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Sample records for age 9y 11mo

  1. Structural origin of the enhanced ionic conductivity upon Nb doping in Sr11Mo4O23 defective double perovskite.

    PubMed

    Miranda, C D; López, C A; Pedregosa, J C; Alonso, J A

    2017-03-21

    We report a substantial enhancement of the oxide-ion conductivity in Sr11Mo4O23 achieved by Nb doping the Mo sites. This series responds to the formula: Sr11Mo4-xNbxO23-δ (with x = 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0). The original structure can be related to the conventional double perovskite; however, it presents a broken corner sharing connectivity of the octahedral framework, hence leading to a complex and highly defective network. The samples were prepared via citrate precursor method, followed by thermal treatments at 1300 °C for 12 hours in air. The crystal structures were refined from X-ray and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. A phase transition from tetragonal to cubic symmetry is identified in a temperature-dependent NPD study, driven by an oxygen delocalization effect. The ionic conductivity measured by impedance spectroscopy is enhanced upon Nb-doping; the x = 1 doped phase exhibits a threefold increase compared to the pristine Sr11Mo4O23 oxide, with conductivity values of 7.6 × 10(-3) and 2.7 × 10(-2) S·cm(-1) at 650 and 800 °C, which are even greater than for YSZ in the 650-800 °C temperature range, and close to those reported for other state-of-the art solid-oxide electrolytes.

  2. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5- to 11-mo old.

    PubMed

    Olney, Deanna K; Pollitt, Ernesto; Kariger, Patricia K; Khalfan, Sabra S; Ali, Nadra S; Tielsch, James M; Sazawal, Sunil; Black, Robert; Allen, Lindsay H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2006-09-01

    Iron and zinc deficiencies have been associated with delayed motor development in nutritionally at-risk children, albeit inconsistently. In this community-based, randomized double-blind trial, iron+folic acid (FeFA) (12.5 mg Fe + 50 mug folic acid), zinc (Zn) (10 mg), and iron+folic acid+zinc (FeFA+Zn) supplements or a placebo were given daily for 1 y to nutritionally at-risk children in Pemba, Zanzibar. The effects of these treatments on attaining unassisted walking were evaluated using survival analysis for 354 children aged 5-11 mo at the start of supplementation. Treatment effects on changes in hemoglobin (Hb) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) Z scores were evaluated using linear regression. Attained motor milestone was recorded every 2 wk for 1 y. Hb, ZPP, HAZ, and WAZ were measured at baseline and after 6 mo of treatment. FeFA with or without Zn reduced the time it took for children to walk assisted. Children who received any iron walked unassisted sooner than those who received no iron [median difference approximately 15 d, P = 0.035, risk ratio (RR) = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.61] and this effect was stronger in those who had iron deficiency anemia (IDA) at baseline (median difference was approximately 30 d; P = 0.002; RR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.21, 2.32). FeFA alone and Zn alone improved Hb and ZPP compared with placebo. There were no significant treatment effects on changes in HAZ or WAZ. The effects of treatment on time to walking may have been mediated by improvements in iron status or hemoglobin, but were not mediated through improvements in growth.

  3. Leisure Activity Preferences for 6- To 12-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Chokron, Nathalie; Law, Mary; Shevell, Michael; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Poulin, Chantal; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective was to describe leisure activity preferences of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their relationship to participation. Factors associated with greater interest in leisure activities were identified. Method: Fifty-five school-aged children (36 males, 19 females; mean age 9y 11mo; range 6y 1mo-12y 11mo) with CP (Gross Motor…

  4. The Pathologic Effect of a Novel Neomorphic Fgf9Y162C Allele Is Restricted to Decreased Vision and Retarded Lens Growth

    PubMed Central

    Puk, Oliver; Möller, Gabriele; Geerlof, Arie; Krowiorz, Kathrin; Ahmad, Nafees; Wagner, Sibylle; Adamski, Jerzy; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Graw, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signalling plays a crucial role in many developmental processes. Among the Fgf pathway ligands, Fgf9 (UniProt: P54130) has been demonstrated to participate in maturation of various organs and tissues including skeleton, testes, lung, heart, and eye. Here we establish a novel Fgf9 allele, discovered in a dominant N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen for eye-size abnormalities using the optical low coherence interferometry technique. The underlying mouse mutant line Aca12 was originally identified because of its significantly reduced lens thickness. Linkage studies located Aca12 to chromosome 14 within a 3.6 Mb spanning interval containing the positional candidate genes Fgf9 (MGI: 104723), Gja3 (MGI: 95714), and Ift88 (MGI: 98715). While no sequence differences were found in Gja3 and Ift88, we identified an A→G missense mutation at cDNA position 770 of the Fgf9 gene leading to an Y162C amino acid exchange. In contrast to previously described Fgf9 mutants, Fgf9Y162C carriers were fully viable and did not reveal reduced body-size, male-to-female sexual reversal or skeletal malformations. The histological analysis of the retina as well as its basic functional characterization by electroretinography (ERG) did not show any abnormality. However, the analysis of head-tracking response of the Fgf9Y162C mutants in a virtual drum indicated a gene-dosage dependent vision loss of almost 50%. The smaller lenses in Fgf9Y162C suggested a role of Fgf9 during lens development. Histological investigations showed that lens growth retardation starts during embryogenesis and continues after birth. Young Fgf9Y162C lenses remained transparent but developed age-related cataracts. Taken together, Fgf9Y162C is a novel neomorphic allele that initiates microphakia and reduced vision without effects on organs and tissues outside the eye. Our data point to a role of Fgf9 signalling in primary and secondary lens fiber cell growth. The results underline the importance

  5. A novel USP9Y polymorphism allowing a rapid and unambiguous classification of Bos taurus Y chromosomes into haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, S; De Gaetano, A; Tesfaye, K; Grugni, V; Semino, O; Ferretti, L

    2012-10-01

    A new sequence-tagged site (STS) was identified within intron 26 of the bovine USP9Y gene, showing an 81-base pair insertion (g.76439_76440ins81 in sequence with GenBank accession FJ195366) able to distinguish Y2 and Y3 Bos Y haplogroups from Y1. Moreover, four Y3-specific sequence variants allow a distinction from haplogroup Y2. The typing of a Bison bison Y chromosome indicates that the ancestral allele for the USP9Y 81-bp insertion is the short Y1 version. The results from typing the new STS in 1230 cattle Y chromosomes are fully consistent with their classification through standard methods. Thanks to the newly identified STS, it is now possible to assign cattle Y chromosomes to the currently known haplogroups using a single marker.

  6. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  7. Hydrostatic pressure decreases the proton mobility in the hydrated BaZr0.9Y0.1O3 proton conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qianli; Braun, Artur; Ovalle, Alejandro; Savaniu, Cristian-Daniel; Graule, Thomas; Bagdassarov, Nikolai

    2010-07-01

    Impedance spectroscopy on the hydrated proton conductor BaZr0.9Y0.1O3 at high temperatures shows that the bulk proton conductivity activation energy Eb scales with the strain parameter ɛ, as achieved by hydrostatic pressures up to 2 GPa, suggesting that large lattices favor proton diffusivity. At high temperature, Eb increases upon pressure by 40%. The grain boundary activation energy Eg is around twice as Eb, indicating higher proton mobility in grain boundaries as a result of pressure induced sintering. An expanded lattice with strain parameter ɛ >1 should have lower Eb, suggesting that thin films expansive tensile strain could have larger proton conductivity.

  8. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE COMBUSTION SYNTHESIZED Y3+ DOPED CERIA (Ce0.9Y0.1O1.95)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyanthi, C. Esther; Siddheswaran, R.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Mangalaraja, R. V.; Siva Shankar, V.; Rajarajan, K.

    2013-07-01

    Y3+ doped CeO2 nanopowders (Ce0.9Y0.1O1.95, abbreviated as YDC) were synthesized by citrate-nitrate-auto combustion process using cerium nitrate hexahydrate, yttrium nitrate hexahydrate and citric acid. The as-synthesized powders were calcined at 700°C and converted into dense bodies followed by sintering at 1200°C. The microstructure of the synthesized powders and sintered bodies were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface morphology of the nanoparticles and clusters were also analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particles size of the YDC was found to be in the range from 10 to 30 nm, which is in good agreement with the crystallite size calculated from X-ray peak broadening method. Also, the X-ray diffraction confirmed that the Ce0.9Y0.1O1.95 crystallizes as the cubic fluorite structure of pure ceria. The optical absorption by functional molecules, impurities and oxygen vacancies were analysed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies. From the FTIR spectrum, the absorption peak found at 530 cm-1 is attributed to the vibrations of metal-oxygen bonds. The characteristic Raman peak was found to be 468 cm-1, and the minute absorption of oxygen vacancies were observed in the region 500-640 cm-1.

  9. Hydrostatic pressure decreases the proton mobility in the hydrated BaZr{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} proton conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Qianli; Braun, Artur; Ovalle, Alejandro; Savaniu, Cristian-Daniel; Graule, Thomas; Bagdassarov, Nikolai

    2010-07-26

    Impedance spectroscopy on the hydrated proton conductor BaZr{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} at high temperatures shows that the bulk proton conductivity activation energy E{sub b} scales with the strain parameter epsilon, as achieved by hydrostatic pressures up to 2 GPa, suggesting that large lattices favor proton diffusivity. At high temperature, E{sub b} increases upon pressure by 40%. The grain boundary activation energy Eg is around twice as E{sub b}, indicating higher proton mobility in grain boundaries as a result of pressure induced sintering. An expanded lattice with strain parameter epsilon>1 should have lower E{sub b}, suggesting that thin films expansive tensile strain could have larger proton conductivity.

  10. Density functional theory calculations of UO2 oxidation: evolution of UO(2+x), U4O(9-y), U3O7, and U3O8.

    PubMed

    Andersson, D A; Baldinozzi, G; Desgranges, L; Conradson, D R; Conradson, S D

    2013-03-04

    Formation of hyperstoichiometric uranium dioxide, UO2+x, derived from the fluorite structure was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Oxidation was modeled by adding oxygen atoms to UO2 fluorite supercells. For each compound ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed to allow the ions to optimize their local geometry. A similar approach was used for studying the reduction of U3O8. In agreement with the experimental phase diagram we identify stable line compounds at the U4O9-y and U3O7 stoichiometries. Although the transition from fluorite to the layered U3O8 structure occurs at U3O7 (UO2.333) or U3O7.333 (UO2.444), our calculated low temperature phase diagram indicates that the fluorite derived compounds are favored up to UO2.5, that is, as long as the charge-compensation for adding oxygen atoms occurs via formation of U(5+) ions, after which the U3O8-y phase becomes more stable. The most stable fluorite UO2+x phases at low temperature (0 K) are based on ordering of split quad-interstitial oxygen clusters. Most existing crystallographic models of U4O9 and U3O7, however, apply the cuboctahedral cluster. To better understand these discrepancies, the new structural models are analyzed in terms of existing neutron diffraction data. DFT calculations were also performed on the experimental cuboctahedral based U4O9-y structure, which enable comparisons between the properties of this phase with the quad-interstitial ones in detail.

  11. Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

  12. Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

  13. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  14. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  15. [Nutrition, aging, old age].

    PubMed

    Iván, L

    1998-12-06

    In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.

  16. A variable field neutron study of the negative magnetoresistive ruthenocuprate RuSr 2Nd 0.9Y 0.2Ce 0.9Cu 2O 10-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaughlin, A. C.; Attfield, J. P.

    2007-03-01

    A variable field neutron diffraction study of the ruthenocuprate RuSr 2Nd 0.9Y 0.2Ce 0.9Cu 2O 10-δ, which exhibits large negative magnetoresistance, has been performed in order to determine the variation of the magnetic structure with magnetic field. Upon application of a magnetic field the ({1}/{2} {1}/{2} {1}/{2}) and ({1}/{2} {1}/{2} l) magnetic peaks reduce in intensity as the spins in the RuO 2 and CuO 2 layer cant into a ferromagnetic alignment in the ab-plane. This results in increased spin polarised transport in the CuO 2 plane and hence large negative magnetoresistance.

  17. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  18. Comparison of luminescence, energy resolution and light loss coefficient of Gd1.53La0.47Si2O7:Ce and Lu1.9Y0.1SiO5:Ce scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yawai, Nattasuda; Wantong, Kriangkrai; Chewpraditkul, Weerapong; Murakami, Rikito; Horiai, Takahiko; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Akira; Nikl, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The luminescence and scintillation properties of Gd1.53La0.47Si2O7:Ce (GPSLa23.5%:Ce) scintillators were investigated and compared to those of Lu1.9Y0.1SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce) scintillators. At 662 keV γ-rays, the light yield of 33,500±3300 ph/MeV obtained for GPSLa23.5%:Ce is higher than that of 28,100±2800 ph/MeV obtained for LYSO:Ce. The energy resolution of 4.8±0.2% obtained for GPSLa23.5%:Ce is much better than that of 8.2±0.3% obtained for LYSO:Ce due to its better intrinsic resolution and proportionality of light yield. The light yield and energy resolution for α- rays, as well as a light yield ratio under excitation with α - and γ - rays (α/γ ratio) were also determined. The intrinsic light yield and light loss coefficient under excitation with 662 keV γ-rays were evaluated. The total attenuation coefficient at 60 keV and 662 keV γ - rays was also determined and compared with the theoretical one calculated using the WinXCom program.

  19. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  20. Age Limits.

    PubMed

    Antfolk, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  1. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  2. Nature of motor imitation problems in school-aged males with autism: how congruent are the error types?

    PubMed

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Roeyers, Herbert; De Weerdt, Willy

    2007-01-01

    This case-comparison study explores the underlying mechanisms of imitation problems in school-aged males with autism. Analysis of congruent error types in their imitation performance was made and compared with appropriate comparisons. Fifty-five males (eight low-functioning with autism: mean age 6y 2mo [SD 7.6mo]; 13 low-functioning with learning disabilities: mean age 6y 3mo [SD 2.8mo]; 17 high-functioning with autism: mean age 8y 9mo [SD 11mo]; and 17 typically developing: mean age 8y 8mo [SD 11.6mo]) were assessed on 18 single gestures and six sequences of hand postures. Imitation performance was videotaped for blind scoring on 21 possible errors by two independent observers. Results revealed that in both groups with autism, imitation required far more effort (more attempts) than in the comparison groups and was less precise (more spatial errors). Typical for low-functioning participants with autism was their less mature imaginary grip in transitive gestures. Typical for high-functioning participants with autism was their preference for immature mirror-image imitations. These observations support the assumption that the underlying mechanisms in motor imitation problems are linked more to the action production system and less to the action conceptual system or to behavioural problems. We postulate that the action production system is delayed rather than deficient.

  3. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  4. Population aging.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  5. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  6. Electroencephalographic abnormalities during sleep in children with developmental speech-language disorders: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Parry-Fielder, Bronwyn; Collins, Kevin; Fisher, John; Keir, Eddie; Anderson, Vicki; Jacobs, Rani; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Nolan, Terry

    2009-03-01

    Earlier research has suggested a link between epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and developmental speech-language disorder (DSLD). This study investigated the strength of this association by comparing the frequency of EEG abnormalities in 45 language-normal children (29 males, 16 females; mean age 6y 11mo, SD 1y 10mo, range 4y-9y 10mo) and 54 community-ascertained children (35 males, 19 females; mean age 5y 7mo, SD 1y 6mo, range 4y-9y 11mo) with a diagnosis of severe DSLD, defined as a score at least 2 SD below the mean on at least one speech-language measure, and a performance IQ of at least 80 points. All participants underwent sleep EEGs after sedation. Children with DSLD also had detailed speech-language, hearing, and psychological assessments. Results failed to support the previously identified strong association between abnormal EEG and DSLD. There was a weak, non-significant relationship between DSLD and epileptiform EEG. Epileptiform EEG was significantly associated with low performance IQ (p=0.04). This study draws into question previously reported associations between epileptiform activity and DSLD probably because it examined a purer cohort of children with more severe language difficulties who did not have seizures.

  7. Ageing doctors.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Steven; Milligan, Eleanor

    2017-03-01

    Doctors are neither more nor less susceptible than the general population to the effects of ageing. The relevance of deterioration with age depends on the nature of the work undertaken. Reduced muscle strength and visual and auditory deterioration can compromise clinical ability. Accumulation of chronic disease further reduces capacity. Cognitive decline is of particular importance, as good medical care requires considerable cognitive function. Patient safety is paramount, yet older doctors are an important part of the medical workforce and their value should be recognised. Changes in patient case mix, work place support systems and individual adjustments can assist safe practice. Deterioration in health should be acknowledged and requires proactive management. Current methods of ensuring competence are inadequate for supporting ageing doctors. A new initiative is recommended comprising collaboration between regulators, colleges and employing institutions to support the ageing doctor in providing safe and effective practice.

  8. [Neuronal ageing].

    PubMed

    Piechota, Małgorzata; Sunderland, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Ageing leads to irreversible alterations in the nervous system, which to various extent impair its functions such as capacity to learn and memory. In old neurons and brain, similarly to what may take place in other cells, there is increased oxidative stress, disturbed energetic homeostasis and metabolism, accumulation of damage in proteins and nucleic acids. Characteristic of old neurons are alterations in plasticity, synaptic transmission, sensitivity to neurotrophic factors and cytoskeletal changes. Some markers of senescence, whose one of them is SA-beta-galactosidase were used to show the process of neuronal ageing both in vitro, and in vivo. Some research suggest that, despite the fact that neurons are postmitotic cells, it is cell cycle proteins which play a certain role in their biology, e.g. differentiation. However, their role in neuronal ageing is not known or explained. Ageing is the serious factor of development of neurodegenerative diseases among others Alzheimer disease.

  9. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  10. Age matters.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, James Edgar; Marinelli, Michela

    2009-03-01

    The age of an experimental animal can be a critical variable, yet age matters are often overlooked within neuroscience. Many studies make use of young animals, without considering possible differences between immature and mature subjects. This is especially problematic when attempting to model traits or diseases that do not emerge until adulthood. In this commentary we discuss the reasons for this apparent bias in age of experimental animals, and illustrate the problem with a systematic review of published articles on long-term potentiation. Additionally, we review the developmental stages of a rat and discuss the difficulty of using the weight of an animal as a predictor of its age. Finally, we provide original data from our laboratory and review published data to emphasize that development is an ongoing process that does not end with puberty. Developmental changes can be quantitative in nature, involving gradual changes, rapid switches, or inverted U-shaped curves. Changes can also be qualitative. Thus, phenomena that appear to be unitary may be governed by different mechanisms at different ages. We conclude that selection of the age of the animals may be critically important in the design and interpretation of neurobiological studies.

  11. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later).

  12. Milk Consumption after Age 9 Years Does Not Predict Age at Menarche123

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frazier, A Lindsay; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular milk consumption during childhood and adolescence is recommended for bone health. However, milk consumption increases circulating insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and may also accelerate puberty. Objective: We prospectively investigated the association between milk consumption and age at menarche in the Growing Up Today Study. Methods: Study participants were 5583 US girls who were premenarcheal and ages 9–14 y in 1996. Girls were followed through 2001, at which time 97% of noncensored participants had reported menarche. Frequency of milk and meat consumption was calculated with the use of annual youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaires from 1996–1998. Intake of related nutrients was also measured. Age at menarche was self-reported annually through 2001. Results: During follow-up, 5227 girls attained menarche over 10,555 accrued person-years. In models adjusted for dietary and sociodemographic predictors of menarche, frequency of milk consumption did not predict age at onset of menarche (for >3 glasses of milk/d vs. 1.1–4 glasses/wk, HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.04). After additional adjustment for body size, premenarcheal girls consuming >3 glasses of milk daily were 13% less likely (95% CI: −3%, −23%; P-trend: <0.01) to attain menarche in the next month relative to those consuming 1.1–4 glasses/wk. Neither total meat nor red meat consumption was associated with age at menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regular consumption of milk in girls aged9 y is unlikely to substantially affect age at onset of menarche. Studies assessing associations between diet in early childhood and pubertal timing may be more illuminating. PMID:26136590

  13. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  14. Gay aging.

    PubMed

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults.

  15. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  16. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  17. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  18. Association of habitual dietary resveratrol exposure with the development of frailty in older age: the Invecchiare in Chianti study12

    PubMed Central

    Rabassa, Montserrat; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Cherubini, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Resveratrol may play a protective role against the frailty syndrome (FS) because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: We prospectively evaluated the association between habitual dietary resveratrol exposure and the development of FS after 3-, 6-, and 9-y follow-up periods in a community-dwelling older population. Design: We conducted a longitudinal analysis with the use of data from 769 participants aged ≥65 y from the Invecchiare in Chianti (Aging in Chianti) study. Total dietary resveratrol (TDR) intake was estimated at baseline with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire, which was developed to assess participants’ usual food intakes over the previous year, and an ad hoc resveratrol database. Total urinary resveratrol (TUR) was analyzed with the use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry with a previous solid-phase extraction at baseline. The combination of both measures [total dietary resveratrol plus total urinary resveratrol (TDR+TUR)] was computed with the use of the Howe’s method. FS was assessed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 9-y of follow-up and was defined as the presence of ≥3 of the following 5 criteria: shrinking, exhaustion, sedentariness, slowness, and weakness. Results: TDR+TUR concentrations were inversely associated with FS risk over 3-y of follow-up (OR for comparison of extreme tertiles: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.45; P-trend = 0.002) but not after 6- and 9-y of follow-up in multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for baseline frailty status and potential confounders. These results did not differ when analyses were further adjusted for inflammatory markers. Conclusion: Higher habitual dietary resveratrol exposure was associated with lower risk of older community dwellers developing FS during the first 3 y of follow-up but not after longer follow-up periods. PMID:26490492

  19. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  20. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  1. The Biology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  2. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  3. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

  4. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    González-de-la-Vara, Marcela del Rosario; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C

    2011-07-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle.

  5. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  6. Aging changes in sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004018.htm Aging changes in sleep To use the sharing features ... cycle is repeated several times during the night. AGING CHANGES With aging, sleep patterns tend to change. ...

  7. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...

  8. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  9. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  10. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  11. Aging Periodontium, Aging Patient: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Mark

    2015-08-01

    A functioning natural dentition is essential to maintaining overall health in the elderly patient. While age-related alterations in periodontal tissues and the immune system may make an elderly patient more susceptible to periodontal breakdown, age itself is not a major risk factor for periodontal diseases. Rather, individual age-associated factors such as systemic diseases, medications and changes in behavior, motor function and cognitive function should be considered for each elderly patient when making treatment decisions.

  12. Differences in finger length ratio between males with autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, ADHD, and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Esther I; Verheij, Fop; Wiegman, T; Ferdinand, Robert F

    2006-12-01

    Children with autism have a relatively shorter index finger (2D) compared with their ring finger (4D). It is often presumed that the 2D:4D ratio is associated with fetal testosterone levels and that high fetal testosterone levels could play a role in the aetiology of autism. It is unknown whether this effect is specific to autism. In this study, 2D:4D ratios of 144 males aged 6 to 14 years (mean age 9y 1 mo [SD 1y 11 mo]) with psychiatric disorders were compared with those of 96 males aged 6 to 13 years from the general population (mean age 9y 1 mo [SD 1y 10 mo]). Psychiatric disorders were divided into autism/Asperger syndrome (n=24), pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n=26), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; n=68), and anxiety disorders (n=26). Males with autism/Asperger syndrome (p<0.05) and ADHD/ODD (p<0.05) had significantly lower (though not significantly; p=0.52) ratios than males with an anxiety disorder, and males with autism/Asperger syndrome had lower ratios than those in the comparison group. These results indicated that higher fetal testosterone levels may play a role, not only in the origin of autism, but also in the aetiology of PDD-NOS and of ADHD/ODD. Males with anxiety disorders might have been exposed to lower prenatal testosterone levels.

  13. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  14. Reprogramming aging and progeria.

    PubMed

    Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The aging rate of an organism depends on the ratio of tissue degeneration to tissue repair. As a consequence, molecular alterations that tip this balance toward degeneration cause accelerated aging. Conversely, interventions can be pursued to reduce tissue degeneration or to increase tissue repair with the aim of delaying the onset of age-associated manifestations. Recent studies on the biology of stem cells in aging have revealed the influence of systemic factors on their functionality and demonstrated the feasibility of reprogramming aged and progeroid cells. These results illustrate the reversibility of some aspects of the aging process and encourage the search for new anti-aging and anti-progeria interventions.

  15. Epigenetic Control of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sedivy, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Organismal aging and longevity are influenced by many complex interacting factors. Epigenetics has recently emerged as another possible determinant of aging. Here, we review some of the epigenetic pathways that contribute to cellular senescence and age-associated phenotypes. Strategies aimed to reverse age-linked epigenetic alterations may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions to delay or alleviate some of the most debilitating age-associated diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 241–259. PMID:20518699

  16. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  17. EZ_Ages: Stellar population age calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.

    2014-07-01

    EZ_Ages is an IDL code package that computes the mean, light-weighted stellar population age, [Fe/H], and abundance enhancements [Mg/Fe], [C/Fe], [N/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for unresolved stellar populations. This is accomplished by comparing Lick index line strengths between the data and the stellar population models of Schiavon (2007), using a method described in Graves & Schiavon (2008). The algorithm uses the inversion of index-index model grids to determine ages and abundances, and exploits the sensitivities of the various Lick indices to measure Mg, C, N, and Ca enhancements over their solar abundances with respect to Fe.

  18. Aging of gaseous detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1990-03-01

    This paper makes an overview of developments in the wire chamber aging field since the wire chamber aging workshop held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California on January 16--17, 1986. The author discusses new techniques to analyze the gas impurities and the wire aging products, wire nonaging'' in clean systems, wire aging in systems containing various impurities, various examples of problems which can prime'' surfaces prior to the occurrence of the aging, and some recent aging experience with the SSC micro-straw tubes.'' 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Aging in culture.

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur.

  20. Trends in Neurocognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Preface The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive aging. Although there is a growing consensus that the aging brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field also is hampered by the complexity of the aging process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of aging are discussed. PMID:22714020

  1. Corrected Age for Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Corrected Age For Preemies Page Content Article Body If your ...

  2. [Aging and gynecologic cancer].

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Arturo A

    2005-01-01

    The interrelation between cancer and ageing in women is emphasized, on its increased incidence, in their molecular background, into the particular biological characteristics of the different tumors and the effects of ageing in the affected women.

  3. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint ... us | Customer Support | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  4. Aging changes in immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ...

  5. Aging and Health: Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems Glaucoma Macular Degeneration Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Cataracts Basic Facts & Information ... Are Cataracts? Cataracts are a common result of aging and occur frequently in older people. About one ...

  6. Aging According to Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Uses Erik Erikson's work to discuss how biographies treat aging. Explores how developmental theorists observe biographical representations of the life cycle and its applicability to aging. (Author/BHK)

  7. Ages and Stages: Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen Teen Article Body Adolescence can be a rough ...

  8. Hsps and aging.

    PubMed

    Tower, John

    2009-07-01

    Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are increasingly being implicated in aging phenotypes and control of life span across species. They are targets of the conserved heat-shock factor and insulin/IGF1-like signaling pathways that affect life span and aging phenotypes. Hsps are expressed in tissue-specific and disease-specific patterns during aging, and their level of expression and induction by stress correlates with and, in some instances, predicts life span. In model organisms, Hsps have been shown to increase life span and ameliorate aging-associated proteotoxicity. Finally, Hsps have emerged as key components in regulating aging-related cellular phenotypes, including cell senescence, apoptosis and cancer. The Hsps, therefore, provide a metric of individual stress and aging and are potential targets for interventions in aging and aging-related diseases.

  9. THE AGE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM REVISITED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, M.; Bouvier, A.

    2009-12-01

    the age of the Solar System, it is as yet unclear why the Pb-Pb ages recorded by CAIs analyzed thus far from Allende and Efremovka are resolvably younger. Recent work on high precision U isotope analyses of CAIs has shown that the 238U/235U ratio can vary up to ~3.5 ‰ in Allende CAIs [12], and this could potentially result in an uncertainty of as much as ~5 Ma in the previously determined Pb-Pb ages of CAIs. We are currently evaluating whether variations in U isotope compositions of CAIs may result in the range of CAI ages reported thus far. [1] C. M. Gray et al. (1973) The identification of early condensates from the solar nebula. Icarus v. 20, p 213-239. [2] Y. Amelin et al. (2006) 37th LPSC, abstr. #1970. [3] A. Bouvier et al. (2007) GCA, 71, 1583-1604. [4] E. Young et al. (2005) Science, 308, 223-227. [5] K. Thrane et al. (2006) ApJ, 646, L159-L162. [6] A. Bouvier et al. (2008) Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 41, abstr. #5299. [7] A. Bouvier and M. Wadhwa (2009) 40th LPSC, abstr. #2184. [8] A. Bouvier and M. Wadhwa (2009) Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 42, abstr. #5408. [9] Y. Amelin (2008) GCA, 72, 221-232. [10] L. Spivak-Birndorf et al. (2009) GCA, 73, 5202-5211. [11] A. Markowski et al. (2007) EPSL, 262, 214-229. [12] G. Brennecka et al. (2009) Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 42, abstr. #5303.

  10. Aging is not programmed

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-01-01

    Aging is not and cannot be programmed. Instead, aging is a continuation of developmental growth, driven by genetic pathways such as mTOR. Ironically, this is often misunderstood as a sort of programmed aging. In contrast, aging is a purposeless quasi-program or, figuratively, a shadow of actual programs. “The brightest flame casts the darkest shadow.” -George Martin PMID:24240128

  11. [Old age workers].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F

    2012-01-01

    The author demonstrates that in conditions of demographic aging an important contribution in solving the task set in "Strategy 2020" on more efficient usage of working resources could be involvement of occupational potential of old age workers, e.g. through changeable working schedules, outwork and distance work. With that, employment level at old age should consider performance level, health state and psycho-physiologic potential of the certain age group.

  12. Functional Age and Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner

    Mandatory retirement because of chronological age is coming under increasing attack and, at least in the United States, it is likely that there may soon be legislative prohibitions against forcing individuals to retire because of age. As a consequence there is renewed interest in redefining retirement criteria in terms of a functional age concept…

  13. Aging and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor's Office for Senior Citizens, Chicago, IL.

    The process of learning with respect to age is discussed. Learning may be defined as the acquisition of information or skills. Three non-cognitive factors varying with age are loss of speed, health, and motivation. Studies on learning in relation to age have not controlled for non-learning factors. Perceptual and psychomotor studies are not…

  14. Exercise and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this presentation on exercise and aging, the following explanations are made: the nature of physical fitness, physical fitness values, the importance of recognizing individual differences, physiological changes occurring with age through the adult years, physical fitness studies pertaining to middle-aged persons, the trainability of older…

  15. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  16. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  17. Age and Terrorist Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trela, James; Hewitt, Christopher

    While research has examined how age-related factors structure the probability of experiencing a particular event or suffering a particular kind of injury, one issue which has not been empirically addressed is the age structure of victimization from terrorist activity and civil strife. To explore the relationship between age and terrorist…

  18. Anatomy of ageing face.

    PubMed

    Ilankovan, V

    2014-03-01

    Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon.

  19. Language and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the effects of aging on language usage focusing on three areas of exploration: (1) changes in language in relation to changes in other cognitive abilities, (2) the linguistic consequences of normal aging versus those of dementia and aphasia, and (3) age-group differences in patterns of conversational interaction. (67 references) (GLR)

  20. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.; Petrov, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis.

  1. Computational biology for ageing.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Daniela; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Thornton, Janet M

    2011-01-12

    High-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies have generated a wealth of publicly available data on ageing. Easy access to these data, and their computational analysis, is of great importance in order to pinpoint the causes and effects of ageing. Here, we provide a description of the existing databases and computational tools on ageing that are available for researchers. We also describe the computational approaches to data interpretation in the field of ageing including gene expression, comparative and pathway analyses, and highlight the challenges for future developments. We review recent biological insights gained from applying bioinformatics methods to analyse and interpret ageing data in different organisms, tissues and conditions.

  2. [Molecular physiology of aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Morozov, V G; Malinin, V V

    2001-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the analysis of the peptide bioregulators role in molecular mechanisms of ageing and age-related pathology development. There has been put forward the concept of peptide regulation of ageing based on the priority data of authors long-term investigations on inhibition of involution processes in organs and tissues developed with age and restoration of specific proteins synthesis in cells under the influence of natural and synthetic peptide bioregulators. The prospects of peptide bioregulators employment in gerontological practice are being discussed in the paper with the purpose of treatment and prevention of age-associated pathology and human longevity increase.

  3. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB).

  4. Studying aging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-15

    Drosophila melanogaster represents one of the most important genetically accessible model organisms for aging research. Studies in flies have identified single gene mutations that influence lifespan and have characterized endocrine signaling interactions that control homeostasis systemically. Recent studies have focused on the effects of aging on specific tissues and physiological processes, providing a comprehensive picture of age-related tissue dysfunction and the loss of systemic homeostasis. Here we review methodological aspects of this work and highlight technical considerations when using Drosophila to study aging and age-related diseases.

  5. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  6. Aging, longevity and health

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2016-01-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5–7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health. PMID:21820462

  7. Aging, longevity and health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-10-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health.

  8. Ageing and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chia-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Kao, Chung-Lan

    2010-11-01

    Ageing, which all creatures must encounter, is a challenge to every living organism. In the human body, it is estimated that cell division and metabolism occurs exuberantly until about 25 years of age. Beyond this age, subsidiary products of metabolism and cell damage accumulate, and the phenotypes of ageing appear, causing disease formation. Among these age-related diseases, neurodegenerative diseases have drawn a lot of attention due to their irreversibility, lack of effective treatment, and accompanied social and economical burdens. In seeking to ameliorate ageing and age-related diseases, the search for anti-ageing drugs has been of much interest. Numerous studies have shown that the plant polyphenol, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), extends the lifespan of several species, prevents age-related diseases, and possesses anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. The beneficial effects of resveratrol are believed to be associated with the activation of a longevity gene, SirT1. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cerebrovascular disease. The therapeutic potential of resveratrol, diet and the roles of stem cell therapy are discussed to provide a better understanding of the ageing mystery.

  9. Comparison of cable ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaček, Vít; Kohout, Tomáš

    2010-03-01

    Two cable types, which currently are used in nuclear power plants (NPP) and which are composed by jacket/insulation materials, i.e. PVC/PVC and PVC/PE, were exposed to accelerated ageing conditions, in order to simulate their behavior after 10 years in service. The cables were aged under two different test conditions: With relatively high accelerating ageing speed:Radiation ageing was carried out at room temperature at a dose rate of 2900 Gy/h, followed by thermal ageing at 100 °C. This accelerated ageing condition was fairly fast, but still in compliance with the standards. With moderate ageing speed:The radiation and thermal ageing was performed simultaneously (superimposed) at a dose rate of 2.7-3.7Gy/h and a temperature of 68-70 °C. Such a test condition seems to be very close to the radiation and temperature impact onto the cables in the real NPP service. Finally, mechanical properties were measured to characterize the ageing status of the cables. The purpose of this study was to compare degradation effects, derived from both ageing methods, and to demonstrate that results obtained from high values of accelerating parameters and from fast ageing simulation can be very different from reality. The observed results corroborated this assumption.

  10. The Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    López-Otín, Carlos; Blasco, Maria A.; Partridge, Linda; Serrano, Manuel; Kroemer, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. This deterioration is the primary risk factor for major human pathologies including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Aging research has experienced an unprecedented advance over recent years, particularly with the discovery that the rate of aging is controlled, at least to some extent, by genetic pathways and biochemical processes conserved in evolution. This review enumerates nine tentative hallmarks that represent common denominators of aging in different organisms, with special emphasis on mammalian aging. These hallmarks are: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient-sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. A major challenge is to dissect the interconnectedness between the candidate hallmarks and their relative contribution to aging, with the final goal of identifying pharmaceutical targets to improve human health during aging with minimal side-effects. PMID:23746838

  11. Havana: aging in an aging city.

    PubMed

    Coyula, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    In Cuba, various factors have led to nearly zero population growth and a rapidly aging society. In a few years, the rush of baby-boomers reaching retirement will stand the population pyramid on its head, as the country's life expectancy already nears 80 years. Almost 20% of all Cubans live in Havana, demographically and structurally an aging city. Yet, the city is not prepared to offer its older inhabitants the spaces, services and housing options they require for a healthy quality of life. Studies must be undertaken to address this issue comprehensively, generating creative alternatives for wise use of limited resources to fulfill the material, social and spiritual needs of this growing population sector. KEYWORDS Aging, quality of life, social environment, urban health, housing for the elderly, Cuba.

  12. American Federation for Aging Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Post 50 Infoaging Biology of Aging Disease Center Healthy Aging Ask the Expert Contact Us Press Info Contact ... live healthier, longer Age Better Fund LEARN about healthy aging through AFAR's expert-edited guides InfoAging What's New ...

  13. Menopause accelerates biological aging

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Chen, Brian H.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E.; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D. J.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the “epigenetic clock”), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  14. Aging and the aged in Aesopic fables.

    PubMed

    Wortley, J

    1997-01-01

    Little attempt has been made to re-assess the attitudes to aging and old age of the ancient-medieval Greek-speaking world on the basis of the literary remains (which are common to both) since Richardson (1933). There are however some collections (proverbs, sayings, "purple passages" from literature and so forth) which include material revealing attitudes which are in fact quite different from those of today and which can even be surprising. One such collection, the large number of fables which more or less conform to the genre associated with Aesop, is here analyzed to isolate the texts which have to do with aging and the attitudes they reveal. Of the surprisingly few fables which touch upon the matter, most are distinctly complimentary. In most instances the elderly are seen to increase, rather diminish, in certain powers other than physical strength. Fables are found which characterize them as being astute, intelligent, crafty, loyal and, above all, capable of giving sound advice and good leadership when the situation requires it of them. The celebrated Fable of the Tortoise and the Hare, although it was not specifically interpreted in this way in ancient times, best sums up the general attitude: that dogged persistence (the characteristic of the elderly) will ultimately prove superior to all the erratic bursts of youthful speed anytime. Hence Cicero: "Old age is more spirited than youth, and stronger!"

  15. Replicative Aging in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Steinkraus, K.A.; Kaeberlein, M.; Kennedy, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Progress in aging research is now rapid, and surprisingly, studies in a single-celled eukaryote are a driving force. The genetic modulators of replicative life span in yeast are being identified, the molecular events that accompany aging are being discovered, and the extent to which longevity pathways are conserved between yeast and multicellular eukaryotes is being tested. In this review, we provide a brief retrospective view on the development of yeast as a model for aging and then turn to recent discoveries that have pushed aging research into novel directions and also linked aging in yeast to well-developed hypotheses in mammals. Although the question of what causes aging still cannot be answered definitively, that day may be rapidly approaching. PMID:18616424

  16. Age and injury severity.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, B

    1989-01-01

    This study aims at showing if and to what extent injury severity in frontal car crashes increases with the age of front seat occupants. Data on 2658 belted drivers and front seat passengers in Volvo private car series 140, 240 and 740/760, involved in frontal crashes were extracted from the Volvo Car Crash Register. The results show that the risk of injury resulting in "medical observation" does not increase systematically with age. However, the risk of fracture with any localization is more than three times higher among those aged 65-74 than in those aged 18-24, and the risk of fracture in the rib cage is nearly eleven times higher among the older than in the younger age group. It can be concluded that the incidence of specific types of injuries - as exemplified with fractures of any localization and fractures in the rib cage - increases with advancing age.

  17. Aging of clean foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Stewart, Peter S.

    2014-11-01

    Aging is an inevitable process in living systems. Here we show how clean foams age with time through sequential coalescence events: in particular, foam aging resembles biological aging. We measure population dynamics of bubbles in clean foams through numerical simulations with a bubble network model. We demonstrate that death rates of individual bubbles increase exponentially with time, independent on initial conditions, which is consistent with the Gompertz mortality law as usually found in biological aging. This consistency suggests that clean foams as far-from-equilibrium dissipative systems are useful to explore biological aging. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST.

  18. Estrogens and aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

  19. The 'Age of Never'

    PubMed Central

    Paupst, James C.

    1984-01-01

    Specific clinical problems emerge in middle-aged men, not so much because of aging, but as a result of the path they have chosen to follow and their reaction to life experiences. For instance, the middle-aged executive has probably spent a lifetime working towards success. His daily existence is characterized by aggression, and his drive to conquer may make him prone to heart disease. Mild depression due to anxious self scrutiny also is common in middle age. Depression and fatigue may lead some patients to overindulge in food, alcohol and/or drugs. Others may become addicted to exercise. These patients look on pain as an ominous threat to their finely balanced daily ritual, and therefore may disregard the warning signs of injury or illness. In treating the problems of middle age, physicians should remember that most middle-aged patients have acquired some practical wisdom. PMID:21278995

  20. Hemostasis and ageing.

    PubMed

    Mari, Daniela; Ogliari, Giulia; Castaldi, Davide; Vitale, Giovanni; Bollini, Elisa Mariadele; Lio, Domenico

    2008-10-23

    On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. The lecture of D. Mari on Hemostasis and ageing is summarized herein. Physiological ageing is associated with increased plasma levels of many proteins of blood coagulation together with fibrinolysis impairment. This may be of great concern in view of the known association between vascular and thromboembolic diseases and ageing. On the other hand, centenarians are characterized by a state of hypercoagulability and possession of several high-risk alleles and well-known atherothrombotic risk markers but this appears to be compatible with longevity and/or health. Parameters considered risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular diseases in young people may lose their biological significance in advanced age and assume a different role.

  1. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  2. Aging and cosmetic enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Honigman, Roberta; Castle, David J

    2006-01-01

    Obsession with a youthful appearance has become commonplace in modern society and has resulted in an upswing in cosmetic procedures trying to reverse the aging process. We selectively review the literature on aging and cosmetic surgery, with particular regard for the aging face. We pay attention to psychosocial aspects of response to such cosmetic procedures, both in terms of outcome and with respect to risk factors for a poor outcome. PMID:18044108

  3. Muscle Changes in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Siparsky, Patrick N.; Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level of Evidence: Level 5. PMID:24427440

  4. The essence of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vijg, Jan; Kennedy, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that aging is a purposeful, programmed series of events is intuitively appealing based on its many conserved aspects and the demonstrated feasibility of modifying life span by manipulating single genes or pathways. Yet, the case for a non-adaptive basis of aging is strong and now all but generally accepted in the field. Here, we briefly review why the case for programmed aging is weak, with a focus on the lack of possible evolutionary beneficial effects. PMID:26389968

  5. Anorexia of Aging.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Renuka

    2015-08-01

    The anorexia of aging is common, leading to adverse health consequences. As populations age, the impacts from anorexia in the older population are set to increase. Only greater awareness will allow for prevention or early intervention. This article discusses the physiologic anorexia of aging, highlights contributing factors, and proposes management strategies, including screening, especially in primary care. Many neuroendocrine factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology; it is clear that further human research is necessary if there is to be a pharmacologic breakthrough. There are currently no approved pharmacologic treatment strategies to prevent or treat the anorexia of aging.

  6. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    A suggested mechanism of carcinogenesis is presented. This scheme takes into account the effect of carcinogens at different integration levels: subcellular, tissue, and organism. Any of these levels may be age dependent. Age-associated changes in the activity of enzymes responsible for activation and inactivation of carcinogens, and variations in concentrations of lipids and proteins contributing to the transport of carcinogenic agents into cells, may play an important role in the modifying effect of age on carcinogenesis. The effects of age-associated changes in DNA repair need clarification. However, they are thought to exert a permissive influence on the age-associated rise in tumor incidence. It seems that proliferative activity of target tissues is the important modifying factor of carcinogenesis. Age-related changes of regulation at tissue and organism levels are also powerful factors in carcinogenesis modification. Age-dependent changes in the neuroendocrine system provide conditions for metabolic immunodepression and promotion of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, carcinogens per se (especially chemical and radiological) may intensify aging processes in the organism. Normalization, by drugs, of age-associated shifts requiring synthetic and energetic changes of a transformed tumor cells, and of immunological shifts, may exert both antitumor and geroprotective effects.

  7. Trinations aging symposium.

    PubMed

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K; Liu, Xinguang; Suh, Yousin; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2011-01-01

    The "Trinations Aging Symposium" was held on the campus of Guangdong Medical College in Dongguan, China from April 28 to 30, 2011. The goal was to promote interaction, collaboration, and exchange of ideas between scientists in the field of aging research from Japan, South Korea, and China. Aging research is on the rise in Asia. This represents an important development, since Korea and Japan are the two longest-lived countries in the world, and life expectancy is increasing rapidly in China and other Asian countries. The world will see a greater percentage of people over age 65 in coming years than any period in human history. Developing therapeutic approaches to increase healthspan has the potential not only to enhance quality of life, but would also help stem the looming economic crisis associated with a high percentage of elderly. The focus of the Trinations Aging Symposium was on the basic biology of aging, and topics discussed included genome maintenance, metabolism and aging, longevity genes and interventions, and new therapies for age-related diseases. The meeting finished with a commitment for another symposium next year that will include additional Asian countries and the formation of a new scientific organization, the Asian Association for Aging Research.

  8. Disease drivers of aging

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Richard J.; Sierra, Felipe; Austad, Steven N.; Epel, Elissa; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Erlandson, Kristine M.; Schafer, Marissa J.; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Wiley, Christopher; Campisi, Judith; Sehl, Mary E.; Scalia, Rosario; Eguchi, Satoru; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ahles, Tim A.; Barzilai, Nir; Hurria, Arti; Hunt, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that aging, at both the cellular and organismal levels, contributes to the development and progression of the pathology of many chronic diseases. However, much less research has examined the inverse relationship—the contribution of chronic diseases and their treatments to the progression of aging-related phenotypes. Here, we discuss the impact of three chronic diseases (cancer, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes) and their treatments on aging, putative mechanisms by which these effects are mediated, and the open questions and future research directions required to understand the relationships between these diseases and aging. PMID:27943360

  9. Aging and Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Magnus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Everyone ages, but only some will acquire a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress resulting in excessive accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins, and repertoire of signal transduction pathways and stress resistance mechanisms. Emerging evidence on protein interaction networks that monitor and respond to the normal aging process suggests that successful neural aging is possible for most, but also cautions that cures for neurodegenerative disorders are unlikely in the near future. PMID:16552414

  10. The scent of age.

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Kunio; Curran, Maryanne; Bard, Judith; Smith, Benjamin P C; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2003-01-01

    In many species, older males are often preferred mates because they carry 'good' genes that account for their viability. How females discern a male's age is a matter of question. However, for animals that rely heavily on chemical communication there is some indication that an animal's age can be determined by its scent. To investigate whether there are changes in body odours with age, and if so their composition, mice were trained in a Y-maze to discriminate urine odours of donor mice of different ages: Adult (3-10 months old) and Aged (more than 17 months old). Trained mice could discriminate between these two age groups by odour alone. To determine the chemical basis for these discriminations, studies were performed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. These analyses demonstrated differences in the ratio of urinary volatiles with age. The most prominent differences involved significantly greater amounts of 2-phenylacetamide and significantly lower amounts of methylbutyric acids in Aged animals relative to Adult animals. Fractionating and manipulating the levels of these compounds in the urine demonstrated that the mice can distinguish age based on variation in amounts of these specific compounds in the combined urine. PMID:12803907

  11. We Are Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Genovefa D.; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Ageing and longevity is unquestioningly complex. Several thoughts and mechanisms of ageing such as pathways involved in oxidative stress, lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage and repair, growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF), and environmental exposure have been proposed. Also, some theories of ageing were introduced. To date, the most promising leads for longevity are caloric restriction, particularly target of rapamycin (TOR), sirtuins, hexarelin and hormetic responses. This review is an attempt to analyze the mechanisms and theories of ageing and achieving longevity. PMID:25045704

  12. Heat treatment of expressed breast milk is a feasible option for feeding HIV-exposed, uninfected children after 6 months of age in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Humphrey, Jean H; Majo, Florence; Chasekwa, Bernard; Jenkins, Alison; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Muti, Monica; Paul, Keriann H; Madzima, Rufaro C; Moulton, Lawrence H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2010-08-01

    In the context of a prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program promoting exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) to 6 mo and offering HIV-PCR testing at approximately 6 mo, we ascertained the feasibility of expressing and heat-treating (EHT) all breast milk fed to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants following 6 mo of EBF. Twenty mother-baby pairs were enrolled from a hospital in rural Zimbabwe. Research nurses provided lactation, EHT, and complementary feeding counseling through 21 home visits conducted over an 8-wk period and collected quantitative and qualitative data on the mothers' EHT experiences, children's diets, and anthropometric measurements. Mothers kept daily logs of EHT volumes and direct breast-feeding episodes. Mothers successfully initiated and sustained EHT for 4.5 mo (range, 1-11 mo), feeding 426 +/- 227 mL/d (mean +/- SD). By wk 2 of follow-up, children were receiving EHT and Nutributter-enriched complementary foods that satisfied 100% of their energy requirements. During the 8-wk follow-up period, no growth faltering was experienced [changes in weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and length-for-age Z scores = +0.03 +/- 0.50; +0.77 +/- 1.59; and +0.02 +/- 0.85 (mean +/- SD), respectively]. Stigma was not a major deterrent, likely due to a social marketing campaign for EBF that promoted EHT as a practice to sustain breast-feeding for all women. This study provides evidence that resource-poor rural women can initiate and sustain EHT given family and health systems support. EHT provides a strategy for improving the diets of HIV-exposed but uninfected children after direct breast-feeding has ceased.

  13. Aging in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Nancy J.; Weil, Joyce; Felmban, Wejdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes. PMID:28138483

  14. Aging of SRC liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, T.; Jones, L.; Tewari, K. C.; Li, N. C.

    1981-02-01

    The viscosity of SRC-LL liquid increases when subjected to accelerated aging by bubbling oxygen in the presence of copper strip at 62°C. Precipitates are formed and can be separated from the aged liquid by Soxhlet extraction with pentane. A 30-70 blend of SRC-I with SRC-LL was subjected to oxygen aging in the absence of copper, and the viscosity increased dramatically after 6 days at 62°. The content of preasphaltene and its molecular size increase with time of aging, accompanied by decrease of asphaltene and pentane-soluble contents. For the preasphaltene fraction on aging, gel permeation chromatography shows formation of larger particles. ESR experiments show that with oxygen aging, spin concentration in the preasphaltene fraction decreases. Perhaps some semiquinone, together with di- and tri-substituted phenoxy radicals, generated by oxygen aging of the coal liquid, interact with the free radicals already present in coal to yield larger particles and reduce free radical concentration. We are currently using the very high-field (600-MHz) NMR spectrometer at Mellon Institute to determine changes in structural parameters before and after aging of SRC-II and its chromatographically separated fractions.

  15. Towards Consensus Gene Ages

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; McWhite, Claire D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene’s age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  16. Aging and Work Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Harris T.; Waring, Joan M.

    Business firms are an integral part of the age stratification structure of society. Although the age structures of people and roles within the organization are dynamic, these structures yield a fairly stable strata in which norms exist to suggest the various roles expected of certain persons. Those in roles with greater financial rewards, power,…

  17. Truth about Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This booklet examines aging, exposing various stereotypes and biases and describing the truth about aging. These topics are discussed: (1) the absence of older adults from printed and aduiovisual materials and the need to ensure that elderly persons be visible in all communications; (2) societal myths that deny older persons their individuality;…

  18. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  19. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  20. Aging: A Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storck, Patricia A.; Davies, Barbara K.

    This paper presents a curriculum for kindergarten children designed to increase children's understanding of the aging adult, make them aware of the likenesses and differences between the young and old adult, and encourage them to develop a friendship with an older adult. An introduction discusses the attention recently being given to aging and…

  1. Adventures of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria O.

    There is nothing in American society to prepare women for aging. It has been proposed that the status that the aged hold in any culture diminishes when modernization, an increased number and proportion of elderly, or rapid social change is present. All three of these conditions exist in American society. Women face many dangers, especially as they…

  2. Blueberries and neuronal aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the population of people in the United States over the age of 65 years continues to increase, so too will the incidence of age-related pathologies, including decreases in cognitive and motor function. In cases of severe deficits in memory or motor function, hospitalization and/or custodial care ...

  3. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  4. Oxidative stress and ageing.

    PubMed

    Birch-Machin, M A; Bowman, A

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is the resultant damage due to redox imbalances (increase in destructive free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and reduction in antioxidant protection/pathways) and is linked to ageing in many tissues including skin. In ageing skin there are bioenergetic differences between keratinocytes and fibroblasts which provide a potential ageing biomarker. The differences in skin bioenergy are part of the mitochondrial theory of ageing which remains one of the most widely accepted ageing theories describing subsequent increasing free radical generation. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and form part of the vicious cycle theory of ageing. External and internal sources of oxidative stress include UVR/IR, pollution (environment), lifestyle (exercise and diet), alcohol and smoking all of which may potentially impact on skin although many exogenous actives and endogenous antioxidant defence systems have been described to help abrogate the increased stress. This also links to differences in skin cell types in terms of the UVR action spectrum for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage (the latter a previously described UVR biomarker in skin). Recent work associates bioenergy production and oxidative stress with pigment production thereby providing another additional potential avenue for targeted anti-ageing intervention in skin. This new data supporting the detrimental effects of the numerous wavelengths of UVR may aid in the development of cosmetic/sunscreen design to reduce the effects of photoageing. Recently, complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain appears to be more important than previously thought in the generation of free radicals (suggested predominantly by non-human studies). We investigated the relationship between complex II and ageing using human skin as a model tissue. The rate of complex II activity per unit of mitochondria was determined in fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultured from skin covering

  5. Hypertension in aging patients.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alexander G

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension, especially isolated systolic hypertension, is commonly found in older (60-79 years of age) and elderly (≥80 years of age) people. Antihypertensive drug therapy should be considered in all aging hypertensive patients, as treatment greatly reduces cardiovascular events. Most classes of antihypertensive medications may be used as first-line treatment with the possible exception of α- and β-blockers. An initial blood pressure treatment goal is less than 140/90 mmHg in all older patients and less than 150/80 mmHg in the nonfrail elderly. The current paradigm of delaying therapeutic interventions until people are at moderate or high cardiovascular risk, a universal feature of hypertensive patients over 60 years of age, leads to vascular injury or disease that is only partially reversible with treatment. Future management will likely focus on intervening earlier to prevent accelerated vascular aging and irreversible arterial damage.

  6. Cooee bitumen: Chemical aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2013-09-01

    We study chemical aging in "Cooee bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. This model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins → 1 asphaltene." Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  7. Epigenetics of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Marta I.; Fernández, Agustín F.; Fraga, Mario F.

    2015-01-01

    The best-known phenomenon exemplifying epigenetic drift (the alteration of epigenetic patterns during aging) is the gradual decrease of global DNA methylation. Aging cells, different tissue types, as well as a variety of human diseases possess their own distinct DNA methylation profiles, although the functional impact of these is not always clear. DNA methylation appears to be a dynamic tool of transcriptional regulation, with an extra layer of complexity due to the recent discovery of the conversion of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. This age-related DNA demethylation is associated with changes in histone modification patterns and, furthermore, we now know that ncRNAs have evolved in eukaryotes as epigenetic regulators of gene expression. In this review, we will discuss current knowledge on how all these epigenetic phenomena are implicated in human aging, and their links with external, internal and stochastic factors which can affect human age-related diseases onset. PMID:27019618

  8. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  9. Aging hippocampus and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Malykhin, Nikolai V; Bouchard, Thomas P; Camicioli, Richard; Coupland, Nicholas J

    2008-03-26

    Earlier studies suggest that the anterior hippocampus may show resilience to age-associated volume loss. This study compared high-resolution magnetic resonance images obtained from younger (n=28; age range: 22-50 years) and older (n=39; age range: 65-84 years) healthy right-handed individuals to determine whether age-related volume changes varied between the hippocampal head, body and tail. Volumetric reductions were progressively more severe from hippocampal head to tail. Amygdala volume differences were intermediate in size. Although limited by the cross-sectional design, these data suggest that hippocampal subregions show a gradient of volume reduction in healthy aging that contrasts with the preferential reduction of anterior hippocampal volumes in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  10. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  11. Gut microbiota and aging.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Paul W; Jeffery, Ian B

    2015-12-04

    The potential for the gut microbiota to affect health has a particular relevance for older individuals. This is because the microbiota may modulate aging-related changes in innate immunity, sarcopaenia, and cognitive function, all of which are elements of frailty. Both cell culture-dependent and -independent studies show that the gut microbiota of older people differs from that of younger adults. There is no chronological threshold or age at which the composition of the microbiota suddenly alters; rather, changes occur gradually with time. Our detailed analyses have separated the microbiota into groups associated with age, long-term residential care, habitual diet, and degree of retention of a core microbiome. We are beginning to understand how these groups change with aging and how they relate to clinical phenotypes. These data provide a framework for analyzing microbiota-health associations, distinguishing correlation from causation, identifying microbiota interaction with physiological aging processes, and developing microbiota-based health surveillance for older adults.

  12. Memory, language, and ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D M; Mackay, D G

    1997-01-01

    This overview provides both theoretical and empirical reasons for emphasizing practice and familiar skills as a practical strategy for enhancing cognitive functioning in old age. Our review of empirical research on age-related changes in memory and language reveals a consistent pattern of spared and impaired abilities in normal old age. Relatively preserved in old age is memory performance involving highly practised skills and familiar information, including factual, semantic and autobiographical information. Relatively impaired in old age is memory performance that requires the formation of new connections, for example, recall of recent autobiographical experiences, new facts or the source of newly acquired facts. This pattern of impaired new learning versus preserved old learning cuts across distinctions between semantic memory, episodic memory, explicit memory and perhaps also implicit memory. However, familiar verbal information is not completely preserved when accessed on the output side rather than the input side: aspects of language production, namely word finding and spelling, exhibit significant age-related declines. This emerging pattern of preserved and impaired abilities presents a fundamental challenge for theories of cognitive ageing, which must explain why some aspects of language and memory are more vulnerable to the effects of ageing than others. Information-universal theories, involving mechanisms such as general slowing that are independent of the type or structure of the information being processed, require additional mechanisms to account for this pattern of cognitive aging. Information-specific theories, where the type or structure of the postulated memory units can influence the effects of cognitive ageing, are able to account for this emerging pattern, but in some cases require further development to account for comprehensive cognitive changes such as general slowing. PMID:9460069

  13. [Cardiovascular system and aging].

    PubMed

    Saner, H

    2005-12-01

    Aging is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Age-related morphologic changes in large resistance vessels include an intima-media-thickening and increased deposition of matrix substance, ultimately leading to a reduced compliance and an increased stiffness of the vessels. Aging of the heart is mainly characterized by an increase of the left ventricular mass in relation to the chamber volume and a decrease of diastolic function. There is some controversy in regard to the question if these changes in the vessel wall are the consequence of aging or if a decrease in physical activity is a major contributor of this process. With age the cardiovascular profile is changing. Whereas smoking is less prominent, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus are more often encountered. Primary and secondary prevention through cardiovascular risk factor management is also very important in the aging population due to the increased risk of acute vascular complications with age. Preventive measures have to include life style factor interventions as well as optimized drug therapy. There is no scientific evidence that vascular aging can be prevented by administration of supplements such as antioxidant vitamins. Aspirin is effective for cardiovascular prevention up to a higher age. Betablockers and ACE-inhibitors are generally underused in older patients after myocardial infarctions. Statins are effective in reducing cardiovascular complications up to an age of 80 years. Myocardial infarction in elderly patients is often characterized by atypical symptoms and may be even silent. Interventional therapy in elderly patients is as successful as in younger patients but has an increased complication rate. Ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation in elderly patients leads to significant improvements of physical capacity, well-being and quality of life and may help to prevent social isolation.

  14. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  15. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  16. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  17. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  18. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  19. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  20. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  1. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  2. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  3. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  4. Ageing and Circadian rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.; Long, Dani M.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous molecular feedback loops that generate daily rhythms in gene expression, cellular functions, physiological processes and behavior. The mechanisms of circadian clocks are well understood in young fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster, but less is known about how circadian system changes during organismal aging. Similar as in humans, rest/activity rhythms tend to weaken with age in fruit flies, suggesting conservation of aging-related changes in the circadian system. It has been shown that aging is associated with reduced expression of core clock genes in peripheral head clocks while similar reduction may not occur in central clock neurons regulating behavioral rhythms. Arrhythmic flies with mutations in core clock genes display accelerated aging and shortened lifespan suggesting that weakened circadian rhythms may contribute to aging phenotypes. To understand whether strong circadian clocks support organism’s healthspan and lifespan, future research needs to focus on age-related changes in clock genes as well as clock-controlled genes in specific organs and tissues. PMID:26000238

  5. Aging in the glomerulus.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Jocelyn E

    2012-12-01

    Kidney function declines with age in the majority of the population. Although very few older people progress to end stage, the consequences of doing so are burdensome for the patient and very expensive for the society. Although some of the observed decline is likely due to changes in the vasculature, much is associated with the development of age-associated glomerulosclerosis. This article will review the well-established structural and functional changes in the glomerulus with age. The role of calorie restriction in modifying age-related pathology will be discussed. The importance of the podocyte as a critical cell in the aging process is considered using animal models and human biopsy material. Newer data on changes in gene expression driven by nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) and possible changes in biology in the glomerulus are discussed. The relationship between pathways involved in aging and the decline in kidney function is reviewed. There is speculation on the significance of these changes in relation to normal and pathological aging.

  6. Epigenetics and aging

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sangita; Tyler, Jessica K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, a growing number of studies have revealed that progressive changes to epigenetic information accompany aging in both dividing and nondividing cells. Functional studies in model organisms and humans indicate that epigenetic changes have a huge influence on the aging process. These epigenetic changes occur at various levels, including reduced bulk levels of the core histones, altered patterns of histone posttranslational modifications and DNA methylation, replacement of canonical histones with histone variants, and altered noncoding RNA expression, during both organismal aging and replicative senescence. The end result of epigenetic changes during aging is altered local accessibility to the genetic material, leading to aberrant gene expression, reactivation of transposable elements, and genomic instability. Strikingly, certain types of epigenetic information can function in a transgenerational manner to influence the life span of the offspring. Several important conclusions emerge from these studies: rather than being genetically predetermined, our life span is largely epigenetically determined; diet and other environmental influences can influence our life span by changing the epigenetic information; and inhibitors of epigenetic enzymes can influence life span of model organisms. These new findings provide better understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging. Given the reversible nature of epigenetic information, these studies highlight exciting avenues for therapeutic intervention in aging and age-associated diseases, including cancer. PMID:27482540

  7. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle.

  8. Three ages of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles A.; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1989-01-01

    A central question for any planet is the age of its surface. Based on comparative planetological arguments, Venus should be as young and active as the Earth (Wood and Francis). The detection of probable impact craters in the Venera radar images provides a tool for estimating the age of the surface of Venus. Assuming somewhat different crater production rates, Bazilevskiy et al. derived an age of 1 + or - 0.5 billion years, and Schaber et al. and Wood and Francis estimated an age of 200 to 400 million years. The known impact craters are not randomly distributed, however, thus some area must be older and others younger than this average age. Ages were derived for major geologic units on Venus using the Soviet catalog of impact craters (Bazilevskiy et al.), and the most accessible geologic unit map (Bazilevskiy). The crater counts are presented for (diameters greater than 20 km), areas, and crater densities for the 7 terrain units and coronae. The procedure for examining the distribution of craters is superior to the purely statistical approaches of Bazilevskiy et al. and Plaut and Arvidson because the bins are larger (average size 16 x 10(6) sq km) and geologically significant. Crater densities define three distinct groups: relatively heavily cratered (Lakshmi, mountain belts), moderately cratered (smooth and rolling plains, ridge belts, and tesserae), and essentially uncratered (coronae and domed uplands). Following Schaber et al., Grieve's terrestrial cratering rate of 5.4 + or - 2.7 craters greater than 20 km/10(9) yrs/10(6) sq km was used to calculate ages for the geologic units on Venus. To improve statistics, the data was aggregated into the three crater density groups, deriving the ages. For convenience, the three similar age groups are given informal time stratigraphic unit names, from youngest to oldest: Ulfrunian, Sednaian, Lakshmian.

  9. Ageing and its implications

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, P; Joshua, Elizabeth; Ranganathan, K

    2010-01-01

    Ageing processes are defined as those that increase the susceptibility of individuals, as they grow older, to the factors that eventually lead to death. It is a complex multi-factorial process, where several factors may interact simultaneously and may operate at many levels of functional organization. The heterogeneity of ageing phenotype among individuals of the same species and differences in longevity among species are due to the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors in shaping the life span. The various theories of ageing and their proposed roles are discussed in this review. PMID:21731262

  10. Envy, politics, and age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age.

  11. [Epidermal aging and anti-aging strategies].

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, J; Hilpert, K; Wolff, L

    2016-02-01

    Epithelial senescence is a complex process depending on intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors (e.g., UV or IR light, tobacco smoke) and must be seen in the context of the aging process especially of the corium and the subcutis. Morphological alterations become apparent in the form of epithelial atrophy, structural changes within the basal membrane, and a decrease in cell count of melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Signs of cellular senescence are reduced proliferation of keratinocytes, cumulation of dysplastic keratinocytes, various mutations (e.g., c-Fos/c-Jun, STAT3, FoxO1), as well as multiple lipid or amino acid metabolic aberrations (e.g., production of advanced glycation endproducts). This causes functional changes within the physical (lipid deficiency, water distribution dysfunction, lack of hygroscopic substances), chemical (pH conditions, oxygen radicals), and immunological barrier. Prophylactically, barrier-protective care products, antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, B3, E, polyphenols, flavonoids), sunscreen products/measurements, and retinoids are used. For correcting alterations in aged epidermis, chemical peelings (fruit acids, β-hydroxy acid, trichloroacetic acid, phenolic compounds), non-ablative (IPL, PDL, Nd:YAG) as well as ablative (CO2, Erbium-YAG) light-assisted methods are used.

  12. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  13. Biochemical Reversal of Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2006-03-01

    We cite our progress on biochemical reversal of aging. However, it may be circa 2 years before we have necessary substances at low cost. Meanwhile, without them, a number of measures can be adopted providing marked improvement for the problems of aging in modern societies. For example, enzymes are needed to excrete toxins that accelerate aging; Hg is the ultimate toxin that disables all enzymes (including those needed to excrete Hg itself). Low Hg level in the urine, due to loss of excretory ability, causes the diagnosis of Hg toxicity to almost always be missed. Hg sources must be removed from the body! Another example is excess sugar; hyperglycemia decreases intracellular ascorbic acid (AA) by competitively inhibiting the insulin- mediated active transport of AA into cells. Thus, immunity is impaired by low leucocyte AA. AA is needed for new proteins in aging tissues. Humans must supplement AA; their need same as in AA-synthesizing mammals.

  14. The discourse of aging.

    PubMed

    Madden, Connie L; Cloyes, Kristin G

    2012-01-01

    Historical and epistemological developments contribute to and reinforce the underlying framework that categorizes antiaging discourse and healthy aging discourse. This discourse creates the question "Can we live longer or better?" and encompasses issues of quality versus quantity, dependency versus autonomy, and risk versus benefit. By positing this discourse as a dichotomous tension, the development can be traced through the examination of select examples of influential studies in the field of aging. For nursing, the risk of these continued oppositions is potential oversimplification that may limit discernment of the complexities of care of older adults. Through understanding of the evolution and imposition of this dichotomizing discourse, nursing can provide older adult care within the reality of the aging experience, and develop frameworks, theories, and multidisciplinary discursive practice to optimize nursing care in the real-world spaces that exist between antiaging and healthy aging boundaries.

  15. The biochemistry of aging.

    PubMed

    Knight, J A

    2000-01-01

    Although philosophers and scientists have long been interested in the aging process, general interest in this fascinating and highly important topic was minimal before the 1960s. In recent decades, however, interest in aging has greatly accelerated, not only since the elderly form an ever-increasing percentage of the population, but because they utilize a significant proportion of the national expenditures. In addition, many people have come to the realization that one can now lead a very happy, active, and productive life well beyond the usual retirement age. Scientifically, aging is an extremely complex, multifactorial process, and numerous aging theories have been proposed; the most important of these are probably the genomic and free radical theories. Although it is abundantly clear that our genes influence aging and longevity, exactly how this takes place on a chemical level is only partially understood. For example, what kinds of genes are these, and what proteins do they control? Certainly they include, among others, those that regulate the processes of somatic maintenance and repair, such as the stress-response systems. The accelerated aging syndromes (i.e., Hutchinson-Gilford, Werner's, and Down's syndromes) are genetically controlled, and studies of them have decidedly increased our understanding of aging. In addition, C. elegans and D. melanogaster are important systems for studying aging. This is especially true for the former, in which the age-1 mutant has been shown to greatly increase the life span over the wild-type strain. This genetic mutation results in increased activities of the antioxidative enzymes, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase. Thus, the genomic and free radical theories are closely linked. In addition, trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome) is characterized by a significantly shortened life span; it is also plagued by increased oxidative stress which results in various free radical-related disturbances. Exactly how this extra chromosome

  16. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1995-08-01

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples.

  17. Myths of ageing.

    PubMed

    Mulley, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Historical and contemporary images of ageing have generally reinforced negative stereotypes of old age. An examination of sculpture, painting, poetry, literature and film, as well as television, advertising, newspaper stories, birthday cards and road signs reveals that old age is often shown as being a time of loneliness, depression and physical decline. These conditions do occur but their prevalence and severity have been exaggerated. There are many myths of ageing that have been influenced by these representations: that old people with physical or cognitive decline are social problems; that families no longer care for their elders; that geriatric medicine is an unglamorous specialty. Low expectations of old people and ageist thinking can adversely affect how we speak of disadvantaged old people. The challenge is to question inaccurate assumptions. Key to the improvement of medical care of older people is to extend the teaching of geriatric medicine and improve and coordinate research.

  18. Premature Aging in Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Afton L; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, and until recently, was considered to be common but relatively "benign." Mounting evidence, however, suggests that some of the 116 million US adults who suffer from chronic pain are also at an increased risk for developing age-related diseases prematurely, suffering earlier cognitive and physical decline, and experiencing earlier mortality. Given the aging US population and the prevalence of chronic pain along with related healthcare consequences, there is a critical need to better understand the relationship between aging and chronic pain. Herein, we focus on one chronic pain state, fibromyalgia, and provide an overview of the evidence suggesting that individuals with this chronic pain condition show signs of premature aging.

  19. Aging metabolism: intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Esteban

    2017-03-13

    Human beings are subjected to aging and age-associated diseases. Life expectancy has improved impressively in the last century due to social and economic development, but despite increasing improvement is still more limited than average in those ones with chronic diseases such as treated HIV infection. There has been a substantial research on the underlying factors responsible for aging both in the general and the HIV-infected populations. Several specific targets for potential intervention have been identified but studies so far have been limited to small experiments in cultured cells or living beings other than humans such as mice or flies. Time has come for designing and developing human studies with those candidate therapies showing most promising benefits and least potential toxicities to treat age-related diseases.

  20. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  1. Stress, Inflammation and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lavretsky, Helen; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This editorial provides a summary of the state of research on stress-related changes associated with aging and discuss how factors such as inflammation and sex steroid alterations may interact with psychosocial stress to affect the risk for mood and cognitive disturbance in older individuals. The authors provide an integrated summary of four studies reported in this issue of the journal and views on future direction in stress and aging research and interventions targeting resilience to stress. PMID:22874577

  2. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  3. Female fecundity and age.

    PubMed

    DeCherney, A H; Berkowitz, G S

    1982-02-18

    Studies have shown that fertility (defined as number of live births) declines with age in women. However, it is not known to what extent other factors, such as male reproductive capacity and coital patterns affect this decrease. Male fecundity may also decline with age, and coital frequency is believed to decline with length of marriage. All these factors are closely related to the woman's age. The effects of male fecundity and coital frequency can be eliminated in evaluating female fecundity by studying patients who have received artificial insemination and restricting the group to those with azoospermic husbands. In 2193 patients drawn from 11 centers in France that offer artificial insemination with frozen donor semen, women over 30 exhibited a marked decline in fecundity. The cumulative success rate after 12 cycles of insemination was 73% for those under 25, 74.1% for the 26-30 age group, 61.5% for those 31-35 years old, and 53.6% for those over 35 years. The difference in fecundity with age was consistent across the centers, an important factor to note since the mean success rate per cycle differed considerably among the participating centers. The decreased fecundity in women over 30 may be attributed to gynecologic diseases, or effects of age on the incidence of tubal deciliation and occurrence of ovulatory disorders. New guidelines for counseling on reproduction may be needed for women over 30. Currently, counseling regarding reproduction and maternal age is limited to increased risks of Down's syndrome and other genetic abnormalities and risks of spontaneous abortion and perinatal deaths. The age of a woman should be considered when deciding when to start an infertility workup or stop treatment for infertility, and in selecting appropriate candidates for tubal surgery and in vitro fertilization. There is also a need to reevaluate individual and societal goals regarding childbearing to accommodate women's desires to have both a family and a career.

  4. Aging according to biography.

    PubMed

    Weiland, S

    1989-04-01

    Aging can no longer be considered an afterthought in biographies. How scholarly biographers treat their subjects is considered in the context of the work of Erik H. Erikson. Readers of biographies can discover in accounts of the subject's last years the same interest in developmental values typical of biographical attention to youth. Developmental theorists can observe in biography representations of the life cycle that add meaning to aging.

  5. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe

    2016-11-01

    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  6. Molecular neuropathology of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.; Finch, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 30 selections. Some of the titles are: Physiological Approaches to the Roles of Gene Regulation in the Brain during Aging; Isolation of a cDNA Clone Encoding the Alzheimer's Disease and Down's Syndrome Amyloid Peptide; Isolation, Characterization, and Chromosomal Localization of a human brain cDNA clone coding for the amyloid BETA-protein Found in Alzheimer's Disease, Down's Syndrome, and Aging Brain; and Genetic Linkage Analysis of Familial Alzheimer's Disease.

  7. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population.

  8. Aging and Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Chinoy, Evan D.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with numerous changes, including changes in sleep timing, duration, and quality. The circadian timing system interacts with a sleep-wake homeostatic system to regulate human sleep, including sleep timing and structure. Here, we review key features of the human circadian timing system, age-related changes in the circadian timing system, and how those changes may contribute to the observed alterations in sleep. PMID:26568120

  9. Malnutrition and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, M

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the problems that exist in relation to malnutrition and the elderly population. The changes that occur in body composition during ageing are described and how this may affect disease risk. The possible metabolic processes behind weight loss are discussed and the numerous factors that affect nutritional status in the older age group are described. Prevention of malnutrition in this group is important and so the roles of nutrition screening and assessment are examined. PMID:16397072

  10. Aging assessment of cables

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approximately}100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approximately}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approximately}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam (up to 400{degrees}C) exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, was also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of these tests do not indicate any reason to believe that many popular nuclear power plant cable products cannot inherently be qualified for 60 years of operation for conditions simulated by this testing. Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) are more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials.

  11. Aging assessment of cables

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approximately}100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approximately}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approximately}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam (up to 400{degrees}C) exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, was also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of these tests do not indicate any reason to believe that many popular nuclear power plant cable products cannot inherently be qualified for 60 years of operation for conditions simulated by this testing. Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) are more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials.

  12. Extracellular RNA in aging.

    PubMed

    Dluzen, Douglas F; Noren Hooten, Nicole; Evans, Michele K

    2017-03-01

    Since the discovery of extracellular RNA (exRNA) in circulation and other bodily fluids, there has been considerable effort to catalog and assess whether exRNAs can be used as markers for health and disease. A variety of exRNA species have been identified including messenger RNA and noncoding RNA such as microRNA (miRNA), small nucleolar RNA, transfer RNA, and long noncoding RNA. Age-related changes in exRNA abundance have been observed, and it is likely that some of these transcripts play a role in aging. In this review, we summarize the current state of exRNA profiling in various body fluids and discuss age-related changes in exRNA abundance that have been identified in humans and other model organisms. miRNAs, in particular, are a major focus of current research and we will highlight and discuss the potential role that specific miRNAs might play in age-related phenotypes and disease. We will also review challenges facing this emerging field and various strategies that can be used for the validation and future use of exRNAs as markers of aging and age-related disease. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1385. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1385 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  13. Cellular aging and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is manifest in a variety of changes over time, including changes at the cellular level. Cellular aging acts primarily as a tumor suppressor mechanism, but also may enhance cancer development under certain circumstances. One important process of cellular aging is oncogene-induced senescence, which acts as an important anti-cancer mechanism. Cellular senescence resulting from damage caused by activated oncogenes prevents the growth or potentially neoplastic cells. Moreover, cells that have entered senescence appear to be targets for elimination by the innnate immune system. In another aspect of cellular aging, the absence of telomerase activity in normal tissues results in such cells lacking a telomere maintenance mechanism. One consequence is that in aging there is an increase in cells with shortened telomeres. In the presence of active oncogenes that cause expansion of a neoplastic clone, shortening of telomeres leading to telomere dysfunction prevents the indefinite expansion of the clone because the cells enter crisis. Crisis results from fusions and other defects caused by dysfunctional telomeres and is a terminal state of the neoplastic clone. In this way the absence of telomerase in human cells, while one cause of cellular aging, also acts as an anti-cancer mechanism. PMID:20705476

  14. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1997-07-01

    A new technique has been developed to determine the age of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in solids. Uranium age is defined as the time since the uranium-containing material was last subjected to a process capable of separating uranium from its radioactive-decay daughters. [Most chemical processing, uranium enrichment, volatilization processes, and phase transformations (especially relevant for uranium hexafluoride) can result in separation of the uranium parent material from the decay-product daughters.] Determination of the uranium age, as defined here, may be relevant in verifying arms-control agreements involving uranium-containing nuclear weapons. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium daughter isotopes and their parents, viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gamma rays and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples, where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the samples. In this report the methodology and the data for determining the age of two HEU samples are presented.

  15. Magnesium and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Zanforlini, Bruno Micael; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is relatively stable in the intracellular compartment, although decreases linearly with advancing age. This begs the question as to whether Mg could be used as biomarker of aging. A biomarker of aging is a biological parameter of an organism that, in the absence of disease, better predicts functional capability at a later age than the chronological age. Bone and muscle Mg content might be useful biomarkers, but the need for biopsies and the heterogeneous distribution of Mg in bones and muscles strongly limit the application of these methods in clinical practice. Similar considerations can be made for urinary Mg assessment, particularly after a loading test. Markers of Mg in blood seem fairly unreliable as biomarkers of aging since they are strongly dependent upon renal function, do not reflect the intracellular Mg status, and, in some investigations, are within normal ranges although other Mg parameters are not. Other investigations (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance with fluorescent probes) seem to be promising, but their availability remains limited.

  16. Polyphenols and aging.

    PubMed

    Queen, Brannon L; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2010-02-01

    Age-associated changes within an individual are inherently complex and occur at multiple levels of organismal function. The overall decline in function of various tissues is known to play a key role in both aging and the complex etiology of certain age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Continuing research highlights the dynamic capacity of polyphenols to protect against age-associated disorders through a variety of important mechanisms. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have the capacity to mitigate age-associated cellular damage induced via metabolic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, recently acquired evidence also demonstrates a likely role for these polyphenols as anticancer agents capable of preventing formation of new vasculature in neoplastic tissues. Polyphenols have also been shown to possess other anticancer properties such as specific cell-signaling actions that may stimulate the activity of the regulatory protein SIRT1. Additionally, polyphenolic compounds have demonstrated their inhibitory effects against chronic vascular inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. These increasingly well-documented results have begun to provide a basis for considering the use of polyphenols in the development of novel therapies for certain human diseases. And while the mechanisms by which these effects occur are yet to be fully understood, it is evident that further investigation may yield a potential use for polyphenols as pharmacological interventions against specific age-associated diseases.

  17. Aging of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation.

  18. Can ageing be slowed?

    PubMed Central

    Gaman, L; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V

    2011-01-01

    Redox metabolism has long been considered to play important roles in aging and the development of age-related diseases. Both dietary and pharmacological manipulations of redox metabolism have been associated with the extension of lifespan. Increasing new evidence s also suggests that the process of aging may derive from imperfect clearance of oxidatively damaged material. The accumulation of this molecular “garbage”, relatively indigestible, further hinders cellular functions, induces progressive failure of maintenance and repair and increases the probability of death. One important trend in anti–aging strategy is, therefore, to prevent or even revert the accumulation of these oxidatively altered molecules by stimulating the maintenance and repair systems through hormesis. A promising approach for slowing down ageing and achieving a healthy senescence is represented by repeated exposure to various mild stresses (caloric restriction, moderate exercise, nutritional or pharmacological hormetins). This article reviews the potential therapeutic tools available to date for increasing longevity and obtaining and successful ageing from the redox and hormetic perspective. PMID:22514565

  19. [Market and ageing].

    PubMed

    Joël, M-E

    2005-06-01

    Ageing can be defined as growth of the proportion of elderly people in the population, but also as a group of transformations in life cycles: older age at time of first job, marriage, birth of first child, early retirement, longer life expectancy, active retirement, greater number of dependent persons. The economic impact of the ageing population has been extensively studied from the perspective of the social security fund. In France and in most developed countries, population ageing has considerably destabilized social accounting creating a gap between a system thought out after WWII and the present social environment. The current response of social security system to elderly person's needs is considered inadequate. There are however other consequences of ageing. It is important to measure the upheaval caused by longer life expectancy and changing life stages on all markets. Three kinds of markets are involved in different ways: job market, services market for the elderly and all goods market for seniors and golden aged. Many studies have focused on the links between economic production and physiological ageing. The traditional organisation of working conditions stresses working intensity over experience, young workers'capabilities over than those of older workers. The link between age and the job market can also be analyzed by considering supply and demand for employment for workers over 50. Another question is the workforce shortage forecasted in some sectors (health and social sectors in particular) and the role of immigration. Growth in the supply of long-term care will require restructuring of the sector's logistics and financing. Certain trends are appearing: government authorities are reducing their supply of services, private production is increasing, public financing is being maintained, and individual contributions are growing while the role of insurance has remained stagnant. A qualitative analysis of the markets also shows heterogeneous workers

  20. The Sciences and Aging. Adding to the Knowledge about Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Dean

    The Social Sciences, as they relate to the aged and the aging, are discussed. Social gerontology seeks to discover the role of the social environment as a determinant of aging and of the behavior and position of older people in society. In the United States, some 20 million people are over 65 years of age, and the median age of the elderly has…

  1. Prion protein and aging

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Lisa; Legname, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been widely investigated ever since its conformational isoform, the prion (or PrPSc), was identified as the etiological agent of prion disorders. The high homology shared by the PrPC-encoding gene among mammals, its high turnover rate and expression in every tissue strongly suggest that PrPC may possess key physiological functions. Therefore, defining PrPC roles, properties and fate in the physiology of mammalian cells would be fundamental to understand its pathological involvement in prion diseases. Since the incidence of these neurodegenerative disorders is enhanced in aging, understanding PrPC functions in this life phase may be of crucial importance. Indeed, a large body of evidence suggests that PrPC plays a neuroprotective and antioxidant role. Moreover, it has been suggested that PrPC is involved in Alzheimer disease, another neurodegenerative pathology that develops predominantly in the aging population. In prion diseases, PrPC function is likely lost upon protein aggregation occurring in the course of the disease. Additionally, the aging process may alter PrPC biochemical properties, thus influencing its propensity to convert into PrPSc. Both phenomena may contribute to the disease development and progression. In Alzheimer disease, PrPC has a controversial role because its presence seems to mediate β-amyloid toxicity, while its down-regulation correlates with neuronal death. The role of PrPC in aging has been investigated from different perspectives, often leading to contrasting results. The putative protein functions in aging have been studied in relation to memory, behavior and myelin maintenance. In aging mice, PrPC changes in subcellular localization and post-translational modifications have been explored in an attempt to relate them to different protein roles and propensity to convert into PrPSc. Here we provide an overview of the most relevant studies attempting to delineate PrPC functions and fate in aging

  2. Gestational age in twins.

    PubMed Central

    James, W H

    1980-01-01

    Dubowitz et al. have offered a scoring system for estimating the gestational age of newborn babies. If the system is applied to twin pairs, the heavier twin is generally estimated to have a greater gestational age than the lighter one. Previously this has been interpreted as a flaw in the scoring system. However, it may well be that in some twin pairs the gestational ages are slightly different and that therefore, the heavier twin would be expected to have a greater gestational age. Such cases would arise through superfecundation (the formation of two zygotes from different coitions). Superfecundation can be proved only in rare case (those with two fathers). It can be argued that the rarity of such cases is accounted for by the rarity with which women expose themselves to the risk of bearing such twins (and by the improbability of detection), rather than by the rarity of superfecundation. It is inferred that superfecundation by the same man is relatively common and that therefore dizygotic twins quite often have different gestational ages. The scoring system of Dubowitz can be tested for bias by submitting monozygotic pairs to it: the association between weight and estimated gestational age should be absent in such pairs. If the system proves free of such bias, then a finding first reported here will assume some interest: it is that in opposite-sexed twin pairs, the male is significantly more often assessed as having the greater gestational age. It is suggested that this finding should be provisionally accepted as evidence for the hyopthesis that male zygotes are formed earlier than females. PMID:7191240

  3. Senescence, aging, and disease.

    PubMed

    Crews, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    All over the world people are surviving into their seventh and later decades of life more frequently today than ever before in human history. Some remain in good health, while others show chronic degenerative conditions (CDCs), frailty, and relatively rapid mortality. Thereafter, multiple factors promoting health and well-being become ever more complex as we age. After attainment of reproductive maturation, many physiological decrements occurring in concert with age reflect both senescent and disease processes, not simply the passage of time. Senescence is a process that begins with DNA, molecules and cells and ultimately terminates in cellular death, loss of organ function, and somatic frailty. These changes are different from benign changes with age that do not alter function. Both differ from the pathological processes represented by disease. Either disease or senescence may be age-related, but neither is age-determined. Disease results from pathological alterations and it affects all age groups. Diseases need not be related to senescence, which includes alterations due to inherent aspects of organismal biology. Distinctions among senescence, aging, and disease blur for the late-life CDCs because, in addition to disease processes, many CDCs are phenotypic manifestations of senescing DNA, organelles, cells, and organs. During earlier epochs of human evolution, greater environmental exposures and fewer cultural buffers likely lead to greater frailty and mortality before senescence progressed greatly, as they still do for most animals. In modern-day settings, culturally patterned behaviors have allowed human frailty to become disconnected somewhat from mortality, unlike non-human species.

  4. Age-specific and sex-specific prevalence and incidence of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer dementia in blacks and whites: a report from the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B; Zimmerman, Molly E; Sanders, Amy E; Verghese, Joe; Dickson, Dennis W; Derby, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    As the population ages, the need to characterize rates of cognitive impairment and dementia within demographic groups defined by age, sex, and race becomes increasingly important. There are limited data available on the prevalence and incidence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) from population-based studies. The Einstein Aging Study, a systematically recruited community-based cohort of 1944 adults aged 70 or older (1168 dementia free at baseline; mean age, 78.8 y; average follow-up, 3.9 y), provides the opportunity to examine the prevalence and incidence rates for dementia, Alzheimer dementia (AD), aMCI, and naMCI by demographic characteristics. Dementia prevalence was 6.5% (4.9% AD). Overall dementia incidence was 2.9/100 person-years (2.3/100 person-years for AD). Dementia and AD rates increased with age but did not differ by sex. Prevalence of aMCI was 11.6%, and naMCI prevalence was 9.9%. aMCI incidence was 3.8 and naMCI incidence was 3.9/100 person-years. Rates of aMCI increased significantly with age in men and in blacks; sex, education, and race were not significant risk factors. In contrast, naMCI incidence did not increase with age; however, blacks were at higher risk compared with whites, even when controlling for sex and education. Results highlight the public health significance of preclinical cognitive disease.

  5. Plutonium age dating reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

  6. Rejuvenation of aging hearts.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Andrew R; Larrick, James W

    2013-08-01

    Specific subtle changes in regulation or activity of factors that maintain homeostasis and cell differentiation may play significant roles in mammalian aging. Drift resulting from reaching the end of an organism's developmental program might involve a specific ordered set of changes. Several studies have suggested that dysfunctional changes associated with aging in skeletal muscle, neurons, and hematopoietic stem cells may be caused by specific changes either in the extracellular environment or in intracellular regulatory networks and that such dysfunction may be reversible. On the basis these data, Loffredo et al. hypothesized that extrinsic circulating factors in young mice might reverse cardiac aging. Parabiosis, the surgical linking of circulations between old and young mice, was employed to identify an anti-hypertrophic factor (growth differentiation factor 11 [GDF-11]) that appears to rejuvenate aging murine hearts, raising exciting prospects for the development of anti-aging therapeutics. However, much work remains to be done to evaluate the utility of GDF-11 as a therapeutic rejuvenation factor. Similar rejuvenating factors for diverse tissues may exist as well and will hopefully be identified in the near future.

  7. Age Distribution of Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, U.; Daughney, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater at the discharge point comprises a mixture of water from different flow lines with different travel time and therefore has no discrete age but an age distribution. The age distribution can be assessed by measuring how a pulse shaped tracer moves through the groundwater system. Detection of the time delay and the dispersion of the peak in the groundwater compared to the tracer input reveals the mean residence time and the mixing parameter. Tritium from nuclear weapons testing in the early 1960s resulted in a peak-shaped tritium input to the whole hydrologic system on earth. Tritium is the ideal tracer for groundwater because it is an isotope of hydrogen and therefore is part of the water molecule. Tritium time series data that encompass the passage of the bomb tritium pulse through the groundwater system in all common hydrogeologic situations in New Zealand demonstrate a semi-systematic pattern between age distribution parameters and hydrologic situation. The data in general indicate high fraction of mixing, but in some cases also indicate high piston flow. We will show that still, 45 years after the peak of the bomb tritium, it is possible to assess accurately the parameters of age distributions by measuring the tail of the bomb tritium.

  8. Stress, Aging and Thirst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1998-01-01

    After growth during adolesence, total body water decreases progressively with aging from 65% of body weight to about 53% of body weight in the 70th decade; a majority of the loss occurs from the extracellular volume, from 42% to about 25%, respectively. Cellular volume also reaches equilibrium in the 70th decade at about 25% of body weight. Various stresses such as exercise, heat and attitude exposure, ad prior dehydration attenuate voluntary fluid intake (involuntary dehydration). Voluntary fluid intake appears to decrease with aging (involuntary dehydration in this sense aging can be considered as a stress. Kidney function and muscle mass (80% water) decrease somewhat with aging, and voluntary fluid intake (thirst) is also attenuated. Thirst is stimulated by increasing osmolality (hypernatremia) of the extracellular fluid and by decreased extracellular volume (mainly plasma volume) which act to increase intracellular fluid volume osmolality to activiate drinking. The latter decreases fluid compartment osmolality which ' It terminates drinking. However, this drinking mechanism seems to be attenuated with aging such that increasing plasma osmolality no longer stimulates fluid intake appropriately. Hypernatremia in the elderly has been associated all too frequently with greater incidence of bacterial infection and increased mortality. Involuntary dehydration can be overcome in young men by acclimation to an intermittent exercise-in-heat training program. Perhaps exercise training in the elderly would also increase voluntary fluid intake and increase muscle mass to enhance retention of water.

  9. Healthy Aging in China.

    PubMed

    Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution-,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence.

  10. [Strategies for successful ageing].

    PubMed

    Orozco Ríos, Adriana Martha; López Velarde Peña, Tatiana; Martínez Gallardo Prieto, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the interest of anti-ageing medicine in the last few years, with a growth in the industry of products that promise to prolong life and restore all the suffering or "defects" produced by age. The understanding of ageing has changed over the years, giving rise to the possibility of intervening in different metabolic and cellular pathways, and thus, delaying the appearance of the degenerative chronic diseases that appear with age, and that are finally the causing factors of the vulnerability that leads to our death. It is hoped that we can help the clinician to orientate their patients, who, due to the overwhelming amount of information they receive by the Internet, arrive at the clinic full of questions, waiting to receive absolute answer from their physician in order to increase their longevity and quality of life. This article presents an analysis of the physical activity, diets, supplements and drugs that are being investigated as anti-ageing measures and of the many clinical studies that have produced encouraging, measurable and reproducible results.

  11. Embodied cognition of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Guillaume T.

    2015-01-01

    Embodiment is revolutionizing the way we consider cognition by incorporating the influence of our body and of the current context within cognitive processing. A growing number of studies which support this view of cognition in young adults stands in stark contrast with the lack of evidence in favor of this view in the field of normal aging and neurocognitive disorders. Nonetheless, the validation of embodiment assumptions on the whole spectrum of cognition is a mandatory step in order for embodied cognition theories to become theories of human cognition. More pragmatically, aging populations represent a perfect target to test embodied cognition theories due to concomitant changes in sensory, motor and cognitive functioning that occur in aging, since these theories predict direct interactions between them. Finally, the new perspectives on cognition provided by these theories might also open new research avenues and new clinical applications in the field of aging. The present article aims at showing the value and interest to explore embodiment in normal and abnormal aging as well as introducing some potential theoretical and clinical applications. PMID:25932019

  12. Hormesis in aging.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis in aging is represented by mild stress-induced stimulation of protective mechanisms in cells and organisms resulting in biologically beneficial effects. Single or multiple exposure to low doses of otherwise harmful agents, such as irradiation, food limitation, heat stress, hypergravity, reactive oxygen species and other free radicals have a variety of anti-aging and longevity-extending hormetic effects. Detailed molecular mechanisms that bring about the hormetic effects are being increasingly understood, and comprise a cascade of stress response and other pathways of maintenance and repair. Although the extent of immediate hormetic effects after exposure to a particular stress may only be moderate, the chain of events following initial hormesis leads to biologically amplified effects that are much larger, synergistic and pleiotropic. A consequence of hormetic amplification is an increase in the homeodynamic space of a living system in terms of increased defence capacity and reduced load of damaged macromolecules. Hormetic strengthening of the homeodynamic space provides wider margins for metabolic fluctuation, stress tolerance, adaptation and survival. Hormesis thus counter-balances the progressive shrinkage of the homeodynamic space, which is the ultimate cause of aging, diseases and death. Healthy aging may be achieved by hormesis through mild and periodic, but not severe or chronic, physical and mental challenges, and by the use of nutritional hormesis incorporating mild stress-inducing molecules called hormetins. The established scientific foundations of hormesis are ready to pave the way for new and effective approaches in aging research and intervention.

  13. [Remarriage in the aged].

    PubMed

    Heekerens, H P

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive review of our knowledge on remarriage in old age is presented, based on demographic data and on empirical studies both from Germany and elsewhere. In 1984, more than 8000 people aged 60 years and above remarried after the death of a partner or following divorce. The probability for remarriage in this age group in Germany and other Western industrial countries is about 0.015. The likelihood for men to remarry is approximately five to six times higher and can be best interpreted as a reflector of the distribution of sexes on the "remarriage market", rather than as an expression of any differential priorities or attitudes between sex groups. Other factors influencing remarriage are numeric age, social status, ethnic and religious integration and previous experiences of married life. The interval between loss of a partner and remarriage commonly stretches between 1.5 and 5.5 years. The main motive for remarriage is the wish not be alone. Basic values underlying the choice of a partner are the same as in the previous partnership. There are no apparent differences between the sexes with regard to the estimated success of their partnership. In three out of four cases, remarriage in old age seems to be a successful undertaking.

  14. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  15. Aging as disease.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Gunnar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, I will argue that ageing can be construed as disease. First, the concept of disease is discussed, where the distinction is made between two lines of thought, an objectivist and a subjectivist one. After determining the disease conception to be used throughout the argument, it is proposed that senescence could be seen as disease. Three common counterarguments are discussed, none of which appears strong enough to effectively counter the advocated view. In the third section, two potential implications of the view advocated here will be briefly touched upon. These are the quest for a cure or treatment for ageing and the general attitude towards the elderly. It is concluded that, utilizing an objective disease concept, ageing could be seen as a disease. None of the considered counterarguments packs enough of a punch to discard this. The implications are complex and intertwined, but need not be negative.

  16. Glucose and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  17. Anemia, fatigue and aging.

    PubMed

    Balducci, L

    2010-12-01

    Aging is associated with increased incidence and prevalence of both cancer and anemia. Cancer and aging may conspire in making anemia more frequent and more severe. This article reviews the causes and the consequences of anemia in the older individual. The most common causes include chronic inflammation that is a typical manifestation of aging, iron deficiency that may be due to chronic hemorrhage, malabsorption and Helicobacter pylori infection, cobalamin deficiency from malabsorption and renal insufficiency. Other causes of anemia whose prevalence is not well established include myelodysplasia, copper deficiency, hypothyroidism, and sarcopenia. Anemia is associated with increased risk of mortality, functional dependence, dementia, falls, and chemotherapy-related toxicity. When correcting the anemia of older cancer patients one should remember that the erythropoietic stimulating agents (ESA) may stimulate cancer growth and cause thrombosis. These products may be safe when given exclusively to patients receiving chemotherapy and when the hemoglobin levels are maintained below 12 g/dL.

  18. Redox theory of aging

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan genomes encode exposure memory systems to enhance survival and reproductive potential by providing mechanisms for an individual to adjust during lifespan to environmental resources and challenges. These systems are inherently redox networks, arising during evolution of complex systems with O2 as a major determinant of bioenergetics, metabolic and structural organization, defense, and reproduction. The network structure decreases flexibility from conception onward due to differentiation and cumulative responses to environment (exposome). The redox theory of aging is that aging is a decline in plasticity of genome–exposome interaction that occurs as a consequence of execution of differentiation and exposure memory systems. This includes compromised mitochondrial and bioenergetic flexibility, impaired food utilization and metabolic homeostasis, decreased barrier and defense capabilities and loss of reproductive fidelity and fecundity. This theory accounts for hallmarks of aging, including failure to maintain oxidative or xenobiotic defenses, mitochondrial integrity, proteostasis, barrier structures, DNA repair, telomeres, immune function, metabolic regulation and regenerative capacity. PMID:25863726

  19. Sleep and Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Mander, Bryce A; Winer, Joseph R; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-04-05

    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need?

  20. Signatures of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Garwin, R.; Hammer, D.; Happer, W.; Lewis, N.; Schwitters, R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.

    1998-01-06

    The Department of Energy and its three weapons laboratories (LANL, LLNL, and SNL) have developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSMP) in response to their designated mission of maintaining an effective, i.e. reliable and safe, nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear tests (UGTs). The need to ensure the effectiveness of an aging stockpile presents new challenges of major importance. In this study we review what is known about the aging of critical constituents, particularly the high explosives, polymers, and metals in the enduring stockpile. We discuss data that are required to provide a fuller understanding of aging, and how to obtain that data as a basis for anticipating and addressing potential stockpile problems. Our particular concern is problems that may arise in the short term, i.e. within the next 5 to 10 years, and their implied requirements for preventive maintenance and remanufacture.

  1. Autoantibodies, mortality and ageing.

    PubMed

    Richaud-Patin, Y; Villa, A R

    1995-01-01

    Immunological failure may be the cause of predisposition to certain infections, neoplasms, and vascular diseases in adulthood. Mortality risks through life may reflect an undetermined number of causes. This study describes the prevalence of positivity of autoantibodies through life, along with general and specific mortality causes in three countries with different socioeconomic development (Guatemala, Mexico and the United States). Prevalence of autoantibodies by age was obtained from previous reports. In spite of having involved different ethnic groups, the observed trends in prevalence of autoantibodies, as well as mortality through life, showed a similar behavior. Thus, both the increase in autoantibody production and death risk as age rises, may share physiopathological phenomena related to the ageing process.

  2. The aging raptor.

    PubMed

    Tristan, Tim

    2010-01-01

    There is little information available in the literature regarding geriatric raptor medicine. Estimating the life span of birds of prey and evaluating factors that influence longevity are continuing to be explored. Identifying disease conditions that arise with advancing age may involve various body systems including the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and others. Falconry, exhibit, and wildlife raptors are reviewed with regard to factors that affect their mortality, life expectancy, and age evaluation. In addition, medical conditions that are frequently seen in geriatric raptors are covered in this article.

  3. Predictive aging of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F. (Inventor); Willis, Paul B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of predicting aging of polymers operates by heating a polymer in the outdoors to an elevated temperature until a change of property is induced. The test is conducted at a plurality of temperatures to establish a linear Arrhenius plot which is extrapolated to predict the induction period for failure of the polymer at ambient temperature. An Outdoor Photo Thermal Aging Reactor (OPTAR) is also described including a heatable platen for receiving a sheet of polymer, means to heat the platen and switching means such as a photoelectric switch for turning off the heater during dark periods.

  4. Predictive aging of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F. (Inventor); Willis, Paul B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method of predicting aging of polymers operates by heating a polymer in the outdoors to an elevated temperature until a change of property is induced. The test is conducted at a plurality of temperatures to establish a linear Arrhenius plot which is extrapolated to predict the induction period for failure of the polymer at ambient temperature. An Outdoor Photo Thermal Aging Reactor (OPTAR) is also described including a heatable platen for receiving a sheet of polymer, means to heat the platen, and switching means such as a photoelectric switch for turning off the heater during dark periods.

  5. Exaptation, serendipity and aging.

    PubMed

    Andriani, Pierpaolo

    2017-01-12

    The paper shows the importance of serendipity and exaptation in selected key moments of ageing research and argue that rationalistic dominant models in scientific research have masked the importance of reverse models of discovery based on serendipity and exaptation. I ask why this is the case and analyze three contributing factors: unprestatability of the functions of technologies, multidimensionality and astronomical complexity of the space over which biological reactions occurs and role of scientific paradigms in channeling research toward incrementalism. Empirical evidence of the limits of the rationalistic models are presented next. I close the paper by discussing the implications for aging research.

  6. Space Shuttle Aging Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The Space Shuttle's uses various types of elastomers and they play a vital role in mission success. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the elastomers are performing. This paper will outline a strategic assessment plan, how identified problems were resolved and the integration activities between subsystems and Aging Orbiter Working Group.

  7. Therapeutics for cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Shineman, Diana W; Salthouse, Timothy A; Launer, Lenore J; Hof, Patrick R; Bartzokis, George; Kleiman, Robin; Luine, Victoria; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Small, Gary W; Aisen, Paul S; Lowe, David A; Fillit, Howard M

    2010-04-01

    This review summarizes the scientific talks presented at the conference "Therapeutics for Cognitive Aging," hosted by the New York Academy of Sciences and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation on May 15, 2009. Attended by scientists from industry and academia, as well as by a number of lay people-approximately 200 in all-the conference specifically tackled the many aspects of developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive impairment. Discussion also focused on how to define cognitive aging and whether it should be considered a treatable, tractable disease.

  8. Ageing and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Fixa, B; Komárková, O; Nozicka, Z

    1975-01-01

    A total of 483 healthy persons from Czechoslovakia, divided into three age groups (below 40, 41-60 and above 61 years) were examined for eight types of autoantibodies (antibodies to epithelial cells and to colloid of thyroid gland, parietal cell antibodies, antibody to intersititial duct cells of parotis and to adrenal cells, anti-nuclear and anti-mitochondrial antibodies, intrinsic factor antibodies). A significantly increased occurrence was observed in the oldest age group, the results being more manifest in women. A conspicious increase was seen particularly in the thyroid antibodies. The results correspond to those of other authors from different geographic areas.

  9. [Trends in population aging].

    PubMed

    Valkovics, E

    1990-11-01

    The age structure of the world population between 1950 and 1985 is analyzed according to changes in fertility, mortality, and international migration in developing and developed countries. "Relying on the results of the medium scenario of the population forecasts prepared by the U.N. Division of International Economic and Social Affairs, the author demonstrates that aging of the world population will become a global phenomenon, characteristic of every region and county of the world, between 1985 and 2025." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  10. [United theory of aging].

    PubMed

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2012-01-01

    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  11. Associations between preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and neonatal morbidity and cognitive function among school-age children in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long term consequences of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, small-for-gestational age (SGA, defined as birth weight for given gestational age less than the 10th percentile of the reference), and early newborn morbidity on functional outcomes are not well described in low income settings. Methods In rural Nepal, we conducted neurocognitive assessment of children (n = 1927) at 7–9 y of age, for whom birth condition exposures were available. At follow-up they were tested on aspects of intellectual, executive, and motor function. Results The prevalence of LBW (39.6%), preterm birth (21.2%), and SGA (55.4%) was high, whereas symptoms of birth asphyxia and sepsis were reported in 6.7% and 9.1% of children. In multivariable regression analyses, adjusted for confounders, LBW was strongly associated with scores on the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), tests of executive function, and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Preterm was not associated with any of the test scores. Conversely, SGA was significantly (all p < 0.005) associated with lower UNIT scores (−2.04 SE = 0.39); higher proportion failure on Stroop test (0.06, SE = 0.02); and lower scores on the backward digit span test (−0.16, SE = 0.04), MABC (0.98, SE = 0.25), and finger tapping test (−0.66, SE = 0.22) after adjusting for confounders. Head circumference at birth was strongly and significantly associated with all test scores. Neither birth asphyxia nor sepsis symptoms were significantly associated with scores on cognitive or motor tests. Conclusion In this rural South Asian setting, intrauterine growth restriction is high and, may have a negative impact on long term cognitive, executive and motor function. PMID:24575933

  12. Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Additional Content Medical News Large for Gestational Age (LGA) By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD, The Brody ... Newborns Birth Injury Prematurity Postmaturity Small for Gestational Age (SGA) Large for Gestational Age (LGA) Respiratory Distress ...

  13. School age child development (image)

    MedlinePlus

    School age child development is a range from 6 to 12 years of age. During this time period observable differences in height, ... peers. As always, safety is important in school age children and proper safety rules should be enforced ...

  14. American Federation for Aging Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Videos Huff/Post 50 Infoaging Biology of Aging Disease Center Healthy Aging Ask the Expert Contact Us Press Info Contact ... the pipeline of research in the biology of aging AFAR's Impact GIVE to AFAR's work to help ...

  15. Aging changes in the face

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  16. Coping with Aging and Amputation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center > Coping With Aging and Amputation Coping With Aging and Amputation Web Development February 15, 2015 Senior ... Though we don’t have much control over aging, we do have some power over the way ...

  17. CETA and the Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Sanford F.; Osten, David F.

    1978-01-01

    To assess the impact of the 1973 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) on older worker's problems, article examines CETA's history, options, and authority. Finds major systemic factors that encourage local prime sponsors to understate aging populations' needs. Concludes there is a need for substantial CETA changes to effectively serve…

  18. Confrontation: Aging in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, George

    This publication contains two activities on aging for use with secondary students. The activities are designed to challenge the prevailing myths about growing old, to provide students with better information, and to foster more positive attitudes about older people. In the first activity, which will take about five class periods, students clarify…

  19. Cable indenter aging monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements.

  20. [Biomechanics and aging].

    PubMed

    Struck, H J

    1991-01-01

    Starting from the physical basics of the biomechanics of connective tissues, organ structures and the corresponding age-related changes of skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bones, blood vessels, and lungs are described. Finally, exogenous factors such as nutrition, hormones, immobilization, activity and adaptive mechanisms and their influence on the biomechanical properties of connective tissue are represented.

  1. Memory and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... or home environment and you’re not paying attention when your friend gives you directions to her new home, you will not be able to recall how to get there. Memory and Aging Memory Aids Keep “to do” lists Keep “to do” lists and ...

  2. Aging and Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, A. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Eye diseases of the aged include diabetic retinopathy, senile cataracts, senile macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Environmental modifications such as better levels of illumination and reduction of glare can enhance an individual's ability to function. Programs to screen and treat visual problems in elderly persons are called for. (Author/JDD)

  3. The Economics of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Myron H., Ed.

    Papers included are as follows: "An Overview" (Ross); "The Outlook for Social Security in the Wake of the 1983 Amendments" (Munnell); "The Economics of Aging: Doomsday or Shangrila?" (Schulz); "Retirement Incentives--the Carrot and the Stick. (Why No One Works beyond 65 Anymore)" (Quinn); "Inflation and…

  4. Chromium and aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased blood glucose, insulin, blood lipids, and fat mass, and decreased lean body mass leading to increased incidences of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Improved chromium nutrition is associated with improvements in all of these variables. Insulin sensitivity de...

  5. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  6. Growth Hormone and Aging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    GH to animals of 24 months of replacement therapy in hypopituitary adults on age elicited beneficial effects in the same way as lipid metabolism and...carbohydrate tolerance. those seen in humans. Animals treated during one J Clin Endocrinol Metab,80:356-363 (1995). month with 2 UI of GH

  7. Aging and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. Roberta

    1984-01-01

    Discusses emotional, social, medical, and nutritional needs of older people, and stresses the need for education of the families of the elderly and the need for a coordinated approach to service delivery to this population. In this way, maximum independence of the aged can be achieved. (NRJ)

  8. Aging and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

  9. Nutritional hormesis and aging.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Daniel P

    2009-11-16

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.

  10. Diet and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ribarič, Samo

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition has important long-term consequences for health that are not only limited to the individual but can be passed on to the next generation. It can contribute to the development and progression of chronic diseases thus effecting life span. Caloric restriction (CR) can extend the average and maximum life span and delay the onset of age-associated changes in many organisms. CR elicits coordinated and adaptive stress responses at the cellular and whole-organism level by modulating epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications), signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and aging (e.g., TOR, AMPK, p53, and FOXO), and cell-to-cell signaling molecules (e.g., adiponectin). The overall effect of these adaptive stress responses is an increased resistance to subsequent stress, thus delaying age-related changes and promoting longevity. In human, CR could delay many diseases associated with aging including cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. As an alternative to CR, several CR mimetics have been tested on animals and humans. At present, the most promising alternatives to the use of CR in humans seem to be exercise, alone or in combination with reduced calorie intake, and the use of plant-derived polyphenol resveratrol as a food supplement. PMID:22928085

  11. Design for the Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Given the differences in social, emotional, and physiological development among elementary, middle, and high school students, it should come as no surprise that collaborative spaces should be designed differently for each age group. The needs of younger students do not necessarily mirror those of their older peers. Architect and educator Peter…

  12. Printmaking for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Annette W.

    2005-01-01

    Foam printing offers all ages and abilities a way to explore textures in the classroom and to develop personal creativity and imagination. Polystyrene foam trays (commonly known as "meat trays") are readily available, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, and receptive to a wide variety of surface treatments. The printmaking process requires only a…

  13. Depression and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  14. Ageing with Muscular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, Bente; Dreyer, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The demographic development with an ageing population is predicted to be the next global public health challenge. Advances in medicine and the socioeconomic development have reduced mortality and morbidity due to infectious conditions and non-communicable diseases. The increase in longevity will not be restricted to healthy people. Objective: To understand how people with muscular diseases experience ageing. Method: A literature review was conducted using the Matrix Method developed by Garrard (2007). This systematic method was used to identify, describe and interpret studies, irrespective of the methods applied. To avoid the exclusion of important sources, experiences and topics, we chose an integrative approach that accommodates the inclusion of studies with different methodologies. People with MD have gradually extended their life expectancy during the last 30 years. Thus, we reviewed the literature regarding MD and ageing without time limit. Results: We identified three themes: 1) Slowing down early 2) Accepting lifelong deterioration and 3) Striving for normality. Conclusion: People with MD live in a field of tension between a feeling of autonomy and normality and difficulties coping with reduced physical abilities. Getting older accentuates this tension since the physical strength diminishes and it is harder to maintain autonomy. The bodily challenges may coincide with the end of the rehabilitation people living with MD have received. Seemingly, no age-related rehabilitation is offered, and people living with MD are thus at risk of an unnecessarily passive life. PMID:28144383

  15. Curcumin and aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curcumin has been used commonly as a spice, food additive, and an herbal medicine worldwide. Known as a bioactive polyphenolic, curcumin has a broad range of beneficial properties to human health. Recently, active research on curcumin with respect to aging and related traits in model organisms has d...

  16. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  17. Wisdom of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Margaret

    Aging can be difficult for some, but for others it is a process in which problems and joys are encountered and faced through the life cycle. In this study, 50 older adults responded to an open-ended question. Respondents were asked to give advice to the young on their insights toward fulfillment of life goals. Responses were put into five…

  18. Is extinction age dependent?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, N.A.; Arnold, A.J.; Parker, W.C.; Huffer, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent extinction is an observation with important biological implications. Van Valen's Red Queen hypothesis triggered three decades of research testing its primary implication: that age is independent of extinction. In contrast to this, later studies with species-level data have indicated the possible presence of age dependence. Since the formulation of the Red Queen hypothesis, more powerful tests of survivorship models have been developed. This is the first report of the application of the Cox Proportional Hazards model to paleontological data. Planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies allow the taxonomic and precise stratigraphic resolution necessary for the Cox model. As a whole, planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies clearly show age-dependent extinction. In particular, the effect is attributable to the presence of shorter-ranged species (range < 4 myr) following extinction events. These shorter-ranged species also possess tests with unique morphological architecture. The morphological differences are probably epiphenomena of underlying developmental and heterochronic processes of shorter-ranged species that survived various extinction events. Extinction survivors carry developmental and morphological characteristics into postextinction recovery times, and this sets them apart from species populations established independently of extinction events. Copyright ?? 2006, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  19. A Good Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    The story of the Austin Groups for the Elderly (AGE), a conglomeration of service agencies serving older adults and children, is related in this document. The agencies' decision to coordinate services as much as possible and to share a building to facilitate coordination and lower costs in financially difficult times is explained. The activities…

  20. Age patterns of marriage.

    PubMed

    Coale, A J

    1971-07-01

    Abstract In different populations there is a common curve describing first-marriage frequency (first marriages per woman) as a function of age for each cohort. To fit the variety of patterns of human nuptiality it suffices to choose the age that serves as origin for a standard curve of first-marriage frequency, and to choose appropriate horizontal and vertical scales for the curve. The prevalence of a standard form for first-marriage frequency implies that the proportion ever-married in any cohort also rises along a standard curve, subject to choice of origin (the earliest age of first marriage), vertical scale (the proportion ever-marrying by the end of life), and horizontal scale (the pace at which the proportion ever-married increases with age). A mathematical expression (a double exponential) is found to fit the risk offirst marriage (among those who ever marry), and some of the implications of uniform features of nuptiality in different populations are discussed.

  1. Nutritional Hormesis and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:20221283

  2. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research.

  3. Coming of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    In the Unitarian tradition, Coming of Age (COA) is the counterpart of confirmations or bar/bat mitzvahs, with much less structure. Unitarians are all about freedom of thought, of belief, of expression, and this young adult rite of passage is an opportunity for each young person to say to the congregation, "This is what I believe." The author…

  4. Stop Aging Disease! ICAD 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ilia, Stambler

    2015-01-01

    On November 1–2, 2014, there took place in Beijing, China, the first International Conference on Aging and Disease (ICAD 2014) of the International Society on Aging and Disease (ISOAD). The conference participants presented a wide and exciting front of work dedicated to amelioration of aging-related conditions, ranging from regenerative medicine through developing geroprotective substances, elucidating a wide range of mechanisms of aging and aging-related diseases, from energy metabolism through genetics and immunomodulation to systems biology. The conference further emphasized the need to intensify and support research on aging and aging-related diseases to provide solutions for the urgent health challenges of the aging society. PMID:25821637

  5. Aging: Aging as a Theme in Art and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1987-01-01

    Presents several central themes about aging which may prove useful in interpreting art works and increasing students' awareness of the human qualities of aging. Indicates that, when the artist represents the physical changes of aging, he or she equally characterizes cognitive, emotional, social, and spiritual levels of aging. Includes seven…

  6. Adult Graduates' Negotiations of Age(ing) and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will explore Finnish adult graduates' social positioning in relation to age and ageing, and the new discursive framing of employability that is firmly expressed in national as well as in European policy agendas. Age is here understood as a social construction and ageing as a lifelong process. We will analyse our joint interview…

  7. Age Norms: The Influence of Age, Sex, and Occupational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold; And Others

    Although informal age norms which influence the timing of major role transitions have been well documented, recent research questions the pervasiveness of this influence. In order to assess the effects of age, sex, and occupational level on perceptions of informal age norms, white-collar and blue-collar men and women (N=462) at two age levels,…

  8. The healthy aged

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Parsons, Karen; Parsons, Wanda; Pitcher, Heather; Buehler, Sharon; Gadag, Veeresh; Miller, Robert; Sclater, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a population of cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older who are living independently in the community. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study based on the enrolment cohort of a randomized controlled trial. Setting St John’s, Nfld. Participants A total of 236 cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older living independently in the community. Main outcome measures Demographic characteristics including age, sex, marital status, and education; health status and quality of life measured by the Short Form–36 and the CASP-19 (control, autonomy, self-realization, and pleasure); use of formal and informal community services; satisfaction with family physician care as measured by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health care resources (family physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests). Results Overall, 66.5% of those in the group were women and the average age was 85.5 years. A quarter had postsecondary diplomas or degrees; 54.7% were widowed (69.4% of women and 25.3% of men). The cohort scored well in terms of health status and quality of life, with a range of scores on the Short Form–36 from 57.5 to 93.5 out of 100, and a score of 44 out of 57 on the CASP-19; they were satisfied with the care received from family physicians, with scores between 3.8 and 4.3 out of 5 on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health services was low—70% had no emergency department visits in the previous year and 80% had not used any laboratory or diagnostic services. Conclusion Seniors aged 80 years and older living independently are involved in the social fabric of society. They are generally well educated, slightly more than half are widowed, and two-thirds are female. They score well on scales that measure well-being and quality of life, and they use few health services. They are the healthy aged. Trial registration

  9. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  10. Neuroimmunomodulation and Aging.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Carmelina

    2010-12-01

    Inflammation is by definition a protective phase of the immune response. The very first goal of inflammation is destroying and phagocytosing infected or damaged cells to avoid the spread of the pathogen or of the damage to neighboring, healthy, cells. However, we now know that during many chronic neurological disorders, inflammation and degeneration always coexist at certain time points. For example, inflammation comes first in multiple sclerosis, but degeneration follows, while in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease degeneration starts and inflammation is secondary. Either way these are the two pathological detectable problems. The central nervous system (CNS) has long been viewed as exempt from the effects of the immune system. The brain has physical barriers for protection, and it is now clear that cells in the nervous system respond to inflammation and injury in unique ways. In recent years, researchers have presented evidence supporting the idea that in the CNS there is an ongoing protective inflammatory mechanism, which involves macrophage, monocytes, T cells, regulatory T-cells, effector T cells and many others; these, in turn, promote repair mechanisms in the brain not only during inflammatory, and degenerative disorders but also in healthy people. This "repair mechanism" can be considered as an intrinsic part of the physiological activities of the brain. It is now well known that the microenvironment of the brain is a crucial player in determining the relative contribution of the two different outcomes. Failure of molecular and cellular mechanisms sustaining the "brain-repair programme" might be, at least in part, a cause of neurological disorders. Today, the neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of the innate immune reactions in aging, brain injury, ischemia, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS are widely investigated and highly debated research topics. Nevertheless, several issues remain to be elucidated, notably the earlier cellular

  11. Epigenetics of Aging and Aging-related Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a wide range of human disorders, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Long thought to be an inexorable road toward decline and diseases, aging is in fact remarkably plastic. Such plasticity could be harnessed to approach age-related diseases from a novel perspective. Although many studies have focused on the genes that impact aging, the nongenetic regulation of aging is gaining increasing attention. Specifically, aging is associated with profound epigenetic changes, resulting in alterations of gene expression and disturbances in broad genome architecture and the epigenomic landscape. The potential reversibility of these epigenetic changes that occur as a hallmark of aging offers exciting opportunities to alter the trajectory of age-related diseases. This short review highlights key epigenetic players in the regulation of aging, as well as both future goals and challenges to the utilization of epigenetic strategies to delay and reverse the main diseases of aging. PMID:24833581

  12. Epigenetics of aging and aging-related disease.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Anne; Berger, Shelley L

    2014-06-01

    Aging is associated with a wide range of human disorders, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Long thought to be an inexorable road toward decline and diseases, aging is in fact remarkably plastic. Such plasticity could be harnessed to approach age-related diseases from a novel perspective. Although many studies have focused on the genes that impact aging, the nongenetic regulation of aging is gaining increasing attention. Specifically, aging is associated with profound epigenetic changes, resulting in alterations of gene expression and disturbances in broad genome architecture and the epigenomic landscape. The potential reversibility of these epigenetic changes that occur as a hallmark of aging offers exciting opportunities to alter the trajectory of age-related diseases. This short review highlights key epigenetic players in the regulation of aging, as well as both future goals and challenges to the utilization of epigenetic strategies to delay and reverse the main diseases of aging.

  13. Epigenetics and aging.

    PubMed

    D'Aquila, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppina; Bellizzi, Dina; Passarino, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    Over the past two decades, a growing interest on the research of the biological basis of human longevity has emerged, in order to clarify the intricacy of biological and environmental factors affecting (together with stochastic factors) the quality and the rate of human aging. These researches have outlined a complex scenario in which epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and numerous histone modifications, are emerging as important factors of the overall variation in life expectancy. In fact, epigenetic marks, that are responsible of the establishment of specific expression programs and of genome stability, represent a "drawbridge" across genetic, environmental and stochastic factors. In this review we provide an overview on the current knowledge and the general features of the epigenetic modifications characterizing the aging process.

  14. [Driving and aging].

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Durán Segura, Mercedes; Castro Ramírez, Cándida

    2010-01-01

    The number of older people who continue to drive is constantly increasing. However, whether older people have more traffic accidents than other age groups is unclear. This age group has certain risk factors due to decreased motor, sensory and cognitive functions and also has greater frailty and vulnerability to injury. However, older drivers are aware of their heightened crash risk and employ certain compensatory actions, avoiding traveling under threatening conditions (dense traffic, bad weather or night driving), traveling by well-known routes and driving carefully. In view of these apparent contradictions, the present study attempts to discern the real crash risk and the driving and crash patterns characteristic of this population, which is continually increasing in industrialized countries.

  15. Aging in Poland.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults.

  16. Signatures of aging revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Drell, S.; Jeanloz, R.; Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Eardley, D.

    1998-03-18

    This study is a follow-on to the review made by JASON during its 1997 Summer Study of what is known about the aging of critical constituents, particularly the high explosives, metals (Pu, U), and polymers in the enduring stockpile. The JASON report (JSR-97-320) that summarized the findings was based on briefings by the three weapons labs (LANL, LLNL, SNL). They presented excellent technical analyses covering a broad range of scientific and engineering problems pertaining to determining signatures of aging. But the report also noted: `Missing, however, from the briefings and the written documents made available to us by the labs and DOE, was evidence of an adequately sharp focus and high priorities on a number of essential near-term needs of maintaining weapons in the stockpile.

  17. Constipation in old age.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Paul; O'Mahony, Denis

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of constipation increases with age. However, constipation is not a physiological consequence of normal ageing. Indeed, the aetiology of constipation in older people is often multifactorial with co-morbid diseases, impaired mobility, reduced dietary fibre intake and prescription medications contributing significantly to constipation in many instances. A detailed clinical history and physical examination including digital rectal examination is usually sufficient to uncover the causes of constipation in older people; more specialized tests of anorectal physiology and colonic transit are rarely required. The scientific evidence base from which to develop specific treatment recommendations for constipation in older people is, for the most part, slim. Constipation can be complicated by faecal impaction and incontinence, particularly in frail older people with reduced mobility and cognitive impairment; preventative strategies are important in those at risk.

  18. Concrete containment aging study

    SciTech Connect

    Pachner, J.; Tai, T.M.; Naus, D.

    1994-04-01

    In 1989, IAEA initiated a pilot study on the management of aging of nuclear power plant components. The Phase I and II studies of concrete containment are discussed. With the data base, plant owners will be able to review and enhance their existing programs. IAEA will analyze data provided by participating plants and the report is scheduled to be released by late 1994 (final report release mid-1995).

  19. Breaking the Age Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Jane

    2010-01-01

    When people retire today they can expect to live for longer than ever before. So much so, that the lifespan model has moved to encompass a "fourth age" of over-75s, for whom an integral part of life is the ability to learn. However, only 14% of people over 75 have engaged in any learning in the past three years. As the pressure on public…

  20. Diabetes in the Aged

    PubMed Central

    Grobin, Wulf

    1970-01-01

    In keeping with the already known high prevalence of diabetes among residents of the Jewish Home for the Aged, Toronto, annual screening disclosed an average incidence of 25.5% of abnormal glucose tolerance (two-hour post-glucose blood sugars above 140 mg./100 ml.) in residents not known to be diabetic. Forty-five (47%) of the 94 residents with abnormal screening values were considered subsequently to be diabetic according to our criteria. Long-term follow-up, particularly of 81 residents initially normoglycemic in 1964-5, confirmed that the natural course of glucose tolerance in this population was one of progressive deterioration. By contrast, improvement amounting to remission has been demonstrated in nine out of 20 residents several years after they had been declared diabetic, and is thought to have been induced by dietotherapy. Moderate hyperglycemia per se did not cause symptoms in these almost always keto-resistant and usually aglycosuric aged diabetics, who often claimed they felt better when hyperglycemic. Hypoglycemia was an ever present danger when anti-diabetic medication was used; it was the main reason for undertreatment. So far, data from our long-term study have not shown morbidity to be markedly increased in the diabetics, and mortality was found to be evenly distributed among diabetic and non-diabetic male residents. However, in the females there was a clear correlation between mortality rate and the diminished glucose tolerance. What may appear as overdiagnosis of diabetes in the aged is recommended in the hope that early institution of dietary treatment will delay the development of clinical diabetes and the need for anti-diabetic agents. This, in turn, would prevent iatrogenic hypoglycemia. It would also reduce the severity and frequency of spontaneous hypoglycemia which, we believe, occurs more commonly in the early phase of diabetes in the aged than is generally realized. PMID:5476778

  1. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  2. Space age. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Space age had its world premiere at the large-screen Spaceport Theater at Cape Canaveral/Kennedy Spaceport. The first program was screened for invited guests who, that morning, also witnessed a launch of the Space Shuttle. Since that mission carried the first Japanese astronaut, it was a nice tie-in to the substantial co-production participation of space age by NHK Japan. A special press conference for the series and a twenty-minute preview reel was screened for journalists who were also at the Cape for the shuttle launch. Numerous first-hand newspaper articles were generated. CNN ran part of the preview reel. The first episode in the series, `The Quest for Planet Mars,` then ran twice a day for a week, prior to the Public Broadcasting Service broadcast on an Imax format screen at the Spaceport theater. The program was seen by thousands of visitors. Space age also had a special premier at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC with some 400 special guests, including scientists and government agency representatives.

  3. Aging, immunity, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Fulop, Tamas; Larbi, Anis; Kotb, Rami; de Angelis, Flavia; Pawelec, Graham

    2011-06-01

    Age is the most important risk factor for tumorigenesis. More than 60% of new cancers and more than 70% of cancer deaths occur in elderly subjects >65 years. The immune system plays an important role in the battle of the host against cancer development. Deleterious alterations occur to the immune response with aging, termed immunosenescence. It is tempting to speculate that this waning immune response contributes to the higher incidence of cancer, but robust data on this important topic are few and far between. This review is devoted to discussing state of the art knowledge on the relationship between immunosenescence and cancer. Emerging understanding of the aging process at the molecular level is viewed from the perspective of this increased tumorigenesis. We also consider some of the most recent means to intervene in the modulation of immunosenescence to increase the ability of the immune system to fight against tumors. Future research will unravel new aspects of the immune response against tumors which will be modulable to decrease the burden of cancer in elderly individuals.

  4. Dominance and Age in Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

  5. Paths for Future Population Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Jill S.

    Population aging refers to an entire age structure becoming older. The age structure of a population is the result of three basic processes: fertility, mortality, and migration. Age structures reflect both past effects and current patterns of these processes. At the town, city, or regional level, migration becomes an important factor in raising…

  6. Aging Education: A National Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

  7. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 years of age and weight or BMI status among older children; systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Eugenia; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of prospective studies that examined the association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6y of age and later weight or BMI status among older children. An electronic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, and EBSCO databases of prospective studies published from 2001 to 2011. Seven studies were analyzed. The study population was from 72 to 10,904 children. Three studies showed a consistent association between SSB intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI, or waist circumference later in childhood, one study showed a positive trend of consumption of SSB and childhood obesity and the OR for incidence of overweight by baseline beverage intake was 1.04, another study it was observed that an increase in total sugar intake and sugar from sweets and beverages in children 1-2 y of age and 7-9 y of age have a tendency to increase BMI, and two studies showed no association. In conclusion, although the trend of the reviews studies, indicate an association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI or waist circumference later in childhood, to date, the results are inconsistent, and the two studies with the higher number of children showed a positive association.

  8. Age aspects of habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  9. Maintained memory in aging is associated with young epigenetic age.

    PubMed

    Degerman, Sofie; Josefsson, Maria; Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie; Wennstedt, Sigrid; Landfors, Mattias; Haider, Zahra; Pudas, Sara; Hultdin, Magnus; Nyberg, Lars; Adolfsson, Rolf

    2017-02-20

    Epigenetic alterations during aging have been proposed to contribute to decline in physical and cognitive functions, and accelerated epigenetic aging has been associated with disease and all-cause mortality later in life. In this study, we estimated epigenetic age dynamics in groups with different memory trajectories (maintained high performance, average decline, and accelerated decline) over a 15-year period. Epigenetic (DNA-methylation [DNAm]) age was assessed, and delta age (DNAm age - chronological age) was calculated in blood samples at baseline (age: 55-65 years) and 15 years later in 52 age- and gender-matched individuals from the Betula study in Sweden. A lower delta DNAm age was observed for those with maintained memory functions compared with those with average (p = 0.035) or accelerated decline (p = 0.037). Moreover, separate analyses revealed that DNAm age at follow-up, but not chronologic age, was a significant predictor of dementia (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest that young epigenetic age contributes to maintained memory in aging.

  10. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    PubMed

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  11. Aging and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Boskey, A.L.; Coleman, R.

    2010-01-01

    Bones provide mechanical and protective function, while also serving as housing for marrow and a site for regulation of calcium ion homeostasis. The properties of bones do not remain constant with age; rather, they change throughout life, in some cases improving in function, but in others, function deteriorates. Here we review the modifications in the mechanical function and shape of bones, the bone cells, the matrix they produce, and the mineral that is deposited on this matrix, while presenting recent theories about the factors leading to these changes. PMID:20924069

  12. Age and Stress Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Genoa is a software product that predicts progressive aging and failure in a variety of materials. It is the result of a SBIR contract between the Glenn Research Center and Alpha Star Corporation. Genoa allows designers to determine if the materials they plan on applying to a structure are up to the task or if alternate materials should be considered. Genoa's two feature applications are its progressive failure simulations and its test verification. It allows for a reduction in inspection frequency, rapid design solutions, and manufacturing with low cost materials. It will benefit the aerospace, airline, and automotive industries, with future applications for other uses.

  13. Radiation ageing of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoníček, B.; Hnát, V.; Plaček, V.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation effects on polymers in the presence of air are characterized by dose rate effects and at enhanced temperature by synergistic effects of temperature and radiation. For a reliable simulation of long-term ageing of polymers, conditions for the homogeneous radiooxidation have to be reached. The dose rate values, at which the homogeneous oxidation of irradiated EPR/EVA plates of various thicknesses occurs throughout the sample interior, have been determined. The methodology for the lifetime assessment of cable polymeric materials on the base of the oxidation induction time determination is described.

  14. Ice age paleotopography

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R. )

    1994-07-08

    A gravitationally self-consistent theory of postglacial relative sea level change is used to infer the variation of surface ice and water cover since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results show that LGM ice volume was approximately 35 percent lower than suggested by the CLIMAP reconstruction and the maximum heights of the main Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice complexes are inferred to have been commensurately lower with respect to sea level. Use of these Ice Age boundary conditions in atmospheric general circulation models will yield climates that differ significantly from those previously inferred on the basis of the CLIMAP data set.

  15. Physical aging in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meech, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The question of physical aging in cometary nuclei is addressed in order to elucidate the relationship between the past conditions in the protosolar nebula and the present state of the cometary nucleus, and to understand the processes that will physically and chemically alter the nucleus as a function of time. Attention is given to some of the processes that might be responsible for causing aging in comets, namely, radiation damage in the upper layers of the nucleus during the long residences in the Oort cloud, processing from heating and collisions within the Oort cloud, loss of highly volatile species from the nucleus on the first passage through the inner solar system, buildup of a dusty mantle, which can eventually prohibit further sublimation, and a change in the porosity, and hence the thermal properties, of the nucleus. Recent observations suggest that there are distinct differences between 'fresh' Oort cloud comets and thermally processed periodic comets with respect to intrinsic brightness and rate of change of activity as a function of distance.

  16. [Age related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Sayen, Alexandra; Hubert, Isabelle; Berrod, Jean-Paul

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a multifactorial disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is the first cause of blindness in patients over 50 in the western world. The disease has been traditionally classified into early and late stages with dry (atrophic) and wet (neovascular) forms: neovascular form is characterized by new blood vessels development under the macula (choroidal neovascularisation) which lead to a rapid decline of vision associated with metamorphopsia and requiring an urgent ophtalmological examination. Optical coherence tomography is now one of the most important part of the examination for diagnosis and treatment. Patient with age related maculopathy should consider taking a dietary supplement such that used in AREDS. The treatment of the wet ARMD has largely beneficied since year 2006 of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) molecules such as ranibizumab or bevacizumab given as repeated intravitreal injections. A systematic follow up each 4 to 8 week in required for several years. There is no effective treatment at the moment for dry AMD. For patients with binocular visual acuity under 60/200 rehabilitation includes low vision specialist, vision aids and psychological support.

  17. Mobility in old age.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K; Roberts, J; Bennett, G

    1999-12-01

    Immobility is common in older people and may impact on their dental care. Immobility in old age may have physical, psychological and environmental causes. Immobile elderly people often suffer from a number of diseases which worsen their mobility. Arthritis, osteoporosis, hip fracture, stroke and Parkinson's disease are among the most common causes of immobility in old age. Complications of immobility such as orthostatic hypotension may occur in the dental patient. Careful history-taking and a thorough physical examination by the physician are the most important parts of the assessment process. This assessment should lead to a list of active problems and treatment should then be aimed at these problems. Active management, carried out by the multidisciplinary team, will lead to improvements in mobility and lessen the frequency and severity of the complications of immobility. This broad description thus provides the basis for a wide understanding for the special problems that the immobile patient present to the practitioner and ways of overcoming the problems.

  18. Mitochondrial aging and age-related dysfunction of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Sobenin, Igor A; Revin, Victor V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in mitochondria are associated with decline in mitochondrial function. With advanced age, mitochondrial DNA volume, integrity and functionality decrease due to accumulation of mutations and oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In aged subjects, mitochondria are characterized by impaired function such as lowered oxidative capacity, reduced oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, significant increase in ROS generation, and diminished antioxidant defense. Mitochondrial biogenesis declines with age due to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and inhibition of mitophagy, an autophagy process that removes dysfunctional mitochondria. Age-dependent abnormalities in mitochondrial quality control further weaken and impair mitochondrial function. In aged tissues, enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis contributes to an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. However, implementation of strategies such as caloric restriction and regular physical training may delay mitochondrial aging and attenuate the age-related phenotype in humans.

  19. The cognitive neuroscience of ageing.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl

    2012-06-20

    The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive ageing. Although there is a growing consensus that the ageing brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional MRI, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field is also hampered by the complexity of the ageing process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this Review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of ageing are discussed.

  20. Industrial age to information age organizations: Changing business ethic

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we argue that Informatoin age organizations both allow and require a higher level of moral development on the part of the members of the organizations. We describe industrial age and information age organization structure charactreistics and identify moral values consistent with each structure.

  1. Changing Attitudes towards Ageing and the Aged amongst Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Antonio; Goncalves, Daniela; Martin, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Society is ageing. In Europe, the ageing of the population is a recurrent and discussed theme. The impact of the ageing of the population is varied and transversal in different fields. The increase in the number of elderly people implies an increase in the levels of dependence and, consequently, more sanitary, physical, and human resources. Also,…

  2. The Age 21 Minimum Legal Drinking Age Law. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Currently, all 50 states limit alcohol purchases to people aged 21 and over. But that hasn't always been the case. In fact, it was July 17, 1984, when President Ronald Reagan signed the national 21 minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) legislation into law. At that time, only 23 states had minimum alcohol purchasing ages of 21 years old. The…

  3. The environment of ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, A

    1997-01-01

    The issue of housing and the wider environment for an ageing population is one where there are many unanswered questions. In this paper a number of key issues are discussed and for each of these the focus is on three aspects. These are the current situation, its reasonableness and what research is needed in order to make decisions about policy and practice. The first three issues relate to the profile of older people themselves and the importance of home to them. The changing profile of older people is not just about an ageing population but also about the growing prominence of those with dementia, women, people from black and ethnic minority groups and one person households, yet little is known about the type of housing which should be provided. Of equal concern is the widening gap between those with a high standard of living (including housing) and those with a low standard of living. The importance of home to older people means that research must focus on how people can be enabled to remain there, and also on the costs, financial and otherwise, to carers and to society. The next three issues relate to the type of housing older people live in and moves in later life. The startling change in the tenure pattern with a growth of owner occupation brings problems as does the decline in social housing. The advantages and disadvantages of the different types of housing--mainstream and specialized--for older people are relatively well known. However the balance between the two needs more research as does that on retirement communities. While it is well known that there are peaks of migration in old age and that moves are often made in haste, little is known about the process of decision making. The final two topics concern links between housing and other aspects of older people's lives. On health more research is needed on temperature, mortality and morbidity, homelessness and accidents and especially on links between services. These topics have implications for planning

  4. Direct simulation of groundwater age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is proposed to simulate groundwater age directly, by use of an advection-dispersion transport equation with a distributed zero-order source of unit (1) strength, corresponding to the rate of aging. The dependent variable in the governing equation is the mean age, a mass- weighted average age. The governing equation is derived from residence- time-distribution concepts for the case of steady flow. For the more general case of transient flow, a transient governing equation for age is derived from mass-conservation principles applied to conceptual 'age mass.' The age mass is the product of the water mass and its age, and age mass is assumed to be conserved during mixing. Boundary conditions include zero age mass flux across all noflow and inflow boundaries trod no age mass dispersive flux across outflow boundaries. For transient-flow conditions, the initial distribution of age must be known. The solution of the governing transport equation yields the spatial distribution of the mean groundwater age and includes diffusion, dispersion, mixing, and exchange processes that typically are considered only through tracer-specific solute transport simulation. Traditional methods have relied on advective transport to predict point values of groundwater travel time and age. The proposed method retains the simplicity and tracer-independence of advection-only models, but incorporates the effects of dispersion and mixing on volume- averaged age. Example simulations of age in two idealized regional aquifer systems, one homogeneous and the other layered, demonstrate the agreement between the proposed method and traditional particle-tracking approaches and illustrate use of the proposed method to determine the effects of diffusion, dispersion, and mixing on groundwater age.

  5. Modeled ground water age distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  6. Modeled ground water age distributions.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Linda R; Ginn, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  7. How Old Do You Feel? The Role of Age Discrimination and Biological Aging in Subjective Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68) from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214). Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age. PMID:25738579

  8. Reconditioning aging muscles.

    PubMed

    Kraus, H

    1978-06-01

    Weakness or stiffness of key posture muscles can cause much of the disability seen in elderly patients. Too much tension and too little exercise greatly increase the natural loss of muscular fitness with age. A systematic program of exercise, stressing relaxation and stretching of tight muscles and strenghthening of weak muscles, can improve physical fitness. The program must be tailored to the patient, starting with relaxation and gentle limbering exercises and proceeding ultimately to vigorous muscle-stretching exercises. Muscle aches and pain from tension and muscle imbalance are to be expected. Relaxation relieves tension pain, and strengthening weak muscles and stretching tight muscles will correct muscle imbalance. To prevent acute muscle spasm, the patient should avoid excessive exertion and increase exercise intensity gradually.

  9. 1999 Aged Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    effective transition of R &D activities from promising 6.1 projects, through 6.2 and 6.3 efforts into key processes and products for DoD systems. With the...eventually also have significant commercial sales. It is imperative that DoD continues to make these necessary R &D investments. AGED anticipates a continued...24 Quartz LG S R us si a LG S LG S LG SLG T LG T LG N LG T Figure 10. Langasite Measured Q x F Values 17 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 10 20 30 40 | ΓΓ

  10. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  11. Ice age terminations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Broecker, Wallace S; Denton, George H; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xianfeng

    2009-10-09

    230Th-dated oxygen isotope records of stalagmites from Sanbao Cave, China, characterize Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation through the ends of the third- and fourthmost recent ice ages. As a result, AM records for the past four glacial terminations can now be precisely correlated with those from ice cores and marine sediments, establishing the timing and sequence of major events. In all four cases, observations are consistent with a classic Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity trigger for an initial retreat of northern ice sheets. Meltwater and icebergs entering the North Atlantic alter oceanic and atmospheric circulation and associated fluxes of heat and carbon, causing increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperatures that drive the termination in the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing CO2 and summer insolation drive recession of northern ice sheets, with probable positive feedbacks between sea level and CO2.

  12. [Aging and work capability].

    PubMed

    Petz, B

    1993-06-01

    With the average life duration becoming longer there is an increasing number of old people in the population. In the literature the problem of old people is still neglected. The most visible changes in old people occur in physical characteristics and functions; at first a change in psychological functions was also reported to take place. However, it was shown that results depended to a great extent on the method used: the longitudinal method (following up one and the same generation) frequently gave rather different and much better results than the cross-sectional method. The question of old age and working abilities is an important one. Certain positive personality traits seem to compensate for a drop in certain abilities. In the modern automated industry time pressure and adaptation to new working conditions are a handicap for the elderly, but the application of different ergonomic principles can greatly improve the situation.

  13. [Hypertension in old age].

    PubMed

    García-Palmieri, M

    1995-09-01

    Hypertension occurs in 50% of the elderly persons in industrialized societies. This disorder of the regulation of the arterial blood pressure has different manifestations in different age groups. The young hypertensive usually has an increase in cardiac output and a normal peripheral vascular resistance. The elderly patient with hypertension exhibits a decreased cardiac output and an increased peripheral vascular resistance. In the elderly hypertensive there is a progressive anteriolar narrowing and there is hardening of the largest arteries. The vascular disease that contributes to the hypertension in the elderly also causes hypoperfusion of the target organs. During the aging process there is a decrease in cardiac output, glomerular filtration rate, vital capacity, renal plasma flow and maximal cardiac rate. There are changes in the kidneys and the liver that influence the way different medications are handled by the body. The main findings of the Australian, EWPHE, Coope & Warrender, SHEP, STOP-HYP and MRC studies of hypertension in the elderly have been summarized. The intervention studies have proven that the treatment of hypertension in the elderly patient is efficacious and decreases the mortality and morbidity due to coronary and cerebrovascular events. The pharmacologic agents available for the treatment of hypertension in the elderly are the diuretics, beta blockers, vasodilators, calcium-channel blockers, adrenergic blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The morbidity and mortality benefits derived from antihypertensive trials are greater for the older than for the younger patients. The pharmacologic antihypertensive agents to be used in older patients will also depend upon the presence or not of associated illnesses in which some agents might be harmful or contraindicated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The age of universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zeeshan

    The presence of short-lived isotope Curium-247 in the early Solar System complicates the job of dating the earliest events in the solar nebula. Primitive components in meteorites contain a detailed record of the conditions and processes in the solarnebula, the cloud of dust and gas surrounding the infant Sun. Determining accurately when the first materialsformed re-quires the lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating method, a method based on the decay of uranium (U) isotopes toPb isotopes. The initial ratio of U-238 to U-235 is critical to determining theages correctly, and many studies have concluded that the ratio is constant for any given age. How-ever, my colleagues at Arizona State University(Frankfurt, Germany), and the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum (also in Frankfurt) and I have found that some calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites deviate from the conventional value for the U-238/U-235 ratio. This could lead to inaccuracies of up to 5 million years in the age of these objects, if no correction is made.Variations in the concentrations of thorium and neodymium with the U-238/U-235 ratio suggest that the ratio may have been lowered by the decay of curium-247, which decays to U-235 with a half-life of 15.6 million years. Curium-247 is created in certain types of energetic supernovae, so its presence suggests that a supernova added material to the pre-solar interstellar cloud between 110 and 140 million years before theSolar System began to form.

  15. Appropriate for gestational age (AGA)

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age; Gestation; Development - AGA; Growth - AGA; Neonatal care - AGA; Newborn care - AGA ... Gestational age is the common term used during pregnancy to describe how far along the pregnancy is. It is ...

  16. Large for gestational age (LGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/002248.htm Large for gestational age (LGA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Large for gestational age means that a fetus or infant is larger ...

  17. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Age-related Macular Degeneration About AMD Click for more ... a leading cause of vision loss among people age 60 and older. It causes damage to the ...

  18. Aging changes in the lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004011.htm Aging changes in the lungs To use the sharing ... out (exhaled). Watch this video about: Gas exchange AGING CHANGES IN YOUR BODY AND THEIR AFFECTS ON ...

  19. Aging changes in vital signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004019.htm Aging changes in vital signs To use the sharing ... Normal body temperature does not change much with aging. But as you get older, it becomes harder ...

  20. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  1. Aging changes in body shape

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003998.htm Aging changes in body shape To use the sharing ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ...

  2. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  3. Aging changes in the kidneys

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004010.htm Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder To use ... in the reproductive system can affect bladder control. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE KIDNEYS AND ...

  4. School-age children development

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. School-age child development describes the expected physical, emotional, and mental abilities ... to 2 hours a day. Images School age child development References Feigelman S. Middle childhood. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman ...

  5. College-Age & Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Age & Young Adults College Addiction Studies Programs Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ...

  6. Sexual Patterns at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.; Sager, Clifford J.

    1971-01-01

    When not understood as normal consequences of growth and aging, sexual fluctuations can be the source of personal and marital distress. Discussed are sexual behavior norms as they change from infancy to old age. (Author/CJ)

  7. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work.

  8. [Reflexions about aging and work].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rosangela Ferreira; Matias, Hernani Aparecido; Brêtas, Ana Cristina Passarella

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative research has the aim to know the meaning of the aging process in the work market referring to the aged people. Six aged persons have participated in this research. The data were collected through an interview and were analyzed using the technique of thematically analyze. Three analytical categories emerged: the meaning of aging/to be aged; the meaning of work; the meaning of aging in the work. Concluding, this paper reinforces the theory that the capitalist societies attach excessive value to the work in the human being life. When it isn't into the life--because of the retirement or the unemployment--it compromises the quality of aging/to be aged of the person, mainly if skills and (individual, social and economical) conditions will lack participation and priority to others activities and values in her/his life.

  9. Aging, Rejuvenation, and Epigenetic Reprogramming: Resetting the Aging Clock

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Thomas A.; Chang, Howard Y.

    2012-01-01

    The underlying cause of aging remains one of the central mysteries of biology. Recent studies in several different systems suggest that not only may the rate of aging be modified by environmental and genetic factors, but also that the aging clock can be reversed, restoring characteristics of youthfulness to aged cells and tissues. This Review focuses on the emerging biology of rejuvenation through the lens of epigenetic reprogramming. By defining youthfulness and senescence as epigenetic states, a framework for asking new questions about the aging process emerges. PMID:22265401

  10. LMC clusters - Age calibration and age distribution revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elson, Rebecca A.; Fall, S. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The empirical age relation for star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud presented by Elson and Fall (1985) are reexamined using ages based only on main-sequence turnoffs. The present sample includes 57 clusters, 24 of which have color-magnitude diagrams published since 1985. The new calibration is very similar to that found previously, and the scatter in the relation corresponds to uncertainties of about a factor of 2 in age. The age distribution derived from the new calibration does not differ significantly from that derived in earlier work. It is compared with age distributions estimated by other authors for different samples of clusters, and the results are discussed.

  11. Aging studies in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Wang, Cecilia; Spangler, Edward; Zhan, Ming; Zou, Sige

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila is a genetically tractable system ideal for investigating the mechanisms of aging and developing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Here we describe methods commonly used in Drosophila aging research. These include basic approaches for preparation of diets and measurements of lifespan, food intake, and reproductive output. We also describe some commonly used assays to measure changes in physiological and behavioral functions of Drosophila in aging, such as stress resistance and locomotor activity.

  12. Ageing changes in the eye

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, S M; Akhtar, S; Currie, Z

    2006-01-01

    Ageing changes occur in all the structures of the eye causing varied effects. This article attempts to review the parameters of what is considered within the “normal limits” of ageing so as to be able to distinguish those conditions from true disease processes. Improving understanding of the ageing changes will help understand some of the problems that the ageing population faces. PMID:16954455

  13. Aging Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Wang, Cecilia; Spangler, Edward; Zhan, Ming; Zou, Sige

    2015-01-01

    Summary Drosophila is a genetically tractable system ideal for investigating the mechanisms of aging and developing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Here we describe methods commonly used in Drosophila aging research. These include basic approaches for preparation of diets and measurements of lifespan, food intake and reproductive output. We also describe some commonly used assays to measure changes in physiological and behavioral functions of Drosophila in aging, such as stress resistance and locomotor activity. PMID:23929099

  14. Disease spread in age structured populations with maternal age effects.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jessica; Garbutt, Jennie S; McNally, Luke; Little, Tom J

    2017-04-01

    Fundamental ecological processes, such as extrinsic mortality, determine population age structure. This influences disease spread when individuals of different ages differ in susceptibility or when maternal age determines offspring susceptibility. We show that Daphnia magna offspring born to young mothers are more susceptible than those born to older mothers, and consider this alongside previous observations that susceptibility declines with age in this system. We used a susceptible-infected compartmental model to investigate how age-specific susceptibility and maternal age effects on offspring susceptibility interact with demographic factors affecting disease spread. Our results show a scenario where an increase in extrinsic mortality drives an increase in transmission potential. Thus, we identify a realistic context in which age effects and maternal effects produce conditions favouring disease transmission.

  15. Pathophysiology of ageing, longevity and age related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bürkle, Alexander; Caselli, Graziella; Franceschi, Claudio; Mariani, Erminia; Sansoni, Paolo; Santoni, Angela; Vecchio, Giancarlo; Witkowski, Jacek M; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    On April 18, 2007 an international meeting on Pathophysiology of Ageing, Longevity and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Several interesting topics on Cancer, Immunosenescence, Age-related inflammatory diseases and longevity were discussed. In this report we summarize the most important issues. However, ageing must be considered an unavoidable end point of the life history of each individual, nevertheless the increasing knowledge on ageing mechanisms, allows envisaging many different strategies to cope with, and delay it. So, a better understanding of pathophysiology of ageing and age-related disease is essential for giving everybody a reasonable chance for living a long and enjoyable final part of the life. PMID:17683521

  16. Implications for an Aging Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahan, Shari; Sturz, Dominick

    2006-01-01

    America's workforce is aging, with over 20% of the workforce expected to be aged 55 and over by the year 2015, an increase of nearly 50% through 2014. As people age, their resistance to harmful exposures is reduced. Injury data suggest that although elderly workers are less likely to be hurt seriously enough to lose worktime, they often take twice…

  17. Aging and immunosenescence in invertebrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most contemporary research into aging is driven by interest in the human aging process and in interventions that attenuate the normal and pathophysiological effects of aging, or senescence. Operationally, senescence is the progressive, inevitable breakdown of the organism. Among the changes associat...

  18. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  19. Systems biology of aging.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Kendra; Bergman, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    Human aging occurs at rates that vary widely between organisms and cell types. We hypothesize that in both cases, variation is due to differences in heat production, heat management and molecular susceptibility to heat-induced change. Metabolic rates have long been implored for their contributions to the aging process, with a negative correlation observed between basal metabolic rate and lifespan (Savage et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4718–4723, 2007, Economos, Exp Gerontol 17:145–152, 1982, Keys et al., Metabolism 22:579–587, 1973, O’Connor et al., Comp Biochem Physiol Part A, Molr & Integr Physiol 133:835–842, 2002, Speakman, J Exp Biol 208:1717–1730, 2005, Poehlman, J Am Geriatrics Soc 41:552–559, 1993). Small amounts of heat are the well-known byproduct of metabolism and other biological processes, and despite their magnitude, are sufficient to elicit alterations in biomolecular characteristics (Somero, Ann Rev Physiol 57:43–68, 1995). Existing theories of aging suggest that damage occurs to the conformations or sequences of molecules, which only shifts focus onto the implied failure of repair mechanisms. Contrarily, heat-induced changes affect the behavioral characteristics of molecules and are thus able to persist “under the radar” of heat shock proteins and other canalizing mechanisms, which recognize only physical aberrancies (Rutherford and Lindquist, Nature 396:336–342, 1998, Siegal and Bergman, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10528–10532, 2002, Waddington, Nature 150:563–565, 1942). According to our hypothesis, behavioral changes to the binding affinities, kinetics, motilities, and functionalities are dependent on minute energetic fields within and between molecules. Exposure to the thermal byproducts of metabolism cause heritable shifts in molecular interaction schemes and diminish the integrity of genetic and epigenetic networks. Restructured topologies alter the emergent properties of networks and are observed as the

  20. Infant's DNA Methylation Age at Birth and Epigenetic Aging Accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weidan; Lin, Fangqin

    2016-01-01

    Knowing the biological age of the neonates enables us to evaluate and better understand the health and maturity comprehensively. However, because of dearth of biomarkers, it is difficult to quantify the neonatal biological age. Here we sought to quantify and assess the variability in biological age at birth and to better understand how the aging rates before birth are influenced by exposure in intrauterine period by employing a novel epigenetic biomarker of aging (epigenetic clock). We observed that the methylation age at birth was independent of the infant's sex but was significantly influenced by race. Partial correlation analysis showed a significant negative relationship between maternal socioeconomic status and infants' methylation age (rs = −0.48, Ps = 0.005). A significant association with the risk of fast aging was observed for prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke with OR (95% CI) of 3.17 (1.05–9.56). Both estimated cell abundance measures and lymphocyte subpopulations in cord blood showed that tobacco exposed group exhibit an altered T cell compartment, specifically substantial loss of naive T cells. Present study provides the first evidence that common perinatal exposure (such as maternal smoking and lower socioeconomic status) may be important aging accelerators and substantial loss of naive T cells may play a role in the smoking-related fast aging phenomenon. PMID:28058257

  1. Ageing and water homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens; Jacob, Giris; Ketch, Terry; Shannon, John R.; Biaggioni, Italo

    2002-01-01

    This review outlines current knowledge concerning fluid intake and volume homeostasis in ageing. The physiology of vasopressin is summarized. Studies have been carried out to determine orthostatic changes in plasma volume and to assess the effect of water ingestion in normal subjects, elderly subjects, and patients with dysautonomias. About 14% of plasma volume shifts out of the vasculature within 30 minutes of upright posture. Oral ingestion of water raises blood pressure in individuals with impaired autonomic reflexes and is an important source of noise in blood pressure trials in the elderly. On the average, oral ingestion of 16 ounces (473ml) of water raises blood pressure 11 mmHg in elderly normal subjects. In patients with autonomic impairment, such as multiple system atrophy, strikingly exaggerated pressor effects of water have been seen with blood pressure elevations greater than 75 mmHg not at all uncommon. Ingestion of water is a major determinant of blood pressure in the elderly population. Volume homeostasis is importantly affected by posture and large changes in plasma volume may occur within 30 minutes when upright posture is assumed.

  2. [Sleep in normal aging].

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, F

    1991-10-01

    Sleep in the elderly is characterized by a decrease in the ability to stay asleep resulting in a more fragmented sleep. Spindles are less frequent and less ample, shorter, without an increase during the night contrary young subjects. Delta activity in slow wave sleep is decreased in the 0.5-2 Hz frequency band only. REM sleep occurs earlier the first REM period duration increases. The REM sleep appearance is almost uniform during the night. REMs density does not increase toward the end of the sleeping period. The sleep-wake circadian rhythm is advanced (bedtime and morning awakening occur earlier). The temperature rhythm is also advanced. The rise in temperature after the nadir begins earlier for females and the initial ascent is more rapid. This explains why women wake up earlier and sleep for shorter durations than men. The nocturnal and diurnal mean plasmatic norepinephrine values increase. The rhythm of cortisol secretion is advanced. The GH and melatonin peaks of secretion are decreased. The acrophase of melatonin rhythm is occurring later in the elderly. These results suggest a weakening of circadian structure in the course of aging and an altered relationship between the pacemakers driving melatonin and cortisol circadian rhythms.

  3. The steel scrap age.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  4. Coming of Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Ray

    2004-01-01

    One of the great perks I looked forward to when I turned sixteen was being able to give up my paper route and get a regular job. Paper routes are okay, but for a young, timid kid who was afraid to ask for money, it often proved to be a non-profit operation. At age sixteen, I could get a social security number, which meant that I could go get myself a real job. In my early days of running a division and having my own employees, I m sad to say that I emulated that behavior more than once. At the time, I rationalized it. Now, I know how wrong I was, and how I may have ruined the morale of employees who only wanted to do good work. I recognize that almost every time I didn't get what I wanted from an employee, it was because they didn't understand what I really expected from them, they didn't understand how to provide it, or there were constraints placed on them that stopped them from doing a good job. I'am sure OJ. is long dead and gone. He wasn't young when I worked for him. I think he would have been amazed to learn what a long-lasting effect his behavior that week in 1963 had on me.

  5. [Noradrenaline and cerebral aging].

    PubMed

    Jouvet, M; Albarede, J L; Lubin, S; Meyrignac, C

    1991-01-01

    The central functions of norepinephrine (NE) are a recent discovery: regulation of alertness and of the wakefulness-sleep cycle, maintenance of attention, memory and learning, cerebral plasticity and neuro-protection. The anatomical, histological, biochemical and physiological properties of the central noradrenergic system: extreme capacity for ramification and arborization; slow conduction, non-myelinized axons with extrasynaptic varicosities producing and releasing NE; frequency of co-transmission phenomena, and; neuromodulation with fiber effect responsible for improvement in the signal over background noise ratio and selection of significant stimuli form a true interface between the outside world and the central nervous system, notably for the neocortex in the context of the cognitive treatment of information. This central noradrenergic system is involved in the neurophysiology and the clinical features of cerebral aging (ideation-motor and cognitive function slowing down, loss of behavioral adjustment), neuro-degenerative disorders (SDAT, Parkinson's disease), certain aspects of depression and less obvious conditions (head injuries, sequelae of cerebrovascular accidents, sub-cortical dementia). The recent development of medications improving alertness (adrafinil, modafinil) with a pure central action and specifically noradrenergic, may contribute to an improvement in these multifactorial disorders.

  6. Splicing of aged fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotinen, Tarja T.; Yuce, Hakan H.; Bonanno, Nicholas; Frantz, Rolf A.; Duffy, Sean

    1993-11-01

    The deployment of fiber in the subscriber loop will require that an optical fiber network maintain the highest possible level of reliability over time, despite being subjected to extremes of temperature, humidity, and other environmental and mechanical stresses imposed on the outside plant. At the same time, both the initial cost and the ongoing maintenance expenses for loop equipment must be kept low. Fiber in the Loop (FITL) applications will entail increased fiber handling. Cable lengths will be shorter, and fiber counts higher, than has been the case so far in long-distance applications. There will also be more cable sheath openings per unit length of cable and/or fiber, as well as more splicing and connectorization. It may become a common practice that a customer is connected to a cable installed many years earlier. In subscriber loops, cables and fibers will be installed in harsher and more varying environments. Fibers will be exposed to higher humidity and temperature, particularly in splice boxes mounted on building walls, in pedestal cabinets, and in other similar enclosures. Corrosive gases and/or liquids may also be present at some locations and will adversely affect the fibers. The combination of increased handling, greater exposure, and more stressful environments may give rise to a need for new, more stringent requirements for fiber mechanical reliability. These can include increaSed fiber strength, increased aging resistance, and increased fatigue resistance.

  7. The Dynamics of Life: Aging*

    PubMed Central

    Eyring, Henry; Stover, Betsy J.

    1972-01-01

    Biologic aging arises from various causes, including deterioration of cells by mutations, destruction of the cells in organs through infections, aging by failure to eliminate harmful waste products, poisoning from external sources, and by radiation damage. All of these processes lead to equations of the kind observed experimentally for the aging process, so that a proper assessment of the various factors contributing to aging is especially complicated. Many nonbiological processes in which the products of reaction speed up the aging reaction lead to the familiar equation for the rate of aging. Corrosion of metals is exhibited as a typical example of this; many other examples could be given. The general equation for depth of anesthesia brought about by lipid-soluble materials and how this effect can be mimicked by accumulation of waste products is shown to simulate the typical aging curve; it is well known that such waste products are a frequent cause of death. PMID:4509309

  8. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees’ shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (Mage = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals’ perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  9. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  10. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  11. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  12. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  13. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  14. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  15. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003

    This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.

    Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.

    In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  16. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  17. Neurobiology of the aging dog.

    PubMed

    Head, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    Aged canines naturally accumulate several types of neuropathology that may have links to cognitive decline. On a gross level, significant cortical atrophy occurs with age along with an increase in ventricular volume based on magnetic resonance imaging studies. Microscopically, there is evidence of select neuron loss and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of aged dogs, an area critical for intact learning and memory. The cause of neuronal loss and dysfunction may be related to the progressive accumulation of toxic proteins, oxidative damage, cerebrovascular pathology, and changes in gene expression. For example, aged dogs naturally accumulate human-type beta-amyloid peptide, a protein critically involved with the development of Alzheimer's disease in humans. Further, oxidative damage to proteins, DNA/RNA and lipids occurs with age in dogs. Although less well explored in the aged canine brain, neuron loss, and cerebrovascular pathology observed with age are similar to human brain aging and may also be linked to cognitive decline. Interestingly, the prefrontal cortex appears to be particularly vulnerable early in the aging process in dogs and this may be reflected in dysfunction in specific cognitive domains with age.

  18. Aging and functional brain networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-07-11

    Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the 'default-mode' network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), a voxelwise and data-driven approach, together with parallel computing. Aging was associated with pronounced long-range FCD decreases in DMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) and with increases in somatosensory and subcortical networks. Aging effects in these networks were stronger for long-range than for short-range FCD and were also detected at the level of the main functional hubs. Females had higher short- and long-range FCD in DMN and lower FCD in the somatosensory network than males, but the gender by age interaction effects were not significant for any of the networks or hubs. These findings suggest that long-range connections may be more vulnerable to aging effects than short-range connections and that, in addition to the DMN, the DAN is also sensitive to aging effects, which could underlie the deterioration of attention processes that occurs with aging.

  19. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  20. Aging in Taiwan: Building a Society for Active Aging and Aging in Place.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Yin; Huang, Chin-Shan

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan's accelerated rate of aging is more than twice that of European countries and United States. Although demographic aging was not a major concern in Taiwan until 1993, when it became an aging society, aging issues now have become an imperative topic both in policy and in practice in the country. As this article demonstrates, in response to the challenge of the rapidly growing older population and the inspiration of cultural values of filial obligation and respect to elders, the concepts of active aging and aging in place are leading the policies and practices of gerontology to meet the diverse needs of the aging population in Taiwan. However, challenges remain, including the question of how to promote systematic endeavors, both in policies or research on aging, and how to encourage greater involvement of nongovernment organizations in the aging issue. In addition, some emerging issues about aging are addressed in this article including inadequate resources for older rural adults, building an age-friendly environment, and the increasing number of people with dementia.

  1. Aging Research Using Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L; Anderson, Laura C; Sheehan, Susan; Hill, Warren G; Chang, Bo; Churchill, Gary A; Chesler, Elissa J; Korstanje, Ron; Peters, Luanne L

    2015-06-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in human lifespan over the past century, there remains pronounced variability in "health-span," or the period of time in which one is generally healthy and free of disease. Much of the variability in health-span and lifespan is thought to be genetic in origin. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of aging and identifying ways to boost longevity is a primary goal in aging research. Here, we describe a pipeline of phenotypic assays for assessing mouse models of aging. This pipeline includes behavior/cognition testing, body composition analysis, and tests of kidney function, hematopoiesis, and immune function, as well as physical parameters. We also describe study design methods for assessing lifespan and health-span, and other important considerations when conducting aging research in the laboratory mouse. The tools and assays provided can assist researchers with understanding the correlative relationships between age-associated phenotypes and, ultimately, the role of specific genes in the aging process.

  2. Aging and memory for dreams.

    PubMed

    Waterman, D

    1991-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of aging on memory for home drams and the extent to which cognitive variables such as visual memory, visuospatial IQ, and verbal IQ could account for possible differences herein. Subjects were 80 men and women of ages 45 to 75 years. Memory for dreams was measured by narrative length and frequency of recall. With respect to both measures no significant age differences were noted. Over-all differences in dream recall seemed best explained by visual memory scores. Partial correlational analyses, however, indicated that the small age differences memory or on any of the other cognitive variables. Dream contents were scored for aggression, friendliness, emotion, activities, and the number of characters and objects. The incidence of emotions among women appeared to be lower beyond the age of 60. Comparisons with previous data for young adults indicated that large reductions in aggression, friendliness, and emotion occur before the age of 45.

  3. The Mitochondrial Basis of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Nuo; Youle, Richard J.; Finkel, Toren

    2016-01-01

    A decline in mitochondrial quality and activity has been associated with normal aging and correlated with the development of a wide range of age-related diseases. Here, we review the evidence that a decline in mitochondria function contributes to aging. In particular, we discuss how mitochondria contribute to specific aspects of the aging process including cellular senescence, chronic inflammation and the age-dependent decline in stem cell activity. Signaling pathways regulating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and mitophagy are also reviewed with particular emphasis placed on how these pathways might in turn regulate longevity. Taken together, these observations suggest that mitochondria influence or regulate a number of key aspects of aging, and suggest that strategies directed at improving mitochondrial quality and function might have far-reaching beneficial effects. PMID:26942670

  4. Aging Research Using Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Anderson, Laura; Sheehan, Susan; Hill, Warren G.; Chang, Bo; Churchill, Gary A.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Korstanje, Ron; Peters, Luanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in human lifespan over the past century, there remains pronounced variability in “health-span”, or the period of time in which one is generally healthy and free of disease. Much of the variability in health-span and lifespan is thought to be genetic in origin. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of aging and identifying ways to boost longevity is a primary goal in aging research. Here, we describe a pipeline of phenotypic assays for assessing mouse models of aging. This pipeline includes behavior/cognition testing, body composition analysis, and tests of kidney function, hematopoiesis, immune function and physical parameters. We also describe study design methods for assessing lifespan and health-span, and other important considerations when conducting aging research in the laboratory mouse. The tools and assays provided can assist researchers with understanding the correlative relationships between age-associated phenotypes and, ultimately, the role of specific genes in the aging process. PMID:26069080

  5. Adaptation, aging, and genomic information

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Aging is not simply an accumulation of damage or inappropriate higher-order signaling, though it does secondarily involve both of these subsidiary mechanisms. Rather, aging occurs because of the extensive absence of adaptive genomic information required for survival to, and function at, later adult ages, due to the declining forces of natural selection during adult life. This absence of information then secondarily leads to misallocations and damage at every level of biological organization. But the primary problem is a failure of adaptation at later ages. Contemporary proposals concerning means by which human aging can be ended or cured which are based on simple signaling or damage theories will thus reliably fail. Strategies based on reverse-engineering age-extended adaptation using experimental evolution and genomics offer the prospect of systematically greater success. PMID:20157529

  6. Aging Effects in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Chistos C.; McManus, Hugh L.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of composites degradation due to aging are described. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. Aging effects at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are evaluated, to determine failure of any kind. The results obtained show substantial ply stress built up as a result of aging accompanied by comparable laminate strength degradation in matrix dominated composite strengths.

  7. Aging and consumer decision making

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephanie M.; Yoon, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. PMID:22360794

  8. Theoretical approach to biological aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, R. M. C. de; Oliveira, S. Moss de; Penna, T. J. P.

    We present a model for biological aging that considers the number of individuals whose (inherited) genotype determines the maximum age for death: each individual may die before that age due to some external factor, but never after that limit. The genotype of the offspring is inherited from the parent with some mutations, described by a transition matrix. The model can describe different strategies of reproduction and it is exactly soluble. We applied our method to the bit-string model for aging and the results are in perfect agreement with numerical simulations.

  9. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p<0.005) in tetraparetic (17.7 months), hemiparetic (10.1 months), and diparetic patients (7.9 months). In the hemiparetic group, the mean bone age in the affected side was 96.88 months and the uncompromised side was 101.13 months (p<0.005). Regarding functional status, the ambulatory group showed a delay of 18.73 months in bone age (p<0.005). Comparing bone age between genders, it was observed a greater delay in males (13.59 months) than in females (9.63 months), but not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusion There is a delay in bone age compared to chronological age influenced by the topography of spasticity, functional level and gender in patients with cerebral palsy. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453693

  10. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-03-24

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  11. Age and Achievement: The Age Factor in Predicting Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sung-Mook

    1982-01-01

    In recent years a dramatic increase in enrollments of mature age students has occurred in courses of arts, social sciences, and humanities. The main objective of this study was to examine the predictive value of the age factor in the academic performance of behavioral science students at a regional college of advanced education in Australia. (SSH)

  12. Active Ageing in a Greying Society: Training for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessel, Roger

    2008-01-01

    With the ageing of society, policy-makers are aware of the need to retain older workers in employment. Across Europe, lifelong learning is increasingly important. Adults who remain active longer need (re-)training to maintain their productivity. However, vocational training tends to decline with age. The article analyses European employment policy…

  13. Relationships between Housing and Healthy Aging in Very Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Frank; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver; Nygren, Carita; Fange, Agneta; Sixsmith, Andrew; Sixsmith, Judith; Szeman, Zsuzsa; Tomsone, Signe; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between aspects of objective and perceived housing and aspects of healthy aging, defined as independence in daily activities and subjective well-being. Furthermore, this research examined the comparability of relationships between housing and healthy aging in the five European countries.…

  14. Frequently Asked Questions: Minimum Legal Drinking Age/Age 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides answers to questions about minimum legal drinking age. The questions include: (1) Youth in other countries are exposed to alcohol at earlier ages and engage in less alcohol abuse and have healthier attitudes toward alcohol. Don't those countries have fewer alcohol-related problems than we do?; (2) Does educating teens about…

  15. Correlation between Chronological Age, Dental Age and Skeletal Age among Monozygoyic and Dizygotic Twins

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mohit; Divyashree, R; Abhilash, PR; A Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem; Murali, KV

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronological age, dental development, height and weight measurements, sexual maturation characteristics and skeletal age are some biological indicators that have been used to identify time of growth. Many researchers have agreed that skeletal maturity is closely related to the craniofacial growth, and bones of hand and wrist are reliable parameters in assessing it. The complete hand and wrist radiograph involves 30 bones and assessment of these bones is one elaborate task. The present study is therefore, undertaken to assess the correlation between the chronological age, dental age and skeletal ages among different types of twins. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 60 subjects (30 twins) aged 8 to 16 years, divided into group of 10 monozygotic, 10 dizygotic and 10 mixed sex twins. The sample was selected from Twin Survey- 2008 conducted by Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. Their zygosity was determined by sex, blood groups and by the parent. The chronological age was measured by the date of birth given by the parents. Panoramic and hand wrist x-rays were taken. Dental age was assessed by Demerjian et al method and skeletal age by Greulich and Pyle method. The correlation among twins in dental and skeletal ages with the chronological age was assessed using Correlation Coefficient and Student's't' Test. Results: The obtained data was fed into the computer and statistical analysis was done for the same using the SPSS version 10.0. Statistical significance was tested at P<0.05 level. Mean and Standard Deviation, Correlation Coefficient, Student's't' Test statistical methods were employed. The result showed highly significant 'p' value as <0.001 in all the correlations except for mixed pairs. Descriptive statistics in most of the areas demonstrated a non-significant result between zygosity groups. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between the individual

  16. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  17. The aging population: demographics and the biology of aging.

    PubMed

    Kanasi, Eleni; Ayilavarapu, Srinivas; Jones, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies show that 11% of the world's population is over 60 years of age; this is projected to increase, by 2050, to 22% of the population. Oral aging is a current focus of several organizations including the Federation Dentaire Internationale, the World Health Organization and the American and Japanese Dental Associations. In their Tokyo Declaration, the Japanese Association identified the elderly population as one of its main target groups. One of the WHO goals is for each person to retain more than 20 teeth by age 80, despite the fact that the prevalence of periodontal disease is continuously rising as the population is aging. Every species has its own characteristic lifespan, which is determined by its evolutionary history and is modified by multiple diverse factors, including biological mechanisms. In humans, the gradual accumulation of products of cellular metabolism and extensive DNA damage contribute to the aging process. Aging is thought to be associated with a low-grade inflammatory phenotype in mammals, called 'inflammaging', and is the result of autophagic capacity impairing so-called 'housekeeping activities' in the cells, resulting in protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Delayed stem-cell proliferation, associated with aging, may impact the maintenance and survival of a living being, but excessive proliferation could also result in depleted reserves of stem cells. Studies are needed to address the association of delayed cell proliferation and wound healing with the onset of periodontal diseases and response to treatment. The effects of systemic diseases, medications, psychological effects and decreased interest or ability in performing oral-hygiene practices are thought to result in periodontal diseases, and ultimately in tooth loss, in aged individuals. Together with an aging population comes a responsibility for 'healthy' and 'successful' aging. This article describes the changing global demographic

  18. Proverb Interpretation Changes in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Recent investigations have emphasized the involvement of fronto-subcortical networks to proverb comprehension. Although the prefrontal cortex is thought to be affected by normal aging, relatively little work has been carried out to investigate potential effects of aging on proverb comprehension. In the present investigation participants in three…

  19. A new source of aging?

    PubMed

    Knaggs, Helen

    2009-06-01

    There has been a considerable increase in understanding how skin ages, along with significant progress toward the correction and prevention of the visible signs of aging. However, there are still many unknown factors regarding why we age - and why we all seem to age differently. An area of high interest is the biological or intrinsic processes that affect our appearance over time. This article describes a recent discovery of a membrane bound enzyme proven to be present in skin and increases its activity as biological age increases. The enzyme is located on the external surface of both fibroblast and keratinocytes, and generates free radicals. Therefore, as we age there appears to be a biological mechanism that further increases the production of free radicals. Additionally, there appears to be a relationship between activity of the enzyme and appearance. Data showed that subjects who look younger than their biological age had lower enzyme activity and conversely, subjects who looked older than their biological age had higher enzyme activity. Free radicals are believed to be a major contributing factor in the production of fine lines and wrinkles by destroying the collagen and elastin network keeping skin supple and firm.

  20. The age-phenome database.

    PubMed

    Geifman, Nophar; Rubin, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    Data linking specific ages or age ranges with disease are abundant in biomedical literature. However, these data are organized such that searching for age-phenotype relationships is difficult. Recently, we described the Age-Phenome Knowledge-base (APK), a computational platform for storage and retrieval of information concerning age-related phenotypic patterns. Here, we report that data derived from over 1.5 million human-related PubMed abstracts have been added to APK. Using a text-mining pipeline, 35,683 entries which describe relationships between age and phenotype (such as disease) have been introduced into the database. Comparing the results to those obtained by a human reader reveals that the overall accuracy of these entries is estimated to exceed 80%. The usefulness of these data for obtaining new insight regarding age-disease relationships is demonstrated using clustering analysis, which is shown to capture obvious, as well as potentially interesting relationships between diseases. In addition, a new tool for browsing and searching the APK database is presented. We thus present a unique resource and a new framework for studying age-disease relationships and other phenotypic processes.

  1. Age and Functional Health Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    gender such that energy level declined with older age for males, but energy level was lowest for females in the 35-49 age group. The correlations...psychosocial function," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 185, 1963, pp. 914-919. Health Status 42 Koenig, H., "Depression and dysphoria among

  2. Molecular aspects of skin ageing.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Elizabeth C; Watson, Rachel E B; Sherratt, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    Ageing of human skin may result from both the passage of time (intrinsic ageing) and from cumulative exposure to external influences (extrinsic ageing) such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) which promote wrinkle formation and loss of tissue elasticity. Whilst both ageing processes are associated with phenotypic changes in cutaneous cells, the major functional manifestations of ageing occur as a consequence of structural and compositional remodeling of normally long-lived dermal extracellular matrix proteins. This review briefly considers the effects of ageing on dermal collagens and proteoglycans before focusing on the mechanisms, functional consequences and treatment of elastic fibre remodeling in ageing skin. The early stages of photoageing are characterised by the differential degradation of elastic fibre proteins and whilst the activity of extracellular matrix proteases is increased in photoexposed skin, the substrate specificity of these enzymes is low. We have recently shown however, that isolated fibrillin microfibrils are susceptible to direct degradation by physiologically attainable doses of UV-B radiation and that elastic fibre proteins as a group are highly enriched in UV-absorbing amino acid residues. Functionally, elastic fibre remodeling events may adversely impact on: the mechanical properties of tissues, the recruitment and activation of immune cells, the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and cytokine signaling (by perturbing fibrillin microfibril sequestration of TGFβ). Finally, newly developed topical interventions appear to be capable of regenerating elements of the elastic fibre system in ageing skin, whilst systemic treatments may potentially prevent the pathological tissue remodeling events which occur in response to elastic fibre degradation.

  3. Combating the Dilemma of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grueninger, Bob; Yeagle, Bill

    The demographics of the population 65 years and older are described within the context of attitudes toward aging prevalent in society today. A description is presented of the physical signs of aging. The benefits of exercise are discussed as well as the importance of proper nutrition. Suggestions are listed regarding diet and exercise. A…

  4. An Educational Response to Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Rosemary

    1978-01-01

    The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)

  5. Age and genotoxicity. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book provides basic definitions and examples of terms, and also discusses the effects of environmental exposure on genes and the relationship between the various branches of genotoxicology. The Contents include; definitions (with examples), aging, Alzheimer's Disease, amyloidosis, aneuploidy, antigeria, Antioxygenic Enzymes, ataxia telagiectasia or Louis-Bar Syndrome, atherosclerosis, autoimmune theories of aging, autoimmunity, batten's disease, brain, and index.

  6. Test Anxiety: Age Appropriate Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, David B.; Driscoll, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers information on test anxiety reduction strategies from over thirty years of experience with clients of a variety of ages. Dr. Ross is from the College of Lake County. Dr. Driscoll is a private practitioner and Director of the American Test Anxieties Association. The purpose is to address age appropriate test anxiety…

  7. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Judy

    Ag-Ed is an agricultural education project aimed at upper primary students, held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show (similar to a county fair) in Queensland, Australia. The program achieves its purpose of helping children understand the impact and relevance that agriculture has on their everyday lives through two components, an Ag-Ed day and a…

  8. Leading in a Technological Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadgir, Sheri A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology is advancing more rapidly than at any time in history since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In fact, experts say that the world is leaving the Industrial Age of the 20th century and entering an Information Age that will lead into the future. These advances mean that important changes are being made in all areas of life--and…

  9. The Several Ages of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    Examines the various stages of human development (as outlined by Erik Erikson and others) with their psychological stresses of recurring crises of identity and expectation and explores some of the implications for education's best serving human needs. Focuses on early childhood, late adolescence, middle age, and old age. (JT)

  10. Exercise, Cognitive Function, and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…

  11. Sociogenic Aging: Youth in Reverse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beazley, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Difficulties faced by older adults are exacerbated by social attitudes that render them unproductive and unneeded citizens. Health education can provide aging education that will make the aged stage of life a positive, useful, healthy, and socially acceptable time for continued personal growth. (JD)

  12. Aging in a Bakongo Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missinne, Leo E.

    1980-01-01

    The Bakongo tribe resides in Lower Zaire. The aging intervene in all important life situations: marriage, witchcraft, magic, native palavers, etc. They have authority and represent the tribe. Although the youth subscribe to modern western ideas, they still unconsciously fear the authority and power of the aging. (Author)

  13. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  14. The young age of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youxue

    1998-09-01

    Patterson (1956) established that the age of Earth is close to that of meteorites. Over the last 20 years, workers argued for younger age for core differentiation based on Pb-Pb model ages and tungsten isotopic data and for gas retention based on I-Xe modeling. However, disagreement is abundant, and the young age of Earth has not been widely accepted. In this work, I examine all radiogenic noble gases in the atmosphere and use a model-independent approach and total inversion to show that (1) the Xe-closure age of Earth is 109 ± 23 million years younger than the formation of meteorite Bjurbole (˜4560 Ma) and (2) all radiogenic components of noble gases in the atmosphere can be quantitatively accounted for by production and degassing ˜60% of the bulk silicate earth. The agreement between the 129I- 129Xe clock and 244Pu- 238U- 136Xe- 134Xe- 132Xe- 131Xe clock suggests that the volatility of iodine does not affect the 129I- 129Xe clock. Earth's Xe-closure age is 4.45 ± 0.02 Ga, consistent with the model age of Pb and the 146Sm- 142Nd, 147Sm- 143Nd and 182Hf- 182W systematics. On the basis of the consistency of these ages, 4.45 ± 0.02 Ga probably represents the time when the last Martian-sized planetesimal hit Earth and reinitialized the global clocks.

  15. Mobility decline in old age.

    PubMed

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to promote mobility in old age.

  16. The Rediscovery of Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The article argues the case for rethinking the way we look at the process of ageing in the work place and the images we use to describe the nature of life for people over 50. Rather than there being more old and frail people in the community, many more people are experiencing an extended middle age, and their numbers are increasing. There are in…

  17. The Multi-age Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Deborah C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents strategies for planning lessons for home-schoolers, science circuses, and summer science programs with multi-age groups of children. Suggests a spiraling curriculum centered on big ideas and varying a common activity in mixed-ability classrooms. Includes examples of activities for multi-age groups. (KHR)

  18. Aging Parents as Family Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jan S.; Becker, Marion

    1988-01-01

    Investigated extent to which aging parents experience stress when problems arise in lives of their adult children, and ways in which they serve as resources to their children in need. Findings from 29 couples over age 60 revealed that mothers experienced significant stress resulting from adult children's problems, whereas fathers experienced…

  19. [Successful aging: criteria and predictors].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ballesteros García, Rocío; Zamarrón Casinello, Ma Dolores; López Bravo, Ma Dolores; Molina Martínez, Ma Ángeles; Díez Nicolás, Juan; Montero López, Pilar; Schettini del Moral, Rocío

    2010-11-01

    In the Anglo-Saxon scientific literature, successful aging has been consolidated during the last four decades. Nevertheless, several terms have been used as synonymous: healthy, active, productive, optimal, positive aging. Although, all these terms have been described through a broad set of bio-psycho-social factors, usually, research in this field reduces successful aging to daily life functioning and physical health. Also, in spite of the fact that authors consider that determinants might be multi-domain, empirical research usually reduces them to life styles. Logically, the prevalence of this kind of ageing found empirically is not very consistent and research of its determinants or predictors refers to biomedical conditions. In this study, data from 458 participants (170 males and 288 females; mean age: 66.47, range: 55-75) from ELEA ("Longitudinal Study of Active Aging") were examined. The results show (depending on the simple or multidimensional definitions used) a very varied range of proportions of successfully aging older persons as well as a large number of multi-domain predictors of successful ageing, among which are intelligence, personality and motivational psychological characteristics.

  20. School-Age NOTES, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scofield, Richard T., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    These 12 monthly newsletter issues provide information and support for providers of school-age child care. The featured articles for each month are: (1) "Children's World Opens Private Elementary Schools" (September); (2) "How Does SAC [school-age care] Rate in Your State? (October)" (3) "Australian SAC Tackles Space…

  1. Faculty Training in Aging Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of a research training program by 58 psychology faculty participants revealed four outcomes: improved knowledge of methodology, increased interest in aging research, expanded networking, and stronger undergraduate programs. Grant writing training resulted in 10 participants obtaining National Institute on Aging funding. (SK)

  2. EPL comes of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jérome, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one years have now passed since the launch of Europhysics Letters which merged the physics letters journals of two learned societies: Journal de Physique Lettres and Lettere al Nuovo Cimento belonging, respectively, to the French Physical Society (SFP) and to the Italian Physical Society (SIF). This new journal was also supported by the UK Institute of Physics (IOP) and many other National Physical Societies, members of the European Physical Society (EPS). The aim of this merger was expressed by the words of G. H. Stafford, the President of EPS in 1985, for whom Europhysics Letters marked `an important milestone in the progress towards greater unity in Europe' which began with the creation of the European Physical Society nearly twenty years earlier. Europhysics Letters was supposed to be a strong European-based journal for the publication of short important communications covering all domains of physics under the supervision and the scientific control of EPS. In 2007, 21 years later, Europhysics Letters has now come of age and the Board of Directors, under the control of EPS, has decided to mature the journal, now re-branded as EPL and characterized by a new cover design and a new printed format, thus encouraging development into a top-tier journal, a leading global home for ground-breaking physics research letters. The objective is to make EPL a high-impact physics journal leading towards an increase in visibility, impact, prestige, scientific quality, reputation and impact factor although all scientists are currently aware that the presentation of impact factors must be taken with a grain of salt. A new publishing contract amongst the EPL partners will directly involve, besides EDPS (the publishing company of SFP) and SIF, the Institute of Physics through its publishing department (IOP Publishing) in a more active role, its task being hosting the on-line facilities of the journal. The combined publishing expertise and marketing knowledge of EDPS, IOP

  3. Molecular Diagnostics of Ageing and Tackling Age-related Disease.

    PubMed

    Timmons, James A

    2017-01-01

    As average life expectancy increases there is a greater focus on health-span and, in particular, how to treat or prevent chronic age-associated diseases. Therapies which were able to control 'biological age' with the aim of postponing chronic and costly diseases of old age require an entirely new approach to drug development. Molecular technologies and machine-learning methods have already yielded diagnostics that help guide cancer treatment and cardiovascular procedures. Discovery of valid and clinically informative diagnostics of human biological age (combined with disease-specific biomarkers) has the potential to alter current drug-discovery strategies, aid clinical trial recruitment and maximize healthy ageing. I will review some basic principles that govern the development of 'ageing' diagnostics, how such assays could be used during the drug-discovery or development process. Important logistical and statistical considerations are illustrated by reviewing recent biomarker activity in the field of Alzheimer's disease, as dementia represents the most pressing of priorities for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the chronic disease in humans most associated with age.

  4. Stem cells and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Margaret A; Rando, Thomas A

    2015-12-04

    Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age.

  5. Aging and radiation: bad companions

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Laia; Terradas, Mariona; Camps, Jordi; Martín, Marta; Tusell, Laura; Genescà, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Aging involves a deterioration of cell functions and changes that may predispose the cell to undergo an oncogenic transformation. The carcinogenic risks following radiation exposure rise with age among adults. Increasing inflammatory response, loss of oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium, ongoing telomere attrition, decline in the DNA damage response efficiency, and deleterious nuclear organization are age-related cellular changes that trigger a serious threat to genomic integrity. In this review, we discuss the mechanistic interplay between all these factors, providing an integrated view of how they contribute to the observed age-related increase in radiation sensitivity. As life expectancy increases and so it does the medical intervention, it is important to highlight the benefits of radiation protection in the elderly. Thus, a deep understanding of the mechanistic processes confining the threat of aging-related radiosensitivity is currently of foremost relevance. PMID:25645467

  6. Cellular ageing mechanisms in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sacitharan, P K; Vincent, T L

    2016-08-01

    Age is the strongest independent risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and for many years this was assumed to be due to repetitive microtrauma of the joint surface over time, the so-called 'wear and tear' arthritis. As our understanding of OA pathogenesis has become more refined, it has changed our appreciation of the role of ageing on disease. Cartilage breakdown in disease is not a passive process but one involving induction and activation of specific matrix-degrading enzymes; chondrocytes are exquisitely sensitive to changes in the mechanical, inflammatory and metabolic environment of the joint; cartilage is continuously adapting to these changes by altering its matrix. Ageing influences all of these processes. In this review, we will discuss how ageing affects tissue structure, joint use and the cellular metabolism. We describe what is known about pathways implicated in ageing in other model systems and discuss the potential value of targeting these pathways in OA.

  7. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Vucetich, J.A.; Mech, L.D.; Stahler, D.R.; Packer, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Predatory senescence in aging wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Vucetich, John A.; Mech, L. David; Stahler, Daniel R.; Packer, Craig

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics.

  9. Age-related eye disease.

    PubMed

    Voleti, Vinod B; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    As with many organs, compromised function of the eye is accompanied with age and has become increasingly prevalent with the aging population. When decreased visual loss becomes significant, patients' ability to perform activities of daily living becomes compromised. This decrease in function is met with morbidity and mortality, as well as a large socioeconomic burden throughout the world. This review summarizes the most common age-related eye diseases, including cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and age-related macular degeneration. Although our understanding of the genetic and biochemical pathways of these diseases is sill at its primitive stages, we have become able to help our patients improve the quality of life as they age.

  10. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves.

    PubMed

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Vucetich, John A; Mech, L David; Stahler, Daniel R; Packer, Craig

    2009-12-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics.

  11. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  12. Stem cells, mitochondria and aging.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist, Kati J; Suomalainen, Anu; Hämäläinen, Riikka H

    2015-11-01

    Decline in metabolism and regenerative potential of tissues are common characteristics of aging. Regeneration is maintained by somatic stem cells (SSCs), which require tightly controlled energy metabolism and genomic integrity for their homeostasis. Recent data indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction may compromise this homeostasis, and thereby contribute to tissue degeneration and aging. Progeroid Mutator mouse, accumulating random mtDNA point mutations in their SSCs, showed disturbed SSC homeostasis, emphasizing the importance of mtDNA integrity for stem cells. The mechanism involved changes in cellular redox-environment, including subtle increase in reactive oxygen species (H₂O₂and superoxide anion), which did not cause oxidative damage, but disrupted SSC function. Mitochondrial metabolism appears therefore to be an important regulator of SSC fate determination, and defects in it in SSCs may underlie premature aging. Here we review the current knowledge of mitochondrial contribution to SSC dysfunction and aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging.

  13. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Obesity in the ageing man.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, K; Goulis, D G; Vazaiou, A; Mintziori, G; Polymeris, A; Abrahamian-Michalakis, A

    2013-10-01

    As the population is ageing globally, both ageing and obesity are recognized as major public health challenges. The aim of this narrative review is to present and discuss the current evidence on the changes in body composition, energy balance and endocrine environment that occur in the ageing man. Obesity in the ageing man is related to changes in both body weight and composition due to alterations in energy intake and total energy expenditure. In addition, somatopenia (decreased GH secretion), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), changes in thyroid and adrenal function, as well as changes in appetite-related peptides (leptin, ghrelin) and, most importantly, insulin action are related to obesity, abnormal energy balance, redistribution of the adipose tissue and sarcopenia (decreased muscle mass). A better understanding of the complex relationship of ageing-related endocrine changes and obesity could lead to more effective interventions for elderly men.

  15. AMPK Function in Aging Process.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Manuel Carrión, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves the progressive deterioration of physiological functions, diminishing the individual's capacity for survival. Indeed, aging is the main risk factor for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The discovery that the rate of aging is controlled by conserved genetic and biochemical pathways represented an unprecedented advance in aging research. The AMPK protein is a metabolic sensor that acts as a qualified cellular housekeeper, as well as controlling energy homeostasis and resistance to stress. Thus, the correct regulation of this factor enhances health and survival. In this manuscript we will review the molecular pathways regulated by AMPK that are related to the aging process, paying special attention to mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic deregulation, cell senescence and autophagy.

  16. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cardiac Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Tocchi, Autumn; Quarles, Ellen K.; Basisty, Nathan; Gitari, Lemuel; Rabinovitch, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in most developed nations. While it has received the least public attention, aging is the dominant risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, as the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases increases dramatically with increasing age. Cardiac aging is an intrinsic process that results in impaired cardiac function, along with cellular and molecular changes. Mitochondria play a great role in these processes, as cardiac function is an energetically demanding process. In this review, we examine mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac aging. Recent research has demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction can disrupt morphology, signaling pathways, and protein interactions; conversely, mitochondrial homeostasis is maintained by mechanisms that include fission/fusion, autophagy, and unfolded protein responses. Finally, we describe some of the recent findings in mitochondrial targeted treatments to help meet the challenges of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging. PMID:26191650

  17. [Skin ageing and its prevention].

    PubMed

    Passeron, Thierry; Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2003-09-27

    INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC FACTORS: Skin ageing is due to the conjunction of intrinsic (chronological ageing) and extrinsic factors (fundamentally photo-ageing). The physiopathological mechanisms of intrinsic ageing rejoin those of the ageing of all the other organs. Among the intrinsic causes, tobacco and above all ultra-violet radiation, UVB and also UVA, play a preponderant role. Photo-ageing is secondary to complex mechanisms that are increasingly known. The UVB directly interact with the DNA of the cutaneous cells. The deleterious effects of UVA are principally due to the formation of free radical oxygen, which result in an alteration in the nuclear and also mitochondrial DNA, but also an activation of the enzymes, metalloproteinase, capable of damaging the extra-cellular matrix. DELETERIOUS CONSEQUENCES: The phenomena of ageing provoke the decline in defence, healing and perception mechanisms and in the thermoregulation of the skin tissue. There are numerous and often unsightly clinical manifestations. Photo-ageing can be considered as a marker of risk of photo-carcinogenesis requiring increased clinical surveillance. PREVENTIVE AND CURATIVE MEASURES: The prevention of skin ageing must be based on the use of sunscreens protecting against both UVB and UVA, but, in order for them to be effective, they require a change in general life style. There are many efficient therapeutic means, but the possible side effects must be known and explained to the patient. Retinoids, in view of their innocuousness and efficacy not only in prevention but also treatment of skin ageing, should be considered as a therapeutic option of choice.

  18. Cancer, aging and immune reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Zanussi, Stefania; Serraino, Diego; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Berretta, Massimiliano; De Paoli, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Aging is a complex phenomenon involving multiple physiological functions. Among these, very important are the modifications induced in the immune system; these modifications may be related to cancer development, a disease of older people. We herein describe the age-dependent alterations observed in the various arms of the immune system. Both innate and adaptive immunity are compromised during aging, a condition where an inflammatory status contributes to promote immune suppression and tumour growth. Collectively, aging of the immune system may produce detrimental consequences on the response against tumours in old patients. In fact, preclinical studies and clinical observations in humans have demonstrated age-associated alterations in antitumor immunity. Immunological recovery of old patients after conventional chemotherapy (CT) has not been fully investigated, while several studies conducted in patients undergoing blood stem cell transplantation have demonstrated that a delayed immune reconstitution associated with older age results in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and risk of tumour relapse. Cellular immunotherapy and vaccination are becoming viable options for improving survival and quality of life of cancer patients targeting both the host defences and the tumour. The clinical experience in elderly patients is still in its infancy, but available data indicate that these approaches are feasible and promising. A key problem in the studies on aging, immunity and cancer is that it is difficult to distinguish changes related to age from those related to cancer-dependent immunosuppression, but independent from the age of the subject. Longitudinal studies on aged healthy and cancer persons and the use of new immunological techniques may be required to clarify these issues.

  19. The aged cardiovascular risk patient.

    PubMed

    Priebe, H J

    2000-11-01

    It is mostly acknowledged that 'normal' or 'healthy' ageing of the cardiovascular system is distinct from the increasing incidence and severity of cardiovascular disease with advancing age (e.g. hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure). It is also recognized that chronological and biological age may differ considerably. Nevertheless, even in the absence of overt coexisting disease, advanced age is always accompanied by a general decline in organ function, and specifically by alterations in structure and function of the heart and vasculature that will ultimately affect cardiovascular performance. Actual biological age is thus the net result of the interaction between age-related and concomitant disease-associated changes in organ function. As cardiovascular performance at a given moment is the net result of interactions between heart rate, intrinsic contractility, diastolic and systolic function, ventricular afterload and coronary perfusion, it is important to be aware of the age-related changes in each of these variables, independent of disease, as they determine cardiac performance at rest and its response to stress in the elderly. The most relevant age-related changes in cardiovascular performance for perioperative management are the stiffened myocardium and vasculature, blunted beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness and impaired autonomic reflex control of heart rate. These changes are of little clinical relevance at rest, but may have considerable consequences during superimposed cardiovascular stress. Such stress can take the form of increased flow demand (as in exercise or postoperatively), demand for acute autonomic reflex control (as in change of posture) or severe disease (as during myocardial ischaemia, tachyarrhythmias or uncontrolled hypertension). It may interfere with diastolic relaxation (i.e. ventricular filling), systolic contraction (i.e. ventricular emptying) and vasomotor control (i.e. arterial pressure homeostasis). Three

  20. Too Much Sitting Ages You Faster

    MedlinePlus

    ... Much Sitting Ages You Faster Cells of elderly sedentary women look much older than their actual age, ... Our study found cells age faster with a sedentary lifestyle. Chronological age doesn't always match biological ...

  1. Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients Patient ... for evaluation and possible surgical management. Sources For Aging Patients: Administration on Aging (AoA), U.S. Department of ...

  2. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  3. Productive Aging: A Question of Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicker, Martin; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "The Paradox of Productive Aging" (Sicker); "Beyond Productive Aging" (Riley, Riley); "Changing Concepts; Visionary or Short-Sighted" (Holstein); "Making Aging Meaningful" (Glanz, Neikrug); and "Perspectives on Productive Aging from Austria, Bolivia, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Venezuela."…

  4. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Armanios, Mary; de Cabo, Rafael; Mannick, Joan; Partridge, Linda; van Deursen, Jan; Villeda, Saul

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing through the use of model organisms, how to apply this knowledge in the clinic is less clear. In September, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, hosted a conference at the beautiful Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover, Germany with the goal of broadening our understanding of the aging process and its meaning as a 'risk factor' in disease. Here, several of the speakers at that conference answer questions posed by Nature Medicine.

  5. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  6. Explosive and pyrotechnic aging demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouch, L. L., Jr.; Maycock, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The survivability was experimentally verified of fine selected explosive and pyrotechnic propellant materials when subjected to sterilization, and prolonged exposure to space environments. This verification included thermal characterization, sterilization heat cycling, sublimation measurements, isothermal decomposition measurements, and accelerated aging at a preselected elevated temperature. Temperatures chosen for sublimation and isothermal decomposition measurements were those in which the decomposition processess occurring would be the same as those taking place in real-time aging. The elevated temperature selected (84 C) for accelerated aging was based upon the parameters calculated from the kinetic data obtained in the isothermal measurement tests and was such that one month of accelerated aging in the laboratory approximated one year of real-time aging at 66 C. Results indicate that HNS-IIA, pure PbN6, KDNBF, and Zr/KC10 are capable of withstanding sterilization. The accelerated aging tests indicated that unsterilized HNS-IIA and Zr/KC104 can withstand the 10 year, elevated temperature exposure, pure PbN6 and KDNBF exhibit small weight losses (less than 2 percent) and B/KC104 exhibits significant changes in its thermal characteristics. Accelerated aging tests after sterilization indicated that only HNS-IIA exhibited high stability.

  7. Programmed cell death in aging.

    PubMed

    Tower, John

    2015-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) pathways, including apoptosis and regulated necrosis, are required for normal cell turnover and tissue homeostasis. Mis-regulation of PCD is increasingly implicated in aging and aging-related disease. During aging the cell turnover rate declines for several highly-mitotic tissues. Aging-associated disruptions in systemic and inter-cell signaling combined with cell-autonomous damage and mitochondrial malfunction result in increased PCD in some cell types, and decreased PCD in other cell types. Increased PCD during aging is implicated in immune system decline, skeletal muscle wasting (sarcopenia), loss of cells in the heart, and neurodegenerative disease. In contrast, cancer cells and senescent cells are resistant to PCD, enabling them to increase in abundance during aging. PCD pathways limit life span in fungi, but whether PCD pathways normally limit adult metazoan life span is not yet clear. PCD is regulated by a balance of negative and positive factors, including the mitochondria, which are particularly subject to aging-associated malfunction.

  8. The cell biology of aging

    PubMed Central

    DiLoreto, Race; Murphy, Coleen T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the original hypotheses of organismal longevity posits that aging is the natural result of entropy on the cells, tissues, and organs of the animal—a slow, inexorable slide into nonfunctionality caused by stochastic degradation of its parts. We now have evidence that aging is instead at least in part genetically regulated. Many mutations have been discovered to extend lifespan in organisms of all complexities, from yeast to mammals. The study of metazoan model organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, has been instrumental in understanding the role of genetics in the cell biology of aging. Longevity mutants across the spectrum of model organisms demonstrate that rates of aging are regulated through genetic control of cellular processes. The regulation and subsequent breakdown of cellular processes represent a programmatic decision by the cell to either continue or abandon maintenance procedures with age. Our understanding of cell biological processes involved in regulating aging have been particularly informed by longevity mutants and treatments, such as reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling and dietary restriction, which are critical in determining the distinction between causes of and responses to aging and have revealed a set of downstream targets that participate in a range of cell biological activities. Here we briefly review some of these important cellular processes. PMID:26668170

  9. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  10. The aging reproductive neuroendocrine axis.

    PubMed

    Brann, Darrell W; Mahesh, Virendra B

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that the reproductive system is one of the first biological systems to show age-related decline. While depletion of ovarian follicles clearly relates to the end of reproductive function in females, evidence is accumulating that a hypothalamic defect is critical in the transition from cyclicity to acyclicity. This minireview attempts to present a concise review on aging of the female reproductive neuroendocrine axis and provide thought-provoking analysis and insights into potential future directions for this field. Evidence will be reviewed, which shows that a defect in pulsatile and surge gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion exists in normal cycling middle-aged female rats, which is thought to explain the significantly attenuated pulsatile and surge luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion at middle-age. Evidence is also presented, which supports the age-related defect in GnRH secretion as being due to a reduced activation of GnRH neurons. Along these lines, stimulation of GnRH secretion by the major excitatory transmitter glutamate is shown to be significantly attenuated in middle-aged proestrous rats. Corresponding age-related defects in other major excitatory regulatory factors, such as catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, and astrocytes, have also been demonstrated. Age-related changes in hypothalamic concentrations of neurotransmitter receptors, steroid receptors, and circulating steroid hormone levels are also reviewed, and discussion is presented on the complex interrelationships of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis during aging, with attention to how a defect in one level of the axis can induce defects in other levels, and thereby potentiate the dysfunction of the entire HPO axis.

  11. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases.

  12. The DrugAge database of aging-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Barardo, Diogo; Thornton, Daniel; Thoppil, Harikrishnan; Walsh, Michael; Sharifi, Samim; Ferreira, Susana; Anžič, Andreja; Fernandes, Maria; Monteiro, Patrick; Grum, Tjaša; Cordeiro, Rui; De-Souza, Evandro Araújo; Budovsky, Arie; Araujo, Natali; Gruber, Jan; Petrascheck, Michael; Fraifeld, Vadim E; Zhavoronkov, Alexander; Moskalev, Alexey; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2017-03-16

    Aging is a major worldwide medical challenge. Not surprisingly, identifying drugs and compounds that extend lifespan in model organisms is a growing research area. Here, we present DrugAge (http://genomics.senescence.info/drugs/), a curated database of lifespan-extending drugs and compounds. At the time of writing, DrugAge contains 1316 entries featuring 418 different compounds from studies across 27 model organisms, including worms, flies, yeast and mice. Data were manually curated from 324 publications. Using drug-gene interaction data, we also performed a functional enrichment analysis of targets of lifespan-extending drugs. Enriched terms include various functional categories related to glutathione and antioxidant activity, ion transport and metabolic processes. In addition, we found a modest but significant overlap between targets of lifespan-extending drugs and known aging-related genes, suggesting that some but not most aging-related pathways have been targeted pharmacologically in longevity studies. DrugAge is freely available online for the scientific community and will be an important resource for biogerontologists.

  13. Nutrition and AGE-ing: Focusing on Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Abate, Giulia; Marziano, Mariagrazia; Rungratanawanich, Wiramon; Memo, Maurizio; Uberti, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the role of food and nutrition in preventing or delaying chronic disability in the elderly population has received great attention. Thanks to their ability to influence biochemical and biological processes, bioactive nutrients are considered modifiable factors capable of preserving a healthy brain status. A diet rich in vitamins and polyphenols and poor in saturated fatty acids has been recommended. In the prospective of a healthy diet, cooking methods should be also considered. In fact, cooking procedures can modify the original dietary content, contributing not only to the loss of healthy nutrients, but also to the formation of toxins, including advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These harmful compounds are adsorbed at intestinal levels and can contribute to the ageing process. The accumulation of AGEs in ageing ("AGE-ing") is further involved in the exacerbation of neurodegenerative and many other chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss food's dual role as both source of bioactive nutrients and reservoir for potential toxic compounds-paying particular attention to the importance of proper nutrition in preventing/delaying Alzheimer's disease. In addition, we focus on the importance of a good education in processing food in order to benefit from the nutritional properties of an optimal diet.

  14. Skin anti-aging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures. PMID:23467476

  15. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  16. Ageing, neurodegeneration and brain rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic diseases take the biggest toll on human health and well-being, increasingly, a failing brain is the arbiter of a death preceded by a gradual loss of the essence of being. Ageing, which is fundamental to neurodegeneration and dementia, affects every organ in the body and seems to be encoded partly in a blood-based signature. Indeed, factors in the circulation have been shown to modulate ageing and to rejuvenate numerous organs, including the brain. The discovery of such factors, the identification of their origins and a deeper understanding of their functions is ushering in a new era in ageing and dementia research. PMID:27830812

  17. Social Support in Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Anne Martin

    1984-01-01

    The role of social support in helping elderly people deal with stressful life events is quite complex. This complexity exists because it is difficult to define exactly what social support is, and because the experiences of `normal' aging vary. This article uses the example of adaptation to widowhood to examine the relationship between normal aging and sources, types, and patterns of social support. These factors influence the extent to which support lessens the impact of age-related stressful events. The physician has a role in primary social support, and also in facilitating the supportive functions of family and others. PMID:21279087

  18. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented.

  19. Skin anti-aging strategies.

    PubMed

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2012-07-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall "well-being" and the perception of "health" in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures.

  20. The Affective Neuroscience of Aging.

    PubMed

    Mather, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Although aging is associated with clear declines in physical and cognitive processes, emotional functioning fares relatively well. Consistent with this behavioral profile, two core emotional brain regions, the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, show little structural and functional decline in aging, compared with other regions. However, emotional processes depend on interacting systems of neurotransmitters and brain regions that go beyond these structures. This review examines how age-related brain changes influence processes such as attending to and remembering emotional stimuli, regulating emotion, and recognizing emotional expressions, as well as empathy, risk taking, impulsivity, behavior change, and attentional focus.

  1. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2004-09-10

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the criticality safety results to support the preliminary design of the Aging

  2. [Seed aging and survival mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Grappin, Philippe; Bourdais, Gildas; Collet, Boris; Godin, Béatrice; Job, Dominique; Ogé, Laurent; Jullien, Marc; Rajjou, Loïc

    2008-01-01

    Aging and death are universal to living systems. In temperate climate latitudes the mature seeds of higher plants are exposed to aging and have developed resistance mechanisms allowing survival and plant propagation. In addition to the physicochemical properties of the seed that confer stress resistance, the protein metabolism contributes importantly to longevity mechanisms. Recently, genetic studies have demonstrated the occurrence of the Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase repair enzyme in controlling age-related protein damages and seed survival. These protective mechanisms by protein repair are widespread in all kingdoms, so that the use of seeds as models to study these controlling processes offers the prospect of understanding longevity mechanisms better.

  3. Cell Senescence: Aging and Cancer

    ScienceCinema

    Campisi, Judith

    2016-07-12

    Scientists have identified a molecular cause behind the ravages of old age and in doing so have also shown how a natural process for fighting cancer in younger persons can actually promote cancer in older individuals.

  4. [Ageing society and laboratory medicine].

    PubMed

    Okabe, H

    2000-09-01

    An interest in the ageing process has increased greatly with increasing the population of the aged. The goal of this interest is to improve the quality of life(QOL) in the aged. In this paper, the presidential address "Ageing Society and Laboratory Medicine" at the 46th annual meeting of JSCP in Kumamoto'99 was summarized on the important research for ageing in the past decades. The paper presented was age- and gene-related changes, the latent variation of serum constituents and lipids abnormality in the ageing process. Concerning to the definition of reference value of healthy populations and the subjects who had no combined ailments, the reference interval of individuals(intra-personal), followed 5 years categorized by age, sex, and social conditions, gave a narrow range of variation than did a larger mixed populations(inter-personal). The reference intervals set would be a more sensitive reference than is the customary "normal range" for values occurring in inter-personal. Concerning to the study of the relationship between laboratory test and activity of daily living(ADL), the higher serum levels for TP, Alb, Hb, Glu, TC were observed in the higher ADL. The basic research techniques were also evaluated in the paper. The serum lipoperoxides were correlated with serum lipoprotein free radicals which caused atherosclerosis. The higher frequency of cerebral- and myocardial-infarction in the aged were observed in the higher serum LDL-C and lower serum level of arachidonic acid(AA), eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA), and AA/EPA ratio were observed in AMI patients with lower HDL-C groups than the healthy aged. Although Alzheimer(AD)'s disease had a progressive memory loss and immobile dementia and was reported the decrease of acetyltransferase activity in the brain, decrease of serum level of free choline, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine(PC) and sphingomyelin(SM)/PC ratio were observed in spite of keeping normal serum level of SM. The decreased serum levels of

  5. Musculoskeletal ageing and primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Nedergaard, Anders; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A; Christiansen, Claus

    2013-10-01

    Loss of musculoskeletal mass and function is a natural ageing trait, reinforced by an unhealthy life style. Loss of bone (osteoporosis) and muscle (sarcopaenia) are conditions whose prevalence are increasing because of the change in population distribution in the western world towards an older mean age. Improvements in lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking and exercise, are the most powerful tools to combat this decline efficiently; however, public health interventions aimed at tackling these problems have shown abysmal success at the population level, mostly due to failure in compliance. With these issues in mind, we believe that the primary prevention modality in coming decades will be pharmacological. We review the basic biology of musculoskeletal ageing and what measures can be taken to prevent ageing-associated loss of musculoskeletal mass and function, with particular emphasis on pharmacological means.

  6. Aging Biology in the Kidney.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Markus; Wiggins, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    The notion that kidney function declines with age in the general population is well known in the Nephrology community and the average loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) about 1ml per year in most longitudinal studies. There is much debate within the community about whether this represents "normal aging" or whether this constitutes a form of renal disease. However this debate turns out, the real question is whether this decline is preventable - can it be modified or slowed? Efforts to find drivers of this decline are still in the very earliest stages, but have shown some promise at elucidating some of the pathologies involved. This article will address both the wider issue of the biology of aging as well as the specific pathologies of the aging kidney.

  7. The age of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1996-10-01

    An overview of the current controversy on the age of the universe is presented. It is shown that the age of the oldest star, globular clusters, yields an age estimate of approximately 14 {+-} 2 {+-} 2 Gyr (where the first {+-} is statistical and the second systematic, and the two should {ital not} be added in quadrature), with a firm lower bound of {ge} 10 Gyr. It is shown how radioactive dating, nucleocosmochronology, also yields a firm lower bound of {approx_gt} 10 Gyr. The currently favored values for the Hubble constant, when converted to ages using a cosmological model with zero cosmological constant, are shown {ital not} to be in conflict with statistical and systematic uncertainties at the present time when one takes both into account, even for critical density universes. 25 refs. , 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Peroxisome Metabolism and Cellular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Titorenko, Vladimir I.; Terlecky, Stanley R.

    2010-01-01

    The essential role of peroxisomes in fatty acid oxidation, anaplerotic metabolism, and hydrogen peroxide turnover is well established. Recent findings suggest these and other related biochemical processes governed by the organelle may also play a critical role in regulating cellular aging. The goal of this review is to summarize and integrate into a model, the evidence that peroxisome metabolism actually helps define the replicative and chronological age of a eukaryotic cell. In this model, peroxisomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) are seen as altering organelle biogenesis and function, and eliciting changes in the dynamic communication networks that exist between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments. At low levels, peroxisomal ROS activate an anti-aging program in the cell; at concentrations beyond a specific threshold, a pro-aging course is triggered. PMID:21083858

  9. Healthy Bones at Every Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... at every age and stage of life. The skeleton is our body’s storage bank for calcium — a ... the actual size and structure of a person’s skeleton is determined by genetic factors. Although peak bone ...

  10. The Popularization of Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1979-01-01

    Books, magazines, and newspapers for the general public have discovered middle age and, in spite of an exaggeration of mid-life crisis, provide adults with a broader perspective on mid-life adjustments. (SK)

  11. Aging changes in the breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... age, a woman's breasts lose fat, tissue, and mammary glands. Many of these changes are due to the ... to their providers about mammograms. Images Female breast Mammary gland References Davidson NE. Breast cancer and benign breast ...

  12. Vascular aging and geriatric patient.

    PubMed

    Nicita-Mauro, V; Maltese, G; Nicita-Mauro, C; Basile, G

    2007-08-01

    Advancing age is associated with changes in structure and function of different segments of the vascular system and is the dominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The oxidative stress represents a key event of vascular aging, mainly characterized by endothelium dysfunction and reduced arterial elasticity. Age-related changes include intimal and medial thickening, arterial calcification, increased deposition of matrix substances, thus leading to a reduced compliance and increased wall stiffness, that significantly contributes to an increase in systolic blood pressure. Frail elderly patients, because of their complex clinical presentations and needs, require a special approach: the comprehensive geriatric assessment, a multidimensional process intended to determine medical, psychosocial and functional capabilities and problems in order to develop a plan for treatment and continued care. All physicians, and geriatricians in particular, must, therefore, educate their patients to healthy lifestyle to prevent or delay vascular aging, cardiovascular diseases, and to maintain a good quality of life and increase life expectancy.

  13. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  14. [Lumbar pain in old age].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, H

    1996-10-22

    In advanced age, lumbar pain is less frequently caused by occupational stress and psychosomatic factors. Unstable segments and spondylo-arthrotic degeneration can lead to muscular strain whenever insufficient secondary stability and missing muscular equilibrium are involved. In the differential diagnosis one must distinguish between osteoporosis and spinal stenosis, which increases in frequency with age. Pain due to internal or gynecological problems must be excluded. From the therapeutic point of view, patients should be instructed in ergonomics and the simple application of physiotherapeutic procedures, e.g. heat and cold. Analgetics become increasingly important with age, consequently resulting in reduced use of antirheumatics. There exists enough evidence to show that muscular training of the lumbar muscles play an important role in the secondary prevention of lumbar pain in elderly people as well. Essentially, it can be stated that physical age is not directly related to possible ailment. The change of occupational obligations, with possibilities to adapt to personal stress levels, as well as the positive attitude towards everyday life in retirement have a major influence in accepting and handling ability of problems, concerning pain. In the department of Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation and Rheumatology of the Clinic Wilhelm Schulthess it was found that among 7806 patients with lower back pain (1990-1995) 43.3% involved the ages of 40 to 60 and 31.3% the ages of 60 to 80. More distinctly than in younger patients, older aged patients tend to show a marked discrepancy between radiological findings and effective pain. Lower back pains of elderly patients are of a different nature from those found in younger or middle-aged people. Ischialgia due to the protrusion of an intervertebral disk or an acute lumbovertebral syndrome caused by muscular instability are found much less frequently.

  15. Aging, frailty and complex networks.

    PubMed

    Mitnitski, A B; Rutenberg, A D; Farrell, S; Rockwood, K

    2017-03-02

    When people age their mortality rate increases exponentially, following Gompertz's law. Even so, individuals do not die from old age. Instead, they accumulate age-related illnesses and conditions and so become increasingly vulnerable to death from various external and internal stressors. As a measure of such vulnerability, frailty can be quantified using the frailty index (FI). Larger values of the FI are strongly associated with mortality and other adverse health outcomes. This association, and the insensitivity of the FI to the particular health variables that are included in its construction, makes it a powerful, convenient, and increasingly popular integrative health measure. Still, little is known about why the FI works so well. Our group has recently developed a theoretical network model of health deficits to better understand how changes in health are captured by the FI. In our model, health-related variables are represented by the nodes of a complex network. The network has a scale-free shape or "topology": a few nodes have many connections with other nodes, whereas most nodes have few connections. These nodes can be in two states, either damaged or undamaged. Transitions between damaged and non-damaged states are governed by the stochastic environment of individual nodes. Changes in the degree of damage of connected nodes change the local environment and make further damage more likely. Our model shows how age-dependent acceleration of the FI and of mortality emerges, even without specifying an age-damage relationship or any other time-dependent parameter. We have also used our model to assess how informative individual deficits are with respect to mortality. We find that the information is larger for nodes that are well connected than for nodes that are not. The model supports the idea that aging occurs as an emergent phenomenon, and not as a result of age-specific programming. Instead, aging reflects how damage propagates through a complex network of

  16. Lens Aging: Effects of Crystallins

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, K. Krishna; Santhoshkumar, Puttur

    2009-01-01

    The primary function of the eye lens is to focus light on the retina. The major proteins in the lens—a, b, and g-crystallins—are constantly subjected to age-related changes such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation, glycation, and methylation. Such age-related modifications are cumulative and affect crystallin structure and function. With time, the modified crystallins aggregate, causing the lens to increasingly scatter light on the retina instead of focusing light on it and causing the lens to lose its transparency gradually and become opaque. Age-related lens opacity, or cataract, is the major cause of blindness worldwide. We review deamidation, and glycation that occur in the lenses during aging keeping in mind the structural and functional changes that these modifications bring about in the proteins. In addition, we review proteolysis and discuss recent observations on how crystallin fragments generated in vivo, through their anti-chaperone activity may cause crystallin aggregation in aging lenses. We also review hyperbaric oxygen treatment induced guinea pig and ‘humanized’ ascorbate transporting mouse models as suitable options for studies on age-related changes in lens proteins. PMID:19463898

  17. Chromospheric Activity at Intermediate Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampapa, Mark; Stauffer, John; Deliyannis, Constantine; Sherry, William

    2005-08-01

    The calibration of the empirical relation between Ca II chromospheric strength and stellar age between 0.6 Gyr (Hyades) and 4.0 - 5 Gyr (M67 and the Sun) relies on the uncertain determination of ages for individual field stars in the solar neighborhood. We therefore propose to obtain WIYN/Hydra spectra of ~ 100 solar-type dwarf stars in the 1.8 Gyr old open cluster, NGC 752. This cluster contains a sample of solar-type dwarfs that is homogeneous in age and chemical composition. Furthermore, NGC 752 is the nearest-and hence brightest- cluster at an age ~ 2 Gyr. The results will yield an improved calibration of the age-activity relation at intermediate ages. In addition, we will determine if the chromospheric Ca II strengths for the solar-type stars in NGC 752 lie in the so-called "Vaughan-Preston Gap''- an apparent discontinuity in the Ca II H& K strength-(B-V) diagram found for field stars in the solar neighborhood. Our data will yield insight on the two proposed origins for the gap, namely, that it is a result of two different modes of dynamo action or that it is actually an artifact of a discontinuity in the local star formation rate. This is a resubmission of a previously approved proposal that was allocated two nights in 2004 November. The time was lost to instrument problems (Hydra gripper malfunctions) and weather. No usable data were obtained.

  18. Multisensory integration mechanisms during aging

    PubMed Central

    Freiherr, Jessica; Lundström, Johan N.; Habel, Ute; Reetz, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    The rapid demographical shift occurring in our society implies that understanding of healthy aging and age-related diseases is one of our major future challenges. Sensory impairments have an enormous impact on our lives and are closely linked to cognitive functioning. Due to the inherent complexity of sensory perceptions, we are commonly presented with a complex multisensory stimulation and the brain integrates the information from the individual sensory channels into a unique and holistic percept. The cerebral processes involved are essential for our perception of sensory stimuli and becomes especially important during the perception of emotional content. Despite ongoing deterioration of the individual sensory systems during aging, there is evidence for an increase in, or maintenance of, multisensory integration processing in aging individuals. Within this comprehensive literature review on multisensory integration we aim to highlight basic mechanisms and potential compensatory strategies the human brain utilizes to help maintain multisensory integration capabilities during healthy aging to facilitate a broader understanding of age-related pathological conditions. Further our goal was to identify where further research is needed. PMID:24379773

  19. Exercise, cognitive function, and aging.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N

    2015-06-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding potential adverse effects of aging on brain blood flow and cognition may help to determine effective strategies to mitigate these effects on the population. Exercise may be one strategy to prevent or delay cognitive decline. This review describes how aging is associated with cardiovascular disease risks, vascular dysfunction, and increasing Alzheimer's disease pathology. It will also discuss the possible effects of aging on cerebral vascular physiology, cerebral perfusion, and brain atrophy rates. Clinically, these changes will present as reduced cognitive function, neurodegeneration, and the onset of dementia. Regular exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function, and we hypothesize that this occurs through beneficial adaptations in vascular physiology and improved neurovascular coupling. This review highlights the potential interactions and ideas of how the age-associated variables may affect cognition and may be moderated by regular exercise.

  20. Age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lim, Laurence S; Mitchell, Paul; Seddon, Johanna M; Holz, Frank G; Wong, Tien Y

    2012-05-05

    Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness worldwide. With ageing populations in many countries, more than 20% might have the disorder. Advanced age-related macular degeneration, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet) and geographic atrophy (late dry), is associated with substantial, progressive visual impairment. Major risk factors include cigarette smoking, nutritional factors, cardiovascular diseases, and genetic markers, including genes regulating complement, lipid, angiogenic, and extracellular matrix pathways. Some studies have suggested a declining prevalence of age-related macular degeneration, perhaps due to reduced exposure to modifiable risk factors. Accurate diagnosis combines clinical examination and investigations, including retinal photography, angiography, and optical coherence tomography. Dietary anti-oxidant supplementation slows progression of the disease. Treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration incorporates intraocular injections of anti-VEGF agents, occasionally combined with other modalities. Evidence suggests that two commonly used anti-VEGF therapies, ranibizumab and bevacizumab, have similar efficacy, but possible differences in systemic safety are difficult to assess. Future treatments include inhibition of other angiogenic factors, and regenerative and topical therapies.

  1. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth.

  2. Microglial activation in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Schuitemaker, Alie; van der Doef, Thalia F; Boellaard, Ronald; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Yaqub, Maqsood; Windhorst, Albert D; Barkhof, Frederik; Jonker, Cees; Kloet, Reina W; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Scheltens, Philip; van Berckel, Bart N M

    2012-06-01

    Healthy brain aging is characterized by neuronal loss and decline of cognitive function. Neuronal loss is closely associated with microglial activation and postmortem studies have indeed suggested that activated microglia may be present in the aging brain. Microglial activation can be quantified in vivo using (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 and positron emission tomography. The purpose of this study was to measure specific binding of (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 in healthy subjects over a wide age range. Thirty-five healthy subjects (age range 19-79 years) were included. In all subjects 60-minute dynamic (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 scans were acquired. Specific binding of (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 was calculated using receptor parametric mapping in combination with supervised cluster analysis to extract the reference tissue input function. Increased binding of (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 with aging was found in frontal lobe, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, medial inferior temporal lobe, insula, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, thalamus, parietal and occipital lobes, and cerebellum. This indicates that activated microglia appear in several cortical and subcortical areas during healthy aging, suggesting widespread neuronal loss.

  3. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  4. Multisensory integration mechanisms during aging.

    PubMed

    Freiherr, Jessica; Lundström, Johan N; Habel, Ute; Reetz, Kathrin

    2013-12-13

    The rapid demographical shift occurring in our society implies that understanding of healthy aging and age-related diseases is one of our major future challenges. Sensory impairments have an enormous impact on our lives and are closely linked to cognitive functioning. Due to the inherent complexity of sensory perceptions, we are commonly presented with a complex multisensory stimulation and the brain integrates the information from the individual sensory channels into a unique and holistic percept. The cerebral processes involved are essential for our perception of sensory stimuli and becomes especially important during the perception of emotional content. Despite ongoing deterioration of the individual sensory systems during aging, there is evidence for an increase in, or maintenance of, multisensory integration processing in aging individuals. Within this comprehensive literature review on multisensory integration we aim to highlight basic mechanisms and potential compensatory strategies the human brain utilizes to help maintain multisensory integration capabilities during healthy aging to facilitate a broader understanding of age-related pathological conditions. Further our goal was to identify where further research is needed.

  5. Urogenital consequences in ageing women.

    PubMed

    Doumouchtsis, Stergios K; Chrysanthopoulou, Eleftheria L

    2013-10-01

    Various anatomical, physiological, genetic, lifestyle and reproductive factors interact throughout a woman's life span and contribute to pelvic floor disorders. Ageing affects pelvic floor anatomy and function, which can result in a variety of disorders, such as pelvic organ prolapse, lower urinary tract symptoms, dysfunctional bowel and bladder evacuation, and sexual dysfunction. The exact mechanisms and pathophysiological processes by which ageing affects pelvic floor and lower urinary and gastrointestinal tract anatomy and function are not always clear. In most cases, it is difficult to ascertain the exact role of ageing per se as an aetiological, predisposing or contributing factor. Other conditions associated with ageing that may co-exist, such as changes in mental status, can result in different types of pelvic floor dysfunction (e.g. functional incontinence). Pelvic organ dysfunction may be associated with significant morbidity and affect quality of life. These groups of patients often pose difficult diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas owing to complex medical conditions and concurrent morbidities. In this chapter, we summarise the current evidence on the management of pelvic floor disorders, with emphasis on elderly women and the associations between the ageing process and these disorders. Clinicians with an understanding of the affect of ageing on the pelvic floor and lower urinary and gastrointestinal tract anatomy and function, and the complex interplay of other comorbidities, will be able to investigate, diagnose and treat appropriately there women. A holistic approach may result in substantial improvements in their quality of life.

  6. Brain trace elements and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques De

    1999-04-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process.

  7. So! What's aging? Is cardiovascular aging a disease?

    PubMed

    Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-06-01

    "Inside every old person is a young person wondering what happened." So, what is aging? Aging is a manifestation of progressive, time-dependent failure of molecular mechanisms that create disorder within a system of DNA and its environment (nuclear, cytosolic, tissue, organ, organism, other organisms, society, terra firma, atmosphere, universe). Continuous signaling, transmitted with different kinetics across each of these environments, confers a "mutual enslavement" that creates ordered functions among the components within the system. Accrual of this molecular disorder over time, i.e. during aging, causes progressive changes in the structure and function of the heart and arteries that are quite similar in humans, non-human primates, rabbits and rats that compromise cardiovascular reserve function, and confer a marked risk for incident cardiovascular disease. Nearly all aspects of signaling within the DNA environment system within the heart and arteries become disordered with advancing age: Signals change, as does sensing of the signals, transmission of signals and responses to signals, impaired cell renewal, changes in the proteome due to alterations in genomic transcription, mRNA translation, and proteostasis. The density of some molecules becomes reduced, and post-translational modifications, e.g. oxidation and nitration phosphorylation, lead to altered misfolding and disordered molecular interactions. The stoichiometry and kinetics of enzymatic and those reactions which underlie crucial cardiac and vascular cell functions and robust reserve mechanisms that remove damaged organelles and proteins deteriorate. The CV cells generate an inflammatory defense in an attempt to limit the molecular disorder. The resultant proinflammatory milieu is not executed by "professional" inflammatory cells (i.e. white blood cells), however, but by activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone endothelin signaling cascades that leads to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle and

  8. Time Perspective and Age: A Review of Age Associated Differences

    PubMed Central

    Laureiro-Martinez, Daniella; Trujillo, Carlos A.; Unda, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between age and the five dimensions of time perspective measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) (past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future). Time perspective is related to well-being, decision-making, level of development, and many other psychological issues. Hence, the existence of a systematic relationship between time perspective and age should be considered in all studies for which time is a relevant variable. However, no specific research about this has been conducted. We collected 407 papers that referenced the ZTPI between 2001 and 2015. From those, 72 studies met our inclusion criteria. They included 29,815 participants from 19 countries whose age spans most phases of adulthood (from 13.5 to 75.5 years, mean 28.7). We analyzed these studies adapting meta-analytical techniques. We found that present hedonistic and past negative dimensions are negatively related to aging with partial eta squared effect sizes of roughly 0.15. Our results have implications for the design of studies related to time as our findings highlight the importance of taking into account the differences associated with age. PMID:28261119

  9. Personality Stability From Age 14 to Age 77 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants’ and others’ older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood. PMID:27929341

  10. Nutrition and AGE-ing: Focusing on Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marziano, Mariagrazia; Rungratanawanich, Wiramon; Memo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the role of food and nutrition in preventing or delaying chronic disability in the elderly population has received great attention. Thanks to their ability to influence biochemical and biological processes, bioactive nutrients are considered modifiable factors capable of preserving a healthy brain status. A diet rich in vitamins and polyphenols and poor in saturated fatty acids has been recommended. In the prospective of a healthy diet, cooking methods should be also considered. In fact, cooking procedures can modify the original dietary content, contributing not only to the loss of healthy nutrients, but also to the formation of toxins, including advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These harmful compounds are adsorbed at intestinal levels and can contribute to the ageing process. The accumulation of AGEs in ageing (“AGE-ing”) is further involved in the exacerbation of neurodegenerative and many other chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss food's dual role as both source of bioactive nutrients and reservoir for potential toxic compounds—paying particular attention to the importance of proper nutrition in preventing/delaying Alzheimer's disease. In addition, we focus on the importance of a good education in processing food in order to benefit from the nutritional properties of an optimal diet. PMID:28168012

  11. Time Perspective and Age: A Review of Age Associated Differences.

    PubMed

    Laureiro-Martinez, Daniella; Trujillo, Carlos A; Unda, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between age and the five dimensions of time perspective measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) (past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future). Time perspective is related to well-being, decision-making, level of development, and many other psychological issues. Hence, the existence of a systematic relationship between time perspective and age should be considered in all studies for which time is a relevant variable. However, no specific research about this has been conducted. We collected 407 papers that referenced the ZTPI between 2001 and 2015. From those, 72 studies met our inclusion criteria. They included 29,815 participants from 19 countries whose age spans most phases of adulthood (from 13.5 to 75.5 years, mean 28.7). We analyzed these studies adapting meta-analytical techniques. We found that present hedonistic and past negative dimensions are negatively related to aging with partial eta squared effect sizes of roughly 0.15. Our results have implications for the design of studies related to time as our findings highlight the importance of taking into account the differences associated with age.

  12. Introduction to Aging, Cancer, and Age-related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Perry, Daniel P

    2010-06-01

    A rising tide of chronic age-dependent diseases, co-morbidities, and geriatric syndromes--a veritable Silver Tsunami--will soon present serious challenges for North America, Europe, Japan, and other industrialized nations. Meanwhile, a growing number of scientists, led by biogerontologists, maintain that the key to blunting the societal impact of large-scale decline and disability among older populations lies with better understanding and potential manipulation of biological mechanisms of aging itself. Well-characterized interventions that slow aging and extend health and vigor in animal models may be forerunners of technologies that preserve additional years of healthy productive life in humans. What will it take to validate these momentous insights from biogerontology and their potential applications for human populations? What are the points of resistance for key opinion leaders and policy makers? And how can biogerontologists make common cause with those outside the discipline to inform larger and more politically powerful audiences?

  13. Stroke at a younger age.

    PubMed

    Delilović-Vranić, Jasminka; Alajbegović, Azra; Tirić-Campara, Merita; Todorović, Ljubica

    2011-06-01

    Stroke is a suddenly developing disorder, caused by focal disturbance of cerebral circulation, followed by neurologic deficits of varying intensity with duration longer than 1 hour; it mostly occurs in old and middle age, and rarely at a younger age. The aim of the study was to analyze the occurrence of stroke at a younger age (18-49 years). We analyzed all stroke patients aged 18-49 treated at University Department of Neurology in Sarajevo during 2009, including analysis of their risk factors. During the one-year period, there were 820 stroke patients in total, 132 (18.5%) of them aged 18-49, male to female ratio 51.35%:48.65%. The majority of strokes were of ischemic type (94.59%), with only 5.41% of hemorrhagic stroke. The following risk factors were confirmed in study patients: hypertension (64.86%), smoking (57.76%), dyslipidemia (48.65%), ischemic heart disease (43.32%), psychological stress (29.73%), diabetes mellitus type 2 (24.43%), previous stroke including transient ischemic attack (21.62%), and others. During the one-month follow-up, 27.03% of patients achieved complete recovery, whereas mild neurologic signs were retained in 54.05%, signs of severe deficit requiring assistance in 13.51%, and 5.41% of patients died. In conclusion, stroke occurs even at a younger age in certain percentage. Along with smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia and stress, hypertension is one of the leading risk factors for stroke also at a younger age. Timely and appropriate treatment contributes to faster recovery and shorter hospital stay, while reducing overall stroke sequels. The best prevention is primary, i.e. fighting risk factors and healthy lifestyle.

  14. Aroma Constituents in Shanxi Aged Vinegar before and after Aging.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingjing; Xie, Jianchun; Hou, Li; Zhao, Mengyao; Zhao, Jian; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Shi; Sun, Bao-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Shanxi aged vinegar is one of the most famous Chinese traditional cereal vinegars produced by spontaneous solid-state fermentation. However, the aroma composition of Shanxi aged vinegar is still ambiguous. The Shanxi vinegars before and after aging were both analyzed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) in aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 87 odor-active regions were found by GC-O, and 80 odor-active compounds were identified. By GC-MS/MS, in selected reaction monitoring mode, 30 important identifications were quantitated using authentic standards. In comparison, the aroma molecules for the vinegars before and after aging were almost the same; only their levels were altered, with mostly the esters and some compounds that produce pungent smells being lost and the levels of those from the Maillard reaction, especially the pyrazines (e.g., tetramethylpyrazine), being greatly increased. As for the aged vinegar, the compounds found to have high flavor dilution factors (>128) were 3-(methylthio)propanal, vanillin, 2,3-butanedione, tetramethylpyrazine, 3-methylbutanoic acid, γ-nonalactone, guaiacol, 3-(methylthio)propyl acetate, dimethyl trisulfide, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, furfural, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. However, the aroma compounds found at high concentrations (>25 μg/L) in the aged vinegar were acetic acid, followed by 2,3-butanedione, furfural, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, tetramethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, and 3-methylbutanoic acid.

  15. Aging fingerprints in combustion particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenay, V.; Mooser, R.; Tritscher, T.; Křepelová, A.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Dommen, J.; Watts, B.; Raabe, J.; Huthwelker, T.; Ammann, M.

    2011-05-01

    Soot particles can significantly influence the Earth's climate by absorbing and scattering solar radiation as well as by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. However, despite their environmental (as well as economic and political) importance, the way these properties are affected by atmospheric processing is still a subject of discussion. In this work, soot particles emitted from two different cars, a EURO 2 transporter, a EURO 3 passenger vehicle, and a wood stove were investigated on a single-particle basis. The emitted exhaust, including the particulate and the gas phase, was processed in a smog chamber with artificial solar radiation. Single particle specimens of both unprocessed and aged soot were characterized using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Comparison of the spectra from the unprocessed and aged soot particles revealed changes in the carbon functional group content, such as that of carboxylic carbon, which can be ascribed to both the condensation of secondary organic compounds on the soot particles and oxidation of primary soot particles upon photochemical aging. Changes in the morphology and size of the single soot particles were also observed upon aging. Furthermore, we show that the soot particles take up water in humid environments and that their water uptake capacity increases with photochemical aging.

  16. [Mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging].

    PubMed

    Szarka, András; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Sümegi, Balázs

    2014-03-23

    The free radical theory of aging was defined in the 1950s. On the base of this theory, the reactive oxygen species formed in the metabolic pathways can play pivotal role in ageing. The theory was modified by defining the mitochondrial respiration as the major cellular source of reactive oxygen species and got the new name mitochondrial theory of aging. Later on the existence of a "vicious cycle" was proposed, in which the reactive oxygen species formed in the mitochondrial respiration impair the mitochondrial DNA and its functions. The formation of reactive oxygen species are elevated due to mitochondrial dysfunction. The formation of mitochondrial DNA mutations can be accelerated by this "vicious cycle", which can lead to accelerated aging. The exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase γ, the polymerase responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA was impaired in mtDNA mutator mouse recently. The rate of somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA was elevated and an aging phenotype could have been observed in these mice. Surprisingly, no oxidative impairment neither elevated reactive oxygen species formation could have been observed in the mtDNA mutator mice, which may question the existence of the "vicious cycle".

  17. Endocrinology of the Aging Male

    PubMed Central

    Wittert, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of the aging male is complex, with multiple hormones along the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis interacting with one another in feedback. As men age, there is a small and progressive (not precipitous, as in women) decline in several sex hormones, in particular testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone, and related increases in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin. The importance of these changes is wide-ranging because of the ubiquitous role of sex hormones in male physiology. This chapter discusses the endocrinology of the aging male. We provide an overview of the regulation of the HPT axis with an emphasis on the changes that occur with aging and the measurement of gonadal steroids, including hormone pulsatility, within-subject and circadian variations. The difficulties of assessing the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism are highlighted. There is a comprehensive discussion of the epidemiology of sex hormone changes, including their age associations, prevalence of symptomatic hypogonadism, secular changes, risk factors, and the association of sex hormones with outcomes. PMID:21397200

  18. Working memory plasticity and aging.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Rebecca E; Katz, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    The present research explores how the trajectory of learning on a working memory task changes throughout the life span, and whether gains in working memory performance are exclusively a question of initial working memory capacity (WMC) or whether age exerts an independent effect. In a large, cross-sectional study of younger, middle-aged, and older adults, we examined learning on a widely used working memory task-the dual n-back task-over 20 sessions of practice. We found that, while all age groups improved on the task, older adults demonstrated less improvement on the task, and also reached a lower asymptotic maximum performance than younger adults. After controlling for initial WMC, we found that age exerted independent effects on training gains and asymptotic performance; older adults tended to improve less and reached lower levels of performance than younger adults. The difference between younger and older adults' rates of learning depended in part on initial WMC. These results suggest that age-related effects on working memory include not only effects on capacity, but also plasticity and the ability to improve on a task. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Klotho, stem cells, and aging

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Ao; Neyra, Javier A; Zhan, Ming; Hu, Ming Chang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and progressive biological process involving dysfunction and eventually destruction of every tissue and organ. This process is driven by a tightly regulated and complex interplay between genetic and acquired factors. Klotho is an antiaging gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane protein, klotho, which serves as an aging suppressor through a wide variety of mechanisms, such as antioxidation, antisenescence, antiautophagy, and modulation of many signaling pathways, including insulin-like growth factor and Wnt. Klotho deficiency activates Wnt expression and activity contributing to senescence and depletion of stem cells, which consequently triggers tissue atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, the klotho protein was shown to suppress Wnt-signaling transduction, and inhibit cell senescence and preserve stem cells. A better understanding of the potential effects of klotho on stem cells could offer novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of klotho deficiency-related aging and disease. The klotho protein may be a promising therapeutic agent for aging and aging-related disorders. PMID:26346243

  20. Klotho, stem cells, and aging.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ao; Neyra, Javier A; Zhan, Ming; Hu, Ming Chang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and progressive biological process involving dysfunction and eventually destruction of every tissue and organ. This process is driven by a tightly regulated and complex interplay between genetic and acquired factors. Klotho is an antiaging gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane protein, klotho, which serves as an aging suppressor through a wide variety of mechanisms, such as antioxidation, antisenescence, antiautophagy, and modulation of many signaling pathways, including insulin-like growth factor and Wnt. Klotho deficiency activates Wnt expression and activity contributing to senescence and depletion of stem cells, which consequently triggers tissue atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, the klotho protein was shown to suppress Wnt-signaling transduction, and inhibit cell senescence and preserve stem cells. A better understanding of the potential effects of klotho on stem cells could offer novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of klotho deficiency-related aging and disease. The klotho protein may be a promising therapeutic agent for aging and aging-related disorders.

  1. NLSMA Reports, No. 13, Patterns of Mathematics Achievement in Grade 9: Y-Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy; McLeod, Gordon K.

    This is one of a series of reports on the National Longitudinal Study of Mathematical Abilities (NLSMA). Further, it is of the subseries that analyzed data for the purpose of identifying differential patterns of mathematics achievement which are correlated with different textbook series. This particular report considers comparisons made for the…

  2. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keith T; Goodson, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter, we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered.

  3. Aging of skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Miljkovic, Natasa; Lim, Jae-Young; Miljkovic, Iva; Frontera, Walter R

    2015-04-01

    Aging has become an important topic for scientific research because life expectancy and the number of men and women in older age groups have increased dramatically in the last century. This is true in most countries of the world including the Republic of Korea and the United States. From a rehabilitation perspective, the most important associated issue is a progressive decline in functional capacity and independence. Sarcopenia is partly responsible for this decline. Many changes underlying the loss of muscle mass and force-generating capacity of skeletal muscle can be understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Muscle size and architecture are both altered with advanced adult age. Further, changes in myofibers include impairments in several physiological domains including muscle fiber activation, excitation-contraction coupling, actin-myosin cross-bridge interaction, energy production, and repair and regeneration. A thorough understanding of these alterations can lead to the design of improved preventative and rehabilitative interventions, such as personalized exercise training programs.

  4. Mitochondrial role in cell aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J.; Fleming, J.; Economos, A. C.; Johnson, J. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental studies on the mitochondria of insect and mammalian cells are examined with a view to an analysis of intrinsic mitochondrial senescence, and its relation to the age-related changes in other cell organelles. The fine structural and biochemical data support the concept that the mitochondria of fixed postmitotic cells may be the site of intrinsic aging because of the attack by free radicals and lipid peroxides originating in the organelles as a by-product of oxygen reduction during respiration. Although the cells have numerous mechanisms for counteracting lipid peroxidation injury, there is a slippage in the antioxidant protection. Intrinsic mitochondrial aging could thus be considered as a specific manifestation of oxygen toxicity. It is proposed that free radical injury renders an increasing number of the mitochondria unable to divide, probably because of damage to the lipids of the inner membrane and to mitochondrial DNA.

  5. [IMPACT OF AGING IN PSYCHIATRY].

    PubMed

    Rubin, Romina; Jauregui, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The changes associated with aging influence the clinical presentation and treatment approach of psychiatric illness. Several psychiatric disorders are common in old age as depression or set of diseases with cognitive impairment requiring geriatric knowledge. In many countries psychiatry of the elderly are called psychogeriatric. Regardless of the name objective of this article is to convey that the psychiatrist who treats patients over 65 years with multiple disorders, with frailty social problems and polypharmacy should have some tools in addition to the thorough understanding of psychiatric illness itself. Teamwork, meet physiological changes of aging and how these affect the response to drugs, atypical presentation of illness and keep in mind the importance of psychosocial and environmental issues both in presentation and in addressing and monitoring of disease.

  6. Aging of the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss (ARHL) affects most elderly people. It is characterized by reduced hearing thresholds and speech understanding with the well-known negative consequences for communication and quality of social life. The hearing loss is connected to age-related histologic changes, as described and classified by Schuknecht. Aging itself is a multifactorial, genetically driven process that is influenced by oxidative stress that gradually leads to reduced endocochlear potential and cell loss of key players in sound transmission and supporting structures. Oxidative stress is caused by damaging factors like noise, infection, and other systemic factors. All reparative mechanisms in acute and chronic cochlear damage attempt to reduce oxidative stress and to balance inner-ear homeostasis. Accurate clinical assessment of ARHL starts with the differentiation between peripheral and central components. Treatment of the peripheral hearing loss often involves hearing aids, whereas auditory and psychologic training seems to be important in central auditory disturbance.

  7. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  8. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  9. Successful Aging: Criteria for Aging Well in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sean M.; Hansson, Robert O.; Abalos, Anthony; Booth, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Career theory, to date, has provided several frameworks for understanding how employees develop during their careers. However, these frameworks have not yet directly examined the criteria older workers use to evaluate their success in aging in the workplace. In the present study, the authors develop an inventory of tentative criteria for…

  10. Accelerated aging syndromes, are they relevant to normal human aging?

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Oliver; Stewart, Colin L

    2011-09-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS) and Werner syndromes are diseases that clinically resemble some aspects of accelerated aging. HGPS is caused by mutations in theLMNA gene resulting in post-translational processing defects that trigger Progeria in children. Werner syndrome, arising from mutations in the WRN helicase gene, causes premature aging in young adults. What are the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these disorders and what aspects of the diseases resemble physiological human aging? Much of what we know stems from the study of patient derived fibroblasts with both mutations resulting in increased DNA damage, primarily at telomeres. However, in vivo patients with Werner's develop arteriosclerosis, among other pathologies. In HGPS patients, including iPS derived cells from HGPS patients, as well as some mouse models for Progeria, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) appears to be among the most severely affected tissues. Defective Lamin processing, associated with DNA damage, is present in VSM from old individuals, indicating processing defects may be a factor in normal aging. Whether persistent DNA damage, particularly at telomeres, is the root cause for these pathologies remains to be established, since not all progeroid Lmna mutations result in DNA damage and genome instability.

  11. Age Words: A Glossary on Health and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document contains a glossary which defines 275 basic terms frequently used by gerontologists. The glossary is designed for use by a general population, including older persons and their families, students in the field of aging, librarians, medical reporters, health care providers, and others interested in older persons. It was developed to…

  12. Ages of intermediate-age Magellanic Cloud star clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Ages of intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters have been estimated without locating the faint, unevolved portion of cluster main sequences. Six clusters with established color-magnitude diagrams were selected for study: SL 868, NGC 1783, NGC 1868, NGC 2121, NGC 2209, and NGC 2231. Since red giant photometry is more accurate than the necessarily fainter main-sequence photometry, the distributions of red giants on the cluster color-magnitude diagrams were compared to a grid of 33 stellar evolutionary tracks, evolved from the main sequence through core-helium exhaustion, spanning the expected mass and metallicity range for Magellanic Cloud cluster red giants. The time-dependent behavior of the luminosity of the model red giants was used to estimate cluster ages from the observed cluster red giant luminosities. Except for the possibility of SL 868 being an old globular cluster, all clusters studied were found to have ages less than 10 to the 9th yr. It is concluded that there is currently no substantial evidence for a major cluster population of large, populous clusters greater than 10 to the 9th yr old in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  13. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  14. Immunotherapy comes of age: Immune aging & checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Elias, Rawad; Karantanos, Theodoros; Sira, Elizabeth; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2017-02-17

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are based on the understanding that there are multilayered checks and balances which can be manipulated to unleash already existing, but paralyzed, immune responses to cancer. These agents are safer and more efficacious than classic cytotoxic drugs making them a very attractive therapeutic option, especially in older adults. Current available data do not suggest significant age-associated differences in the clinical profile of ICIs. It must be noted, however, that there is still relatively little information on the use of ICIs in adults over 75years of age and aging is associated with a decline in the immune system or "immunosenescence" which theoretically can reduce the efficacy of these immune based therapies. In this paper, we review the mechanism of action of ICIs, current clinical data on their use in older adults, and age-associated immune changes that might have a direct impact on their activity in this population. We chose to focus on mainly adaptive cellular immunity, and especially on components of the immune system that are implicated directly in the immune checkpoint process.

  15. [Age and aging as incomplete architecture of human ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Baltes, P B

    1999-12-01

    The focus is on the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development across the life span. The starting point is the frame provided by past evolutionary forces. A first conclusion is that for modern times and the relative brevity of the time windows involved in modernity, further change in human functioning is primarily dependent on the evolution of new cultural forms of knowledge rather than evolution-based changes in the human genome. A second conclusion concerns the general architecture of the life course. Three governing lifespan developmental principles coexist. First, because long-term evolutionary selection evince a negative age correlation, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity and negative effects associated with some principles of learning (e.g., negative transfer), the efficiency of culture is reduced as lifespan development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the lifespan architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Three examples are given to illustrate the implications of the lifespan architecture outlined. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of three component processes and their age-related dynamics: Selection, optimization, and compensation. The second example is theory and research on lifespan intelligence that distinguishes between the biology-based mechanics and culture-based pragmatics of intelligence and specifies distinct age gradients for the two categories of intellectual functioning. The third example considers the goal of evolving a positive biological and cultural scenario for the last phase of life (fourth age). Because of the general lifespan architecture outlined, this objective becomes

  16. Bone age assessment meets SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Jonas, Stephan; Haak, Daniel; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) is a method of determining the skeletal maturity and finding the growth disorder in the skeleton of a person. BAA is frequently used in pediatric medicine but also a time-consuming and cumbersome task for a radiologist. Conventionally, the Greulich and Pyle and the Tanner and Whitehouse methods are used for bone age assessment, which are based on visual comparison of left hand radiographs with a standard atlas. We present a novel approach for automated bone age assessment, combining scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features and support vector machine (SVM) classification. In this approach, (i) data is grouped into 30 classes to represent the age range of 0- 18 years, (ii) 14 epiphyseal ROIs are extracted from left hand radiographs, (iii) multi-level image thresholding, using Otsu method, is applied to specify key points on bone and osseous tissues of eROIs, (iv) SIFT features are extracted for specified key points for each eROI of hand radiograph, and (v) classification is performed using a multi-class extension of SVM. A total of 1101 radiographs of University of Southern California are used in training and testing phases using 5- fold cross-validation. Evaluation is performed for two age ranges (0-18 years and 2-17 years) for comparison with previous work and the commercial product BoneXpert, respectively. Results were improved significantly, where the mean errors of 0.67 years and 0.68 years for the age ranges 0-18 years and 2-17 years, respectively, were obtained. Accuracy of 98.09 %, within the range of two years was achieved.

  17. [Neurological diseases in the aged].

    PubMed

    Kameyama, M

    1990-12-01

    In this paper, I described clinical and basic problems on neurology of the aged patients. These studies have been done in various institutions with many co-workers. 1) A PET study revealed some age differences on CBF, CMRO2, or CMRgl. But these results are not so rigid in which much of individual variations should be considered in interpretation. Calendar age is not always compatible to biological age. 2) Saccular aneurysms in the brain artery were found in 7.3% of 1200 routine autopsy series of the aged subjects. Aneurysms with external diameter exceeding 6 mm had been fatally ruptured in 14 (78%) of 18 subjects. 3) Variations of the pyramidal crossing are found responsible for bizarre clinical manifestations. Non-crossing component was more prominent in the right pyramidal tract; consequently, right pyramidal tracts including ventral and lateral one seemed to have more extensive representation in the spinal cord level. 4) I123-IMP SPECT study showed a reduced uptake in the area 4 or area 4-6 of the ALS patients. 5) I introduced a new simplified Wartenberg's maneuver, which is useful for detection of subtle pyramidal dysfunctions. 6) Cases with central pontine myelinolysis and those of paraneoplastic syndrome were presented with an emphasis on their patho-chemical mechanisms. 7) Lewis-Sumner syndrome showing multifocal persistent conduction block is not rare in the aged, in which we have already had some useful therapeutic methods. 8) Dementia complicated with neurodegenerative disease was discussed on its clinical and chemical features of mental disturbances. In ALS-dementia, CSF-homovanilic acid reduced significantly than in the control and L-dopa was effective in some patients. 9) Vascular and Alzheimer-type dementias were presented and discussed on their pathogenetic mechanism according to our recent studies with review of literature.

  18. Ageing and the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, A; Shone, G R

    2006-01-01

    There are a number of pathophysiological processes underlying age related changes in the auditory system. The effects of hearing loss can have consequences beyond the immediate loss of hearing, and may have profound effects on the functioning of the person. While a deficit in hearing can be corrected to some degree by a hearing aid, auditory rehabilitation requires much more than simply amplifying external sound. It is important that those dealing with elderly people are aware of all the issues involved in age related hearing loss. PMID:16517797

  19. Age dynamics in scientific creativity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Benjamin F.; Weinberg, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Data on Nobel Laureates show that the age–creativity relationship varies substantially more over time than across fields. The age dynamics within fields closely mirror field-specific shifts in (i) training patterns and (ii) the prevalence of theoretical contributions. These dynamics are especially pronounced in physics and coincide with the emergence of quantum mechanics. Taken together, these findings show fundamental shifts in the life cycle of research productivity, inform theories of the age–creativity relationship, and provide observable predictors for the age at which great achievements are made. PMID:22065777

  20. Productive aging: a feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Holstein, M

    1992-01-01

    This essay offers a feminist perspective on the call for a "productive aging" society, and says that the movement provides an answer before we have systematically asked questions about the meaning of old age. An emphasis on productivity, among other things, can devalue relational activities, often inherent in women's roles, and certain older people-older women in particular. The author proposes a number of measures for the short term, so that society can be responsible to older women who need and want jobs, as well as ideas for more far-reaching change.

  1. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Budzinskaia, M V

    2014-01-01

    The review provides an update on the pathogenesis and new treatment modalities for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The impact of polymorphism in particular genes, including complement factor H (CFH), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2/LOC387715), and serine peptidase (HTRA1), on AMD development is discussed. Clinical presentations of different forms of exudative AMD, that is classic, occult, or more often mixed choroidal neovascularization, retinal angiomatous proliferation, and choroidal polypoidal vasculopathy, are described. Particular attention is paid to the results of recent clinical trials and safety issues around the therapy.

  2. Neighborhood design and active aging.

    PubMed

    Michael, Yvonne L; Green, Mandy K; Farquhar, Stephanie A

    2006-12-01

    This qualitative analysis of focus groups describes how neighborhood design encourages active aging. Nine focus groups were conducted in 2002 and 2003 with residents (N=60) aged 55 and over living in Portland, OR, USA. Content analysis revealed that local shopping and services, traffic and pedestrian infrastructure, neighborhood attractiveness, and public transportation influence activity among older adults. This information will be useful for making policy recommendations relating to land use planning and transportation, to assist in senior-friendly developments and neighborhood improvements, and to design effective senior health interventions with an emphasis on neighborhood design influences.

  3. Adequate nutrient intakes are associated with traditional food consumption in nunavut inuit children aged 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M

    2010-07-01

    Dietary habits among Arctic preschoolers are unknown. A cross-sectional health survey of 388 Inuit, aged 3-5 y, was conducted in 16 communities in Canada's Nunavut Territory. Twenty-four-hour recall and FFQ with parents and primary caregivers quantified diet from market and traditional foods (TF). The Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intakes estimated adequacy comparing intakes with Estimated Average Requirement or Adequate Intakes (AI). High-sugar and high-fat food and sugar beverage consumption and the extent to which dietary habits followed the Canadian Food Guide were evaluated. The children's mean age was 4.4 +/- 0.9 y and the mean BMI percentile was 90.2%. Consumption of nutrient-poor and energy-dense food and beverages contributed to 35% of energy. Most children met the requirements for many nutrients despite not eating the recommended servings from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Higher intake of TF resulted in higher intakes of cholesterol, vitamins A and D, iron, magnesium, and zinc. The percent above the AI for vitamin D was 43.1, 56.8, and 83.2% among no, low, and high TF consumers, respectively (chi2 test; P-trend < 0.0001). Dietary habits indicate a population at risk for overweight, obesity, and tooth decay. Interventions should encourage TF, including plant-based TF; healthy market food choices, including fruit and vegetables; and milk or alternative sources of vitamin D and calcium and discourage unhealthy market food choices.

  4. Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163679.html Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain Researchers suggest making friends of all ages ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Healthy Aging Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Healthy ...

  5. Perspectives on Aging Vestibular Function

    PubMed Central

    Anson, Eric; Jeka, John

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about age-related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities such as standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multisensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper, we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multisensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults. PMID:26779116

  6. [Glial activation and brain aging].

    PubMed

    Sugaya, K

    2001-10-01

    While basal forebrain cholinergic neurons degenerate in aging and Alzheimer's disease, the cholinergic groups of the upper brainstem are preserved. Since the brainstem reticular-like cholinergic neurons differ from the rostral cholinergic phenotype by their high expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA, we hypothesized that they contain biochemical mechanisms to protect themselves against self-induced damage by nitric oxide (NO). Our initial question was a source of the NO during the aging process. We found a significant correlation between cognitive function and markers for glial activation and oxidative stress using aged rats. This result indicates that oxidative stress accompanied by glial activation may be occurred in the cognitively impaired animals. We also found mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) was significantly damaged in these animals, while accumulation of oxidative damage was not evident in other molecules. Therefore, oxidative damage to the mDNA by glial activation may occur in the cells having poor protection against oxidative stress during aging. Then the dysfunction of mitochondria, induced by the mDNA damage, may induce cell death as well as produce another oxidative stress to cause neuronal damage. The damaged neurons induce further glial activation and such self-accelerated immune-like response results in progressive neurodegeneration.

  7. Postponing parenthood to advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Waldenström, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Postponing Parenthood project was to investigate several aspects of the delaying of childbearing phenomenon in Sweden and Norway, such as medical risks and parental experiences. Data were retrieved from the Swedish and Norwegian Medical Birth Registers and three different cohorts: the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort, and the Swedish Women’s Experiences of Childbirth cohort. Postponing childbirth to age 35 years and later increased the risk of rare but serious pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth and very preterm birth. Older first-time parents were slightly more anxious during pregnancy, and childbirth overall was experienced as more difficult, compared with younger age groups. First-time mothers’ satisfaction with life decreased from about age 28 years, both when measured during pregnancy and early parenthood. Delaying parenthood to mid-30 or later was more related to lifestyle than socioeconomic factors, suggesting that much could be done in terms of informing young persons about the limitations of fertility and assisted reproductive techniques, and the risks associated with advanced parental age. PMID:27385461

  8. Aging in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Andel, Ross

    2014-12-01

    The goal was to provide an overview of main issues relevant to aging in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic is a former Eastern Bloc nation of about 10.5 million. Older adults are overrepresented relative to those under age 15. Life expectancy currently hovers around 78 years (75 for men/81 for women), a number slightly higher than most of Eastern Europe but lower than most of Western Europe. Cardiovascular diseases account for about 50% of all mortality, which is one of the highest rates in Europe and therefore of particular concern. Lifestyle habits, especially high alcohol consumption, a high rate of smokers, and high-fat diet relative to most other European countries and the United States, combined with relatively low expenditures for health promotion, appear important in the context of high cardiovascular mortality. Long-term care is funded mostly by state and local governments. The country has tried to address issues associated with insufficient capacity and low quality in long-term care, a particularly prominent problem in the Czech Republic compared with other European countries. The recently established International Clinical Research Center brings new possibilities for collaborative research in the Czech Republic, including research specific to aging. Improving long-term care and establishing methodologically sound longitudinal data sets are among the most pressing issues, although sustaining the pension system strained by increasing life expectancy, low retirement age, and extensive government-sponsored benefits has also recently emerged as a critical issue.

  9. Attitudes of Europeans toward Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageing International, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two Commission of European Communities surveys of people over age 15 and of those over 60 demonstrated a widespread belief that older people deserve public support and services and face employment discrimination. Socioeconomic factors influenced older people's sense of security and life satisfaction. Positive intergenerational attitudes appeared.…

  10. College Students Come of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Howard V.

    Universities today attract a student population less homogeneous than those of past generations. The majority of all college students are women, and adults 25 years and older account for over 40% of all college enrollments. A study was conducted to examine inherent similarities and differences among college students with age a critical factor.…

  11. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  12. Understanding aging in pentaerythritol tetranitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Geoffrey W; Sandstrom, Mary M; Giambra, Anna M; Archuleta, Jose G; Monroe, Deidre C

    2009-01-01

    Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) powder is commonly used in detonators because of its sensitivity and explosive power. PETN detonation is largely determined by the average PETN particle size. This is an issue for aging and storage of weapons because PETN has a relatively high vapor pressure and its average particle size changes due to thermal energy input from the environment. PETN aging is a well known problem although the mechanism is not well understood. It is important to understand PETN aging so that predictive models can be constructed that will benefit stockpile surveillance and lifetime extension programs. PETN particles are known to coarsen over time at relatively low temperatures. Particle coarsening requires mass redistribution since decomposition causes powders to become finer as PETN mass is lost. Two possible mechanisms for mass redistribution are vapor phase transfer via sublimation-redeposition and solid-state mass transfer through surface diffusion. In this work we have examined PETN powders us ing permeability, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical microscopy based particle analysis. The results of these measurements lead us to a suggested coarsening mechanism that we reproduce with rudimentary simulations. The physical mechanisms used in the simulations are then used to create an empirical model of the coarsening that may be used to make predictions of PETN aging. In the future we will be measuring the vapor pressures and other physical properties of our powders to be able to make predictions using simulations.

  13. Glaciology and the Ice Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carozzi, Albert V.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the beginning of glaciology; (2) origin of erratic boulders, meteorites, volcanic explosions, floods, and drift; (3) ice age hypothesis in Europe and the United States; (4) development of glacial theory; (5) and a unified explanation of glacial events. A bibliography of classical research on glaciology is included. (BC)

  14. Futurism, Aging, and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdman, Geral Dene M.

    1979-01-01

    This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)

  15. Education for an Aging Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…

  16. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  17. Lamin A, farnesylation and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear envelope that is synthesized as a precursor prelamin A molecule and then processed into mature lamin A through sequential steps of posttranslational modifications and proteolytic cleavages. Remarkably, over 400 distinct point mutations have been so far identified throughout the LMNA gene, which result in the development of at least ten distinct human disorders, collectively known as laminopathies, among which is the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). The majority of HGPS cases are associated with a single point mutation in the LMNA gene that causes the production of a permanently farnesylated mutant lamin A protein termed progerin. The mechanism by which progerin leads to premature aging and the classical HGPS disease phenotype as well as the relationship between this disorder and the onset of analogous symptoms during the lifespan of a normal individual are not well understood. Yet, recent studies have provided critical insights on the cellular processes that are affected by accumulation of progerin and have suggested that cellular alterations in the lamin A processing pathway leading to the accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A intermediates may play a role in the aging process in the general population. In this review we provide a short background on lamin A and its maturation pathway and discuss the current knowledge of how progerin or alterations in the prelamin A processing pathway are thought to influence cell function and contribute to human aging.

  18. Ethical aspects of aging research.

    PubMed

    Seppet, Enn; Pääsuke, Mati; Conte, Maria; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    During the last 50-60 years, due to development of medical care and hygienically safe living conditions, the average life span of European citizens has substantially increased, with a rapid growth of the population older than 65 years. This trend places ever-growing medical and economical burden on society, as many of the older subjects suffer from age-related diseases and frailty. Coping with these problems requires not only appropriate medical treatment and social support but also extensive research in many fields of aging-from biology to sociology, with involvement of older people as the research subjects. This work anticipates development and application of ethical standards suited to dynamic advances in aging research. The aim of this review is to update the knowledge in ethical requirements toward recruitment of older research subjects, obtaining of informed consent, collection of biological samples, and use of stem cells in preclinical and clinical settings. It is concluded that application of adequate ethical platform markedly facilitates recruitment of older persons for participation in research. Currently, the basic ethical concepts are subjected to extensive discussion, with participation of all interested parties, in order to guarantee successful research on problems of human aging, protect older people from undesired interference, and afford their benefits through supporting innovations in research, therapy, and care.

  19. Speaker Age and Vowel Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drager, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Recent research provides evidence that individuals shift in their perception of variants depending on social characteristics attributed to the speaker. This paper reports on a speech perception experiment designed to test the degree to which the age attributed to a speaker influences the perception of vowels undergoing a chain shift. As a result…

  20. [Sexual victimization in old age].

    PubMed

    Görgen, T; Nägele, B

    2006-10-01

    A study on the underresearched topic of elderly sexual victimization combined multiple data sources: German police crime statistics, 122 public prosecutor files on sexual victimization of people above age 60, survey data from 76 institutions assisting victims of sexual violence/domestic violence, in-depth interviews with 22 practitioners who had worked with sexually victimized elderly. The study shows that few cases of sexual victimization in old age are known to law enforcement agencies or victim services. Offences dealt with by the criminal justice system differ significantly from those known to battered women's shelters and victim services. The majority of incidents prosecuted by the criminal justice system are hands-off offences; hands-on offences are typically single incidents committed by strangers or loose acquaintances of the victim. Battered women's shelters and institutions of victim assistance are confronted with severe forms of sexual violence in intimate relationships, the prototypical case being an older woman who is repeatedly victimized by her husband over a considerable period of time and within a relationship characterized by a comprehensive system of violence, humiliation, and control (corresponding to Johnson's concept of intimate terrorism). The study demonstrates how small numbers of recorded cases of sexual violence in old age may reflect age-specific detection rates. It provides evidence on older victims' help-seeking behavior and on ways to improve victim services.