; Alexander, D.; Lorre, J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission will place a total of 20 cameras (10 per rover) onto the surface of Mars in early 2004. Fourteen of the 20 cameras are designated as engineering cameras and will support the operation of the vehicles on the Martian surface. Images returned from the engineering cameras will also be of significant importance to the scientific community for investigative studies of rock and soil morphology. The Navigation cameras (Navcams, two per rover) are a mast-mounted stereo pair each with a 45?? square field of view (FOV) and an angular resolution of 0.82 milliradians per pixel (mrad/pixel). The Hazard Avoidance cameras (Hazcams, four per rover) are a body-mounted, front- and rear-facing set of stereo pairs, each with a 124?? square FOV and an angular resolution of 2.1 mrad/pixel. The Descent camera (one per rover), mounted to the lander, has a 45?? square FOV and will return images with spatial resolutions of ???4 m/pixel. All of the engineering cameras utilize broadband visible filters and 1024 x 1024 pixel detectors. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Camera artifacts in IUE spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegman, O. W.; Crenshaw, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    This study of emission line mimicking features in the IUE cameras has produced an atlas of artifiacts in high-dispersion images with an accompanying table of prominent artifacts and a table of prominent artifacts in the raw images along with a medium image of the sky background for each IUE camera.

  15. An Educational PET Camera Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Tegner, P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) cameras are now in widespread use in hospitals. A model of a PET camera has been installed in Stockholm House of Science and is used to explain the principles of PET to school pupils as described here.

  16. The "All Sky Camera Network"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Andy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the "All Sky Camera Network" came to life as an outreach program to connect the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS) exhibit "Space Odyssey" with Colorado schools. The network is comprised of cameras placed strategically at schools throughout Colorado to capture fireballs--rare events that produce meteorites.…

  17. SEOS frame camera applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A research and development satellite is discussed which will provide opportunities for observation of transient phenomena that fall within the fixed viewing circle of the spacecraft. The evaluation of possible applications for frame cameras, for SEOS, are studied. The computed lens characteristics for each camera are listed.

  18. Radiation camera motion correction system

    DOEpatents

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  19. Coherent infrared imaging camera (CIRIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A.; Richards, R.K.; Emery, M.S.; Crutcher, R.I.; Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Wachter, E.A.; Huston, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    New developments in 2-D, wide-bandwidth HgCdTe (MCT) and GaAs quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) coupled with Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology are now making focal plane array coherent infrared (IR) cameras viable. Unlike conventional IR cameras which provide only thermal data about a scene or target, a coherent camera based on optical heterodyne interferometry will also provide spectral and range information. Each pixel of the camera, consisting of a single photo-sensitive heterodyne mixer followed by an intermediate frequency amplifier and illuminated by a separate local oscillator beam, constitutes a complete optical heterodyne receiver. Applications of coherent IR cameras are numerous and include target surveillance, range detection, chemical plume evolution, monitoring stack plume emissions, and wind shear detection.

  20. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  2. Camera sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, Jonathan; Murphey, Yi L.; Miller, John W. V.; Shridhar, Malayappan; Luo, Yun; Khairallah, Farid

    2004-12-01

    As the cost/performance Ratio of vision systems improves with time, new classes of applications become feasible. One such area, automotive applications, is currently being investigated. Applications include occupant detection, collision avoidance and lane tracking. Interest in occupant detection has been spurred by federal automotive safety rules in response to injuries and fatalities caused by deployment of occupant-side air bags. In principle, a vision system could control airbag deployment to prevent this type of mishap. Employing vision technology here, however, presents a variety of challenges, which include controlling costs, inability to control illumination, developing and training a reliable classification system and loss of performance due to production variations due to manufacturing tolerances and customer options. This paper describes the measures that have been developed to evaluate the sensitivity of an occupant detection system to these types of variations. Two procedures are described for evaluating how sensitive the classifier is to camera variations. The first procedure is based on classification accuracy while the second evaluates feature differences.

  3. Proportional counter radiation camera

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1974-01-15

    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  4. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  5. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  6. Dark energy survey and camera

    SciTech Connect

    William Wester

    2004-08-16

    The authors describe the Dark Energy Survey and Camera. The survey will image 5000 sq. deg. in the southern sky to collect 300 million galaxies, 30,000 galaxy clusters and 2000 Type Ia supernovae. They expect to derive a value for the dark energy equation of state parameters, w, to a precision of 5% by combining four distinct measurement techniques. They describe the mosaic camera that will consist of CCDs with enhanced sensitivity in the near infrared. The camera will be mounted at the prime focus of the 4m Blanco telescope.

  7. Vision Sensors and Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

  8. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  9. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  10. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  11. SMART-1/AMIE Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Langevin, Y.; Barucci, M. A.; Plancke, P.; Koschny, D.; Almeida, M.; Sodnik, Z.; Mancuso, S.; Hofmann, B. A.; Muinonen, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shkuratov, Y.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.

    2006-03-01

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), on board ESA SMART-1, the first European mission to the Moon (launched on 27th September 2003), is a camera system with scientific, technical and public outreach oriented objectives.

  12. An Inexpensive Digital Infrared Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Details are given for the conversion of an inexpensive webcam to a camera specifically sensitive to the near infrared (700-1000 nm). Some experiments and practical applications are suggested and illustrated. (Contains 9 figures.)

  13. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  14. Solid State Television Camera (CID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, D. W.; Green, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    The design, development and test are described of a charge injection device (CID) camera using a 244x248 element array. A number of video signal processing functions are included which maximize the output video dynamic range while retaining the inherently good resolution response of the CID. Some of the unique features of the camera are: low light level performance, high S/N ratio, antiblooming, geometric distortion, sequential scanning and AGC.

  15. The future of consumer cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Moltisanti, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades multimedia, and in particular imaging devices (camcorders, tablets, mobile phones, etc.) have been dramatically diffused. Moreover the increasing of their computational performances, combined with an higher storage capability, allows them to process large amount of data. In this paper an overview of the current trends of consumer cameras market and technology will be given, providing also some details about the recent past (from Digital Still Camera up today) and forthcoming key issues.

  16. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  17. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  18. The virtual gamma camera room.

    PubMed

    Penrose, J M; Trowbridge, E A; Tindale, W B

    1996-05-01

    The installation of a gamma camera is time-consuming and costly and, once installed, the camera position is unlikely to be altered during its working life. Poor choice of camera position therefore has long-term consequences. Additional equipment such as collimators and carts, the operator's workstation and wall-mounted display monitors must also be situated to maximize access and ease of use. The layout of a gamma camera room can be optimized prior to installation by creating a virtual environment. Super-Scape VRT software running on an upgraded 486 PC microprocessor was used to create a 'virtual camera room'. The simulation included an operator's viewpoint and a controlled tour of the room. Equipment could be repositioned as required, allowing potential problems to be identified at the design stage. Access for bed-ridden patients, operator ergonomics, operator and patient visibility were addressed. The display can also be used for patient education. Creation of a virtual environment is a valuable tool which allows different camera systems to be compared interactively in terms of dimensions, extent of movement and use of a defined space. Such a system also has applications in radiopharmacy design and simulation.

  19. Streak camera dynamic range optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedwald, J.D.; Lerche, R.A.

    1987-09-01

    The LLNL optical streak camera is used by the Laser Fusion Program in a wide range of applications. Many of these applications require a large recorded dynamic range. Recent work has focused on maximizing the dynamic range of the streak camera recording system. For our streak cameras, image intensifier saturation limits the upper end of the dynamic range. We have developed procedures to set the image intensifier gain such that the system dynamic range is maximized. Specifically, the gain is set such that a single streak tube photoelectron is recorded with an exposure of about five times the recording system noise. This ensures detection of single photoelectrons, while not consuming intensifier or recording system dynamic range through excessive intensifier gain. The optimum intensifier gain has been determined for two types of film and for a lens-coupled CCD camera. We have determined that by recording the streak camera image with a CCD camera, the system is shot-noise limited up to the onset of image intensifier nonlinearity. When recording on film, the film determines the noise at high exposure levels. There is discussion of the effects of slit width and image intensifier saturation on dynamic range. 8 refs.

  20. The camera convergence problem revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Robert S.

    2004-05-01

    Convergence of the real or virtual stereoscopic cameras is an important operation in stereoscopic display systems. For example, convergence can shift the range of portrayed depth to improve visual comfort; can adjust the disparity of targets to bring them nearer to the screen and reduce accommodation-vergence conflict; or can bring objects of interest into the binocular field-of-view. Although camera convergence is acknowledged as a useful function, there has been considerable debate over the transformation required. It is well known that rotational camera convergence or 'toe-in' distorts the images in the two cameras producing patterns of horizontal and vertical disparities that can cause problems with fusion of the stereoscopic imagery. Behaviorally, similar retinal vertical disparity patterns are known to correlate with viewing distance and strongly affect perception of stereoscopic shape and depth. There has been little analysis of the implications of recent findings on vertical disparity processing for the design of stereoscopic camera and display systems. We ask how such distortions caused by camera convergence affect the ability to fuse and perceive stereoscopic images.

  1. Design and implementation of digital airborne multispectral camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhaorong; Zhang, Xuguo; Wang, Li; Pan, Deai

    2012-10-01

    The multispectral imaging equipment is a kind of new generation remote sensor, which can obtain the target image and the spectra information simultaneously. A digital airborne multispectral camera system using discrete filter method had been designed and implemented for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and manned aircraft platforms. The digital airborne multispectral camera system has the advantages of larger frame, higher resolution, panchromatic and multispectral imaging. It also has great potential applications in the fields of environmental and agricultural monitoring and target detection and discrimination. In order to enhance the measurement precision and accuracy of position and orientation, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is integrated in the digital airborne multispectral camera. Meanwhile, the Temperature Control Unit (TCU) guarantees that the camera can operate in the normal state in different altitudes to avoid the window fogging and frosting which will degrade the imaging quality greatly. Finally, Flying experiments were conducted to demonstrate the functionality and performance of the digital airborne multispectral camera. The resolution capability, positioning accuracy and classification and recognition ability were validated.

  2. The MC and LFC cameras. [metric camera (MC); large format camera (LFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, Clarice L.; Schroeder, Manfried; Mollberg, Bernard

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of the shuttle-borne Large Format Camera are listed. The LFC focal plane format was 23 by 46 cm, double the usual size, thereby acquiring approximately double the ground area. Forward motion compensation was employed. With the stable platform (shuttle) it was possible to use the slow exposure, high resolution, Kodak aerial films; 3414 and 3412 black and white, SO-242 color, and SO-131 aerochrome infrared. The camera was designed to maintain stability during varying temperature extremes of space.

  3. Sub-Camera Calibration of a Penta-Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.; Gerke, M.

    2016-03-01

    Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test) of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors for corresponding

  4. The Clementine longwave infrared camera

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Lewis, I.T.; Sewall, N.R.; Park, H.S.; Shannon, M.J.; Ledebuhr, A.G.; Pleasance, L.D.; Massie, M.A.; Metschuleit, K.

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. The longwave-infrared (LWIR) camera supplemented the UV/Visible and near-infrared mapping cameras providing limited strip coverage of the moon, giving insight to the thermal properties of the soils. This camera provided {approximately}100 m spatial resolution at 400 km periselene, and a 7 km across-track swath. This 2.1 kg camera using a 128 x 128 Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) FPA viewed thermal emission of the lunar surface and lunar horizon in the 8.0 to 9.5 {micro}m wavelength region. A description of this light-weight, low power LWIR camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  5. Traditional gamma cameras are preferred.

    PubMed

    DePuey, E Gordon

    2016-08-01

    Although the new solid-state dedicated cardiac cameras provide excellent spatial and energy resolution and allow for markedly reduced SPECT acquisition times and/or injected radiopharmaceutical activity, they have some distinct disadvantages compared to traditional sodium iodide SPECT cameras. They are expensive. Attenuation correction is not available. Cardio-focused collimation, advantageous to increase depth-dependent resolution and myocardial count density, accentuates diaphragmatic attenuation and scatter from subdiaphragmatic structures. Although supplemental prone imaging is therefore routinely advised, many patients cannot tolerate it. Moreover, very large patients cannot be accommodated in the solid-state camera gantries. Since data are acquired simultaneously with an arc of solid-state detectors around the chest, no temporally dependent "rotating" projection images are obtained. Therefore, patient motion can be neither detected nor corrected. In contrast, traditional sodium iodide SPECT cameras provide rotating projection images to allow technologists and physicians to detect and correct patient motion and to accurately detect the position of soft tissue attenuators and to anticipate associated artifacts. Very large patients are easily accommodated. Low-dose x-ray attenuation correction is widely available. Also, relatively inexpensive low-count density software is provided by many vendors, allowing shorter SPECT acquisition times and reduced injected activity approaching that achievable with solid-state cameras.

  6. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  7. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  8. Toward a miniaturized fundus camera.

    PubMed

    Gliss, Christine; Parel, Jean-Marie; Flynn, John T; Pratisto, Hans; Niederer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) describes a pathological development of the retina in prematurely born children. In order to prevent severe permanent damage to the eye and enable timely treatment, the fundus of the eye in such children has to be examined according to established procedures. For these examinations, our miniaturized fundus camera is intended to allow the acquisition of wide-angle digital pictures of the fundus for on-line or off-line diagnosis and documentation. We designed two prototypes of a miniaturized fundus camera, one with graded refractive index (GRIN)-based optics, the other with conventional optics. Two different modes of illumination were compared: transscleral and transpupillary. In both systems, the size and weight of the camera were minimized. The prototypes were tested on young rabbits. The experiments led to the conclusion that the combination of conventional optics with transpupillary illumination yields the best results in terms of overall image quality.

  9. Cameras for semiconductor process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, W. A.; Parker, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The application of X-ray topography to semiconductor process control is described, considering the novel features of the high speed camera and the difficulties associated with this technique. The most significant results on the effects of material defects on device performance are presented, including results obtained using wafers processed entirely within this institute. Defects were identified using the X-ray camera and correlations made with probe data. Also included are temperature dependent effects of material defects. Recent applications and improvements of X-ray topographs of silicon-on-sapphire and gallium arsenide are presented with a description of a real time TV system prototype and of the most recent vacuum chuck design. Discussion is included of our promotion of the use of the camera by various semiconductor manufacturers.

  10. Camera-on-a-Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory's research on a second generation, solid-state image sensor technology has resulted in the Complementary Metal- Oxide Semiconductor Active Pixel Sensor (CMOS), establishing an alternative to the Charged Coupled Device (CCD). Photobit Corporation, the leading supplier of CMOS image sensors, has commercialized two products of their own based on this technology: the PB-100 and PB-300. These devices are cameras on a chip, combining all camera functions. CMOS "active-pixel" digital image sensors offer several advantages over CCDs, a technology used in video and still-camera applications for 30 years. The CMOS sensors draw less energy, they use the same manufacturing platform as most microprocessors and memory chips, and they allow on-chip programming of frame size, exposure, and other parameters.

  11. Dark Energy Camera for Blanco

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Gary A.; /Caltech /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    In order to make accurate measurements of dark energy, a system is needed to monitor the focus and alignment of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to be located on the Blanco 4m Telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. One new approach under development is to fit out-of-focus star images to a point spread function from which information about the focus and tilt of the camera can be obtained. As a first test of a new algorithm using this idea, simulated star images produced from a model of DECam in the optics software Zemax were fitted. Then, real images from the Mosaic II imager currently installed on the Blanco telescope were used to investigate the algorithm's capabilities. A number of problems with the algorithm were found, and more work is needed to understand its limitations and improve its capabilities so it can reliably predict camera alignment and focus.

  12. The GISMO-2 Bolometer Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Hilton, Gene; Irwin, Kent D.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kovacs, Attila; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Sharp, Elemer H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera) which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISM0-2 will operate Simultaneously in the 1 mm and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a 32 x 40 TES-based Backshort Under Grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a 16 x 16 BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISM0-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2 mm bolometer camera which is successfully operating at the 30m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regular IRAM call for proposals.

  13. Pantir - a Dual Camera Setup for Precise Georeferencing and Mosaicing of Thermal Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, I.; Jenal, A.; Kneer, C.; Bongartz, J.

    2015-03-01

    Research and monitoring in fields like hydrology and agriculture are applications of airborne thermal infrared (TIR) cameras, which suffer from low spatial resolution and low quality lenses. Common ground control points (GCPs), lacking thermal activity and being relatively small in size, cannot be used in TIR images. Precise georeferencing and mosaicing however is necessary for data analysis. Adding a high resolution visible light camera (VIS) with a high quality lens very close to the TIR camera, in the same stabilized rig, allows us to do accurate geoprocessing with standard GCPs after fusing both images (VIS+TIR) using standard image registration methods.

  14. Full Stokes polarization imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedel, M.; Breugnot, S.; Lechocinski, N.

    2011-10-01

    Objective and background: We present a new version of Bossa Nova Technologies' passive polarization imaging camera. The previous version was performing live measurement of the Linear Stokes parameters (S0, S1, S2), and its derivatives. This new version presented in this paper performs live measurement of Full Stokes parameters, i.e. including the fourth parameter S3 related to the amount of circular polarization. Dedicated software was developed to provide live images of any Stokes related parameters such as the Degree Of Linear Polarization (DOLP), the Degree Of Circular Polarization (DOCP), the Angle Of Polarization (AOP). Results: We first we give a brief description of the camera and its technology. It is a Division Of Time Polarimeter using a custom ferroelectric liquid crystal cell. A description of the method used to calculate Data Reduction Matrix (DRM)5,9 linking intensity measurements and the Stokes parameters is given. The calibration was developed in order to maximize the condition number of the DRM. It also allows very efficient post processing of the images acquired. Complete evaluation of the precision of standard polarization parameters is described. We further present the standard features of the dedicated software that was developed to operate the camera. It provides live images of the Stokes vector components and the usual associated parameters. Finally some tests already conducted are presented. It includes indoor laboratory and outdoor measurements. This new camera will be a useful tool for many applications such as biomedical, remote sensing, metrology, material studies, and others.

  15. Stratoscope 2 integrating television camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The development, construction, test and delivery of an integrating television camera for use as the primary data sensor on Flight 9 of Stratoscope 2 is described. The system block diagrams are presented along with the performance data, and definition of the interface of the telescope with the power, telemetry, and communication system.

  16. OSIRIS camera barrel optomechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, Alejandro; Tejada, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jesus; Cobos, Francisco J.; Sanchez, Beatriz; Fuentes, Javier; Ruiz, Elfego

    2004-09-01

    A Camera Barrel, located in the OSIRIS imager/spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), is described in this article. The barrel design has been developed by the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Mexico (IA-UNAM), in collaboration with the Institute for Astrophysics of Canarias (IAC), Spain. The barrel is being manufactured by the Engineering Center for Industrial Development (CIDESI) at Queretaro, Mexico. The Camera Barrel includes a set of eight lenses (three doublets and two singlets), with their respective supports and cells, as well as two subsystems: the Focusing Unit, which is a mechanism that modifies the first doublet relative position; and the Passive Displacement Unit (PDU), which uses the third doublet as thermal compensator to maintain the camera focal length and image quality when the ambient temperature changes. This article includes a brief description of the scientific instrument; describes the design criteria related with performance justification; and summarizes the specifications related with misalignment errors and generated stresses. The Camera Barrel components are described and analytical calculations, FEA simulations and error budgets are also included.

  17. Measuring Distances Using Digital Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendal, Dave

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a generic method of calculating accurate horizontal and vertical object distances from digital images taken with any digital camera and lens combination, where the object plane is parallel to the image plane or tilted in the vertical plane. This method was developed for a project investigating the size, density and spatial…

  18. The Camera Comes to Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floren, Leola

    After the Lindbergh kidnapping trial in 1935, the American Bar Association sought to eliminate electronic equipment from courtroom proceedings. Eventually, all but two states adopted regulations applying that ban to some extent, and a 1965 Supreme Court decision encouraged the banning of television cameras at trials as well. Currently, some states…

  19. High speed multiwire photon camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved multiwire proportional counter camera having particular utility in the field of clinical nuclear medicine imaging. The detector utilizes direct coupled, low impedance, high speed delay lines, the segments of which are capacitor-inductor networks. A pile-up rejection test is provided to reject confused events otherwise caused by multiple ionization events occuring during the readout window.

  20. High speed multiwire photon camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved multiwire proportional counter camera having particular utility in the field of clinical nuclear medicine imaging. The detector utilizes direct coupled, low impedance, high speed delay lines, the segments of which are capacitor-inductor networks. A pile-up rejection test is provided to reject confused events otherwise caused by multiple ionization events occurring during the readout window.

  1. Directing Performers for the Cameras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, George P., Jr.

    An excellent way for an undergraduate, novice director of television and film to pick up background experience in directing performers for cameras is by participating in nonbroadcast-film activities, such as theatre, dance, and variety acts, both as performer and as director. This document describes the varieties of activities, including creative,…

  2. Toy Cameras and Color Photographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speight, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    The technique of using toy cameras for both black-and-white and color photography in the art class is described. The author suggests that expensive equipment can limit the growth of a beginning photographer by emphasizing technique and equipment instead of in-depth experience with composition fundamentals and ideas. (KC)

  3. The Cashmere Program--An Approach to Agriculture Career Education In Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockle, James

    1978-01-01

    Senior agriculture students in the "Careers in Agriculture" program at Cashmere (Washington) High School made arranged visits to community agriculture-related businesses, where they collected information about occupations with interviews, cameras, and tape recorders; they later organized their material into slide-tape presentations for…

  4. Selecting a digital camera for telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris; Ferguson, A Stewart

    2009-06-01

    The digital camera is an essential component of store-and-forward telemedicine (electronic consultation). There are numerous makes and models of digital cameras on the market, and selecting a suitable consumer-grade camera can be complicated. Evaluation of digital cameras includes investigating the features and analyzing image quality. Important features include the camera settings, ease of use, macro capabilities, method of image transfer, and power recharging. Consideration needs to be given to image quality, especially as it relates to color (skin tones) and detail. It is important to know the level of the photographer and the intended application. The goal is to match the characteristics of the camera with the telemedicine program requirements. In the end, selecting a digital camera is a combination of qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) analysis. For the telemedicine program in Alaska in 2008, the camera evaluation and decision process resulted in a specific selection based on the criteria developed for our environment.

  5. The wide field/planetary camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, J. A.; Baum, W. A.; Code, A. D.; Currie, D. G.; Danielson, G. E.; Gunn, J. E.; Kelsall, T. F.; Kristian, J. A.; Lynds, C. R.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    A wide site of potential astronomical and solar system scientific studies using the wide field planetary camera on space telescope are described. The expected performance of the camera as it approaches final assembly and testing is also detailed.

  6. Flash photography by digital still camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshitaka

    2001-04-01

    Recently, the number of commercially produced digital still cameras has increases rapidly. However, detailed performance of digital still camera had not been evaluated. One of the purposes of this paper is to devise the method of evaluating the performance of a new camera. Another purpose is to show possibility of taking a picture of a scientific high quality photograph with a camera on the market, and taking a picture of a high-speed phenomenon.

  7. Electronographic cameras for space astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetically-focused electronographic cameras have been under development at the Naval Research Laboratory for use in far-ultraviolet imagery and spectrography, primarily in astronomical and optical-geophysical observations from sounding rockets and space vehicles. Most of this work has been with cameras incorporating internal optics of the Schmidt or wide-field all-reflecting types. More recently, we have begun development of electronographic spectrographs incorporating an internal concave grating, operating at normal or grazing incidence. We also are developing electronographic image tubes of the conventional end-window-photo-cathode type, for far-ultraviolet imagery at the focus of a large space telescope, with image formats up to 120 mm in diameter.

  8. GRAVITY acquisition camera: characterization results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anugu, Narsireddy; Garcia, Paulo; Amorim, Antonio; Wiezorrek, Erich; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Eisenhauer, Frank; Ott, Thomas; Pfuhl, Oliver; Gordo, Paulo; Perrin, Guy; Brandner, Wolfgang; Straubmeier, Christian; Perraut, Karine

    2016-08-01

    GRAVITY acquisition camera implements four optical functions to track multiple beams of Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI): a) pupil tracker: a 2×2 lenslet images four pupil reference lasers mounted on the spiders of telescope secondary mirror; b) field tracker: images science object; c) pupil imager: reimages telescope pupil; d) aberration tracker: images a Shack-Hartmann. The estimation of beam stabilization parameters from the acquisition camera detector image is carried out, for every 0.7 s, with a dedicated data reduction software. The measured parameters are used in: a) alignment of GRAVITY with the VLTI; b) active pupil and field stabilization; c) defocus correction and engineering purposes. The instrument is now successfully operational on-sky in closed loop. The relevant data reduction and on-sky characterization results are reported.

  9. Combustion pinhole-camera system

    DOEpatents

    Witte, A.B.

    1982-05-19

    A pinhole camera system is described utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

  10. A 10-microm infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Arens, J F; Jernigan, J G; Peck, M C; Dobson, C A; Kilk, E; Lacy, J; Gaalema, S

    1987-09-15

    An IR camera has been built at the University of California at Berkeley for astronomical observations. The camera has been used primarily for high angular resolution imaging at mid-IR wavelengths. It has been tested at the University of Arizona 61- and 90-in. telescopes near Tucson and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, HI. In the observations the system has been used as an imager with interference coated and Fabry-Perot filters. These measurements have demonstrated a sensitivity consistent with photon shot noise, showing that the system is limited by the radiation from the telescope and atmosphere. Measurements of read noise, crosstalk, and hysteresis have been made in our laboratory.

  11. The OCA CCD Camera Controller

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    blank) -2. REPORT DATE 3 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED •. . ..December 1996 , 1996 Final Report - Ř. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The OCA...Physical. implementation of a multi CCD camera Appendix 1: Contrbller schematics Appendix 2: Data sheets of the the major components Appendix 3 ...the final-report for EOARD cbntract ##SPC-93-4007. R? 3 %o-/ Ob. 7(, It contains the following sections: - Requirements analysis - Description of the

  12. The PS1 Gigapixel Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, John L.; Isani, S.; Onaka, P.

    2007-12-01

    The world's largest and most advanced digital camera has been installed on the Pan-STARRS-1 (PS1) telescope on Haleakala, Maui. Built at the University of Hawaii at Manoa's Institute for Astronomy (IfA) in Honolulu, the gigapixel camera will capture images that will be used to scan the skies for killer asteroids, and to create the most comprehensive catalog of stars and galaxies ever produced. The CCD sensors at the heart of the camera were developed in collaboration with Lincoln Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The image area, which is about 40 cm across, contains 60 identical silicon chips, each of which contains 64 independent imaging circuits. Each of these imaging circuits contains approximately 600 x 600 pixels, for a total of about 1.4 gigapixels in the focal plane. The CCDs themselves employ the innovative technology called "orthogonal transfer." Splitting the image area into about 4,000 separate regions in this way has three advantages: data can be recorded more quickly, saturation of the image by a very bright star is confined to a small region, and any defects in the chips only affect only a small part of the image area. The CCD camera is controlled by an ultrafast 480-channel control system developed at the IfA. The individual CCD cells are grouped in 8 x 8 arrays on a single silicon chip called an orthogonal transfer array (OTA), which measures about 5 cm square. There are a total of 60 OTAs in the focal plane of each telescope.

  13. SPEIR: A Ge Compton Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Mihailescu, L; Vetter, K M; Burks, M T; Hull, E L; Craig, W W

    2004-02-11

    The SPEctroscopic Imager for {gamma}-Rays (SPEIR) is a new concept of a compact {gamma}-ray imaging system of high efficiency and spectroscopic resolution with a 4-{pi} field-of-view. The system behind this concept employs double-sided segmented planar Ge detectors accompanied by the use of list-mode photon reconstruction methods to create a sensitive, compact Compton scatter camera.

  14. The Uses of a Polarimetric Camera

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    18 Figure 18. Image of angle of polarization (From Bossa Nova Tech, 2007)......................20 Figure 19. The Salsa camera (From Bossa Nova Tech...22 Figure 21. Diagram of the inner workings of the SALSA camera (From: Bossa Nova Tech, 2007...23 Figure 22. Salsa camera with computer setup looking south toward California Pacific Highway 1

  15. 21 CFR 886.1120 - Opthalmic camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Opthalmic camera. 886.1120 Section 886.1120 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1120 Opthalmic camera. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic camera is an AC-powered device intended to take photographs of the eye and the surrounding...

  16. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk...

  17. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk...

  18. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk...

  19. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk...

  20. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk...

  1. Blind camera fingerprinting and image clustering.

    PubMed

    Bloy, Greg J

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have shown how to "fingerprint" a digital camera given a set of images known to come from the camera. A clustering technique is proposed to construct such fingerprints from a mixed set of images, enabling identification of each image's source camera without any prior knowledge of source.

  2. 21 CFR 886.1120 - Opthalmic camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opthalmic camera. 886.1120 Section 886.1120 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1120 Opthalmic camera. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic camera is an AC-powered device intended to take photographs of the eye and the surrounding...

  3. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  4. Coaxial fundus camera for opthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Matos, Luciana; Castro, Guilherme; Castro Neto, Jarbas C.

    2015-09-01

    A Fundus Camera for ophthalmology is a high definition device which needs to meet low light illumination of the human retina, high resolution in the retina and reflection free image1. Those constraints make its optical design very sophisticated, but the most difficult to comply with is the reflection free illumination and the final alignment due to the high number of non coaxial optical components in the system. Reflection of the illumination, both in the objective and at the cornea, mask image quality, and a poor alignment make the sophisticated optical design useless. In this work we developed a totally axial optical system for a non-midriatic Fundus Camera. The illumination is performed by a LED ring, coaxial with the optical system and composed of IR of visible LEDs. The illumination ring is projected by the objective lens in the cornea. The Objective, LED illuminator, CCD lens are coaxial making the final alignment easily to perform. The CCD + capture lens module is a CCTV camera with autofocus and Zoom built in, added to a 175 mm focal length doublet corrected for infinity, making the system easily operated and very compact.

  5. Automatic tracking sensor camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takao; Kato, Daiichiro; Ishikawa, Akio; Inoue, Seiki

    2001-04-01

    We are developing a sensor camera system for automatically tracking and determining the positions of subjects moving in three-dimensions. The system is intended to operate even within areas as large as soccer fields. The system measures the 3D coordinates of the object while driving the pan and tilt movements of camera heads, and the degree of zoom of the lenses. Its principal feature is that it automatically zooms in as the object moves farther away and out as the object moves closer. This maintains the area of the object as a fixed position of the image. This feature makes stable detection by the image processing possible. We are planning to use the system to detect the position of a soccer ball during a soccer game. In this paper, we describe the configuration of the developing automatic tracking sensor camera system. We then give an analysis of the movements of the ball within images of games, the results of experiments on method of image processing used to detect the ball, and the results of other experiments to verify the accuracy of an experimental system. These results show that the system is sufficiently accurate in terms of obtaining positions in three-dimensions.

  6. Spectrometry with consumer-quality CMOS cameras.

    PubMed

    Scheeline, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Many modern spectrometric instruments use diode arrays, charge-coupled arrays, or CMOS cameras for detection and measurement. As portable or point-of-use instruments are desirable, one would expect that instruments using the cameras in cellular telephones and tablet computers would be the basis of numerous instruments. However, no mass market for such devices has yet developed. The difficulties in using megapixel CMOS cameras for scientific measurements are discussed, and promising avenues for instrument development reviewed. Inexpensive alternatives to use of the built-in camera are also mentioned, as the long-term question is whether it is better to overcome the constraints of CMOS cameras or to bypass them.

  7. Passive Millimeter Wave Camera (PMMWC) at TRW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Engineers at TRW, Redondo Beach, California, inspect the Passive Millimeter Wave Camera, a weather-piercing camera designed to see through fog, clouds, smoke and dust. Operating in the millimeter wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the camera creates visual-like video images of objects, people, runways, obstacles and the horizon. A demonstration camera (shown in photo) has been completed and is scheduled for checkout tests and flight demonstration. Engineer (left) holds a compact, lightweight circuit board containing 40 complete radiometers, including antenna, monolithic millimeter wave integrated circuit (MMIC) receivers and signal processing and readout electronics that forms the basis for the camera's 1040-element focal plane array.

  8. Passive Millimeter Wave Camera (PMMWC) at TRW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Engineers at TRW, Redondo Beach, California, inspect the Passive Millimeter Wave Camera, a weather-piercing camera designed to 'see' through fog, clouds, smoke and dust. Operating in the millimeter wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the camera creates visual-like video images of objects, people, runways, obstacles and the horizon. A demonstration camera (shown in photo) has been completed and is scheduled for checkout tests and flight demonstration. Engineer (left) holds a compact, lightweight circuit board containing 40 complete radiometers, including antenna, monolithic millimeter wave integrated circuit (MMIC) receivers and signal processing and readout electronics that forms the basis for the camera's 1040-element focal plane array.

  9. Mini gamma camera, camera system and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph F.

    2001-01-01

    A gamma camera comprising essentially and in order from the front outer or gamma ray impinging surface: 1) a collimator, 2) a scintillator layer, 3) a light guide, 4) an array of position sensitive, high resolution photomultiplier tubes, and 5) printed circuitry for receipt of the output of the photomultipliers. There is also described, a system wherein the output supplied by the high resolution, position sensitive photomultipiler tubes is communicated to: a) a digitizer and b) a computer where it is processed using advanced image processing techniques and a specific algorithm to calculate the center of gravity of any abnormality observed during imaging, and c) optional image display and telecommunications ports.

  10. Phenology cameras observing boreal ecosystems of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Böttcher, Kristin; Aurela, Mika; Kolari, Pasi; Tanis, Cemal Melih; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Loehr, John; Metsämäki, Sari; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Cameras have become useful tools for monitoring seasonality of ecosystems. Low-cost cameras facilitate validation of other measurements and allow extracting some key ecological features and moments from image time series. We installed a network of phenology cameras at selected ecosystem research sites in Finland. Cameras were installed above, on the level, or/and below the canopies. Current network hosts cameras taking time lapse images in coniferous and deciduous forests as well as at open wetlands offering thus possibilities to monitor various phenological and time-associated events and elements. In this poster, we present our camera network and give examples of image series use for research. We will show results about the stability of camera derived color signals, and based on that discuss about the applicability of cameras in monitoring time-dependent phenomena. We will also present results from comparisons between camera-derived color signal time series and daily satellite-derived time series (NVDI, NDWI, and fractional snow cover) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) at selected spruce and pine forests and in a wetland. We will discuss the applicability of cameras in supporting phenological observations derived from satellites, by considering the possibility of cameras to monitor both above and below canopy phenology and snow.

  11. Characterization of the Series 1000 Camera System

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, J; Moody, J; Bell, P; Landen, O

    2004-04-07

    The National Ignition Facility requires a compact network addressable scientific grade CCD camera for use in diagnostics ranging from streak cameras to gated x-ray imaging cameras. Due to the limited space inside the diagnostic, an analog and digital input/output option in the camera controller permits control of both the camera and the diagnostic by a single Ethernet link. The system consists of a Spectral Instruments Series 1000 camera, a PC104+ controller, and power supply. The 4k by 4k CCD camera has a dynamic range of 70 dB with less than 14 electron read noise at a 1MHz readout rate. The PC104+ controller includes 16 analog inputs, 4 analog outputs and 16 digital input/output lines for interfacing to diagnostic instrumentation. A description of the system and performance characterization is reported.

  12. Automatic calibration method for plenoptic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Yinsen; He, Xing; Xu, Bing; Yang, Ping; Tang, Guomao

    2016-04-01

    An automatic calibration method is proposed for a microlens-based plenoptic camera. First, all microlens images on the white image are searched and recognized automatically based on digital morphology. Then, the center points of microlens images are rearranged according to their relative position relationships. Consequently, the microlens images are located, i.e., the plenoptic camera is calibrated without the prior knowledge of camera parameters. Furthermore, this method is appropriate for all types of microlens-based plenoptic cameras, even the multifocus plenoptic camera, the plenoptic camera with arbitrarily arranged microlenses, or the plenoptic camera with different sizes of microlenses. Finally, we verify our method by the raw data of Lytro. The experiments show that our method has higher intelligence than the methods published before.

  13. Research on evaluation method of CMOS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaoqiang; Han, Weiqiang; Cui, Lanfang

    2014-09-01

    In some professional image application fields, we need to test some key parameters of the CMOS camera and evaluate the performance of the device. Aiming at this requirement, this paper proposes a perfect test method to evaluate the CMOS camera. Considering that the CMOS camera has a big fixed pattern noise, the method proposes the `photon transfer curve method' based on pixels to measure the gain and the read noise of the camera. The advantage of this method is that it can effectively wipe out the error brought by the response nonlinearity. Then the reason of photoelectric response nonlinearity of CMOS camera is theoretically analyzed, and the calculation formula of CMOS camera response nonlinearity is deduced. Finally, we use the proposed test method to test the CMOS camera of 2560*2048 pixels. In addition, we analyze the validity and the feasibility of this method.

  14. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  15. AWiFS camera for Resourcesat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Himanshu; Dewan, Chirag; Paul, Sandip; Sarkar, S. S.; Pandya, Himanshu; Joshi, S. R.; Mishra, Ashish; Detroja, Manoj

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensors were developed and used extensively world over using aircraft and space platforms. India has developed and launched many sensors into space to survey natural resources. The AWiFS is one such Camera, launched onboard Resourcesat-1 satellite by ISRO in 2003. It is a medium resolution camera with 5-day revisit designed for studies related to forestry, vegetation, soil, snow and disaster warning. The camera provides 56m (nadir) resolution from 817 km altitude in three visible bands and one SWIR band. This paper deals with configuration features of AWiFS Camera of Resourcesat-1, its onboard performance and also the highlights of Camera being developed for Resourcesat-2. The AWiFS is realized with two identical cameras viz. AWiFS-A and AWiFS-B, which cover the large field of view of 48°. Each camera consists of independent collecting optics and associated 6000 element detectors and electronics catering to 4 bands. The visible bands use linear Silicon CCDs, with 10μ × 7μ element while SWIR band uses 13μ staggered InGaAs linear active pixels. Camera Electronics are custom designed for each detector based on detector and system requirements. The camera covers the total dynamic range up to 100% albedo with a single gain setting and 12-bit digitization of which 10 MSBs are transmitted. The Camera saturation radiance of each band can also be selected through telecommand. The Camera provides very high SNR of about 700 near saturation. The camera components are housed in specially designed Invar structures. The AWiFS Camera onboard Resourcesat-1 is providing excellent imageries and the data is routinely used world over. AWiFS for Resourcesat-2 is being developed with overall performance specifications remaining same. The Camera electronics is miniaturized with reductions in hardware packages, size and weight to one third.

  16. Agricultural aircraft and thermal imaging - from detecting sand boils at the levee to irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal imaging has many potential uses from aerial platforms. A thermal imaging camera was brought into service to detect potential leakage and sand boils at the Mississippi River levee during the flood period of April and May, 2011. This camera was mounted on an agricultural aircraft and operated ...

  17. Radiometric calibration for MWIR cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunjin; Chun, Joohwan; Seo, Doo Chun; Yang, Jiyeon

    2012-06-01

    Korean Multi-purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A), which weighing about 1,000 kg is scheduled to be launched in 2013 and will be located at a sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) of 530 km in altitude. This is Korea's rst satellite to orbit with a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) image sensor, which is currently being developed at Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI). The missions envisioned include forest re surveillance, measurement of the ocean surface temperature, national defense and crop harvest estimate. In this paper, we shall explain the MWIR scene generation software and atmospheric compensation techniques for the infrared (IR) camera that we are currently developing. The MWIR scene generation software we have developed taking into account sky thermal emission, path emission, target emission, sky solar scattering and ground re ection based on MODTRAN data. Here, this software will be used for generating the radiation image in the satellite camera which requires an atmospheric compensation algorithm and the validation of the accuracy of the temperature which is obtained in our result. Image visibility restoration algorithm is a method for removing the eect of atmosphere between the camera and an object. This algorithm works between the satellite and the Earth, to predict object temperature noised with the Earth's atmosphere and solar radiation. Commonly, to compensate for the atmospheric eect, some softwares like MODTRAN is used for modeling the atmosphere. Our algorithm doesn't require an additional software to obtain the surface temperature. However, it needs to adjust visibility restoration parameters and the precision of the result still should be studied.

  18. One frame subnanosecond spectroscopy camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silkis, E. G.; Titov, V. D.; Fel'Dman, G. G.; Zhilkina, V. M.; Petrokovich, O. A.; Syrtsev, V. N.

    1991-04-01

    The recording of ultraweak spectra is presently undertaken by a high-speed multichannel-spectrum camera (HSMSC) with a subnanosec-range time resolution in its photon-counting mode. This HSMSC's photodetector is a one-frame streak tube equipped with a grid shutter which is connected via fiber-optic contact to a linear CCD. The grain furnished by the streak tube on the basis of a microchannel plate is sufficiently high for recording single photoelectron signals. The HSMSC is compact and easy to handle.

  19. Digital laser scanning fundus camera.

    PubMed

    Plesch, A; Klingbeil, U; Bille, J

    1987-04-15

    Imaging and documentation of the human retina for clinical diagnostics are conventionally achieved by classical optical methods. We designed a digital laser scanning fundus camera. The optoelectronical instrument is based on scanning laser illumination of the retina and a modified video imaging procedure. It is coupled to a digital image buffer and a microcomputer for image storage and processing. Aside from its high sensitivity the LSF incorporates new ophthalmic imaging methods like polarization differential contrast. We give design considerations as well as a description of the instrument and its performance.

  20. Video cameras on wild birds.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian; Bluff, Lucas A; Weir, Alex A S; Kacelnik, Alex

    2007-11-02

    New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides) are renowned for using tools for extractive foraging, but the ecological context of this unusual behavior is largely unknown. We developed miniaturized, animal-borne video cameras to record the undisturbed behavior and foraging ecology of wild, free-ranging crows. Our video recordings enabled an estimate of the species' natural foraging efficiency and revealed that tool use, and choice of tool materials, are more diverse than previously thought. Video tracking has potential for studying the behavior and ecology of many other bird species that are shy or live in inaccessible habitats.

  1. System Synchronizes Recordings from Separated Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nail, William; Nail, William L.; Nail, Jasper M.; Le, Doung T.

    2009-01-01

    A system of electronic hardware and software for synchronizing recordings from multiple, physically separated video cameras is being developed, primarily for use in multiple-look-angle video production. The system, the time code used in the system, and the underlying method of synchronization upon which the design of the system is based are denoted generally by the term "Geo-TimeCode(TradeMark)." The system is embodied mostly in compact, lightweight, portable units (see figure) denoted video time-code units (VTUs) - one VTU for each video camera. The system is scalable in that any number of camera recordings can be synchronized. The estimated retail price per unit would be about $350 (in 2006 dollars). The need for this or another synchronization system external to video cameras arises because most video cameras do not include internal means for maintaining synchronization with other video cameras. Unlike prior video-camera-synchronization systems, this system does not depend on continuous cable or radio links between cameras (however, it does depend on occasional cable links lasting a few seconds). Also, whereas the time codes used in prior video-camera-synchronization systems typically repeat after 24 hours, the time code used in this system does not repeat for slightly more than 136 years; hence, this system is much better suited for long-term deployment of multiple cameras.

  2. Light field panorama by a plenoptic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhou; Baboulaz, Loic; Prandoni, Paolo; Vetterli, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Consumer-grade plenoptic camera Lytro draws a lot of interest from both academic and industrial world. However its low resolution in both spatial and angular domain prevents it from being used for fine and detailed light field acquisition. This paper proposes to use a plenoptic camera as an image scanner and perform light field stitching to increase the size of the acquired light field data. We consider a simplified plenoptic camera model comprising a pinhole camera moving behind a thin lens. Based on this model, we describe how to perform light field acquisition and stitching under two different scenarios: by camera translation or by camera translation and rotation. In both cases, we assume the camera motion to be known. In the case of camera translation, we show how the acquired light fields should be resampled to increase the spatial range and ultimately obtain a wider field of view. In the case of camera translation and rotation, the camera motion is calculated such that the light fields can be directly stitched and extended in the angular domain. Simulation results verify our approach and demonstrate the potential of the motion model for further light field applications such as registration and super-resolution.

  3. The Pan-STARRS Gigapixel Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Onaka, P.; Luppino, G.; Isani, S.

    The Pan-STARRS project will undertake repeated surveys of the sky to find "Killer Asteroids", everything else which moves or blinks, and to build an unprecedented deep and accurate "static sky". The key enabling technology is a new generation of large format cameras that offer an order of magnitude improvement in size, speed, and cost compared to existing instruments. In this talk, we provide an overview of the camera research and development effort being undertaken by the Institute for Astronomy Camera Group in partnership with MIT Lincoln Laboratories. The main components of the camera subsystem will be identified and briefly described as an introduction to the more specialized talks presented elsewhere at this conference. We will focus on the development process followed at the IfA utilizing the orthogonal transfer CCD in building cameras of various sizes from a single OTA "mcam", to a 16-OTA "Test Camera", to the final 64-OTA 1.4 billion pixel camera (Gigapixel Camera #1 or GPC1) to be used for PS1 survey operations. We also show the design of a deployable Shack-Hartmann device residing in the camera and other auxiliary instrumentation used to support camera operations.

  4. Computational cameras: convergence of optics and processing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changyin; Nayar, Shree K

    2011-12-01

    A computational camera uses a combination of optics and processing to produce images that cannot be captured with traditional cameras. In the last decade, computational imaging has emerged as a vibrant field of research. A wide variety of computational cameras has been demonstrated to encode more useful visual information in the captured images, as compared with conventional cameras. In this paper, we survey computational cameras from two perspectives. First, we present a taxonomy of computational camera designs according to the coding approaches, including object side coding, pupil plane coding, sensor side coding, illumination coding, camera arrays and clusters, and unconventional imaging systems. Second, we use the abstract notion of light field representation as a general tool to describe computational camera designs, where each camera can be formulated as a projection of a high-dimensional light field to a 2-D image sensor. We show how individual optical devices transform light fields and use these transforms to illustrate how different computational camera designs (collections of optical devices) capture and encode useful visual information.

  5. A Unifying Theory for Camera Calibration.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, SriKumar; Sturm, Peter

    2016-07-19

    This paper proposes a unified theory for calibrating a wide variety of camera models such as pinhole, fisheye, cata-dioptric, and multi-camera networks. We model any camera as a set of image pixels and their associated camera rays in space. Every pixel measures the light traveling along a (half-) ray in 3-space, associated with that pixel. By this definition, calibration simply refers to the computation of the mapping between pixels and the associated 3D rays. Such a mapping can be computed using images of calibration grids, which are objects with known 3D geometry, taken from unknown positions. This general camera model allows to represent non-central cameras; we also consider two special subclasses, namely central and axial cameras. In a central camera, all rays intersect in a single point, whereas the rays are completely arbitrary in a non-central one. Axial cameras are an intermediate case: the camera rays intersect a single line. In this work, we show the theory for calibrating central, axial and non-central models using calibration grids, which can be either three-dimensional or planar.

  6. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    PubMed

    Glen, Alistair S; Cockburn, Stuart; Nichols, Margaret; Ekanayake, Jagath; Warburton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1) trigger speed, 2) passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3) white vs. infrared flash, and 4) still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea), feral cats (Felis catus) and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus). Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  7. The Zwicky Transient Facility Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekany, Richard; Smith, Roger M.; Belicki, Justin; Delacroix, Alexandre; Duggan, Gina; Feeney, Michael; Hale, David; Kaye, Stephen; Milburn, Jennifer; Murphy, Patrick; Porter, Michael; Reiley, Daniel J.; Riddle, Reed L.; Rodriguez, Hector; Bellm, Eric C.

    2016-08-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility Camera (ZTFC) is a key element of the ZTF Observing System, the integrated system of optoelectromechanical instrumentation tasked to acquire the wide-field, high-cadence time-domain astronomical data at the heart of the Zwicky Transient Facility. The ZTFC consists of a compact cryostat with large vacuum window protecting a mosaic of 16 large, wafer-scale science CCDs and 4 smaller guide/focus CCDs, a sophisticated vacuum interface board which carries data as electrical signals out of the cryostat, an electromechanical window frame for securing externally inserted optical filter selections, and associated cryo-thermal/vacuum system support elements. The ZTFC provides an instantaneous 47 deg2 field of view, limited by primary mirror vignetting in its Schmidt telescope prime focus configuration. We report here on the design and performance of the ZTF CCD camera cryostat and report results from extensive Joule-Thompson cryocooler tests that may be of broad interest to the instrumentation community.

  8. Camera Sensor Arrangement for Crop/Weed Detection Accuracy in Agronomic Images

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Juan; Guerrero, José Miguel; Montalvo, Martín; Emmi, Luis; Guijarro, María; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes. Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing. There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor's positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others. Moreover, in agricultural applications, the uncontrolled illumination, existing in outdoor environments, is also an important factor affecting the image accuracy. This paper is exclusively focused on two main issues, always with the goal to achieve the highest image accuracy in Precision Agriculture applications, making the following two main contributions: (a) camera sensor arrangement, to adjust extrinsic parameters and (b) design of strategies for controlling the adverse illumination effects. PMID:23549361

  9. Camera sensor arrangement for crop/weed detection accuracy in agronomic images.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Juan; Guerrero, José Miguel; Montalvo, Martín; Emmi, Luis; Guijarro, María; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-04-02

    In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes. Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing. There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor's positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others. Moreover, in agricultural applications, the uncontrolled illumination, existing in outdoor environments, is also an important factor affecting the image accuracy. This paper is exclusively focused on two main issues, always with the goal to achieve the highest image accuracy in Precision Agriculture applications, making the following two main contributions: (a) camera sensor arrangement, to adjust extrinsic parameters and (b) design of strategies for controlling the adverse illumination effects.

  10. Laboratory Calibration and Characterization of Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Shortis, M. R.; Goad, W. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some techniques for laboratory calibration and characterization of video cameras used with frame grabber boards are presented. A laser-illuminated displaced reticle technique (with camera lens removed) is used to determine the camera/grabber effective horizontal and vertical pixel spacing as well as the angle of non-perpendicularity of the axes. The principal point of autocollimation and point of symmetry are found by illuminating the camera with an unexpanded laser beam, either aligned with the sensor or lens. Lens distortion and the principal distance are determined from images of a calibration plate suitable aligned with the camera. Calibration and characterization results for several video cameras are presented. Differences between these laboratory techniques and test range and plumb line calibration are noted.

  11. Laboratory calibration and characterization of video cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Shortis, M. R.; Goad, W. K.

    1990-08-01

    Some techniques for laboratory calibration and characterization of video cameras used with frame grabber boards are presented. A laser-illuminated displaced reticle technique (with camera lens removed) is used to determine the camera/grabber effective horizontal and vertical pixel spacing as well as the angle of nonperpendicularity of the axes. The principal point of autocollimation and point of symmetry are found by illuminating the camera with an unexpanded laser beam, either aligned with the sensor or lens. Lens distortion and the principal distance are determined from images of a calibration plate suitably aligned with the camera. Calibration and characterization results for several video cameras are presented. Differences between these laboratory techniques and test range and plumb line calibration are noted.

  12. High Speed Digital Camera Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Sandra D.

    2009-01-01

    A High Speed Digital Camera Technology Review (HSD Review) is being conducted to evaluate the state-of-the-shelf in this rapidly progressing industry. Five HSD cameras supplied by four camera manufacturers participated in a Field Test during the Space Shuttle Discovery STS-128 launch. Each camera was also subjected to Bench Tests in the ASRC Imaging Development Laboratory. Evaluation of the data from the Field and Bench Tests is underway. Representatives from the imaging communities at NASA / KSC and the Optical Systems Group are participating as reviewers. A High Speed Digital Video Camera Draft Specification was updated to address Shuttle engineering imagery requirements based on findings from this HSD Review. This draft specification will serve as the template for a High Speed Digital Video Camera Specification to be developed for the wider OSG imaging community under OSG Task OS-33.

  13. Television camera video level control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravitz, M.; Freedman, L. A.; Fredd, E. H.; Denef, D. E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A video level control system is provided which generates a normalized video signal for a camera processing circuit. The video level control system includes a lens iris which provides a controlled light signal to a camera tube. The camera tube converts the light signal provided by the lens iris into electrical signals. A feedback circuit in response to the electrical signals generated by the camera tube, provides feedback signals to the lens iris and the camera tube. This assures that a normalized video signal is provided in a first illumination range. An automatic gain control loop, which is also responsive to the electrical signals generated by the camera tube 4, operates in tandem with the feedback circuit. This assures that the normalized video signal is maintained in a second illumination range.

  14. Electrostatic camera system functional design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botticelli, R. A.; Cook, F. J.; Moore, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A functional design study for an electrostatic camera system for application to planetary missions is presented. The electrostatic camera can produce and store a large number of pictures and provide for transmission of the stored information at arbitrary times after exposure. Preliminary configuration drawings and circuit diagrams for the system are illustrated. The camera system's size, weight, power consumption, and performance are characterized. Tradeoffs between system weight, power, and storage capacity are identified.

  15. Stationary Camera Aims And Zooms Electronically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, Steven D.

    1994-01-01

    Microprocessors select, correct, and orient portions of hemispherical field of view. Video camera pans, tilts, zooms, and provides rotations of images of objects of field of view, all without moving parts. Used for surveillance in areas where movement of camera conspicuous or constrained by obstructions. Also used for closeup tracking of multiple objects in field of view or to break image into sectors for simultaneous viewing, thereby replacing several cameras.

  16. Development of biostereometric experiments. [stereometric camera system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The stereometric camera was designed for close-range techniques in biostereometrics. The camera focusing distance of 360 mm to infinity covers a broad field of close-range photogrammetry. The design provides for a separate unit for the lens system and interchangeable backs on the camera for the use of single frame film exposure, roll-type film cassettes, or glass plates. The system incorporates the use of a surface contrast optical projector.

  17. Comparative evaluation of consumer grade cameras and mobile phone cameras for close range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikatsu, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoji

    2009-08-01

    The authors have been concentrating on developing convenient 3D measurement methods using consumer grade digital cameras, and it was concluded that consumer grade digital cameras are expected to become a useful photogrammetric device for the various close range application fields. On the other hand, mobile phone cameras which have 10 mega pixels were appeared on the market in Japan. In these circumstances, we are faced with alternative epoch-making problem whether mobile phone cameras are able to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras in close range photogrammetric applications. In order to evaluate potentials of mobile phone cameras in close range photogrammetry, comparative evaluation between mobile phone cameras and consumer grade digital cameras are investigated in this paper with respect to lens distortion, reliability, stability and robustness. The calibration tests for 16 mobile phone cameras and 50 consumer grade digital cameras were conducted indoors using test target. Furthermore, practability of mobile phone camera for close range photogrammetry was evaluated outdoors. This paper presents that mobile phone cameras have ability to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras, and develop the market in digital photogrammetric fields.

  18. Advanced High-Definition Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, William

    2007-01-01

    A product line of high-definition color video cameras, now under development, offers a superior combination of desirable characteristics, including high frame rates, high resolutions, low power consumption, and compactness. Several of the cameras feature a 3,840 2,160-pixel format with progressive scanning at 30 frames per second. The power consumption of one of these cameras is about 25 W. The size of the camera, excluding the lens assembly, is 2 by 5 by 7 in. (about 5.1 by 12.7 by 17.8 cm). The aforementioned desirable characteristics are attained at relatively low cost, largely by utilizing digital processing in advanced field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to perform all of the many functions (for example, color balance and contrast adjustments) of a professional color video camera. The processing is programmed in VHDL so that application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) can be fabricated directly from the program. ["VHDL" signifies VHSIC Hardware Description Language C, a computing language used by the United States Department of Defense for describing, designing, and simulating very-high-speed integrated circuits (VHSICs).] The image-sensor and FPGA clock frequencies in these cameras have generally been much higher than those used in video cameras designed and manufactured elsewhere. Frequently, the outputs of these cameras are converted to other video-camera formats by use of pre- and post-filters.

  19. Omnidirectional underwater camera design and calibration.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Josep; Gracias, Nuno; Ridao, Pere; Ribas, David

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents the development of an underwater omnidirectional multi-camera system (OMS) based on a commercially available six-camera system, originally designed for land applications. A full calibration method is presented for the estimation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, which is able to cope with wide-angle lenses and non-overlapping cameras simultaneously. This method is valid for any OMS in both land or water applications. For underwater use, a customized housing is required, which often leads to strong image distortion due to refraction among the different media. This phenomena makes the basic pinhole camera model invalid for underwater cameras, especially when using wide-angle lenses, and requires the explicit modeling of the individual optical rays. To address this problem, a ray tracing approach has been adopted to create a field-of-view (FOV) simulator for underwater cameras. The simulator allows for the testing of different housing geometries and optics for the cameras to ensure a complete hemisphere coverage in underwater operation. This paper describes the design and testing of a compact custom housing for a commercial off-the-shelf OMS camera (Ladybug 3) and presents the first results of its use. A proposed three-stage calibration process allows for the estimation of all of the relevant camera parameters. Experimental results are presented, which illustrate the performance of the calibration method and validate the approach.

  20. Omnidirectional Underwater Camera Design and Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Josep; Gracias, Nuno; Ridao, Pere; Ribas, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an underwater omnidirectional multi-camera system (OMS) based on a commercially available six-camera system, originally designed for land applications. A full calibration method is presented for the estimation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, which is able to cope with wide-angle lenses and non-overlapping cameras simultaneously. This method is valid for any OMS in both land or water applications. For underwater use, a customized housing is required, which often leads to strong image distortion due to refraction among the different media. This phenomena makes the basic pinhole camera model invalid for underwater cameras, especially when using wide-angle lenses, and requires the explicit modeling of the individual optical rays. To address this problem, a ray tracing approach has been adopted to create a field-of-view (FOV) simulator for underwater cameras. The simulator allows for the testing of different housing geometries and optics for the cameras to ensure a complete hemisphere coverage in underwater operation. This paper describes the design and testing of a compact custom housing for a commercial off-the-shelf OMS camera (Ladybug 3) and presents the first results of its use. A proposed three-stage calibration process allows for the estimation of all of the relevant camera parameters. Experimental results are presented, which illustrate the performance of the calibration method and validate the approach. PMID:25774707

  1. LROC - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Eliason, E.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; McEwen, A.; Malin, M. C.; Ravine, M. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) went into lunar orbit on 23 June 2009. The LRO Camera (LROC) acquired its first lunar images on June 30 and commenced full scale testing and commissioning on July 10. The LROC consists of two narrow-angle cameras (NACs) that provide 0.5 m scale panchromatic images over a combined 5 km swath, and a wide-angle camera (WAC) to provide images at a scale of 100 m per pixel in five visible wavelength bands (415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm) and 400 m per pixel in two ultraviolet bands (321 nm and 360 nm) from the nominal 50 km orbit. Early operations were designed to test the performance of the cameras under all nominal operating conditions and provided a baseline for future calibrations. Test sequences included off-nadir slews to image stars and the Earth, 90° yaw sequences to collect flat field calibration data, night imaging for background characterization, and systematic mapping to test performance. LRO initially was placed into a terminator orbit resulting in images acquired under low signal conditions. Over the next three months the incidence angle at the spacecraft’s equator crossing gradually decreased towards high noon, providing a range of illumination conditions. Several hundred south polar images were collected in support of impact site selection for the LCROSS mission; details can be seen in many of the shadows. Commissioning phase images not only proved the instruments’ overall performance was nominal, but also that many geologic features of the lunar surface are well preserved at the meter-scale. Of particular note is the variety of impact-induced morphologies preserved in a near pristine state in and around kilometer-scale and larger young Copernican age impact craters that include: abundant evidence of impact melt of a variety of rheological properties, including coherent flows with surface textures and planimetric properties reflecting supersolidus (e.g., liquid melt) emplacement, blocks delicately perched on

  2. Gesture recognition on smart cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziri, Aziz; Chevobbe, Stephane; Darouich, Mehdi

    2013-02-01

    Gesture recognition is a feature in human-machine interaction that allows more natural interaction without the use of complex devices. For this reason, several methods of gesture recognition have been developed in recent years. However, most real time methods are designed to operate on a Personal Computer with high computing resources and memory. In this paper, we analyze relevant methods found in the literature in order to investigate the ability of smart camera to execute gesture recognition algorithms. We elaborate two hand gesture recognition pipelines. The first method is based on invariant moments extraction and the second on finger tips detection. The hand detection method used for both pipeline is based on skin color segmentation. The results obtained show that the un-optimized versions of invariant moments method and finger tips detection method can reach 10 fps on embedded processor and use about 200 kB of memory.

  3. Illumination box and camera system

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  4. Explosive Transient Camera (ETC) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, George

    1991-01-01

    Since the inception of the ETC program, a wide range of new technologies was developed to support this astronomical instrument. The prototype unit was installed at ETC Site 1. The first partially automated observations were made and some major renovations were later added to the ETC hardware. The ETC was outfitted with new thermoelectrically-cooled CCD cameras and a sophisticated vacuum manifold, which, together, made the ETC a much more reliable unit than the prototype. The ETC instrumentation and building were placed under full computer control, allowing the ETC to operate as an automated, autonomous instrument with virtually no human intervention necessary. The first fully-automated operation of the ETC was performed, during which the ETC monitored the error region of the repeating soft gamma-ray burster SGR 1806-21.

  5. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  6. Wind dynamic range video camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, G. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A television camera apparatus is disclosed in which bright objects are attenuated to fit within the dynamic range of the system, while dim objects are not. The apparatus receives linearly polarized light from an object scene, the light being passed by a beam splitter and focused on the output plane of a liquid crystal light valve. The light valve is oriented such that, with no excitation from the cathode ray tube, all light is rotated 90 deg and focused on the input plane of the video sensor. The light is then converted to an electrical signal, which is amplified and used to excite the CRT. The resulting image is collected and focused by a lens onto the light valve which rotates the polarization vector of the light to an extent proportional to the light intensity from the CRT. The overall effect is to selectively attenuate the image pattern focused on the sensor.

  7. Vocational Agriculture Handbook for Agriculture Cooperative Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This handbook was designed to assist school administrators, vocational administrators, vocational agricultural teachers, and area consultants of vocational agriculture in developing, implementing, and improving an agricultural cooperative training program (especially in Texas). The handbook, which presents information in a narrative format,…

  8. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  9. Fundamental study on identification of CMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Kenji; Saitoh, Naoki

    2003-08-01

    In this study, we discussed individual camera identification of CMOS cameras, because CMOS (complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor) imaging detectors have begun to make their move into the CCD (charge-coupled-device) fields for recent years. It can be identified whether or not the given images have been taken with the given CMOS camera by detecting the imager's intrinsic unique fixed pattern noise (FPN) just like the individual CCD camera identification method proposed by the authors. Both dark and bright pictures taken with the CMOS cameras can be identified by the method, because not only dark current in the photo detectors but also MOS-FET amplifiers incorporated in each pixel may produce pixel-to-pixel nonuniformity in sensitivity. Each pixel in CMOS detectors has the amplifier, which degrades image quality of bright images due to the nonuniformity of the amplifier gain. Two CMOS cameras were evaluated in our experiments. They were WebCamGoPlus (Creative), and EOS D30 (Canon). WebCamGoPlus is a low-priced web camera, whereas EOS D30 is for professional use. Image of a white plate were recorded with the cameras under the plate's luminance condition of 0cd/m2 and 150cd/m2. The recorded images were multiply integrated to reduce the random noise component. From the images of both cameras, characteristic dots patterns were observed. Some bright dots were observed in the dark images, whereas some dark dots were in the bright images. The results show that the camera identification method is also effective for CMOS cameras.

  10. Trajectory association across multiple airborne cameras.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal; Shah, Mubarak

    2008-02-01

    A camera mounted on an aerial vehicle provides an excellent means for monitoring large areas of a scene. Utilizing several such cameras on different aerial vehicles allows further flexibility, in terms of increased visual scope and in the pursuit of multiple targets. In this paper, we address the problem of associating objects across multiple airborne cameras. Since the cameras are moving and often widely separated, direct appearance-based or proximity-based constraints cannot be used. Instead, we exploit geometric constraints on the relationship between the motion of each object across cameras, to test multiple association hypotheses, without assuming any prior calibration information. Given our scene model, we propose a likelihood function for evaluating a hypothesized association between observations in multiple cameras that is geometrically motivated. Since multiple cameras exist, ensuring coherency in association is an essential requirement, e.g. that transitive closure is maintained between more than two cameras. To ensure such coherency we pose the problem of maximizing the likelihood function as a k-dimensional matching and use an approximation to find the optimal assignment of association. Using the proposed error function, canonical trajectories of each object and optimal estimates of inter-camera transformations (in a maximum likelihood sense) are computed. Finally, we show that as a result of associating objects across the cameras, a concurrent visualization of multiple aerial video streams is possible and that, under special conditions, trajectories interrupted due to occlusion or missing detections can be repaired. Results are shown on a number of real and controlled scenarios with multiple objects observed by multiple cameras, validating our qualitative models, and through simulation quantitative performance is also reported.

  11. Camera self-calibration from translation by referring to a known camera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Hu, Zhaozheng

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel linear method for camera self-calibration by referring to a known (or calibrated) camera. The method requires at least three images, with two images generated by the uncalibrated camera from pure translation and one image generated by the known reference camera. We first propose a method to compute the infinite homography from scene depths. Based on this, we use two images generated by translating the uncalibrated camera to recover scene depths, which are further utilized to linearly compute the infinite homography between an arbitrary uncalibrated image, and the image from the known camera. With the known camera as reference, the computed infinite homography is readily decomposed for camera calibration. The proposed self-calibration method has been tested with simulation and real image data. Experimental results demonstrate that the method is practical and accurate. This paper proposes using a "known reference camera" for camera calibration. The pure translation, as required in the method, is much more maneuverable, compared with some strict motions in the literature, such as pure rotation. The proposed self-calibration method has good potential for solving online camera calibration problems, which has important applications, especially for multicamera and zooming camera systems.

  12. Remote sensing from manned low Earth orbit spacecraft: implications for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza

    2010-04-01

    This paper addresses the question of what contributions the International Space Station (ISS) can make as a sensor based remote sensing platform. There is precedent for the use of manned platforms in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Skylab had the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). In the Shuttle -Mir program, the Piroda module was dedicated to Earth sensing. One experiment in the Piroda, the Multispectral Stereo Scanner (MOMS-2PP) was used for quantifying the advantages of performing remote sensing on the ISS. The Space Shuttle program also made significant contributions to Earth observations. Sixteen missions carried electronic experiment packages for Earth observations and crew on almost every mission performed earth observations using cameras. Experiments planned for the ISS can also tell us much about the potential the ISS has as a remote sensing platform by examining their design and objectives. In March of 2009 an experiment called Agricultural Camera (AgCam) was delivered to the ISS for installation in the window of the Laboratory module. In fall of 2009 two more remote sensing experiments will arrive on the ISS - the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS). These instruments will be combined on one experiment package, HICO- RAIDS experiment package (HREP), and will be placed outside the ISS, on an external platform.

  13. New camera tube improves ultrasonic inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, H.; Collis, W. J.; Jacobs, J. E.

    1968-01-01

    Electron multiplier, incorporated into the camera tube of an ultrasonic imaging system, improves resolution, effectively shields low level circuits, and provides a high level signal input to the television camera. It is effective for inspection of metallic materials for bonds, voids, and homogeneity.

  14. Making a room-sized camera obscura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynt, Halima; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe how to convert a room into a camera obscura as a project for introductory geometrical optics. The view for our camera obscura is a busy street scene set against a beautiful mountain skyline. We include a short video with project instructions, ray diagrams and delightful moving images of cars driving on the road outside.

  15. Solid state replacement of rotating mirror cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Alan M.; Bartolick, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed 'In-situ Storage Image Sensor' or 'ISIS', by Prof. Goji Etoh has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  16. Single chip camera active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Timothy (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Olson, Brita (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Panicacci, Roger A. (Inventor); Mansoorian, Barmak (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A totally digital single chip camera includes communications to operate most of its structure in serial communication mode. The digital single chip camera include a D/A converter for converting an input digital word into an analog reference signal. The chip includes all of the necessary circuitry for operating the chip using a single pin.

  17. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M

    2006-08-25

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  18. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  3. Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) tail camera video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft. The tail camera movie is one shot running 27 seconds. It shows the impact from the perspective of a camera mounted high on the vertical stabilizer, looking forward over the fuselage and wings.

  4. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  5. Creating and Using a Camera Obscura

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinnell, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The camera obscura (Latin for "darkened room") is the earliest optical device and goes back over 2500 years. The small pinhole or lens at the front of the room allows light to enter and this is then "projected" onto a screen inside the room. This differs from a camera, which projects its image onto light-sensitive material.…

  6. Depth Estimation Using a Sliding Camera.

    PubMed

    Ge, Kailin; Hu, Han; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Image-based 3D reconstruction technology is widely used in different fields. The conventional algorithms are mainly based on stereo matching between two or more fixed cameras, and high accuracy can only be achieved using a large camera array, which is very expensive and inconvenient in many applications. Another popular choice is utilizing structure-from-motion methods for arbitrarily placed camera(s). However, due to too many degrees of freedom, its computational cost is heavy and its accuracy is rather limited. In this paper, we propose a novel depth estimation algorithm using a sliding camera system. By analyzing the geometric properties of the camera system, we design a camera pose initialization algorithm that can work satisfyingly with only a small number of feature points and is robust to noise. For pixels corresponding to different depths, an adaptive iterative algorithm is proposed to choose optimal frames for stereo matching, which can take advantage of continuously pose-changing imaging and save the time consumption amazingly too. The proposed algorithm can also be easily extended to handle less constrained situations (such as using a camera mounted on a moving robot or vehicle). Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Cameras Monitor Spacecraft Integrity to Prevent Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory contracted Malin Space Science Systems Inc. to outfit Curiosity with four of its cameras using the latest commercial imaging technology. The company parlayed the knowledge gained under working with NASA to develop an off-the-shelf line of cameras, along with a digital video recorder, designed to help troubleshoot problems that may arise on satellites in space.

  8. Thermal Cameras in School Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Hedberg, David; Schönborn, Konrad J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal cameras offer real-time visual access to otherwise invisible thermal phenomena, which are conceptually demanding for learners during traditional teaching. We present three studies of students' conduction of laboratory activities that employ thermal cameras to teach challenging thermal concepts in grades 4, 7 and 10-12. Visualization of…

  9. Effects of camera location on the reconstruction of 3D flare trajectory with two cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özsaraç, Seçkin; Yeşilkaya, Muhammed

    2015-05-01

    Flares are used as valuable electronic warfare assets for the battle against infrared guided missiles. The trajectory of the flare is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of the counter measure. Reconstruction of the three dimensional (3D) position of a point, which is seen by multiple cameras, is a common problem. Camera placement, camera calibration, corresponding pixel determination in between the images of different cameras and also the triangulation algorithm affect the performance of 3D position estimation. In this paper, we specifically investigate the effects of camera placement on the flare trajectory estimation performance by simulations. Firstly, 3D trajectory of a flare and also the aircraft, which dispenses the flare, are generated with simple motion models. Then, we place two virtual ideal pinhole camera models on different locations. Assuming the cameras are tracking the aircraft perfectly, the view vectors of the cameras are computed. Afterwards, using the view vector of each camera and also the 3D position of the flare, image plane coordinates of the flare on both cameras are computed using the field of view (FOV) values. To increase the fidelity of the simulation, we have used two sources of error. One is used to model the uncertainties in the determination of the camera view vectors, i.e. the orientations of the cameras are measured noisy. Second noise source is used to model the imperfections of the corresponding pixel determination of the flare in between the two cameras. Finally, 3D position of the flare is estimated using the corresponding pixel indices, view vector and also the FOV of the cameras by triangulation. All the processes mentioned so far are repeated for different relative camera placements so that the optimum estimation error performance is found for the given aircraft and are trajectories.

  10. Performance evaluation of mail-scanning cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajashekar, Umesh; Vu, Tony Tuan; Hooning, John E.; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2010-04-01

    Letter-scanning cameras (LSCs) form the front- end imaging systems for virtually all mail-scanning systems that are currently used to automatically sort mail products. As with any vision-dependent technology, the quality of the images generated by the camera is fundamental to the overall performance of the system. We present novel techniques for objective evaluation of LSCs using comparative imaging-a technique that involves measuring the fidelity of target images produced by a camera with reference to an image of the same target captured at very high quality. Such a framework provides a unique opportunity to directly quantify the camera's ability to capture real-world targets, such as handwritten and printed text. Noncomparative techniques were also used to measure properties such as the camera's modulation transfer function, dynamic range, and signal-to-noise ratio. To simulate real-world imaging conditions, application-specific test samples were designed using actual mail product materials.

  11. Flow visualization by mobile phone cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cierpka, Christian; Hain, Rainer; Buchmann, Nicolas A.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile smart phones were completely changing people's communication within the last ten years. However, these devices do not only offer communication through different channels but also devices and applications for fun and recreation. In this respect, mobile phone cameras include now relatively fast (up to 240 Hz) cameras to capture high-speed videos of sport events or other fast processes. The article therefore explores the possibility to make use of this development and the wide spread availability of these cameras in the terms of velocity measurements for industrial or technical applications and fluid dynamics education in high schools and at universities. The requirements for a simplistic PIV (particle image velocimetry) system are discussed. A model experiment of a free water jet was used to prove the concept and shed some light on the achievable quality and determine bottle necks by comparing the results obtained with a mobile phone camera with data taken by a high-speed camera suited for scientific experiments.

  12. Cloud Computing with Context Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, A. J.; Rosing, W. E.

    2016-05-01

    We summarize methods and plans to monitor and calibrate photometric observations with our autonomous, robotic network of 2m, 1m and 40cm telescopes. These are sited globally to optimize our ability to observe time-variable sources. Wide field "context" cameras are aligned with our network telescopes and cycle every ˜2 minutes through BVr'i'z' filters, spanning our optical range. We measure instantaneous zero-point offsets and transparency (throughput) against calibrators in the 5-12m range from the all-sky Tycho2 catalog, and periodically against primary standards. Similar measurements are made for all our science images, with typical fields of view of ˜0.5 degrees. These are matched against Landolt, Stetson and Sloan standards, and against calibrators in the 10-17m range from the all-sky APASS catalog. Such measurements provide pretty good instantaneous flux calibration, often to better than 5%, even in cloudy conditions. Zero-point and transparency measurements can be used to characterize, monitor and inter-compare sites and equipment. When accurate calibrations of Target against Standard fields are required, monitoring measurements can be used to select truly photometric periods when accurate calibrations can be automatically scheduled and performed.

  13. Practical intraoperative stereo camera calibration.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Philip; Bergeles, Christos; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Many of the currently available stereo endoscopes employed during minimally invasive surgical procedures have shallow depths of field. Consequently, focus settings are adjusted from time to time in order to achieve the best view of the operative workspace. Invalidating any prior calibration procedure, this presents a significant problem for image guidance applications as they typically rely on the calibrated camera parameters for a variety of geometric tasks, including triangulation, registration and scene reconstruction. While recalibration can be performed intraoperatively, this invariably results in a major disruption to workflow, and can be seen to represent a genuine barrier to the widespread adoption of image guidance technologies. The novel solution described herein constructs a model of the stereo endoscope across the continuum of focus settings, thereby reducing the number of degrees of freedom to one, such that a single view of reference geometry will determine the calibration uniquely. No special hardware or access to proprietary interfaces is required, and the method is ready for evaluation during human cases. A thorough quantitative analysis indicates that the resulting intrinsic and extrinsic parameters lead to calibrations as accurate as those derived from multiple pattern views.

  14. NIR Camera/spectrograph: TEQUILA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, E.; Sohn, E.; Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Salas, L.; Parraga, A.; Torres, R.; Perez, M.; Cobos, F.; Tejada, C.; Iriarte, A.

    1998-11-01

    We describe the configuration and operation modes of the IR camera/spectrograph called TEQUILA, based on a 1024X1024 HgCdTe FPA (HAWAII). The optical system will allow three possible modes of operation: direct imaging, low and medium resolution spectroscopy and polarimetry. The basic system is being designed to consist of the following: 1) A LN$_2$ dewar that allocates the FPA together with the preamplifiers and a 24 filter position cylinder. 2) Control and readout electronics based on DSP modules linked to a workstation through fiber optics. 3) An optomechanical assembly cooled to -30oC that provides an efficient operation of the instrument in its various modes. 4) A control module for the moving parts of the instrument. The opto-mechanical assembly will have the necessary provisions to install a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer and an adaptive optics correction system. The final image acquisition and control of the whole instrument is carried out in a workstation to provide the observer with a friendly environment. The system will operate at the 2.1 m telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in San Pedro Martir, B.C. (Mexico), and is intended to be a first-light instrument for the new 7.8 m Mexican Infrared-Optical Telescope (TIM).

  15. Smart Camera Technology Increases Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to real-time image processing, everyone is an expert. People begin processing images at birth and rapidly learn to control their responses through the real-time processing of the human visual system. The human eye captures an enormous amount of information in the form of light images. In order to keep the brain from becoming overloaded with all the data, portions of an image are processed at a higher resolution than others, such as a traffic light changing colors. changing colors. In the same manner, image processing products strive to extract the information stored in light in the most efficient way possible. Digital cameras available today capture millions of pixels worth of information from incident light. However, at frame rates more than a few per second, existing digital interfaces are overwhelmed. All the user can do is store several frames to memory until that memory is full and then subsequent information is lost. New technology pairs existing digital interface technology with an off-the-shelf complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager to provide more than 500 frames per second of specialty image processing. The result is a cost-effective detection system unlike any other.

  16. ROSAT wide field camera mirrors.

    PubMed

    Willingale, R

    1988-04-15

    The ROSAT wide field camera (WFC) is an XUV telescope operating in the 12-250-eV energy band. The mirror system utilizes Wolter-Schwarzschild type I (WS I) grazing incidence optics with a focal length of 525 mm, comprised of three nested aluminum shells with an outermost diameter of 576 mm providing a geometric aperture area of 456 cm(2). The reflecting surfaces are electroless nickel plated and coated with gold to enhance their reflectivity in the XUV. The mirrors have undergone full aperture optical testing, narrow beam XUV testing, and full aperture XUV testing. Measurements of the reflectivity are compared to theoretical values derived from the optical constants of gold in the XUV range. Analysis of the focused distribution is used to estimate the surface roughness and figuring errors of the polished surfaces. The results are compared to the mechanical metrology data collected during manufacture of the shells and the power spectral density of the reflecting surfaces is found to have a power-law form.

  17. Xochicalco: Tlayohualchieliztli or camera obscura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo-Rodríguez, A.; Vázquez-Montiel, S.; Granados-Agustín, F.; Gale, D.; Diamant, R.; Espinasa-Perena, R.; Cruz, J. L.; Fernández-Guasti, M.

    2011-08-01

    Xochicalco is an archaeological site located in the state of Morelos in central Mexico. It flourished from 600 to 900 a.d. with numerous multicultural elements. There are several underground rooms carved into the hillside In particular, a room with a shaft that has a hole in the roof whose orientation towards the zenith supports its astronomical purpose. Our hypothesis is that the place was used as a tlayohualchieliztli or camera obscura for astronomical observations. This would be the first evidence of a pre-columbian image forming device. To explore the feasibility of this assertion, the conditions required to produce an image were studied. The aperture diameter in the top of the shaft is far too large to be used as a "pinhole" but it may have been covered with a screen containing a smaller bore-hole. We work out the optimum aperture size. The portion of the sky that could be observed due to the orientation of the shaft was also undertaken. The two most intense celestial objects should produce bright enough images thus suggesting that observation of the sun took place during day-time and observation of the moon during night-time. Amate paper or cloth could have been used to directly draw the position of celestial objects.

  18. ROSAT Wide Field Camera Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willingale, R.

    1988-08-01

    The ROSAT wide field camera (WFC) is an XUV telescope operating in the 12-250-eV energy band. The mirror system utilizes Wolter-Schwarzschild type I (WSI) grazing incidence optics with a focal length of 525 mm, comprised of three nested aluminum shells with an outermost diameter of 576 mm providing a geometric aperture area of 456 cm2. The reflecting surfaces are electroless nickel plated and coated with gold to enhance their reflectivity in the XUV. The mirrors have undergone full aperture optical testing, narrow beam XUV testing, and full aperture XUV testing. Measurements of the reflectivity are compared to theoretical values derived from the optical constants of gold in the XUV range. Analysis of the focused distribution is used to estimate the surface roughness and figuring errors of the polished surfaces. The results are compared to the mechanical metrology data collected during manufacture of the shells and the power spectral density of the reflecting surfaces is found to have a power-law form.

  19. Image formation in fundus cameras.

    PubMed

    Pomerantzeff, O; Webb, R H; Delori, F C

    1979-06-01

    Imaging in a fundus camera depends more on design of the system than on correction of the first fundus image as formed by the ophthalmoscopic lens. We show here that the designer may use the free parameters of the ophthalmoscopic lens (contact or noncontact) to correct the latter for observation and illumination of the fundus. In both contact and noncontact systems the fundus is illuminated by forming a ring of light on the patient's cornea around a central area (the corneal window) reserved for observation. On the first surface of the crystalline lens, the light also forms a ring which must accomodate the total entrance pupil (TEP) of the observation system in its middle and which is limited on the outside by the patient's iris. The restrictions that result from this situation define the entrance pupil of the bundle of rays that image the marginal point of the retina. The limits of this bundle are imposed by the choice of the angular field of view and by the size of the patient's pupil.

  20. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  1. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  2. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  3. EVALUATION OF HELICOPTER-MOUNTED MOTION PICTURE, HIGH MAGNIFICATION AND TELEVISION CAMERA SYSTEMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HELICOPTERS, MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS), CAMERAS, VIETNAM, VIBRATION, CAMERA MOUNTS, TELESCOPES, CAMERA LENSES, PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES, AERIAL...RECONNAISSANCE, MILITARY INTELLIGENCE, AERIAL CAMERAS, TELEVISION CAMERAS, PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM , COLOR FILM , TELEVISION EQUIPMENT.

  4. Sky camera geometric calibration using solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, Bryan; Kurtz, Ben; Kleissl, Jan

    2016-09-01

    A camera model and associated automated calibration procedure for stationary daytime sky imaging cameras is presented. The specific modeling and calibration needs are motivated by remotely deployed cameras used to forecast solar power production where cameras point skyward and use 180° fisheye lenses. Sun position in the sky and on the image plane provides a simple and automated approach to calibration; special equipment or calibration patterns are not required. Sun position in the sky is modeled using a solar position algorithm (requiring latitude, longitude, altitude and time as inputs). Sun position on the image plane is detected using a simple image processing algorithm. The performance evaluation focuses on the calibration of a camera employing a fisheye lens with an equisolid angle projection, but the camera model is general enough to treat most fixed focal length, central, dioptric camera systems with a photo objective lens. Calibration errors scale with the noise level of the sun position measurement in the image plane, but the calibration is robust across a large range of noise in the sun position. Calibration performance on clear days ranged from 0.94 to 1.24 pixels root mean square error.

  5. Development of gamma ray imaging cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Wehe, D.K.; Knoll, G.F.

    1992-05-28

    In January 1990, the Department of Energy initiated this project with the objective to develop the technology for general purpose, portable gamma ray imaging cameras useful to the nuclear industry. The ultimate goal of this R D initiative is to develop the analog to the color television camera where the camera would respond to gamma rays instead of visible photons. The two-dimensional real-time image would be displayed would indicate the geometric location of the radiation relative to the camera's orientation, while the brightness and color'' would indicate the intensity and energy of the radiation (and hence identify the emitting isotope). There is a strong motivation for developing such a device for applications within the nuclear industry, for both high- and low-level waste repositories, for environmental restoration problems, and for space and fusion applications. At present, there are no general purpose radiation cameras capable of producing spectral images for such practical applications. At the time of this writing, work on this project has been underway for almost 18 months. Substantial progress has been made in the project's two primary areas: mechanically-collimated (MCC) and electronically-collimated camera (ECC) designs. We present developments covering the mechanically-collimated design, and then discuss the efforts on the electronically-collimated camera. The renewal proposal addresses the continuing R D efforts for the third year effort. 8 refs.

  6. Compact hyperspectral camera in the mid-infrared for small UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pola Fossi, Armande; Ferrec, Yann; Coudrain, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Kling, Emmanuel; Guérineau, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging from small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) arouses a growing interest, as well for military applications as for civilian applications like agriculture management, pollution monitoring or mining. This paper establishes a quick state of the art of cameras of which the capabilities in small-UAVs embedded campaigns have been demonstrated. We also introduce a novel compact hyperspectral camera operating in mid-infrared spectral range embeddable on small UAVs. This camera combines birefringent interferometer for size reduction and cooled imaging optics for a better signal noise ratio. The design of a first prototype and first results from a ground-based measurement campaign, of which the goal was an optical concept validation, is also discussed. Finally, we present the design modifications for the small-UAVs-embeddable version.

  7. Electronic cameras for low-light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rasnik, Ivan; French, Todd; Jacobson, Ken; Berland, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This chapter introduces to electronic cameras, discusses the various parameters considered for evaluating their performance, and describes some of the key features of different camera formats. The chapter also presents the basic understanding of functioning of the electronic cameras and how these properties can be exploited to optimize image quality under low-light conditions. Although there are many types of cameras available for microscopy, the most reliable type is the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, which remains preferred for high-performance systems. If time resolution and frame rate are of no concern, slow-scan CCDs certainly offer the best available performance, both in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio and their spatial resolution. Slow-scan cameras are thus the first choice for experiments using fixed specimens such as measurements using immune fluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, if video rate imaging is required, one need not evaluate slow-scan CCD cameras. A very basic video CCD may suffice if samples are heavily labeled or are not perturbed by high intensity illumination. When video rate imaging is required for very dim specimens, the electron multiplying CCD camera is probably the most appropriate at this technological stage. Intensified CCDs provide a unique tool for applications in which high-speed gating is required. The variable integration time video cameras are very attractive options if one needs to acquire images at video rate acquisition, as well as with longer integration times for less bright samples. This flexibility can facilitate many diverse applications with highly varied light levels.

  8. 8. VAL CAMERA CAR, CLOSEUP VIEW OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VAL CAMERA CAR, CLOSE-UP VIEW OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY CAMERA ON SLIDING MOUNT. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Close-Range Photogrammetry with Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    Examples of photogrammetric measurements made with video cameras uncorrected for electronic and optical lens distortions are presented. The measurement and correction of electronic distortions of video cameras using both bilinear and polynomial interpolation are discussed. Examples showing the relative stability of electronic distortions over long periods of time are presented. Having corrected for electronic distortion, the data are further corrected for lens distortion using the plumb line method. Examples of close-range photogrammetric data taken with video cameras corrected for both electronic and optical lens distortion are presented.

  10. New Modular Camera No Ordinary Joe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Although dubbed 'Little Joe' for its small-format characteristics, a new wavefront sensor camera has proved that it is far from coming up short when paired with high-speed, low-noise applications. SciMeasure Analytical Systems, Inc., a provider of cameras and imaging accessories for use in biomedical research and industrial inspection and quality control, is the eye behind Little Joe's shutter, manufacturing and selling the modular, multi-purpose camera worldwide to advance fields such as astronomy, neurobiology, and cardiology.

  11. Camera-based driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, camera-based driver assistance systems have taken an important step: from laboratory setup to series production. This tutorial gives a brief overview on the technology behind driver assistance systems, presents the most significant functionalities and focuses on the processes of developing camera-based systems for series production. We highlight the critical points which need to be addressed when camera-based driver assistance systems are sold in their thousands, worldwide - and the benefit in terms of safety which results from it.

  12. Close-range photogrammetry with video cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Examples of photogrammetric measurements made with video cameras uncorrected for electronic and optical lens distortions are presented. The measurement and correction of electronic distortions of video cameras using both bilinear and polynomial interpolation are discussed. Examples showing the relative stability of electronic distortions over long periods of time are presented. Having corrected for electronic distortion, the data are further corrected for lens distortion using the plumb line method. Examples of close-range photogrammetric data taken with video cameras corrected for both electronic and optical lens distortion are presented.

  13. Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.

  14. Two degree of freedom camera mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A two degree of freedom camera mount. The camera mount includes a socket, a ball, a first linkage and a second linkage. The socket includes an interior surface and an opening. The ball is positioned within an interior of the socket. The ball includes a coupling point for rotating the ball relative to the socket and an aperture for mounting a camera. The first and second linkages are rotatably connected to the socket and slidably connected to the coupling point of the ball. Rotation of the linkages with respect to the socket causes the ball to rotate with respect to the socket.

  15. Generating 3D hyperspectral information with lightweight UAV snapshot cameras for vegetation monitoring: From camera calibration to quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasen, Helge; Burkart, Andreas; Bolten, Andreas; Bareth, Georg

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel method to derive 3D hyperspectral information from lightweight snapshot cameras for unmanned aerial vehicles for vegetation monitoring. Snapshot cameras record an image cube with one spectral and two spatial dimensions with every exposure. First, we describe and apply methods to radiometrically characterize and calibrate these cameras. Then, we introduce our processing chain to derive 3D hyperspectral information from the calibrated image cubes based on structure from motion. The approach includes a novel way for quality assurance of the data which is used to assess the quality of the hyperspectral data for every single pixel in the final data product. The result is a hyperspectral digital surface model as a representation of the surface in 3D space linked with the hyperspectral information emitted and reflected by the objects covered by the surface. In this study we use the hyperspectral camera Cubert UHD 185-Firefly, which collects 125 bands from 450 to 950 nm. The obtained data product has a spatial resolution of approximately 1 cm for the spatial and 21 cm for the hyperspectral information. The radiometric calibration yields good results with less than 1% offset in reflectance compared to an ASD FieldSpec 3 for most of the spectral range. The quality assurance information shows that the radiometric precision is better than 0.13% for the derived data product. We apply the approach to data from a flight campaign in a barley experiment with different varieties during the growth stage heading (BBCH 52 - 59) to demonstrate the feasibility for vegetation monitoring in the context of precision agriculture. The plant parameters retrieved from the data product correspond to in-field measurements of a single date field campaign for plant height (R2 = 0.7), chlorophyll (BGI2, R2 = 0.52), LAI (RDVI, R2 = 0.32) and biomass (RDVI, R2 = 0.29). Our approach can also be applied for other image-frame cameras as long as the individual bands of the

  16. Further results from a trial comparing a hidden speed camera programme with visible camera operation.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael D; Povey, Lynley J; Frith, William J

    2002-11-01

    As described in a previous paper [Accident Anal. Prev., 33 (2001) 277], the hidden camera programme was found to be associated with significant net falls in speeds, crashes and casualties both in 'speed camera areas' (specific signed sites to which camera operation is restricted) and on 100 km/h speed limit roads generally. These changes in speeds, crashes and casualties were identified in the trial area in comparison with a control area where generally highly visible speed camera enforcement continued to be used (and was used in the trial area prior to the commencement of the trial). There were initial changes in public attitudes associated with the trial that later largely reverted to pre-trial levels. Analysis of 2 years' data of the trial showed that falls in crash and casualty rates and speeds associated with the hidden camera programme were being sustained. It is not possible to separate out the effects of the concealment of the cameras from other aspects of the hidden speed camera programme, such as the four-fold increase in ticketing. This increase in speed camera tickets issued was an expected consequence of hiding the cameras and as such, an integral part of the hidden camera programme being evaluated.

  17. Interface circuit design and control system programming for an EMCCD camera based on Camera Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin-hua; Rao, Xiao-hui; Yan, Jia; Li, Da-lun; Zhang, Yi-gong

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents an appropriate solution for self-developed EMCCD cameras based on Camera Link. A new interface circuit used to connect an embedded processor Nios II to the serial communication port of Camera Link in the camera is designed, and a simplified structure diagram is shown. To implement functions of the circuit, in the hardware design, it is necessary to add a universal serial communication component to the Nios II when building the processor and its peripheral components in the Altera SOPC development environment. In the software design, we use C language to write a UART interrupt response routine for instructions and data receiving and transmitting, and a camera control program in the slave computer (Nios II), employ a Sapera LT development library and VC++ to write a serial communication routine, a camera control and image acquisition program in the host computer. The developed camera can be controlled by the host PC, the camera status can return to the PC, and a huge amount of image data can be uploaded at a high speed through a Camera Link cable. A flow chart of the serial communication and camera control program in Nios II is given, and two operating interfaces in the PC are shown. Some design and application skills are described in detail. The test results indicate that the interface circuit and the control programs that we have developed are feasible and reliable.

  18. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  19. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  20. Camera vibration measurement using blinking light-emitting diode array.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Kazuki; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2017-01-23

    We present a new method for measuring camera vibrations such as camera shake and shutter shock. This method successfully detects the vibration trajectory and transient waveforms from the camera image itself. We employ a time-varying pattern as the camera test chart over the conventional static pattern. This pattern is implemented using a specially developed blinking light-emitting-diode array. We describe the theoretical framework and pattern analysis of the camera image for measuring camera vibrations. Our verification experiments show that our method has a detection accuracy and sensitivity of 0.1 pixels, and is robust against image distortion. Measurement results of camera vibrations in commercial cameras are also demonstrated.

  1. Time synchronization of consumer cameras on Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the problem of time registration between navigation and imaging components on Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). Accurate mapping with MAVs is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forests or agricultural fields. Therefore, accurate aerial control plays a major role in efficient reconstruction of the terrain and artifact-free ortophoto generation. A key prerequisite is correct time stamping of images in global time frame as the sensor exterior orientation changes rapidly and its determination by navigation sensors influence the mapping accuracy on the ground. A majority of MAVs is equipped with consumer-grade, non-metric cameras for which the precise time registration with navigation components is not trivial to realize and its performance not easy to assess. In this paper, we study the problematic of synchronization by implementing and evaluating spatio-temporal observation models of aerial control to estimate residual delay of the imaging sensor. Such modeling is possible through inclusion of additional velocity and angular rate observations into the adjustment. This moves the optimization problem from 3D to 4D. The benefit of this approach is verified on real mapping projects using a custom build MAV and an off-the-shelf camera.

  2. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, J. E.; Carr, M.; Rockosi, C.; Sekiguchi, M.; Berry, K.; Elms, B.; de Haas, E.; Ivezić, Ž .; Knapp, G.; Lupton, R.; Pauls, G.; Simcoe, R.; Hirsch, R.; Sanford, D.; Wang, S.; York, D.; Harris, F.; Annis, J.; Bartozek, L.; Boroski, W.; Bakken, J.; Haldeman, M.; Kent, S.; Holm, S.; Holmgren, D.; Petravick, D.; Prosapio, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Shimasaku, K.; Okada, N.; Hull, C.; Siegmund, W.; Mannery, E.; Blouke, M.; Heidtman, D.; Schneider, D.; Lucinio, R.; Brinkman, J.

    1998-12-01

    We have constructed a large-format mosaic CCD camera for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The camera consists of two arrays, a photometric array that uses 30 2048 x 2048 SITe/Tektronix CCDs (24 μm pixels) with an effective imaging area of 720 cm^2 and an astrometric array that uses 24 400 x 2048 CCDs with the same pixel size, which will allow us to tie bright astrometric standard stars to the objects imaged in the photometric camera. The instrument will be used to carry out photometry essentially simultaneously in five color bands spanning the range accessible to silicon detectors on the ground in the time-delay-and-integrate (TDI) scanning mode. The photometric detectors are arrayed in the focal plane in six columns of five chips each such that two scans cover a filled stripe 2.5d wide. This paper presents engineering and technical details of the camera.

  3. Daytime Aspect Camera for Balloon Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Kurt L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Swift, Wesley R.

    2002-01-01

    We have designed, built, and flight-tested a new star camera for daytime guiding of pointed balloon-borne experiments at altitudes around 40 km. The camera and lens are commercially available, off-the-shelf components, but require a custom-built baffle to reduce stray light, especially near the sunlit limb of the balloon. This new camera, which operates in the 600- to 1000-nm region of the spectrum, successfully provides daytime aspect information of approx. 10 arcsec resolution for two distinct star fields near the galactic plane. The detected scattered-light backgrounds show good agreement with the Air Force MODTRAN models used to design the camera, but the daytime stellar magnitude limit was lower than expected due to longitudinal chromatic aberration in the lens. Replacing the commercial lens with a custom-built lens should allow the system to track stars in any arbitrary area of the sky during the daytime.

  4. FORCAST Camera Installed on SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cornell University's Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope, or FORCAST, being installed on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy's 2.5-meter telescope in preparation f...

  5. System selects framing rate for spectrograph camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Circuit using zero-order light is reflected to a photomultiplier in the incoming radiation of a spectrograph monitor to provide an error signal which controls the advancing and driving rate of the film through the camera.

  6. Newman Waves at Camera from Unity Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-88 mission specialist James Newman, holding on to a handrail, waves back at the camera during the first of three Extravehicular activities(EVAs) performed during the mission. The orbiter can be seen reflected in his visor

  7. Action selection for single-camera SLAM.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Calleja, Teresa A; Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan

    2010-12-01

    A method for evaluating, at video rate, the quality of actions for a single camera while mapping unknown indoor environments is presented. The strategy maximizes mutual information between measurements and states to help the camera avoid making ill-conditioned measurements that are appropriate to lack of depth in monocular vision systems. Our system prompts a user with the appropriate motion commands during 6-DOF visual simultaneous localization and mapping with a handheld camera. Additionally, the system has been ported to a mobile robotic platform, thus closing the control-estimation loop. To show the viability of the approach, simulations and experiments are presented for the unconstrained motion of a handheld camera and for the motion of a mobile robot with nonholonomic constraints. When combined with a path planner, the technique safely drives to a marked goal while, at the same time, producing an optimal estimated map.

  8. Calibration Procedures on Oblique Camera Setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Melykuti, B.; Yu, C.

    2016-06-01

    Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager) is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna -IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first step with the help of

  9. Planetary camera control improves microfiche production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesterton, W. L.; Lewis, E. B.

    1965-01-01

    Microfiche is prepared using an automatic control system for a planetary camera. The system provides blank end-of-row exposures and signals card completion so the legend of the next card may by photographed.

  10. Real time moving scene holographic camera system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A holographic motion picture camera system producing resolution of front surface detail is described. The system utilizes a beam of coherent light and means for dividing the beam into a reference beam for direct transmission to a conventional movie camera and two reflection signal beams for transmission to the movie camera by reflection from the front side of a moving scene. The system is arranged so that critical parts of the system are positioned on the foci of a pair of interrelated, mathematically derived ellipses. The camera has the theoretical capability of producing motion picture holograms of projectiles moving at speeds as high as 900,000 cm/sec (about 21,450 mph).

  11. High-performance digital color video camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parulski, Kenneth A.; D'Luna, Lionel J.; Benamati, Brian L.; Shelley, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Typical one-chip color cameras use analog video processing circuits. An improved digital camera architecture has been developed using a dual-slope A/D conversion technique and two full-custom CMOS digital video processing integrated circuits, the color filter array (CFA) processor and the RGB postprocessor. The system used a 768 X 484 active element interline transfer CCD with a new field-staggered 3G color filter pattern and a lenslet overlay, which doubles the sensitivity of the camera. The industrial-quality digital camera design offers improved image quality, reliability, manufacturability, while meeting aggressive size, power, and cost constraints. The CFA processor digital VLSI chip includes color filter interpolation processing, an optical black clamp, defect correction, white balance, and gain control. The RGB postprocessor digital integrated circuit includes a color correction matrix, gamma correction, 2D edge enhancement, and circuits to control the black balance, lens aperture, and focus.

  12. High-performance digital color video camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parulski, Kenneth A.; Benamati, Brian L.; D'Luna, Lionel J.; Shelley, Paul R.

    1991-06-01

    Typical one-chip color cameras use analog video processing circuits. An improved digital camera architecture has been developed using a dual-slope A/D conversion technique, and two full custom CMOS digital video processing ICs, the 'CFA processor' and the 'RGB post- processor.' The system uses a 768 X 484 active element interline transfer CCD with a new 'field-staggered 3G' color filter pattern and a 'lenslet' overlay, which doubles the sensitivity of the camera. The digital camera design offers improved image quality, reliability, and manufacturability, while meeting aggressive size, power, and cost constraints. The CFA processor digital VLSI chip includes color filter interpolation processing, an optical black clamp, defect correction, white balance, and gain control. The RGB post-processor digital IC includes a color correction matrix, gamma correction, two-dimensional edge-enhancement, and circuits to control the black balance, lens aperture, and focus.

  13. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  14. Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Jorgensen, J.; Jun, I.; Maki, J. N.; McEwen, A. S.; Riedel, E.; Walch, M.; Watkins, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) concept is envisioned as an integrated system, with optical bench and flight-proven components, designed for deep-space planetary missions with 2-DOF control capability.

  15. NASA Camera Catches Moon 'Photobombing' Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 5, 2016, the moon passed between NOAA's DSCOVR satellite and Earth. NASA's EPIC camera aboard DSCOVR snapped these images over a period of about four hours. In this set, the far side of the...

  16. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  17. A stereoscopic lens for digital cinema cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny; Rupkalvis, John

    2015-03-01

    Live-action stereoscopic feature films are, for the most part, produced using a costly post-production process to convert planar cinematography into stereo-pair images and are only occasionally shot stereoscopically using bulky dual-cameras that are adaptations of the Ramsdell rig. The stereoscopic lens design described here might very well encourage more live-action image capture because it uses standard digital cinema cameras and workflow to save time and money.

  18. Pinhole Cameras: For Science, Art, and Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Clare

    2007-01-01

    A pinhole camera is a camera without a lens. A tiny hole replaces the lens, and light is allowed to come in for short amount of time by means of a hand-operated shutter. The pinhole allows only a very narrow beam of light to enter, which reduces confusion due to scattered light on the film. This results in an image that is focused, reversed, and…

  19. Anger Camera Calibration and QA Software

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, Richard A.

    2012-09-30

    Create an easy to use software package for calibration and QA testing of the Anger Camera. The software uses python scripts and interacts with two different C++ programs. The C++ programs simply transfer data to the python scripts via a file or UDP call. The python scripts analyze the data preform motor movement functions and create calibration data files for transfer to the Anger Camera configuration files.

  20. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Curt Allen; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Ronald Justin; Bruce Marshall; Oliver Sweningsen; Perry Bell; Roger Griffith; Karla Hagans; Richard Lerche

    2004-04-01

    The National Ignition Facility is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses that are suitable for temporal calibrations.

  1. Mercuric iodide X-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, B. E.; del Duca, A.; Dolin, R.; Ortale, C.

    1986-02-01

    A prototype X-ray camera utilizing a 1.5- by 1.5-in., 1024-element, thin mercuric iodide detector array has been tested and evaluated. The microprocessor-based camera is portable and operates at room temperature. Events can be localized within 1-2 mm at energies below 60 keV and within 5-6 mm at energies on the order of 600 keV.

  2. Overview of a hybrid underwater camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Philip; Hou, Weilin; Fournier, Georges; Dalgleish, Fraser; Butler, Derek; Pari, Sergio; Jamieson, Michael; Pike, David

    2014-05-01

    The paper provides an overview of a Hybrid Underwater Camera (HUC) system combining sonar with a range-gated laser camera system. The sonar is the BlueView P900-45, operating at 900kHz with a field of view of 45 degrees and ranging capability of 60m. The range-gated laser camera system is based on the third generation LUCIE (Laser Underwater Camera Image Enhancer) sensor originally developed by the Defence Research and Development Canada. LUCIE uses an eye-safe laser generating 1ns pulses at a wavelength of 532nm and at the rate of 25kHz. An intensified CCD camera operates with a gating mechanism synchronized with the laser pulse. The gate opens to let the camera capture photons from a given range of interest and can be set from a minimum delay of 5ns with increments of 200ps. The output of the sensor is a 30Hz video signal. Automatic ranging is achieved using a sonar altimeter. The BlueView sonar and LUCIE sensors are integrated with an underwater computer that controls the sensors parameters and displays the real-time data for the sonar and the laser camera. As an initial step for data integration, graphics overlays representing the laser camera field-of-view along with the gate position and width are overlaid on the sonar display. The HUC system can be manually handled by a diver and can also be controlled from a surface vessel through an umbilical cord. Recent test data obtained from the HUC system operated in a controlled underwater environment will be presented along with measured performance characteristics.

  3. CMOS Camera Array With Onboard Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    A compact CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) camera system has been developed with high resolution (1.3 Megapixels), a USB (universal serial bus) 2.0 interface, and an onboard memory. Exposure times, and other operating parameters, are sent from a control PC via the USB port. Data from the camera can be received via the USB port and the interface allows for simple control and data capture through a laptop computer.

  4. A Basic Camera Unit for Medical Photography

    PubMed Central

    Smialowski, Arthur; Currie, Donald J.

    1964-01-01

    A camera unit suitable for most medical photographic purposes is described. The unit comprises a single-lens reflex camera, an electronic flash unit and supplementary lenses. Simple instructions for use of th's basic unit are presented. The unit is entirely suitable for taking fine-quality photographs of most medical subjects by persons who have had little photographic training. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14179542

  5. Minimum Requirements for Taxicab Security Cameras*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shengke; Amandus, Harlan E.; Amendola, Alfred A.; Newbraugh, Bradley H.; Cantis, Douglas M.; Weaver, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    Problem The homicide rate of taxicab-industry is 20 times greater than that of all workers. A NIOSH study showed that cities with taxicab-security cameras experienced significant reduction in taxicab driver homicides. Methods Minimum technical requirements and a standard test protocol for taxicab-security cameras for effective taxicab-facial identification were determined. The study took more than 10,000 photographs of human-face charts in a simulated-taxicab with various photographic resolutions, dynamic ranges, lens-distortions, and motion-blurs in various light and cab-seat conditions. Thirteen volunteer photograph-evaluators evaluated these face photographs and voted for the minimum technical requirements for taxicab-security cameras. Results Five worst-case scenario photographic image quality thresholds were suggested: the resolution of XGA-format, highlight-dynamic-range of 1 EV, twilight-dynamic-range of 3.3 EV, lens-distortion of 30%, and shutter-speed of 1/30 second. Practical Applications These minimum requirements will help taxicab regulators and fleets to identify effective taxicab-security cameras, and help taxicab-security camera manufacturers to improve the camera facial identification capability. PMID:26823992

  6. Shortwave infrared camera with extended spectral sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Martin; Achtner, Bertram; Kraus, Michael; Neumann, Tanja; Münzberg, Mario

    2012-06-01

    The shortwave infrared spectral range (SWIR) has certain advantages for the observation during day under fog and haze weather conditions. Due to the longer wavelength compared to the visible spectrum the range performances in the SWIR is here considerably extended. In addition cooled SWIR focal plane arrays reach in the meantime sensitivities to be useable for night viewing under twilight or moon light conditions. The presented SWIR camera system combines the color imaging in the visible spectrum with the imaging in the SWIR spectrum. The 20x zoom optics is fully corrected between 440 nm and 1700 nm. A dichroic beam splitter projects the visible spectrum on a color chip with HDTV resolution and the SWIR spectrum on a 640x512 InGaAs focal plane array. The open architecture of the camera system allows the use of different SWIR sensors and CMOS sensors. A universal designed interface electronic operates the used cameras and provides standard video outputs and compressed video streams on an ethernet interface. The camera system is designed to be integrated in various stabilized platforms. The camera concept is described and the comparison with pure SWIR or combined SWIR / MWIR dual band cameras are discussed from an application and system point of view.

  7. Circuit design of an EMCCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binhua; Song, Qian; Jin, Jianhui; He, Chun

    2012-07-01

    EMCCDs have been used in the astronomical observations in many ways. Recently we develop a camera using an EMCCD TX285. The CCD chip is cooled to -100°C in an LN2 dewar. The camera controller consists of a driving board, a control board and a temperature control board. Power supplies and driving clocks of the CCD are provided by the driving board, the timing generator is located in the control board. The timing generator and an embedded Nios II CPU are implemented in an FPGA. Moreover the ADC and the data transfer circuit are also in the control board, and controlled by the FPGA. The data transfer between the image workstation and the camera is done through a Camera Link frame grabber. The software of image acquisition is built using VC++ and Sapera LT. This paper describes the camera structure, the main components and circuit design for video signal processing channel, clock driver, FPGA and Camera Link interfaces, temperature metering and control system. Some testing results are presented.

  8. Laser Trigger For High Speed Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Rong-Seng; Lin, Chin-Wu; Cheng, Tung

    1987-09-01

    High speed camera coorperated with laser trigger to catch high speed unpredictable events has many applications: such as scoring system for the end game of missile interception, war head explosive study etc. When the event happening in a very short duration, the repetition rate of the laser ranging must be as high as 5K herze and the pulse duration should be less than 10 nsec. In some environment, like inside the aircraft, the abailable space for high speed camera to set up is limited, large film capacity camera could not be used. In order to use the small capacity film, the exact trigger time for the camera are especially important. The target velocity, camera acceleration characteristics, speed regulation, camera size, weight and the ruggedness are all be considered before the laser trigger be designed. Electric temporal gate is used to measure the time of flight ranging datum. The triangular distance measurement principle are also used to get the ranging when the base line i.e. the distance between the laser transmitter and receiver are large enough.

  9. Practical aspects of adjusting digital cameras.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, Joshua J; Sluder, Greenfield

    2013-01-01

    This chapter introduces the adjustment of digital camera settings using the tools found within image acquisition software and discusses measuring gray-level information such as (1) the histogram, (2) line scan, and (3) other strategies. The pixel values in an image can be measured within many image capture software programs in two ways. The first is a histogram of pixel gray values and the second is a line-scan plot across a selectable axis of the image. Understanding how to evaluate the information presented by these tools is critical to properly adjusting the camera to maximize the image contrast without losing grayscale information. This chapter discusses the 0-255 grayscale resolution of an 8-bit camera; however, the concepts are the same for cameras of any bit depth. This chapter also describes camera settings, such as exposure time, offset, and gain, and the steps for contrast stretching such as setting the exposure time, adjusting offset and gain, and camera versus image display controls.

  10. Agriculture: Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  11. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  12. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  13. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  14. Advanced agricultural biotechnologies and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Thomas A

    2002-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies are anchored to a scientific paradigm rooted in experimental biology, whereas sustainable agriculture rests on a biological paradigm that is best described as ecological. Both biotechnology and sustainable agriculture are associated with particular social science paradigms: biotechnology has its foundation in neoclassical economics, but sustainability is framed by an emerging community-centered, problem-solving perspective. Fundamentally, biotechnology and neoclassical economics are reductionist in nature. Sustainability and community problem-solving, however, are nonreductionist. Given these differences, we might see the development of two rather distinct systems of food production in the near future.

  15. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  16. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  17. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  18. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  19. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  20. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  1. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  2. Camera Calibration Accuracy at Different Uav Flying Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, A. R.; Ariff, M. F. M.; Idris, K. M.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used to acquire highly accurate data in deformation survey, whereby low-cost digital cameras are commonly used in the UAV mapping. Thus, camera calibration is considered important in obtaining high-accuracy UAV mapping using low-cost digital cameras. The main focus of this study was to calibrate the UAV camera at different camera distances and check the measurement accuracy. The scope of this study included camera calibration in the laboratory and on the field, and the UAV image mapping accuracy assessment used calibration parameters of different camera distances. The camera distances used for the image calibration acquisition and mapping accuracy assessment were 1.5 metres in the laboratory, and 15 and 25 metres on the field using a Sony NEX6 digital camera. A large calibration field and a portable calibration frame were used as the tools for the camera calibration and for checking the accuracy of the measurement at different camera distances. Bundle adjustment concept was applied in Australis software to perform the camera calibration and accuracy assessment. The results showed that the camera distance at 25 metres is the optimum object distance as this is the best accuracy obtained from the laboratory as well as outdoor mapping. In conclusion, the camera calibration at several camera distances should be applied to acquire better accuracy in mapping and the best camera parameter for the UAV image mapping should be selected for highly accurate mapping measurement.

  3. 16 CFR 1025.45 - In camera materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false In camera materials. 1025.45 Section 1025.45... PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.45 In camera materials. (a) Definition. In camera materials are documents... excluded from the public record. (b) In camera treatment of documents and testimony. The Presiding...

  4. How to Build Your Own Document Camera for around $100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Document cameras can have great utility in second language classrooms. However, entry-level consumer document cameras start at around $350. This article describes how the author built three document cameras and offers suggestions for how teachers can successfully build their own quality document camera using a webcam for around $100.

  5. 16 CFR 1025.45 - In camera materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In camera materials. 1025.45 Section 1025.45... PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.45 In camera materials. (a) Definition. In camera materials are documents... excluded from the public record. (b) In camera treatment of documents and testimony. The Presiding...

  6. Characterization of SWIR cameras by MRC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, M.; Schlemmer, H.; Haan, Hubertus A.; Siemens, Christofer; Münzberg, M.

    2014-05-01

    Cameras for the SWIR wavelength range are becoming more and more important because of the better observation range for day-light operation under adverse weather conditions (haze, fog, rain). In order to choose the best suitable SWIR camera or to qualify a camera for a given application, characterization of the camera by means of the Minimum Resolvable Contrast MRC concept is favorable as the MRC comprises all relevant properties of the instrument. With the MRC known for a given camera device the achievable observation range can be calculated for every combination of target size, illumination level or weather conditions. MRC measurements in the SWIR wavelength band can be performed widely along the guidelines of the MRC measurements of a visual camera. Typically measurements are performed with a set of resolution targets (e.g. USAF 1951 target) manufactured with different contrast values from 50% down to less than 1%. For a given illumination level the achievable spatial resolution is then measured for each target. The resulting curve is showing the minimum contrast that is necessary to resolve the structure of a target as a function of spatial frequency. To perform MRC measurements for SWIR cameras at first the irradiation parameters have to be given in radiometric instead of photometric units which are limited in their use to the visible range. In order to do so, SWIR illumination levels for typical daylight and twilight conditions have to be defined. At second, a radiation source is necessary with appropriate emission in the SWIR range (e.g. incandescent lamp) and the irradiance has to be measured in W/m2 instead of Lux = Lumen/m2. At third, the contrast values of the targets have to be calibrated newly for the SWIR range because they typically differ from the values determined for the visual range. Measured MRC values of three cameras are compared to the specified performance data of the devices and the results of a multi-band in-house designed Vis-SWIR camera

  7. Mobile phone camera benchmarking: combination of camera speed and image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. For example, ISO 15781 defines several measurements to evaluate various camera system delays. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system have not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. Firstly, the most important image quality metrics are collected from the standards and papers. Secondly, the speed related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and also novel speed metrics are identified. Thirdly, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones in the market. The measurements are done towards application programming interface of different operating system. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The result of this work gives detailed benchmarking results of mobile phone camera systems in the market. The paper defines also a proposal of combined benchmarking metrics, which includes both quality and speed parameters.

  8. Low-light-level EMCCD color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Gerald B.; Burkepile, Jon; Frame, Wayne W.

    2006-05-01

    Video cameras have increased in usefulness in military applications over the past four decades. This is a result of many advances in technology and because no one portion of the spectrum reigns supreme under all environmental and operating conditions. The visible portion of the spectrum has the clear advantage of ease of information interpretation, requiring little or no training. This advantage extends into the Near IR (NIR) spectral region to silicon cutoff with little difficulty. Inclusion of the NIR region is of particular importance due to the rich photon content of natural night illumination. The addition of color capability offers another dimension to target/situation discrimination and hence is highly desirable. A military camera must be small, lightweight and low power. Limiting resolution and sensitivity cannot be sacrificed to achieve color capability. Newly developed electron-multiplication CCD sensors (EMCCDs) open the door to a practical low-light/all-light color camera without an image intensifier. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp (BATC) has developed a unique color camera that allows the addition of color with a very small impact on low light level performance and negligible impact on limiting resolution. The approach, which includes the NIR portion of the spectrum along with the visible, requires no moving parts and is based on the addition of a sparse sampling color filter to the surface of an EMCCD. It renders the correct hue in a real time, video rate image with negligible latency. Furthermore, camera size and power impact is slight.

  9. Phase camera experiment for Advanced Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; van Beuzekom, Martin; van der Schaaf, Laura; van den Brand, Jo

    2016-07-01

    We report on a study of the phase camera, which is a frequency selective wave-front sensor of a laser beam. This sensor is utilized for monitoring sidebands produced by phase modulations in a gravitational wave (GW) detector. Regarding the operation of the GW detectors, the laser modulation/demodulation method is used to measure mirror displacements and used for the position controls. This plays a significant role because the quality of controls affect the noise level of the GW detector. The phase camera is able to monitor each sideband separately, which has a great benefit for the manipulation of the delicate controls. Also, overcoming mirror aberrations will be an essential part of Advanced Virgo (AdV), which is a GW detector close to Pisa. Especially low-frequency sidebands can be affected greatly by aberrations in one of the interferometer cavities. The phase cameras allow tracking such changes because the state of the sidebands gives information on mirror aberrations. A prototype of the phase camera has been developed and is currently tested. The performance checks are almost completed and the installation of the optics at the AdV site has started. After the installation and commissioning, the phase camera will be combined to a thermal compensation system that consists of CO2 lasers and compensation plates. In this paper, we focus on the prototype and show some limitations from the scanner performance.

  10. Localization using RGB-D cameras orthoimages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittet, M.-A.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-06-01

    3D cameras are a new generation of sensors more and more used in geomatics. The main advantages of 3D cameras are their handiness, their price, and the ability to produce range images or point clouds in real-time. They are used in many areas and the use of this kind of sensors has grown especially as the Kinect (Microsoft) arrived on the market. This paper presents a new localization system based exclusively on the combination of several 3D cameras on a mobile platform. It is planed that the platform moves on sidewalks, acquires the environment and enables the determination of most appropriate routes for disabled persons. The paper will present the key features of our approach as well as promising solutions for the challenging task of localization based on 3D-cameras. We give examples of mobile trajectory estimated exclusively from 3D cameras acquisitions. We evaluate the accuracy of the calculated trajectory, thanks to a reference trajectory obtained by a total station.

  11. The PAU camera at the WHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Cristóbal; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Carretero, Jorge; Casas, Ricard; Castilla, Javier; Croce, Martin; Delfino, Manuel; Eriksen, Martin; Fernández, Enrique; Fosalba, Pablo; García-Bellido, Juan; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Grañena, Ferràn; Hernández, Cales; Jiménez, Jorge; Lopez, Luis; Martí, Pol; Miquel, Ramon; Niessner, Christian; Pío, Cristóbal; Ponce, Rafael; Sánchez, Eusebio; Serrano, Santiago; Sevilla, Ignacio; Tonello, Nadia; de Vicente, Juan

    2016-08-01

    The PAU (Physics of the Accelerating Universe) project goal is the study of dark energy with a new photometric technique aiming at obtaining photo-z resolution for Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) roughly one order of magnitude better than current photometric surveys. To accomplish this, a new large field of view camera (PAUCam) has been built and commissioned at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT). With the current WHT corrector, the camera covers 1 degree diameter Field of View (FoV). The focal plane consists of 18 2kx4k Hamamatsu fully depleted CCDs, with high quantum efficiency up to 1 μm. To maximize the detector coverage within the FoV, filters are placed in front of the CCD's inside the camera cryostat (made of carbon fiber material) using a challenging movable tray system. The camera uses a set of 40 narrow band filters ranging from 4400 to 8600 angstroms complemented with six standard broad-band filters, ugrizY. Here, we describe the camera and its first commissioning results. The PAU project aims to cover roughly 100 square degrees and to obtain accurate photometric redshifts for galaxies down to iAB 22:5 detecting also galaxies down to iAB 24 with less precision in redshift. With this data set we will obtain competitive constraints in cosmological parameters using both weak lensing and galaxy clustering as main observational probes.

  12. Modulated CMOS camera for fluorescence lifetime microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongtao; Holst, Gerhard; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime of entire images. However, the complexity and high costs involved in construction of such a system limit the extensive use of this technique. PCO AG recently released the first luminescence lifetime imaging camera based on a high frequency modulated CMOS image sensor, QMFLIM2. Here we tested and provide operational procedures to calibrate the camera and to improve the accuracy using corrections necessary for image analysis. With its flexible input/output options, we are able to use a modulated laser diode or a 20 MHz pulsed white supercontinuum laser as the light source. The output of the camera consists of a stack of modulated images that can be analyzed by the SimFCS software using the phasor approach. The nonuniform system response across the image sensor must be calibrated at the pixel level. This pixel calibration is crucial and needed for every camera settings, e.g. modulation frequency and exposure time. A significant dependency of the modulation signal on the intensity was also observed and hence an additional calibration is needed for each pixel depending on the pixel intensity level. These corrections are important not only for the fundamental frequency, but also for the higher harmonics when using the pulsed supercontinuum laser. With these post data acquisition corrections, the PCO CMOS-FLIM camera can be used for various biomedical applications requiring a large frame and high speed acquisition.

  13. Calibration of action cameras for photogrammetric purposes.

    PubMed

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-09-18

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution.

  14. Camera Calibration with Radial Variance Component Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mélykuti, B.; Kruck, E. J.

    2014-11-01

    Camera calibration plays a more and more important role in recent times. Beside real digital aerial survey cameras the photogrammetric market is dominated by a big number of non-metric digital cameras mounted on UAVs or other low-weight flying platforms. The in-flight calibration of those systems has a significant role to enhance the geometric accuracy of survey photos considerably. It is expected to have a better precision of photo measurements in the center of images then along the edges or in the corners. With statistical methods the accuracy of photo measurements in dependency of the distance of points from image center has been analyzed. This test provides a curve for the measurement precision as function of the photo radius. A high number of camera types have been tested with well penetrated point measurements in image space. The result of the tests led to a general consequence to show a functional connection between accuracy and radial distance and to give a method how to check and enhance the geometrical capability of the cameras in respect to these results.

  15. Calibration of Action Cameras for Photogrammetric Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution. PMID:25237898

  16. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  17. Calibration method for a central catadioptric-perspective camera system.

    PubMed

    He, Bingwei; Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Youfu

    2012-11-01

    A central catadioptric-perspective camera system is widely used nowadays. A critical problem is that current calibration methods cannot determine the extrinsic parameters between the central catadioptric camera and a perspective camera effectively. We present a novel calibration method for a central catadioptric-perspective camera system, in which the central catadioptric camera has a hyperbolic mirror. Two cameras are used to capture images of one calibration pattern at different spatial positions. A virtual camera is constructed at the origin of the central catadioptric camera and faced toward the calibration pattern. The transformation between the virtual camera and the calibration pattern could be computed first and the extrinsic parameters between the central catadioptric camera and the calibration pattern could be obtained. Three-dimensional reconstruction results of the calibration pattern show a high accuracy and validate the feasibility of our method.

  18. The development of large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingwen; Geng, Anbing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Haitao; Wu, Yanying

    2015-10-01

    Infrared camera and CCD camera dual-band imaging system is used in many equipment and application widely. If it is tested using the traditional infrared camera test system and visible CCD test system, 2 times of installation and alignment are needed in the test procedure. The large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera uses the common large-aperture reflection collimator, target wheel, frame-grabber, computer which reduces the cost and the time of installation and alignment. Multiple-frame averaging algorithm is used to reduce the influence of random noise. Athermal optical design is adopted to reduce the change of focal length location change of collimator when the environmental temperature is changing, and the image quality of the collimator of large field of view and test accuracy are also improved. Its performance is the same as that of the exotic congener and is much cheaper. It will have a good market.

  19. Design Versatility Of The Prism Panoramic Camera: The KS-116 And KA-95 Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruck, Richard

    1981-12-01

    The increased need for smaller and more versatile aerial reconnaissance equipment has led to the use of the KS-116 camera in the RF-4B aircraft, and the KA-95 in the RIF-5E. Both cameras use a 12-inch fl, f/4.0 lens and a 5-inch film transport. The main difference between these two cameras is their configuration. This paper describes the features of the two cameras, including: selectable scan angle, forward motion compensation (FMC), roll stabilization, exposure control, unique packaging differences and focus correction. The inherent packaging flexibility of the prism pan camera and the availability of key modules have led to multiple configurations of which the KS-116 and KA-95 are two examples.

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of Surface Color of Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Remote Farm Using Digital Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu

    To measure the quantitative surface color information of agricultural products with the ambient information during cultivation, a color calibration method for digital camera images and a remote monitoring system of color imaging using the Web were developed. Single-lens reflex and web digital cameras were used for the image acquisitions. The tomato images through the post-ripening process were taken by the digital camera in both the standard image acquisition system and in the field conditions from the morning to evening. Several kinds of images were acquired with the standard RGB color chart set up just behind the tomato fruit on a black matte, and a color calibration was carried out. The influence of the sunlight could be experimentally eliminated, and the calibrated color information consistently agreed with the standard ones acquired in the system through the post-ripening process. Furthermore, the surface color change of the tomato on the tree in a greenhouse was remotely monitored during maturation using the digital cameras equipped with the Field Server. The acquired digital color images were sent from the Farm Station to the BIFE Laboratory of Mie University via VPN. The time behavior of the tomato surface color change during the maturing process could be measured using the color parameter calculated based on the obtained and calibrated color images along with the ambient atmospheric record. This study is a very important step in developing the surface color analysis for both the simple and rapid evaluation of the crop vigor in the field and to construct an ambient and networked remote monitoring system for food security, precision agriculture, and agricultural research.

  1. A Daytime Aspect Camera for Balloon Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Kurt L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Swift, Wesley R.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have designed, built, and flight-tested a new star camera for daytime guiding of pointed balloon-borne experiments at altitudes around 40km. The camera and lens are commercially available, off-the-shelf components, but require a custom-built baffle to reduce stray light, especially near the sunlit limb of the balloon. This new camera, which operates in the 600-1000 nm region of the spectrum, successfully provided daytime aspect information of approximately 10 arcsecond resolution for two distinct star fields near the galactic plane. The detected scattered-light backgrounds show good agreement with the Air Force MODTRAN models, but the daytime stellar magnitude limit was lower than expected due to dispersion of red light by the lens. Replacing the commercial lens with a custom-built lens should allow the system to track stars in any arbitrary area of the sky during the daytime.

  2. Object detection with single camera stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, J.; Snorrason, M.; Eaton, R.; Checka, N.; Reiter, A.; Foil, G.; Stevens, M. R.

    2006-05-01

    Many fielded mobile robot systems have demonstrated the importance of directly estimating the 3D shape of objects in the robot's vicinity. The most mature solutions available today use active laser scanning or stereo camera pairs, but both approaches require specialized and expensive sensors. In prior publications, we have demonstrated the generation of stereo images from a single very low-cost camera using structure from motion (SFM) techniques. In this paper we demonstrate the practical usage of single-camera stereo in real-world mobile robot applications. Stereo imagery tends to produce incomplete 3D shape reconstructions of man-made objects because of smooth/glary regions that defeat stereo matching algorithms. We demonstrate robust object detection despite such incompleteness through matching of simple parameterized geometric models. Results are presented where parked cars are detected, and then recognized via license plate recognition, all in real time by a robot traveling through a parking lot.

  3. Compact and robust linear Stokes polarization camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedel, M.; Lechocinski, N.; Breugnot, S.

    2010-06-01

    We present novel applications of Bossa Nova Technologies Linear Stokes polarization camera. The SALSA camera is able to perform live measurement of Linear Stokes parameters, usual polarization parameters (Degree Of Linear Polarization and Angle Of Polarization) and other polarization based parameters (polarized image, depolarized image, virtual polarizer, polarization difference). First a brief description of the SALSA camera and its calibration is given. Then we present and discuss several results of target detection and contrast enhancement experiments. We will also introduce a novel polarization based metrological method of 3D shape measurement for in-line control of optical surfaces and control of highly aspheric optical surfaces. The architecture of the hardware and calibration results is presented. A new algorithm based on polarization imaging leading to the construction of the gradient field is described. Finally experimental results and observations as well as possible further steps are discussed.

  4. Mechanical Design of the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Nordby, Martin; Bowden, Gordon; Foss, Mike; Guiffre, Gary; Ku, John; Schindler, Rafe; /SLAC

    2008-06-13

    The LSST camera is a tightly packaged, hermetically-sealed system that is cantilevered into the main beam of the LSST telescope. It is comprised of three refractive lenses, on-board storage for five large filters, a high-precision shutter, and a cryostat that houses the 3.2 giga-pixel CCD focal plane along with its support electronics. The physically large optics and focal plane demand large structural elements to support them, but the overall size of the camera and its components must be minimized to reduce impact on the image stability. Also, focal plane and optics motions must be minimized to reduce systematic errors in image reconstruction. Design and analysis for the camera body and cryostat will be detailed.

  5. Prediction of Viking lander camera image quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Burcher, E. E.; Jobson, D. J.; Wall, S. D.

    1976-01-01

    Formulations are presented that permit prediction of image quality as a function of camera performance, surface radiance properties, and lighting and viewing geometry. Predictions made for a wide range of surface radiance properties reveal that image quality depends strongly on proper camera dynamic range command and on favorable lighting and viewing geometry. Proper camera dynamic range commands depend mostly on the surface albedo that will be encountered. Favorable lighting and viewing geometries depend mostly on lander orientation with respect to the diurnal sun path over the landing site, and tend to be independent of surface albedo and illumination scattering function. Side lighting with low sun elevation angles (10 to 30 deg) is generally favorable for imaging spatial details and slopes, whereas high sun elevation angles are favorable for measuring spectral reflectances.

  6. HIGH SPEED KERR CELL FRAMING CAMERA

    DOEpatents

    Goss, W.C.; Gilley, L.F.

    1964-01-01

    The present invention relates to a high speed camera utilizing a Kerr cell shutter and a novel optical delay system having no moving parts. The camera can selectively photograph at least 6 frames within 9 x 10/sup -8/ seconds during any such time interval of an occurring event. The invention utilizes particularly an optical system which views and transmits 6 images of an event to a multi-channeled optical delay relay system. The delay relay system has optical paths of successively increased length in whole multiples of the first channel optical path length, into which optical paths the 6 images are transmitted. The successively delayed images are accepted from the exit of the delay relay system by an optical image focusing means, which in turn directs the images into a Kerr cell shutter disposed to intercept the image paths. A camera is disposed to simultaneously view and record the 6 images during a single exposure of the Kerr cell shutter. (AEC)

  7. Experiments with synchronized sCMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Iain A.; Jermak, Helen; Copperwheat, Chris M.; Smith, Robert J.; Poshyachinda, Saran; Soonthorntham, Boonrucksar

    2016-07-01

    Scientific-CMOS (sCMOS) cameras can combine low noise with high readout speeds and do not suffer the charge multiplication noise that effectively reduces the quantum efficiency of electron multiplying CCDs by a factor 2. As such they have strong potential in fast photometry and polarimetry instrumentation. In this paper we describe the results of laboratory experiments using a pair of commercial off the shelf sCMOS cameras based around a 4 transistor per pixel architecture. In particular using a both stable and a pulsed light sources we evaluate the timing precision that may be obtained when the cameras readouts are synchronized either in software or electronically. We find that software synchronization can introduce an error of 200-msec. With electronic synchronization any error is below the limit ( 50-msec) of our simple measurement technique.

  8. Generating Stereoscopic Television Images With One Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Paul P.

    1996-01-01

    Straightforward technique for generating stereoscopic television images involves use of single television camera translated laterally between left- and right-eye positions. Camera acquires one of images (left- or right-eye image), and video signal from image delayed while camera translated to position where it acquires other image. Length of delay chosen so both images displayed simultaneously or as nearly simultaneously as necessary to obtain stereoscopic effect. Technique amenable to zooming in on small areas within broad scenes. Potential applications include three-dimensional viewing of geological features and meteorological events from spacecraft and aircraft, inspection of workpieces moving along conveyor belts, and aiding ground and water search-and-rescue operations. Also used to generate and display imagery for public education and general information, and possible for medical purposes.

  9. Single-Camera Panoramic-Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Jeffrey L.; Gilbert, John

    2007-01-01

    Panoramic detection systems (PDSs) are developmental video monitoring and image-data processing systems that, as their name indicates, acquire panoramic views. More specifically, a PDS acquires images from an approximately cylindrical field of view that surrounds an observation platform. The main subsystems and components of a basic PDS are a charge-coupled- device (CCD) video camera and lens, transfer optics, a panoramic imaging optic, a mounting cylinder, and an image-data-processing computer. The panoramic imaging optic is what makes it possible for the single video camera to image the complete cylindrical field of view; in order to image the same scene without the benefit of the panoramic imaging optic, it would be necessary to use multiple conventional video cameras, which have relatively narrow fields of view.

  10. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  11. Miniaturized Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate is developing the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (AERCam), a low-volume, low-mass free-flying camera system . AERCam project team personnel recently initiated development of a miniaturized version of AERCam known as Mini AERCam. The Mini AERCam target design is a spherical "nanosatellite" free-flyer 7.5 inches in diameter and weighing 1 0 pounds. Mini AERCam is building on the success of the AERCam Sprint STS-87 flight experiment by adding new on-board sensing and processing capabilities while simultaneously reducing volume by 80%. Achieving enhanced capability in a smaller package depends on applying miniaturization technology across virtually all subsystems. Technology innovations being incorporated include micro electromechanical system (MEMS) gyros, "camera-on-a-chip" CMOS imagers, rechargeable xenon gas propulsion system , rechargeable lithium ion battery, custom avionics based on the PowerPC 740 microprocessor, GPS relative navigation, digital radio frequency communications and tracking, micropatch antennas, digital instrumentation, and dense mechanical packaging. The Mini AERCam free-flyer will initially be integrated into an approximate flight-like configuration for demonstration on an airbearing table. A pilot-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop simulation to simulate on-orbit navigation and dynamics will complement the airbearing table demonstration. The Mini AERCam lab demonstration is intended to form the basis for future development of an AERCam flight system that provides beneficial on-orbit views unobtainable from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by EVA crewmembers.

  12. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2016-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  13. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2015-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well to help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  14. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; MacLeod, T.

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASAs Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  15. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Camera

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-12-02

    Ranked as the top ground-based national priority for the field for the current decade, LSST is currently under construction in Chile. The U.S. Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is leading the construction of the LSST camera – the largest digital camera ever built for astronomy. SLAC Professor Steven M. Kahn is the overall Director of the LSST project, and SLAC personnel are also participating in the data management. The National Science Foundation is the lead agency for construction of the LSST. Additional financial support comes from the Department of Energy and private funding raised by the LSST Corporation.

  16. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  17. Scintillating Track Image Camera-SCITIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Akira; Asai, Jyunkichi; Ieiri, Masaharu; Iwata, Soma; Kadowaki, Tetsuhito; Kurosawa, Maki; Nagae, Tomohumi; Nakai, Kozi

    2004-04-01

    A new type of track detector, scintillating track image camera (SCITIC) has been developed. Scintillating track images of particles in a scintillator are focused by an optical lens system on a photocathode on image intesifier tube (IIT). The image signals are amplified by an IIT-cascade and stored by a CCD camera. The performance of the detector has been tested with cosmic-ray muons and with pion- and proton-beams from the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron. Data of the test experiments have shown promising features of SCITIC as a triggerable track detector with a variety of possibilities.

  18. Nitrogen camera: detection of antipersonnel mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trower, W. Peter; Saunders, Anna W.; Shvedunov, Vasiliy I.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a nuclear technique, the nitrogen camera, with which we have produced images of elemental nitrogen in concentrations and with surface densities typical of buried plastic anti-personnel mines. We have, under laboratory conditions, obtained images of nitrogen in amounts substantially less than in these small 200 g mines. We report our progress in creating the enabling technology to make the nitrogen camera a field deployable instrument: a mobile 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron and scintillator/semiconductor materials and the detectors based on them.

  19. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Camera

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-01

    Ranked as the top ground-based national priority for the field for the current decade, LSST is currently under construction in Chile. The U.S. Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is leading the construction of the LSST camera – the largest digital camera ever built for astronomy. SLAC Professor Steven M. Kahn is the overall Director of the LSST project, and SLAC personnel are also participating in the data management. The National Science Foundation is the lead agency for construction of the LSST. Additional financial support comes from the Department of Energy and private funding raised by the LSST Corporation.

  20. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Richard J; O’Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L

    2013-01-01

    Summary A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future. PMID:23766820

  1. Calibrating Video Cameras For Meteor Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghy-Rad, Mona; Campbell-Brown, M.

    2006-09-01

    The calculation of the intensity of light produced by a meteor ablating in the atmosphere is crucial to determination of meteoroid masses, and to uncovering the meteoroid's physical structure through ablation modeling. A necessary step in the determination is to use cameras which have been end-to-end calibrated to determine their precise spectral response. We report here a new procedure for calibrating low-light video cameras used for meteor observing, which will be used in conjunction with average meteor spectra to determine absolute light intensities.

  2. The all-sky camera revitalized.

    PubMed

    Oznovich, I; Yee, R; Schiffler, A; McEwen, D J; Sofko, G J

    1994-10-20

    An all-sky camera, a ground imager used since the 1950's in the aeronomy and space physics studies, was refurbished with a modern control, digitization, and archiving system. Monochromatic and broadband digital images of airglow and aurora are continuously integrated and recorded by the low-cost unmanned system, which is located in northern Canada. Radiometric corrections applied to the data include noise subtraction, normalization to a flat-field response, and absolute calibration. The images are geometrically corrected with star positions and projected onto a geographic or geomagnetic coordinate system. An illustration of the application of corrected all-sky camera images to the study of auroral spirals is given.

  3. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  4. Evaluation of mobile phone camera benchmarking using objective camera speed and image quality metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-11-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of image quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system has not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become a more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. First, the most important image quality and speed-related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and, also, novel speed metrics are identified. Second, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones on the market. The measurements are done toward application programming interface of different operating systems. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The paper defines a solution to combine different image quality and speed metrics to a single benchmarking score. A proposal of the combined benchmarking metric is evaluated using measurements of 25 mobile phone cameras on the market. The paper is a continuation of a previous benchmarking work expanded with visual noise measurement and updates of the latest mobile phone versions.

  5. VUV testing of science cameras at MSFC: QE measurement of the CLASP flight cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champey, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, B.; Beabout, D.; Stewart, M.

    2015-08-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras were built and tested for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint MSFC, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) and Institut D'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) sounding rocket mission. The CLASP camera design includes a frame-transfer e2v CCD57-10 512 × 512 detector, dual channel analog readout and an internally mounted cold block. At the flight CCD temperature of -20C, the CLASP cameras exceeded the low-noise performance requirements (<= 25 e- read noise and <= 10 e- /sec/pixel dark current), in addition to maintaining a stable gain of ≍ 2.0 e-/DN. The e2v CCD57-10 detectors were coated with Lumogen-E to improve quantum efficiency (QE) at the Lyman- wavelength. A vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) monochromator and a NIST calibrated photodiode were employed to measure the QE of each camera. Three flight cameras and one engineering camera were tested in a high-vacuum chamber, which was configured to operate several tests intended to verify the QE, gain, read noise and dark current of the CCD. We present and discuss the QE measurements performed on the CLASP cameras. We also discuss the high-vacuum system outfitted for testing of UV, EUV and X-ray science cameras at MSFC.

  6. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  7. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, J.E.; Carr, M.; Rockosi, C.; Sekiguchi, M.; Berry, K.; Elms, B.; de Haas, E.; Ivezic, Z.; Knapp, G.; Lupton, R.; Pauls, G.; Simcoe, R.; Hirsch, R.; Sanford, D.; Wang, S.; York, D.; Harris, F.; Annis, J.; Bartozek, L.; Boroski, W.; Bakken, J.; Haldeman, M.; Kent, S.; Holm, S.; Holmgren, D.; Petravick, D.; Prosapio, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Shimasaku, K.; Okada, N.; Hull, C.; Siegmund, W.; Mannery, E.; Blouke, M.; Heidtman, D.; Schneider, D.; Lucinio, R.; and others

    1998-12-01

    We have constructed a large-format mosaic CCD camera for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The camera consists of two arrays, a photometric array that uses 30 2048 {times} 2048 SITe/Tektronix CCDs (24 {mu}m pixels) with an effective imaging area of 720 cm{sup 2} and an astrometric array that uses 24 400 {times} 2048 CCDs with the same pixel size, which will allow us to tie bright astrometric standard stars to the objects imaged in the photometric camera. The instrument will be used to carry out photometry essentially simultaneously in five color bands spanning the range accessible to silicon detectors on the ground in the time-delay{endash}and{endash}integrate (TDI) scanning mode. The photometric detectors are arrayed in the focal plane in six columns of five chips each such that two scans cover a filled stripe 2&arcdeg;5 wide. This paper presents engineering and technical details of the camera. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  8. ASTRI SST-2M camera electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sottile, G.; Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Capalbi, M.; Gargano, C.; Giarrusso, S.; Impiombato, D.; Russo, F.; Sangiorgi, P.; Segreto, A.; Bonanno, G.; Garozzo, S.; Marano, D.; Romeo, G.; Scuderi, S.; Stringhetti, L.; Canestrari, R.; Gimenes, R.

    2016-07-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is an Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) developed by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. It is the prototype of the ASTRI telescopes proposed to be installed at the southern site of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The optical system of the ASTRI telescopes is based on a dual mirror configuration, an innovative solution for IACTs, and the focal plane of the camera is composed of silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM), a recently developed technology for light detection, that exhibit very fast response and an excellent single photoelectron resolution. The ASTRI camera electronics is specifically designed to directly interface the SiPM sensors, detecting the fast pulses produced by the Cherenkov flashes, managing the trigger generation, the digital conversion of the signals and the transmission of the data to an external camera server connected through a LAN. In this contribution we present the general architecture of the camera electronics developed for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype, with special emphasis to some innovative solutions.

  9. Tips and Tricks for Digital Camera Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of digital cameras in school library media centers and offers suggestions for teachers and students in elementary schools. Describes appropriate image-editing software; explains how to create panoramas, screen savers, and coloring books; and includes useful tips for digital photographers. (LRW)

  10. Optical Design of the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, K

    2008-07-16

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, modified Paul-Baker design, with an 8.4-meter primary mirror, a 3.4-m secondary, and a 5.0-m tertiary feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat focal plane with a field of view of 9.6 square degrees. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated with optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance, resulting in excellent image quality over the entire field from ultra-violet to near infra-red wavelengths. The LSST camera optics design consists of three refractive lenses with clear aperture diameters of 1.55 m, 1.10 m and 0.69 m and six interchangeable, broad-band, filters with clear aperture diameters of 0.75 m. We describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing these lenses and filters, and we present the results of detailed tolerance analyses, demonstrating that the camera optics will perform to the specifications required to meet their performance goals.

  11. COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF PLANAR GAMMA CAMERA IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory



    COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF PLANAR GAMMA CAMERA IMAGES

    T Martonen1 and J Schroeter2

    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 USA and 2Curriculum in Toxicology, Unive...

  12. The Legal Implications of Surveillance Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steketee, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of school security has changed dramatically over the last decade. Schools employ various measures, from metal detectors to identification badges to drug testing, to promote the safety and security of staff and students. One of the increasingly prevalent measures is the use of security cameras. In fact, the U.S. Department of Education…

  13. Ultraviolet Viewing with a Television Camera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Thomas; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a portable video color camera that is fully suited for seeing ultraviolet images and offers some expanded viewing possibilities. Discusses the basic technique, specialized viewing, and the instructional value of this system of viewing reflectance patterns of flowers and insects that are invisible to the unaided eye. (CW)

  14. Digital Camera Project Fosters Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ashley; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    This article details the many benefits of educators' use of digital camera technology and provides an activity in which students practice taking portrait shots of classmates, manipulate the resulting images, and add language arts practice by interviewing their subjects to produce a photo-illustrated Word document. This activity gives…

  15. Camera Systems Rapidly Scan Large Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Needing a method to quickly scan large structures like an aircraft wing, Langley Research Center developed the line scanning thermography (LST) system. LST works in tandem with a moving infrared camera to capture how a material responds to changes in temperature. Princeton Junction, New Jersey-based MISTRAS Group Inc. now licenses the technology and uses it in power stations and industrial plants.

  16. Spectral characterization of an ophthalmic fundus camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Clayton T.; Bassi, Carl J.; Brodsky, Dale; Holmes, Timothy

    2010-02-01

    A fundus camera is an optical system designed to illuminate and image the retina while minimizing stray light and backreflections. Modifying such a device requires characterization of the optical path in order to meet the new design goals and avoid introducing problems. This work describes the characterization of one system, the Topcon TRC-50F, necessary for converting this camera from film photography to spectral imaging with a CCD. This conversion consists of replacing the camera's original xenon flash tube with a monochromatic light source and the film back with a CCD. A critical preliminary step of this modification is determining the spectral throughput of the system, from source to sensor, and ensuring there are sufficient photons at the sensor for imaging. This was done for our system by first measuring the transmission efficiencies of the camera's illumination and imaging optical paths with a spectrophotometer. Combining these results with existing knowledge of the eye's reflectance, a relative sensitivity profile is developed for the system. Image measurements from a volunteer were then made using a few narrowband sources of known power and a calibrated CCD. With these data, a relationship between photoelectrons/pixel collected at the CCD and narrowband illumination source power is developed.

  17. Continuous Graph Partitioning for Camera Network Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-23

    Symmetric Gossip partitioning algorithm The distributed algorithm presented in this section assumes a symmetric gossip -type communication protocol . In... gossip communication. We prove convergence of all these algorithms, and we analyze their performance in a simulation study. 2 Continuous Partitions of...section assumes an asymmetric broadcast communication protocol . In particular, at each iteration only one camera updates its state by using local

  18. Craft Connection. Photography without Camera or Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch-Pollart, Joanne

    1992-01-01

    Describes an easy, inexpensive way for students to create photographic prints without a camera or film. The prints, or photograms, are made by placing objects on photographic paper, exposing the paper to light, then processing it. For a class of 25, the project costs about $1.50 per student. (SM)

  19. John Herschel, photography and the camera lucida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, L. J.

    John Herschel's use of the camera lucida as a drawing aid and the part played by this instrument in Henry Fox Talbot's motivation to invent photography are described. Herschel's seminal contributions to the early progress of photography, his attempts at colour photography, his invention of the "blueprint" process and his assistance to other photographic pioneers are discussed.

  20. Teaching Camera Calibration by a Constructivist Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samper, D.; Santolaria, J.; Pastor, J. J.; Aguilar, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Metrovisionlab simulation software and practical sessions designed to teach the most important machine vision camera calibration aspects in courses for senior undergraduate students. By following a constructivist methodology, having received introductory theoretical classes, students use the Metrovisionlab application to…

  1. Multimodal sensing-based camera applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordallo López, Miguel; Hannuksela, Jari; Silvén, J. Olli; Vehviläinen, Markku

    2011-02-01

    The increased sensing and computing capabilities of mobile devices can provide for enhanced mobile user experience. Integrating the data from different sensors offers a way to improve application performance in camera-based applications. A key advantage of using cameras as an input modality is that it enables recognizing the context. Therefore, computer vision has been traditionally utilized in user interfaces to observe and automatically detect the user actions. The imaging applications can also make use of various sensors for improving the interactivity and the robustness of the system. In this context, two applications fusing the sensor data with the results obtained from video analysis have been implemented on a Nokia Nseries mobile device. The first solution is a real-time user interface that can be used for browsing large images. The solution enables the display to be controlled by the motion of the user's hand using the built-in sensors as complementary information. The second application is a real-time panorama builder that uses the device's accelerometers to improve the overall quality, providing also instructions during the capture. The experiments show that fusing the sensor data improves camera-based applications especially when the conditions are not optimal for approaches using camera data alone.

  2. Metasurface lens: Shrinking the camera size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    A miniaturized camera has been developed by integrating a planar metasurface lens doublet with a CMOS image sensor. The metasurface lens doublet corrects the monochromatic aberration and thus delivers nearly diffraction-limited image quality over a wide field of view.

  3. Digital Camera Control for Faster Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Katharine; Siekierski, James D.; Mangieri, Mark L.; Dekome, Kent; Cobarruvias, John; Piplani, Perry J.; Busa, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Digital Camera Control Software (DCCS) is a computer program for controlling a boom and a boom-mounted camera used to inspect the external surface of a space shuttle in orbit around the Earth. Running in a laptop computer in the space-shuttle crew cabin, DCCS commands integrated displays and controls. By means of a simple one-button command, a crewmember can view low- resolution images to quickly spot problem areas and can then cause a rapid transition to high- resolution images. The crewmember can command that camera settings apply to a specific small area of interest within the field of view of the camera so as to maximize image quality within that area. DCCS also provides critical high-resolution images to a ground screening team, which analyzes the images to assess damage (if any); in so doing, DCCS enables the team to clear initially suspect areas more quickly than would otherwise be possible and further saves time by minimizing the probability of re-imaging of areas already inspected. On the basis of experience with a previous version (2.0) of the software, the present version (3.0) incorporates a number of advanced imaging features that optimize crewmember capability and efficiency.

  4. Camera! Action! Collaborate with Digital Moviemaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Kathleen Owings; Hofer, Mark; Levstik, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    Broadly defined, digital moviemaking integrates a variety of media (images, sound, text, video, narration) to communicate with an audience. There is near-ubiquitous access to the necessary software (MovieMaker and iMovie are bundled free with their respective operating systems) and hardware (computers with Internet access, digital cameras, etc.).…

  5. Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (CQUEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won-Kee; Pak, Soojong; Im, Myungshin; Choi, Changsu; Jeon, Yiseul; Chang, Seunghyuk; Jeong, Hyeonju; Lim, Juhee; Kim, Eunbin

    2012-08-01

    We describe the overall characteristics and the performance of an optical CCD camera system, Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (CQUEAN), which has been used at the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory since 2010 August. CQUEAN was developed for follow-up imaging observations of red sources such as high-redshift quasar candidates (z ≳ 5), gamma-ray bursts, brown dwarfs, and young stellar objects. For efficient observations of the red objects, CQUEAN has a science camera with a deep-depletion CCD chip, which boasts a higher quantum efficiency at 0.7–1.1 μm than conventional CCD chips. The camera was developed in a short timescale () and has been working reliably. By employing an autoguiding system and a focal reducer to enhance the field of view on the classical Cassegrain focus, we achieve a stable guiding in 20 minute exposures, an imaging quality with FWHM≥0.6‧‧ over the whole field (4.8‧ × 4.8‧), and a limiting magnitude of z = 23.4 AB mag at 5-σ with 1 hr total integration time. This article includes data taken at the McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  6. Camera calibration based on parallel lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weimin; Zhang, Yuhai; Zhao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer vision has been wildly used in our daily life. In order to get some reliable information, camera calibration can not be neglected. Traditional camera calibration cannot be used in reality due to the fact that we cannot find the accurate coordinate information of the referenced control points. In this article, we present a camera calibration algorithm which can determine the intrinsic parameters both with the extrinsic parameters. The algorithm is based on the parallel lines in photos which can be commonly find in the real life photos. That is we can first get the intrinsic parameters as well as the extrinsic parameters though the information picked from the photos we take from the normal life. More detail, we use two pairs of the parallel lines to compute the vanishing points, specially if these parallel lines are perpendicular, which means these two vanishing points are conjugate with each other, we can use some views (at least 5 views) to determine the image of the absolute conic(IAC). Then, we can easily get the intrinsic parameters by doing cholesky factorization on the matrix of IAC.As we all know, when connect the vanishing point with the camera optical center, we can get a line which is parallel with the original lines in the scene plane. According to this, we can get the extrinsic parameters R and T. Both the simulation and the experiment results meets our expectations.

  7. Passive Millimeter Wave Camera (PMMW) [graphic].

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The radome, designed and fabricated by composite Optics, Inc., for the PMMW Camera flight tests being measured in the Low Frequency Chamber, building 1299. NASA LaRC ERB is supporting the development of the radome for the DARPA funded Technology Reinvestment Program.

  8. Lightweight Electronic Camera for Research on Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Micro-CPI" (wherein "CPI" signifies "cloud-particle imager") is the name of a small, lightweight electronic camera that has been proposed for use in research on clouds. It would acquire and digitize high-resolution (3- m-pixel) images of ice particles and water drops at a rate up to 1,000 particles (and/or drops) per second.

  9. Camera shutter is actuated by electric signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, J. E.

    1964-01-01

    Rotary solenoid energized by an electric signal opens a camera shutter, and when the solenoid is de-energized a spring closes it. By the use of a microswitch, the shutter may be opened and closed in one continuous, rapid operation when the solenoid is actuated.

  10. Autofocus method for scanning remote sensing cameras.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hengyi; Han, Chengshan; Xue, Xucheng; Hu, Changhong; Yao, Cheng

    2015-07-10

    Autofocus methods are conventionally based on capturing the same scene from a series of positions of the focal plane. As a result, it has been difficult to apply this technique to scanning remote sensing cameras where the scenes change continuously. In order to realize autofocus in scanning remote sensing cameras, a novel autofocus method is investigated in this paper. Instead of introducing additional mechanisms or optics, the overlapped pixels of the adjacent CCD sensors on the focal plane are employed. Two images, corresponding to the same scene on the ground, can be captured at different times. Further, one step of focusing is done during the time interval, so that the two images can be obtained at different focal plane positions. Subsequently, the direction of the next step of focusing is calculated based on the two images. The analysis shows that the method investigated operates without restriction of the time consumption of the algorithm and realizes a total projection for general focus measures and algorithms from digital still cameras to scanning remote sensing cameras. The experiment results show that the proposed method is applicable to the entire focus measure family, and the error ratio is, on average, no more than 0.2% and drops to 0% by reliability improvement, which is lower than that of prevalent approaches (12%). The proposed method is demonstrated to be effective and has potential in other scanning imaging applications.

  11. New television camera eliminates vidicon tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Small, lightweight camera systems use solid state imaging devices in the form of phototransistor mosaic sensors instead of vidicon tubes for light sensing and image conversion. The digital logic circuits scan the sensor mosaic at 60 frames per second to produce pictures composed of a series of dots rather than lines.

  12. Video Analysis with a Web Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyrembeck, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have made video capture and analysis in the introductory physics lab even more affordable and accessible. The purchase of a relatively inexpensive web camera is all you need if you already have a newer computer and Vernier's Logger Pro 3 software. In addition to Logger Pro 3, other video analysis tools such as…

  13. Optimum design of uncooled staring infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingwen; Pan, Debin; Liu, Aidong; Geng, Anbing; Li, Yong; He, Jun

    2006-02-01

    Several models of target acquisition range prediction of the uncooled staring camera and their advantages are proposed in the paper. NVTherm is used to evaluate the modulation transfer function, minimum resolvable temperature difference and target acquisition range. The analysis result shows that the performance of the detector is the key factor to limit the performance of the uncooled staring camera. The target acquisition range of the uncooled infrared camera can be improved by increasing effective focus length (EFL) of optical component, decreasing its F/# or reducing the pixel pitch of the detector. The detection range of 1.09 km can be achieved under the condition of 75 mm EFL and F/0.8. When the EFL changes from 75mm to 150 mm under the condition of F/0.8 and 45μm pixel pitch, the detection range of 2.36 km, recognition range of 0.47 km and identification range of 0.24 km have been gotten. When the pixel pitch is reduced to 35μm, the detection range is 2.59 km. Furthermore, when 2 x 2 microscan is adopted in the camera design, then the pixel pitch will change from 35μm to 17.5μm. Although the infrared camera becomes an optical performance limited system, its performance improves a lot to get the detection range of 2.94 km. The field test shows that the detection range to a 1.7 m x 0.45 m target is 2.2 km under the condition of F/0.8, 150mm EFL and 45 μm pixel pitch, achieving good matches with the evaluation value of 2.36 km through NVTherm. An optimum uncooled infrared design is achieved using the NVTherm software which shortens the design cycle.

  14. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  15. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-05-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

  16. Voice Controlled Stereographic Video Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Georgianna D.; Philips, Michael L.

    1989-09-01

    For several years various companies have been developing voice recognition software. Yet, there are few applications of voice control in the robotics field and virtually no examples of voice controlled three dimensional (3-D) systems. In late 1987 ARD developed a highly specialized, voice controlled 3-D vision system for use in remotely controlled, non-tethered robotic applications. The system was designed as an operator's aid and incorporates features thought to be necessary or helpful in remotely maneuvering a vehicle. Foremost is the three dimensionality of the operator's console display. An image that provides normal depth perception cues over a range of depths greatly increases the ease with which an operator can drive a vehicle and investigate its environment. The availability of both vocal and manual control of all system functions allows the operator to guide the system according to his personal preferences. The camera platform can be panned +/-178 degrees and tilted +/-30 degrees for a full range of view of the vehicle's environment. The cameras can be zoomed and focused for close inspection of distant objects, while retaining substantial stereo effect by increasing the separation between the cameras. There is a ranging and measurement function, implemented through a graphical cursor, which allows the operator to mark objects in a scene to determine their relative positions. This feature will be helpful in plotting a driving path. The image seen on the screen is overlaid with icons and digital readouts which provide information about the position of the camera platform, the range to the graphical cursor and the measurement results. The cursor's "range" is actually the distance from the cameras to the object on which the cursor is resting. Other such features are included in the system and described in subsequent sections of this paper.

  17. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  18. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  19. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  20. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  1. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  2. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  3. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  4. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  5. Vocational Agriculture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

    These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  6. Agriculture in the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

  7. USSR Report Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the last century one of the first Russian agronomists, M. G. Pavlov , in speaking about efficient agriculture, was asked the question, is agriculture...three are agronomists in enterprises--Nikolay Georgiyevich Kovalev, Fedor Akimovich Ivashchenko and Ivan Kirillovich Okhrimenko. All three work under the

  8. Revisiting Supervised Agricultural Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…

  9. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  10. Invasive species in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

  11. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  12. VUV Testing of Science Cameras at MSFC: QE Measurement of the CLASP Flight Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champey, Patrick; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Cirtain, Jonathan; Hyde, David; Robertson, Bryan; Beabout, Brent; Beabout, Dyana; Stewart, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras were built and tested for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The CLASP camera design includes a frame-transfer e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detector, dual channel analog readout electronics and an internally mounted cold block. At the flight operating temperature of -20 C, the CLASP cameras achieved the low-noise performance requirements (less than or equal to 25 e- read noise and greater than or equal to 10 e-/sec/pix dark current), in addition to maintaining a stable gain of approximately equal to 2.0 e-/DN. The e2v CCD57-10 detectors were coated with Lumogen-E to improve quantum efficiency (QE) at the Lyman- wavelength. A vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) monochromator and a NIST calibrated photodiode were employed to measure the QE of each camera. Four flight-like cameras were tested in a high-vacuum chamber, which was configured to operate several tests intended to verify the QE, gain, read noise, dark current and residual non-linearity of the CCD. We present and discuss the QE measurements performed on the CLASP cameras. We also discuss the high-vacuum system outfitted for testing of UV and EUV science cameras at MSFC.

  13. National Guidelines for Digital Camera Systems Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaron, Yaron; Keinan, Eran; Benhamu, Moshe; Regev, Ronen; Zalmanzon, Garry

    2016-06-01

    Digital camera systems are a key component in the production of reliable, geometrically accurate, high-resolution geospatial products. These systems have replaced film imaging in photogrammetric data capturing. Today, we see a proliferation of imaging sensors collecting photographs in different ground resolutions, spectral bands, swath sizes, radiometric characteristics, accuracies and carried on different mobile platforms. In addition, these imaging sensors are combined with navigational tools (such as GPS and IMU), active sensors such as laser scanning and powerful processing tools to obtain high quality geospatial products. The quality (accuracy, completeness, consistency, etc.) of these geospatial products is based on the use of calibrated, high-quality digital camera systems. The new survey regulations of the state of Israel specify the quality requirements for each geospatial product including: maps at different scales and for different purposes, elevation models, orthophotographs, three-dimensional models at different levels of details (LOD) and more. In addition, the regulations require that digital camera systems used for mapping purposes should be certified using a rigorous mapping systems certification and validation process which is specified in the Director General Instructions. The Director General Instructions for digital camera systems certification specify a two-step process as follows: 1. Theoretical analysis of system components that includes: study of the accuracy of each component and an integrative error propagation evaluation, examination of the radiometric and spectral response curves for the imaging sensors, the calibration requirements, and the working procedures. 2. Empirical study of the digital mapping system that examines a typical project (product scale, flight height, number and configuration of ground control points and process). The study examine all the aspects of the final product including; its accuracy, the product pixels size

  14. The AOTF-based NO2 camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekemper, Emmanuel; Vanhamel, Jurgen; Van Opstal, Bert; Fussen, Didier

    2016-12-01

    The abundance of NO2 in the boundary layer relates to air quality and pollution source monitoring. Observing the spatiotemporal distribution of NO2 above well-delimited (flue gas stacks, volcanoes, ships) or more extended sources (cities) allows for applications such as monitoring emission fluxes or studying the plume dynamic chemistry and its transport. So far, most attempts to map the NO2 field from the ground have been made with visible-light scanning grating spectrometers. Benefiting from a high retrieval accuracy, they only achieve a relatively low spatiotemporal resolution that hampers the detection of dynamic features. We present a new type of passive remote sensing instrument aiming at the measurement of the 2-D distributions of NO2 slant column densities (SCDs) with a high spatiotemporal resolution. The measurement principle has strong similarities with the popular filter-based SO2 camera as it relies on spectral images taken at wavelengths where the molecule absorption cross section is different. Contrary to the SO2 camera, the spectral selection is performed by an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) capable of resolving the target molecule's spectral features. The NO2 camera capabilities are demonstrated by imaging the NO2 abundance in the plume of a coal-fired power plant. During this experiment, the 2-D distribution of the NO2 SCD was retrieved with a temporal resolution of 3 min and a spatial sampling of 50 cm (over a 250 × 250 m2 area). The detection limit was close to 5 × 1016 molecules cm-2, with a maximum detected SCD of 4 × 1017 molecules cm-2. Illustrating the added value of the NO2 camera measurements, the data reveal the dynamics of the NO to NO2 conversion in the early plume with an unprecedent resolution: from its release in the air, and for 100 m upwards, the observed NO2 plume concentration increased at a rate of 0.75-1.25 g s-1. In joint campaigns with SO2 cameras, the NO2 camera could also help in removing the bias introduced by the

  15. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  16. Cameras on the moon with Apollos 15 and 16.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, T.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the cameras used for photography and television by Apollo 15 and 16 missions, covering a hand-held Hasselblad camera for black and white panoramic views at locations visited by the astronauts, a special stereoscopic camera designed by astronomer Tom Gold, a 16-mm movie camera used on the Apollo 15 and 16 Rovers, and several TV cameras. Details are given on the far-UV camera/spectrograph of the Apollo 16 mission. An electronographic camera converts UV light to electrons which are ejected by a KBr layer at the focus of an f/1 Schmidt camera and darken photographic films much more efficiently than far-UV. The astronomical activity of the Apollo 16 astronauts on the moon, using this equipment, is discussed.

  17. 5. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF HOIST AT SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF HOIST AT SIDE OF BRIDGE AND ENGINE CAR ON TRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Method for out-of-focus camera calibration.

    PubMed

    Bell, Tyler; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Song

    2016-03-20

    State-of-the-art camera calibration methods assume that the camera is at least nearly in focus and thus fail if the camera is substantially defocused. This paper presents a method which enables the accurate calibration of an out-of-focus camera. Specifically, the proposed method uses a digital display (e.g., liquid crystal display monitor) to generate fringe patterns that encode feature points into the carrier phase; these feature points can be accurately recovered, even if the fringe patterns are substantially blurred (i.e., the camera is substantially defocused). Experiments demonstrated that the proposed method can accurately calibrate a camera regardless of the amount of defocusing: the focal length difference is approximately 0.2% when the camera is focused compared to when the camera is substantially defocused.

  19. World's fastest and most sensitive astronomical camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-06-01

    The next generation of instruments for ground-based telescopes took a leap forward with the development of a new ultra-fast camera that can take 1500 finely exposed images per second even when observing extremely faint objects. The first 240x240 pixel images with the world's fastest high precision faint light camera were obtained through a collaborative effort between ESO and three French laboratories from the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (CNRS/INSU). Cameras such as this are key components of the next generation of adaptive optics instruments of Europe's ground-based astronomy flagship facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). ESO PR Photo 22a/09 The CCD220 detector ESO PR Photo 22b/09 The OCam camera ESO PR Video 22a/09 OCam images "The performance of this breakthrough camera is without an equivalent anywhere in the world. The camera will enable great leaps forward in many areas of the study of the Universe," says Norbert Hubin, head of the Adaptive Optics department at ESO. OCam will be part of the second-generation VLT instrument SPHERE. To be installed in 2011, SPHERE will take images of giant exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. A fast camera such as this is needed as an essential component for the modern adaptive optics instruments used on the largest ground-based telescopes. Telescopes on the ground suffer from the blurring effect induced by atmospheric turbulence. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way that delights poets, but frustrates astronomers, since it blurs the finest details of the images. Adaptive optics techniques overcome this major drawback, so that ground-based telescopes can produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. Adaptive optics is based on real-time corrections computed from images obtained by a special camera working at very high speeds. Nowadays, this means many hundreds of times each second. The new generation instruments require these

  20. Depth estimation and camera calibration of a focused plenoptic camera for visual odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Niclas; Quint, Franz; Stilla, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents new and improved methods of depth estimation and camera calibration for visual odometry with a focused plenoptic camera. For depth estimation we adapt an algorithm previously used in structure-from-motion approaches to work with images of a focused plenoptic camera. In the raw image of a plenoptic camera, scene patches are recorded in several micro-images under slightly different angles. This leads to a multi-view stereo-problem. To reduce the complexity, we divide this into multiple binocular stereo problems. For each pixel with sufficient gradient we estimate a virtual (uncalibrated) depth based on local intensity error minimization. The estimated depth is characterized by the variance of the estimate and is subsequently updated with the estimates from other micro-images. Updating is performed in a Kalman-like fashion. The result of depth estimation in a single image of the plenoptic camera is a probabilistic depth map, where each depth pixel consists of an estimated virtual depth and a corresponding variance. Since the resulting image of the plenoptic camera contains two plains: the optical image and the depth map, camera calibration is divided into two separate sub-problems. The optical path is calibrated based on a traditional calibration method. For calibrating the depth map we introduce two novel model based methods, which define the relation of the virtual depth, which has been estimated based on the light-field image, and the metric object distance. These two methods are compared to a well known curve fitting approach. Both model based methods show significant advantages compared to the curve fitting method. For visual odometry we fuse the probabilistic depth map gained from one shot of the plenoptic camera with the depth data gained by finding stereo correspondences between subsequent synthesized intensity images of the plenoptic camera. These images can be synthesized totally focused and thus finding stereo correspondences is enhanced

  1. Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Ward, David; Lesage, John

    2010-01-01

    A method gathers scene information from a low-cost camera system. Existing surveillance systems using sufficient cameras for continuous coverage of a large field necessarily generate enormous amounts of raw data. Digitizing and channeling that data to a central computer and processing it in real time is difficult when using low-cost, commercially available components. A newly developed system is located on a combined power and data wire to form a string-of-lights camera system. Each camera is accessible through this network interface using standard TCP/IP networking protocols. The cameras more closely resemble cell-phone cameras than traditional security camera systems. Processing capabilities are built directly onto the camera backplane, which helps maintain a low cost. The low power requirements of each camera allow the creation of a single imaging system comprising over 100 cameras. Each camera has built-in processing capabilities to detect events and cooperatively share this information with neighboring cameras. The location of the event is reported to the host computer in Cartesian coordinates computed from data correlation across multiple cameras. In this way, events in the field of view can present low-bandwidth information to the host rather than high-bandwidth bitmap data constantly being generated by the cameras. This approach offers greater flexibility than conventional systems, without compromising performance through using many small, low-cost cameras with overlapping fields of view. This means significant increased viewing without ignoring surveillance areas, which can occur when pan, tilt, and zoom cameras look away. Additionally, due to the sharing of a single cable for power and data, the installation costs are lower. The technology is targeted toward 3D scene extraction and automatic target tracking for military and commercial applications. Security systems and environmental/ vehicular monitoring systems are also potential applications.

  2. An approach for the calibration of a combined RGB-sensor and 3D-camera device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, M.

    2011-07-01

    The elds of application for 3d cameras are very dierent, because high image frequency and determination of 3d data. Often, 3d cameras are used for mobile robotic. They are used for obstacle detection or object recognition. So they also are interesting for applications in agriculture, in combination with mobile robots. Here, in addition to 3d data, there is often a necessity to get color information for each 3d point. Unfortunately, 3d cameras do not capture any color information. Therefore, an additional sensor is necessary, such as RGB plus possibly NIR. To combine data of two dierent sensors a reference to each other, via calibration, is important. This paper presents several calibration methods and discuss their accuracy potential. Based on a spatial resection, the algorithm determines the translation and rotation between the two sensors and the inner orientation of the used sensor.

  3. SLAM using camera and IMU sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Muguira, Maritza M.

    2007-01-01

    Visual simultaneous localization and mapping (VSLAM) is the problem of using video input to reconstruct the 3D world and the path of the camera in an 'on-line' manner. Since the data is processed in real time, one does not have access to all of the data at once. (Contrast this with structure from motion (SFM), which is usually formulated as an 'off-line' process on all the data seen, and is not time dependent.) A VSLAM solution is useful for mobile robot navigation or as an assistant for humans exploring an unknown environment. This report documents the design and implementation of a VSLAM system that consists of a small inertial measurement unit (IMU) and camera. The approach is based on a modified Extended Kalman Filter. This research was performed under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  4. The large APEX bolometer camera LABOCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siringo, Giorgio; Kreysa, Ernst; Kovacs, Attila; Schuller, Frederic; Weiß, Axel; Esch, Walter; Gemünd, Hans-Peter; Jethava, Nikhil; Lundershausen, Gundula; Güsten, Rolf; Menten, Karl M.; Beelen, Alexandre; Bertoldi, Frank; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Haller, Eugene E.; Colin, Angel

    2008-07-01

    A new facility instrument, the Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABOCA), developed by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR, Bonn, Germany), has been commissioned in May 2007 for operation on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope (APEX), a 12 m submillimeter radio telescope located at 5100 m altitude on Llano de Chajnantor in northern Chile. For mapping, this 295-bolometer camera for the 870 micron atmospheric window operates in total power mode without wobbling the secondary mirror. One LABOCA beam is 19 arcsec FWHM and the field of view of the complete array covers 100 square arcmin. Combined with the high efficiency of APEX and the excellent atmospheric transmission at the site, LABOCA offers unprecedented capability in large scale mapping of submillimeter continuum emission. Details of design and operation are presented.

  5. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  6. Aquatic Debris Detection Using Embedded Camera Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Dianhong; Lu, Qian; Luo, Dapeng; Fang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic debris monitoring is of great importance to human health, aquatic habitats and water transport. In this paper, we first introduce the prototype of an aquatic sensor node equipped with an embedded camera sensor. Based on this sensing platform, we propose a fast and accurate debris detection algorithm. Our method is specifically designed based on compressive sensing theory to give full consideration to the unique challenges in aquatic environments, such as waves, swaying reflections, and tight energy budget. To upload debris images, we use an efficient sparse recovery algorithm in which only a few linear measurements need to be transmitted for image reconstruction. Besides, we implement the host software and test the debris detection algorithm on realistically deployed aquatic sensor nodes. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is reliable and feasible for debris detection using camera sensors in aquatic environments. PMID:25647741

  7. Automatic exposure control for space sequential camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcatee, G. E., Jr.; Stoap, L. J.; Solheim, C. D.; Sharpsteen, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The final report for the automatic exposure control study for space sequential cameras, for the NASA Johnson Space Center is presented. The material is shown in the same sequence that the work was performed. The purpose of the automatic exposure control is to automatically control the lens iris as well as the camera shutter so that the subject is properly exposed on the film. A study of design approaches is presented. Analysis of the light range of the spectrum covered indicates that the practical range would be from approximately 20 to 6,000 foot-lamberts, or about nine f-stops. Observation of film available from space flights shows that optimum scene illumination is apparently not present in vehicle interior photography as well as in vehicle-to-vehicle situations. The evaluation test procedure for a breadboard, and the results, which provided information for the design of a brassboard are given.

  8. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called Parathyroidectomy. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  9. Time-of-Flight Microwave Camera.

    PubMed

    Charvat, Gregory; Temme, Andrew; Feigin, Micha; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-10-05

    Microwaves can penetrate many obstructions that are opaque at visible wavelengths, however microwave imaging is challenging due to resolution limits associated with relatively small apertures and unrecoverable "stealth" regions due to the specularity of most objects at microwave frequencies. We demonstrate a multispectral time-of-flight microwave imaging system which overcomes these challenges with a large passive aperture to improve lateral resolution, multiple illumination points with a data fusion method to reduce stealth regions, and a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) receiver to achieve depth resolution. The camera captures images with a resolution of 1.5 degrees, multispectral images across the X frequency band (8 GHz-12 GHz), and a time resolution of 200 ps (6 cm optical path in free space). Images are taken of objects in free space as well as behind drywall and plywood. This architecture allows "camera-like" behavior from a microwave imaging system and is practical for imaging everyday objects in the microwave spectrum.

  10. Declarative camera control for automatic cinematography

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, D.B.; Anderson, S.E.; Li-wei He

    1996-12-31

    Animations generated by interactive 3D computer graphics applications are typically portrayed either from a particular character`s point of view or from a small set of strategically-placed viewpoints. By ignoring camera placement, such applications fail to realize important storytelling capabilities that have been explored by cinematographers for many years. In this paper, we describe several of the principles of cinematography and show how they can be formalized into a declarative language, called the Declarative Camera Control Language (DCCL). We describe the application of DCCL within the context of a simple interactive video game and argue that DCCL represents cinematic knowledge at the same level of abstraction as expert directors by encoding 16 idioms from a film textbook. These idioms produce compelling animations, as demonstrated on the accompanying videotape.

  11. First Polarised Light with the NIKA Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritacco, A.; Adam, R.; Adane, A.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Beelen, A.; Belier, B.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Martino, J.; Mauskopf, P.; Maury, A.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Rebolo-Iglesias, M.; Revéret, V.; Rodriguez, L.; Savini, G.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Thum, C.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2016-08-01

    NIKA is a dual-band camera operating with 315 frequency multiplexed LEKIDs cooled at 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the sky in intensity and polarisation at 150 and 260 GHz from the IRAM 30-m telescope. It is a test-bench for the final NIKA2 camera. The incoming linear polarisation is modulated at four times the mechanical rotation frequency by a warm rotating multi-layer half- wave plate. Then, the signal is analyzed by a wire grid and finally absorbed by the lumped element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs). The small time constant (<1 ms ) of the LEKIDs combined with the modulation of the HWP enables the quasi-simultaneous measurement of the three Stokes parameters I, Q, U, representing linear polarisation. In this paper, we present the results of recent observational campaigns demonstrating the good performance of NIKA in detecting polarisation at millimeter wavelength.

  12. Using a portable holographic camera in cosmetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakanas, R.; Gudaitis, G. A.; Zacharovas, S. J.; Ratcliffe, D. B.; Hirsch, S.; Frey, S.; Thelen, A.; Ladrière, N.; Hering, P.

    2006-07-01

    The HSF-MINI portable holographic camera is used to record holograms of the human face. The recorded holograms are analyzed using a unique three-dimensional measurement system that provides topometric data of the face with resolution less than or equal to 0.5 mm. The main advantages of this method over other, more traditional methods (such as laser triangulation and phase-measurement triangulation) are discussed.

  13. Speckle-interferometric camera for displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, P. A.; Schnack, E.

    1990-12-01

    A simple setup of standard optical elements comparable to a shearographic camera can be used used to record speckle interferograms with a fast lens. Rigid-body translations of the object are compensated for by a reference mirror attached to the object; the method requires only moderate stability and resolution of the storage medium (film). Interferogram reconstruction is possible with white light. Hence the method unites advances of different holographic and speckle-interferometric setups.

  14. Procurement specification color graphic camera system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prow, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and design requirements for a Color Graphic Camera System are presented. The system is a functional part of the Earth Observation Department Laboratory System (EODLS) and will be interfaced with Image Analysis Stations. It will convert the output of a raster scan computer color terminal into permanent, high resolution photographic prints and transparencies. Images usually displayed will be remotely sensed LANDSAT imager scenes.

  15. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  16. VIRUS-P: camera design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufts, Joseph R.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Smith, Michael P.; Segura, Pedro R.; Hill, Gary J.; Edmonston, Robert D.

    2008-07-01

    We present the design and performance of the prototype Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS-P) camera. Commissioned in 2007, VIRUS-P is the prototype for 150+ identical fiber-fed integral field spectrographs for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. With minimal complexity, the gimbal mounted, double-Schmidt design achieves high on-sky throughput, image quality, contrast, and stability with novel optics, coatings, baffling, and minimization of obscuration. The system corrector working for both the collimator and f / 1.33 vacuum Schmidt camera serves as the cryostat window while a 49 mm square aspheric field flattener sets the central obscuration. The mount, electronics, and cooling of the 2k × 2k, Fairchild Imaging CCD3041-BI fit in the field-flattener footprint. Ultra-black knife edge baffles at the corrector, spider, and adjustable mirror, and a detector mask, match the optical footprints at each location and help maximize the 94% contrast between 245 spectra. An optimally stiff and light symmetric four vane stainless steel spider supports the CCD which is thermally isolated with an equally stiff Ultem-1000 structure. The detector/field flattener spacing is maintained to 1 μm for all camera orientations and repeatably reassembled to 12 μm. Invar rods in tension hold the camera focus to +/-4 μm over a -5-25 °C temperature range. Delivering a read noise of 4.2 e- RMS, sCTE of 1-10-5 , and pCTE of 1-10-6 at 100 kpix/s, the McDonald V2 controller also helps to achieve a 38 hr hold time with 3 L of LN2 while maintaining the detector temperature setpoint to 150 μK (5σ RMS).

  17. Status of the Los Almos Anger camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, P. A.; Nutter, M. J.

    Results of preliminary tests of the neutron Anger camera being developed at Los Alamos are presented. This detector uses a unique encoding scheme involving parallel processing of multiple receptive fields. Design goals have not yet been met, but the results are very encouraging and improvements in the test procedures are expected to show that the detector will be ready for use on a small-angle scattering instrument next year.

  18. Camera Development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Roberto Jose

    2017-01-01

    With the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the very-high-energy gamma-ray universe, between 30 GeV and 300 TeV, will be probed at an unprecedented resolution, allowing deeper studies of known gamma-ray emitters and the possible discovery of new ones. This exciting project could also confirm the particle nature of dark matter by looking for the gamma rays produced by self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The telescopes will use the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) to record Cherenkov photons that are produced by the gamma-ray induced extensive air shower. One telescope design features dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optics that allows the light to be finely focused on the high-resolution silicon photomultipliers of the camera modules starting from a 9.5-meter primary mirror. Each camera module will consist of a focal plane module and front-end electronics, and will have four TeV Array Readout with GSa/s Sampling and Event Trigger (TARGET) chips, giving them 64 parallel input channels. The TARGET chip has a self-trigger functionality for readout that can be used in higher logic across camera modules as well as across individual telescopes, which will each have 177 camera modules. There will be two sites, one in the northern and the other in the southern hemisphere, for full sky coverage, each spanning at least one square kilometer. A prototype SC telescope is currently under construction at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF award AST-1560016.

  19. The high-speed camera ULTRACAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2006-08-01

    ULTRACAM is a high-speed, tri-band CCD camera designed for observations of time variable celestial objects. Commissioned on the 4.2m WHT in La Palma, it has now been used for observations of many types of phenomena and objects including stellar occultations, accreting black-holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs, pulsars, eclipsing binaries and pulsating stars. In this paper we describe the salient features of ULTRACAM and discuss some of the results of its use.

  20. Overview of a Hybrid Underwater Camera System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Overview of a Hybrid Underwater Camera System Philip Church*, WeiHn Hou’*, Georges Fournier ...2678-2686, 2012 [3] Fournier G. R.,Bonnier D., Forand J. L., Pace P., "Range-gated underwater laser imaging system", Optical Engineering 32(9...pp. 2185-2190, Sept. 1993. [4] A. D. Weidemann, G. R. Fournier , J. L. Forand and P. Mathieu, 2005. In harbor underwater threat

  1. The NASA - Arc 10/20 micron camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Cooper, R.; Deutsch, L. K.; Mccreight, C.; Mckelvey, M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Yuen, L.; Mcmahon, T.; Werner, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new infrared camera (AIR Camera) has been developed at NASA - Ames Research Center for observations from ground-based telescopes. The heart of the camera is a Hughes 58 x 62 pixel Arsenic-doped Silicon detector array that has the spectral sensitivity range to allow observations in both the 10 and 20 micron atmospheric windows.

  2. Tracking Using Peer-to-Peer Smart Infrared Cameras

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-05

    calibration and gesture recognition from multi-spectral camera setups, including infrared and visible cameras. Result: We developed new object models for...work on single-camera gesture recognition . We partnered with Yokogawa Electric to develop new architectures for embedded computer vision. We developed

  3. 39 CFR 3001.31a - In camera orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In camera orders. 3001.31a Section 3001.31a Postal... Applicability § 3001.31a In camera orders. (a) Definition. Except as hereinafter provided, documents and testimony made subject to in camera orders are not made a part of the public record, but are...

  4. 49 CFR 511.45 - In camera materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false In camera materials. 511.45 Section 511.45... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.45 In camera materials. (a) Definition. In camera materials are documents, testimony, or other data which by order of the...

  5. 16 CFR 3.45 - In camera orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false In camera orders. 3.45 Section 3.45... PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 3.45 In camera orders. (a) Definition. Except as hereinafter provided, material made subject to an in camera order will be kept confidential and not placed...

  6. Astronaut Jack Lousma works at Multispectral camera experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, works at the S190A multispectral camera experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), seen from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Lousma later used a small brush to clean the six lenses of the multispectral camera.

  7. Worldview and route planning using live public cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaseb, Ahmed S.; Chen, Wenyi; Gingade, Ganesh; Lu, Yung-Hsiang

    2015-03-01

    Planning a trip needs to consider many unpredictable factors along the route such as traffic, weather, accidents, etc. People are interested viewing the places they plan to visit and the routes they plan to take. This paper presents a system with an Android mobile application that allows users to: (i) Watch the live feeds (videos or snapshots) from more than 65,000 geotagged public cameras around the world. The user can select the cameras using an interactive world map. (ii) Search for and watch the live feeds from the cameras along the route between a starting point and a destination. The system consists of a server which maintains a database with the cameras' information, and a mobile application that shows the camera map and communicates with the cameras. In order to evaluate the system, we compare it with existing systems in terms of the total number of cameras, the cameras' coverage, and the number of cameras on various routes. We also discuss the response time of loading the camera map, finding the cameras on a route, and communicating with the cameras.

  8. Solid state television camera has no imaging tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, C. T.

    1972-01-01

    Camera with characteristics of vidicon camera and greater resolution than home TV receiver uses mosaic of phototransistors. Because of low power and small size, camera has many applications. Mosaics can be used as cathode ray tubes and analog-to-digital converters.

  9. 16 CFR 3.45 - In camera orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In camera orders. 3.45 Section 3.45... PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 3.45 In camera orders. (a) Definition. Except as hereinafter provided, material made subject to an in camera order will be kept confidential and not placed...

  10. 39 CFR 3001.31a - In camera orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In camera orders. 3001.31a Section 3001.31a Postal... Applicability § 3001.31a In camera orders. (a) Definition. Except as hereinafter provided, documents and testimony made subject to in camera orders are not made a part of the public record, but are...

  11. 49 CFR 511.45 - In camera materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false In camera materials. 511.45 Section 511.45... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.45 In camera materials. (a) Definition. In camera materials are documents, testimony, or other data which by order of the...

  12. 15 CFR 743.3 - Thermal imaging camera reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thermal imaging camera reporting. 743... REPORTING § 743.3 Thermal imaging camera reporting. (a) General requirement. Exports of thermal imaging cameras must be reported to BIS as provided in this section. (b) Transactions to be reported. Exports...

  13. Toward standardising gamma camera quality control procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhorayef, M. A.; Alnaaimi, M. A.; Alduaij, M. A.; Mohamed, M. O.; Ibahim, S. Y.; Alkandari, F. A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Attaining high standards of efficiency and reliability in the practice of nuclear medicine requires appropriate quality control (QC) programs. For instance, the regular evaluation and comparison of extrinsic and intrinsic flood-field uniformity enables the quick correction of many gamma camera problems. Whereas QC tests for uniformity are usually performed by exposing the gamma camera crystal to a uniform flux of gamma radiation from a source of known activity, such protocols can vary significantly. Thus, there is a need for optimization and standardization, in part to allow direct comparison between gamma cameras from different vendors. In the present study, intrinsic uniformity was examined as a function of source distance, source activity, source volume and number of counts. The extrinsic uniformity and spatial resolution were also examined. Proper standard QC procedures need to be implemented because of the continual development of nuclear medicine imaging technology and the rapid expansion and increasing complexity of hybrid imaging system data. The present work seeks to promote a set of standard testing procedures to contribute to the delivery of safe and effective nuclear medicine services.

  14. Dust adhesion on Viking lander camera window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of dust impingement on a duplicate Viking Lander camera window indicated the possibility of window obscuration after several days of exposure even at low dust concentration levels. As a result the following corrective measures were recommended: (1) The clearance between the housing surface and the camera post should be eliminated by using an appropriately designed plastic skirt: (2) The three horizontal ledges below the window inside the cavity act as bases for pile-up of dust that slides down the window surface; they should be replaced by a single inclined plane down which the dust will slide and fall out on the ground: (3) Adhered dust on the window surface can be removed by high pressure CO2 jets directed down against the window; the amount of CO2 gas needed for the entire mission can be carried in a 3 1/2-inch diameter sphere equipped with a remotely programable valve. These measures were incorporated in the design of the lander camera system. The continued high quality of photographs transmitted from the Viking spacecraft several months after landing attests to their effectiveness.

  15. CID25: radiation hardened color video camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiko, D. A.; Bhaskaran, S. K.; Czebiniak, S. W.

    2006-02-01

    The charge injection device, CID25, is presented. The CID25 is a color video imager. The imager is compliant with the NTSC interlaced TV standard. It has 484 by 710 displayable pixels and is capable of producing 30 frames-per-second color video. The CID25 is equipped with the preamplifier-per-pixel technology combined with parallel row processing to achieve high conversion gain and low noise bandwidth. The on-chip correlated double sampling circuitry serves to reduce the low frequency noise components. The CID25 is operated by a camera system consisting of two parts, the head assembly and the camera control unit (CCU). The head assembly and the CCU can be separated by up to 150 meter long cable. The CID25 imager and the head portion of the camera are radiation hardened. They can produce color video with insignificant SNR degradation out to at least 2.85 Mrad of total dose of Co 60 γ-radiation. This represents the first in industry radiation hardened color video system, based on a semiconductor photo-detector that has an adequate sensitivity for room light operation.

  16. Infrared stereo camera for human machine interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Improved situational awareness results not only from improved performance of imaging hardware, but also when the operator and human factors are considered. Situational awareness for IR imaging systems frequently depends on the contrast available. A significant improvement in effective contrast for the operator can result when depth perception is added to the display of IR scenes. Depth perception through flat panel 3D displays are now possible due to the number of 3D displays entering the consumer market. Such displays require appropriate and human friendly stereo IR video input in order to be effective in the dynamic military environment. We report on a stereo IR camera that has been developed for integration on to an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). The camera has auto-convergence capability that significantly reduces ill effects due to image doubling, minimizes focus-convergence mismatch, and eliminates the need for the operator to manually adjust camera properties. Discussion of the size, weight, and power requirements as well as integration onto the robot platform will be given along with description of the stand alone operation.

  17. Reconditioning of Cassini Narrow-Angle Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These five images of single stars, taken at different times with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, show the effects of haze collecting on the camera's optics, then successful removal of the haze by warming treatments.

    The image on the left was taken on May 25, 2001, before the haze problem occurred. It shows a star named HD339457.

    The second image from left, taken May 30, 2001, shows the effect of haze that collected on the optics when the camera cooled back down after a routine-maintenance heating to 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit). The star is Maia, one of the Pleiades.

    The third image was taken on October 26, 2001, after a weeklong decontamination treatment at minus 7 C (19 F). The star is Spica.

    The fourth image was taken of Spica January 30, 2002, after a weeklong decontamination treatment at 4 C (39 F).

    The final image, also of Spica, was taken July 9, 2002, following three additional decontamination treatments at 4 C (39 F) for two months, one month, then another month.

    Cassini, on its way toward arrival at Saturn in 2004, is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  18. Stereo cameras on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Massimo; Visentin, Gianfranco; Collon, Max; Ranebo, Hans; Sunderland, David; Fortezza, Raimondo

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional media is a unique and efficient means to virtually visit/observe objects that cannot be easily reached otherwise, like the International Space Station. The advent of auto-stereoscopic displays and stereo projection system is making the stereo media available to larger audiences than the traditional scientists and design engineers communities. It is foreseen that a major demand for 3D content shall come from the entertainment area. Taking advantage of the 6 months long permanence on the International Space Station of a colleague European Astronaut, Thomas Reiter, the Erasmus Centre uploaded to the ISS a newly developed, fully digital stereo camera, the Erasmus Recording Binocular. Testing the camera and its human interfaces in weightlessness, as well as accurately mapping the interior of the ISS are the main objectives of the experiment that has just been completed at the time of writing. The intent of this paper is to share with the readers the design challenges tackled in the development and operation of the ERB camera and highlight some of the future plans the Erasmus Centre team has in the pipeline.

  19. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  20. Improvement of passive THz camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Marcin; Piszczek, Marek; Palka, Norbert; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz technology is one of emerging technologies that has a potential to change our life. There are a lot of attractive applications in fields like security, astronomy, biology and medicine. Until recent years, terahertz (THz) waves were an undiscovered, or most importantly, an unexploited area of electromagnetic spectrum. The reasons of this fact were difficulties in generation and detection of THz waves. Recent advances in hardware technology have started to open up the field to new applications such as THz imaging. The THz waves can penetrate through various materials. However, automated processing of THz images can be challenging. The THz frequency band is specially suited for clothes penetration because this radiation does not point any harmful ionizing effects thus it is safe for human beings. Strong technology development in this band have sparked with few interesting devices. Even if the development of THz cameras is an emerging topic, commercially available passive cameras still offer images of poor quality mainly because of its low resolution and low detectors sensitivity. Therefore, THz image processing is very challenging and urgent topic. Digital THz image processing is a really promising and cost-effective way for demanding security and defense applications. In the article we demonstrate the results of image quality enhancement and image fusion of images captured by a commercially available passive THz camera by means of various combined methods. Our research is focused on dangerous objects detection - guns, knives and bombs hidden under some popular types of clothing.

  1. BAE systems' SMART chip camera FPA development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Louise; Auroux, Pierre-Alain; McManus, Don; Harris, D. Ahmasi; Blackwell, Richard J.; Bryant, Jeffrey; Boal, Mihir; Binkerd, Evan

    2015-06-01

    BAE Systems' SMART (Stacked Modular Architecture High-Resolution Thermal) Chip Camera provides very compact long-wave infrared (LWIR) solutions by combining a 12 μm wafer-level packaged focal plane array (FPA) with multichip-stack, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and wafer-level optics. The key innovations that enabled this include a single-layer 12 μm pixel bolometer design and robust fabrication process, as well as wafer-level lid packaging. We used advanced packaging techniques to achieve an extremely small-form-factor camera, with a complete volume of 2.9 cm3 and a thermal core weight of 5.1g. The SMART Chip Camera supports up to 60 Hz frame rates, and requires less than 500 mW of power. This work has been supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Low Cost Thermal Imager - Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program, and BAE Systems' internal research and development investment.

  2. The Las Campanas Infrared Survey Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, S. E.; Murphy, D. C.; Gunnels, S. M.; Birk, C.; Bagish, A.; Koch, E.

    2002-07-01

    The Las Campanas Infrared Survey Camera is a near-infrared (1.0-2.5 μm), wide-area instrument used to detect and measure the photometric properties of galaxies out to large redshifts, z>2. The camera, a modified Offner 1:1 reimaging optical system, is mounted at the f/7.5 focus of the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope. The detectors are four Rockwell 1024×1024 HgCdTe (HAWAII) arrays operating at a scale of 0.20" pixel-1. With four telescope pointings, the instrument produces a pipelined mosaic of J, H, or Ks images 13'×13' on the sky, with a measured point-spread function as good as 0.38" FWHM. The good imaging quality results in part from fast tip-tilt guiding on stars within a 9'×9' field centered on the optical axis of the telescope. Appropriately bright guide stars are found within 2 s from a catalog of 5×107 stars and presented as a ``finding chart'' to the observer. The optical, mechanical, and thermal design choices and their associated engineering implementations are discussed in some detail. The detector readout electronics, the automatic data acquisition and control system, and our data reduction pipeline are also described. The design goals of the camera-excellent imaging quality and throughput, low flexure and internal background, and 5 Hz on-axis guiding, are all realized and quantified.

  3. Refocusing distance of a standard plenoptic camera.

    PubMed

    Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar; Velisavljevic, Vladan; Fiebig, Susanne; Pesch, Matthias

    2016-09-19

    Recent developments in computational photography enabled variation of the optical focus of a plenoptic camera after image exposure, also known as refocusing. Existing ray models in the field simplify the camera's complexity for the purpose of image and depth map enhancement, but fail to satisfyingly predict the distance to which a photograph is refocused. By treating a pair of light rays as a system of linear functions, it will be shown in this paper that its solution yields an intersection indicating the distance to a refocused object plane. Experimental work is conducted with different lenses and focus settings while comparing distance estimates with a stack of refocused photographs for which a blur metric has been devised. Quantitative assessments over a 24 m distance range suggest that predictions deviate by less than 0.35 % in comparison to an optical design software. The proposed refocusing estimator assists in predicting object distances just as in the prototyping stage of plenoptic cameras and will be an essential feature in applications demanding high precision in synthetic focus or where depth map recovery is done by analyzing a stack of refocused photographs.

  4. Imaging characteristics of photogrammetric camera systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, R.; Halliday, J.

    1973-01-01

    In view of the current interest in high-altitude and space photographic systems for photogrammetric mapping, the United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) undertook a comprehensive research project designed to explore the practical aspects of applying the latest image quality evaluation techniques to the analysis of such systems. The project had two direct objectives: (1) to evaluate the imaging characteristics of current U.S.G.S. photogrammetric camera systems; and (2) to develop methodologies for predicting the imaging capabilities of photogrammetric camera systems, comparing conventional systems with new or different types of systems, and analyzing the image quality of photographs. Image quality was judged in terms of a number of evaluation factors including response functions, resolving power, and the detectability and measurability of small detail. The limiting capabilities of the U.S.G.S. 6-inch and 12-inch focal length camera systems were established by analyzing laboratory and aerial photographs in terms of these evaluation factors. In the process, the contributing effects of relevant parameters such as lens aberrations, lens aperture, shutter function, image motion, film type, and target contrast procedures for analyzing image quality and predicting and comparing performance capabilities. ?? 1973.

  5. SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Todd E.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2011-01-01

    The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous NaI(Tl) scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic. PMID:21828904

  6. SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Todd E.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2011-09-01

    The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous sodium iodide scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic.

  7. Observed inter-camera variability of clinically relevant performance characteristics for Siemens Symbia gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Kappadath, S Cheenu; Erwin, William D; Wendt, Richard E

    2006-11-28

    We conducted an evaluation of the intercamera (i.e., between cameras) variability in clinically relevant performance characteristics for Symbia gamma cameras (Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA) based on measurements made using nine separate systems. The significance of the observed intercamera variability was determined by comparing it to the intracamera (i.e., within a single camera) variability. Measurements of performance characteristics were based on the standards of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association and reports 6, 9, 22, and 52 from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. All measurements were performed using 99mTc (except 57Co used for extrinsic resolution) and low-energy, high-resolution collimation. Of the nine cameras, four have crystals 3/8 in. thick and five have crystals 5/8 in. thick. We evaluated intrinsic energy resolution, intrinsic and extrinsic spatial resolution, intrinsic integral and differential flood uniformity over the useful field-of-view, count rate at 20% count loss, planar sensitivity, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) resolution, and SPECT integral uniformity. The intracamera variability was estimated by repeated measurements of the performance characteristics on a single system. The significance of the observed intercamera variability was evaluated using the two-tailed F distribution. The planar sensitivity of the gamma cameras tested was found be variable at the 99.8% confidence level for both the 3/8-in. and 5/8-in. crystal systems. The integral uniformity and energy resolution were found to be variable only for the 5/8-in. crystal systems at the 98% and 90% confidence level, respectively. All other performance characteristics tested exhibited no significant variability between camera systems. The measured variability reported here could perhaps be used to define nominal performance values of Symbia gamma cameras for planar and SPECT imaging.

  8. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  9. Nonpoint Source: Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agricultural runoff as a nonpoint source category of pollution. Resouces to learn more a bout conservation practices to reduce water quality impacts from storm water run off and ground water infiltration

  10. Agricultural Education and OSHA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1974-01-01

    Agriculture teachers should be interested in and become familiar with the implications of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 for their own benefit, for their students, and for their students' future employers. (AG)

  11. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This is USSR Report for Agriculture. It contains the issues with different topics on Major Crop Progress and Weather Reporting, Livestock, Regional Development , Agro-Economics and Organization, Tilling and Cropping Technology.

  12. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  13. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  14. Toward a Sustainable Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future trends in population growth, energy use, climate change, and globalization will challenge agriculturists to develop innovative production systems that are highly productive and environmentally sound. Furthermore, future agricultural production systems must possess an inherent capacity to adap...

  15. Feasibility evaluation and study of adapting the attitude reference system to the Orbiter camera payload system's large format camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A design concept that will implement a mapping capability for the Orbital Camera Payload System (OCPS) when ground control points are not available is discussed. Through the use of stellar imagery collected by a pair of cameras whose optical axis are structurally related to the large format camera optical axis, such pointing information is made available.

  16. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  17. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality.

  18. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-06

    simultaneous freeing of production resources for the achievement of other social goals of public development involves improving the structure of the food...in agriculture it becomes possible to free about 2 million hectares of arable land for the purpose of cultivating other crops, about 200,000 persons...insufficient application of mineral fertilizers. The structural changes in agriculture proposed by us, based on the freeing of 2 million hectares of

  19. Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

  20. Methods for identification of images acquired with digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Bijhold, Jurrien; Kieft, Martijn; Kurosawa, Kenji; Kuroki, Kenro; Saitoh, Naoki

    2001-02-01

    From the court we were asked whether it is possible to determine if an image has been made with a specific digital camera. This question has to be answered in child pornography cases, where evidence is needed that a certain picture has been made with a specific camera. We have looked into different methods of examining the cameras to determine if a specific image has been made with a camera: defects in CCDs, file formats that are used, noise introduced by the pixel arrays and watermarking in images used by the camera manufacturer.

  1. Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. The monochrome cameras were selected over color cameras because they have greater sensitivity and resolution. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color camera technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories has established an on-going program to evaluate the newest color solid-state cameras. Phase One of the Sandia program resulted in the SAND91-2579/1 report titled: Initial Laboratory Evaluation of Color Video Cameras. The report briefly discusses imager chips, color cameras, and monitors, describes the camera selection, details traditional test parameters and procedures, and gives the results reached by evaluating 12 cameras. Here, in Phase Two of the report, we tested 6 additional cameras using traditional methods. In addition, all 18 cameras were tested by newly developed methods. This Phase 2 report details those newly developed test parameters and procedures, and evaluates the results.

  2. Presence capture cameras - a new challenge to the image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2016-04-01

    Commercial presence capture cameras are coming to the markets and a new era of visual entertainment starts to get its shape. Since the true presence capturing is still a very new technology, the real technical solutions are just passed a prototyping phase and they vary a lot. Presence capture cameras have still the same quality issues to tackle as previous phases of digital imaging but also numerous new ones. This work concentrates to the quality challenges of presence capture cameras. A camera system which can record 3D audio-visual reality as it is has to have several camera modules, several microphones and especially technology which can synchronize output of several sources to a seamless and smooth virtual reality experience. Several traditional quality features are still valid in presence capture cameras. Features like color fidelity, noise removal, resolution and dynamic range create the base of virtual reality stream quality. However, co-operation of several cameras brings a new dimension for these quality factors. Also new quality features can be validated. For example, how the camera streams should be stitched together with 3D experience without noticeable errors and how to validate the stitching? The work describes quality factors which are still valid in the presence capture cameras and defines the importance of those. Moreover, new challenges of presence capture cameras are investigated in image and video quality point of view. The work contains considerations how well current measurement methods can be used in presence capture cameras.

  3. High-dimensional camera shake removal with given depth map.

    PubMed

    Yue, Tao; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-06-01

    Camera motion blur is drastically nonuniform for large depth-range scenes, and the nonuniformity caused by camera translation is depth dependent but not the case for camera rotations. To restore the blurry images of large-depth-range scenes deteriorated by arbitrary camera motion, we build an image blur model considering 6-degrees of freedom (DoF) of camera motion with a given scene depth map. To make this 6D depth-aware model tractable, we propose a novel parametrization strategy to reduce the number of variables and an effective method to estimate high-dimensional camera motion as well. The number of variables is reduced by temporal sampling motion function, which describes the 6-DoF camera motion by sampling the camera trajectory uniformly in time domain. To effectively estimate the high-dimensional camera motion parameters, we construct the probabilistic motion density function (PMDF) to describe the probability distribution of camera poses during exposure, and apply it as a unified constraint to guide the convergence of the iterative deblurring algorithm. Specifically, PMDF is computed through a back projection from 2D local blur kernels to 6D camera motion parameter space and robust voting. We conduct a series of experiments on both synthetic and real captured data, and validate that our method achieves better performance than existing uniform methods and nonuniform methods on large-depth-range scenes.

  4. Calibration Tests of Industrial and Scientific CCD Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortis, M. R.; Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Small format, medium resolution CCD cameras are at present widely used for industrial metrology applications. Large format, high resolution CCD cameras are primarily in use for scientific applications, but in due course should increase both the range of applications and the object space accuracy achievable by close range measurement. Slow scan, cooled scientific CCD cameras provide the additional benefit of additional quantisation levels which enables improved radiometric resolution. The calibration of all types of CCD cameras is necessary in order to characterize the geometry of the sensors and lenses. A number of different types of CCD cameras have been calibrated a the NASA Langley Research Center using self calibration and a small test object. The results of these calibration tests will be described, with particular emphasis on the differences between standard CCD video cameras and scientific slow scan CCD cameras.

  5. The GCT camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. M.; Abchiche, A.; Allan, D.; Amans, J.-P.; Armstrong, T. P.; Balzer, A.; Berge, D.; Boisson, C.; Bousquet, J.-J.; Bryan, M.; Buchholtz, G.; Chadwick, P. M.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Daniel, M. K.; De Franco, A.; de Frondat, F.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Dumas, D.; Fasola, G.; Funk, S.; Gironnet, J.; Graham, J. A.; Greenshaw, T.; Hervet, O.; Hidaka, N.; Hinton, J. A.; Huet, J.-M.; Jégouzo, I.; Jogler, T.; Kraus, M.; Lapington, J. S.; Laporte, P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Markoff, S.; Melse, T.; Mohrmann, L.; Molyneux, P.; Nolan, S. J.; Okumura, A.; Osborne, J. P.; Parsons, R. D.; Rosen, S.; Ross, D.; Rowell, G.; Sato, Y.; Sayede, F.; Schmoll, J.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Servillat, M.; Sol, H.; Stamatescu, V.; Stephan, M.; Stuik, R.; Sykes, J.; Tajima, H.; Thornhill, J.; Tibaldo, L.; Trichard, C.; Vink, J.; Watson, J. J.; White, R.; Yamane, N.; Zech, A.; Zink, A.; Zorn, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope (GCT) is proposed for the Small-Sized Telescope component of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). GCT's dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optical system allows the use of a compact camera with small form-factor photosensors. The GCT camera is 0:4 m in diameter and has 2048 pixels; each pixel has a 0:2° angular size, resulting in a wide field-of-view. The design of the GCT camera is high performance at low cost, with the camera housing 32 front-end electronics modules providing full waveform information for all of the camera's 2048 pixels. The first GCT camera prototype, CHEC-M, was commissioned during 2015, culminating in the first Cherenkov images recorded by a SC telescope and the first light of a CTA prototype. In this contribution we give a detailed description of the GCT camera and present preliminary results from CHEC-M's commissioning.

  6. Long wavelength infrared camera (LWIRC): a 10 micron camera for the Keck Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Wishnow, E.H.; Danchi, W.C.; Tuthill, P.; Wurtz, R.; Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The Long Wavelength Infrared Camera (LWIRC) is a facility instrument for the Keck Observatory designed to operate at the f/25 forward Cassegrain focus of the Keck I telescope. The camera operates over the wavelength band 7-13 {micro}m using ZnSe transmissive optics. A set of filters, a circular variable filter (CVF), and a mid-infrared polarizer are available, as are three plate scales: 0.05``, 0.10``, 0.21`` per pixel. The camera focal plane array and optics are cooled using liquid helium. The system has been refurbished with a 128 x 128 pixel Si:As detector array. The electronics readout system used to clock the array is compatible with both the hardware and software of the other Keck infrared instruments NIRC and LWS. A new pre-amplifier/A-D converter has been designed and constructed which decreases greatly the system susceptibility to noise.

  7. Measuring Positions of Objects using Two or More Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinko, Steve; Lane, John; Nelson, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    An improved method of computing positions of objects from digitized images acquired by two or more cameras (see figure) has been developed for use in tracking debris shed by a spacecraft during and shortly after launch. The method is also readily adaptable to such applications as (1) tracking moving and possibly interacting objects in other settings in order to determine causes of accidents and (2) measuring positions of stationary objects, as in surveying. Images acquired by cameras fixed to the ground and/or cameras mounted on tracking telescopes can be used in this method. In this method, processing of image data starts with creation of detailed computer- aided design (CAD) models of the objects to be tracked. By rotating, translating, resizing, and overlaying the models with digitized camera images, parameters that characterize the position and orientation of the camera can be determined. The final position error depends on how well the centroids of the objects in the images are measured; how accurately the centroids are interpolated for synchronization of cameras; and how effectively matches are made to determine rotation, scaling, and translation parameters. The method involves use of the perspective camera model (also denoted the point camera model), which is one of several mathematical models developed over the years to represent the relationships between external coordinates of objects and the coordinates of the objects as they appear on the image plane in a camera. The method also involves extensive use of the affine camera model, in which the distance from the camera to an object (or to a small feature on an object) is assumed to be much greater than the size of the object (or feature), resulting in a truly two-dimensional image. The affine camera model does not require advance knowledge of the positions and orientations of the cameras. This is because ultimately, positions and orientations of the cameras and of all objects are computed in a coordinate

  8. The sequence measurement system of the IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Ai-hui; Han, Hong-xia; Zhang, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Currently, the IR cameras are broadly used in the optic-electronic tracking, optic-electronic measuring, fire control and optic-electronic countermeasure field, but the output sequence of the most presently applied IR cameras in the project is complex and the giving sequence documents from the leave factory are not detailed. Aiming at the requirement that the continuous image transmission and image procession system need the detailed sequence of the IR cameras, the sequence measurement system of the IR camera is designed, and the detailed sequence measurement way of the applied IR camera is carried out. The FPGA programming combined with the SignalTap online observation way has been applied in the sequence measurement system, and the precise sequence of the IR camera's output signal has been achieved, the detailed document of the IR camera has been supplied to the continuous image transmission system, image processing system and etc. The sequence measurement system of the IR camera includes CameraLink input interface part, LVDS input interface part, FPGA part, CameraLink output interface part and etc, thereinto the FPGA part is the key composed part in the sequence measurement system. Both the video signal of the CmaeraLink style and the video signal of LVDS style can be accepted by the sequence measurement system, and because the image processing card and image memory card always use the CameraLink interface as its input interface style, the output signal style of the sequence measurement system has been designed into CameraLink interface. The sequence measurement system does the IR camera's sequence measurement work and meanwhile does the interface transmission work to some cameras. Inside the FPGA of the sequence measurement system, the sequence measurement program, the pixel clock modification, the SignalTap file configuration and the SignalTap online observation has been integrated to realize the precise measurement to the IR camera. Te sequence measurement

  9. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  10. Video inpainting under constrained camera motion.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Kedar A; Sapiro, Guillermo; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2007-02-01

    A framework for inpainting missing parts of a video sequence recorded with a moving or stationary camera is presented in this work. The region to be inpainted is general: it may be still or moving, in the background or in the foreground, it may occlude one object and be occluded by some other object. The algorithm consists of a simple preprocessing stage and two steps of video inpainting. In the preprocessing stage, we roughly segment each frame into foreground and background. We use this segmentation to build three image mosaics that help to produce time consistent results and also improve the performance of the algorithm by reducing the search space. In the first video inpainting step, we reconstruct moving objects in the foreground that are "occluded" by the region to be inpainted. To this end, we fill the gap as much as possible by copying information from the moving foreground in other frames, using a priority-based scheme. In the second step, we inpaint the remaining hole with the background. To accomplish this, we first align the frames and directly copy when possible. The remaining pixels are filled in by extending spatial texture synthesis techniques to the spatiotemporal domain. The proposed framework has several advantages over state-of-the-art algorithms that deal with similar types of data and constraints. It permits some camera motion, is simple to implement, fast, does not require statistical models of background nor foreground, works well in the presence of rich and cluttered backgrounds, and the results show that there is no visible blurring or motion artifacts. A number of real examples taken with a consumer hand-held camera are shown supporting these findings.

  11. Precision Multiband Photometry with a DSLR Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Csubry, Z.; Hartman, J. D.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-03-01

    Ground-based exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HAT Network of Telescopes (HATNet), and KELT have discovered close to two hundred transiting extrasolar planets in the past several years. The strategy of these surveys is to look at a large field of view and measure the brightnesses of its bright stars to around half a percent per point precision, which is adequate for detecting hot Jupiters. Typically, these surveys use CCD detectors to achieve high precision photometry. These CCDS, however, are expensive relative to other consumer-grade optical imaging devices, such as digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs). We look at the possibility of using a DSLR camera for precision photometry. Specifically, we used a Canon EOS 60D camera that records light in three colors simultaneously. The DSLR was integrated into the HATNet survey and collected observations for a month, after which photometry was extracted for 6600 stars in a selected stellar field. We found that the DSLR achieves a best-case median absolute deviation of 4.6 mmag per 180 s exposure when the DSLR color channels are combined, and 1000 stars are measured to better than 10 mmag (1%). Also, we achieve 10 mmag or better photometry in the individual colors. This is good enough to detect transiting hot Jupiters. We performed a candidate search on all stars and found four candidates, one of which is KELT-3b, the only known transiting hot Jupiter in our selected field. We conclude that the Canon 60D is a cheap, lightweight device capable of useful photometry in multiple colors.

  12. AMICA (Antarctic Multiband Infrared CAmera) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolci, Mauro; Straniero, Oscar; Valentini, Gaetano; Di Rico, Gianluca; Ragni, Maurizio; Pelusi, Danilo; Di Varano, Igor; Giuliani, Croce; Di Cianno, Amico; Valentini, Angelo; Corcione, Leonardo; Bortoletto, Favio; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Bonoli, Carlotta; Giro, Enrico; Fantinel, Daniela; Magrin, Demetrio; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Riva, Alberto; Molinari, Emilio; Conconi, Paolo; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Busso, Maurizio; Tosti, Gino; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Roncella, Fabio; Abia, Carlos

    2006-06-01

    The Antarctic Plateau offers unique opportunities for ground-based Infrared Astronomy. AMICA (Antarctic Multiband Infrared CAmera) is an instrument designed to perform astronomical imaging from Dome-C in the near- (1 - 5 μm) and mid- (5 - 27 μm) infrared wavelength regions. The camera consists of two channels, equipped with a Raytheon InSb 256 array detector and a DRS MF-128 Si:As IBC array detector, cryocooled at 35 and 7 K respectively. Cryogenic devices will move a filter wheel and a sliding mirror, used to feed alternatively the two detectors. Fast control and readout, synchronized with the chopping secondary mirror of the telescope, will be required because of the large background expected at these wavelengths, especially beyond 10 μm. An environmental control system is needed to ensure the correct start-up, shut-down and housekeeping of the camera. The main technical challenge is represented by the extreme environmental conditions of Dome C (T about -90 °C, p around 640 mbar) and the need for a complete automatization of the overall system. AMICA will be mounted at the Nasmyth focus of the 80 cm IRAIT telescope and will perform survey-mode automatic observations of selected regions of the Southern sky. The first goal will be a direct estimate of the observational quality of this new highly promising site for Infrared Astronomy. In addition, IRAIT, equipped with AMICA, is expected to provide a significant improvement in the knowledge of fundamental astrophysical processes, such as the late stages of stellar evolution (especially AGB and post-AGB stars) and the star formation.

  13. OmegaCAM: The VST Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellarao, E.

    2005-06-01

    OmegaCAM is the large-format CCD pixels imaging camera that has been designed to exploit the square degree field of view of the VST while sampling the excellent seeing of Paranal (Kuijken et al. 2002, The Messenger 110, 15). The instrument is built by a consortium which comprises institutes in the Netherlands, Germany and Italy, and is headed by PI Konrad Kuijken (Groningen and Leiden University) with co-PI's Ralf Bender (Munich USM/MPE) and Enrico Cappellaro (INAF Naples), and project management by Bernhard Muschielok and Reinhold Häfner (USM). The Optical Detector Team at ESO has designed and built the detector system.

  14. Fundus camera systems: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    DeHoog, Edward; Schwiegerling, James

    2009-01-10

    Retinal photography requires the use of a complex optical system, called a fundus camera, capable of illuminating and imaging the retina simultaneously. The patent literature shows two design forms but does not provide the specifics necessary for a thorough analysis of the designs to be performed. We have constructed our own designs based on the patent literature in optical design software and compared them for illumination efficiency, image quality, ability to accommodate for patient refractive error, and manufacturing tolerances, a comparison lacking in the existing literature.

  15. Computational cameras for moving iris recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, Scott; Venkatesha, Sharath

    2015-05-01

    Iris-based biometric identification is increasingly used for facility access and other security applications. Like all methods that exploit visual information, however, iris systems are limited by the quality of captured images. Optical defocus due to a small depth of field (DOF) is one such challenge, as is the acquisition of sharply-focused iris images from subjects in motion. This manuscript describes the application of computational motion-deblurring cameras to the problem of moving iris capture, from the underlying theory to system considerations and performance data.

  16. Picosecond x-ray streak cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averin, V. I.; Bryukhnevich, Gennadii I.; Kolesov, G. V.; Lebedev, Vitaly B.; Miller, V. A.; Saulevich, S. V.; Shulika, A. N.

    1991-04-01

    The first multistage image converter with an X-ray photocathode (UMI-93 SR) was designed in VNIIOFI in 1974 [1]. The experiments carried out in IOFAN pointed out that X-ray electron-optical cameras using the tube provided temporal resolution up to 12 picoseconds [2]. The later work has developed into the creation of the separate streak and intensifying tubes. Thus, PV-003R tube has been built on base of UMI-93SR design, fibre optically connected to PMU-2V image intensifier carrying microchannel plate.

  17. Fundus camera systems: a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeHoog, Edward; Schwiegerling, James

    2010-01-01

    Retinal photography requires the use of a complex optical system, called a fundus camera, capable of illuminating and imaging the retina simultaneously. The patent literature shows two design forms but does not provide the specifics necessary for a thorough analysis of the designs to be performed. We have constructed our own designs based on the patent literature in optical design software and compared them for illumination efficiency, image quality, ability to accommodate for patient refractive error, and manufacturing tolerances, a comparison lacking in the existing literature. PMID:19137032

  18. Calibrating Images from the MINERVA Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercedes Colón, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) consists of an array of robotic telescopes located on Mount Hopkins, Arizona with the purpose of performing transit photometry and spectroscopy to find Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. In order to make photometric observations, it is necessary to perform calibrations on the CCD cameras of the telescopes to take into account possible instrument error on the data. In this project, we developed a pipeline that takes optical images, calibrates them using sky flats, darks, and biases to generate a transit light curve.

  19. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  20. Online camera-gyroscope autocalibration for cell phones.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chao; Evans, Brian L

    2014-12-01

    The gyroscope is playing a key role in helping estimate 3D camera rotation for various vision applications on cell phones, including video stabilization and feature tracking. Successful fusion of gyroscope and camera data requires that the camera, gyroscope, and their relative pose to be calibrated. In addition, the timestamps of gyroscope readings and video frames are usually not well synchronized. Previous paper performed camera-gyroscope calibration and synchronization offline after the entire video sequence has been captured with restrictions on the camera motion, which is unnecessarily restrictive for everyday users to run apps that directly use the gyroscope. In this paper, we propose an online method that estimates all the necessary parameters, whereas a user is capturing video. Our contributions are: 1) simultaneous online camera self-calibration and camera-gyroscope calibration based on an implicit extended Kalman filter and 2) generalization of the multiple-view coplanarity constraint on camera rotation in a rolling shutter camera model for cell phones. The proposed method is able to estimate the needed calibration and synchronization parameters online with all kinds of camera motion and can be embedded in gyro-aided applications, such as video stabilization and feature tracking. Both Monte Carlo simulation and cell phone experiments show that the proposed online calibration and synchronization method converge fast to the ground truth values.