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Sample records for age activity level

  1. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  2. Age, gender, and level of activity as moderators of personal incentives to physical activity in Israel.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Shulamith; Netz, Yael

    2007-05-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study with Israeli adults examining their personal incentives for physical activity (e.g., appearance, weight management). The participants formed a sample of 379 physically active Israelis, aged 20-89 years, divided into 3 age groups and 3 levels of activity. The authors found a similar profile for men and women for most incentives, with men scoring more highly than did women on only competition and fitness. Participants in the highest level of activity attributed greater importance to all incentives than did those in the other levels, and older adults attributed less importance to all incentives except for health benefits. The findings are relevant for planning activities intended to encourage adults to engage in more physical activity.

  3. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  4. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  5. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  6. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  7. GIT2 Acts as a Systems-Level Coordinator of Neurometabolic Activity and Pathophysiological Aging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Chadwick, Wayne; Janssens, Jonathan; Premont, Richard T.; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Becker, Kevin G.; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yongqing; Siddiqui, Sana; Park, Sung-Soo; Cong, Wei-na; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories, we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO) mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db), compared to age-matched wild type (WT) controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional “keystone” role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits. PMID:26834700

  8. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  9. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  10. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  11. Changes in the level and activation state of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase during aging of red beet slices.

    PubMed Central

    Papini, R; De Michelis, M I

    1997-01-01

    The effect of aging on the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) parenchyma discs was analyzed in PM purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Aging increased both the activity in the amount of immunodetectable H(+)-ATPase in the PM. The activity assayed at slightly alkaline pH values increased earlier and more strongly than that assayed at acidic pH values, so that the pH curve of the enzyme from aged beet discs was shifted toward more alkaline values. Aging decreased the stimulation of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity by controlled trypsin treatments or by lysophosphatidylcholine. After trypsin treatment the pH dependence of H(+)-ATPase from dormant or aged beet discs became equal. These results indicate that aging not only increases the level of H(+)-ATPase in the PM, but also determines its activation, most likely by modifying the interaction between the autoinhibitory carboxyl-terminal domain and the catalytic site. When the PM H(+)-ATPase activity was assayed at a slightly alkaline pH, the tyrosine modifier N-acetylimidazole inhibited the H(+)-ATPase in the PM from dormant beet discs much less than in the PM from aged discs, suggesting that modification of a tyrosine residue may be involved in the activation of the PM H(+)-ATPase induced by aging. The results are discussed with regard to aging-induced development of transmembrane transport activities. PMID:9232872

  12. Taste-active compound levels in Korean native chicken meat: The effects of bird age and the cooking process.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of bird age and the cooking process on the levels of several taste-active compounds, including inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), glutamic acid, cysteine, reducing sugars, as well as oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), in the breast and leg meats from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken (KNC) strain (Woorimatdag) were investigated. KNC cocks were raised under similar standard conditions at a commercial chicken farm, and breast and leg meats from birds of various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk; 10 birds/age group) were obtained. After raw and cooked meat samples were prepared, they were analyzed for the aforementioned taste-active compounds. Compared to the leg meat, KNC breast meat had higher levels of IMP, arachidonic acid, and DHA, but lower levels of the other taste-active compounds (P < 0.05). KNC meat lost significant amounts of all the taste-active compounds, excluding oleic and linoleic acids, during the cooking process (P < 0.05). However, bird age only had a minor effect on the levels of these taste-active compounds. The results of this study provide useful information regarding the levels of taste-active compounds in KNC meat from birds of different ages, and their fate during the cooking process. This information could be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing native chicken meat.

  13. Increased level of reactive oxygen species persuades postovulatory aging-mediated spontaneous egg activation in rat eggs cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Karuppanan V; Chaube, Shail K

    2016-05-01

    The present study was aimed to find out whether increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) particularity hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could persuade postovulatory aging-mediated abortive spontaneous egg activation (SEA) in rat eggs cultured in vitro. For this purpose, ROS and H2O2 levels, mitochondria distribution and its membrane potential, p286-CaMK-II, Emi2, Thr-161 phophorylated cyclin-dependent protein kinase1 (Cdk1) as well as cyclin B1 levels, in vitro effects of 3-tert-butyl-4 hydroxy anisole (BHA), pentoxifylline and dibutyryl-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (db-cAMP) were analyzed during postovulatory aging-induced abortive SEA in vitro. Data of the present study suggest that postovulatory aging increased H2O2 levels, disturbed mitochondrial distribution pattern and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in eggs. There was an significant increase of p286-CaMK-II level, while Emi2 level reduced significantly during egg aging in vitro. The reduced Emi2 level was associated with decreased Thr-161 phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (Cdk1) as well as cyclin B1 level in aged eggs that underwent abortive SEA. Further, supplementation of pentoxifylline, db-cAMP, and BHA protected postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that postovulatory aging increased H2O2 levels, reduced MMP, and increased p286-CaMK-II. The increased p286-CaMK-II was associated with reduced Emi2 level and maturation-promoting factor levels during postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA. Drugs that elevate cAMP directly or indirectly and BHA protected postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA possibly by reducing ROS level in rat eggs cultured in vitro.

  14. Activity levels and expression of antioxidant enzymes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in artificially aged rice seed.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangkun; Xin, Xia; Song, Chao; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jinmei; Wu, Shuhua; Li, Ruifang; Liu, Xu; Lu, Xinxiong

    2014-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species are the main contributors to seed deterioration. In order to study scavenging systems for reactive oxygen species in aged seed, we performed analyses using western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant enzyme activity analyses in artificially aged rice seeds (Oryza sativa L. cv. wanhua no.11). Aging seeds by storing them at 50 °C for 1, 9, or 17 months increased the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide levels and reduced the germination percentage from 99% to 92%, 55%, and 2%, respectively. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) did not change in aged seeds. In contrast, the activity levels of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) were significantly decreased in aged seeds, as were the expression of catalase and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase protein. Transcript accumulation analysis showed that specific expression patterns were complex for each of the antioxidant enzyme types in the rice embryos. Overall, the expression of most genes was down-regulated, along with their protein expression. In addition, the reduction in the amount of ascorbate and glutathione was associated with the reduction in scavenging enzymes activity in aged rice embryos. Our data suggest that the depression of the antioxidant system, especially the reduction in the expression of CAT1, APX1 and MDHAR1, may be responsible for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in artificially aged seed embryos, leading to a loss of seed vigor.

  15. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  16. Living in a Global Age. A Simulation Activity for Upper Elementary and Secondary Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    Designed to introduce concepts in international trade and global economics to upper elementary and secondary level students, this simulation activity engages students in the group task of assembling flashlights. A variety of topics can be explored, such as energy shortages, international crises, relationships between rich and poor nations, foreign…

  17. Aging and exercise affect the level of protein acetylation and SIRT1 activity in cerebellum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Nyakas, Csaba; Bakonyi, Tibor; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Kumagai, Shuzo; Goto, Sataro; Radak, Zsolt

    2010-12-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual decline in cognitive and motor functions, the result of complex biochemical processes including pre- and posttranslational modifications of proteins. Sirtuins are NAD(+) dependent protein deacetylases. These enzymes modulate the aging process by lysine deacetylation, which alters the activity and stability of proteins. Exercise can increase mean life-span and improve quality of life. Data from our laboratories revealed that 4 weeks of treadmill running improves performance in the Morris Maze test for young (4 months, old) but not old (30 months, old) male rats, and the exercise could not prevent the age-associated loss in muscle strength assessed by a gripping test. The positive correlation between protein acetylation and the gripping test suggests that the age-dependent decrease in relative activity of SIRT1 in the cerebellum impairs motor function. Similarly to the acetylation level of total proteins, the acetylation of ά -tubulin is also increased with aging, while the effect of exercise training was not found to be significant. Moreover, the protein content of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, one of the key enzymes of NAD biosynthesis, decreased in the young exercise group. These data suggest that aging results in decreased specific activity of SIRT1 in cerebellum, which could lead to increased acetylation of protein residues, including ά-tubulin, that interfere with motor function.

  18. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during

  19. Immunity to Escherichia coli in pigs: Serum Gamma Globulin Levels, Indirect Hemagglutinating Antibody Titres and Bactericidal Activity Against E. coli in pigs up to five Weeks of Age

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. R.; Svendsen, J.

    1972-01-01

    Serum gamma globulin levels, indirect hemagglutinating antibody titres and bactericidal activity against the 0149:K91;K88ac:H10 Serotype of Escherichia coli were determined in pigs up to five weeks of age from vaccinated and non-vaccinated sows. Gamma globulin levels at two days of age were approximately twice adult levels, by three weeks of age they were one quarter of adult levels and remained so until five weeks of age. Indirect hemagglutinating antibody activity was highest at two days of age, fell until three weeks of age and then rose. Little or no indirect hemagglutinating antibody activity was detected in sera taken at two days of age from pigs from non-vaccinated sows. Only three of 26 two day old pigs had demonstrable bactericidal activity; by three weeks of age 16 of 26 had bactericidal activity. Serum from piglets of vaccinated sows had no more bactericidal activity than did sera from non-vaccinated sows. PMID:4110608

  20. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  1. Age dependence of the level of the enzymes involved in the protection against active oxygen species in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpa, M.; Rigo, A.; Viglino, P.; Stevanato, R.; Bracco, F.; Battistin, L.

    1987-06-01

    Levels of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (CuSOD), Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were assessed in the rat brain cortex. The concentrations of Cu- and MnSOD were found to increase linearly with the logarithm of the age of the animal from 3 days before birth to 30 months, both in the whole cortex tissue and in its cytoplasmic fraction. Catalase and GPx levels showed different trends; in particular, GPx, which appears to play a key role in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, after an initial fall increases steadily with age. The enhancement of the levels of SOD and GPx could be related to protection against an increased production of reactive oxygen species in the aging process.

  2. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES). Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.

  3. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  4. Regional age-related changes in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), messenger RNA levels and activity in SAMP8 brain

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Damien; Gharib, Abdallah; Bezin, Laurent; Morales, Anne; Guidon, Gérard; Cespuglio, Raymond; Sarda, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional molecule synthesized by three isozymes of the NO synthase (NOSs) acting as a messenger/modulator and/or a potential neurotoxin. In rodents, the role of NOSs in sleep processes and throughout aging is now well established. For example, sleep parameters are highly deteriorated in senescence accelerated-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a useful animal model to study aging or age-associated disorders, while the inducible form of NOS (iNOS) is down-regulated within the cortex and the sleep-structures of the brainstem. Evidence is now increasing for a role of iNOS and resulting oxidative stress but not for the constitutive expressed isozyme (nNOS). To better understand the role of nNOS in the behavioural impairments observed in SAMP8 versus SAMR1 (control) animals, we evaluated age-related variations occurring in the nNOS expression and activity and nitrites/nitrates (NOx-) levels, in three brain areas (n = 7 animals in each group). Calibrated reverse transcriptase (RT) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and biochemical procedures were used. Results We found that the levels of nNOS mRNA decreased in the cortex and the hippocampus of 8- vs 2-month-old animals followed by an increase in 12-vs 8-month-old animals in both strains. In the brainstem, levels of nNOS mRNA decreased in an age-dependent manner in SAMP8, but not in SAMR1. Regional age-related changes were also observed in nNOS activity. Moreover, nNOS activity in hippocampus was found lower in 8-month-old SAMP8 than in SAMR1, while in the cortex and the brainstem, nNOS activities increased at 8 months and afterward decreased with age in SAMP8 and SAMR1. NOx- levels showed profiles similar to nNOS activities in the cortex and the brainstem but were undetectable in the hippocampus of SAMP8 and SAMR1. Finally, NOx- levels were higher in the cortex of 8 month-old SAMP8 than in age-matched SAMR1. Conclusion Concomitant variations occurring in NO levels derived from n

  5. Age Norms: The Influence of Age, Sex, and Occupational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold; And Others

    Although informal age norms which influence the timing of major role transitions have been well documented, recent research questions the pervasiveness of this influence. In order to assess the effects of age, sex, and occupational level on perceptions of informal age norms, white-collar and blue-collar men and women (N=462) at two age levels,…

  6. Association between physical activity levels and physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district.

    PubMed

    Laudani, Luca; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sawacha, Zimi; della Croce, Ugo; Cereatti, Andrea; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining adequate levels of physical activity is known to preserve health status and functional independence as individuals grow older. However, the relationship between determinants of physical activity (volume and intensity) and physiological factors underlying mobility (cardio-respiratory fitness, neuromuscular function and functional abilities) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively quantified physical activity and a spectrum of physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district. Experiments were carried out on 24 young (28 ± 2 years), 24 middle-aged (48 ± 2 years) and 24 older (70 ± 3 years) gender-matched volunteers. Physical activity was monitored by a wearable activity monitor to quantify volume and intensity of overall physical activity and selected habitual activities over 24 hours. Ventilatory threshold was assessed during an incremental cycling test. Torque, muscle fiber conduction velocity and agonist-antagonist coactivation were measured during maximal voluntary contraction of knee extensors and flexors. Ground reaction forces were measured during sit-to-stand and counter-movement jump. K-means cluster analysis was used to classify the participants' physical activity levels based on parameters of volume and intensity. Two clusters of physical activity volume (i.e., high and low volume) and three clusters of physical activity intensity (i.e. high, medium and low intensity) were identified in all participants. Cardio-respiratory fitness was associated with volume of overall physical activity as well as lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing. On the other hand, neuromuscular function and functional abilities showed a significant association with intensity of overall physical activity as well as postural transition, walking and stair climbing. As a practical application, the relative role played by volume and intensity

  7. High-intensity physical activity modulates diet effects on cerebrospinal amyloid-β levels in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Skinner, Jeannine; Montine, Thomas J; Cholerton, Brenna A; Callaghan, Maureen; Leverenz, James B; Walter, Brooke K; Tsai, Elaine; Postupna, Nadia; Lampe, Johanna; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ(42)) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were markedly altered in response to a 4-week dietary intervention in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we re-examined the data to assess whether diet-induced effects on CSF Aβ(42) were modulated by high intensity physical activity (hi-PA). Normal older adults (n = 18, mean age = 68.6 ± 7.4 y) and adults with amnestic MCI (n = 23, mean age = 68.0 ± 6.5 y) received a low saturated fat/low glycemic index (LOW) diet or a high saturated fat/high glycemic index (HIGH) diet, and CSF levels of Aβ(42), tau, and IL-8 were measured at baseline and week 4. Pre-study activity levels were assessed using a 7-d questionnaire, and weekly duration of hi-PA was quantified. At baseline, increased hi-PA in normals predicted lower CSF levels of tau (r = -0.54, p = 0.020) and IL-8 (r = -0.70, p = 0.025). Diet-induced effects on CSF Aβ(42) during the intervention study were modulated by hi-PA, and the nature of this effect differed for normals and MCI (ANOVA, p = 0.039). That is, for normal adults, increased hi-PA attenuated the effects of the HIGH diet on CSF Aβ(42) whereas in MCI, increased hi-PA potentiated the effects of the LOW diet. Our results suggest that normal adults who engage in hi-PA are less vulnerable to the pathological effects of an unhealthy diet, while in MCI, the benefit of a healthy diet on Aβ modulation is greatest when paired with hi-PA. Exercise may thus interact with diet to alter pathological processes that ultimately modify risk of Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Mice expressing reduced levels of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α activity do not develop age-related insulin resistance or obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Goo-Young; Lee, Young Mok; Cho, Jun-Ho; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Jun, Hyun Sik; Springer, Danielle A; Mansfield, Brian C; Chou, Janice Y

    2015-09-15

    Glycogen storage disease type-Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by a lack of glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) activity. We have shown that gene therapy mediated by a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing human G6Pase-α normalizes blood glucose homeostasis in the global G6pc knockout (G6pc(-/-)) mice for 70-90 weeks. The treated G6pc(-/-) mice expressing 3-63% of normal hepatic G6Pase-α activity (AAV mice) produce endogenous hepatic glucose levels 61-68% of wild-type littermates, have a leaner phenotype and exhibit fasting blood insulin levels more typical of young adult mice. We now show that unlike wild-type mice, the lean AAV mice have increased caloric intake and do not develop age-related obesity or insulin resistance. Pathway analysis shows that signaling by hepatic carbohydrate response element binding protein that improves glucose tolerance and insulin signaling is activated in AAV mice. In addition, several longevity factors in the calorie restriction pathway, including the NADH shuttle systems, NAD(+) concentrations and the AMP-activated protein kinase/sirtuin 1/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α pathway are upregulated in the livers of AAV mice. The finding that partial restoration of hepatic G6Pase-α activity in GSD-Ia mice not only attenuates the phenotype of hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency but also prevents the development of age-related obesity and insulin resistance seen in wild-type mice may suggest relevance of the G6Pase-α enzyme to obesity and diabetes.

  9. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL) will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging") studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living) scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P < 0.01), older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P < 0.01), dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs) (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P < 0.011) or had experienced a history of falls with

  10. The effects of exogenous glutathione on reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities of rats with different ages and gender after whole-body Γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Erden Inal, Mine; Akgün, Asiye; Kahraman, Ahmet

    2003-07-01

    Age-and gender-related changes on reduced glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of rat exposed to different dose of whole-body g-ray irradiation were determined. In addition, the effect of administration of exogenous GSH on endogenous GSH levels, GPx and GR activities was investigated. For this aim, male and female rats aged 1 and 5 moths were divided into two groups as g-ray and g-ray+GSH. Both groups were again divided into four groups as irradiated with 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy doses. GSH level and GPx activity did not change with age while GR activity was decreased with age. Gender-dependent changes in GPx and GR activities were observed, but GSH values were not affect by sex. GSH levels, GPx and GR activities were not observed dose-associated changes of g-irradiation. GSH level and GPx activity in the 8Gy group were increased by GSH. GR activities of old male rats were found to be increased by glutathione in the 6 and 8Gy groups. These results indicate that radiation and administration of exogenous GSH affect gender-and age-dependent GSH level, GPx and GR activities in the rats.

  11. Microglial activation in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Schuitemaker, Alie; van der Doef, Thalia F; Boellaard, Ronald; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Yaqub, Maqsood; Windhorst, Albert D; Barkhof, Frederik; Jonker, Cees; Kloet, Reina W; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Scheltens, Philip; van Berckel, Bart N M

    2012-06-01

    Healthy brain aging is characterized by neuronal loss and decline of cognitive function. Neuronal loss is closely associated with microglial activation and postmortem studies have indeed suggested that activated microglia may be present in the aging brain. Microglial activation can be quantified in vivo using (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 and positron emission tomography. The purpose of this study was to measure specific binding of (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 in healthy subjects over a wide age range. Thirty-five healthy subjects (age range 19-79 years) were included. In all subjects 60-minute dynamic (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 scans were acquired. Specific binding of (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 was calculated using receptor parametric mapping in combination with supervised cluster analysis to extract the reference tissue input function. Increased binding of (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 with aging was found in frontal lobe, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, medial inferior temporal lobe, insula, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, thalamus, parietal and occipital lobes, and cerebellum. This indicates that activated microglia appear in several cortical and subcortical areas during healthy aging, suggesting widespread neuronal loss.

  12. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  13. Neighborhood design and active aging.

    PubMed

    Michael, Yvonne L; Green, Mandy K; Farquhar, Stephanie A

    2006-12-01

    This qualitative analysis of focus groups describes how neighborhood design encourages active aging. Nine focus groups were conducted in 2002 and 2003 with residents (N=60) aged 55 and over living in Portland, OR, USA. Content analysis revealed that local shopping and services, traffic and pedestrian infrastructure, neighborhood attractiveness, and public transportation influence activity among older adults. This information will be useful for making policy recommendations relating to land use planning and transportation, to assist in senior-friendly developments and neighborhood improvements, and to design effective senior health interventions with an emphasis on neighborhood design influences.

  14. [Glial activation and brain aging].

    PubMed

    Sugaya, K

    2001-10-01

    While basal forebrain cholinergic neurons degenerate in aging and Alzheimer's disease, the cholinergic groups of the upper brainstem are preserved. Since the brainstem reticular-like cholinergic neurons differ from the rostral cholinergic phenotype by their high expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA, we hypothesized that they contain biochemical mechanisms to protect themselves against self-induced damage by nitric oxide (NO). Our initial question was a source of the NO during the aging process. We found a significant correlation between cognitive function and markers for glial activation and oxidative stress using aged rats. This result indicates that oxidative stress accompanied by glial activation may be occurred in the cognitively impaired animals. We also found mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) was significantly damaged in these animals, while accumulation of oxidative damage was not evident in other molecules. Therefore, oxidative damage to the mDNA by glial activation may occur in the cells having poor protection against oxidative stress during aging. Then the dysfunction of mitochondria, induced by the mDNA damage, may induce cell death as well as produce another oxidative stress to cause neuronal damage. The damaged neurons induce further glial activation and such self-accelerated immune-like response results in progressive neurodegeneration.

  15. Chromospheric Activity at Intermediate Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampapa, Mark; Stauffer, John; Deliyannis, Constantine; Sherry, William

    2005-08-01

    The calibration of the empirical relation between Ca II chromospheric strength and stellar age between 0.6 Gyr (Hyades) and 4.0 - 5 Gyr (M67 and the Sun) relies on the uncertain determination of ages for individual field stars in the solar neighborhood. We therefore propose to obtain WIYN/Hydra spectra of ~ 100 solar-type dwarf stars in the 1.8 Gyr old open cluster, NGC 752. This cluster contains a sample of solar-type dwarfs that is homogeneous in age and chemical composition. Furthermore, NGC 752 is the nearest-and hence brightest- cluster at an age ~ 2 Gyr. The results will yield an improved calibration of the age-activity relation at intermediate ages. In addition, we will determine if the chromospheric Ca II strengths for the solar-type stars in NGC 752 lie in the so-called "Vaughan-Preston Gap''- an apparent discontinuity in the Ca II H& K strength-(B-V) diagram found for field stars in the solar neighborhood. Our data will yield insight on the two proposed origins for the gap, namely, that it is a result of two different modes of dynamo action or that it is actually an artifact of a discontinuity in the local star formation rate. This is a resubmission of a previously approved proposal that was allocated two nights in 2004 November. The time was lost to instrument problems (Hydra gripper malfunctions) and weather. No usable data were obtained.

  16. Cognitive Aging: Activity Patterns and Maintenance Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, K. J.; Gilhooly, M. L.; Phillips, L. H.; Harvey, D.; Murray, A.; Hanlon, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between cognitive functioning in older people and (1) levels of mental, physical and social activities, and (2) intentions regarding maintenance of cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 145) were 70-91 years of age, varied in health status and socio-economic backgrounds. Current cognitive functioning was…

  17. Active Ageing: Intergenerational Relationships and Social Generativity.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanna; Boccacin, Lucia; Bramanti, Donatella; Meda, Stefania G

    2014-01-01

    This contribution is a reflection on the concept of active ageing from the perspective of relational sociology. At the same time, it offers practical implications and outlines possible future courses of action, in the face of demographic and relational scenarios rapidly changing, and the challenges that each day people of all generations are called to cope with. Active ageing is quite a recent concept and indicates an attitude towards ageing that enhances the quality of life as people become older. The goal of active ageing is to enable people to realise their potential for physical, social and mental well-being and to participate in social life also in the last stage of the life cycle. In this phase, the presence of a network of support, security and care adequate to the possible onset of problems and criticalities is crucial. Relational sociology frames the phenomenon of an ageing population in a dense network of social relations, primarily at the level of family and community. For this reason, as supported by the most recent sociological literature and evidence from studies conducted in Italy and abroad (cf. SHARE), it is extremely important to investigate the link between active ageing, intergenerational orientation (solidarity and exchanges) and practices of prosociality (i.e. engagement in third-sector activities and volunteering in later life).

  18. Effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on thymus, spleen and cardiac indexes, caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein and mRNA expression levels in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Sun, Yong Le; Wang, Ai Hong; Xu, Chong En; Zhang, Meng Yuan

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on heart function in aged rats. Polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae was administered to aged rats. Results showed that thymus, spleen and cardiac indexs were significantly increased, whereas caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein expression, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi mRNA expression levels were markedly reduced. It can be concluded that polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae may enhance immunity and improve heart function in aged rats.

  19. Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163679.html Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain Researchers suggest making friends of all ages ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Healthy Aging Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Healthy ...

  20. A computational approach to studying ageing at the individual level

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Márcio A.; Schnell, Santiago; Pletcher, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The ageing process is actively regulated throughout an organism's life, but studying the rate of ageing in individuals is difficult with conventional methods. Consequently, ageing studies typically make biological inference based on population mortality rates, which often do not accurately reflect the probabilities of death at the individual level. To study the relationship between individual and population mortality rates, we integrated in vivo switch experiments with in silico stochastic simulations to elucidate how carefully designed experiments allow key aspects of individual ageing to be deduced from group mortality measurements. As our case study, we used the recent report demonstrating that pheromones of the opposite sex decrease lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster by reversibly increasing population mortality rates. We showed that the population mortality reversal following pheromone removal was almost surely occurring in individuals, albeit more slowly than suggested by population measures. Furthermore, heterogeneity among individuals due to the inherent stochasticity of behavioural interactions skewed population mortality rates in middle-age away from the individual-level trajectories of which they are comprised. This article exemplifies how computational models function as important predictive tools for designing wet-laboratory experiments to use population mortality rates to understand how genetic and environmental manipulations affect ageing in the individual. PMID:26865300

  1. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  2. Dual-energy precursor and nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 activator treatment additively improve redox glutathione levels and neuron survival in aging and Alzheimer mouse neurons upstream of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debolina; LeVault, Kelsey R; Brewer, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether glutathione (GSH) loss or increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are more important to neuron loss, aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we stressed or boosted GSH levels in neurons isolated from aging 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those from age-matched nontransgenic (non-Tg) neurons. Here, using titrating with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCL), we observed that GSH depletion increased neuronal death of 3xTg-AD cultured neurons at increasing rates across the age span, whereas non-Tg neurons were resistant to GSH depletion until old age. Remarkably, the rate of neuron loss with ROS did not increase in old age and was the same for both genotypes, which indicates that cognitive deficits in the AD model were not caused by ROS. Therefore, we targeted for neuroprotection activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by 18 alpha glycyrrhetinic acid to stimulate GSH synthesis through GCL. This balanced stimulation of a number of redox enzymes restored the lower levels of Nrf2 and GCL seen in 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those of non-Tg neurons and promoted translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. By combining the Nrf2 activator together with the NADH precursor, nicotinamide, we increased neuron survival against amyloid beta stress in an additive manner. These stress tests and neuroprotective treatments suggest that the redox environment is more important for neuron survival than ROS. The dual neuroprotective treatment with nicotinamide and an Nrf2 inducer indicates that these age-related and AD-related changes are reversible.

  3. Active Ageing in a Greying Society: Training for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessel, Roger

    2008-01-01

    With the ageing of society, policy-makers are aware of the need to retain older workers in employment. Across Europe, lifelong learning is increasingly important. Adults who remain active longer need (re-)training to maintain their productivity. However, vocational training tends to decline with age. The article analyses European employment policy…

  4. Experiential Aging Activities and the Early Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)

  5. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  6. Math Activities for Teaching about Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Roberta E.; Pappas, Anthony A.

    By participating in these class activities, students will acquire mathematical skills and at the same time learn about aging. Topics related to aging are often quantitative, and therefore, subject to mathematical analysis and procedures. The activities, which contain teacher suggestions and all student handouts, deal with seven topics. In the…

  7. Age estimation using level of eyebrow and eyelash whitening

    PubMed Central

    Kantarcı, Feride Aylin; Kantarcı, Muhammed Nabi; Bilgi, Sefer

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine whether eyebrow and eyelash whitening is an effective parameter in age estimation. Material/Methods We evaluated 1545 patients. Age groups were 1–10, 11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 61–70, 71–80, and 81–90 years. Level of whitening was categorized as level 0: no whitening, level 1: 1–3 strands, level 2: 3–10 strands, level 3: 10 strands–2/3 whitening, level 4: >3/4 whitening. Results Mean age was 42.39±20.01. While there was no eyebrow whitening in 87% of the subjects, level 4 whitening of eyebrows was observed in 0,8% of the subjects. There was no eyelash whitening in 97,7% of the subjects and no level 4 eyelash whitening was detected in any subject. Men had significantly more level 1, 2, 3, and 4 eyebrow whitening compared with women. There was no gender difference in terms of eyelash whitening level. There was no eyebrow and eyelash whitening in subjects age 1–40 years; whitening began in the 41–50 years age group and increased with age in other groups. Mean age was 39.59±19.63 years in subjects with no eyebrow whitening; 59 years in level 1, 61 years in level 2, 63 years in level 3, and 69 years in level 4 eyebrow whitening. Mean age was 41.85±19.87 in subjects with no eyelash whitening; and 63.57±10.75 in those with whitening. Conclusions Particularly after 41–50 years of age, level of eyebrow and eyelash whitening may be among a useful age estimation parameter. PMID:24448310

  8. Aging and defective lymphoid cell activation.

    PubMed

    Coffman, F D; Cohen, S

    1989-01-01

    Activation of lymphocytes for proliferation is a crucial process in the immune response. Age-related deficiencies in this cellular response strongly correlate with deficiencies in the immune system response, with concomitant increase in disease severity and mortality. Defects associated with the transmission of the initial activation signal and with IL-2 production contribute to the depressed response, but defects in the IL-2 response mechanism also play important roles. A major factor in this area is the inability of the nuclei of these cells to respond to the intracellular factor ADR, which plays a crucial role in the initiation of DNA replication. These cells produce normal levels of ADR; thus, either the nuclei cannot bind ADR in a productive manner or the defect lies beyond the point of ADR binding, perhaps in one of the other proteins of the initiation complex. An interesting contrast to the age-related failure of nuclei to respond to ADR is the failure of neoplastic nuclei to respond to the ADR inhibitor. This inhibitor, found in the cytoplasm of quiescent cells, suppresses both the activation of quiescent nuclei by ADR and the ongoing DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei from activated cells. Nuclei from spontaneous proliferating cell lines were not affected by this inhibitor, which may be an important factor in the uncontrolled growth seen in neoplastic cells. The investigation of ADR has given hints that perhaps two of the fundamental questions in biology, namely why some cells don't proliferate and why some others won't stop proliferating, may be two sides of the same coin.

  9. Light-activation of the Archaerhodopsin H(+)-pump reverses age-dependent loss of vertebrate regeneration: sparking system-level controls in vivo.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dany Spencer; Tseng, Ai-Sun; Levin, Michael

    2013-03-15

    Optogenetics, the regulation of proteins by light, has revolutionized the study of excitable cells, and generated strong interest in the therapeutic potential of this technology for regulating action potentials in neural and muscle cells. However, it is currently unknown whether light-activated channels and pumps will allow control of resting potential in embryonic or regenerating cells in vivo. Abnormalities in ion currents of non-excitable cells are known to play key roles in the etiology of birth defects and cancer. Moreover, changes in transmembrane resting potential initiate Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration, including regrowth of a functioning spinal cord, in tails that have been inhibited by natural inactivity of the endogenous H(+)-V-ATPase pump. However, existing pharmacological and genetic methods allow neither non-invasive control of bioelectric parameters in vivo nor the ability to abrogate signaling at defined time points. Here, we show that light activation of a H(+)-pump can prevent developmental defects and induce regeneration by hyperpolarizing transmembrane potentials. Specifically, light-dependent, Archaerhodopsin-based, H(+)-flux hyperpolarized cells in vivo and thus rescued Xenopus embryos from the craniofacial and patterning abnormalities caused by molecular blockade of endogenous H(+)-flux. Furthermore, light stimulation of Arch for only 2 days after amputation restored regenerative capacity to inhibited tails, inducing cell proliferation, tissue innervation, and upregulation of notch1 and msx1, essential genes in two well-known endogenous regenerative pathways. Electroneutral pH change, induced by expression of the sodium proton exchanger, NHE3, did not rescue regeneration, implicating the hyperpolarizing activity of Archaerhodopsin as the causal factor. The data reveal that hyperpolarization is required only during the first 48 hours post-injury, and that expression in the spinal cord is not necessary for the effect to occur. Our study

  10. Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Dave

    This handbook provides a collection of stimulation activities that encourage a child's physical and mental growth from birth to five years of age. Emphasis is placed on making stimulation aids that are inexpensive or can be made from scrap materials. Advice is given about ways to carry out designated activities. All activities have been tried and…

  11. Progressive age-associated activation of JNK associates with conduction disruption in the aged atrium.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra A; Lancaster, Matthew K

    2015-03-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is critical for maintaining electrical conduction across atrial muscle. During progressive ageing atrial conduction slows associating with increasing susceptibility to arrhythmias. Changes in Cx43 protein expression, or its phosphorylation status, can instigate changes in the conduction of the cardiac action potential. This study investigated whether increased levels of activated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is responsible for the decline of Cx43 during ageing. Right atria from guinea pigs aged between 1 day and 38 months of age were examined. The area of the intercalated disc increased with age concurrent with a 75% decline in C43 protein expression. An age-dependent increase in activated-JNK correlated with a rise in phosphorylated Cx43, but also slowing of action potential conduction velocity across the atria from 0.38±0.01 m/s at 1 month of age to 0.30±0.01 m/s at 38 months. The JNK activator anisomycin increased activated JNK in myocytes and reduced Cx43 protein expression simulating ageing. The JNK inhibitor SP600125, was found to eradicate almost all trace of Cx43 protein. We conclude that in vivo activation of JNK increases with age leading to the loss of Cx43 protein resulting in impaired conduction and contributing to the increasing risk of atrial arrhythmias with advancing age.

  12. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  13. Older Adults' Level of Knowledge about Old Age Using the Facts of Aging Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Arleen J.

    The Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) has been used in different studies to assess the level of knowledge about old age. It contains 25 factual statements concerning basic physical, mental, and social facts and the most common misconceptions about aging. One purpose of this study was to identify the most frequent misconceptions in a group of older adults…

  14. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  15. On the Dynamics of Active Aging

    PubMed Central

    Schroots, Johannes J. F.

    2012-01-01

    The conceptual basis of active aging is extended with a dynamic systems model, called Janus. The Janus model accounts for the life-course dynamics of simple and more complex growth and decline functions, on the strength of three principles. The first principle of transition states that the unitary lifespan trajectory of development and aging is the product of two complementary forces, growth and senescence, which are effective from conception until death. The first principle solves the traditional problem of the age at which development ends and the process of aging starts. The second and third principles of peak capacity and peak time refer, respectively, to the impact of growth rate (peak capacity) and rate of senescence (peak time) on the life-course of dynamic systems. The validity of the Janus model is demonstrated by simulating the empirical lifespan trajectories of functional capacity, intelligence, and mortality. The Janus model contributes to the concept of active aging by underlining the dynamic limits of human nature, by stimulating effective policies for promoting active aging in the first half of life, and by emphasizing the growth potential of older people in the second half. PMID:22973306

  16. Natural compounds with anti-ageing activity.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-10-11

    Ageing is a complex molecular process driven by diverse molecular pathways and biochemical events that are promoted by both environmental and genetic factors. Specifically, ageing is defined as a time-dependent decline of functional capacity and stress resistance, associated with increased chance of morbidity and mortality. These effects relate to age-related gradual accumulation of stressors that result in increasingly damaged biomolecules which eventually compromise cellular homeostasis. Nevertheless, the findings that genetic or diet interventions can increase lifespan in evolutionarily diverse organisms indicate that mortality can be postponed. Natural compounds represent an extraordinary inventory of high diversity structural scaffolds that can offer promising candidate chemical entities in the major healthcare challenge of increasing health span and/or delaying ageing. Herein, those natural compounds (either pure forms or extracts) that have been found to delay cellular senescence or in vivo ageing will be critically reviewed and summarized according to affected cellular signalling pathways. Moreover, the chemical structures of the identified natural compounds along with the profile of extracts related to their bioactive components will be presented and discussed. Finally, novel potential molecular targets for screening natural compounds for anti-ageing activity, as well as the idea that anti-ageing interventions represent a systemic approach that is also effective against age-related diseases will be discussed.

  17. Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the “agin...

  18. Is age really cruel to experts? Compensatory effects of activity.

    PubMed

    Vaci, Nemanja; Gula, Bartosz; Bilalić, Merim

    2015-12-01

    Age-related decline may not be as pronounced in complex activities as it is in basic cognitive processes, but ability deterioration with age is difficult to deny. However, studies disagree on whether age is kinder to more able people than it is to their less able peers. In this article, we investigated the "age is kinder to the more able" hypothesis by using a chess database that contains activity records for both beginners and world-class players. The descriptive data suggested that the skill function across age captures the 3 phases as described in Simonton's model of career trajectories: initial rise to the peak of performance, postpeak decline, and eventual stabilization of decline. We therefore modeled the data with a linear mixed-effect model using the cubic function that captures 3 phases. The results show that age may be kind to the more able in a subtler manner than has previously been assumed. After reaching the peak at around 38 years, the more able players deteriorated more quickly. Their decline, however, started to slow down at around 52 years, earlier than for less able players (57 years). Both the decline and its stabilization were significantly influenced by activity. The more players engaged in playing tournaments, the less they declined and the earlier they started to stabilize. The best experts may not be immune to aging, but their previously acquired expertise and current activity enable them to maintain high levels of skill even at an advanced age.

  19. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the active vitamin D metabolite (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D) and haemoglobin levels in older Australian men: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Vasant; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona; Naganathan, Vasi; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Seibel, Markus J

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia and low 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) levels are common in older people and may adversely affect morbidity and mortality. While there is some evidence for an association between low serum 25D levels and anaemia, there are limited studies among community-dwelling older people. In addition, the relationship between anaemia and the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25D, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between serum 25D and 1,25D with anaemia in community-living men aged ≥70 years. Population-based, cross-sectional analysis of the baseline phase and longitudinal analysis of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a large epidemiological study conducted in Sydney among men aged 70 years and older, were performed; 1666 men were seen at baseline (2005-2007), 1314 men at a 2-year follow-up (2007-2009) and 917 at a 5-year follow-up (2012-2013). The main outcome measurement was haemoglobin levels as a continuous measure. Covariates included 25D and 1,25D, estimated glomerular filtration rate, demographic information, lifestyle measures, health conditions and medication information. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 13.0 g/dL, WHO definition) was 14.6 %. In cross-sectional analysis, serum 25D concentrations were positively associated with haemoglobin levels in unadjusted analysis (β value 0.004; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.0009, 0.007; p = 0.01), but the associations were no longer significant after multivariate adjustment. The association between 1,25D levels and haemoglobin levels was significant in unadjusted analysis (β value 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002, 0.004; p < 0.0001) and remained significant in adjusted analysis (β value 0.001; 95 % CI 0.004, 0.003; p = 0.01). Serum 1,25D (but not 25D) levels at baseline were significantly associated with changes in haemoglobin over 2 and 5 years in unadjusted (β value 0.002; 95 % CI 0.0009, 0.003; p < 0

  20. Aging in Taiwan: Building a Society for Active Aging and Aging in Place.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Yin; Huang, Chin-Shan

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan's accelerated rate of aging is more than twice that of European countries and United States. Although demographic aging was not a major concern in Taiwan until 1993, when it became an aging society, aging issues now have become an imperative topic both in policy and in practice in the country. As this article demonstrates, in response to the challenge of the rapidly growing older population and the inspiration of cultural values of filial obligation and respect to elders, the concepts of active aging and aging in place are leading the policies and practices of gerontology to meet the diverse needs of the aging population in Taiwan. However, challenges remain, including the question of how to promote systematic endeavors, both in policies or research on aging, and how to encourage greater involvement of nongovernment organizations in the aging issue. In addition, some emerging issues about aging are addressed in this article including inadequate resources for older rural adults, building an age-friendly environment, and the increasing number of people with dementia.

  1. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain.

  2. Multifocal electroretinogram: age-related changes for different luminance levels

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, Christina; Garcia, Susan M.; Ma, Lei; Keltner, John L.; Werner, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Age-related changes in the first-order multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) responses were measured for two different luminance levels (200 and 700 cd·m−2). The relative contribution of optical and neural factors to senescent change in response was evaluated. Methods Data were obtained from one eye of each of 71 normal phakic subjects, age 9−80 years. The mfERG responses were recorded with the 7” stimulus-refractor unit (EDI) and VERIS 4.3 using the following protocol: bipolar contact lens, 103 hexagons, consecutive stimulation with 200 and 700 cd·m−2, pupils ≥6 mm, amplification of 105, filter cut-offs at 10 and 300 Hz. Results Age-correlated decreases in amplitude and response density and increases in P1 implicit time were found for both luminance levels. The mean response density (nV·deg−2) was higher for the 700 cd·m−2 stimulus, but the rate of change with age was not significantly different from that obtained with the 200 cd·m−2 stimulus. Implicit time was not significantly different for the two light levels, nor was the rate of change with age. The decrease in response density and the increase in implicit time with age were significant across all retinal regions, dividing the 50 deg stimulus into six concentric rings. Age-related change in response density was greatest for the central retina and decreased with increasing retinal eccentricity. Conclusion Log mfERG response changes linearly as a function of age. Analyses of the effects of reduced ocular media transmission and increased stray light, along with ancillary data obtained from pseudophakes, imply that age-related changes in the mfERG are due to both optical and neural factors. PMID:11935277

  3. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women. Relationships with age, body mass index and insulin levels.

    PubMed

    Mazza, E; Maccario, M; Ramunni, J; Gauna, C; Bertagna, A; Barberis, A M; Patroncini, S; Messina, M; Ghigo, E

    1999-10-01

    Sex and age are the major determinants of serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S): they are about twice in men than in women and show a progressive reduction from the end of the puberty to aging in both sexes. It has been reported that DHEA-S levels are also negatively influenced by insulin. Moreover, DHEA-S levels reduction has been associated to increased risk for cardiovascular disease, which connotes hyperinsulinemic states, such as obesity. We have evaluated serum levels of DHEA-S and insulin as function of age and body mass index (BMI) in 376 adult women (age 18.1-89.6 yrs, median 42.2; BMI 15.7-57.8 kg/m2, median 32.7) by multiple regression and piecewise regression analysis. Insulin levels positively associated to BMI (p=0.000002) and DHEA-S levels negatively associated with age (p=0.000001). Considering the whole population, DHEA-S levels were related positively with BMI (p=0.0013) independently of age. DHEA-S were also directly related to insulin levels independently of age (p=0.042), but this association disappeared after correction for BMI. Piecewise regression analysis did not reveal a threshold level for the increase of BMI (p=0.0004). Interestingly, DHEA-S levels and BMI were positively associated before but not after menopause. Taking into account only obese population, (no.=143, age 18.7-67.3 yrs, mean 39.0, median 39.4) DHEA-S levels were again related negatively with age and positively with BMI, while were unrelated with waist to hip ratio (p=0.391). Our data show that increasing body mass and insulin secretion is not associated to DHEA-S reduction in women. This evidence suggests that DHEA-S is unlikely implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in obese women.

  5. Generativity as a Route to Active Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Andreas; Schmitt, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We elucidate the significance of active ageing from an individual as well as from a societal perspective. Taking an individual perspective, maintaining activity in later years is linked to successful ageing because of empirical relationships to positive self-perception, satisfaction with life, and development of competences, whereas from a societal perspective, active ageing implies usage of older people's life competences as a human capital of society—a societal imperative, particularly in times of demographic change but also more basically substantiated in an ethics of responsibility, intergenerational solidarity, and generation equity. We focus on the psychological construct of generativity which is interpreted as an aspect of the philosophical-anthropological category of joint responsibility. Our own research in Mexico and the Baltic States supports the notion that maintaining access to the public sphere and active engagement for others is a more basic individual concern than a life-stages specific developmental task. We report background and results of a Dialogue Forum Project Funding, a research cooperation between our institute and the Foundation Remembrance, Responsibility, and Future aimed to improve generativity in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine by implementing and supporting local initiatives offering opportunities for intergenerational dialogue. PMID:22919378

  6. Age effects on spectral electroencephalogram activity prior to dream recall.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Sarah L; Münch, Mirjam; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Ageing is associated with marked changes in sleep timing, structure and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Older people exhibit less slow-wave and spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, together with attenuated levels of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as compared to young individuals. However, the extent to which these age-related changes in sleep impact on dream processing remains largely unknown. Here we investigated NREM and REM sleep EEG activity prior to dream recall and no recall in 17 young (20-31 years) and 15 older volunteers (57-74 years) during a 40 h multiple nap protocol. Dream recall was assessed immediately after each nap. During NREM sleep prior to dream recall, older participants displayed higher frontal EEG delta activity (1-3 Hz) and higher centro-parietal sigma activity (12-15 Hz) than the young volunteers. Conversely, before no recall, older participants had less frontal-central delta activity and less sigma activity in frontal, central and parietal derivations than the young participants. REM sleep was associated to age-related changes, such that older participants had less frontal-central alpha (10-12 Hz) and beta (16-19 Hz) activity, irrespective of dream recall and no recall. Our data indicate that age-related differences in dream recall seem to be directly coupled to specific frequency and topography EEG patterns, particularly during NREM sleep. Thus, the spectral correlates of dreaming can help to understand the cortical pathways of dreaming.

  7. AGING AND ACTIVITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTOR ACTIVITY AND THE EFFECT OF TOLUENE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapidly aging population raises many uncertainties regarding the susceptibility of older adults to environmental pollutants. Research to reduce these uncertainties must consider age-related changes in baseline function and its variability. For example, activity levels are gen...

  8. Proteasome activation as a novel anti-aging strategy.

    PubMed

    Gonos, Efstathios

    2014-10-01

    Aging and longevity are two multifactorial biological phenomena whose knowledge at molecular level is still limited. We have studied proteasome function in replicative senescence and cell survival (Mol Aspects Med 35, 1-71, 2014). We have observed reduced levels of proteasome content and activities in senescent cells due to the down-regulation of the catalytic subunits of the 20S complex (J Biol Chem 278, 28026-28037, 2003). In support, partial inhibition of proteasomes in young cells by specific inhibitors induces premature senescence which is p53 dependent (Aging Cell 7, 717-732, 2008). Stable over-expression of catalytic subunits or POMP resulted in enhanced proteasome assembly and activities and increased cell survival following treatments with various oxidants. Importantly, the developed "proteasome activated" human fibroblasts cell lines exhibit a delay of senescence by approximately 15% (J Biol Chem 280, 11840-11850, 2005; J Biol Chem 284, 30076-30086, 2009). Our current work proposes that proteasome activation is an evolutionary conserved mechanism, as it can delay aging in various in vivo systems. Moreover, additional findings indicate that the recorded proteasome activation by many inducers is Nrf2-dependent (J Biol Chem 285, 8171-8184, 2010). Finally, we have studied the proteolysis processes of various age-related proteins and we have identified that CHIP is a major p53 E3 ligase in senescent fibroblasts (Free Rad Biol Med 50, 157-165, 2011).

  9. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  10. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  11. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  12. Methamphetamine increases basal ganglia iron to levels observed in aging.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Laćan, Goran; Harvey, Dennis C; Way, Baldwin M

    2007-10-29

    Increases in basal ganglia iron are well documented for neurodegenerative diseases but have not been associated with methamphetamine (METH). In this study, vervet monkeys that received two doses of METH (2 mg/kg, intramuscularly, 6 h apart) showed at 1 month, iron increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus, with concurrent increases of ferritin-immunoreactivity and decreases of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in substantia nigra. At 1.5 years, substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity had recovered while iron and ferritin-immunoreactivity increases persisted. Globus pallidus and substantia nigra iron levels of the adult METH-exposed animals (age 5-9 years) were now comparable with those of drug-naive, aged animals (19-22 years), suggesting an aging-related condition that might render those regions more vulnerable to oxidative stress.

  13. Social activity and healthy aging: a study of aging Danish twins.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-04-01

    Although social and intellectual engagement have been consistently associated with late-life functioning, rather than true causation, these associations may reflect the experiential choices of high functioning individuals (i.e., selection effects). We investigated the association of social activity with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin. These results are interpreted in the context of the additional finding that nonshared environmental factors, although apparently not social activity, are the predominant determinant of changes in late-life functioning.

  14. Aging behavior of polymeric solar absorber materials: Aging on the component level

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlen, S.; Wallner, G.M.; Lang, R.W.; Meir, M.; Rekstad, J.

    2010-03-15

    Within this study, the aging behavior of a PPE + PS absorber material was investigated on the absorber component level. To indicate aging, characteristic mechanical values were determined by indentation tests of specimens taken from components and exposed to laboratory aging (140 C in air, 80 C in water) and service near outdoor aging conditions (stagnation in northern climate). In addition to the mechanical tests, the unaged and aged specimens were also characterized thermo-analytically via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that reductions in both characteristic mechanical values of the indentation tests, i.e., load of the first transition and ultimate indentation, reflect at least some physical aging although chemical aging may also be of importance based on previous analytical investigations of laboratory aged polymer films. While laboratory aging in air at 140 C and service exposure at a test facility in Oslo (N) under stagnation conditions led to a significant reduction in the mechanical indentation resistance, no influence of laboratory aging in water at 80 C on the mechanical behavior of the absorber sheet was found. Depending on the ultimate failure criterion applied (reduction of characteristic mechanical values to 80% and 50%, respectively), the technical service life found for hot air laboratory and stagnation service conditions was found to be less than 51 and 159 h, respectively. As these durations are significantly below the estimated stagnation conditions accumulated in the desired operation lifetime for such a collector, the PPE + PS type investigated does not seem to be a proper material candidate for solar thermal absorbers. Finally, based on the results obtained, a relation between laboratory aging time in air at 140 C and cumulated irradiation energy during exposure on the test facility in Oslo was established. (author)

  15. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    PubMed

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  16. Financial Well-being in Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing.

  17. Yogurt: role in healthy and active aging.

    PubMed

    El-Abbadi, Naglaa Hani; Dao, Maria Carlota; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt consumption has been associated with health benefits in different populations. Limited information, however, is available on nutritional and health attributes of yogurt in older adults. Yogurt is abundant in calcium, zinc, B vitamins, and probiotics; it is a good source of protein; and it may be supplemented with vitamin D and additional probiotics associated with positive health outcomes. Aging is accompanied by a wide array of nutritional deficiencies and health complications associated with under- and overnutrition, including musculoskeletal impairment, immunosenescence, cardiometabolic diseases, and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, yogurt is accessible and convenient to consume by the older population, which makes yogurt consumption a feasible approach to enhance older adults' nutritional status. A limited number of studies have specifically addressed the impact of yogurt on the nutritional and health status of older adults, and most are observational. However, those reported thus far and reviewed here are encouraging and suggest that yogurt could play a role in improving the nutritional status and health of older adults. In addition, these reports support further investigation into the role of yogurt in healthy and active aging.

  18. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  19. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  20. Activation of an adipogenic program in adult myoblasts with age.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Jones, Jane M; McGehee, Robert E; Rando, Thomas A; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Lipschitz, David A; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2002-03-31

    Myoblasts isolated from mouse hindlimb skeletal muscle demonstrated increased adipogenic potential as a function of age. Whereas myoblasts from 8-month-old adult mice did not significantly accumulate terminal markers of adipogenesis regardless of culture conditions, myoblasts from 23-month-old mice accumulated fat and expressed genes characteristic of differentiated adipocytes, such as the fatty acid binding protein aP2. This change in differentiation potential was associated with a change in the abundance of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor C/EBPalpha, and in the relative abundance of PPARgamma2 to PPARgamma1 mRNAs. Furthermore, PPARgamma activity appeared to be regulated at the level of phosphorylation, being more highly phosphorylated in myoblasts isolated from younger animals. Although adipogenic gene expression in myoblasts from aged animals was activated, presumably in response to PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha, unexpectedly, myogenic gene expression was not effectively repressed. The Wnt signaling pathway may also alter differentiation potential in muscle with age. Wnt-10b mRNA was more abundantly expressed in muscle tissue and cultured myoblasts from adult compared with aged mice, resulting in stabilization of cytosolic beta-catenin, that may potentially contribute to inhibition of adipogenic gene expression in adult myoblasts. The changes reported here, together with those reported in bone marrow stroma with age, suggest that a default program may be activated in mesenchymal cells with increasing age resulting in a more adipogenic-like phenotype. Whether this change in differentiation potential contributes to the increased adiposity in muscle with age remains to be determined.

  1. Life Extension of Aging High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    BRYSON, D.

    2002-02-04

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  2. Psychological Well-Being (PWB) of School Adolescents Aged 12–18 yr, its Correlation with General Levels of Physical Activity (PA) and Socio-Demographic Factors In Gilgit, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, Yasmin; TAGHDISI, Muhammad Hussain; NOURIJELYANI, Keramat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12–18) from grade 6th–10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adolescents PA (PAQ-A). Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates. Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275), 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the majority (43.4%) of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2%) revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005) for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004) than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001) decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls. Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents. PMID:26258093

  3. Activity loss and depression in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of severe vision loss in older persons and is associated with high rates of disability and depression. The authors evaluated 51 patients with bilateral AMD to investigate the interrelationships of disease severity, disability, and depression and focused on loss of valued activities as an emblematic disabling consequence of AMD. They characterized depression by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score, a syndromal state based on the CES-D, and as a level of distress (Index of Affective Suffering; IAS). Thirty subjects (58.8%) had loss of a valued, discretionary activity. They had worse visual acuity and more depressive symptoms and were represented in higher IAS levels than other subjects. Visual acuity was significantly correlated with IAS levels, but not with CES-D scores or syndromal depression. A regression model demonstrated that activity loss mediated the relationship between visual acuity and IAS level. Affective distress occurs in AMD, largely to the extent that valued activities are relinquished because of vision loss. IAS levels best illuminated this relationship, suggesting the value of this dimension of affective functioning in studies of the consequences of chronic disease.

  4. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  5. Age characteristics of changes in invertase activity of the mucous membrane of the small intestine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakhimov, K. R.; Aleksandrova, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    Rats of varying ages were subjected to stress from heat, cold, and hydrocortisone injection. Invertase activity in homogenates of small intestine mucous membranes was studied following sacrifice. Invertase activity was low in young animals, but increased sharply in 30 day old ones, remaining at a relatively constant level until old age. The study concludes that the stress hormone (corticosteroids, etc.) levels in the blood, which affects the formation of enteric enzyme levels and activities, and that age related peculiarities in invertase activity are a consequence of altered hormone status and epitheliocyte sensitivity.

  6. In vivo levels of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide increase with age in mtDNA mutator mice.

    PubMed

    Logan, Angela; Shabalina, Irina G; Prime, Tracy A; Rogatti, Sebastian; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Hartley, Richard C; Budd, Ralph C; Cannon, Barbara; Murphy, Michael P

    2014-08-01

    In mtDNA mutator mice, mtDNA mutations accumulate leading to a rapidly aging phenotype. However, there is little evidence of oxidative damage to tissues, and when analyzed ex vivo, no change in production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and hydrogen peroxide by mitochondria has been reported, undermining the mitochondrial oxidative damage theory of aging. Paradoxically, interventions that decrease mitochondrial ROS levels in vivo delay onset of aging. To reconcile these findings, we used the mitochondria-targeted mass spectrometry probe MitoB to measure hydrogen peroxide within mitochondria of living mice. Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide was the same in young mutator and control mice, but as the mutator mice aged, hydrogen peroxide increased. This suggests that the prolonged presence of mtDNA mutations in vivo increases hydrogen peroxide that contributes to an accelerated aging phenotype, perhaps through the activation of pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory redox signaling pathways.

  7. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging.

  8. Age-aware solder performance models : level 2 milestone completion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-09-01

    Legislated requirements and industry standards are replacing eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders with lead-free (Pb-free) solders in future component designs and in replacements and retrofits. Since Pb-free solders have not yet seen service for long periods, their long-term behavior is poorly characterized. Because understanding the reliability of Pb-free solders is critical to supporting the next generation of circuit board designs, it is imperative that we develop, validate and exercise a solder lifetime model that can capture the thermomechanical response of Pb-free solder joints in stockpile components. To this end, an ASC Level 2 milestone was identified for fiscal year 2010: Milestone 3605: Utilize experimentally validated constitutive model for lead-free solder to simulate aging and reliability of solder joints in stockpile components. This report documents the completion of this milestone, including evidence that the milestone completion criteria were met and a summary of the milestone Program Review.

  9. Surface L-type Ca2+ channel expression levels are increased in aged hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Santana, Félix Luis; Oh, Myongsoo Matthew; Antion, Marcia Diana; Lee, Amy; Hell, Johannes Wilhelm; Disterhoft, John Francis

    2014-01-01

    Age-related increase in L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons has been hypothesized to underlie the increased Ca2+ influx and subsequent reduced intrinsic neuronal excitability of these neurons that lead to age-related cognitive deficits. Here, using specific antibodies against Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 subunits of LTCCs, we systematically re-examined the expression of these proteins in the hippocampus from young (3 to 4 month old) and aged (30 to 32 month old) F344xBN rats. Western blot analysis of the total expression levels revealed significant reductions in both Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 subunits from all three major hippocampal regions of aged rats. Despite the decreases in total expression levels, surface biotinylation experiments revealed significantly higher proportion of expression on the plasma membrane of Cav1.2 in the CA1 and CA3 regions and of Cav1.3 in the CA3 region from aged rats. Furthermore, the surface biotinylation results were supported by immunohistochemical analysis that revealed significant increases in Cav1.2 immunoreactivity in the CA1 and CA3 regions of aged hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In addition, we found a significant increase in the level of phosphorylated Cav1.2 on the plasma membrane in the dentate gyrus of aged rats. Taken together, our present findings strongly suggest that age-related cognitive deficits cannot be attributed to a global change in L-type channel expression nor to the level of phosphorylation of Cav1.2 on the plasma membrane of hippocampal neurons. Rather, increased expression and density of LTCCs on the plasma membrane may underlie the age-related increase in L-type Ca2+ channel activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:24033980

  10. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  11. Erythrocyte aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, A.; Balakrishna, N.; Ayyagari, Radha; Padma, M.; Viswanath, K.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness. However, the relationship between hyperglycemia-induced activation of polyol pathway in retina and DR is still uncertain. We investigated the relationship between ALR2 levels and human DR by measuring ALR2 activity and its product, sorbitol, in erythrocytes. Methods We enrolled 362 type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D) with and without DR and 66 normal subjects in this clinical case-control study. Clinical evaluation of DR in T2D patients was done by fundus examination. ALR2 activity and sorbitol levels along with glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in erythrocytes were determined. Results T2D patients with DR showed significantly higher specific activity of ALR2 as compared to T2D patients without DR. Elevated levels of sorbitol in T2D patients with DR, as compared to T2D patients without DR, corroborated the increased ALR2 activity in erythrocytes of DR patients. However, the increased ALR2 activity was not significantly associated with diabetes duration, age, and HbA1C in both the DR group and total T2D subjects. Conclusions Levels of ALR2 activity as well as sorbitol in erythrocytes may have value as a quantitative trait to be included among other markers to establish a risk profile for development of DR. PMID:18385795

  12. Restriction of immunoglobulin heterogeneity, autoimmunity and serum protein levels in aged people.

    PubMed Central

    Riesen, W; Keller, H; Skvaril, F; Morell, A; Barandun, S

    1976-01-01

    Ninety-one sera of persons above 80 years of age were screened for autoantibody activity against lipoproteins (anti-LDL 7, anti-HDL 6 positive), for rheumatoid factor activity (Latex 14, Waaler-Rose 7 positive) and for antinuclear factors (11 positive). Among the sera with autoantibody activity 29 percent showed deviations of the normal kappa/lambda ratio of immunoglobulins, as opposed to 22 percent of the sera without detected autoantibody activity. In 3 percent of the sera an M component was detected. Determination of the alpha1-acid glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, haemopexin, complement component C3c and C4, IgG, IgA and IgM levels showed significant increases in alpha-, and beta-globulins as well as in IgG and IgA in sera of the aged persons as compared to a normal population between 20 and 60 years old. No significant difference was noted between the gamma-globulin concentration in sera of aged persons with or without autoantibody activity. The evaluation of the relationship between serum protein levels and alterations of the kappa/lambda ratio indicated that the alpha- and the beta-globulins were significantly raised in sera with altered kappa/lambda ratios, whereas, with the exception of M component containing sera the gamma-globulin levels seemed not significantly affected by changes in this ratio. PMID:62632

  13. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  14. Signaling pathway activation drift during aging: Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome fibroblasts are comparable to normal middle-age and old-age cells.

    PubMed

    Aliper, Alexander M; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin; Buzdin, Anton; Jetka, Tomasz; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Moskalev, Alexy; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    For the past several decades, research in understanding the molecular basis of human aging has progressed significantly with the analysis of premature aging syndromes. Progerin, an altered form of lamin A, has been identified as the cause of premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), and may be a contributing causative factor in normal aging. However, the question of whether HGPS actually recapitulates the normal aging process at the cellular and organismal level, or simply mimics the aging phenotype is widely debated. In the present study we analyzed publicly available microarray datasets for fibroblasts undergoing cellular aging in culture, as well as fibroblasts derived from young, middle-age, and old-age individuals, and patients with HGPS. Using GeroScope pathway analysis and drug discovery platform we analyzed the activation states of 65 major cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis reveals that signaling pathway activation states in cells derived from chronologically young patients with HGPS strongly resemble cells taken from normal middle-aged and old individuals. This clearly indicates that HGPS may truly represent accelerated aging, rather than being just a simulacrum. Our data also points to potential pathways that could be targeted to develop drugs and drug combinations for both HGPS and normal aging.

  15. Signaling pathway activation drift during aging: Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome fibroblasts are comparable to normal middle-age and old-age cells

    PubMed Central

    Aliper, Alexander M.; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin; Buzdin, Anton; Jetka, Tomasz; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Moskalev, Alexey; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    For the past several decades, research in understanding the molecular basis of human aging has progressed significantly with the analysis of premature aging syndromes. Progerin, an altered form of lamin A, has been identified as the cause of premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), and may be a contributing causative factor in normal aging. However, the question of whether HGPS actually recapitulates the normal aging process at the cellular and organismal level, or simply mimics the aging phenotype is widely debated. In the present study we analyzed publicly available microarray datasets for fibroblasts undergoing cellular aging in culture, as well as fibroblasts derived from young, middle-age, and old-age individuals, and patients with HGPS. Using GeroScope pathway analysis and drug discovery platform we analyzed the activation states of 65 major cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis reveals that signaling pathway activation states in cells derived from chronologically young patients with HGPS strongly resemble cells taken from normal middle-aged and old individuals. This clearly indicates that HGPS may truly represent accelerated aging, rather than being just a simulacrum. Our data also points to potential pathways that could be targeted to develop drugs and drug combinations for both HGPS and normal aging. PMID:25587796

  16. The impact of physical and mental activity on cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Jak, Amy J

    2012-01-01

    With the aging of the population, there is continued emphasis on finding interventions that prevent or delay onset of cognitive disorders of aging. Pharmacological interventions have proven less effective than hoped in this capacity and a greater emphasis has therefore been placed on understanding behavioral interventions that will positively impact dementia risk. Building on a robust animal literature, a substantial volume of research has emerged, particularly over the last 5 years, to suggest that modifiable behaviors impact brain plasticity in both humans and animals. This chapter aims to provide a critical summary of this ever growing body of research, focusing specifically on participation in physical and cognitive activities among older adults and their impact on cognition, the brain, and cognitive aging outcomes. The animal literature on activity and cognition provides a series of hypotheses as to how exercise exerts its cognitive and brain benefits. Research in animals is briefly reviewed in the context of these hypotheses as it provides the groundwork for investigations in humans. The literature on physical and cognitive activity benefits to brain and cognition in humans is reviewed in more detail. The largely positive impact of physical and cognitive activities on cognition and brain health documented in epidemiological, cross sectional, and prospective randomized controlled studies are summarized. While most studies have targeted older adults in general, the implications of exercise and cognitive interventions in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are also described as is the evidence supporting the ability for physical activity to modify genetic risk. The connection between activity levels and brain volume, white matter integrity, and improved functionality is reviewed. Practical recommendations regarding the nature, duration, intensity and age of onset of physical or mental activity necessary to reap cognitive

  17. [Subliminal perception and the levels of activation].

    PubMed

    Borgeat, F; Chabot, R; Chaloult, L

    1981-06-01

    The influence of the auditory subliminal messages on the level of activation has been evaluated through a double-blind study. Twenty consenting subjects were alternately submitted to activating and deactivating subliminal messages. Activation changes were estimated through the variations in the scores at the Mood Adjective Check List. Five out of this test's six factors concerned by the content of the subliminal messages responded differently according to the nature of these messages; four factors did so to a statistically significant degree. These results tend to indicate that auditory subliminal perceptions can influence the level of activation. The authors raise several questions, especially stressing that the parameters regulating subliminal response and susceptibility remain largely undefined and in need of systematic investigation.

  18. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the self-reported physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Design and Setting: We used the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Physical Activity and also asked for demographic information, including employment setting, years of experience, education level, and position. Subjects: The questionnaire was sent to 1200 randomly selected ATCs in the Mid-America Athletic Trainers' Association; the return rate was 53%. Measurements: We used means, standard deviations, and ranges to describe the age, total fitness index, work, and leisure and sport indexes of men and women subjects. Independent t tests were used to compare the mean total activity index between men and women within this study and with previous studies. We examined differences in activity indexes by employment setting, position, and age with one-way analysis of variance and Fisher pairwise comparison tests. Two-way χ2 analysis was used to determine the relationship between activity level and employment setting and position. Statistical significance was set at P = .05 for all analyses. Results: Certified athletic trainers who work in a clinical setting had the highest mean total activity score at 9.1 points. Clinic ATCs scored significantly higher than high school ATCs and college ATCs. When compared by position, there were no significant differences among the mean total activity indexes; however, the mean work index of program directors was significantly lower than all other positions and the mean work index of high school and clinic ATCs was significantly higher than all other employment settings. Conclusions: Female ATCs scored significantly higher in total activity levels on the Baecke Questionnaire than their male counterparts. This is in contrast to the general population, investigated by other authors, in which men scored significantly higher than women on the same scale. Additionally, we compared the total activity levels by age

  19. Gender, aging, and the economics of "active aging": Setting a new research agenda.

    PubMed

    Paz, Amira; Doron, Israel; Tur-Sinai, Aviad

    2017-04-03

    The world is aging, and the percentages of older people are on a dramatic ascent. This dramatic demographic aging of human society is not gender neutral; it is mostly about older women. One of the key policy approaches to address the aging revolution is known as "active aging," crystalized by the WHO in 2002 by three pillars: participation, health, and security. The active aging policy has financial and economic aspects and affects both men and women. However, as argued in this article, a gender-based approach has not been adopted within the existing active aging framework. Therefore, a new gender-specific research agenda is needed, one that focuses on an interrelation between gender and different economic aspects of "active aging" from international, comparative, cultural, and longitudinal perspectives.

  20. Early patterns of sexual activity: age cohort differences in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Frances M; Dunne, Michael P; Purdie, David M; Najman, Jake M; Cook, Michele D

    2003-11-01

    Patterns of first sexual activity among Australians born between the 1940s and 1980s were analysed using data from a national telephone survey of 1784 adults (876 males; 908 females). Sixty-one percent of those randomly selected from the Australian electoral roll and contactable by telephone responded. Many trends, including earlier first intercourse--from 20 to 18 years (females) and 18.8 to 17.8 years (males)--were established with the 40-49 year cohort, whose sexual debut was in the late 1960s-70s. Significant age-cohort effects saw women in the contemporary (18-29 year) cohort draw level with males for age at first intercourse and first sex before age 16 and before leaving school. First intercourse contraceptive use climbed from 30% to 80%. Condom use quadrupled to 70%. Australian age-cohort effects are remarkably consistent with those in similar western cultures: gender convergence in sexual experience and increasing avoidance of sexually transmitted disease and pregnancy. If such trends continue, positive long-term outcomes for health and social wellbeing should result.

  1. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5 h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29 mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65 mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administ

  2. Neck Muscle Activation Levels During Frontal Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    right and left upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid . Amplitude and frequency components of the signals were evaluated to determine the amount of...Gx acceleration levels. The trapezius produced more force than the sternocleidomastoid . Activity of both muscle groups was synchronized, by their...dynamic environment. The role of upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) during long-duration head and neck loading situations has been

  3. Play equipment, physical activity opportunities, and children's activity levels at childcare.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave H H; Jansen, Maria W J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment) and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level) multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex) with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls). Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  4. Does Active Memory Capacity Change with Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; And Others

    A series of experiments, which used the primary memory paradigm of Wickens et al. (1981, 1985) with university students, adults, and 8- and 9-year-old children, found an increase in primary memory capacity with age. Primary memory differs from secondary memory in that the latter is susceptible to proactive interference, whereas the former is not.…

  5. Increased human AP endonuclease 1 level confers protection against the paternal age effect in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Jamila R.; Reddick, Traci L.; Perez, Marissa; Centonze, Victoria E.; Mitra, Sankar; Izumi, Tadahide; McMahan, C. Alex; Walter, Christi A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased paternal age is associated with a greater risk of producing children with genetic disorders originating from de novo germline mutations. Mice mimic the human condition by displaying an age-associated increase in spontaneous mutant frequency in spermatogenic cells. The observed increase in mutant frequency appears to be associated with a decrease in the DNA repair protein, AP endonuclease1 (APEX1) and Apex1 heterozygous mice display an accelerated paternal age effect as young adults. In this study, we directly tested if APEX1 over-expression in cell lines and transgenic mice could prevent increases in mutagenesis. Cell lines with ectopic expression of APEX1 had increased APEX1 activity and lower spontaneous and induced mutations in the lacI reporter gene relative to the control. Spermatogenic cells obtained from mice transgenic for human APEX1 displayed increased APEX1 activity, were protected from the age-dependent increase in spontaneous germline mutagenesis, and exhibited increased apoptosis in the spermatogonial cell population. These results directly indicate that increases in APEX1 level confer protection against the murine paternal age effect, thus highlighting the role of APEX1 in preserving reproductive health with increasing age and in protection against genotoxin-induced mutagenesis in somatic cells. PMID:26201249

  6. Physical activity level and related factors in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    van Eck, Mirjam; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Beckerman, Heleen; van den Hoven, Petronella A M; Voorman, Jeanine M; Becher, Jules G

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity level of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate the associated factors. The physical activity level was measured by means of a questionnaire filled in by the parents of 72 adolescents with CP (12-16 years of age) and expressed in METs. Older age, female gender, and hip dysplasia were significantly associated with a lower level of physical activity. Eighty-nine percent were not physically active enough according to the Dutch norm. Physical activity needs to be promoted, especially among older adolescents with CP (age 14-16 years), girls, and adolescents with hip dysplasia.

  7. Flavonoid Chrysin prevents age-related cognitive decline via attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of BDNF levels in aged mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Souza, Leandro Cattelan; Antunes, Michelle Silva; Filho, Carlos Borges; Del Fabbro, Lucian; de Gomes, Marcelo Gomes; Goes, André Tiago Rossito; Donato, Franciele; Prigol, Marina; Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Jesse, Cristiano R

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effect of Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), an important member of the flavonoid family, on memory impairment, oxidative stress and BDNF reduction generated by aging in mice were investigated. Young and aged mice were treated daily per 60days with Chrysin (1 and 10mg/kg; per oral, p.o.) or veichle (10ml/kg; p.o.). Mice were trained and tested in Morris Water Maze task. After the behavioural test, the levels of reactive species (RS), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as the activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC) of mice. Results demonstrated that the age-related memory decline was partially protected by Chrysin at a dose of 1mg/kg, and normalized at the dose of 10mg/kg (p<0.001). Treatment with Chrysin significantly attenuated the increase of RS levels and the inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activities of aged mice. Inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in PFC and HP of aged mice was also attenuated by Chrysin treatment. Moreover, Chrysin marked mitigated the decrease of BDNF levels in the PFC and HC of aged mice. These results demonstrated that flavonoid Chrysin, an antioxidant compound, was able to prevent age-associated memory probably by their free radical scavenger action and modulation of BDNF production. Thus, this study indicates that Chrysin may represent a new pharmacological approach to alleviate the age-related declines during normal age, acting as an anti-aging agent.

  8. Age-related deficits in efficiency of low-level lateral inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Birak, Kulbir S.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In a masked prime task using a 0 ms prime-target inter-stimulus-interval, responses on trials where prime and target match (compatible trials) are usually faster and more accurate than responses where prime and target mismatch (incompatible trials). This positive compatibility effect (PCE) comprises both behavioral benefits on compatible relative to neutral trials, and behavioral costs on incompatible relative to neutral trials. Comparing performance in 2- vs. 4-alternative-response versions of the task indicates that benefits are due to direct priming (i.e., pre-activation) of a motor response, whereas costs reflect an inhibition of the alternative response tendency. The present study employs this paradigm to test the hypothesis that normal aging is associated with a selective deficit in inhibitory function, affecting both low-level motor and higher-level executive control. Experiment and Results: Testing 20 young and 20 older healthy adults, we found that (1) overall, prime-induced benefits were of similar magnitude across age groups, but inhibition-based costs were smaller in older compared to young adults; (2) increasing the number of response alternatives caused the same pattern of unaltered benefits and reduced costs in both age groups; and (3) costs, but not benefits, in the 2-alternative condition were significantly predicted by scores on the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), independently of age and other background variables. Interpretation: Results demonstrate the possibility of isolating an inhibitory component in low-level perceptuo-motor control. Importantly, this component shows an age-related decline in the absence of a corresponding decline of visuo-motor excitability, and appears to be linked to performance on a higher-level processing speed task. We hypothesize that aging might affect the brain's ability to establish precise short-term lateral inhibitory links, and that even in young adults, the efficiency of such links is a

  9. Perceived Strategies and Activities for Successful Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Velasquez, Katherine S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated perceived strategies and activities for successful later aging. Participants were 242 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted who responded to an open-ended question concerning how they make the most of their aging years. Data were collected in 1996 and 1999, when the participants were average ages of 84 and 86.…

  10. Active and successful aging: a European policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Foster, Liam; Walker, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Over the past two decades, "active aging" has emerged in Europe as the foremost policy response to the challenges of population aging. This article examines the concept of active aging and how it differs from that of "successful aging." In particular, it shows how active aging presents a more holistic, life course-oriented approach than successful aging. We provide a critical perspective on active aging too by, first, tracing its emergence in Europe and then showing how, in practice, it has been dominated by a narrow economic or productivist perspective that prioritizes the extension of working life. It has also been gender blind. Nonetheless, it is argued that an active aging approach has the potential to enable countries to respond successfully to the challenges of population aging because of its comprehensive focus and emphasis on societal as well as individual responsibility. Finally, we set out the basic principles that need to be followed if the full potential of active aging is to be achieved.

  11. Serum basal tryptase levels in healthy children: correlation between age and gender.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Umit Murat; Yavuz, S Tolga; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Arik Yilmaz, Ebru; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2014-01-01

    Tryptase is used as a marker in many clinical conditions such as mast cell activation and systemic anaphylaxis. Normal levels of the serum basal tryptase (sBT) are determined in adulthood; however, data about nonallergic healthy children is limited. This study was designed to determine the normal sBT levels in healthy children. Total sBT levels were measured in 113 sera from healthy nonallergic children, for routine follow-up or diagnosis of illnesses that are not known to induce changes in serum tryptase levels. One hundred thirteen children aged 0.16-9.91 years (male/female subjects, 68/45 [60%/40%]) with a median (interquartile) age of 3.36 years (1.94-5.68 years) were evaluated. The sBT level was determined to be 3.30 ng/mL (2.38-4.36) median (interquartile) for the whole group. There was a tendency of higher sBT levels for boys than girls (3.49 [2.56-4.64 ng/mL] and 2.91 ng/mL [2.16-4.16 ng/mL], respectively); however, these findings were not significant (p = 0.12). The analysis of the whole group revealed that sBT levels were inversely related with age (r = -0.259; p = 0.006); and the decrease of sBT with age was more prominent in girls (r = -0.282; p = 0.02) than in boys. The highest sBT levels were found in the 0- to 1-year age group (all, 4.67 ng/mL [4.04-6.39 ng/mL]; boys, 5.34 ng/mL [4.04-6.39 ng/mL]; girls, 4.48 ng/mL [3.23-16.26 ng/mL]). The sBT levels in healthy children are similar to those in adults except in infancy. Interestingly, sBT levels tend to decrease slightly with age. Although they did not reach significance, sBT levels were found to be higher in boys compared with the girls.

  12. Neuroanatomical correlates of aging, cardiopulmonary fitness level, and education

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Brian A.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena I.; Brumback, Carrie R.; Lee, Yukyung; Elavsky, Steriani; Konopack, James F.; Mcauley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.; Colcombe, Stanley; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Fitness and education may protect against cognitive impairments in aging. They may also counteract age-related structural changes within the brain. Here we analyzed volumetric differences in cerebrospinal fluid and gray and white matter, along with neuropsychological data, in adults differing in age, fitness, and education. Cognitive performance was correlated with fitness and education. Voxel-based morphometry was used for a whole-brain analysis of structural magnetic resonance images. We found age-related losses in gray and white matter in medial-temporal, parietal, and frontal areas. As in previous work, fitness within the old correlated with preserved gray matter in the same areas. In contrast, higher education predicted preserved white matter in inferior frontal areas. These data suggest that fitness and education may both be predictive of preserved cognitive function in aging through separable effects on brain structure. PMID:18627534

  13. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Trivedi, Malav S; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W.; Trivedi, Malav S.; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  15. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions.

  16. The Role of Social Activity in Age-Cognition Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to examine whether engaging in social activity may moderate or mediate the relation between age and cognitive functioning. A large age range sample of adults performed a variety of cognitive tests and completed a social activities questionnaire. Results did not support the moderator hypothesis, as age…

  17. School-Age Ideas and Activities for After School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas-Foletta, Karen; Cogley, Michele

    This guide describes activities for school-age children in after-school day care programs. These activities may also be used in other settings. An introductory section discusses program philosophy, room arrangement, multicultural curriculum, program scheduling, summer programs and holiday care, field trips and special programs, age grouping,…

  18. An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Ross D; Carter, Scott; Velloso, Cristiana P; Duggal, Niharika A; Lord, Janet M; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing. This is probably due to a number of confounding factors, particularly in studies of a cross-sectional nature. These include inter-subject genetic variation, as well as inter-generational differences in nutrition, healthcare and insufficient levels of physical activity as well as other environmental factors. We have studied a cohort of highly and homogeneously active older male (n = 84) and female (n = 41) cyclists aged 55–79 years who it is proposed represent a model for the study of human ageing free from the majority of confounding factors, especially inactivity. The aim of the study was to identify physiological markers of ageing by assessing the relationship between function and age across a wide range of indices. Each participant underwent a detailed physiological profiling which included measures of cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, metabolic, endocrine and cognitive functions, bone strength, and health and well-being. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption ( showed the closest association with age (r = −0.443 to −0.664; P < 0.001), but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that even when many confounding variables are removed the relationship between function and healthy ageing is complex and likely to be highly individualistic and that physical activity levels must be taken into account in ageing studies. Key Points The relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly defined and there are no physiological markers that can be used to reliably predict the age of an individual. This could be due to a variety of confounding

  19. Above-Level Test Item Functioning across Examinee Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; Doty, Kristine J.; Malbica, Anne Marie; Angeles, Victor R.; Innes, Scott; Hall, Jared; Masterson-Nixon, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    "Above-level testing" (also called "above-grade testing," "out-of-level testing," and "off-level testing") is the practice of administering to a child a test that is designed for an examinee population that is older or in a more advanced grade. Above-level testing is frequently used to help educators design…

  20. Active and Successful Aging: A European Policy Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Liam; Walker, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, “active aging” has emerged in Europe as the foremost policy response to the challenges of population aging. This article examines the concept of active aging and how it differs from that of “successful aging.” In particular, it shows how active aging presents a more holistic, life course–oriented approach than successful aging. We provide a critical perspective on active aging too by, first, tracing its emergence in Europe and then showing how, in practice, it has been dominated by a narrow economic or productivist perspective that prioritizes the extension of working life. It has also been gender blind. Nonetheless, it is argued that an active aging approach has the potential to enable countries to respond successfully to the challenges of population aging because of its comprehensive focus and emphasis on societal as well as individual responsibility. Finally, we set out the basic principles that need to be followed if the full potential of active aging is to be achieved. PMID:24846882

  1. Food for Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Ajmone Marsan, Paolo; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Masoero, Francesco; Miggiano, Giacinto; Morelli, Lorenzo; Moro, Daniele; Rossi, Filippo; Sckokai, Paolo; Trevisi, Erminio

    2014-01-01

    The link between diet and health has been recognized since the Grecian period; as Hippocrates said, "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food". Although the primary goals of diet are meeting nutritional requirements and providing energy, there is increasing awareness that a correct and balanced diet may prevent the insurgence of diet-related pathologies and/or improve well-being and life expectancy, also reflecting on the ageing process. Research on the interaction among nutrients, gut microbiota and host metabolism is presently unravelling the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive and negative effects of traditional diets on health and ageing, providing useful information for the design of innovative foods targeting specific needs and segments of the population. The food supply chain plays a key role in ensuring quality and safety through both comprehensive quality management and inspection systems and a focused innovation process mainly devoted to the creation of functional foods. However, innovation and scientific development pose a problem of information asymmetry towards final consumers; thus, regulatory aspects and private and public communication strategies must be efficiently developed.

  2. [Activity, physical and psychological mobility in old age].

    PubMed

    Voelcker-Rehage, C; Godde, B; Staudinger, U M

    2006-06-01

    Old age and aging are accompanied by a number of physical and mental changes. However, these so-called age-dependent processes are not exclusively genetically determined or irreversible but can be partially delayed, prevented, or compensated and some can even be reversed. The goal of this article is to highlight the plasticity, or the "mobility", of physical and mental aging. We will point out in what respects an appropriate lifestyle or purposeful interventions can positively influence the reserve capacity of aging human beings and the aging process. Using the example of physical activity, we will illustrate how we can influence physiological development, cognitive performance, longevity, as well as the development and the occurrence of chronic diseases. Additionally, it is shown that cognitive development is malleable as well. It is facilitated or debilitated by behavior and activity-this covers not only cognitive but also physical activity. It is our particular concern to demonstrate the close interconnectedness of body and mind.

  3. Analysis of newspaper coverage of active aging through the lens of the 2002 World Health Organization Active Ageing Report: A Policy Framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Boushra; Wolbring, Gregor

    2013-12-05

    As populations continue to grow older, efforts to support the process of aging well are important goals. Various synonyms are used to cover aging well, such as active aging. The World Health Organization published in 2002 the report Active Ageing: A Policy Framework that according to the call for papers, has brought active ageing to the forefront of international public health awareness. The 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action was singled out in the call for papers as a key document promoting physical activity one goal of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework. Media are to report to the public topics of importance to them. We investigated the newspaper coverage of aging well and synonymous terms such as active aging through the lens of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. As sources we used the following newspapers: China Daily, The Star (Malaysia), two UK newspapers (The Guardian, The Times), a database of 300 Canadian newspapers (Canadian Newsstand) and a US newspaper (The New York Times). The study generated data answering the following four research questions: (1) how often are the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity mentioned; (2) how often is the topic of active aging and terms conveying similar content (aging well, healthy aging, natural aging and successful aging) discussed; (3) which of the issues flagged as important in the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity are covered in the newspaper coverage of active aging and synonymous terms; (4) which social groups were mentioned in the newspapers covered. The study found a total absence of mentioning of the two key documents and a low level of coverage of "active aging" and terms conveying similar content. It found further a lack of engagement with the issues raised in the two key documents and a low level of

  4. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001), possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  5. [Determinants of active aging according to quality of life and gender].

    PubMed

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-07-01

    The scope of this study was to construct an indicator of active aging and assess its association with quality of life and possible determinants according to gender. The AGEQOL (Aging, Gender and Quality of Life) study was used to interview 2052 individuals aged 60 years and older residing in Sete Lagoas in the State of Minas Gerais. The association between active aging, quality of life and possible determinants was performed by multiple logistic regression with a 5% level of statistical significance separately for each gender. Most men were in the active aging group (58%), and 51.8% of women were in the normal aging group (p < 0.001). The quality of life in the Physical, Psychological, and total Score domains remained associated with the outcome in the final model for both genders. Among the men, the behavioral and community participation factors were positive predictors of active aging. Women with higher incomes, who did not suffer falls and engaged in community participation, had a better chance of belonging to the active aging group. The conclusion drawn is that quality of life and participation in groups are the main determinants of active aging, and the other factors associated with active aging are different for each gender.

  6. Age mediation of frontoparietal activation during visual feature search.

    PubMed

    Madden, David J; Parks, Emily L; Davis, Simon W; Diaz, Michele T; Potter, Guy G; Chou, Ying-hui; Chen, Nan-kuei; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-11-15

    Activation of frontal and parietal brain regions is associated with attentional control during visual search. We used fMRI to characterize age-related differences in frontoparietal activation in a highly efficient feature search task, detection of a shape singleton. On half of the trials, a salient distractor (a color singleton) was present in the display. The hypothesis was that frontoparietal activation mediated the relation between age and attentional capture by the salient distractor. Participants were healthy, community-dwelling individuals, 21 younger adults (19-29 years of age) and 21 older adults (60-87 years of age). Top-down attention, in the form of target predictability, was associated with an improvement in search performance that was comparable for younger and older adults. The increase in search reaction time (RT) associated with the salient distractor (attentional capture), standardized to correct for generalized age-related slowing, was greater for older adults than for younger adults. On trials with a color singleton distractor, search RT increased as a function of increasing activation in frontal regions, for both age groups combined, suggesting increased task difficulty. Mediational analyses disconfirmed the hypothesized model, in which frontal activation mediated the age-related increase in attentional capture, but supported an alternative model in which age was a mediator of the relation between frontal activation and capture.

  7. Active Ageing: An Empirical Approach to the WHO Model

    PubMed Central

    Paúl, Constança; Ribeiro, Oscar; Teixeira, Laetitia

    2012-01-01

    Background. In the beginning of the 21st century, the world summit on population taking place in Madrid approved active ageing, WHO (2002) as the main objective of health and social policies for old people. Few studies have been done on the scientific validity of the construct. This study aims to validate the construct of active ageing and test empirically the WHO (2002) model of Active Ageing in a sample of community-dwelling seniors. Methods. 1322 old people living in the community were interviewed using an extensive assessment protocol to measure WHO's determinants of active ageing and performed an exploratory factor analysis followed by a confirmatory factor analyses. Results. We did not confirm the active ageing model, as most of the groups of determinants are either not independent or not significant. We got to a six-factor model (health, psychological component, cognitive performance, social relationships, biobehavioural component, and personality) explaining 54.6% of total variance. Conclusion. The present paper shows that there are objective as well as subjective variables contributing to active ageing and that psychological variables seem to give a very important contribute to the construct. The profile of active ageing is expected to vary between contexts and cultures and can be used to guide specific community and individually based interventions. PMID:23193396

  8. Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Active Aging through the Lens of the 2002 World Health Organization Active Ageing Report: A Policy Framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Boushra; Wolbring, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    As populations continue to grow older, efforts to support the process of aging well are important goals. Various synonyms are used to cover aging well, such as active aging. The World Health Organization published in 2002 the report Active Ageing: A Policy Framework that according to the call for papers, has brought active ageing to the forefront of international public health awareness. The 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action was singled out in the call for papers as a key document promoting physical activity one goal of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework. Media are to report to the public topics of importance to them. We investigated the newspaper coverage of aging well and synonymous terms such as active aging through the lens of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. As sources we used the following newspapers: China Daily, The Star (Malaysia), two UK newspapers (The Guardian, The Times), a database of 300 Canadian newspapers (Canadian Newsstand) and a US newspaper (The New York Times). The study generated data answering the following four research questions: (1) how often are the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity mentioned; (2) how often is the topic of active aging and terms conveying similar content (aging well, healthy aging, natural aging and successful aging) discussed; (3) which of the issues flagged as important in the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity are covered in the newspaper coverage of active aging and synonymous terms; (4) which social groups were mentioned in the newspapers covered. The study found a total absence of mentioning of the two key documents and a low level of coverage of “active aging” and terms conveying similar content. It found further a lack of engagement with the issues raised in the two key documents and a low level

  9. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Conclusion Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in

  10. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  11. An Aging Game Simulation Activity for Allied Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  12. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  13. An Improved Stellar Age-Activity Relationship For Ages Beyond a Gigayear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Rachel; Poppenhaeger, Katja

    2016-09-01

    When the first bio-marker in an exoplanetary atmosphere is found, it will most likely be found in a planet orbiting an inactive, old nearby star. In order to assess this exoplanet's evolution, we will need to reliably estimate the age of the star, which is notoriously difficult for old field stars. Since Skumanich first presented evidence of a relationship between the rotation and the age of a star there has been much interest in developing a calibrated relationship which can be used to provide an estimate of a star's age. Currently these age-activity relationships are only reliable for ages under a gigayear. My research uses the advancement in asteroseismology which has allowed large samples of solar and late-type stars' ages to be determined and combines these with X-ray data from which I measure the stellar activity in order to derive a new and improved age-activity relationship for stars with ages greater than a gigayear.

  14. Correlates of low-level lead exposure in urban children at 2 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Rabinowitz, M.; Needleman, H.; Waternaux, C.

    1986-06-01

    The blood lead levels of a large number of US preschool children approach the value regarded as the upper limit of normal. To reduce the number of children whose levels increase into the range thought to be toxic, the antecedents and correlates of levels in the 0- to 25-micrograms/dL range must be identified. In a large longitudinal study of middle and upper-middle class children living in metropolitan Boston, we evaluated how well five sets of variables predicted children's blood lead levels at 2 years of age: environmental lead sources, mouthing activity, home environment/care giving, prior developmental status, and sociodemographic characteristics. A series of bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that only environmental lead sources and, to a lesser extent, mouthing activity accounted for significant portions of the variance in blood lead levels. Environmental lead sources were not significantly related to the home environment/care-giving variables or to sociodemographic characteristics. The most promising approach for achieving community-wide reductions in children's blood lead levels is reduction in the amount of lead in the proximate environment.

  15. Tile-based Level of Detail for the Parallel Age

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Cohen, J D

    2007-08-15

    Today's PCs incorporate multiple CPUs and GPUs and are easily arranged in clusters for high-performance, interactive graphics. We present an approach based on hierarchical, screen-space tiles to parallelizing rendering with level of detail. Adapt tiles, render tiles, and machine tiles are associated with CPUs, GPUs, and PCs, respectively, to efficiently parallelize the workload with good resource utilization. Adaptive tile sizes provide load balancing while our level of detail system allows total and independent management of the load on CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate our approach on parallel configurations consisting of both single PCs and a cluster of PCs.

  16. Movement Planning Reflects Skill Level and Age Changes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; Von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later.…

  17. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M.; Alosco, Michael L.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M.; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n = 29, age 18–31 years) and older adults (n = 31, ages 55–82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults. PMID:26581790

  18. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Ming; Lein, Shi-Ying; Lau, Siok-Hwa; Lai, Ming-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above) in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96) indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population.

  19. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Ming; Lein, Shi-Ying; Lau, Siok-Hwa; Lai, Ming-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above) in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96) indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population. PMID:27293889

  20. Caffeine reverses cognitive impairment and decreases brain amyloid-beta levels in aged Alzheimer's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Arendash, Gary W; Mori, Takashi; Cao, Chuanhai; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Runfeldt, Melissa; Dickson, Alexander; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Tane, Jun; Citron, Bruce A; Lin, Xiaoyang; Echeverria, Valentina; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    We have recently shown that Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice given a moderate level of caffeine intake (the human equivalent of 5 cups of coffee per day) are protected from development of otherwise certain cognitive impairment and have decreased hippocampal amyloid-beta (Abeta) levels due to suppression of both beta-secretase (BACE1) and presenilin 1 (PS1)/gamma-secretase expression. To determine if caffeine intake can have beneficial effects in "aged" APPsw mice already demonstrating cognitive impairment, we administered caffeine in the drinking water of 18-19 month old APPsw mice that were impaired in working memory. At 4-5 weeks into caffeine treatment, those impaired transgenic mice given caffeine (Tg/Caff) exhibited vastly superior working memory compared to the continuing impairment of control transgenic mice. In addition, Tg/Caff mice had substantially reduced Abeta deposition in hippocampus (decrease 40%) and entorhinal cortex (decrease 46%), as well as correlated decreases in brain soluble Abeta levels. Mechanistically, evidence is provided that caffeine suppression of BACE1 involves the cRaf-1/NFkappaB pathway. We also determined that caffeine concentrations within human physiological range effectively reduce active and total glycogen synthase kinase 3 levels in SweAPP N2a cells. Even with pre-existing and substantial Abeta burden, aged APPsw mice exhibited memory restoration and reversal of AD pathology, suggesting a treatment potential of caffeine in cases of established AD.

  1. Small molecule SIRT1 activators for the treatment of aging and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Basil P.; Sinclair, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in mice have identified single molecules that can delay multiple diseases of aging and extend lifespan. In theory, such molecules could prevent dozens of diseases simultaneously, significantly extending healthy years of life. In this review we discuss recent advances, controversies, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the development of SIRT1 activators, molecules with the potential to delay aging and age-related diseases. Sirtuins comprise a family of NAD+-dependent deacylases that are central to the body’s response to diet and exercise. New studies indicate that both natural and synthetic sirtuin activating compounds (STACs) work via a common allosteric mechanism to stimulate sirtuin activity, thereby conferring broad health benefits in rodents, primates, and possibly humans. The fact that the two-thirds of people in the USA who consume multiple dietary supplements consume resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, underscores the importance of understanding the biochemical mechanism, physiological effects, and safety of STACs. PMID:24439680

  2. Behavioral activating effects of adrafinil in aged canines.

    PubMed

    Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Woehrlé, F; Schneider, M; Muggenburg, B A; Murphey, H L; Callahan, H; Milgram, N W

    2000-06-01

    Adrafinil, a vigilance enhancing pharmaceutical, was administered to aged dogs for 14 consecutive days at doses of 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg using a crossover design. The effects on spontaneous behavior in a 10-min canine open-field test were systematically recorded every fourth day, starting with day 1 of treatment. The open field tests were given 2 or 10 h following oral administration of capsules containing either adrafinil or lactose, the placebo control. Adrafinil caused an increase in locomotor activity at the three highest doses at both the 2- and 10-h intervals and during both the first (days 1 and 5) and second treatment week (days 9 and 13). Adrafinil also caused a transient increase in directed sniffing. At the highest dose level, adrafinil caused a decrease in urination frequency. The increased locomotion was generally unaccompanied by stereotypical behavior in the test session. There was some variability; a subpopulation of animals showed either no effect, or decreased locomotion. The individual differences were correlated with changes in serum levels of adrafinil 10 h following treatment.

  3. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Middle-aged rats orally supplemented with gel-encapsulated catechin favorably increases blood cytosolic NADPH levels.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-04-15

    Green tea catechins are primarily known to function as free radical scavengers and have several beneficial uses. Orally supplemented catechin (OSC) was previously shown to increase mitochondrial heme and catalase levels in rat heart blood, however, its effect in the cytosol has not been elucidated. Here, we determined the effects of OSC in the rat heart blood cytosol. We used middle-aged (40 week-old) and young (4 week-old) rats throughout the study. We isolated blood cytosol, verified its purity, and determined heme, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, catalase (CAT) activities, gp91(phox) amounts, NADP and NAD pools, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and free fatty acids (FFA). We established that OSC is associated with decreased heme-dependent H2O2 amounts while increasing heme-independent CAT activity. Moreover, we found that OSC-related decrease in NAD(+) amounts among middle-aged rats is associated to increased NADPH levels and SIRT1 activity. In contrast, we associated OSC-related decrease in NAD(+) amounts among young rats to decreased NADPH levels and increased SIRT1 activity. This highlights a major difference between catechin-treated middle-aged and young rats. Furthermore, we observed that cytosolic FFA and GR levels were significantly increased only among OSC-treated middle-aged rats which we hypothesize are related to increased NADPH levels. This insinuates that OSC treatment allows higher catechin amounts to enter the bloodstream of middle-aged rats. We propose that this would favorably increase NADPH amounts and lead to the simultaneous decrease in NADPH-related pro-oxidant activity and increase in NADPH-related biomolecules and anti-oxidant activities.

  5. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  6. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  7. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Improves Aged and UV-Irradiated Skin by Catalase Induction

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Se-Rah; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation stimulates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, whose expression is decreased in aged human skin. Here we investigated the expression of PPARα in aged and ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin, and whether PPARα activation can modulate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and procollagen through catalase regulation. We found that PPARα mRNA level was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged and photoaged human skin as well as in UV-irradiated skin. A PPARα activator, Wy14643, inhibited UV-induced increase of MMP-1 and decrease of procollagen expression and caused marked increase in catalase expression. Furthermore, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was suppressed by Wy14643 in UV-irradiated and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the PPARα activation-induced upregulation of catalase leads to scavenging of ROS produced due to UV irradiation or aging. PPARα knockdown decreased catalase expression and abolished the beneficial effects of Wy14643. Topical application of Wy14643 on hairless mice restored catalase activity and prevented MMP-13 and inflammatory responses in skin. Our findings indicate that PPARα activation triggers catalase expression and ROS scavenging, thereby protecting skin from UV-induced damage and intrinsic aging. PMID:27611371

  8. Protective Role of Educational Level on Episodic Memory Aging: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…

  9. Everyday activity patterns and sensory functioning in old age.

    PubMed

    Marsiske, M; Klumb, P; Baltes, M M

    1997-09-01

    In the present study the authors investigated the relationship between visual and auditory acuity and everyday activity functioning. Participants were 516 older adults (70-103 years; equal numbers of men and women) who were members of the age-stratified Berlin Aging Study. Two categories of everyday activity functioning, perceived competence with basic activities of daily living (BaCo; basic competence) and amount of participation in discretionary social and leisure tasks (ExCo; expanded competence), were examined. The results revealed that sensory acuity, particularly vision, was a significant predictor of both BaCo and ExCo (rs ranging from .32 to .47). Indeed, hearing and vision could explain most of the age-related variance in everyday activities. At the same time, in the context of a broader model, evidence for the differential prediction of BaCo and ExCo was found, although there was also evidence for strong general age-related predictive variance that was common to both measures. Discussion focuses on the role of sensory acuity constructs as mediators of age-related variance in psychological and behavioral outcomes and the potential causal implications of this mediation.

  10. Effect of aging on thyroidal and pituitary T4-5'-deiodinase activity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Correa da Costa, V M; Rosenthal, D

    1996-01-01

    Some alterations in hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis occur during aging. In this study we evaluated the changes induced by aging in pituitary and thyroid iodothyronine-deiodinase (DI) activities, and in serum T4, T3 and TSH. Groups of 6-18 female Dutch-Miranda rats aged 3-5 months (young adults) were studied in parallel with similar groups of old (10-12 months) and senescent (24-30 months) animals. DI activities were determined in the microsomal fraction of pooled pituitary or thyroid glands (6 glands per pool), using T4 as substrate and DTT as cofactor; the T3 formed was measured by specific radioimmunoassay. Serum T3, T4 and TSH were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. Serum T4 was significantly decreased in both groups of aged rats, but serum TSH was unaffected. Serum T3 was just slightly decreased in the senescent rats. Total pituitary DI activity was significantly decreased in the aged rats (10-12 and 24-30 months). Both type I and type II DI activities were affected, although the decrease in type I DI only became significant in the senescent rats. In contrast, to its effect in the pituitary, aging does not decrease, even slightly, the DI activity in the thyroid gland. The thyroid DI activity may contribute to the unaltered serum T3 levels found in aged rats in the present study.

  11. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  12. Up-regulating telomerase and tumor suppressors: focusing on anti-aging interventions at the population level.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bertoldi, Daniel; Larangeira, Martin; Wagner, Mônica Silveira

    2014-02-01

    Most human populations are undergoing a demographic transition regarding their age structure. This transition is reflected in chronic non-communicable diseases featuring among the main contributors to burden of disease. Considering that the aging process is a major risk factor for such conditions, understanding the mechanisms underlying aging and age-related diseases is critical to develop strategies to impact human health at population and/or individual-levels. Two different aspects of aging process (namely, telomere shortening and DNA damage accumulation) were shown to interact in positively impacting mice median survival. However, strategies aimed at translating such knowledge into actual human health benefits have not yet been discussed. In this manuscript, we present potential exposures that are suited for population-level interventions, and contextualize the roles of population (based on behavioral exposures) and individual-level (based on small-molecule administration) anti-aging interventions in different levels of disease prevention. We suggest that exposures such as moderate wine consumption, reducing calorie intake and active lifestyle are potentially useful for primordial and primary prevention, while small-molecules that activate telomerase and/or tumor suppression responses are more suited for secondary and tertiary prevention (although important for primary prevention in specific population subgroups). We also indicate the need of studying the impacts, on aging and age-related diseases, of different combinations of these exposures in well-conducted randomized controlled trials, and propose Mendelian randomization as a valuable alternative to gather information in human populations regarding the effects of potential anti-aging interventions.

  13. Cultivating social work leadership in health promotion and aging: strategies for active aging interventions.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Victor W; Altpeter, Mary

    2005-05-01

    The rapid growth of the population of older adults and their concomitant physical status and health needs have captured the attention, collaboration, and funding support of an array of leaders in the fields of aging and health care. To help fill the void of literature available to social workers interested in health promotion and aging, the authors provide a conceptual clarification of the meaning of health and explain how health is a resource for optimal living and not merely the absence of disease. The authors analyze frameworks of health promotion and suggest that the ecological approach provides the ideal framework for devising successful strategies in the area of aging. Finally, using the example of promoting physical activity as a healthy aging strategy, they detail eight ways that social workers can provide leadership in promoting positive health in later life.

  14. Effects of aging on the plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIANG-BO; NISHIDA, MIYUKI; KAIMOTO, KAORI; ASAKAWA, AKIHIRO; CHAOLU, HUHE; CHENG, KAI-CHUN; LI, YING-XIAO; TERASHI, MUTSUMI; KOYAMA, KEN ICHIRO; AMITANI, HARUKA; SAKOGUCHI, TAKEO; USHIKAI, MIHARU; IKEDA, SATOSHI; AOYAMA, KOHJI; HORIUCHI, MASAHISA; LI, JIAN-ZHONG; INUI, AKIO

    2014-01-01

    Gastric and adipose tissue secrete a number of hormones that are involved in energy metabolism. The biological functions of these hormones, including their effects on aging, are currently under investigation. Adiponectin was shown to be directly involved in appetite and the control of body weight. However, the effects of aging of nesfatin-1, an appetite-suppressing peptide that was recently identified, have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aging on the plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin. Our results demonstrated no significant differences in the nesfatin-1 plasma levels among three age groups (2, 6 and 24 months) of female BALB/c mice. The plasma nesfatin-1 levels/visceral fat (VF) ratio in the 24-month-old mice was significantly lower compared to that in the 2- and 6-month-old mice. In addition, there were no significant differences in the plasma adiponectin levels among the three age groups. The plasma adiponectin levels/VF ratio in the 24-month-old mice was significantly lower compared to that in the 2- and 6-month-old mice. In conclusion, there were no age-related changes in the plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin, although the ratio of plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin per VF was decreased with advancing age. Our results indicated that nesfatin-1 and adiponectin may be involved in controlling energy balance during aging. PMID:24649088

  15. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Bactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Upregulating Classical Activation Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, Heather S.; López-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-10-07

    Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3–4 months) and aged (14–15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice

  16. Aging enhances the production of reactive oxygen species and bactericidal activity in peritoneal macrophages by upregulating classical activation pathways.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Heather S; López-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C

    2011-11-15

    Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3-4 months) and aged (14-15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice

  17. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  18. Sources of Continuity and Change in Activity Level in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    Actigraphs and parent and observer ratings were used to explore genetic influences on continuity and change in activity level (AL) in early childhood. Over 300 pairs of twins wore actigraphs for a 48-hr period in the home and laboratory at ages 2 and 3. AL was genetically influenced at both ages with little evidence of differential heritability…

  19. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  20. Activation of the immune response is a key feature of aging in mice.

    PubMed

    Brink, Thore C; Regenbrecht, Christian; Demetrius, Lloyd; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James

    2009-12-01

    The process of aging is complex involving numerous factors centered on transcriptional changes with advanced age. This study was aimed at elucidating mechanisms involved in mouse aging by conducting both gene expression and biochemical analyses on isolated mouse brain, heart and kidney. The gene expression analysis was not aimed at solely highlighting age-related transcriptional changes but also revealing regulated biological processes, cellular compartments, signaling and metabolic pathways. We have uncovered a conserved increase in the expression of genes mediating immune responses in all the tissues analyzed. In addition, elevated levels of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO)—an indicator of increased levels of radical oxygen species, implicate an oxidative stress-mediated activity of NF-kB signaling. In summary, these results suggest that transcriptional changes are most probably the downstream effect of environmental and endogenous factors constantly affecting the organism during its lifetime. In addition, we propose LPO as a potential biomarker of aging.

  1. Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity and structural integrity during the aging process in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jian-Ching; Rebrin, Igor; Klichko, Vladimir; Orr, William C.; Sohal, Rajindar S.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity during the aging process. {yields} Abundance of seven nuclear-encoded subunits of cytochrome c oxidase decreased with age in Drosophila. {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase is specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration. -- Abstract: The hypothesis, that structural deterioration of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity and an increase in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation, was tested in Drosophila melanogaster. CcO activity and the levels of seven different nuclear DNA-encoded CcO subunits were determined at three different stages of adult life, namely, young-, middle-, and old-age. CcO activity declined progressively with age by 33%. Western blot analysis, using antibodies specific to Drosophila CcO subunits IV, Va, Vb, VIb, VIc, VIIc, and VIII, indicated that the abundance these polypeptides decreased, ranging from 11% to 40%, during aging. These and previous results suggest that CcO is a specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration, which may have a broad impact on mitochondrial physiology.

  2. Altered MCM Protein Levels and Autophagic Flux in Aged and Systemic Sclerosis Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Dumit, Verónica I.; Küttner, Victoria; Käppler, Jakob; Piera-Velazquez, Sonsoles; Jimenez, Sergio A.; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Uitto, Jouni; Dengjel, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a common risk factor of many disorders. With age, the level of insoluble extracellular matrix increases leading to increased stiffness of a number of tissues. Matrix accumulation can also be observed in fibrotic disorders, such as systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although the intrinsic aging process in skin is phenotypically distinct from SSc, here we demonstrate similar behavior of aged and SSc skin fibroblasts in culture. We have used quantitative proteomics to characterize the phenotype of dermal fibroblasts from healthy subjects of various ages and from patients with SSc. Our results demonstrate that proteins involved in DNA and RNA processing decrease with age and in SSc, while those involved in mitochondrial and other metabolic processes behave the opposite. Specifically, mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase proteins are less abundant with age and SSc, and they exhibit an altered subcellular distribution. We observed that lower levels of MCM7 correlate with reduced cell proliferation, lower autophagic capacity and higher intracellular protein expression phenotypes of aged and SSc cells. Additionally, we show that SSc fibroblasts exhibit higher levels of senescence than their healthy counterparts, suggesting further similarities between the fibrotic disorder and the aging process. Hence, at the molecular level, SSc fibroblasts exhibit intrinsic characteristics of fibroblasts from aged skin. PMID:24496236

  3. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  4. Genetically enhancing mitochondrial antioxidant activity improves muscle function in aging.

    PubMed

    Umanskaya, Alisa; Santulli, Gaetano; Xie, Wenjun; Andersson, Daniel C; Reiken, Steven R; Marks, Andrew R

    2014-10-21

    Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 or greater. Here we tested the effects of increased mitochondrial antioxidant activity on age-dependent skeletal muscle dysfunction using transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of the human catalase gene to mitochondria (MCat mice). Aged MCat mice exhibited improved voluntary exercise, increased skeletal muscle specific force and tetanic Ca(2+) transients, decreased intracellular Ca(2+) leak and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load compared with age-matched wild type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, ryanodine receptor 1 (the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channel required for skeletal muscle contraction; RyR1) from aged MCat mice was less oxidized, depleted of the channel stabilizing subunit, calstabin1, and displayed increased single channel open probability (Po). Overall, these data indicate a direct role for mitochondrial free radicals in promoting the pathological intracellular Ca(2+) leak that underlies age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle function. This study harbors implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, including mitochondria-targeted antioxidants for treatment of mitochondrial myopathies and other healthspan-limiting disorders.

  5. Activity and mortality among aged persons over an eight-year period.

    PubMed

    Lee, D J; Markides, K S

    1990-01-01

    The influence of level of activity examined with data from an eight-year (1976 to 1984) longitudinal study of 508 older Mexican Americans and Anglos. Over the study interval, 119 subjects were confirmed to have died. Activity was a significant predictor of mortality at the univariate level. However, when age, gender, education, marital status, ethnicity, and self-rated health were controlled for in the analysis, activity was not a significant predictor of mortality. The popular notion that an active life among elderly persons might lead to extended longevity was not supported by these data.

  6. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities.

  7. PEDF inhibits AGE-induced podocyte apoptosis via PPAR-gamma activation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Ohta, Keisuke; Tanoue, Ryuichiro; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed at an accelerated rate under diabetes, elicit oxidative and pro-apoptotic reactions in various types of cells, including podocytes, thus being involved in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we, along with others, have found that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a glycoprotein with potent neuronal differentiating activity, inhibits AGE-elicited mesangial and tubular cell damage through its anti-oxidative properties. However, the effects of PEDF on podocyte loss, one of the characteristic features of diabetic nephropathy remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether and how PEDF could protect against AGE-elicited podocyte apoptosis in vitro. AGEs decreased PEDF mRNA level in podocytes, which was blocked by neutralizing antibody raised against receptor for AGEs (RAGE-Ab). PEDF or RAGE-Ab was found to inhibit the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA level, oxidative stress generation and resultant apoptosis in podocytes. All of the beneficial effects of PEDF on AGE-exposed podocytes were blocked by the treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). Further, although PEDF did not affect protein expression levels of PPARγ, it significantly restored the PPARγ transcriptional activity in AGE-exposed podocytes. The present results demonstrated for the first time that PEDF could block the AGE-induced apoptotic cell death of podocytes by suppressing RAGE expression and subsequent ROS generation partly via PPARγ activation. Our present study suggests that substitution of PEDF proteins may be a promising strategy for preventing the podocyte loss in diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys

    2015-01-01

    Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults. PMID:26343690

  9. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys

    2015-08-26

    Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults' preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public 'third' places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults.

  10. Age-Related Variability in Cortical Activity during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius; Morrow, K. Leigh; Moser, Dana; Baylis, Gordon C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the extent of cortical activity during overt picture naming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Participants comprised 20 healthy, adult participants with ages ranging from 20 to 82 years. While undergoing fMRI, participants completed a picture-naming task consisting of 60…

  11. Spontaneous running activity in male rats - Effect of age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Sims, C.; Reaven, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Variations in the intensity and the patterns of spontaneous running activity in wheel cages were studied in male rats aged 7 weeks to one year. Daily running records were obtained for periods of 12 mo, and 24-hour recordings were made for selected runners in order to study variations in running activity during the day. The data indicate that for rats running over two miles/day, the maximum running intensity can be divided into two groups: a group of high achievers running 8 miles/day; and a group of moderate achievers running 4.8 miles/day. For both groups spontaneous activity reached a maximum after 4-5 weeks. An hourly pattern of running activity during the day was identified in rats of increasing age who averaged 9.0, 4.5, 2.6, and 1.2 miles/day, respectively. Progressive losses were observed in both the speed and the duration of spontaneous running as the rats increased in age, with the intensity of exercise falling below 2 miles/day after 7-8 months of age.

  12. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  13. Human Development Program: Level V Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 5. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential Human…

  14. Optimal speech level for speech transmission in a noisy environment for young adults and aged persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hayato; Ota, Ryo; Morimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Hiroshi

    2005-04-01

    Assessing sound environment of classrooms for the aged is a very important issue, because classrooms can be used by the aged for their lifelong learning, especially in the aged society. Hence hearing loss due to aging is a considerable factor for classrooms. In this study, the optimal speech level in noisy fields for both young adults and aged persons was investigated. Listening difficulty ratings and word intelligibility scores for familiar words were used to evaluate speech transmission performance. The results of the tests demonstrated that the optimal speech level for moderate background noise (i.e., less than around 60 dBA) was fairly constant. Meanwhile, the optimal speech level depended on the speech-to-noise ratio when the background noise level exceeded around 60 dBA. The minimum required speech level to minimize difficulty ratings for the aged was higher than that for the young. However, the minimum difficulty ratings for both the young and the aged were given in the range of speech level of 70 to 80 dBA of speech level.

  15. A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase activity in aging cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Balietti, Marta; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Giorgetti, Belinda; Casoli, Tiziana; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Solazzi, Moreno; Platano, Daniela; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Impairment of energy metabolism and an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production seem to play a major role in age-related apoptotic loss of cardiomyocytes. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) is an important marker of the mitochondrial capability to provide an adequate amount of ATP. Moreover, because of its unique redox properties, SDH activity contributes to maintain the reduced state of the ubiquinone pool. Recent reports have shown that ketone body intake improves cardiac metabolic efficiency and exerts a cardioprotective antioxidant action, we therefore performed a cytochemical investigation of SDH activity in cardiomyocytes of late-adult (19-month-old) rats fed for 8 weeks with a medium-chain triglycerides ketogenic diet (MCT-KD). Young, age-matched and old animals fed with a standard chow were used as controls. The overall area of the precipitates (PA) from SDH activity and the area of the SDH-positive mitochondria (MA) were measured. The percent ratios PA/MA and MA/total myocardial tissue area (MA/TA) were the parameters taken into account. We found that PA/MA was significantly higher in young control rats and in MCT-KD-fed rats versus late-adult and old control rats and in young control versus MCT-KD-fed rats. MA/TA of MCT-KD-fed rats was significantly higher versus age-matched and old control rats and tended to be higher versus young control rats; this parameter was significantly higher in young versus old control rats. Thus, MCT-KD intake partially recovers age-related decrease of SDH activity and increases the myocardial area occupied by metabolically active mitochondria. These effects might counteract metabolic alterations leading to apoptosis-induced myocardial atrophy and failure during aging.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among U.S. youth aged 12-15 years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Gahche, Jaime; Fakhouri, Tala; Carroll, Dianna D; Burt, Vicki L; Wang, Chia-Yih; Fulton, Janet E

    2014-05-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2004 and the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey, 2012 In 2012, about 42% of U.S. youth aged 12-15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. The percentage of youth who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness did not differ by race and Hispanic origin, or by family income-to-poverty ratio. The percentage of youth who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness decreased as weight status increased. The percentage of youth aged 12-15 who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness decreased from 52.4% in 1999-2000 to 42.2% in 2012. Physical fitness has been defined as "a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity" (1). Cardiorespiratory fitness is one component of physical fitness and is defined as the "ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel during sustained physical activity and to eliminate fatigue products after supplying fuel" (1). Cardiorespiratory fitness is most often measured by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), which is the maximum capacity of the body to transport and use oxygen during physical activity (2). This report presents the most recent national data on the percentage of youth who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are based on standards that are age- and sex-specific and established based on how fit children need to be for good health.

  17. Chromospheric activity and evolutionary age of the Sun and four solar twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, M.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hempelmann, A.; González-Pérez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: The activity levels of the solar-twin candidates HD 101364 and HD 197027 are measured and compared with the Sun, the known solar twin 18 Sco, and the solar-like star 51 Peg. Furthermore, the absolute ages of these five objects are estimated from their positions in the HR diagram and the evolutionary (relative) age compared with their activity levels. Methods: To represent the activity level of these stars, the Mount Wilson S-indices were used. To obtain consistent ages and evolutionary advance on the main sequence, we used evolutionary tracks calculated with the Cambridge Stellar Evolution Code. Results: From our spectroscopic observations of HD 101364 and HD 197027 and based on the established calibration procedures, the respective Mount Wilson S-indices are determined. We find that the chromospheric activity of both stars is comparable with the present activity level of the Sun and that of 18 Sco, at least for the period in consideration. Furthermore, the absolute age of HD 101364, HD 197027, 51 Peg, and 18 Sco are found to be 7.2, 7.1, 6.1, and 5.1 Gyr, respectively. Conclusions: With the exception of 51 Peg, which has a significantly higher metallicity and a mass higher by about 10% than the Sun, the present Sun and its twins compare relatively well in their activity levels, even though the other twins are somewhat older. Even though 51 Peg has a similar age of 6.1 Gyr, this star is significantly less active. Only when we compare it on a relative age scale (which is about 20% shorter for 51 Peg than for the Sun in absolute terms) and use the higher-than-present long-term SMWO average of 0.18 for the Sun, does the S-index show a good correlation with evolutionary (relative) age. This shows that in the search for a suitably similar solar twin, the relative main-sequence age matters for obtaining a comparable activity level.

  18. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  19. Fish consumption patterns and mercury exposure levels among women of childbearing age in Duval County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Sharleen; Kearney, Greg; Olson, David; Hilliard, Aaron; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of fish containing methylmercury can pose serious health concerns including neurotoxic effects in adults and toxicity to the fetuses of mothers exposed during pregnancy. In the study described in this article, the authors examined fish consumption patterns and measured hair mercury levels of women of childbearing age in a coastal county in Florida. Women from the community participated in a risk factor assessment survey (N = 703). Hair samples (n = 698) were collected and analyzed for mercury. The authors identified 74.8% below detection limit; 25.2% had detectable limits of mercury, while 7% exceeded 1 pg/g. Hair mercury levels increased with fish consumption and age. Race, income, and education levels were also associated with increased hair mercury levels. Women of Asian/Pacific Islander origin had the highest levels. Although reported fish consumption exceeded the recommendations for women of childbearing age, the study population had lower mercury levels than other comparative studies in Florida and at national levels.

  20. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-01-01

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing. PMID:28335475

  1. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing.

    PubMed

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-03-18

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing.

  2. Edited Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Detects an Age-Related Decline in Nonhuman Primate Brain GABA Levels

    PubMed Central

    Killiany, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research had shown a correlation between aging and decreasing Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. However, how GABA level varies with age in the medial portion of the brain has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the GABA level variation with age focusing on the posterior cingulate cortex, which is the “core hub” of the default mode network. In this study, 14 monkeys between 4 and 21 years were recruited, and MEGA-PRESS MRS was performed to measure GABA levels, in order to explore a potential link between aging and GABA. Our results showed that a correlation between age and GABA+/Creatine ratio was at the edge of significance (r = −0.523, p = 0.081). There was also a near-significant trend between gray matter/white matter ratio and the GABA+/Creatine ratio (r = −0.518, p = 0.0848). Meanwhile, the correlation between age and grey matter showed no significance (r = −0.028, p = 0.93). Therefore, age and gray matter/white matter ratio account for different part of R-squared (adjusted R-squared = 0.5187) as independent variables for predicting GABA levels. Adjusted R-squared is about 0.5 for two independent variables. These findings suggest that there is internal neurochemical variation of GABA levels in the nonhuman primates associated with normal aging and structural brain decline. PMID:27660760

  3. Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.

    PubMed

    Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11 IU for every year of age (1 IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve.

  4. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  5. Daily life in very old age: everyday activities as expression of successful living.

    PubMed

    Horgas, A L; Wilms, H U; Baltes, M M

    1998-10-01

    The goals of this article are (a) to describe the daily life of the very old in terms of frequency, duration, variety, and social and physical contexts of activities, and (b) to examine the effects of background variables (e.g., age, sex, residential and marital status, income, and education) on late life activity engagement. A representative sample of 516 adults aged 70-105 was interviewed about their activities using the Yesterday Interview. In contrast to most research on activity engagement, this measurement approach allows for assessment of both the type and context of activities engaged in during the day preceding the interview. The results indicated high frequencies of obligatory activities but also showed substantial time spent in discretionary activities, with television viewing occupying most of the participants' leisure time. Most activities were done alone and at home. In bivariate and multiple regression analyses, age and residential status had the strongest association with activity frequency, duration, and variety; the oldest-old and those residing in long-term care facilities had lower levels of activity engagement. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for successful aging.

  6. Cognitive Levels of Reasoning Among Traditional and Non-Traditional Age College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Joan Thrower; Gross, James R.

    Previous investigations on Piagetian cognitive levels among college students both within and across academic disciplines have not addressed the issue of possible differences in cognitive levels between traditional undergraduates and older returning students. Piagetian cognitive levels were studied among traditional- and nontraditional-age college…

  7. Increased myogenic repressor Id mRNA and protein levels in hindlimb muscles of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Alway, Stephen E; Degens, Hans; Lowe, Dawn A; Krishnamurthy, Gururaj

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if levels of repressors to myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) differ between muscles from young adult and aged animals. Total RNA from plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles of Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats aged 9 mo (young adult, n = 10) and 37 mo (aged, n = 10) was reverse transcribed and then amplified by PCR. To obtain a semiquantitative measure of the mRNA levels, PCR signals were normalized to cyclophilin or 18S signals from the corresponding reverse transcription product. Normalization to cyclophilin and 18S gave similar results. The mRNA levels of MyoD and myogenin were approximately 275-650% (P < 0.001) and approximately 500-1,100% (P < 0.001) greater, respectively, in muscles from aged compared with young adults. In contrast, the protein levels were lower in plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles and similar in the soleus muscle of aged vs. young adult rats. Id repressor mRNA levels were approximately 300-900% greater in fast and slow muscles of aged animals (P < or = 0.02), and Mist 1 mRNA was approximately 50% greater in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles (P < 0.01). The mRNA level of Twist mRNA was not significantly affected by aging. Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 protein levels were approximately 17-740% greater (P < 0.05) in hindlimb muscles of aged rats compared with young adult rats. The elevated levels of Id mRNA and protein suggest that MRF repressors may play a role in gene regulation of fast and slow muscles in aged rats.

  8. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45–95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65–95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45–64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R2 change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R2 change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects. PMID:28321189

  9. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45-95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65-95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45-64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R(2) change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R(2) change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects.

  10. Are self-reported physical activity levels associated with perceived desirability of activity-friendly communities?

    PubMed

    Librett, John J; Yore, Michelle M; Schmid, Thomas L; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-09-01

    People living in activity-friendly communities (AFCs) are more active but the self-selection influence is unknown. From 4856 respondents we explored mediating variables with expressed desire to live in AFCs. Association with desire to live in AFCs included ages 18-24 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.9), African American (OR=1.9) or Hispanic (OR=1.5), and believing AFCs would support activity-based transportation (OR=2.4). Regular physical activity (PA) was marginally associated with desire to live in AFCs (OR=1.3). These findings suggest that PA may be a significant factor in communities of this style. Strategies for social marketing along with changes to the built environment to increase PA levels are discussed.

  11. The effects of physical activity, education, and body mass index on the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Ho, April J; Raji, Cyrus A; Becker, James T; Lopez, Oscar L; Kuller, Lewis H; Hua, Xue; Dinov, Ivo D; Stein, Jason L; Rosano, Caterina; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2011-09-01

    Normal human aging is accompanied by progressive brain tissue loss and cognitive decline; however, several factors are thought to influence brain aging. We applied tensor-based morphometry to high-resolution brain MRI scans to determine whether educational level or physical activity was associated with brain tissue volumes in the elderly, particularly in regions susceptible to age-related atrophy. We mapped the 3D profile of brain volume differences in 226 healthy elderly subjects (130F/96M; 77.9 ± 3.6 SD years) from the Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study. Statistical maps revealed the 3D profile of brain regions whose volumes were associated with educational level and physical activity (based on leisure-time energy expenditure). After controlling for age, sex, and physical activity, higher educational levels were associated with ~2-3% greater tissue volumes, on average, in the temporal lobe gray matter. After controlling for age, sex, and education, greater physical activity was associated with ~2-2.5% greater average tissue volumes in the white matter of the corona radiata extending into the parietal-occipital junction. Body mass index (BMI) was highly correlated with both education and physical activity, so we examined BMI as a contributing factor by including physical activity, education, and BMI in the same model; only BMI effects remained significant. This is one of the largest MRI studies of factors influencing structural brain aging, and BMI may be a key factor explaining the observed relationship between education, physical activity, and brain structure. Independent contributions to brain structure could not be teased apart as all these factors were highly correlated with one another.

  12. Zeatin modulates flower bud development and tocopherol levels in Cistus albidus (L.) plants as they age.

    PubMed

    Hernández, I; Miret, J A; Van Der Kelen, K; Rombaut, D; Van Breusegem, F; Munné-Bosch, S

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that Cistus albidus (L.) experiences an age-dependent decay in flower vigour correlated with a decline in trans-zeatin (tZ) levels. In the present study we aimed to establish a causal relationship between these two phenomena. Exogenous tZ applied to plants grown under semi-controlled conditions did not rescue flower vigour; however, it accelerated flower development, but only in younger individuals. Older plants showed lower tocopherol levels in flower buds, which were restored by exogenous tZ, suggesting that a loss of antioxidant defences may underlie the age-dependent decay in flower vigour. We conclude that declining tZ levels may not be directly responsible for the age-associated loss of floral vigour; that tZ modulates the speed of flower development as plants age; and that flower buds alter their sensitivity to tZ as plants age.

  13. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Aged Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Kang, Mi Young; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Fresh ginseng roots were aged in an oven at 80°C for 14 d. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of this aged ginseng, in comparison with those of the white and red ginsengs, were evaluated. In in vitro antioxidant assays, the ethanolic extracts from aged ginseng showed significantly higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power than those of the white and red ginsengs. In in vivo antioxidant assays, mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with white, red, or aged ginseng powders. High fat feeding resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a substantial decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals. However, diet supplementation of ginseng powders, particularly aged ginseng, markedly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activities. The results illustrate that the aged ginseng has greater in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity than the white and red ginsengs. The aged ginseng also showed considerably higher total saponin, phenolic, and flavonoid contents, indicating that its antioxidant capacity may have been partly due to its high levels of antioxidant compounds. This new ginseng product may be useful as a functional food with strong antioxidant potential. PMID:27069902

  15. Functional and morphological adaptations to aging in knee extensor muscles of physically active men.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Borges, Marcelo Krás; Jinha, Azim; Herzog, Walter; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2013-10-01

    It is not known if a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is sufficient to combat age-related muscle and strength loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the maintenance of a physically active lifestyle prevents muscle impairments due to aging. To address this issue, we evaluated 33 healthy men with similar physical activity levels (IPAQ = 2) across a large range of ages. Functional (torque-angle and torque-velocity relations) and morphological (vastus lateralis muscle architecture) properties of the knee extensor muscles were assessed and compared between three age groups: young adults (30 ± 6 y), middle-aged subjects (50 ± 7 y) and elderly subjects (69 ± 5 y). Isometric peak torques were significantly lower (30% to 36%) in elderly group subjects compared with the young adults. Concentric peak torques were significantly lower in the middle aged (18% to 32%) and elderly group (40% to 53%) compared with the young adults. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicles lengths were significantly smaller in the elderly group subjects (15.8 ± 3.9 mm; 99.1 ± 25.8 mm) compared with the young adults (19.8 ± 3.6 mm; 152.1 ± 42.0 mm). These findings suggest that a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is not sufficient to avoid loss of strength and muscle mass with aging.

  16. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  17. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    screening tool to assess active aging levels among older Thai adults in both community and clinical practice settings. PMID:25092971

  18. Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Kimberley; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the level of their EP (low versus high), were tested on…

  19. Multiple unit activity recorded longitudinally in rats from pubescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Malmo, H P; Malmo, R B

    1982-01-01

    Longitudinal multiple unit activity (MUA) recordings of excellent quality over time periods as long as 26 months are described. The validity of the method was demonstrated by showing persistence of specific and idiosyncratic MUA responses to controlled sensory stimulation over these long time periods. This longitudinal MUA method was used to study level of localization neuronal activity as a function of aging. In agreement with deoxyglucose data from Sokoloff's laboratory, we found significant age-related declines in inferior and superior colliculi. In addition, our results showed the advantage of a longitudinal method over a cross-sectional one in following progressive changes into old age. The further declines in midbrain MUA level (though not in forebrain level) from middle age to old age that we observed were highly significant. The deoxyglucose method, on the other hand, had failed to show this kind of progression in those midbrain sites, probably because of a survival effect, a common sampling artifact in cross-sectional studies of aging.

  20. Plantar pressures during level walking compared with other ambulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, S; Lundquist, K; Cornwall, M W; McPoil, T G

    1994-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude of plantar pressures during level walking in comparison to other activities. These activities included climbing up stairs, going down stairs, a simple pivot while walking, and a crossover pivot while walking in normal individuals. Twelve volunteers, six men and six women, mean age 28 years, served as subjects. Data were collected on the dominant foot with an EMED-SF pressure sensor platform as each subject walked barefoot and did each of the five activities. Maximum plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure-time integral (PTI) was found in the metatarsal and heel regions. The results of repeated-measures analysis of variance tests showed that the five experimental conditions were statistically different for both MPP and PTI in the metatarsal and heel regions. Post hoc analysis indicated that MPP and PTI were decreased during the going down stairs condition in the heel and increased during the crossover pivot while walking and pivot while walking conditions for the metatarsal region.

  1. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  2. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Hendrik P N; Charbel Issa, Peter; Walier, Maja; Janzer, Stefanie; Pollok-Kopp, Beatrix; Börncke, Florian; Fritsche, Lars G; Chong, Ngaihang V; Fimmers, Rolf; Wienker, Thomas; Holz, Frank G; Weber, Bernhard H F; Oppermann, Martin

    2008-07-02

    Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112) and controls (n = 67). Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH), factor B-C2 (BF-C2) and complement C3 (C3) genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (p<0.001), were significantly elevated in AMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  3. Age, but not anthelmintic treatment, is associated with urinary neopterin levels in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nadine; Heistermann, Michael; Strube, Christina; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Studying host parasite interactions and their implications for evolution and ecology recently received increasing attention, particularly with regard to host physiology and immunity. Here we assess variation of urinary neopterin (uNEO), a marker of cellular immune activation and iummunosenescence, in response to age and anthelmintic treatment in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Urinary NEO levels were measured via enzyme-immunoassay from 179 urine samples of 43 individuals between 5–29 years of age. Efficiency of treatment was assessed by Mc Master flotation on repeated faecal samples, including 18 untreated individuals as control group. We used linear mixed models with age and parasite status as main effects, controlling for sex and physical condition, assessed through urinary C-Peptide-levels, with social group and ID as random factors. Urinary NEO levels significantly increased with age, suggesting that changes in aging Barbary macaque immune responses are consistent with immunosenescence described in human and nonhuman primates and can be detected via uNEO measurements. Anthelmintic treatment, however, had no influence on uNEO levels, potentially due to quick reinfections or attenuated immune responses in repeated infections. We conclude that uNEO is a potential non-invasive marker for immune function and particularly immunosenescence in wildlife. PMID:28155915

  4. Activity Level, Organization, and Social-Emotional Behaviors in Post-Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlec, Mary Beth; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2002-01-01

    Compared activity and behaviors of 36- to 82-month-olds adopted from Romanian orphanages and with varying lengths of institutionalization (more than 6 months or less than 2 months) with those of age- and gender-matched American-born control groups. Found that each Romanian group exhibited more problems in activity level, organization, and…

  5. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  6. Effects of age, signal level, and signal rate on the auditory middle latency response.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D A; Ruth, R A

    1996-04-01

    The effects of age, signal rate, and signal level on the maturing auditory middle latency response (AMLR) were evaluated in 50 normal-hearing subjects ranging in age from 2 days to 35 years. Ipsilateral and contralateral AMLR waveforms were recorded in newborns (n = 10), children (n = 10), preteens (n = 10), teens (n = 10), and adults (n = 10). The AMLR Pa waveform was obtained in 70 to 100 percent of all subjects. The variables of age, signal level, and site of recording significantly affected Pa peak amplitude and absolute latency. However, stimulus rate did not significantly affect the response.

  7. Age-Related Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Career Firefighters: Modification by Physical Activity and Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Baur, Dorothee M; Christophi, Costas A; Cook, E Francis; Kales, Stefanos N

    2012-01-01

    Firefighting is a very hazardous occupation, and strenuous fire duties require high levels of physical fitness. In the general adult population, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) declines with aging. We sought to investigate the effect of increasing age on CRF in male career firefighters as well as the modifying effects of physical activity and adiposity. We cross-sectionally examined 804 male career firefighters from two Midwestern states. CRF was determined from symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise testing in metabolic equivalents (METS) following the Bruce protocol. Physical activity self-reports were extracted from responses to a health and lifestyle questionnaire. We found as expected that CRF declines with advancing age; however, the decline is greatly attenuated among leaner firefighters who report more physical activity. Furthermore, in a linear regression model including age, BMI, and variables describing physical activity behaviors, we could predict CRF (R(2) = 0.6286). The total weekly duration of aerobic exercise as well as the duration of weight lifting sessions both had significant impacts on age-related decline. We conclude that firefighters are more likely to maintain the high levels of CRF needed to safely perform their duties if they engage in frequent exercise and maintain healthy weights.

  8. Perceptions of Aging across 26 Cultures and their Culture-Level Associates

    PubMed Central

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Fruyt, Filip; Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Juri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana. V.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Benet-Martinez, Veronica; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Lima, Margarida P.; Ficková, Emília; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Martin, Thomas. A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Pramila, V.S.; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Jerome; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Smith, Peter B.; Szmigielska, Barbara; Wang, Lei; Yamaguchi, Mami; Yik, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    College students (N = 3,435) in 26 cultures reported their perceptions of age-related changes in physical, cognitive, and socioemotional areas of functioning and rated societal views of aging within their culture. There was widespread cross-cultural consensus regarding the expected direction of aging trajectories with (1) perceived declines in societal views of aging, physical attractiveness, the ability to perform everyday tasks, and new learning, (2) perceived increases in wisdom, knowledge, and received respect, and (3) perceived stability in family authority and life satisfaction. Cross-cultural variations in aging perceptions were associated with culture-level indicators of population aging, education levels, values, and national character stereotypes. These associations were stronger for societal views on aging and perceptions of socioemotional changes than for perceptions of physical and cognitive changes. A consideration of culture-level variables also suggested that previously reported differences in aging perceptions between Asian and Western countries may be related to differences in population structure. PMID:20025408

  9. Age-associated alterations in the somatic mutation and DNA methylation levels in plants.

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, A S; Kiselev, K V

    2016-03-01

    Somatic mutations of the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and alterations in DNA methylation levels in mammals are well known to play important roles in ageing and various diseases, yet their specific contributions await further investigation. For plants, it has also been proposed that unrepaired DNA damage and DNA polymerase errors accumulate in plant cells and lead to increased somatic mutation rate and alterations in transcription, which eventually contribute to plant ageing. A number of studies also show that DNA methylation levels vary depending on the age of plant tissue and chronological age of a whole plant. Recent studies reveal that prolonged cultivation of plant cells in vitro induces single nucleotide substitutions and increases global DNA methylation level in a time-dependent fashion. Changes in DNA methylation are known to influence DNA repair and can lead to altered mutation rates, and, therefore, it is interesting to investigate both the genetic and epigenetic integrity in relationship to ageing in plants. This review will summarise and discuss the current studies investigating somatic DNA mutation and DNA methylation levels in relation to plant ageing and senescence. The analysis has shown that there still remains a lack of clarity concerning plant biological ageing and the role of the genetic and epigenetic instabilities in this process.

  10. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (<150 min/week) group. Multiple linear regression models were performed with physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the

  11. Differences between chronological and brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Bherer, Louis; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education and physical activity and the difference between a physiological prediction of age and chronological age. Cortical and subcortical grey matter regional volumes were calculated from 331 healthy adults (range: 19-79 years). Multivariate analyses identified a covariance pattern of brain volumes best predicting chronological age (CA)(R2 = 47%). Individual expression of this brain pattern served as a physiologic measure of brain age (BA). The difference between CA and BA was predicted by education and self-report measures of physical activity. Education and the daily number of flights of stairs climbed were the only two significant predictors of decreased brain age. Effect sizes demonstrated that brain age decreased by 0.95 years for each year of education and by 0.58 years for one additional daily FOSC. Effects of education and FOSC on regional brain volume were largely driven by temporal and subcortical volumes. These results demonstrate that higher levels of education and daily FOSC are related to larger brain volume than predicted by chronological age which supports the utility of regional grey matter volume as a biomarker of healthy brain aging. PMID:26973113

  12. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.

  13. Life-span cognitive activity, neuropathologic burden, and cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Patricia A.; Yu, Lei; Barnes, Lisa L.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that cognitive activity across the life span is related to late-life cognitive decline not linked to common neuropathologic disorders. Methods: On enrollment, older participants in a longitudinal clinical-pathologic cohort study rated late-life (i.e., current) and early-life participation in cognitively stimulating activities. After a mean of 5.8 years of annual cognitive function testing, 294 individuals had died and undergone neuropathologic examination. Chronic gross infarcts, chronic microscopic infarcts, and neocortical Lewy bodies were identified, and measures of β-amyloid burden and tau-positive tangle density in multiple brain regions were derived. Results: In a mixed-effects model adjusted for age at death, sex, education, gross and microscopic infarction, neocortical Lewy bodies, amyloid burden, and tangle density, more frequent late-life cognitive activity (estimate = 0.028, standard error [SE] = 0.008, p < 0.001) and early-life cognitive activity (estimate = 0.034, SE = 0.013, p = 0.008) were each associated with slower cognitive decline. The 2 measures together accounted for 14% of the residual variability in cognitive decline not related to neuropathologic burden. The early-life–activity association was attributable to cognitive activity in childhood (estimate = 0.027, SE = 0.012, p = 0.026) and middle age (estimate = 0.029, SE = 0.013, p = 0.025) but not young adulthood (estimate = −0.020, SE = 0.014, p = 0.163). Conclusions: More frequent cognitive activity across the life span has an association with slower late-life cognitive decline that is independent of common neuropathologic conditions, consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis. PMID:23825173

  14. Brain activation changes during locomotion in middle-aged to older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Manuel E; Holtzer, Roee; Chaparro, Gioella; Jean, Kharine; Balto, Julia M; Sandroff, Brian M; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Motl, Robert W

    2016-11-15

    Mobility and cognitive impairments are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and are expected to worsen with increasing age. However, no studies, to date, in part due to limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, have examined changes in brain activation patterns during active locomotion in older patients with MS. This study used functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate real-time neural activation differences in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) between middle-aged to older adults with MS and healthy controls during single (Normal Walk; NW) and dual-task (Walking While Talking; WWT) locomotion tasks. Eight middle-aged to older adults with MS and eight healthy controls underwent fNIRS recording while performing the NW and WWT tasks with an fNIRS cap consisting of 16 optodes positioned over the forehead. The MS group had greater elevations in PFC oxygenation levels during WWT compared to NW than healthy controls. There was no walking performance difference between groups during locomotion. These findings suggest that middle-aged to older individuals with MS might be able to achieve similar levels of performance through the use of increased brain activation. This study is the first to investigate brain activation changes during the performance of simple and divided-attention locomotion tasks in MS using fNIRS.

  15. Age-Related Change in Shifting Attention between Global and Local Levels of Hierarchical Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizinga, Mariette; Burack, Jacob A.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was the developmental pattern of the ability to shift attention between global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. Children aged 7 years and 11 years and 21-year-old adults were administered a task (two experiments) that allowed for the examination of 1) the direction of attention to global or local stimulus levels;…

  16. The Relationship between Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies, Age, and Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khezrlou, Sima

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigated the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies by 60 young and 90 adult learners of different levels of education across different fields of study. The intermediate level young participants included junior-high and senior-high school learners between the ages of 14 and 17. The high-intermediate adult…

  17. Effects of Swimming Training on Stress Levels of the Students Aged 11-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köroglu, Mihraç; Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the swimming training program on stress levels of the students ages 11-13. To this end, 60 students from Private Sahin School in the Sakarya city participated in the study voluntarily. 60 students were divided into two groups and each group was included 30 students. Stress Level Scale II…

  18. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F.; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L.M.; Curtis, Maurice A.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X. William

    2016-01-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=−0.41, p=5.5×10−8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels. PMID:27479945

  19. Age-related decline in cardiac autonomic function is not attenuated with increased physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Njemanze, Hugo; Warren, Charlotte; Eggett, Christopher; MacGowan, Guy A.; Bates, Matthew G D; Siervo, Mario; Ivkovic, Srdjan; Trenell, Michael I.; Jakovljevic, Djordje G.

    2016-01-01

    Age and physical inactivity are important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate response to exercise (HRRE) and heart rate recovery (HRR), measures of cardiac autonomic function, are strong predictors of mortality. The present study defined the effect of age and physical activity on HRRE and HRR. Healthy women (N=72) grouped according to age (young, 20-30 years; middle, 40-50 years; and older, 65-81 years) and daily physical activity (low active <7500, high active >12,500 steps/day) performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The HRRE was defined as an increase in heart rate from rest to 1, 3 and 5 minutes of exercise and at 1/3 of total exercise time, and HRR as the difference in heart rate between peak exercise and 1, 2, and 3 minutes later. Age was associated with a significant decline in HRRE at 1 min and 1/3 of exercise time (r= − 0.27, p=0.04, and r=−0.39, p=0.02) and HRR at 2 min and 3 min (r=−0.35, p=0.01, and r=−0.31, p=0.02). There was no significant difference in HRRE and HRR between high and low-active middle-age and older women (p>0.05). Increased level of habitual physical activity level appears to have a limited effect on age-related decline in cardiac autonomic function in women. PMID:27705949

  20. Enhancement of natural killer cell activity of aged mice by modified arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran).

    PubMed

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Abedi, Sarah

    2004-12-01

    The present study is aimed to examine the possibility of enhancement of natural killer (NK) cell activity in aged C57BL/6 and C3H mice using MGN-3, a modified arabinoxylan from rice bran. Intraperitoneal injection of MGN-3 (10 mg kg(-1) per day) caused a remarkable increase in the peritoneal NK activity as early as 2 days (35.2 lytic units), and the level remained elevated through day 14. The control aged mice had a level of 5.8 lytic units. Enhancement in NK activity was associated with an increase in both the binding capacity of NK cells to tumour targets and in the granular content as measured by BLT-esterase activity. Treatment did not alter the percentage of peritoneal NK cells. Data showed that peritoneal macrophages inhibit NK activity. In conclusion, MGN-3 enhances murine NK activity of aged mice and may be useful for enhancing NK function in aged humans.

  1. Keys to active ageing: new communication technologies and lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Díaz-López, M Del Pilar; López-Liria, Remedios; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Padilla-Góngora, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the creation and implementation of an ICT education program for the elderly in various Active Participation Centers in Almería (Spain), assessing its impact on quality of life. From a randomized sample of 200 individuals over the age of 55. Results reveal a high degree of participant satisfaction (76.6 %), as well as improvements in quality of life as compared to the control group after the 3 month program health factor: p = 0.004; leisure and activity factor: p = 0.001; Satisfaction with Life Factor: p < 0.001. The analysis conducted to determine the influence of age and gender on quality of life indicates that there are statistically significant differences in regards to age (the younger groups had higher scores) and gender (the males). This study may serve to facilitate similar works that promotes on-going education in different locations and across the lifespan.

  2. Inbreeding affects locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster at different ages.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Tommaso; Pertoldi, Cino; Moghadam, Neda Nasiri; Nasiri, Neda; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Cavicchi, Sandro; Loeschcke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The ability to move is essential for many behavioural traits closely related to fitness. Here we studied the effect of inbreeding on locomotor activity (LA) of Drosophila melanogaster at different ages under both dark and light regimes. We expected to find a decreased LA in inbred lines compared to control lines. We also predicted an increased differentiation between lines due to inbreeding. LA was higher in the dark compared to the light regime for both inbred and outbred control lines. As expected, inbreeding increased phenotypic variance in LA, with some inbred lines showing higher and some lower LA than control lines. Moreover, age per se did not affect LA neither in control nor in inbred lines, while we found a strong line by age interaction between inbred lines. Interestingly, inbreeding changed the daily activity pattern of the flies: these patterns were consistent across all control lines but were lost in some inbred lines. The departure in the daily pattern of LA in inbred lines may contribute to the inbreeding depression observed in inbred natural populations.

  3. Influence of height on attained level of education in males at 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Szklarska, Alicja; Kozieł, Sławomir; Bielicki, Tadeusz; Malina, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    In this study it is hypothesized that taller individuals are more likely to move up the scale of educational attainment compared with shorter individuals from the same social background. Three national cohorts of 19-year-old males were considered: 29,464 born in 1967 and surveyed in 1986, 31,062 born in 1976 and surveyed in 1995, and 30,851 born in 1982 and surveyed in 2001. Four social variables were used to describe the social background of each conscript in the three surveys: degree of urbanization, family size, and parental and maternal educational status. The educational status of each conscript was classified into two groups: (1) those who were secondary school students or graduates, or who had entered college, and (2) those who had completed their education at the primary school level or who had gone to a basic trade school. Multiple binomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the relative risk of achieving higher educational status by 19-year-old males relative to height and the four social factors. Consistently across the three cohorts the odd ratios (ORs) indicate that height exerts an independent and significant effect on the attained level of education at the age of 19 years in males (1986: OR=1.24, p<0.001; 1995: OR=1.24, p <0.001; 2001: OR=1.20, p<0.001). Two possible, not mutually exclusive, selective mechanisms are postulated and discussed: 'passive' and 'active' action.

  4. Functional aging in the nervous system contributes to age-dependent motor activity decline in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Bi; Lei, Haoyun; Feng, Zhaoyang; Liu, Jianfeng; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2013-09-03

    Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in multiple physiological functions (i.e., functional aging). As animals age, they exhibit a gradual loss in motor activity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we approach this question in C. elegans by functionally characterizing its aging nervous system and muscles. We find that motor neurons exhibit a progressive functional decline, beginning in early life. Surprisingly, body-wall muscles, which were previously thought to undergo functional aging, do not manifest such a decline until mid-late life. Notably, motor neurons first develop a deficit in synaptic vesicle fusion followed by that in quantal size and vesicle docking/priming, revealing specific functional deteriorations in synaptic transmission. Pharmacological stimulation of synaptic transmission can improve motor activity in aged animals. These results uncover a critical role for the nervous system in age-dependent motor activity decline in C. elegans and provide insights into how functional aging occurs in this organism.

  5. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  6. Influence of Age, Past Smoking, and Disease Severity on TLR2, Neutrophilic Inflammation, and MMP-9 Levels in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jodie L.; McDonald, Vanessa M.; Baines, Katherine J.; Oreo, Kevin M.; Wang, Fang; Hansbro, Philip M.; Gibson, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and serious respiratory disease, particularly in older individuals, characterised by fixed airway obstruction and persistent airway neutrophilia. The mechanisms that lead to these features are not well established. We investigated the contribution of age, prior smoking, and fixed airflow obstruction on sputum neutrophils, TLR2 expression, and markers of neutrophilic inflammation. Induced sputum from adults with COPD (n = 69) and healthy controls (n = 51) was examined. A sputum portion was dispersed, total, differential cell count and viability recorded, and supernatant assayed for CXCL8, matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9, neutrophil elastase, and soluble TLR2. Peripheral blood cells (n = 7) were stimulated and TLR2 activation examined. TLR2 levels were increased with ageing, while sputum neutrophils and total sputum MMP-9 levels increased with age, previous smoking, and COPD. In multivariate regression, TLR2 gene expression and MMP-9 levels were significant independent contributors to the proportion of sputum neutrophils after adjustment for age, prior smoking, and the presence of airflow obstruction. TLR2 stimulation led to enhanced release of MMP-9 from peripheral blood granulocytes. TLR2 stimulation activates neutrophils for MMP-9 release. Efforts to understand the mechanisms of TLR2 signalling and subsequent MMP-9 production in COPD may assist in understanding neutrophilic inflammation in COPD. PMID:23606791

  7. Main determinants of physical activity levels in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lana, Raquel de Carvalho; de Araujo, Lysandra Nogueira; Cardoso, Francisco; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between patient characteristics, factors associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and physical activity level of individuals affected by the disease. Forty-six volunteers with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD were assessed using sections II/III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and their motor functions were classified according to the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale. Data such as age, disease duration, the Human Activity Profile (HAP), the Fatigue Severity Scale were collected. Lower limb bradykinesia and clinical subtypes of PD were defined. Two models that explained 76% of the variance of the HAP were used. The first comprised age, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), and the HY scale; the second comprised age, ability to perform ADL, and lower limb bradykinesia. Possible modifiable factors such as the ability to perform ADL and lower limb bradykinesia were identified as predictors of physical activity level of individuals with PD.

  8. Antioxidant and anti-aging activities of polysaccharides from Calocybe indica var. APK2.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Sudha; Johnson, Elizabeth Elcy Rani; Christopher, Jabapramila; Shanmugam, Jayasakthi; Thirumalairaj, Vinothkumar; Gopalan, Jayanthi

    2016-06-01

    The crude polysaccharides were extracted from the fruiting bodies of Calocybe indica (CIP). The antioxidant activities of CIP were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Chemical characteristics of the polysaccharides were investigated. In in vitro antioxidant assay, CIP showed noticeable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Chemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrate, protein and the FTIR spectra revealed the presence of general characteristic absorption peak of the polysaccharides. For in vivo antioxidant activity, two different doses of CIP were orally administrated over a period of 6 weeks in a d-galactose (d-gal) induced aged mice model. Significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), levels of glutathione (GSH) and elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed in brain and serum of d-galactose induced rats, when compared to control rats. Administration of CIP significantly raised the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, levels of GSH and lowered the levels of MDA in mice brain and serum in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggested that CIP had potent antioxidant activity and could minimize the occurrence of age-associated disorders associated with involvement of free radicals.

  9. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107

  10. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-04-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume - in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work.

  11. Eating habits and caloric intake of physically active young boys, ages 10 to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M J; Cunningham, D A; Wearring, G A

    1980-03-01

    Eating habits of 104 male participants (ages 10 to 14 years) in organized ice hockey were compared across age groups and levels of competition. The boys were members of either a highly skilled and intensively active competitive league group (CL) or a less skilled, moderately active house league group (HL). Eating habits were recorded during a school day from a 24 hour recall questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer. The types and amounts of foods eaten were recorded and caloric intake was calculated. The total caloric intakes were not significantly different by age or competitive group. The boys had higher caloric intakes by age (200 kcal day-1) than reported by other studies but the caloric intake by kilogram of body weight was similar. There was a trend towards larger caloric intake by the CL boys (ages 10 and 11 years), however when divided by body weight the differences were not significant suggesting that this trend was due to a greater body weight of the CL boys and not a significantly increased caloric expenditure. The types of foods eaten (fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat, bread or "empty calories") were similar for the two activity groups and across ages 10 to 14 years. The caloric intakes of dairy and meat products of both groups were significantly higher than for the other food groups.

  12. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group.

  13. Altered left ventricular performance in aging physically active mice with an ankle sprain injury.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Guderian, Sophie; Wikstrom, Erik A; Huot, Joshua R; Peck, Bailey D; Arthur, Susan T; Marino, Joseph S; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the impact of differing physical activity levels throughout the lifespan, using a musculoskeletal injury model, on the age-related changes in left ventricular (LV) parameters in active mice. Forty male mice (CBA/J) were randomly placed into one of three running wheel groups (transected CFL group, transected ATFL/CFL group, SHAM group) or a SHAM Sedentary group (SHAMSED). Before surgery and every 6 weeks after surgery, LV parameters were measured under 2.5 % isoflurane inhalation. Group effects for daily distance run was significantly greater for the SHAM and lesser for the ATLF/CFL mice (p = 0.013) with distance run decreasing with age for all mice (p < 0.0001). Beginning at 6 months of age, interaction (group × age) was noted with LV posterior wall thickness-to-radius ratios (h/r) where h/r increased with age in the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice while the SHAM and CFL mice exhibited decreased h/r with age (p = 0.0002). Passive filling velocity (E wave) was significantly greater in the SHAM mice and lowest for the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice (p < 0.0001) beginning at 9 months of age. Active filling velocity (A wave) was not different between groups (p = 0.10). Passive-to-active filling velocity ratio (E/A ratio) was different between groups (p < 0.0001), with higher ratios for the SHAM mice and lower ratios for the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice in response to physical activity beginning at 9 months of age. Passive-to-active filling velocity ratio decreased with age (p < 0.0001). Regular physical activity throughout the lifespan improved LV structure, passive filling velocity, and E/A ratio by 6 to 9 months of age and attenuated any negative alterations throughout the second half of life. The diastolic filling differences were found to be significantly related to the amount of activity performed by 9 months and at the end of the lifespan.

  14. Age-related modifications of muscle synergies and spinal cord activity during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Vito; Ghionzoli, Alessio; Micera, Silvestro

    2010-10-01

    Recent findings have shown that neural circuits located in the spinal cord drive muscular activations during locomotion while intermediating between descending signals and peripheral sensory information. This relationship could be modified by the natural aging process. To address this issue, the activity of 12 ipsilateral leg muscles was analyzed in young and elderly people (7 subjects per group) while walking at six different cadences (40-140 steps/min). These signals were used to extract synergies underlying muscle activation and to map the motoneuronal activity of the pools belonging to the lumbosacral enlargement (L(2)-S(2)). The comparison between the two groups showed that neither temporal patterning of motor primitives nor muscles loading synergies seemed to be significantly affected by aging. Conversely, as the cadence increased, spinal maps differ significantly between the groups, showing higher and scattered activity during the whole gait cycle in elders and well-defined bursts in young subjects. The results suggested that motor primitives lead the synchronization of muscle activation mainly depending on the biomechanical demand of the locomotion; hence they are not significantly affected by aging. Nevertheless, at the spinal cord level, biomechanical requirements, peripheral afference, and descending inputs are differently integrated between the two groups, probably reflecting age-related changes of both nervous system and motor control strategies during locomotion.

  15. Edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects an age-related decline in brain GABA levels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Edden, Richard A E; Li, Muwei; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Wang, Guangbin; Liu, Cheng; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Huiquan; Bai, Xue; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Xin; Barker, Peter B

    2013-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Although measurements of GABA levels in vivo in the human brain using edited proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) have been established for some time, it is has not been established how regional GABA levels vary with age in the normal human brain. In this study, 49 healthy men and 51 healthy women aged between 20 and 76 years were recruited and J-difference edited spectra were recorded at 3T to determine the effect of age on GABA levels, and to investigate whether there are regional and gender differences in GABA in mesial frontal and parietal regions. Because the signal detected at 3.02 ppm using these experimental parameters is also expected to contain contributions from both macromolecules (MM) and homocarnosine, in this study the signal is labeled GABA+ rather than GABA. Significant negative correlations were observed between age and GABA+ in both regions studied (GABA+/Cr: frontal region, r=-0.68, p<0.001, parietal region, r=-0.54, p<0.001; GABA+/NAA: frontal region, r=-0.58, p<0.001, parietal region, r=-0.49, p<0.001). The decrease in GABA+ with age in the frontal region was more rapid in women than men. Evidence of a measureable decline in GABA is important in considering the neurochemical basis of the cognitive decline that is associated with normal aging.

  16. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  17. Investigating Discontinuity of Age Relations in Cognitive Functioning, General Health Status, Activity Participation, and Life Satisfaction between Young-Old and Old-Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, Andreas; Jopp, Daniela S.; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Health research suggests that findings on young-old adults cannot be generalized to old-old adults and thus that old-old age seems not a simple continuation of young-old age due to qualitative changes that result in a discontinuity in old age. Specifically, it would be of conceptual and methodological importance to inform research regarding estimates around which chronological age the beginning of old-old age could be placed at a population level, and whether this is universal or domain-specific. To derive such criteria, we investigated potential discontinuity of age relations between young-old and old-old age in a large population-based sample considering measures in different domains (processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, activity participation, and life satisfaction). For processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, and life satisfaction we observed some very small indication that there might be a discontinuity of age relations at the end of individuals’ eighties, and for activity participation already at the beginning of individuals’ eighties. In conclusion, models conceptualizing aging as a gradual development might not suffice to adequately represent the differences between the stages of young-old and old-old age due to some very small indication that there might be discontinuity in late adulthood. PMID:27827960

  18. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Lee, Seung Bum; Jee, Donghyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45°) were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system. Results Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03–3.36) and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06–3.48), for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women. PMID:26252225

  19. Serum total bilirubin levels are negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome in aged Chinese women: a community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, P.; Sun, D.M.; Wu, D.H.; Li, T.M.; Liu, X.Y.; Liu, H.Y.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (P<0.001). Serum total bilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in females (P<0.005). Logistic regression showed that serum total bilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863–0.960; P=0.001). The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels. PMID:28146216

  20. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  1. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  2. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p < 0.001). In spite of this, girls had higher levels of GSSG (p < 0.001) and TG (p = 0.001), and a lower GSH/GSSG ratio (p < 0.001) than boys. For the antioxidant response, girls had higher levels of SOD (p = 0.002) than boys. All analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  3. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-03-08

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (NM) impedance technique are sighted and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency EIM impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acoustic-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens, (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  4. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-02-29

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are cited and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency E/M impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acousto-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  5. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity in sparkling wines: modulation by the ageing on lees.

    PubMed

    Stefenon, C A; Bonesi, C De M; Marzarotto, V; Barnabé, D; Spinelli, F R; Webber, V; Vanderlinde, R

    2014-02-15

    Sparkling wines (SW) have a special biological ageing on lees that is performed using two distinct methods: in the bottle (Champenoise) or in isobaric tanks (Charmat method). The objective of this study was to compare the levels of phenolic compounds, β-Glucosidase and antioxidant activity during the ageing on lees, in samples of SW produced at industrial scale by both methods. The β-Glucosidase activity has been constant over time, showing a close relationship with all the polyphenols studied (resveratrol, piceid, tyrosol, gallic, caffeic and ferulic acids), which were affected by the sur lie time. With these cross-reactions, the biological properties of the SW were also modulated. The results showed that the long period of ageing decreased the antioxidant potential in all samples. This work demonstrates that the sur lie is more important than the production method itself, due to its ability to modulate the necessary changes to achieve the specific objective.

  6. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  7. Toward a typology of technology users: how older people experience technology's potential for active aging.

    PubMed

    Gjevjon, Edith Roth; Oderud, Tone; Wensaas, Gro H; Moen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines an emerging typology of older users of information and communication technology (ICT) to facilitate active aging. Through inductive data analysis from focus groups, iterative workshops, and personal interviews, we suggest three types of technology users. These types are "the Excluded," "the Entertained," and "the Networker." Clearly, ICT offers several benefits to those who are enthusiastic and frequent users, exemplified as the Entertained and the Networker. Hence, our findings support the notion of technology as a tool to maintain or increase an older person's engagement and activity level. Conversely, for those reluctant, uninterested, or incapable of using ICT, such potentials are limited and imply fewer opportunities for participation in activities.

  8. Physical activity (PA) among middle-aged women: initial and current influences and patterns of participation.

    PubMed

    Codina, Nuria; Pestana, José V; Armadans, Immaculada

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the initial and current influences for doing physical activity (PA), current levels of PA participation, and future plans for it. Participants were 200 women aged 45 to 64 years old. Factor loadings of influences were explored using Principal Components Analysis. Pearson bivariate correlations, t-test, and ANOVA were used to show the differences among the influences, sociodemographic characteristics, and present/future PA participation. Personal fulfillment was the main initial influence, while health benefits/self-care, and outdoor/family activities were the most important current influences. The results highlight the factors that best explain present PA participation and also plans for activity in the future.

  9. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  10. Positive Technology for Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Villani, Daniela; Cipresso, Pietro; Repetto, Claudia; Serino, Silvia; Triberti, Stefano; Brivio, Eleonora; Galimberti, Carlo; Graffigna, Guendalina

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are widely and rapidly spreading in people's daily lives. But what is the possible role of the mass proliferation of digital devices in supporting healthy living and active ageing? Are they useful in fostering personal growth and individual integration of the elderly, by promoting satisfaction, opportunities for action, and self-expression? Rather, do they enhance automation, impose constraints on personal initiative, and result in compulsive consumption of information? In this chapter, we suggest that possible answers to these questions will be offered by the "Positive Technology" approach, i.e., the scientific and applied approach to using technology so that it improves the quality of our personal experiences through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement. First, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to manipulate the quality of experience with the goal of increasing wellness and generating strengths and resilience in individuals, organizations, and society. Then, we classify positive technologies according to their effects on these three features of personal experience - Hedonic: technologies used to induce positive and pleasant experiences; Eudaimonic: technologies used to support individuals in reaching engaging and self-actualizing experiences; Social/Interpersonal: technologies used to support and improve the connectedness between individuals, groups, and organizations. Finally, we discuss the possible role of positive technologies for healthy living and active ageing by presenting different practical applications of this approach.

  11. Parthanatos Mediates AIMP2 Activated Age Dependent Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunjong; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Shin, Joo-Ho; Lee, Yun-Il; Ko, Han Seok; Swing, Debbie; Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Lee, Byoung Dae; Kang, Ho Chul; Kim, Donghoon; Tessarollo, Lino; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2013-01-01

    The defining pathogenic feature of Parkinson’s disease is the age dependent loss of dopaminergic neurons. Mutations and inactivation of parkin, an ubiquitin E3 ligase, cause Parkinson’s disease through accumulation of pathogenic substrates. Here we show that transgenic overexpression of the parkin substrate, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex interacting multifunctional protein-2 (AIMP2) leads to a selective, age-dependent progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons via activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1). AIMP2 accumulation in vitro and in vivo results in PARP1 overactivation and dopaminergic cell toxicity via direct association of these proteins in the nucleus providing a new path to PARP1 activation other than DNA damage. Inhibition of PARP1 through gene deletion or drug inhibition reverses behavioral deficits and protects in vivo against dopamine neuron death in AIMP2 transgenic mice. These data indicate that brain permeable PARP inhibitors could be effective in delaying or preventing disease progression in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23974709

  12. Sirt 1 activator inhibits the AGE-induced apoptosis and p53 acetylation in human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Changyong; Lin, Nan; Liu, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by nonenzymatic glycation reactions are extremely accumulated in the diabetic vascular cells, neurons, and glia, and are confirmed to play important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus -induced cardiovascular complications. Sirt 1, known as mammalian sirtuin, has been recognized to regulate insulin secretion and protect cells against oxidative stress, which is promoted by the accumulated AGEs in cardiovascular cells. In the present study, we treated human endothelial Eahy926 cells with AGEs, and determined the apoptosis induction, caspase activation, the Sirt 1 activity, the expression and acetylation of p53. Then we manipulated Sirt 1 activity with a Sirt 1 activator, Resveratrol (RSV), and a Sirt 1 inhibitor, sirtinol, in the AGE-BSA-treated Eahy926 cells, and then re-evaluated the apoptosis induction, caspase activation, the expression and acetylation of p53. Results demonstrated that AGEs induced apoptosis in the human endothelial Eahy926 cells, by promoting the cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 9/3. Also, the AGE-BSA treatment promoted the total p53 level and acetylated (Ac) p53, but reduced the Sirt 1 level and activity. On the other hand, the Sirt 1 inhibitor/activator not only deteriorated/ameliorated the promotion to p53 level and Ac p53, but also aggravated/inhibited the AGE-induced apoptosis and the promotion to apoptosis-associated signaling molecules. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the apoptosis promotion by AGEs in endothelial Eahy926 cells, by regulating the Sirt 1 activity and p53 signaling, it also implies the protective role of Sirt 1 activator against the AGE-induced apoptosis.

  13. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.H.; Hackleman, S.M.; Braun, A.M.; Pennington, P.; Saphire, D.G.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1994-06-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure of protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Metformin activation of AMPK suppresses AGE-induced inflammatory response in hNSCs.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ming-Min; Nicol, Christopher J; Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Yen-Lin; Pei, Dee; Lin, Chien-Hung; Shih, Yi-Nuo; Yen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Shiang-Jiuun; Huang, Rong-Nan; Chiang, Ming-Chang

    2017-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the precise mechanisms remain unclear, T2DM may exacerbate neurodegenerative processes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling is an evolutionary preserved pathway that is important during homeostatic energy biogenesis responses at both the cellular and whole-body levels. Metformin, a ubiquitously prescribed anti-diabetic drug, exerts its effects by AMPK activation. However, while the roles of AMPK as a metabolic mediator are generally well understood, its performance in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration are not yet well defined. Given hyperglycemia is accompanied by an accelerated rate of advanced glycosylation end product (AGE) formation, which is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic neuronal impairment and, inflammatory response, clarification of the role of AMPK signaling in these processes is needed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that metformin, an AMPK activator, protects against diabetic AGE induced neuronal impairment in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). In the present study, hNSCs exposed to AGE had significantly reduced cell viability, which correlated with elevated inflammatory cytokine expression, such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α. Co-treatment with metformin significantly abrogated the AGE-mediated effects in hNSCs. In addition, metformin rescued the transcript and protein expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and inhibitory kappa B kinase (IKK) in AGE-treated hNSCs. NF-κB is a transcription factor with a key role in the expression of a variety of genes involved in inflammatory responses, and metformin did prevent the AGE-mediated increase in NF-κB mRNA and protein levels in the hNSCs exposed to AGE. Indeed, co-treatment with metformin significantly restored inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels in AGE-treated h

  15. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  16. Distinguishing rhythmic from non-rhythmic brain activity during rest in healthy neurocognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Bottomley, Monica; Kang, Pardeep; Dixon, Roger A

    2015-05-15

    Rhythmic brain activity at low frequencies (<12Hz) during rest are thought to increase in neurodegenerative disease, but findings in healthy neurocognitive aging are mixed. Here we address two reasons conventional spectral analyses may have led to inconsistent results. First, spectral-power measures are compared to a baseline condition; when resting activity is the signal of interest, it is unclear what the baseline should be. Second, conventional methods do not clearly differentiate power due to rhythmic versus non-rhythmic activity. The Better OSCillation detection method (BOSC; Caplan et al., 2001; Whitten et al., 2011) avoids these problems by using the signal's own spectral characteristics as a reference to detect elevations in power lasting a few cycles. We recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signal during rest, alternating eyes open and closed, in healthy younger (18-25 years) and older (60-74 years) participants. Topographic plots suggested the conventional and BOSC analyses measured different sources of activity, particularly at frequencies, like delta (1-4Hz), at which rhythms are sporadic; topographies were more similar in the 8-12Hz alpha band. There was little theta-band activity meeting the BOSC method's criteria, suggesting prior findings of theta power in healthy aging may reflect non-rhythmic signal. In contrast, delta oscillations were present at higher levels than theta in both age groups. In summary, applying strict and standardized criteria for rhythmicity, slow rhythms appear present in the resting brain at delta and alpha, but not theta frequencies, and appear unchanged in healthy aging.

  17. Putting age-related task activation into large-scale brain networks: A meta-analysis of 114 fMRI studies on healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Jie; Hou, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Han-Hui; Yue, Chun-Lin; Lu, Guang-Ming; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-10-01

    Normal aging is associated with cognitive decline and underlying brain dysfunction. Previous studies concentrated less on brain network changes at a systems level. Our goal was to examine these age-related changes of fMRI-derived activation with a common network parcellation of the human brain function, offering a systems-neuroscience perspective of healthy aging. We conducted a series of meta-analyses on a total of 114 studies that included 2035 older adults and 1845 young adults. Voxels showing significant age-related changes in activation were then overlaid onto seven commonly referenced neuronal networks. Older adults present moderate cognitive decline in behavioral performance during fMRI scanning, and hypo-activate the visual network and hyper-activate both the frontoparietal control and default mode networks. The degree of increased activation in frontoparietal network was associated with behavioral performance in older adults. Age-related changes in activation present different network patterns across cognitive domains. The systems neuroscience approach used here may be useful for elucidating the underlying network mechanisms of various brain plasticity processes during healthy aging.

  18. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  19. Analyzing Age-Rotation-Activity Relationships in Wide Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton Clarke, Riley; Davenport, James R. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis of flare activity among equal mass wide binary pairs using a combination of value-added data sets from the NASA Kepler mission. Wide binary twins form from the same molecular cloud and are therefore coeval, making them ideal benchmarks for stellar evolution and formation studies. This implies that their magnetic activity should decay at the same rate, causing a similar decrease in flare activity over time. The first data set is the list of known wide binary candidates in the Kepler field, and contains pairs of stars that have similar proper motions. We then crossmatch these systems with data on relative flare luminosity for ~200,000 stars in the original Kepler field, provided by an automated flare-finding algorithm. This combined data set allows us to compare flare activity, mass, and pair separation between stars in binary pairs. We preliminarily find that the flare rates for these stars do not show strong correlation, indicating either a large intrinsic scatter in the flare rate as these stars age, or that the formation mechanism of wide binaries somehow affects their dynamo evolution. As a goal for future development of this work, we hope to compare flare rates with gyrochronology in these key systems.

  20. [Are active neurons a better defense against aging in Alzheimer's disease?].

    PubMed

    Lucassen, P J; van Someren, E J; Swaab, D F

    1998-08-01

    This article deals with the question whether metabolic activity of neurons interferes with their survival during brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This 'use it or lose it' concept assumes that active neurons have a better chance to survive these conditions. We have monitored activity changes in human hypothalamic nuclei, that show differential survival patterns in aging and AD. The size of the Golgi apparatus (GA) was measured in e.g. the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), that is severely affected in AD, and in the vasopressin (AVP) containing neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) that remain very stable and show no cell loss. In the affected NBM, a strong reduction in activity was found in AD, whereas in the stable SON, an increased activity was present in both conditions. These findings agree with the concept that activation is associated with pronounced stability in aging and AD. Another hypothalamic nucleus is the biological clock (SCN), which is very sensitive to light input. It loses about 35% of its AVP cells in old rats. In order to test the hypothesis that extra stimulation prevents degeneration, the SCN in old rats was activated by means of an increased light input. This could indeed prevent the age-related loss of AVP-neurons in the SCN in low light conditions. Increased light also restored the age-related decreased amplitude in the sleep-wake rhythm. Furthermore, in AD patients, increased amounts of environmental light improved day-night rhythms and reduced behavioural disturbances. These observations are in line with the 'use it or lose it' concept. Furthermore, oxidative damage to the DNA was studied as a) it may accumulate during neuronal aging, and b) activated cells repair their DNA more efficiently. Whereas biochemical measurements of 8OHDG levels were not different in aging or AD, in situ end labeling, that detects fragmented DNA histologically, showed many positive neurons and glial cells in the AD, but not control, hippocampus

  1. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes.

  2. [The activity of gas metabolism, thermoregulation, and antioxidant enzymes in aging C57Bl/6 mice].

    PubMed

    Utko, N O; Pishel', I M; Bezrukov, V V; Muradian, Kh K

    2008-01-01

    The distribution type and correlative links between physiological and biochemical indices characterizing functional condition of the systems of gaseous exchange (V(O2) and V(CO2)), thermoregulation (body temperature and coefficient of thermoconductivity) and antioxidant defense have been studied in 62 young (3-5 mo.) and 58 old (23-26 mo.) male C57Bl/ 6 mice. The coefficients of variation differed significantly depending on the variable but not the age-group. Mean values of V(O2) and V(CO2), body temperature and thermoconductivity, but not activities of the antioxidant enzymes, declined in aging. Moreover, the activities of catalase, glutathione-peroxidase and glutathionereductase, i.e. enzymes involved in regulation of hydrogen peroxide level, increased in aging. The correlations between V(O2) and V(CO2), V(O2) and body temperature or V(O2) and the liver pH, as well as between the antioxidant enzyme activities exhibited little age-changes. However, three-dimensional non-linear models revealed significant age-changes in relations between the studied variables.

  3. Differentiation rather than aging of muscle stem cells abolishes their telomerase activity

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Matthew S.; Carlson, Morgan E.; Conboy, Irina M.

    2009-01-01

    A general feature of stem cells is the ability to routinely proliferate in order to build, maintain, and repair organ systems. Accordingly, embryonic and germline, as well as some adult stem cells, produce the telomerase enzyme at various levels of expression. Our results show that, while muscle is a largely post-mitotic tissue, the muscle stem cells (satellite cells) that maintain this biological system throughout adult life do indeed display robust telomerase activity. Conversely, primary myoblasts (the immediate progeny of satellite cells) quickly and dramatically down-regulate telomerase activity. This work thus suggests that satellite cells, and early transient myoblasts, may be more promising therapeutic candidates for regenerative medicine than traditionally utilized myoblast cultures. Muscle atrophy accompanies human aging, and satellite cells endogenous to aged muscle can be triggered to regenerate old tissue by exogenous molecular cues. Therefore, we also examined whether these aged muscle stem cells would produce tissue that is “young” with respect to telomere maintenance. Interestingly, this work shows that the telomerase activity in muscle stem cells is largely retained into old age wintin inbred “long” telomere mice and in wild-derived short telomere mouse strains, and that age-specific telomere shortening is undetectable in the old differentiated muscle fibers of either strain. Summarily, this work establishes that young and old muscle stem cells, but not necessarily their progeny, myoblasts, are likely to produce tissue with normal telomere maintenance when used in molecular and regenerative medicine approaches for tissue repair. PMID:19455648

  4. Age related patterns of immunoglobulin serum levels in the Quechua Indians of Andean Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memeo, S. A.; Piantanelli, L.; Mazzufferi, G.; Guerra, L.; Nikolitz, M.; Fabris, N.

    1982-03-01

    Age-dependent changes of IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgD serum levels in a population of Quechua Indians of Peruvian Andes at 4 300 m were investigated. A first increase and a subsequent decrease in IgA and IgM levels were observed with advancing age. IgG and IgD only display an increase during development. More or less pronounced sex-related changes were also found in all Ig classes, the sex dependent pattern of IgA being the more evident one. It has been suggested that sexual, genetic and environmental influences strongly superimpose to high altitude related changes in Ig profile during ageing.

  5. The effects of age and gender on plasma levels of 63 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Gordh, Torsten; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines play important roles as regulators of cell functions, and over the last decades a number of cytokine assays have been developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 33 healthy blood donors. The samples were analyzed using a multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) allowing simultaneous measurement of 92 cytokines and four technical controls. Biomarkers with less than 80% quantitative results were excluded leaving 63 cytokines that were analyzed for the effects of gender and age. The plasma level of three of the investigated biomarkers (DNER, MCP-4 and MMP-10) were found to be significantly different for the two genders (adjusted p-value<0.05), and 15 of the biomarkers (CCL11, CCL25, CDCP1, CSF-1, CXCL11, CXCL9, FGF-23, Flt3L, HGF, IL-10RB, MCP-3, MCP-4, MMP-10, OPG, VEGF-A) were significantly associated with age. This study reveals the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokine assays. CXCL5 and TNFB were significantly higher in females, while the other markers with significant gender-dependent differences were higher in males. For the markers that were significantly associated with age, only CXCL6 was found to decrease with age, while the other biomarkers increased with age.

  6. Age-specific profiles of tissue-level composition and mechanical properties in murine cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that bone composition and tissue-level mechanical properties are significant determinants of skeletal integrity. In the current study, Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation testing were co-localized to analyze tissue-level compositional and mechanical properties in skeletally mature young (4 or 5 months) and old (19 months) murine femora at similar spatial scales. Standard multivariate linear regression analysis revealed age-dependent patterns in the relationships between mechanical and compositional properties at the tissue scale. However, changes in bone material properties with age are often complex and nonlinear, and can be missed with linear regression and correlation-based methods. A retrospective data mining approach was implemented using non-linear multidimensional visualization and classification to identify spectroscopic and nanoindentation metrics that best discriminated bone specimens of different age-classes. The ability to classify the specimens into the correct age group increased by using combinations of Raman and nanoindentation variables (86–96% accuracy) as compared to using individual measures (59–79% accuracy). Metrics that best classified 4 or 5 month and 19 month specimens (2-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus and plasticity index. Metrics that best distinguished between 4, 5 and 19 month specimens (3-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus, hardness, cross-linking, carbonate to phosphate ratio, creep displacement and creep viscosity. These findings attest to the complexity of mechanisms underlying bone tissue properties and draw attention to the importance of considering non-linear interactions between tissue-level composition and mechanics that may work together to influence material properties with age. The results demonstrate that a few non-linearly combined compositional and mechanical metrics provide better discriminatory information than a single

  7. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  8. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Palao, José M.; Manzanares, Policarpo; Valadés, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000–2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players’ needs regarding the actions they perform. Player’s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females. PMID:25713683

  9. Coordination pattern of baseball pitching among young pitchers of various ages and velocity levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the whole-body movement coordination of pitching among 72 baseball players of various ages and velocity levels. Participants were classified as senior, junior, and little according to their age, with each group comprising 24 players. The velocity levels of the high-velocity (the top eight) and low-velocity (the lowest eight) groups were classified according to their pitching velocity. During pitching, the coordinates of 15 markers attached to the major joints of the whole-body movement system were collected for analysis. Sixteen kinematic parameters were calculated to compare the groups and velocity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to quantify the coordination pattern of pitching movement. The results were as follows: (1) five position and two velocity parameters significantly differed among the age groups, and two position and one velocity parameters significantly differed between the high- and low-velocity groups. (2) The coordination patterns of pitching movement could be described using three components, of which the eigenvalues and contents varied according to age and velocity level. In conclusion, the senior and junior players showed greater elbow angular velocity, whereas the little players exhibited a wider shoulder angle only at the beginning of pitching. The players with high velocity exhibited higher trunk and shoulder rotation velocity. The variations among groups found using PCA and kinematics parameter analyses were consistent.

  10. Mathematics Confidence, Grade-Level Choice, Gender, and Age in Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lesley Knoth

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject preservice…

  11. Differential effects of aging, drinking and exercise on serum cholesterol levels dependent on the PPARA-V227A polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Naito, Hisao; Kamijima, Michihiro; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Nakahara, Ai; Katoh, Takahiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nakajima, Tamie

    2007-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA alpha) plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. Our previous study reported that PPARA-V227A was a major polymorphism in Japanese, which was associated with markedly lower serum total cholesterol (TC) levels, which were significantly affected by alcohol drinking compared to subjects with the wild-type (PPARA-WT) allele. However, serum lipids are also associated with aging and exercise frequency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between PPARA-V227A and these factors. Genetic analysis of the polymorphism was performed in 1058 Japanese men and 281 women, and the relationship with aging, drinking and exercise on serum lipids was analyzed in 989 men and 245 women after exclusion criteria had been applied. In men, drinking increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in both PPARA-WT and A227 carriers, but to a significantly higher degree in the latter. In women, TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the A227 carriers drinking at least once a week were significantly higher than in PPARA-WT carriers. TC and LDL-C levels in males with PPARA-WT increased with aging regardless of drinking habit, while LDL-C levels in the A227 drinking carriers were significantly lower in 45-yr-old or older subjects than in 35- to 45-yr-olds. In addition, no effect of exercising was observed in the A227 carriers, while increase in the HDL-C of the PPARA-WT carriers was exercise frequency dependent. These results suggest that the influence of drinking, aging or exercise on TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels in the A227 carriers may be different from those in the PPARA-WT subjects.

  12. Methodologies for Active Aging in the Manufacturing Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasiero, Rosanna; Berdicchia, Domenica; Zambelli, Mario; Masino, Giovanni

    The research project named “Flexibly Beyond” studied and experimented innovative models for the enhancement of the role of senior workers and prolongation of their working life. The research was based on the application of innovative methods and tools to the ageing society and in particular to the European manufacturing companies represented in the project by apparel and footwear sectors. The project was funded under the Innovative Measures of the art.6 of the European Social Fund (VS/2006/0353) and coordinated by Politecnico Calzaturiero. The real strength of the project was the large network including all the actors of the value chain which allows transferring the theoretical findings to practical level in SMEs manufacturing context.

  13. Why are early maturing girls less active? Links between pubertal development, psychological well-being, and physical activity among girls at ages 11 and 13

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Werder, Jessica L; Trost, Stewart G; Baker, Birgitta L; Birch, Leann L

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has shown that early maturing girls at age 11 have lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 in comparison to later maturing girls. Possible reasons for this association have not been assessed. This study examines girls’ psychological response to puberty and their enjoyment of physical activity as intermediary factors linking pubertal maturation and physical activity. Participants included 178 girls who were assessed at age 11, of whom 168 were reassessed at age 13. All participants were non-Hispanic white and resided in the U.S. Three measures of pubertal development were obtained at age 11 including Tanner breast stage, estradiol levels, and mothers’ reports of girls’ development on the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS). Measures of psychological well-being at ages 11 and 13 included depression, global self worth, perceived athletic competence, maturation fears, and body esteem. At age 13, girls’ enjoyment of physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and their daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using objective monitoring. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess direct and indirect pathways between pubertal development at age 11 and MVPA at age 13. In addition to a direct effect of pubertal development on MVPA, indirect effects were found for depression, global self worth and maturity fears controlling for covariates. In each instance, more advanced pubertal development at age 11 was associated with lower psychological well-being at age 13, which predicted lower enjoyment of physical activity at age 13 and in turn lower MVPA. Results from this study suggest that programs designed to increase physical activity among adolescent girls should address the self-consciousness and discontent that girls’ experience with their bodies during puberty, particularly if they mature earlier than their peers, and identify activities or settings that make differences in

  14. Elementary Science Supplement to the Syllabus. Level II (Ages 7 through 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Developed to complement existing elementary science programs, the materials in this second volume of New York's Elementary Science Supplement emphasize an experiential, hands-on approach for children aged 7-9. Major sections include guidelines for program activities, (the format of this publication); correlating syllabus and program, (including a…

  15. Genetic Influences on Activity Level in Early Childhood: Do Situations Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.; Zapfe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Although genetic influences on individual differences in activity level (AL) are well documented, few studies have considered the etiology of AL from a contextual perspective. In the present study, cross-situational and context-specific genetic effects on individual differences in AL at age 2 were examined. The AL of 312 twin pairs (144…

  16. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  17. Absence of superoxide dismutase activity causes nuclear DNA fragmentation during the aging process

    SciTech Connect

    Muid, Khandaker Ashfaqul; Karakaya, Hüseyin Çaglar; Koc, Ahmet

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Aging process increases ROS accumulation. • Aging process increases DNA damage levels. • Absence of SOD activity does not cause DNA damage in young cells. • Absence of SOD activity accelerate aging and increase oxidative DNA damages during the aging process. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though involvement of superoxide dismutase enzymes in ROS scavenging and the aging process has been studied extensively in different organisms, analyses of DNA damages has not been performed for replicatively old superoxide dismutase deficient cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of SOD1, SOD2 and CCS1 genes in preserving genomic integrity in replicatively old yeast cells using the single cell comet assay. We observed that extend of DNA damage was not significantly different among the young cells of wild type, sod1Δ and sod2Δ strains. However, ccs1Δ mutants showed a 60% higher amount of DNA damage in the young stage compared to that of the wild type cells. The aging process increased the DNA damage rates 3-fold in the wild type and more than 5-fold in sod1Δ, sod2Δ, and ccs1Δ mutant cells. Furthermore, ROS levels of these strains showed a similar pattern to their DNA damage contents. Thus, our results confirm that cells accumulate DNA damages during the aging process and reveal that superoxide dismutase enzymes play a substantial role in preserving the genomic integrity in this process.

  18. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-06-30

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms.

  19. Spread of activation and deactivation in the brain: does age matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Brian A.; Tse, Chun-Yu; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional aging functional MRI results are sometimes difficult to interpret, as standard measures of activation and deactivation may confound variations in signal amplitude and spread, which however, may be differentially affected by age-related changes in various anatomical and physiological factors. To disentangle these two types of measures, here we propose a novel method to obtain independent estimates of the peak amplitude and spread of the BOLD signal in areas activated (task-positive) and deactivated (task-negative) by a Sternberg task, in 14 younger and 28 older adults. The peak measures indicated that, compared to younger adults, older adults had increased activation of the task-positive network, but similar levels of deactivation in the task-negative network. Measures of signal spread revealed that older adults had an increased spread of activation in task-positive areas, but a starkly reduced spread of deactivation in task-negative areas. These effects were consistent across regions within each network. Further, there was greater variability in the anatomical localization of peak points in older adults, leading to reduced cross-subject overlap. These results reveal factors that may confound the interpretation of studies of aging. Additionally, spread measures may be linked to local connectivity phenomena and could be particularly useful to analyze age-related deactivation patterns, complementing the results obtained with standard peak and region of interest analyses. PMID:25360115

  20. Spread of activation and deactivation in the brain: does age matter?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Brian A; Tse, Chun-Yu; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional aging functional MRI results are sometimes difficult to interpret, as standard measures of activation and deactivation may confound variations in signal amplitude and spread, which however, may be differentially affected by age-related changes in various anatomical and physiological factors. To disentangle these two types of measures, here we propose a novel method to obtain independent estimates of the peak amplitude and spread of the BOLD signal in areas activated (task-positive) and deactivated (task-negative) by a Sternberg task, in 14 younger and 28 older adults. The peak measures indicated that, compared to younger adults, older adults had increased activation of the task-positive network, but similar levels of deactivation in the task-negative network. Measures of signal spread revealed that older adults had an increased spread of activation in task-positive areas, but a starkly reduced spread of deactivation in task-negative areas. These effects were consistent across regions within each network. Further, there was greater variability in the anatomical localization of peak points in older adults, leading to reduced cross-subject overlap. These results reveal factors that may confound the interpretation of studies of aging. Additionally, spread measures may be linked to local connectivity phenomena and could be particularly useful to analyze age-related deactivation patterns, complementing the results obtained with standard peak and region of interest analyses.

  1. Physical activity and telomere length: Impact of aging and potential mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Arsenis, Nicole C; You, Tongjian; Ogawa, Elisa F; Tinsley, Grant M; Zuo, Li

    2017-03-30

    Telomeres protect the integrity of information-carrying DNA by serving as caps on the terminal portions of chromosomes. Telomere length decreases with aging, and this contributes to cell senescence. Recent evidence supports that telomere length of leukocytes and skeletal muscle cells may be positively associated with healthy living and inversely correlated with the risk of several age-related diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, chronic pain, and stress. In observational studies, higher levels of physical activity or exercise are related to longer telomere lengths in various populations, and athletes tend to have longer telomere lengths than non-athletes. This relationship is particularly evident in older individuals, suggesting a role of physical activity in combating the typical age-induced decrements in telomere length. To date, a small number of exercise interventions have been executed to examine the potential influence of chronic exercise on telomere length, but these studies have not fully established such relationship. Several potential mechanisms through which physical activity or exercise could affect telomere length are discussed, including changes in telomerase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and decreased skeletal muscle satellite cell content. Future research is needed to mechanistically examine the effects of various modalities of exercise on telomere length in middle-aged and older adults, as well as in specific clinical populations.

  2. Sterols from Mytilidae show anti-aging and neuroprotective effects via anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujuan; Lin, Yanfei; Cao, Xueli; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

    2014-11-25

    For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF). SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL), brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experiments, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and malondialdehyde (MDA) tests were performed on the most abundant compound, CHOL. Results indicated that treatment with CHOL increases the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress and decreases ROS and MDA levels. In addition, mutations of uth1, skn7, sod1, and sod2, which feature a K6001 background, were employed and the lifespans of the mutations were not affected by CHOL. These results demonstrate that CHOL exerts anti-aging effects via anti-oxidative stress. Based on the connection between neuroprotection and anti-aging, neuroprotective experiments were performed in PC12 cells. Paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress and the results showed that the CHOL and SF protect the PC12 cells from the injury induced by paraquat. In addition, these substance exhibited nerve growth factor (NGF) mimic activities again confirmed their neuroprotective function.

  3. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 – 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  4. An Event-Level Investigation of Hangovers’ Relationship to Age and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Geoffrey; Treloar, Hayley; Blanchard, Alexander; Monti, Peter M.; Carey, Kate B.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Miranda, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Animal and human data suggest that adolescents experience hangover effects that are distinct from adults. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods to examine the temporal relationships between drinking and hangovers and how this varied by age and sex. We hypothesized that alcohol’s dose-dependent effects on hangover severity are more pronounced among adolescents and young adults than older drinkers. We also explored whether greater hangover severity would lead to a lower likelihood and volume of alcohol use later the same day. Data were pooled from four studies of drinkers (N = 274; ages 15 to 66 years) who completed a 4- to 14-day (M = 7.46, SD = 1.13) EMA monitoring period. Each morning, participants recorded how much alcohol they consumed the day before and rated their hangover severity. Participants who consumed a greater quantity of alcohol the prior day reported more severe hangover symptoms; however, there was an interaction between drinking volume and age such that hangover was more severe among younger drinkers, especially at higher drinking levels. More severe hangover symptoms did not predict the likelihood of drinking later that day; however, on drinking days more severe hangover symptoms predicted lower quantities of alcohol use later that day. This event-level effect did not vary as a function of age. Study outcomes did not vary by sex. Our findings suggest that younger drinkers experience more severe hangovers and that greater hangover results in lighter drinking later that same day regardless of age. PMID:26280593

  5. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  6. The evolution of chromospheric activity in middle-aged Sun-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Ages of stars are difficult to infer because stars change very little during the majority of their lifetimes. However, stars are observed to spin down over time due to magnetic braking, which weakens the magnetic dynamo as well. This spin down has led to a new age dating method called gyrochronology, which has been successfully calibrated for Sun-like stars up to 2.5 Gyr, but is still undetermined at older ages and lower masses. The decay of magnetic activity has also been utilized to empirically calibrate an age relationship at ages less than 600 Myr with nearby young star clusters (e.g. Hyades), and pinned down at 4 Gyr with M67, but the relationship is basically unconstrained at intermediate ages and sub-Solar masses. Advances in observational facilities have brought distant clusters into view, while the discovery of Ruprecht 147 has provided a new benchmark that is the oldest nearby cluster (3 Gyr, 300 pc, Curtis et al. 2013), and which provides a bridge across this historic age gap. I will present new, high quality chromospheric activity data for NGC 752 at 1.5 Gyr and Ruprecht 147 at 3 Gyr. The stars of Ruprecht 147 will demonstrate the typical activity level and variability experienced by the Sun at a time when multicellular life first evolved on Earth. I will also re-evaluate the M67 data by considering contamination by the interstellar medium, with implications for the frequency of Maunder Minima. Finally, I will discuss a new opportunity to investigate stellar spin down and variability in low mass KM dwarfs with the K2 Survey of Ruprecht 147, which will have just concluded in late December 2015.

  7. Activation of NO-cGMP Signaling Rescues Age-Related Memory Impairment in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Chihiro S.; Takahashi, Toshihumi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a common feature and a debilitating phenotype of brain aging in many animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AMI are still largely unknown. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is a useful experimental animal for studying age-related changes in learning and memory capability; because the cricket has relatively short life-cycle and a high capability of olfactory learning and memory. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation in crickets have been examined in detail. In the present study, we trained male crickets of different ages by multiple-trial olfactory conditioning to determine whether AMI occurs in crickets. Crickets 3 weeks after the final molt (3-week-old crickets) exhibited levels of retention similar to those of 1-week-old crickets at 30 min or 2 h after training; however they showed significantly decreased levels of 1-day retention, indicating AMI in long-term memory (LTM) but not in anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) in olfactory learning of crickets. Furthermore, 3-week-old crickets injected with a nitric oxide (NO) donor, a cyclic GMP (cGMP) analog or a cyclic AMP (cAMP) analog into the hemolymph before conditioning exhibited a normal level of LTM, the same level as that in 1-week-old crickets. The rescue effect by NO donor or cGMP analog injection was absent when the crickets were injected after the conditioning. For the first time, an NO donor and a cGMP analog were found to antagonize the age-related impairment of LTM formation, suggesting that deterioration of NO synthase (NOS) or molecules upstream of NOS activation is involved in brain-aging processes. PMID:27616985

  8. Age-Related Changes Between the Level of Velopharyngeal Closure and the Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Mason, Kazlin N; Perry, Jamie L; Riski, John E; Fang, Xiangming

    2016-03-01

    The primary focus of this study was to assess age-related changes in the vertical distance of the estimated level of velopharyngeal closure in relation to a prominent landmark of the cervical spine: the anterior tubercle of cervical vertebra 1 (C1). Midsagittal anatomic magnetic resonance images were examined across 51 participants with normal head and neck anatomy between 4 and 17 years of age. Results indicate that age is a strong predictor (P = 0.002) of the vertical distance between the level of velopharyngeal closure relative to C1. Specifically, as age increases, the vertical distance between the palatal plane and C1 becomes greater resulting in the level of velopharyngeal closure being located higher above C1 (range 4.88-10.55 mm). Results of this study provide insights into the clinical usefulness of using C1 as a surgical landmark for placement of pharyngoplasties in children with repaired cleft palate and persistent hypernasal speech. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  9. Age related changes between the level of velopharyngeal closure and the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Kazlin N.; Perry, Jamie L.; Riski, John E.; Fang, Xiangming

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to assess age related changes in the vertical distance of the estimated level of velopharyngeal closure in relation to a prominent landmark of the cervical spine: the anterior tubercle of cervical vertebrae one (C1). Midsagittal anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRI) were examined across 51 participants with normal head and neck anatomy between 4 and 17 years of age. Results indicate that age is a strong predictor (p = 0.002) of the vertical distance between the level of velopharyngeal closure relative to C1. Specifically, as age increases, the vertical distance between the palatal plane and C1 becomes greater resulting in the level of velopharyngeal closure being located higher above C1 (range 4.88mm to 10.55mm). Results of this study provide insights into the clinical usefulness of using C1 as a surgical landmark for placement of pharyngoplasties in children with repaired cleft palate and persistent hypernasal speech. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26963301

  10. Polyphenols decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity, increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and decreased gastrocnemius age-dependent autophagy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Caroline; Chabi, Beatrice; Fouret, Gilles; Py, Guillaume; Sairafi, Badie; Elong, Cecile; Gaillet, Sylvie; Cristol, Jean Paul; Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2012-09-01

    This study explored major systems of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and their consequences on oxidative stress, mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats, and evaluated the efficiency of 30-day oral supplementation with a moderate dose of a red grape polyphenol extract (RGPE) on these parameters. In the liver of aged rats, NADPH oxidase activity was increased and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities were altered, while xanthine oxidase activity remained unchanged. In muscles, only mitochondrial activity was modified with aging. The oral intake of RGPE decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity in the aged rats without affecting global oxidative stress, suggesting that NADPH oxidase was probably not the dominant detrimental source of production of O(2)·(-) in the liver. Interestingly, RGPE supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis and improved antioxidant status in the gastrocnemius of aged rats, while it had no significant effect in soleus. RGPE supplementation also decreased age-dependent autophagy in gastrocnemius of aged rats. These results extended existing findings on the beneficial effects of RGPE on mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats.

  11. Nitrate levels and the age of groundwater from the Upper Devonian sandstone aquifer in Fife, Scotland.

    PubMed

    McNeill, G W; Anderson, J; Elliot, T

    2003-03-01

    The tritium concentrations in 13 groundwater samples from boreholes throughout the Upper Devonian sandstone aquifer of Fife have been measured. Due to atmospheric variations in tritium concentrations over the last century, this radioactive tracer can be used as a groundwater age indicator. In this study, the groundwater tritium concentrations have allowed for the area to be divided into three zones, and the variable chemistry of the groundwater samples, including the problem of recent elevated nitrate levels in the Fife Aquifer, has been interpreted in terms of their relative ages.

  12. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

    1993-03-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

  13. Behaviorally activated mRNA expression profiles produce signatures of learning and enhanced inhibition in aged rats with preserved memory.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Rebecca P; Colantuoni, Carlo; Koh, Ming Teng; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often associated with cognitive decline, but many elderly individuals maintain a high level of function throughout life. Here we studied outbred rats, which also exhibit individual differences across a spectrum of outcomes that includes both preserved and impaired spatial memory. Previous work in this model identified the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus as a region critically affected by age and integral to differing cognitive outcomes. Earlier microarray profiling revealed distinct gene expression profiles in the CA3 region, under basal conditions, for aged rats with intact memory and those with impairment. Because prominent age-related deficits within the CA3 occur during neural encoding of new information, here we used microarray analysis to gain a broad perspective of the aged CA3 transcriptome under activated conditions. Behaviorally-induced CA3 expression profiles differentiated aged rats with intact memory from those with impaired memory. In the activated profile, we observed substantial numbers of genes (greater than 1000) exhibiting increased expression in aged unimpaired rats relative to aged impaired, including many involved in synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. This unimpaired aged profile also overlapped significantly with a learning induced gene profile previously acquired in young adults. Alongside the increased transcripts common to both young learning and aged rats with preserved memory, many transcripts behaviorally-activated in the current study had previously been identified as repressed in the aged unimpaired phenotype in basal expression. A further distinct feature of the activated profile of aged rats with intact memory is the increased expression of an ensemble of genes involved in inhibitory synapse function, which could control the phenotype of neural hyperexcitability found in the CA3 region of aged impaired rats. These data support the conclusion that aged subjects with preserved memory recruit adaptive mechanisms to

  14. The Relationship Between Expressive Language Level and Psychological Development in Children with Autism 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pry, R.; Petersen, A.; Baghdadli, A.

    2005-01-01

    The age of detection of autism varies and may be linked to differences in the severity of disturbance and any associated retardation. Symptom intensity, overall language level, age of recognition of first disturbances and level of psychological development were examined in 222 children with pervasive developmental disorder with a mean age of 5…

  15. Distribution of blood lead levels in a birth cohort of New Zealanders at age 21.

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, J P; Williams, S M; Heydon, J L; Walmsley, T A; Menkes, D B

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about lead exposure in the general population of young adults. In this study, whole blood lead concentration (PbB) was determined in a sample of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a well-documented birth cohort of New Zealanders aged 21 years in 1993-1994. PbB in those who consented to venipuncture at 21 years of age (n = 779; 411 males, 368 females) was compared to PbB for the same cohort at age 11 years. The PbB at age 21 ranged from 0.4 to 56 micrograms/dl with a geometric mean of 4.5 micrograms/dl (95% CI, 4.3-4.7 micrograms/dl). Only three individuals had a PbB above 30 micrograms/dl. Males had significantly higher PbB than females (geometric mean 6.0 vs. 3.2 micrograms/dl; p < 0.0001). The PbB at age 21 was 53% lower than in the same individuals at age 11 (geometric mean 4.8 vs. 10.2 micrograms/dl; p < 0.001; n = 480) and the correlation between corresponding values was weak (r = 0.19; p < 0.001). PbB at age 21 showed significant associations with high risk occupational activities, recreational exposure, domicile close to a main road, smoking, and male sex. Blood lead concentrations continue to fall in New Zealand, but occupational and recreational activities remain a significant source of lead exposure. Images Figure 1. PMID:9118875

  16. [Rheumatoid factor activity, age at manifestation and roentgenologic progression of rheumatoid arthritis--a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Hein, G; Eidner, G; Eidner, T; Marzoll, I; Klinner, M

    1993-01-01

    The outcome of RF-activity (measured by hemagglutination in the modification of Podliachouk-Harboe) was investigated in 95 patients with RA. In 52 of these patients the radiological progression (modification of Larsen index for hands and feet) in correlation to the outcome of RF was assessed. The results can be summarized in the following way: 1. Elderly RA patients show a significant elevation of RF titer. 2. There is a statistically insignificant correlation between age of RA manifestation and RF level. 3. The investigation of individual RF outcome shows that 54% of the patients have a relatively constant RF level, 15% tend to a decrease of the level of RF activity. Increased RF activity could only be demonstrated in 31% of the patients in the follow-up. 4. We more often observed a decrease of RF activity in RA cases with a disease manifestation < 30 y. We found no significant decrease in the follow-up in cases with manifestation > 60 y. 5. RA patients with a high level of RF activity (HAR > 1:512) have a significantly higher radiological progression index than cases with a low RF activity (HAR < 1:512).

  17. Language-related activations in the left prefrontal regions are differentially modulated by age, proficiency, and task demands.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Yoshinori; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2005-02-16

    It remains to be elucidated how cortical activations are modulated by factors of age, proficiency, and language task demands when mastering first language (L1) and a second language (L2). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested subjects aged 13 (the age 13 group) and 19 (the age 19 group), thereby comparing the cortical activations involved in past-tense verb identification with those involved in verb matching. We found that the activation in the dorsal triangular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was lower, corresponding to a higher proficiency in English (L2) in the older subjects, suggesting that the proficiency level plays a major role in the activation of this region during L2 acquisition. Moreover, the lower activation in the triangular and orbital parts of the left IFG (F3t/F3O) for the irregular past tense corresponding to a higher proficiency in L2, together with the nonsignificant activation for the regular past tense when its performance almost reached perfection for age 19, suggests that the modulation of the left F3t/F3O activation reflects language task demands for identifying correct past-tense forms. On the other hand, the left F3t/F3O activation in Japanese (L1) for age 13 was significantly greater than that for age 19, despite the matched performances in L1. These results suggest that the left IFG subserves language-specific functions that are critically required when mastering any language.

  18. Activation of CREB by St. John's wort may diminish deletorious effects of aging on spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Trofimiuk, Emil; Holownia, Adam; Braszko, Jan J

    2010-03-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is one of the leading psychotherapeutic phytomedicines. Beneficial effects of this herb in the treatment of mild to moderate depression are well known. In this study we tested a hypothesis that St. John's wort alleviates age-related memory impairments by increasing the levels of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in hippocampus. Middleaged rats (18 month-old) displayed a decline in the acquisition of spatial working memory (p < 0.001) in the Morris water maze (MWM). Chronic administration of Hypericum perforatum (HP) (350 mg/kg for 21 days), potently and significantly improved the processing of spatial information in the aged rats (p < 0.001). Also the herb increased the levels of pCREB in the aged rat's hippocampus (p < 0.01) as measured by western immunoblotting. Aging caused significant locomotor impairments as tested in the open field (p < 0.001) but not in the MWM test. However, these were unaffected by treatment with HP. Thus, this study indicates that St. John's wort effectively prevents aging-induced deterioration of spatial memory in 18 month-old rats, possibly by the activation of CREB regulated genes associated with memory formation. It appears that mechanism is probably inactive in young rats.

  19. Age-associated changes in basal c-fos transcription factor binding activity in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Tsou, H; Azhar, G; Lu, X G; Kovacs, S; Peacocke, M; Wei, J Y

    1996-12-15

    The early response proto-oncogene c-fos is expressed at very low levels in the mammalian heart at baseline. To further investigate the mechanism of altered c-fos expression with age, we studied in the basal state the binding of five transcription proteins to their cognate sites in the c-fos promoter/enhancer region, in adult and old F344 rats. Our results show a reduced binding of E2F and AP1 proteins to the c-fos promoter in aging hearts. The major calcium/cyclic AMP response element (CRE) and SP1 binding was unchanged. The only increase seen with age was in the serum response element (SRE) binding proteins. SRE is the point of convergence of different signal transduction pathways (via MAP kinases and the Rho family of GTPases) at the c-fos promoter. Increased SRE binding may reflect a compensation for a decreased binding of other transcription proteins to the c-fos promoter, alteration in the phosphorylation status of SRF, or a change in the ternary complex factors Elk 1 or SAP 1. Other possibilities include defects in the signal transduction pathways with aging, which combine to produce an overall negative balance in the function of the c-fos promoter despite the increased SRE binding activity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown decreased c-fos expression with age. This may be due partly to alterations in the basal levels of transcription factor binding.

  20. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  1. Sea-level responses to sediment transport over the last ice age cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, K.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Sea-level changes over the last ice age cycle were instrumental in steering Earth's topographic evolution. These sea-level variations were driven by changes in surface mass loads, including not only ice and ocean mass variations but also the transfer of rock from eroding mountains to sedimentary deposits. Here we use an extended numerical model of ice age sea level (Dalca et al., 2013) to explore how sediment erosion and deposition affected global sea-level variations over the last ice age cycle. The model takes histories of ice and sediment loads as inputs, and it computes gravitationally self-consistent sea level responses by accounting for the deformational, gravitational, and rotational perturbations in the Earth's viscoelastic form. In these model simulations, we use published estimates of erosion rates, sedimentation rates, and ice sheet variations to constrain sediment and ice loading since the Last Interglacial. We explore sea-level responses to several erosional and depositional scenarios, and in each we quantify the relative contributions of crustal deformation and gravitational perturbation to the computed sea-level change. We also present a case study to illustrate the effects that sediment transfer can have on sea level at the regional scale. In particular, we focus on the region surrounding the Indus River, where fluvial sediment fluxes are among the highest on Earth. Preliminary model results suggest that sediment fluxes from Asia to the ocean are large enough to produce a significant response in sea level along the northeastern coast of the Arabian Sea. Moreover, they suggest that modeled sea-level histories are sensitive to the timing and spatial distribution of sediment erosion and deposition. For instance, sediment deposition along the continental shelf - which may have been the primary site of Indus River sediment deposition during the Holocene - produces a different sea-level response than sediment deposition on the deep-sea Indus Fan, where

  2. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  3. Juvenile subsistence effort, activity levels, and growth patterns. Middle childhood among Pumé foragers.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Greaves, Russell D

    2011-09-01

    Attention has been given to cross-cultural differences in adolescent growth, but far less is known about developmental variability during juvenility (ages 3-10). Previous research among the Pumé, a group of South American foragers, found that girls achieve a greater proportion of their adult stature during juvenility compared with normative growth expectations. To explain rapid juvenile growth, in this paper we consider girls' activity levels and energy expended in subsistence effort. Results show that Pumé girls spend far less time in subsistence tasks in proportion to their body size compared with adults, and they have lower physical activity levels compared with many juveniles cross-culturally. Low activity levels help to explain where the extra energy comes from to support rapid growth in a challenging environment. We suggest that activity levels are important to account for the variation of resource and labor transfers in mediating energy availability.

  4. Effects of posture and ageing on circulating atrial natriuretic peptide levels in man.

    PubMed

    Haller, B G; Züst, H; Shaw, S; Gnädinger, M P; Uehlinger, D E; Weidmann, P

    1987-10-01

    Possible influences of posture or age on plasma immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (irANP) levels and potential correlates were assessed in 12 young (age +/- s.e.m. 24 +/- 1 year) and 12 elderly (63 +/- 8 year) healthy subjects on a liberal sodium intake. The groups did not differ significantly in their basal 24-h urinary sodium excretion (210 +/- 23 versus 180 +/- 15 mmol/l). However, plasma irANP was five- to ninefold higher in the elderly (P less than 0.05-0.01). Plasma irANP averaged 167 +/- 31 and 24 +/- 3 pg/ml in the elderly and young, respectively, during recumbency, fell (P less than 0.05) to 101 +/- 21 and 11 +/- 1 pg/ml, respectively, with upright posture, and rose (P less than 0.01) to 250 +/- 51 and 50 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively, after intravenous (i.v.) loading with 0.9% saline (2.14 l in 3 h). Supine blood pressure (BP) and plasma norepinephrine tended to be higher while renin and aldosterone levels were lower (P less than 0.01) in the elderly; the three latter variables rose (P less than 0.001) with upright posture. These findings demonstrate that in normal humans, circulating irANP levels vary with posture and ageing. These changes may have potential physiological relevance and should be considered when interpreting plasma irANP levels in pathological conditions.

  5. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  6. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The purpose of…

  7. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  8. Bone speed of sound and physical activity levels of overweight and normal-weight girls and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yao, Mathew; Ludwa, Izabella; Corbett, Lauren; Klentrou, Panagiota; Bonsu, Peter; Gammage, Kimberley; Falk, Bareket

    2011-02-01

    Bone properties, reflected by speed of sound (SOS), and physical activity levels were examined in overweight (OW) girls (n = 19) and adolescents (n = 22), in comparison with normal-weight (NW) girls (n = 21) and adolescents (n = 13). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was higher in NW than in OW in both age groups. Tibial SOS was lower in OW compared with NW in both age groups. MVPA correlated with tibial SOS, once age was partialed out. The results suggest that overweight girls and adolescents are characterized by low tibial SOS, which may be partially attributed to lower physical activity levels.

  9. Psychosocial determinants of participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among Hispanic and Latina middle school-aged girls.

    PubMed

    Foran, Amanda C; Cermak, Sharon A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2013-01-01

    We examined physical activity (PA)-related psychosocial factors, weight status, and self-reported participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Latina middle school-aged girls. Baseline data from a middle school-based health behavior study (N = 326) was used. Contrasting activity-level groups were identified (81 most active, 144 least active) and compared. More active girls had significantly greater social support for PA, motivation to exercise, and positive meanings of PA than their less active peers. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI) percentile, barriers to PA, or negative meanings of PA between groups. Less active girls reported more screen time activities than the highly active girls. Positive psychosocial factors may be predictive of participation in MVPA for middle school-aged Latina youth. However, BMI may not be directly related to PA participation in this population.

  10. Changes in levels of plasminogen activator activity in normal and germ-cell-depleted testes during development.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, M; Smith, F E; Fritz, I B

    1982-05-01

    Levels of plasminogen activator activity were determined in testes obtained from normal and irradiated rats in various ages. During normal development, plasminogen activator activity per g testis increased rapidly between 40 and 60 days of age, but a comparable rise did not occur in germ-cell depleted testes of irradiated rats. Levels of enzyme in various populations of testicular cells were highest in Sertoli (varying between 1800 and 6300 units/mg protein in cell maintained under different culture conditions), and lowest in peritubular myoid cells (about 1 unit/mg protein), with intermediate levels in germinal cells (ranging between 147 and 560 units/Mg protein in residual bodies, spermatocytes and spermatids). No protease inhibitor could be detected in germ-cell extracts. The addition to the medium in which Sertoli cells were in culture of particles which can be phagocytosed (autoclaved E. coli) resulted in an increased formation of plasminogen activator activity by Sertoli cells. A synergistic enhancement of enzyme production resulted following the addition of submaximal quantities of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and autoclaved bacteria to sertoli cells in culture. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the presence of advanced germinal cells during gonadal development may stimulate the synthesis of plasminogen activator by Sertoli cells, mediated in part by the phagocytosis of residual bodies by sertoli cells which occurs prior to spermiation.

  11. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  12. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  13. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  14. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration.

    PubMed

    Qin, Liya; Liu, Yuxin; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Crews, Fulton T

    2013-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated with increasing motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in inflammation-mediated SN neurotoxicity. A comparison of control (NOX2(+/+) ) mice with NOX subunit gp91(phox) -deficient (NOX2(-/-) ) mice 10 months after LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a 39% (P < 0.01) loss of TH+IR neurons in NOX2(+/+) mice, whereas NOX2(-/-) mice did not show a significant decrease. Microglia (Iba1+IR) showed morphological activation in NOX2(+/+) mice, but not in NOX2(-/-) mice at 1 hr. Treatment of NOX2(+/+) mice with LPS resulted in a 12-fold increase in NOX2 mRNA in midbrain and 5.5-6.5-fold increases in NOX2 protein (+IR) in SN compared with the saline controls. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined using diphenyliodonium histochemistry, was increased by LPS in SN between 1 hr and 20 months. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), an NOX inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and production of ROS, TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Although LPS increased microglial activation and ROS at all ages studied, saline control NOX2(+/+) mice showed age-related increases in microglial activation, NOX, and ROS levels at 12 and 22 months of age. Together, these results suggest that NOX contributes to persistent microglial activation, ROS production, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration that persist and continue to increase with age.

  15. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Liya; Liu, Yuxin; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Crews, Fulton T.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated with increasing motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in inflammation-mediated SN neurotoxicity. A comparison of control (NOX2+/+) mice with NOX subunit gp91phox-deficient (NOX2−/−) mice 10 months after LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a 39% (p<0.01) loss of TH+IR neurons in NOX2+/+ mice, whereas, NOX2−/− mice did not show a significant decrease. Microglia (Iba1+IR) showed morphological activation in NOX2+/+ mice, but not in NOX2−/− mice at 1 hour. Treatment of NOX2+/+ mice with LPS resulted in a 12 fold increase in NOX2 mRNA in midbrain and 5.5–6.5 fold increases in NOX2 protein (+IR) in SN compared to the saline controls. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined by hydroethidine histochemistry, was increased by LPS in SN between 1 hour and 20 months. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), a NOX inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and production of ROS, TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Although LPS increased microglial activation and ROS at all ages studied, saline control NOX2+/+ mice showed age-related increases in microglial activation, NOX and ROS levels at 12 and 22 months of age. Together, these results suggest that NOX contributes to persistent microglial activation, ROS production and dopaminergic neurodegeneration that persist and continue to increase with age. PMID:23536230

  16. Serum from aged F344 rats conditions the activation of young macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Christian R; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Pérez, Viviana; Escobar, Alejandro; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; Sabaj, Valeria; Torres, Claudio; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2006-03-01

    There is considerable controversy about the molecular mechanisms responsible for the variations in innate immunity associated with age. While in vivo, aged animals and humans react to an inflammatory signal with an excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, studies in vitro generally show that this response is attenuated in macrophages from old individuals. In an effort to examine possible extrinsic factors that might affect the response of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we have challenged peritoneal macrophages obtained from young rats with sera obtained from rats of different ages. Our results indicate that the serum from aged rats significantly impairs the capacity of young macrophages to induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production, while at the same time it increases the basal levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). The effect of serum from aged donors on TNF-alpha secretion requires pre-incubation and is sensitive to heat inactivation. In contrast, the stimulating effect on IL-6 is resistant to heat, and thus should not be due to a protein factor. Therefore, our results indicate that the age-related changes in macrophage activity are not only the consequence of intrinsic changes, but there also appears to be a modulatory effect imparted by the external milieu.

  17. Midlife memory ability accounts for brain activity differences in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Pudas, Sara; Persson, Jonas; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions underlie individual differences in memory ability in older individuals, but it is unclear how individual differences in cognitive ability in youth contribute to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older age. Here, we investigated the relative influences of midlife memory ability and age-related memory change on memory-related BOLD-signal variability at one time point, using a sample from a longitudinal population-based aging study (N = 203, aged 55-80 years). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that midlife memory ability, assessed 15-20 years earlier, explained at least as much variance as memory change in clusters in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and the bilateral hippocampus, during memory encoding. Furthermore, memory change estimates demonstrated higher sensitivity than current memory levels in identifying distinct frontal regions where activity was selectively related to age-related memory change, as opposed to midlife memory. These findings highlight challenges in interpreting individual differences in neurocognitive measures as age-related changes in the absence of longitudinal data and also demonstrate the improved sensitivity of longitudinal measures.

  18. Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.

  19. JV Task 119 - Effects of Aging on Treated Activated Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Olson; Lucinda Hamre; John Pavlish; Blaise Mibeck

    2009-03-25

    For both the United States and Canada, testing has been under way for electric utilities to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending future mercury emission limits. The technology that holds the most promise for mercury control in low-chlorine lignite to meet the needs of the Clean Air Act in the United States and the Canada-Wide Standards in Canada is injection of treated activated carbon (AC) into the flue gas stream. Most of the treated carbons are reported to be halogenated, often with bromine. Under a previous multiyear project headed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), testing was performed on a slipstream unit using actual lignite-derived flue gas to evaluate various sorbent technologies for their effectiveness, performance, and cost. Testing under this project showed that halogenated ACs performed very well, with mercury capture rates often {ge} 90%. However, differences were noted between treated ACs with respect to reactivity and capacity, possibly as a result of storage conditions. Under certain conditions (primarily storage in ambient air), notable performance degradation had occurred in mercury capture efficiency. Therefore, a small exploratory task within this project evaluated possible differences resulting from storage conditions and subsequent effects of aging that might somehow alter their chemical or physical properties. In order to further investigate this potential degradation of treated (halogenated) ACs, the EERC, together with DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), SaskPower, and Otter Tail Power Company, assessed the aging effects of brominated ACs for the effect that different storage durations, temperatures, and humidity conditions have on the mercury sorption capacity of treated ACs. No aging effects on initial capture activity were observed for any carbons or conditions in the investigation

  20. Same molecule but different expression: aging and sepsis trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, a target of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Volt, Huayqui; García, José A; Doerrier, Carolina; Díaz-Casado, María E; Guerra-Librero, Ana; López, Luis C; Escames, Germaine; Tresguerres, Jesús A; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-03-01

    The connection between the innate immune system, clock genes, and mitochondrial bioenergetics was analyzed during aging and sepsis in mouse heart. Our results suggest that the sole NF-κB activation does not explain the inflammatory process underlying aging; the former also triggers the NLRP3 inflammasome that enhances caspase-1-dependent maturation of IL-1β. In this way, aged mice enter into a vicious cycle as IL-1β further activates the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome link. The origin of NF-κB activation was related to the age-dependent Bmal1/Clock/RORα/Rev-Erbα loop disruption, which lowers NAD(+) levels, reducing the SIRT1 deacetylase ability to inactivate NF-κB. Consequently, NF-κB binding to DNA increases, raising the formation of proinflammatory mediators and inducing mitochondrial impairment. The cycle is then closed with the subsequent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. This paired contribution of the innate immune pathways serves as a catalyst to magnify the response to sepsis in aged compared with young mice. Melatonin administration blunted the septic response, reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, and enhancing mitochondrial function at the levels of nonseptic aged mice, but it did not counteract the age-related inflammation. Together, our results suggest that, although with different strengths, chronoinflammaging constitutes the biochemical substrate of aging and sepsis, and identifies the NLRP3 inflammasome as a new molecular target for melatonin, providing a rationale for its use in NLRP3-dependent diseases.

  1. STAT3 activation in circulating monocytes contributes to neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei; Lechner, Judith; Zhao, Jiawu; Toth, Levente; Hogg, Ruth; Silvestri, Giuliana; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Chakravarthy, Usha; Xu, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating macrophages are critically involved in pathogenic angiogenesis such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Macrophages originate from circulating monocytes and three subtypes of monocyte exist in humans: classical (CD14+CD16-), non-classical (CD14-CD16+) and intermediate (CD14+CD16+) monocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of circulating monocyte in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Flow cytometry analysis showed that the intermediate monocytes from nAMD patients expressed higher levels of CX3CR1 and HLA-DR compared to those from controls. Monocytes from nAMD patients expressed higher levels of phosphorylated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (pSTAT3), and produced higher amount of VEGF. In the mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), pSTAT3 expression was increased in the retina and RPE/choroid, and 49.24% of infiltrating macrophages express pSTAT3. Genetic deletion of the Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 3 (SOCS3) in myeloid cells in the LysM-Cre+/-:SOCS3fl/fl mice resulted in spontaneous STAT3 activation and accelerated CNV formation. Inhibition of STAT3 activation using a small peptide LLL12 suppressed laser-induced CNV. Our results suggest that monocytes, in particular the intermediate subset of monocytes are activated in nAMD patients. STAT3 activation in circulating monocytes may contribute to the development of choroidal neovascularisation in AMD. PMID:27009107

  2. Circulating testosterone and inhibin levels at different ages in the male beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Etsuko; Ueda, Yoko; Arai, Kazutoshi; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Miori; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-03-01

    This study is the first report on circulating testosterone and inhibin levels in a species of whales, the beluga. Circulating testosterone and immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin levels in two captive male belugas ("Nack", originally from Canada and "Duke", from the Okhotsk Sea) were measured every month for 9 years between 1995 and 2003. Assuming that clearly increased testosterone levels in the circulation indicates that the belugas had reached sexual maturity, at the ages of 10 ("Nack") and 11 years old ("Duke"). Their testosterone levels before the significant increase (pre-pubertal) were 0.42 ± 0.07 ng/ml (n=18) and 0.35 ± 0.10 ng/ml (n=18) and, those of after the increase (maturity) were 1.65 ± 0.14 ng/m l (n=74) and 2.06 ± 0.14 ng/ml (n=74). Circulating ir-inhibin levels before sexual maturity were 0.78 ± 0.04 ng/ml (n=18) and 0.64 ± 0.04 ng/ml (n=15) and, after sexual maturity were 0.52 ± 0.02 ng/ml (n=56) and 0.43 ± 0.02 ng/ml (n=67). Seasonal changes were observed in the testosterone levels after sexual maturity and the levels increased during March and April in Canadian origin "Nack", and peaked in February in Okhotsk origin "Duke". Circulating ir-inhibin level gradually decreased as they aged. A negative correlation between the circulating testosterone and ir-inhibin was observed. No seasonal changes were observed in the ir-inhibin levels after sexual maturity. These data will surely correspond to clarification of endocrinology and the successful reproduction of the beluga.

  3. Blood lead levels in children aged 24 to 36 months in Vancouver.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, A; Hertzman, C; Peck, S H; Lockitch, G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the blood lead levels in children and to identify risk factors for elevated levels. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Vancouver. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of children aged 24 to 36 months, born and still resident in Vancouver. The sample was stratified proportionally by the median annual family income in the census tract where each family resided. OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood lead levels and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels, determined from a questionnaire administered to parents. RESULTS: Of the children in the sample, 42% (178/422) were ineligible or could not be located. Of the remaining children, 73% (177/244) participated and adequate blood specimens were obtained from 172. The mean blood lead level was 0.29 mumol/L (standard deviation 0.13 mumol/L). (A blood lead level of 1 mumol/L is equivalent to 20.7 micrograms/dL.) The lowest level was 0.06 mumol/L, and the highest was 0.85 mumol/L. Of children with adequate samples, 8.1% (14/172) had blood lead levels of 0.48 mumol/L or higher, and 0.6% (1/172) had a level higher than 0.72 mumol/L. The logarithms of the levels were normally distributed, with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.26 mumol/L (geometric standard deviation 1.56). Of approximately 70 possible predictors of blood lead levels analysed, those that showed a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with increased blood lead levels were soldering performed in the home as part of an electronics hobby (GM blood lead level 0.34 mumol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27 to 0.39 mumol/L), aboriginal heritage (GM blood lead level 0.33 mumol/L, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.39 mumol/L), dwelling built before 1921 (GM blood lead level 0.32 mumol/L, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.37 mumol/L), age of water service connection to dwelling (predicted blood lead level 0.00087 mumol/L [95% CI 0.00005 to 0.00169 mumol/L] higher per year since service connection) and decreased stature (predicted blood lead level 0.018 mumol/L [95% CI 0.0353 to 0

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of brain aluminum in Alzheimer disease and aging.

    PubMed

    Markesbery, W R; Ehmann, W D; Hossain, T I; Alauddin, M; Goodin, D T

    1981-12-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis procedures were used to determine the aluminum content of various brain regions in histologically verified Alzheimer disease (AD) and in controls. The grand mean aluminum level for 74 AD specimens was 0.372 +/- 0.058 microgram/gm and for 137 adult controls, 0.467 +/- 0.033 microgram/gm, both on a wet weight basis. No difference was found at the bulk sample level between AD and adult controls, corrected for age and sex, or when frontal, temporal, and hippocampal specimens were compared. Control specimens (infancy to 85 years) showed an increase in brain aluminum concentration with age. Comparison of freeze-dried to wet weight ratios of AD and controls revealed a small increase in water content in AD brains.

  5. Neonatal pain-related stress and NFKBIA genotype are associated with altered cortisol levels in preterm boys at school age.

    PubMed

    Grunau, Ruth E; Cepeda, Ivan L; Chau, Cecil M Y; Brummelte, Susanne; Weinberg, Joanne; Lavoie, Pascal M; Ladd, Mihoko; Hirschfeld, Aaron F; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Van Uum, Stan; Brant, Rollin; Turvey, Stuart E

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal pain-related stress is associated with elevated salivary cortisol levels to age 18 months in children born very preterm, compared to full-term, suggesting early programming effects. Importantly, interactions between immune/inflammatory and neuroendocrine systems may underlie programming effects. We examined whether cortisol changes persist to school age, and if common genetic variants in the promoter region of the NFKBIA gene involved in regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, modify the association between early experience and later life stress as indexed by hair cortisol levels, which provide an integrated index of endogenous HPA axis activity. Cortisol was assayed in hair samples from 128 children (83 born preterm ≤ 32 weeks gestation and 45 born full-term) without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments at age 7 years. We found that hair cortisol levels were lower in preterm compared to term-born children. Downregulation of the HPA axis in preterm children without major impairment, seen years after neonatal stress terminated, suggests persistent alteration of stress system programming. Importantly, the etiology was gender-specific such that in preterm boys but not girls, specifically those with the minor allele for NFKBIA rs2233409, lower hair cortisol was associated with greater neonatal pain (number of skin-breaking procedures from birth to term), independent of medical confounders. Moreover, the minor allele (CT or TT) of NFKBIA rs2233409 was associated with higher secretion of inflammatory cytokines, supporting the hypothesis that neonatal pain-related stress may act as a proinflammatory stimulus that induces long-term immune cell activation. These findings are the first evidence that a long-term association between early pain-related stress and cortisol may be mediated by a genetic variants that regulate the activity of NF-κB, suggesting possible involvement of stress/inflammatory mechanisms in HPA programming in boys born very

  6. Serum levels of toxic AGEs (TAGE) may be a promising novel biomarker in development and progression of NASH.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Sakasai-Sakai, A; Takata, T; Ueda, T; Takino, J; Tsutsumi, M; Hyogo, H; Yamagishi, S

    2015-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leads to fibrosis and potentially cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD has also been implicated in other medical conditions such as insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome, hyperlipemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Continuous hyperglycemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macro-vascular complications via various metabolic pathways, and numerous hyperglycemia-induced metabolic and hemodynamic conditions exist, including the increased generation of various types of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). We recently demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGEs), the predominant components of toxic AGEs (TAGE), played an important role in the pathogenesis of angiopathy in diabetic patients. Moreover, a growing body of evidence suggests that the interaction between TAGE and the receptor for AGEs may alter intracellular signaling, gene expression, and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules and also elicits the generation of oxidative stress in numerous types of cells including hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells. Serum levels of TAGE were significantly higher in NASH patients than in those with simple steatosis and healthy controls. Moreover, serum levels of TAGE inversely correlated with adiponectin (adiponectin is produced by adipose tissue and is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that can increase insulin sensitivity). Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of TAGE showed intense staining in the livers of patients with NASH. Serum levels of TAGE may be a useful biomarker for discriminating NASH from simple steatosis. The administration of atorvastatin (10 mg daily) for 12 months significantly improved NASH-related metabolic parameters and significantly decreased serum levels of TAGE. The

  7. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed.

  8. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group).

  9. Influences of age, gender, and parents' educational level in knowledge, behavior and preferences regarding noise, from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to loud sound during leisure activities for long periods of time is an important area to implement preventive health education, especially among young people. The aim was to identify the relations among awareness about the damaging effects of loud levels of sounds, previous exposures do loud sounds, preferences-related to sound levels and knowledge about hearing protection with age, gender, and their parent's educational level among children. Prospective cross-sectional. Seven hundred and forty students (5-16 years old) and 610 parents participated in the study. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and linear regression. About 86.5% of the children consider that loud sounds damage the ears and 53.7% dislike noisy places. Children were previously exposed to parties and concerts with loud music, Mardi Gras, firecrackers and loud music at home or in the car and loud music with earphones. About 18.4% of the younger children could select the volume of the music, versus 65.3% of the older ones. Children have poor information about hearing protection and do not have hearing protection device. Knowledge about the risks related to exposures to loud sounds and about strategies to protect their hearing increases with age, but preference for loud sounds and exposures to it increases too. Gender and parents' instructional level have little influence on the studied variables. Many of the children's recreational activities are noisy. It is possible that the tendency of increasing preference for loud sounds with age might be a result of a learned behavior.

  10. How Does It Look? Level 2 Perspective-Taking at 36 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that children engage in Level 2 visual perspective-taking, that is, the understanding that others may see things in a different way, between 4 and 5 years of age (e.g., J. H. Flavell, B. A. Everett, K. Croft, & E. R. Flavell, 1981). This ability was reexamined in 36-month-olds using color filters. In Experiment 1 (N =…

  11. Relation of cord blood thyroxine and thyrotropin levels to gestational age and birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Prato, F S; Reese, L; Tevaarwerk, G J; Mackenzie, R; Hurst, C J

    1980-01-01

    A program of screening cord blood for evidence of primary neonatal hypothyroidism was implemented in a general hospital. In 13 months 3456 newborns were screened: the thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were measured in cord blood samples, and when the T4 level was below 8.0 micrograms/dl thyrotropin was also assayed in the sample. The two-tier program was effective. One hypothyroid newborn was detected and treated. More boys than girls had T4 levels below 8.0 micrograms/dl (9.7% v. 4.7%). The T4 level correlated with birth weight slightly better in the boys (r = 0.28 v. 0.21), and in the boys this correlation was stronger when the birth weight was lower. Regression analysis of the data for 54 sets of twins indicated that the T4 level was more strongly related to gestational age than to birth weight. PMID:7192594

  12. Indoor mold levels and current asthma among school-aged children in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, O; Kirychuk, S P; Lawson, J A; Karunanayake, C; Cockcroft, D W; Willson, P J; Senthilselvan, A; Rennie, D C

    2017-03-01

    Current knowledge regarding the association between indoor mold exposures and asthma is still limited. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured indoor mold levels and current asthma among school-aged children. Parents completed a questionnaire survey of health history and home environmental conditions. Asthma cases had a history of doctor-diagnosed asthma or current wheeze without a cold in the past 12 months. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Vacuumed dust samples were collected from the child's indoor play area and mattress. Samples were assessed for mold levels and quantified in colony-forming units (CFU). Sensitization to mold allergens was also determined by skin testing. Being a case was associated with family history of asthma, pet ownership, and mold allergy. Mold levels (CFU/m(2) ) in the dust samples of children's mattress and play area floors were moderately correlated (r = 0.56; P < 0.05). High mold levels (≥30 000 CFU/m(2) ) in dust samples from play [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.03-6.43] and mattress (aOR) = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.11-8.00) areas were significantly associated with current asthma. In this study high levels of mold are a risk factor for asthma in children.

  13. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-02-21

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  14. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SEROTONIN LEVELS IN RAT PLATELETS, SERUM AND BRAIN ON THE AGING].

    PubMed

    Taborskaya, K I; Frolova, M Yu; Kuleva, N V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin functions as neurotransmitter in central nervous system and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone, gastro-intestinal motility and blood coagulation in the periphery. The appearance of new data on the significant correlation between serotonin levels in platelets and cerebrospinal fluid (Audhya et al., 2012) renewed interest in the hypothesis in which the platelet is seen as a model of cerotoninergic neuron. In our study, the levels of serotonin in platelets, serum and various brain regions of rats aged 6 and 24 months have been determined and comparatively analyzed. The method of high performance liquid chromatography was used. The decrease of serotonin level in platelets from 0.768 to 0.359 μg per 10(9) cells and its increase in the middle brain from 0.260 to 0.439 μg per 1 of wet weight have been clearly demonstrated in aging of animals. The differences in the content of serotonin in other parts of the brain and in the blood serum of young and old animals were statistically insignificant. Therefore, despite the attractiveness of the concept of platelet as a model of a neuron, the extrapolation of the data on platelet serotonin transport into neuronal ones requires caution, especially in the study of aging.

  15. Lifecourse Activity Participation From Early, Mid, and Later Adulthood as Determinants of Cognitive Aging: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    PubMed Central

    Pattie, Alison; Deary, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine potential sensitive periods for activity participation across adulthood to reduce cognitive decline and to determine whether associations persist after accounting for the lifetime stability of cognitive ability. Method: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 is a longitudinal study of cognitive aging. Participants were born in 1921 and most completed a mental ability test at the age of 11 years. Cognitive assessments were completed at mean ages 79 (N = 550), 83 (N = 321), 87 (N = 235), and 90 years (N = 129). Participants provided retrospective details of their activity participation for young (20–35 years), mid (40–55 years), and later adulthood (60–75 years), and contemporaneously at age 79. Results: Associations between activity and the level of, and change in, cognitive ability in old age were examined with latent growth curve models. Accounting for demographics and childhood cognitive ability, engagement in leisure activities in midlife was positively associated with cognitive ability level (path coefficient = .32), whereas higher physical activity in later adulthood was associated with less cognitive decline (.27). Discussion: The findings support a lifecourse approach in identifying determinants of cognitive aging; leisure and physical activity during different periods of adulthood may enhance cognitive abilities or reduce decline. PMID:27974473

  16. Age-Dependent Hepatic UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Gene Expression and Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Elizabeth; Mehboob, Huma; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Mirkov, Snezana; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important phase II drug metabolism enzymes. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and changes in mRNA expression and activity of major human hepatic UGTs, as well as to understand the potential regulatory mechanism underlying this relationship. Using previously generated data, we investigated age-dependent mRNA expression levels of 11 hepatic UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17) and 16 transcription factors (AHR, AR, CAR, ESR2, FXR, GCCR, HNF1a, HNF3a, HNF3b, HNF4a, PPARA, PPARG, PPARGC, PXR, SP1, and STAT3) in liver tissue of donors (n = 38) ranging from 0 to 25 years of age. We also examined the correlation between age and microsomal activities using 14 known UGT drug substrates in the liver samples (n = 19) of children donors. We found a statistically significant increase (nominal p < 0.05) in the expression of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5, UGT1A6, UGT2B7, and UGT2B17, as well as glucuronidation activities of serotonin, testosterone, and vorinostat during the first 25 years of life. Expression of estrogen receptor 1 and pregnane X receptor, two strong UGT transcriptional regulators, were significantly correlated with both age and UGT mRNA expression (p ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that both UGT expression and activity increase during childhood and adolescence, possibly driven in part by hormonal signaling. Our findings may help explain inter-patient variability in response to medications among children. PMID:27899892

  17. Durable Medical Equipment for Children With Spinal Cord Dysfunction: Implications of Age and Level of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Virginia S

    2007-01-01

    Background: Children with spinal cord dysfunction interact with their environment in different ways than their able-bodied peers. To enable them to participate in typical, age-appropriate activities, they must be provided with various types of equipment. Choosing from available options involves a team approach. Summary: This article discusses general types of durable medical equipment for mobility (wheelchairs, strollers, standers), communication (including augmentative communication devices and computers), self-care, and recreation. Provision of this equipment for these children enhances their ability to learn and to take part in everyday activities and improves their quality of life. PMID:17874704

  18. Urine bisphenol-A level in relation to obesity and overweight in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Kun; Miao, Maohua; Zhou, ZhiJun; Wu, Chunhua; Shi, Huijing; Liu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Siqi; Yuan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a potential endocrine disruptor impacting metabolic processes and increasing the risk of obesity. To determine whether urine BPA level is associated with overweight/obesity in school-age children, we examined 1,326 students in grades 4-12 from three schools (one elementary, one middle, and one high school) in Shanghai. More than 98% of eligible students participated. Total urine BPA concentration was measured and anthropometric measures were taken by trained research staff. Information on risk factors for childhood obesity was collected for potential confounders. Age- and gender-specific weight greater than 90(th) percentile of the underlying population was the outcome measure. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher urine BPA level (≥2 µg/L), at the level corresponding to the median urine BPA level in the U.S. population, was associated with more than two-fold increased risk of having weight >90(th) percentile among girls aged 9-12 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-4.65). The association showed a dose-response relationship with increasing urine BPA level associated with further increased risk of overweight (p = 0.006 for trend test). Other anthropometric measures of obesity showed similar results. The same association was not observed among boys. This gender difference of BPA effect was consistent with findings from experimental studies and previous epidemiological studies. Our study suggests that BPA could be a potential new environmental obesogen. Widespread exposure to BPA in the human population may also be contributing to the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  19. An investigation of chromospheric activity spanning the Vaughan-Preston gap: impact on stellar ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, G.; Melendez, J.; Pasquini, L.; Carraro, G.; Danziger, J.; François, P.; Matteucci, F.; Santos, N. C.

    2009-05-01

    Context: Chromospheric activity is widely used as an age indicator for solar-type stars based on the early evidence that there is a smooth evolution from young and active to old and inactive stars. However, this transition may require modification as chromospheric activity is not a viable age indicator for stars older than 1 Gyr. Aims: We analysed chromospheric activity in five solar-type stars in two open clusters, in order to study how chromospheric activity evolves with time. Methods: We took UVES high-resolution, high S/N ratio spectra of 3 stars in IC 4756 and 2 in NGC 5822, which were combined with a previously studied data-set and reanalysed here. The emission core of the deep, photospheric Ca II K line was used as a probe of the chromospheric activity. Results: All of the 5 stars in the new sample, including those in the 1.2 Gyr-old NGC 5822, have activity levels comparable to those of Hyades and Praesepe. Conclusions: A likely interpretation of our data is that solar-type-star chromospheric activity, from the age of the Hyades until that of the Sun, does not evolve smoothly. Stars change from active to inactive, crossing the activity range corresponding to the Vaughan-Preston gap, on a time-scale that might be as short as 200 Myr. Evolution before and after such a transition is much less significant than cyclical and long-term variations. We show that data presented in the literature to support a correlation between age and activity could be also interpreted differently in the light of our results. Suggestions have been published that relevant stellar structures and/or dynamos are different for active and inactive stars. These provide a natural explanation for the observations presented here. More observations are required in order to strengthen our results, especially a long-term follow up of our two targets in the 1.2-Gyr old cluster NGC 5822. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern

  20. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  1. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  2. MRI quantification of human spine cartilage endplate geometry: Comparison with age, degeneration, level, and disc geometry.

    PubMed

    DeLucca, John F; Peloquin, John M; Smith, Lachlan J; Wright, Alexander C; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2016-08-01

    Geometry is an important indicator of disc mechanical function and degeneration. While the geometry and associated degenerative changes in the nucleus pulposus and the annulus fibrosus are well-defined, the geometry of the cartilage endplate (CEP) and its relationship to disc degeneration are unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify CEP geometry in three dimensions using an MRI FLASH imaging sequence and evaluate relationships between CEP geometry and age, degeneration, spinal level, and overall disc geometry. To do so, we assessed the MRI-based measurements for accuracy and repeatability. Next, we measured CEP geometry across a larger sample set and correlated CEP geometric parameters to age, disc degeneration, level, and disc geometry. The MRI-based measures resulted in thicknesses (0.3-1 mm) that are comparable to prior measurements of CEP thickness. CEP thickness was greatest at the anterior/posterior (A/P) margins and smallest in the center. The CEP A/P thickness, axial area, and lateral width decreased with age but were not related to disc degeneration. Age-related, but not degeneration-related, changes in geometry suggest that the CEP may not follow the progression of disc degeneration. Ultimately, if the CEP undergoes significant geometric changes with aging and if these can be related to low back pain, a clinically feasible translation of the FLASH MRI-based measurement of CEP geometry presented in this study may prove a useful diagnostic tool. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1410-1417, 2016.

  3. The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Olsson, Gustav; Ekblom, Örjan; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Different aspects of the daily movement pattern--sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity--have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  4. Antioxidant and anti-ageing activities of citrus-based juice mixture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Jong Seok; Song, Hye-Jin; Choe, Soo Young; Park, In-Jae; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2016-03-01

    The production of excessive reactive oxygen species by exposure to oxidative stress and solar radiation are primary factors in skin damage. We examined the effects of a citrus-based juice mixture and its bioactive compounds on antioxidant and anti-ageing activities in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice via the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The citrus-based juice mixture reduced H2O2-induced cell damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species production in human dermal fibroblasts. Citrus-based juice mixture pretreatment suppressed the activation of the H2O2-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by activating the expression of activator protein 1 and matrix metalloproteinases. Moreover, it increased the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase. In addition, oral administration of the citrus-based juice mixture decreased skin thickness and wrinkle formation and increased collagen content on an ultraviolet light B-exposed hairless mouse. These results indicate that the citrus-based juice mixture is a potentially healthy beverage for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced premature skin ageing.

  5. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  6. Cystatin C Levels in Middle-Aged Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Archontogeorgis, Kostas; Nena, Evangelia; Tsigalou, Christina; Voulgaris, Athanasios; Xanthoudaki, Maria; Froudarakis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C (Cyst C) is a novel biomarker of both latent renal damage and cardiovascular disease. Aim of the study was to measure serum levels of Cyst C, as well as IL-8 and CRP, in otherwise healthy OSAS patients. Methods. 84 individuals examined with polysomnography for OSAS symptoms without known comorbidities were prospectively recruited. Results. According to apnea hypopnea index (AHI) subjects were divided in two groups: OSAS group (AHI > 5/hour, n = 64) and controls (AHI < 5/hour, n = 20), which were age- and BMI-matched. Cyst C levels were higher in OSAS patients versus controls (1176.13 ± 351.33 versus 938.60 ± 245.83 ng/mL, resp.; p = 0.017) while serum IL-8 and CRP levels did not differ significantly. Positive correlation was found between Cyst C levels and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (r = 0.240, p = 0.039) and percentage of time with oxygen saturation <90% (r = 0.290, p = 0.02) and negative correlation was found between Cyst C levels and average oxygen saturation during sleep (r = −0.291, p = 0.012). After adjustment for age and BMI, RDI was the only independent predictor of Cyst C levels (β = 0.256, p = 0.039). Conclusion. Cyst C serum levels are increased in OSAS patients without comorbidities, suggesting an increased renal and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27843647

  7. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation.

    PubMed

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R; Clark, Simon J; Bishop, Paul N; Day, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation.

  8. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  9. Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Barbara; Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at heightened risk for developing clinically significant behavioral and emotional difficulties as compared to children with typical development (TD). However, nearly all studies comparing psychopathology in youth with DD employ TD control groups of the same chronological age (CA). It is unclear, then, whether the heightened symptomology found in age-matched children with DD is beyond what would be expected given their developmental level. The present study assessed rates of behavior problems and mental disorder in 35 children with DD at age 9 years. These were compared with rates from 35 children with TD matched for CA at age 9 and also earlier rates for these same children at age 6, when matched for mental age (MA). Children with DD had significantly more behavior problems in 7 of the 17 scales of the CBCL when compared to TD children matched for CA, and 6 of 17 scales when compared to the MA-matched group. Rates of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder were significantly higher in the DD group than both the CA- and MA-matched TD groups for three and four, respectively, of the seven diagnoses examined. Descriptively, the mean ratings for all variables assessed were higher for the DD group than both TD comparison groups, with the exception of the Anxious/Depressed scale of the CBCL. These findings validate the heightened risk for clinically significant behavior problems and mental disorders in youth with DD above and beyond their developmental functioning. PMID:25498740

  10. Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valderi Abreu; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Decimo, Juliana Pereira; de Souza, William Cordeiro; Monteiro, Anna Louise Stellfeld; Lahard, Ian; França, Suzana Nesi; Leite, Neiva

    2017-01-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D=45 and CON=109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard's Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2 max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42.44 ± 4.65; p<0.05). The VO2max had correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = 0.63; p = 0.0001) and an inverse correlation with sedentary activities (r = -0.46; p = 0.006). In the T1D the levels of HbA1c had an inverse correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = -0.34; p = 0.041) and correlation with the BMI z-score (r = 0.43; p = 0.017). Only 37,8% of the participants in the T1D reached the adequate amount of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, in the CON 81,7% reached the WHO's recommendation.

  11. Instructions, feedback, and reinforcement in reducing activity levels in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Schulman, J L; Suran, B G; Stevens, T M; Kupst, M J

    1979-01-01

    The biomotometer, an electronic device which simultaneously measures motor activity and provides auditory feedback, was used in combination with material reinforcers in an experiment to reduce children's activity level in a classroom setting. Subjects were nine boys and two girls, aged 9--13, from a day hospital program for emotionally disturbed children. After five baseline trials, each child had five contingent reinforcement trials in which he/she received feedback "beeps" from the biomotometer and was given toy or candy rewards after each trial in which activity fell at least 20% below mean baseline level. Then five noncontingent reinforcement trials were run in which children received rewards for wearing the apparatus without the feedback attachment. Results indicated that the intervention "package," including instructions, feedback, and contingent reinforcement, was successful in all five trials for 8 of 11 children. Activity levels increased during the final noncontingent phase.

  12. Physical Activity Levels in Normal Weight and Overweight Portuguese Children: An Intervention Study during an Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Luis; Lopes, Vitor; Pereira, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of an intervention strategy during the school recess on physical activity (PA) levels, by gender, age and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprises 158 Portuguese children aged 6 to 12 years. Weight and height were objectively measured. PA was assessed by accelerometry during the recess in pre-intervention…

  13. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  14. Cultivating Social Work Leadership in Health Promotion and Aging: Strategies for Active Aging Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Victor W.; Altpeter, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The rapid growth of the population of older adults and their concomitant physical status and health needs have captured the attention, collaboration, and funding support of an array of leaders in the fields of aging and health care. To help fill the void of literature available to social workers interested in health promotion and aging, the…

  15. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    PubMed Central

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, p<0.05). Almost two thirds of MVPA was achieved in short bouts of less than 5 minutes, and 35% of the subjects did not achieve a single 10-minute bout. Hence, only 14% adhered to the WHO recommendation of 2.5 hours of MVPA/week in at least 10-minute bouts. Females, older subjects and obese subjects spent less time in MVPA (p<0.05), but no clear association with hypertension, asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in

  16. Differences between chronological and brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Bherer, Louis; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education and physical activity and the difference between a physiological prediction of age and chronological age (CA). Cortical and subcortical gray matter regional volumes were calculated from 331 healthy adults (range: 19-79 years). Multivariate analyses identified a covariance pattern of brain volumes best predicting CA (R(2) = 47%). Individual expression of this brain pattern served as a physiologic measure of brain age (BA). The difference between CA and BA was predicted by education and self-report measures of physical activity. Education and the daily number of flights of stairs climbed (FOSC) were the only 2 significant predictors of decreased BA. Effect sizes demonstrated that BA decreased by 0.95 years for each year of education and by 0.58 years for 1 additional FOSC daily. Effects of education and FOSC on regional brain volume were largely driven by temporal and subcortical volumes. These results demonstrate that higher levels of education and daily FOSC are related to larger brain volume than predicted by CA which supports the utility of regional gray matter volume as a biomarker of healthy brain aging.

  17. Identification of a protein with antioxidant activity that is important for the protection against beer ageing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming J; Clarke, Frank M; Rogers, Peter J; Young, Paul; Sales, Narelle; O'Doherty, Patrick J; Higgins, Vincent J

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out with fresh Australian lager beer which was sampled directly off the production line, the same samples aged for 12 weeks at 30 °C, and the vintage beer which was kept at 20 °C for 5 years. Characteristic Australian lager flavour was maintained in the fresh and vintage beers but was lost in the aged beer. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and free thiol group labelling analyses of beer proteins found that this flavour stability correlated with the presence of an unknown 10 kilodaltons (kDa) protein with a higher level of free thiols. The protein was purified by size-exclusion chromatography, then peptide sequencing and database matching identified it as the barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1). Further characterisation using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based antioxidant screening assay demonstrated that the LTP1 protein was active in DPPH reduction and antioxidant activity. The absence of free thiol in the aged beer indicates that the thiol functional groups within the LTP1 protein were saturated and suggests that it is important in the flavour stability of beer by maintaining reduction capacity during the ageing process.

  18. Identification of a Protein with Antioxidant Activity that is Important for the Protection against Beer Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming J.; Clarke, Frank M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Young, Paul; Sales, Narelle; O’Doherty, Patrick J.; Higgins, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out with fresh Australian lager beer which was sampled directly off the production line, the same samples aged for 12 weeks at 30 °C, and the vintage beer which was kept at 20 °C for 5 years. Characteristic Australian lager flavour was maintained in the fresh and vintage beers but was lost in the aged beer. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and free thiol group labelling analyses of beer proteins found that this flavour stability correlated with the presence of an unknown 10 kilodaltons (kDa) protein with a higher level of free thiols. The protein was purified by size-exclusion chromatography, then peptide sequencing and database matching identified it as the barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1). Further characterisation using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based antioxidant screening assay demonstrated that the LTP1 protein was active in DPPH reduction and antioxidant activity. The absence of free thiol in the aged beer indicates that the thiol functional groups within the LTP1 protein were saturated and suggests that it is important in the flavour stability of beer by maintaining reduction capacity during the ageing process. PMID:22016646

  19. Variations in Acetylcholinesterase Activity within Human Cortical Pyramidal Neurons Across Age and Cognitive Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Janeczek, Monica; Gefen, Tamar; Samimi, Mehrnoosh; Kim, Garam; Weintraub, Sandra; Bigio, Eileen; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Geula, Changiz

    2017-03-01

    We described an extensive network of cortical pyramidal neurons in the human brain with abundant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Emergence of these neurons during childhood/adolescence, attainment of highest density in early adulthood, and virtual absence in other species led us to hypothesize involvement of AChE within these neurons in higher cortical functions. The current study quantified the density and staining intensity of these neurons using histochemical procedures. Few faintly stained AChE-positive cortical pyramidal neurons were observed in children/adolescents. These neurons attained their highest density and staining intensity in young adulthood. Compared with the young adult group, brains of cognitively normal elderly displayed no significant change in numerical density but a significant decrease in staining intensity of AChE-positive cortical pyramidal neurons. Brains of elderly above age 80 with unusually preserved memory performance (SuperAgers) showed significantly lower staining intensity and density of these neurons when compared with same-age peers. Conceivably, low levels of AChE activity could enhance the impact of acetylcholine on pyramidal neurons to counterbalance other involutional factors that mediate the decline of memory capacity during average aging. We cannot yet tell if elderly with superior memory capacity have constitutively low neuronal AChE levels or if this feature reflects adaptive neuroplasticity.

  20. Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, P<0.01). Similar vasorelaxation was elicited with the additional arginase inhibitors N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). This effect required intact endothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. DFMO-elicited vasodilation was greater in old (O) compared with Y rat aortic rings (60+/-6% versus 39+/-6%, P<0.05). In addition, BEC restored depressed L-arginine (10(-4) mol/L)-dependent vasorelaxant responses in O rings to those of Y. Arginase activity and expression were increased in O rings, whereas NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were decreased. BEC and DFMO suppressed arginase activity and restored NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels in O vessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

  1. Towards global age-friendly cities: determining urban features that promote active aging.

    PubMed

    Plouffe, Louise; Kalache, Alexandre

    2010-09-01

    At the same time as cities are growing, their share of older residents is increasing. To engage and assist cities to become more "age-friendly," the World Health Organization (WHO) prepared the Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide and a companion "Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities". In collaboration with partners in 35 cities from developed and developing countries, WHO determined the features of age-friendly cities in eight domains of urban life: outdoor spaces and buildings; transportation; housing; social participation; respect and social inclusion; civic participation and employment; communication and information; and community support and health services. In 33 cities, partners conducted 158 focus groups with persons aged 60 years and older from lower- and middle-income areas of a locally defined geographic area (n = 1,485). Additional focus groups were held in most sites with caregivers of older persons (n = 250 caregivers) and with service providers from the public, voluntary, and commercial sectors (n = 515). No systematic differences in focus group themes were noted between cities in developed and developing countries, although the positive, age-friendly features were more numerous in cities in developed countries. Physical accessibility, service proximity, security, affordability, and inclusiveness were important characteristics everywhere. Based on the recurring issues, a set of core features of an age-friendly city was identified. The Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide and companion "Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities" released by WHO serve as reference for other communities to assess their age readiness and plan change.

  2. Physical Activity Trajectories and Multi-Level Factors among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Kathleen R.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Wu, Tong Tong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls is well-documented, there are girls whose physical activity does not follow this pattern. This study examined the relationships between physical activity trajectories and personal, psychosocial and environmental factors among adolescent girls. Methods Participants were from the University of Maryland field site of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Of 730 girls measured in 8th grade, 589 were re-measured in 11th grade. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelererometers; participants were categorized as active maintainers (n=31), inactive maintainers (n=410), adopters (n=64), or relapsers (n=56). Height and weight were measured, personal and psychosocial information was collected from surveys, and distance from home to school and parks was assessed from Geographical Information Systems. Multivariable logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results Variables at individual, social, and environmental levels predicted active maintainers and inactive maintainers, while only individual-level variables predicted adoption. None predicted relapse. Higher (favorable) scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend and family physical activity support, frequency of physical activity with friends, and shorter distance from home to a park predicted active maintainers. Overweight/obese status, earlier age at menses, and lower scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend physical activity support, and frequency of physical activity with friends, and further distance from home to school predicted inactive maintainers. High physical self-concept and not being overweight/obese predicted adopters. Conclusion Multi-level factors appear to predict behavior maintenance rather than actual change. Implications and Contribution Although physical activity declines among girls during adolescence, some maintain and others increase their physical activity. Our

  3. Palladium and Platinum Nanoparticles Attenuate Aging-Like Skin Atrophy via Antioxidant Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Izuo, Naotaka; Toda, Toshihiko; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) loss causes a redox imbalance as it leads to excess superoxide generation, which results in the appearance of various aging-related phenotypes, including skin atrophy. Noble metal nanoparticles, such as palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, are considered to function as antioxidants due to their strong catalytic activity. In Japan, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles called PAPLAL has been used to treat chronic diseases over the past 60 years. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PAPLAL against aging-related skin pathologies in mice. Transdermal PAPLAL treatment reversed skin thinning associated with increased lipid peroxidation in Sod1−/− mice. Furthermore, PAPLAL normalized the gene expression levels of Col1a1, Mmp2, Has2, Tnf-α, Il-6, and p53 in the skin of the Sod1−/− mice. Pt nanoparticles exhibited marked SOD and catalase activity, while Pd nanoparticles only displayed weak SOD and catalase activity in vitro. Although the SOD and catalase activity of the Pt nanoparticles significantly declined after they had been oxidized in air, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation. Importantly, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles with a molar ratio of 3 or 4 to 1 continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation, indicating that Pd nanoparticles prevent the oxidative deterioration of Pt nanoparticles. These findings indicate that PAPLAL stably suppresses intrinsic superoxide generation both in vivo and in vitro via SOD and catalase activity. PAPLAL is a potentially powerful tool for the treatment of aging-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damage. PMID:25333617

  4. Palladium and platinum nanoparticles attenuate aging-like skin atrophy via antioxidant activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Izuo, Naotaka; Toda, Toshihiko; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) loss causes a redox imbalance as it leads to excess superoxide generation, which results in the appearance of various aging-related phenotypes, including skin atrophy. Noble metal nanoparticles, such as palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, are considered to function as antioxidants due to their strong catalytic activity. In Japan, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles called PAPLAL has been used to treat chronic diseases over the past 60 years. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PAPLAL against aging-related skin pathologies in mice. Transdermal PAPLAL treatment reversed skin thinning associated with increased lipid peroxidation in Sod1-/- mice. Furthermore, PAPLAL normalized the gene expression levels of Col1a1, Mmp2, Has2, Tnf-α, Il-6, and p53 in the skin of the Sod1-/- mice. Pt nanoparticles exhibited marked SOD and catalase activity, while Pd nanoparticles only displayed weak SOD and catalase activity in vitro. Although the SOD and catalase activity of the Pt nanoparticles significantly declined after they had been oxidized in air, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation. Importantly, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles with a molar ratio of 3 or 4 to 1 continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation, indicating that Pd nanoparticles prevent the oxidative deterioration of Pt nanoparticles. These findings indicate that PAPLAL stably suppresses intrinsic superoxide generation both in vivo and in vitro via SOD and catalase activity. PAPLAL is a potentially powerful tool for the treatment of aging-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damage.

  5. Estimating risks of heat strain by age and sex: a population-level simulation model.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Dear, Keith

    2015-05-18

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan's man model "MANMO") to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions.

  6. Physical activity levels in three Brazilian birth cohorts as assessed with raw triaxial wrist accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Inácio CM; van Hees, Vincent T; Ramires, Virgílio V; Knuth, Alan G; Bielemann, Renata M; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on objectively measured physical activity are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured overall physical activity and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals from the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, according to weight status, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. Methods: All children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, constitute the sampling frame; of these 99% agreed to participate. The most recent follow-ups were conducted between 2010 and 2013. In total, 8974 individuals provided valid data derived from raw triaxial wrist accelerometry. The average acceleration is presented in milli-g (1 mg = 0.001g), and time (min/d) spent in MVPA (>100 mg) is presented in 5- and 10-min bouts. Results: Mean acceleration in the 1982 (mean age 30.2 years), 1993 (mean age 18.4 years) and 2004 (mean age 6.7 years) cohorts was 35 mg, 39 mg and 60 mg, respectively. Time spent in MVPA was 26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 25; 27], 43 (95% CI 42; 44) and 45 (95% CI 43; 46) min/d in the three cohorts, respectively, using 10-min bouts. Mean MVPA was on average 42% higher when using 5-min bouts. Males were more active than females and physical activity was inversely associated with age of the cohort and SES. Normal-weight individuals were more active than underweight, overweight and obese participants. Conclusions: Overall physical activity and time spent in MVPA differed by cohort (age), sex, weight status and SES. Higher levels of activity in low SES groups may be explained by incidental physical activity. PMID:25361583

  7. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, P L; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B; Colditz, G A; Gortmaker, S L; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study undertook to examine relationships between nonsedentary activity level, time spent watching television (TV)/videocassette recorder (VCR), and risk of overweight among men. METHODS. Men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were mailed surveys. Cross-sectional analyses examined the prevalence and odds of being overweight, prospective analyses determined cumulative incidence rates and relative risks of becoming overweight over 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS. Cross-sectionally, odds of being overweight were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45%; 55%) lower for men in the highest quintile of nonsedentary activity level when compared with men in the lowest quintile. Among men watching 41 or more hours of TV/VCR per week, the odds of being overweight were 406 (95% CI = 2.67, 6.17) times greater than those for men watching no more than 1 hour per week. Prospectively, higher levels is of nonsedentary activity and lower levels of TV/VCR viewing were independently associated with lower relative risks for becoming overweight between survey years. CONCLUSIONS. Both a lack of nonsedentary activity and time spent watching TV/VCR contribute to the development of overweight in men. Sedentary and nonsedentary activities represent separate domains, each with independent risks for overweight. PMID:8561237

  8. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Takanori; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}. {yields} GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-{beta} gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression

  9. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Emily R.; Chang, Lilly; Head, Elizabeth H.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60–79 year age range. In male brains, we observed that normal aging was associated with significant decreases in androgens but not estrogens. Further, in men aged 60–79 years, brain levels of testosterone but not estrogens were lower in cases with mild neuropathological changes as well as those with advanced AD neuropathology. In male cases over age 80, brain levels hormones did not significantly vary by neuropathological status. To begin investigating the relationships between hormone levels and indices of AD neuropathology, we measured brain levels of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ). In male cases with mild neuropathological changes, we found an inverse relationship between brain levels of testosterone and soluble Aβ. Collectively, these findings demonstrate sex-specific relationships between normal, age-related depletion of androgens and estrogens in men and women, which may be relevant to development of AD. PMID:19428144

  10. Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, inhibits advanced glycation end product (AGE)-elicited mesangial cell damage by suppressing AGE receptor (RAGE) expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Takanori; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya

    2009-07-24

    The interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptor RAGE mediates the progressive alteration in renal architecture and loss of renal function in diabetic nephropathy. Oxidative stress generation and inflammation also play a central role in diabetic nephropathy. This study investigated whether and how nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), blocked the AGE-elicited mesangial cell damage in vitro. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, down-regulated RAGE mRNA levels and subsequently reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in AGE-exposed mesangial cells. AGE increased mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in mesangial cells, both of which were prevented by the treatment with nifedipine, but not amlodipine. The beneficial effects of nifedipine on AGE-exposed mesangial cells were blocked by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}). Although nifedipine did not affect expression levels of PPAR-{gamma}, it increased the PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in mesangial cells. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-inflammatory agent against AGE by suppressing RAGE expression in cultured mesangial cells via PPAR-{gamma} activation.

  11. Daily ambulatory activity levels in idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Frank M; Mackman, Chad A; Pav, Breckon; Shulman, Lisa M; Garvan, Cyndi; Macko, Richard F; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) may have decreased physical activity due to motor deficits. We recently validated the reliability of step activity monitors (SAMs) to accurately count steps in PD, and we wished to use them to evaluate the impact of disease severity on home activity levels in PD. Twenty-six subjects with PD (Hoehn and Yahr disease stage 2-4) were recruited to participate in a study of activity levels over 48 hours. Ability to achieve 95% device accuracy was an entry requirement. A Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) evaluation was performed on all subjects, subjects were monitored for 48 hours, and total number of steps per day and maximum steps taken per hour were calculated. Out of 26 subjects, 25 met entry requirements. We calculated the number of steps taken per day, as well as maximal activity levels, and correlated these with UPDRS total score, the activity of daily living subscale, and the UPDRS motor function subscale off and on medication (all p < 0.01). Transition from Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 to stage 3 was associated with a decline in functional mobility (p < 0.005). A microprocessor-linked SAM accurately counted steps in subjects with PD. The number of steps taken correlated highly with disease severity. SAMs may be useful outcome measures in PD.

  12. Physical Activity Level and Symptom Duration Are Not Associated After Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Howell, David R.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; Quinn, Bridget; Taylor, J. Andrew; Tan, Can Ozan; Meehan, William P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical rest after a concussion has been described as a key component in the management of the injury. Evidence supporting this recommendation, however, is limited. Purpose To examine the association between physical activity and symptom duration in a cohort of patients after a concussion. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods This study included 364 patients who were diagnosed with a concussion, were seen by a physician within 3 weeks of injury, and completed a questionnaire at the initial clinic visit. The questionnaire assessed the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) score, previous number of concussions, presence of the loss of consciousness or amnesia at the time of injury, and prior treatment for headaches. During each follow-up clinic visit, physical activity level was self-reported. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to determine the association between symptom duration, initial clinic visit responses, and self-reported physical activity level after the injury. Results Study participants ranged in age from 8 to 27 years (mean age, 15.0 years) and had sustained a mean of 0.8 prior concussions; 222 patients (61%) were male. On initial examination, the mean PCSS score was 34.7. The mean symptom duration was 48.9 days after the injury. Among the variables included in the model, initial PCSS score and female sex were independently associated with symptom duration, while physical activity level after the injury was not. For participants aged between 13 and 18 years, however, higher levels of physical activity after the injury were associated with a shorter symptom duration. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that physical activity after the injury may not be universally detrimental to the recovery of concussion symptoms. PMID:26838933

  13. Self-reported exertion levels on time/activity diaries: application to exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.; Terblanche, A.P.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in air pollution analysis have focused on methods for collecting data on contaminant levels in the locations actually frequented by people, especially personal monitoring. While there is still much to understand about human exposures, the next advancements will be in the area of dose assessment. This paper discusses the results of a study designed to provide data for linking exposure to dose. Specifically, we used time/activity diaries to collect information on the exertion levels associated with the reported activities. As part of a community health study, 91 children between the ages of 9 and 11 kept diaries over a two-week summer-time period (July 1989) and during a two-week school-time period (September 1989). The diary was also administered for two days to 42 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. This paper describes our concerns about interpreting self-reported exertion levels, particularly with respect to the disparity between participant and researcher perception and coding. We then present the distribution of exertion levels associated with children's activities, highlighting seasonal, day-of-week, and age-group differences.

  14. Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M

    1999-02-01

    Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results

  15. Growth of Byssochlamys Nivea in Pineapple Juice Under the Effect of Water Activity and Ascospore Age

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, M.; Miorelli, S.; Massaguer, P.R.; Aragão, G.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The study of thermal resistant mould, including Byssochlamys nivea, is of extreme importance since it has been associated with fruit and fruit products. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of water activity (aw) and ascospore age (I) on the growth of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice. Mold growth was carried out under different conditions of water activity (aw) (0.99, 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, 0.90) and ascospore age (I) (30, 51, 60, 69, 90 days). Growth parameters as length of adaptation phase (λ), maximum specific growth rate (µmax) and maximum diameter reached by the colony (A) were obtained through the fit of the Modified Gompertz model to experimental data (measuring radial colony diameter). Statistica 6.0 was used for statistical analyses (significance level α = 0.05). The results obtained clearly showed that water activity is statistically significant and that it influences all growth parameters, while ascospore age does not have any statistically significant influence on growth parameters. Also, these data showed that by increasing aw from 0.90 to 0.99, the λ value substantially decreased, while µmax and A values rose. The data contributed for the understanding of the behavior of B. nivea in pineapple juice. Therefore, it provided mathematical models that can well predict growth parameters, also helping on microbiological control and products’ shelf life determination. PMID:24031622

  16. A Connected Generation? Digital Inequalities in Elementary and High School Students According to Age and Socioeconomic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Simon; Karsenti, Thierry; Ndimubandi, Alexis; Saffari, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to better understand the relationship between students' age and socioeconomic level, and its influence on students' digital uses. We conducted a quantitative study of 401 elementary and high school students in Quebec. Four independent variables were initially selected: two related to age (actual age and education…

  17. Glucose tolerance and lipid-lipoprotein levels in middle-aged powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Hurley, B F; Hagberg, J M; Seals, D R; Ehsani, A A; Goldberg, A P; Holloszy, J O

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information regarding the effects of a form of strength training (powerlifting) on certain coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in middle-aged men. The risk factors studied were the plasma lipid-lipoprotein profile, glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels, all of which have been shown to be favourably influenced by endurance training in middle-aged and older men. Five elite powerlifters (52 +/- 9 years) were compared to distance runners and sedentary controls of similar age with whom they were matched in terms of body fatness as estimated from skin-fold thickness measurements. The powerlifters had a significantly (P less than 0.01) lower HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) level (34 +/- 4 mg/100 ml) than the sedentary controls (48 +/- 12 mg/100 ml) and runners (54 +/- 8 mg/100 ml). The total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, a good indicator of CAD risk, was 41% higher in the powerlifters than in the controls, and 57% higher than in the runners (both P less than 0.01). The total area under the glucose tolerance curve during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the powerlifters was 74% higher than for the sedentary controls (P less than 0.05) and 229% higher than for runners (P less than 0.01). Similarly, the total area under the OGTT insulin curve for the powerlifters was 68% higher than for sedentary controls and 332% higher than for the runners (P less than 0.001). These findings suggest that middle-aged powerlifters, in marked contrast to endurance athletes, have an increased risk of developing CAD.

  18. Built Environment, Adiposity, and Physical Activity in Adults Aged 50–75

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter A.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Acock, Alan; Johnson-Shelton, Deborah; Moore, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the built environment and its association with health—especially excess adiposity—and physical activity in the immediate pre-Baby Boom/early-Baby Boom generations, soon to be the dominant demographic in the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine this relationship. Methods This study used a cross-sectional, multilevel design with neighborhoods as the primary sampling unit (PSU). Residents (N=1221; aged 50–75) were recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland OR. The independent variables at the PSU level involved GIS-derived measures of land-use mix, distribution of fast-food outlets, street connectivity, access to public transportation, and green and open spaces. Dependent variables included resident-level measures of excess adiposity (BMI ≥25), three walking activities, and physical activity. Data were collected in 2006–2007 and analyzed in 2007. Results Each unit (i.e., 10%) increase in land-use mix was associated with a 25% reduction in the prevalence of overweight/obesity. However, a 1-SD increase in the density of fast-food outlets was associated with a 7% increase in overweight/obesity. Higher mixed-use land was positively associated with all three types of walking activities and the meeting of physical activity recommendations. Neighborhoods with high street connectivity, high density of public transit stations, and green and open spaces were related in varying degrees to walking and the meeting of physical activity recommendations. The analyses adjusted for neighborhood- and resident-level sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions Findings suggest the need for public health and city planning officials to address modifiable neighborhood-level, built-environment characteristics to create more livable residential communities aimed at both addressing factors that may influence unhealthy eating and promoting active, healthy lifestyles in this rapidly growing population. PMID:18541175

  19. Physical Performance of Brazilian Rugby Players From Different Age Categories and Competitive Levels.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Moraes, José E; Coelho, Maurício; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Pereira, Lucas A; Loturco, Irineu

    2016-09-01

    Kobal, R, Nakamura, FY, Moraes, JE, Coelho, M, Kitamura, K, Cal Abad, CC, Pereira, LA, and Loturco, I. Physical performance of Brazilian rugby players from different age categories and competitive levels. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2433-2439, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics and physical capacities (vertical jumping, speed, agility, and endurance abilities) among different age categories of Brazilian rugby players from the same high-level club and to compare their respective data with those obtained from the national team players. Eighty-eight men Brazilian rugby players from 4 different age categories were divided into 4 different groups (i.e., under-15 [U-15], under-17 [U-17], under-19 [U-19], and professional senior team [PRO]) and a group composed of players from the Brazilian national team (NAT). Anthropometric measures (i.e., height and body mass), squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests , 2 agility tests (change of direction [COD] and proagility), 40-m sprinting, and the Yo-Yo endurance test (level 1) were compared among the groups using an analysis of covariance (multivariable multivariate analysis of covariance) with the body mass as a covariate. The NAT group demonstrated significantly greater performances in all variables compared with the U-15, U-17, U-19, and PRO groups (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the PRO group demonstrated better performances in vertical jumping assessments (i.e., SJs and CMJs) and agility tests (i.e., COD and proagility) than the younger categories (p ≤ 0.05). Finally, except for the U-15 group, no significant differences were found between the young age-categories in sprint and endurance capacities. These findings show that, throughout the maturation process, rugby players improve their muscle power and agility abilities without presenting significant increases in endurance and sprinting capacities. Importantly, this does not hold true for players from the NAT group, who

  20. Relative sea-level change in the central Cyclades (Greece) since the Early Bronze Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Aegean is a focus of important cultural achievements in Europe since the Neolithic period. The resulting abundance of archaeological remains, many of them below sea-level represent an advantageous area for the study of local relative sea-level change. We have carried out detailed mapping of Despotiko Island (SW of Antiparos) and its surrounding. Despotiko is situated almost exactly in the center of the Cyclades (as defined nowadays), more so than Delos, and therefore is very well suited for sea-level studies of the Cyclades. This beneficial location, combined with a spacious and protected bay, additionally may explain its former importance as stepping-stone in the Aegean Sea. The island is uninhabited at present, but Early Bronze Age settlement sites and graveyards as well as a large Archaic sanctuary proof its former importance. The sanctuary is situated on a gently northeast dipping slope in the northeast part of Despotiko, in range of sight of the Órmos Despotiko. Since 1997 large parts of this important sanctuary have been excavated during several excavation campaigns. Tectonically, Despotiko, Antiparos and Paros, belong to the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline of the Central Hellenides, a stack of metamorphic tectonic nappes, mainly comprising variable types of gneiss, schist, marble and amphibolite, and tectonic slices of unmetamorphosed sediments on top, separated by low-angle normal faults from the metamorphic units below. Submerged archaeological structures at the sea bottom of the Órmos Despotiko, a Classical marble inscription from the sanctuary and partly submerged agriculture trenches at the east coast Despotiko, indicate that the relative sea-level in this area was some 3 m lower during the Early Bronze Age and still more than 1 m lower during Classical time. These values of relative sea-level rise indicate a subsidence component additional to the global sea-level rise in the investigated time period. Neglecting possible vertical tectonic movements and

  1. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated.

  2. Cascading Activation across Levels of Representation in Children's Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in adult psycholinguistics has demonstrated that activation of semantic representations begins long before phonological processing is complete. This incremental propagation of information across multiple levels of analysis is a hallmark of adult language processing but how does this ability develop? In two experiments, we elicit…

  3. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  4. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  5. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  6. Genetic Influences on Mechanically-Assessed Activity Level in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Rogers, Hannah; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Activity level is an important component of children's temperament, as well as being part of the core symptom domain of hyperactivity-impulsivity within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet it is poorly understood, due partly to limitations on parent and teacher ratings, which are typically used as measurements of these…

  7. Effect of chronologic age on induction of cystathionine synthase, uroporphyrinogen I synthase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gartler, S M; Hornung, S K; Motulsky, A G

    1981-01-01

    The activities of cystathionine synthase [L-serine hydro-lyase (adding homocysteine), EC 4.2.1.22], uroporphyrinogen I synthase [porphobilinogen ammonia-lyase (polymerizing), EC 4.3.1.8], and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose-6-phosphate:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.49) have been measured in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes of young and old human subjects. A significant decrease in activity with age was observed for cystathionine synthase and uroporphyrinogen I synthase but not for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. These changes could not be related to declining phytohemagglutinin response with aging. Age-related decreases in activity of some enzymes may be relevant for an understanding of the biology of aging. False assignment of heterozygosity, and even homozygosity, for certain genetic disorders, such as homocystinuria, may result when low enzyme levels are detected in the lymphocytes of older people. PMID:6940198

  8. Aging of human muscle: understanding sarcopenia at the single muscle cell level.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Walter R; Zayas, Ana Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Natividad

    2012-02-01

    The loss of muscle mass with age, also known as sarcopenia, is a major scientific and public health problem. Muscle atrophy is associated with the loss of functional capacity and poor health outcomes in elderly men and women. A detailed understanding of this problem in humans can be enhanced by the use of experiments with single muscle fibers. It is likely that both muscle atrophy and a decrease in muscle-fiber quality contribute to muscle dysfunction among the elderly. A better understanding of sarcopenia at the single-fiber level may lead to the design of more effective rehabilitative interventions.

  9. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  10. Anterior cingulate activity and level of cognitive conflict: explicit comparisons.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2006-12-01

    The role of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in attention is a matter of debate. One hypothesis suggests that its role is to monitor response-level conflict, but explicit evidence is somewhat lacking. In this study, the activation of ACC was compared in (a) color and number standard Stroop tasks in which response preparation and interference shared modality (response-level conflict) and (b) color and number matching Stroop tasks in which response preparation and interference did not share modality (non-response-level conflict). In the congruent conditions, there was no effect of task type. In the interference conditions, anterior cingulate activity in the matching tasks was less than that in the standard tasks. These results support the hypothesis that ACC specifically mediates generalized modality-independent selection processes invoked by response competition.

  11. Chromospheric activity and ages of solar-type stars

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, D.C.; Cromwell, R.H.; Hege, E.K.

    1987-04-01

    Observations of 15 solar-type stars in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 752 are reported. A lower resolution analog of the Mount Wilson S index is shown to yield absolute chromospheric surface flux values for these stars with about 60 percent of the sensitivity of the Mount Wilson system. Absolute chromospheric surface fluxes of solar-type stars in eight clusters ranging from 10 million yrs to six billion or more years in age are presented. Two heuristic forms are shown to fit the data about equally well, with no indication of a discontinuity at intermediate ages. These relations can yield chromospheric ages for any G-type dwarf or subgiant with a Mount Wilson S index. The usefulness of this lower resolution approach for studies of chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy as well as of the stellar birth rate is pointed out. 24 references.

  12. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  13. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year.

  14. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  15. Age-Dependent Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Activity and LDL Oxidation in Wistar Rats during Their Entire Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dileep

    2014-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL bound enzyme which plays a key role in the protection of LDL and HDL from oxidation by hydrolyzing activated phospholipids and lipid peroxide products. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis by oxidation of LDL. This study was conducted to determine age-dependent changes in plasma PON1 arylesterase activity and LDL oxidation in rats during their entire lifespan. 48 Wistar strain rats were grouped in six different age groups (1, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months). We observe a significant (P < 0.001) age-dependent decrease in plasma PON1 arylesterase activity correlating with increase in susceptibility of LDL oxidation and increase in plasma MDA level concomitantly with a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in plasma radical scavenging activity after 8 months. The reduction of PON1 and free radical scavenging activity with age could have a considerable impact on the increased incidence of atherosclerosis with age. Our observation of a significant decline in PON1 activity which correlates with increased LDL oxidation after 8 months of age is an interesting observation and needs further investigation. PMID:24971380

  16. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  17. NEUROPSI: a brief neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solís, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop, standardize, and test the reliability of a short neuropsychological test battery in the Spanish language. This neuropsychological battery was named "NEUROPSI," and was developed to assess briefly a wide spectrum of cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, and executive functions. The NEUROPSI includes items that are relevant for Spanish-speaking communities. It can be applied to illiterates and low educational groups. Administration time is 25 to 30 min. Normative data were collected from 800 monolingual Spanish-speaking individuals, ages 16 to 85 years. Four age groups were used: (1) 16 to 30 years, (2) 31 to 50 years, (3) 51 to 65 years, and (4) 66 to 85 years. Data also are analyzed and presented within 4 different educational levels that were represented in this sample; (1) illiterates (zero years of school); (2) 1 to 4 years of school; (2) 5 to 9 years of school; and (3) 10 or more years of formal education. The effects of age and education, as well as the factor structure of the NEUROPSI are analyzed. The NEUROPSI may fulfill the need for brief, reliable, and objective evaluation of a broad range of cognitive functions in Spanish-speaking populations.

  18. Relationship of optical density and skinfold measurements: effects of age and level of body fatness.

    PubMed

    Quatrochi, J A; Hicks, V L; Heyward, V H; Colville, B C; Cook, K L; Jenkins, K A; Wilson, W L

    1992-12-01

    We examined relationships between skinfold (SKF) and optical density (delta OD) measurements across age and levels of body fatness (%BF) for 151 women, 20 to 72 years. There were significant (p < .05) relationships between delta ODs and SKFs at all sites, except the thigh. The interaction (SKF x Age) was significant (p < .05) for pectoral and biceps delta ODs. Slope comparisons indicated the relationships for younger (29 years) and older (59 years) women differed significantly from zero and each other (p < .05). Analysis of SKF x %BF interactions revealed that relationships between SKFs and delta ODs at the pectoral and biceps sites for leaner (22% BF) women differed significantly from zero (p < .05) and were larger than those for obese (39% BF) women (p < or = .05). Thus, the relationship between SKFs and delta ODs is stronger for younger and leaner women compared to older and fatter women. These findings may reflect differences in fat layering due to age or body fatness and provide insight as to why the manufacturer's near-infrared (NIR) equation significantly underestimates the %BF of obese women.

  19. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats due to age-related arginase activation in intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Nara, Akina; Nagai, Hisashi; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Ogura, Sayoko; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Kuwahira, Ichiro; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is prevalent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Aging induces arginase activation and reduces nitric oxide (NO) production in the arteries. Intermittent hypoxia (IH), conferred by cycles of brief hypoxia and normoxia, contributes to OSAS pathogenesis. Here, we studied the role of arginase and aging in the pathogenesis of PAH in adult (9-mo-old) and young (2-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to IH or normoxia for 4 weeks and analyzed them with a pressure-volume catheter inserted into the right ventricle (RV) and by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Western blot analysis was conducted on arginase, NO synthase isoforms, and nitrotyrosine. IH induced PAH, as shown by increased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, in adult rats but not in young rats. IH increased expression levels of arginase I and II proteins in the adult rats. IH also increased arginase I expression in the pulmonary artery endothelium and arginase II in the pulmonary artery adventitia. Furthermore, IH reduced pulmonary levels of nitrate and nitrite but increased nitrotyrosine levels in adult rats. An arginase inhibitor (N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-1-arginine) prevented IH-induced PAH and normalized nitrite and nitrate levels in adult rats. IH induced arginase up-regulation and PAH in adult rats, but not in young rats, through reduced NO production. Our findings suggest that arginase inhibition prevents or reverses PAH.

  20. Cardiopulmonary baroreflex inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity is preserved with age in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Davy, K P; Seals, D R

    1999-02-15

    1. We tested the hypothesis that the ability of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex to produce sympathoinhibition is reduced with age in humans. Eleven young (23 +/- 1 years, mean +/- s.e.m.) and ten older (64 +/- 1) healthy adult males were studied under supine conditions (control) and in response to cardiopulmonary baroreflex stimulation evoked by acute central circulatory hypervolaemia (10 deg head-down tilt). The two groups were normotensive and free of overt cardiovascular disease. 2. Supine baseline (control) levels of efferent muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) burst frequency were twice as high in the older men (41 +/- 2 vs. 21 +/- 2 bursts min-1, P < 0.05). In both groups in response to head-down tilt arterial blood pressure and heart rate were unchanged, peripheral venous pressure (PVP) increased (P < 0.05), MSNA total activity decreased (P < 0.05), antecubital venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations did not change significantly, and forearm blood flow and vascular conductance increased (vascular resistance decreased) (all P < 0.05). The mean absolute DeltaMSNA/DeltaPVP was similar in the young and older men, although the higher control levels of MSNA in the older men resulted in a smaller percentage DeltaMSNA/DeltaPVP (P < 0.05). Per DeltaPVP, the reduction in forearm vascular resistance was smaller in the older men, but there were no age group differences when expressed as increases in forearm vascular conductance. 3. These results indicate that the ability of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex to inhibit MSNA is well preserved with age in healthy adult humans. As such, these findings are not consistent with the concept that this mechanism plays a role in the age-associated elevation in basal MSNA.

  1. Burden of disease associated with lower levels of income among US adults aged 65 and older

    PubMed Central

    Lubetkin, Erica I; Jia, Haomiao

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons aged 65 years and older represent a heterogeneous group whose prevalence in the USA is expected to markedly increase. Few investigations have examined the total burden of disease attributable to lower levels of income in a single number that accounts for morbidity and mortality. Methods We ascertained respondents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores and mortality status from the 2003 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with mortality follow-up through 31 December 2011. A mapping algorithm based on respondents' age and answers to the 4 core Healthy Days questions was used to obtain values of a preference-based measure of HRQOL, the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) index, which enables quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to be calculated. We included only respondents aged 65 years and older at the baseline, yielding a total sample size of 4952. We estimated mean QALYs according to different categories of income based on the percentage of Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Results After adjusting for age, gender and education, the remaining QALYs decreased with each successive decrement of category of income, ranging from 18.4 QALY (≥500% FPL) to 8.6 QALY (<100% FPL). Compared with participants with a mean income of ≥250% FPL, participants with an income <250% FPL had significant losses in QALY for most of the sociodemographic groups examined. In contrast, persons with a lower educational attainment did not show a corresponding loss in QALY according to income category. Conclusions This study confirmed the association between lower income category and greater burden of disease, as measured by QALYs lost, among the US population aged 65 years and older. Our findings provide additional evidence of the role played by other key determinants of health and how factors not traditionally addressed by the healthcare system impact the life

  2. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  3. [Age-related changes in blood plasma antioxidant activity in population of the southern Altai].

    PubMed

    Chanchaev, E A; Aĭzman, R I

    2012-01-01

    The blood plasma antioxidant activity was studied in the Russian and Kazakh aborigines of the southern Altai low and high mountains. There was established a decrease of the blood plasma antioxidant activity with age and a relatively low plasma antioxidant activity in the mid-mountain population; in its senior age groups, the gender differences of this parameter were revealed.

  4. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  5. Relationship between serum leptin level and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Budulgan, Mahmut; Dilek, Banu; Dağ, Şevin Buluttekin; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Yıldız, İsmail; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Çevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationship between serum leptin levels and disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc). A total of 60 subjects (30 controls and 30 patients) were included. The inflammatory markers and leptin levels were evaluated and body mass index (BMI) was measured for both groups. The assessment of the skin involvement was performed based on the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Disease activity was evaluated according to the Valentini scleroderma disease activity index. There was a significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of BMI (p < 0.05); however there was no difference with regards to age and gender (p > 0.05). Valentini scores and mRSS were determined to be significantly higher in active patients (n = 14) than in inactive patients (n = 16) (p < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between groups in terms of leptin levels (p > 0.05). However, leptin levels were significantly lower in active patients than in inactive patients (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between serum leptin and BMI (p < 0.05), and leptin and serum C3 levels (p < 0.05); no relationship was detected between leptin and other parameters. Leptin can be used as an activity marker in SSc. Further studies, including larger series, should be carried out to clarify this relationship.

  6. Characteristics of youth soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill level

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Robert M; Ribeiro, Basil; Aroso, João; Cumming, Sean P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the growth, maturity status and functional capacity of youth soccer players grouped by level of skill. Subjects The sample included 69 male players aged 13.2–15.1 years from clubs that competed in the highest division for their age group. Methods Height and body mass of players were measured and stage of pubic hair (PH) was assessed at clinical examination. Years of experience in football were obtained at interview. Three tests of functional capacity were administered: dash, vertical jump and endurance shuttle run. Performances on six soccer‐specific tests were converted to a composite score which was used to classify players into quintiles of skill. Multiple analysis of covariance, controlling for age, was used to test differences among skill groups in experience, growth status and functional capacity, whereas multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, years of training in soccer, stage of PH, height, body mass, the height×weight interaction and functional capacities to the composite skill score. Results The skill groups differed significantly in the intermittent endurance run (p<0.05) but not in the other variables. Only the difference between the highest and lowest skill groups in the endurance shuttle run was significant. Most players in the highest (12 of 14) and high (11 of 14) skill groups were in stages PH 4 and PH 5. Pubertal status and height accounted for 21% of the variance in the skill score; adding aerobic resistance to the regression increased the variance in skill accounted for to 29%. In both regressions, the coefficient for height was negative. Conclusion Adolescent soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill do not differ in age, experience, body size, speed and power, but differ in aerobic endurance, specifically at the extremes of skill. Stage of puberty and aerobic resistance (positive coefficients) and height (negative coefficient) are significant

  7. Cancer in Utah Mormon women by church activity level.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J W; Lyon, J L

    1982-08-01

    In light of low cancer rates by the Mormon Church, this study classifies female Mormon cancer patients in Utah according to measures of adherence to Church doctrines. The distribution by Church activity level is compared for each site to a group of other cancer sites felt to represent the overall activity level distribution of Utah Mormon women. Mormon women classified as having the strongest adherence to Church doctrines had lung cancer rates during 1966-1970 much lower than did women with the weakest adherence. The relationship was not as strong, however, as that seen in Mormon men when classified by lay priesthood office. Cancer of the uterine cervix also showed lower rates in the more active groups, but this finding was not statistically significant. Cancers of the breast and ovary did not show consistent associations with Church activity level, nor did most of the gastrointestinal cancers. These data suggest that some of the differences in cancer incidence between Mormons and non-Mormons may not be explained by adherence to specific Church doctrines.

  8. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  9. Age dependent changes in tissue glutathione depleting activity of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Makar, A.B.; Currie, R.B.

    1986-03-01

    Hepatic glutathione (GSH) plays a major role in protecting the liver against the toxic effects of a variety of chemicals. Decreased GSH can increase liver susceptibility to the toxic actions of such agents. The purpose of this study was to examine whether age or the feeding status of animals alter the steady-state hepatic GSH concentrations. The authors also tested the ability of ethanol to lower GSH under these conditions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats between 3 and 34 weeks of age were used. Animals designed fasted were allowed water, but no food for the 24 hours preceding sacrifice. Six hours before sacrifice, ethanol or saline was injected i.p. The rats were always sacrificed between 12:00 noon and 1:00 P.M. to avoid the effects of diurnal variation of tissue GSH. Glutathione concentrations were determined in the liver using Ellman's reagent. Results indicated that the steady-state hepatic GSH in fed rats increased as a function of age, whereas fasted rats showed minimal changes. The ability of ethanol to lower hepatic GSH also increased with age. In 3 week old rats, GSH decreased 22% while in 34 week old rats it decreased 52%. The authors conclude that both the steady-state concentration of GSH and the GSH-lowering ability of ethanol are highly dependent on the age of as well as on the feeding status of rats.

  10. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  11. Inventory and Analysis of Definitions of Social Participation Found in the Aging Literature: Proposed Taxonomy of Social Activities

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Raymond, Émilie

    2012-01-01

    Social participation is a key determinant of successful and healthy aging and therefore an important emerging intervention goal for health professionals. Despite the interest shown in the concept of social participation over the last decade, there is no agreement on its definition and underlying dimensions. This paper provides an inventory and content analysis of definitions of social participation in older adults. Based on these results, a taxonomy of social activities is proposed. Four databases (Medline, CINAHL, AgeLine and PsycInfo) were searched with relevant keywords (Aging OR Ageing OR Elderly OR Older OR Seniors AND Community involvement/participation OR Social engagement/involvement/participation) resulting in the identification of 43 definitions. Using content analysis, definitions were deconstructed as a function of who, how, what, where, with whom, when, and why dimensions. Then, using activity analysis, we explored the typical contexts, demands and potential meanings of activities (main dimension). Content analysis showed that social participation definitions (n=43) mostly focused on the person’s involvement in activities providing interactions with others in society or the community. Depending on the main goal of these social activities, six proximal to distal levels of involvement of the individual with others were identified: 1) doing an activity in preparation for connecting with others, 2) being with others, 3) interacting with others without doing a specific activity with them, 4) doing an activity with others, 5) helping others, and 6) contributing to society. These levels are discussed in a continuum that can help distinguish social participation (levels 3 through 6) from parallel but different concepts such as participation (levels 1 through 6) and social engagement (levels 5 and 6). This taxonomy might be useful in pinpointing the focus of future investigations and clarifying dimensions specific to social participation. PMID:21044812

  12. Transplantation tolerance correlates with high levels of T- and B-lymphocyte activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bandeira, A; Coutinho, A; Carnaud, C; Jacquemart, F; Forni, L

    1989-01-01

    Mice tolerized (treated to make them tolerant) at birth to transplantation antigens by injection of semiallogeneic cells contain very high numbers of activated T and B lymphocytes in their spleen. Lymphoid hyperactivity correlates with the tolerant state: it is present only in animals accepting skin allografts. Tolerized mice that reject the allogeneic skin graft have approximately the same numbers of total and activated lymphocytes as normal mice. The high level of lymphocyte activation in tolerant mice persists for up to 1 year of age, although it declines with age, and is markedly increased by a secondary allograft. The magnitudes of both primary and secondary tolerant responses are significantly higher than the immunological response of a normal mouse rejecting the same type of allograft. These observations contradict concepts of clonal deletion or anergy as the basis of neonatally induced transplantation tolerance and may contribute additional approaches to experimentation and control of transplantation reactions. PMID:2783487

  13. Resveratrol prevents age-related memory and mood dysfunction with increased hippocampal neurogenesis and microvasculature, and reduced glial activation.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Maheedhar; Parihar, Vipan K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K

    2015-01-28

    Greatly waned neurogenesis, diminished microvasculature, astrocyte hypertrophy and activated microglia are among the most conspicuous structural changes in the aged hippocampus. Because these alterations can contribute to age-related memory and mood impairments, strategies efficacious for mitigating these changes may preserve cognitive and mood function in old age. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in the skin of red grapes having angiogenic and antiinflammatory properties, appears ideal for easing these age-related changes. Hence, we examined the efficacy of resveratrol for counteracting age-related memory and mood impairments and the associated detrimental changes in the hippocampus. Two groups of male F344 rats in late middle-age having similar learning and memory abilities were chosen and treated with resveratrol or vehicle for four weeks. Analyses at ~25 months of age uncovered improved learning, memory and mood function in resveratrol-treated animals but impairments in vehicle-treated animals. Resveratrol-treated animals also displayed increased net neurogenesis and microvasculature, and diminished astrocyte hypertrophy and microglial activation in the hippocampus. These results provide novel evidence that resveratrol treatment in late middle age is efficacious for improving memory and mood function in old age. Modulation of the hippocampus plasticity and suppression of chronic low-level inflammation appear to underlie the functional benefits mediated by resveratrol.

  14. Age-related changes in satellite cell proliferation by compensatory activation in rat diaphragm muscles.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Minako; Saitsu, Kiyokazu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Miyata, Hirofumi

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the age-related changes in satellite cell (SC) proliferation in vivo, we used a compensatory activation (CAC) model of the hemi-diaphragm muscle. Young (2-month), adult (14-month) and old (24-month) rats were randomly divided into control and CAC groups. In the CAC group, denervation surgery in the left hemi-diaphragm was performed to induce CAC of the right hemi-diaphragm. Six days after the surgery, the CAC diaphragm muscle was removed and separated into two blocks for immunohistochemical staining and real time RT-PCR procedures. The number of SCs in type I and IIa fibers were not affected significantly by the CAC in any age groups, but that in type IIx/b fibers was significantly increased in the young and adult groups. As compared to the age-matched control group, the Pax7 mRNA expression level was significantly higher in the young and adult CAC groups, but not in the old CAC group. These results may suggest that the mechanism of SC proliferation in type IIx/b fibers is impaired in aged diaphragm muscles.

  15. Age- and Activity-Related Differences in the Abundance of Myosin Essential and Regulatory Light Chains in Human Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cobley, James N.; Ab. Malik, Zulezwan; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L.; Edwards, Ben J.; Burniston, Jatin G.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for phenotyping skeletal muscle (e.g., immunohistochemistry) are labor-intensive and ill-suited to multixplex analysis, i.e., assays must be performed in a series. Addressing these concerns represents a largely unmet research need but more comprehensive parallel analysis of myofibrillar proteins could advance knowledge regarding age- and activity-dependent changes in human muscle. We report a label-free, semi-automated and time efficient LC-MS proteomic workflow for phenotyping the myofibrillar proteome. Application of this workflow in old and young as well as trained and untrained human skeletal muscle yielded several novel observations that were subsequently verified by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). We report novel data demonstrating that human ageing is associated with lesser myosin light chain 1 content and greater myosin light chain 3 content, consistent with an age-related reduction in type II muscle fibers. We also disambiguate conflicting data regarding myosin regulatory light chain, revealing that age-related changes in this protein more closely reflect physical activity status than ageing per se. This finding reinforces the need to control for physical activity levels when investigating the natural process of ageing. Taken together, our data confirm and extend knowledge regarding age- and activity-related phenotypes. In addition, the MRM transitions described here provide a methodological platform that can be fine-tuned to suite multiple research needs and thus advance myofibrillar phenotyping. PMID:28248225

  16. Minocycline improves postoperative cognitive impairment in aged mice by inhibiting astrocytic activation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Feng, Shan-Wu; Feng, Zhou; Lu, Shun-Mei; Qi, Tao; Qian, Yan-Ning

    2014-01-08

    Astrocytes are proving to be critical for the development of cognitive functions. In addition, astrocytic activation contributes to cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Minocycline has been shown to exhibit long-term neuroprotective effects in vascular cognitive impairment rat models through the inhibition of astrogliosis, and has demonstrated potential for the prevention and treatment of postoperative cognitive decline in elderly patients. This study aimed to examine the effect of minocycline on hippocampal astrocytes and long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aged mice. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg minocycline once a day for 30 days after 70% hepatectomy. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory ability was evaluated using the Morris water maze test. The expression levels of hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 were evaluated by western blotting, and the hippocampal mRNA relative expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 were tested using real-time PCR. The Morris water maze test showed that escape latency and swim distance were significantly prolonged by the surgery, but the extent of impairment was mitigated by minocycline treatment. Hippocampal GFAP levels and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 showed corresponding changes that were consistent with the variations in spatial memory. Minocycline was able to alleviate hepatectomy-related long-term spatial memory impairment in aged mice, and was associated with reduced levels of hippocampal GFAP and proinflammatory cytokines resulting from astrocytic activation.

  17. Change in productive activity in late adulthood: MacArthur studies of successful aging.

    PubMed

    Glass, T A; Seeman, T E; Herzog, A R; Kahn, R; Berkman, L F

    1995-03-01

    Both cross-sectional comparisons and patterns of change in productive activities among members of the MacArthur Successful Aging cohort were examined. The data came from a three-site longitudinal study of community-dwelling adults aged 70-79. The highest functioning cohort (n = 1,192) was found to be significantly more productive than a comparison group of medium- and low-functioning respondents at baseline in four of five domains examined. In longitudinal models, we tested several hypotheses regarding the determinants of change in levels of productive activity over a three-year period. Overall, 15.1 percent (n = 162) of the cohort became less productive, while another 12.7 percent (n = 136) became more productive. Risk factors for decline in productivity included hospital admission and stroke. Age, functional disability, marriage, and increased mastery were protective against declines. Conversely, Blacks, those who were more satisfied with life at baseline, and those reporting increased mastery were more likely to increase their productivity.

  18. Physical Activity and Mental Well-being in a Cohort Aged 60–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Black, Stephanie V.; Cooper, Rachel; Martin, Kathryn R.; Brage, Soren; Kuh, Diana; Stafford, Mai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although evidence suggests physical activity (PA) may be associated with mental well-being at older ages, it is unclear whether some types of PA are more important than others. The purpose of this study is to investigate associations of monitored total PA under free-living conditions, self-reported leisure-time PA (LTPA), and walking for pleasure with mental well-being at age 60–64 years. Methods Data on 930 (47%) men and 1,046 (53%) women from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development collected in 2006–2011 at age 60–64 were used in 2013–2014 to test the associations of PA (PA energy expenditure and time spent in different intensities of activity assessed using combined heart rate and acceleration monitors worn for 5 days, self-reported LTPA, and walking for pleasure) with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS; range, 14–70). Results In linear regression models adjusted for gender, long-term limiting illness, smoking, employment, socioeconomic position, personality, and prior PA, those who walked for >1 hour/week had mean WEMWBS scores 1.47 (95% CI=0.60, 2.34) points higher than those who reported no walking. Those who participated in LTPA at least five times/month had WEMWBS scores 1.25 (95% CI=0.34, 2.16) points higher than those who did not engage in LTPA. There were no statistically significant associations between free-living PA and WEMWBS scores. Conclusions In adults aged 60–64 years, participation in self-selected activities such as LTPA and walking are positively related to mental well-being, whereas total levels of free-living PA are not. PMID:26070782

  19. Skin Anti-Aging Activities of Bacteriochlorophyll a from Photosynthetic Bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Young; Yim, Tae Bin; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the anti-aging skin effects of bacteriochlorophyll a isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides are first reported, with notably low cytotoxicity in the range of 1% to 14% in adding 0.00078 (% (w/w)) of the extracts, compared with the normal growth of both human dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte cells without any treatment as a control. The highest production of procollagen from human fibroblast cells (CCD-986sk) was observed as 221.7 ng/ml with 0.001 (% (w/w)) of bacteriochlorophyll a, whereas 150 and 200 ng/ml of procollagen production resulted from addition of 0.001 (% (w/w)) of the photosynthetic bacteria. The bacteriochlorophylla- induced TNF-α production increased to 63.8%, which was lower secretion from HaCaT cells than that from addition of 0.00005 (% (w/w)) of bacteriochlorophyll a. Additionally, bacteriochlorophyll a upregulated the expression of genes related to skin anti-aging (i.e., keratin 10, involucrin, transglutaminase-1, and MMPs), by up to 4-15 times those of the control. However, crude extracts from R. sphaeroides did not enhance the expression level of these genes. Bacteriochlorophyll a showed higher antioxidant activity of 63.8% in DPPH free radical scavenging than those of water, ethanol, and 70% ethanol extracts (14.0%, 57.2%, and 12.6%, respectively). It was also shown that the high antioxidant activity could be attributed to the skin anti-aging effect of bacteriochlorophyll a, although R. sphaeroides itself would not exhibit significant anti-aging activities.

  20. Plasma hepcidin levels and anemia in old age. The Leiden 85-Plus Study.

    PubMed

    den Elzen, Wendy P J; de Craen, Anton J M; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Swinkels, Dorine W; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2013-03-01

    Hepcidin, an important regulator of iron homeostasis, is suggested to be causally related to anemia of inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the role of plasma hepcidin in anemia among older persons from the general population. The Leiden 85-Plus Study is a population-based study of 85-year olds in Leiden, the Netherlands. Eighty-five-year old inhabitants of Leiden were enrolled between September 1997 and September 1999. At the age of 86, plasma hepcidin was determined with time of flight mass spectrometry in 490 participants [160 (32.7%) male, 114 (23.3%) with anemia]. Anemia was defined according to criteria of the World Health Organization (hemoglobin level <13 g/dL for men and hemoglobin <12 g/dL for women). The median plasma hepcidin level was 3.0 nM [interquartile range (IQR) 1.8-4.9]. We found strong correlations between plasma hepcidin and body iron status, C-reactive protein and erythropoietin levels. Significantly higher hepcidin levels were found in participants with anemia of inflammation (P<0.01), in participants with anemia of kidney disease (P=0.01), and in participants with unexplained anemia (P=0.01) than in participants without anemia. Participants with iron-deficiency anemia had significantly lower plasma hepcidin levels than participants without anemia (P<0.01). In conclusion, older persons with anemia of inflammation have higher hepcidin levels than their counterparts without anemia. The potential clinical value of hepcidin in future diagnostic algorithms for anemia has to be explored.

  1. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  2. Effect of Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle SIRT1 and PGC-1α Expression Levels in Rats of Different Age

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Wang, Ting; Tung, Yu-Tang; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2016-01-01

    The protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway drives the muscular fiber-type switching, and can directly regulate the biophysiological functions of skeletal muscle. To investigate whether 12-week swimming exercise training modulates the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway associated proteins expression in rats of different age. Male 3-month-old (3M), 12-month-old (12M) and 18-month-old (18M) Sprague-Dawley rats were used and assigned to sedentary control (C) or 12-week swimming exercise training (E) and divided into six groups: 3MC (n = 8), 12MC (n = 6), 18MC (n = 8), 3ME (n = 8), 12ME (n = 5) and 18ME (n = 6). Body weight, muscle weight, epididymal fat mass and muscle morphology were performed at the end of the experiment. The protein levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were examined. The SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK levels in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were up-regulated in the three exercise training groups than three control groups. The FOXO3a level in the 12ME group significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscles than 12MC group, but significantly decreased in the soleus muscles. In 3-, 12- and 18-month-old rats with and without exercise, there was a significant main effect of exercise on PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius muscles, and SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK in the soleus muscles. Our result suggests that swimming training can regulate the SIRT1/PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a proteins expression of the soleus muscles in aged rats. PMID:27076782

  3. Effect of Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle SIRT1 and PGC-1α Expression Levels in Rats of Different Age.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Wang, Ting; Tung, Yu-Tang; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2016-01-01

    The protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway drives the muscular fiber-type switching, and can directly regulate the biophysiological functions of skeletal muscle. To investigate whether 12-week swimming exercise training modulates the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway associated proteins expression in rats of different age. Male 3-month-old (3M), 12-month-old (12M) and 18-month-old (18M) Sprague-Dawley rats were used and assigned to sedentary control (C) or 12-week swimming exercise training (E) and divided into six groups: 3MC (n = 8), 12MC (n = 6), 18MC (n = 8), 3ME (n = 8), 12ME (n = 5) and 18ME (n = 6). Body weight, muscle weight, epididymal fat mass and muscle morphology were performed at the end of the experiment. The protein levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were examined. The SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK levels in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were up-regulated in the three exercise training groups than three control groups. The FOXO3a level in the 12ME group significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscles than 12MC group, but significantly decreased in the soleus muscles. In 3-, 12- and 18-month-old rats with and without exercise, there was a significant main effect of exercise on PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius muscles, and SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK in the soleus muscles. Our result suggests that swimming training can regulate the SIRT1/PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a proteins expression of the soleus muscles in aged rats.

  4. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  5. Effect of a Ban on Extracurricular Sports Activities by Secondary School Teachers on Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabayo, Roman; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Gauvin, Lise; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    To study the effect of a teachers' ban on supervising sports-related extracurricular physical activities (ECAs), levels of physical activity among 979 grade 7 students (mean age = 12.7 [0.5] years at baseline) were compared during and after the ban in seven schools that fully implemented the ban, and three schools that did not implement the ban…

  6. Environmental and individual correlates of various types of physical activity among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru; Tanaka, Ayumi; Kobori, Yoshitaka

    2013-05-17

    Recent studies have suggested the importance of the neighborhood environment in determining the specific type of physical activity. However, few studies on this topic have been undertaken in Japan. This study examined the association of three types of physical activity and their associations with individual and neighborhood environmental factors among middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Participants were 2,449 adults aged 40-69 living in Fujisawa city who had undergone health checkups and responded to our survey by mail. Individual factors, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long form), and its environmental module acted as inputs to the study. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of high levels of moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), walking for active recreation, and transportation were calculated in relation to individual and neighborhood environmental factors through multiple logistic regression models. Not working and good self-rated health were significantly associated with a higher level of each physical activity outcome. According to the adjusted ORs, higher educational attainment, higher economic status, good access to exercise facilities, and owning motor vehicles were associated with longer LTPA time. However, different sets of factors were associated with longer walking times for recreation and transportation. The results suggest that diverse individual and neighborhood environmental characteristics are associated with different physical activity outcomes. Therefore, customizing environments to become activity-friendly is necessary to increase physical activity effectively among middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

  7. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    SciTech Connect

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there

  8. Motility, ATP levels and metabolic enzyme activity of sperm from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).

    PubMed

    Burness, Gary; Moyes, Christopher D; Montgomerie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Male bluegill displays one of two life history tactics. Some males (termed "parentals") delay reproduction until ca. 7 years of age, at which time they build nests and actively courts females. Others mature precociously (sneakers) and obtain fertilizations by cuckolding parental males. In the current study, we studied the relations among sperm motility, ATP levels, and metabolic enzyme activity in parental and sneaker bluegill. In both reproductive tactics, sperm swimming speed and ATP levels declined in parallel over the first 60 s of motility. Although sneaker sperm initially had higher ATP levels than parental sperm, by approximately 30 s postactivation, no differences existed between tactics. No differences were noted between tactics in swimming speed, percent motility, or the activities of key metabolic enzymes, although sperm from parentals had a higher ratio of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) to citrate synthase (CS). In both tactics, with increasing CPK and CS activity, sperm ATP levels increased at 20 s postactivation, suggesting that capacities for phosphocreatine hydrolysis and aerobic metabolism may influence interindividual variation in rates of ATP depletion. Nonetheless, there was no relation between sperm ATP levels and either swimming speed or percent of sperm that were motile. This suggests that interindividual variation in ATP levels may not be the primary determinant of variation in sperm swimming performance in bluegill.

  9. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    PubMed

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  10. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  11. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Qianyu; Nie, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Le

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR), 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007). High levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05). The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05). The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions. PMID:27782072

  12. 78 FR 28569 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities AGENCY: National Endowment for... National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is issuing Age Discrimination Act of 1975 regulations at 45 CFR part 1172. These regulations implement provisions of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 and the...

  13. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from <10 to >100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from <10 to 60 m), hydrogeologic setting, and primary source of irrigation water (surface or groundwater). All of the dairies use manure wastewater for irrigation and fertilization. Three of the dairies have implemented management changes designed to reduce nutrient loading and/or water usage. Monitor wells in the southern Tulare Lake Basin dairies were installed by UC-Davis as multi-level nested wells allowing depth profiling of tritium and noble gases at these sites. Tritium/helium-3 groundwater ages, calculated using a simple piston-flow model, range from <2 to >50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation

  14. Physical activity levels of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Liu, Chin-Wen; Chung, I Chiao; Hsu, Po-Jen

    2014-11-16

    To compare physical activity levels in adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess. Forty adolescents diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (inclusive classrooms, n=20; self-contained classrooms, n=20) and 40 age-matched typically developing peers (general classrooms) participated. All participants wore an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for 5 consecutive weekdays during school hours. Three groups of adolescents were similarly active during physical education; however, adolescents with intellectual disabilities in self-contained classrooms were less active during recess than did the other two groups. In addition, they spent less percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during recess than did the typically developing adolescents. An inclusive, structured, and supportive environment promotes physical activity engagement in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  15. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  16. Pravastatin inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced proximal tubular cell apoptosis and injury by reducing receptor for AGEs (RAGE) level.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Ohta, Keisuke; Tanoue, Ryuichiro; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Okuda, Seiya

    2012-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis play a role in diabetic nephropathy. Statins have been shown to ameliorate renal function and reduce proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the effects of statin on AGEs-induced tubular cell damage remain unknown. We examined here whether and how pravastatin could block the AGEs-RAGE-elicited tubular cell injury in vitro. Gene expression level was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with dihydroethidium staining. Apoptosis was analyzed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) expression was evaluated by immunostaining. Pravastatin dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA level, ROS generation and apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular cells. Further, AGEs decreased mRNA level of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-2, an enzyme that mainly degrades asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and subsequently increased ADMA generation in tubular cells, both of which were also prevented by pravastatin. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) treatment blocked all of the effects of pravastatin on tubular cells. We found that rosuvastatin also significantly blocked the AGEs-induced increase in RAGE mRNA level and ROS generation, both of which were prevented by GGPP. Our present study suggests that pravastatin could inhibit the AGEs-induced apoptosis and ADMA generation in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression probably via inhibition of GGPP synthesis. Pravastatin may exert beneficial effects on tubular damage in diabetic nephropathy by blocking the AGEs-RAGE axis.

  17. [The influence of proficiency level of foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas].

    PubMed

    Bryll, Amira; Binder, Marek; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The of aim of the present study was the estimation of the influence of proficiency level of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. 30 volunteers participated in the experiment (15 females and 15 males) from 18 to 40 years of age. Mean age was 28 years. All participants were divided by linguist into two groups according to their proficiency level of the foreign language: high proficiency group (HP) and low proficiency group (LP). Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of sentences, the control tusk was silence. The experiment was performed using 1,5 T MR system. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). In low proficiency group (LP) stronger activation was found in right inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris) incuding insula and in the left hemisphere on the border of supramarginal and superior temporal gyrus. In high proficiency group (HP) more activated in second language (L2) was the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris), and a small part of left middle frontal gyrus. Proficiency level of the second language influences the pattern of activation of language areas.

  18. Visual–Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual–somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals’ RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation. PMID:26152050

  19. Aging mechanisms for steel components of high-level waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.

    1995-05-01

    High level storage tanks in service at the present time were fabricated from either carbon steel or low-carbon stainless steel, in each case surrounded by a concrete vault. A variety of potential degradation mechanisms may affect these steel tanks, including corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, fatigue, radiation, erosion, and hydrogen embrittlement. Historically, some of the non-stress-relieved carbon steel tanks have leaked; in the only failure analysis performed to date, stress corrosion cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the weld was identified as the cause. Potentially significant aging mechanisms include general corrosion, pitting and/or crevice corrosion stress-corrosion cracking, microbiologically-induced corrosion, concentration cell attack, and corrosion of external tank surfaces by in-leakage of ground water. Aging mechanisms which are deemed non-significant include thermal and radiation embrittlement, creep and stress relaxation, fatigue, erosion and erosion/corrosion wear, and hydrogen embrittlement. Justification for the potential significance or non-significance for each mechanism is provided, based on the current understanding of these processes and the environments to which the tanks are exposed.

  20. Age differences in the distractor-ratio effect as a function of contrast level.

    PubMed

    White, Cale; Wheatley, Dana; Konwisorz, Olga; Scialfa, Charles T

    2007-09-01

    Latencies (RT) and eye movement measures were used to examine the effects of age and contrast on the distractor-ratio effect (DRE) in visual search. Younger and older adults performed a contrast x orientation conjunction search task where the ratios of white to black distractors and luminance contrast levels were varied. The distractor-ratio manipulation had similar effects for older and younger adults on both RT and the number of fixations required to find the target. Both measures were largely independent of distractor ratio on target-present trials, while both RTs and the fixation number increased with the number of items sharing the target's contrast polarity on target-absent trials. A more detailed analysis of eye movements suggested that younger adults were a bit more adept at attending to the smaller set of distractors, which presumably facilitated both overt and covert search. Generalized slowing can account for the age differences in RT, but the fixation number data speak to another mechanism, perhaps increased cautiousness on the part of the elderly when signal strength is low.

  1. Infant attachment disorganization and moderation pathways to level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool ages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feihong; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2016-12-01

    This research examined the child, parent, and family conditions under which attachment disorganization was related to both level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool among a community sample. Using the ordinary least squares regression, we found that attachment disorganization at 12 months significantly predicted children's externalizing behavior at 36 months and this prediction was not contingent on any other factors tested. For predicting changes in externalizing behavior from 36 to 60 months, we found a significant main effect of family cumulative risk and an interaction effect between attachment disorganization at 12 months and maternal sensitivity at 24 months. Specifically, high disorganization was related to a significant decrease in externalizing behavior from 36 to 60 months when maternal sensitivity at 24 months was high. Our main-effect findings replicated the significant effect of attachment disorganization and cumulative risk on externalizing behavior with preschool-aged children. Our interaction finding provided support for understanding the parenting conditions under which infant attachment disorganization may be related to change in externalizing behavior during preschool ages. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  2. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health.

  3. Aging mechanisms for concrete components of High-Level Waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kassir, M.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-05-01

    The age-related degradation mechanisms which affect the concrete and the reinforcing steel in the high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks art evaluated with respect to their potential significance to the continued performance of the concrete, and am classified into non-significant and potentially significant. The identified potentially significant degradation mechanisms include the effects of elevated temperature, freezing and thawing, leaching of calcium hydroxide, aggressive chemical attack, and corrosion of the reinforcing steel. To the extent that available knowledge permits, these mechanisms are generically evaluated and quantified so that site-specific plans may be developed to verify whether significant degradation has occurred in the concrete, and, if so, to formulate mitigating measures to avoid further deterioration and possibly repair the degradation or pursue other management options.

  4. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of middle-aged vs. aged vastus lateralis reveals increased levels of carbonic anhydrase isoform 3 in senescent human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Lisa; Zweyer, Margit; Swandulla, Dieter; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2012-10-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and associated progressive decline in contractile strength is a serious pathophysiological issue in the elderly. In order to investigate global changes in the skeletal muscle proteome after the fifth decade of life, this study analysed total extracts from human vastus lateralis muscle by fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis. Tissue specimens were derived from middle-aged (47-62 years) vs. aged (76-82 years) individuals and potential changes in the protein expression profiles were compared between these two age groups by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis-based survey. Age-dependent alterations in the concentration of 19 protein spots were revealed and mass spectrometry identified these components as being involved in the excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle, muscle metabolism, ion handling and the cellular stress response. This indicates a generally perturbed protein expression pattern in senescent human muscle. Increased levels of mitochondrial enzymes and isoform switching of the key contractile protein, actin, support the idea of glycolytic-to-oxidative and fast-to-slow transition processes during muscle aging. Importantly, the carbonic anhydrase (CA)3 isoform displayed an increased abundance during muscle aging, which was independently verified by immunoblotting of differently aged human skeletal muscle samples. Since the CA3 isoform is relatively muscle-specific and exhibits a fibre type-specific expression pattern, this enzyme may represent an interesting new biomarker of sarcopenia. Increased levels of CA are indicative of an increased demand of CO₂-removal in senescent muscle, and also suggest age-related fibre type shifting to slower-contracting muscles during human aging.

  5. Age-Related Changes in Spreading Activation during Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Walker, Joanne; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene

    2014-01-01

    The concept of spreading activation describes how retrieval of one memory cues retrieval of other memories that are associated with it. This study explored spreading activation in 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants. Infants (n = 144) learned two tasks within the same experimental session; one task, deferred imitation (DI), is typically remembered…

  6. Effects of Age, Animacy and Activation Order on Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kemper, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The current study examines whether young and older adults have similar preferences for animate-subject and active sentences, and for using the order of activation of a verb's arguments to determine sentence structure. Ninety-six participants produced sentences in response to three-word stimuli that included a verb and two nouns differing in…

  7. Drug ligand-induced activation of translocator protein (TSPO) stimulates steroid production by aged brown Norway rat Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, J Y; Chen, H; Midzak, A; Burnett, A L; Papadopoulos, V; Zirkin, B R

    2013-06-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO; 18 kDA) is a high-affinity cholesterol-binding protein that is integrally involved in cholesterol transfer from intracellular stores into mitochondria, the rate-determining step in steroid formation. Previous studies have shown that TSPO drug ligands are able to activate steroid production by MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells and by mitochondria isolated from steroidogenic cells. We hypothesized herein that the direct, pharmacological activation of TSPO might induce aged Leydig cells, which are characterized by reduced T production, to produce significantly higher levels of T both in vitro and in vivo. To test this, we first examined the in vitro effects of the TSPO selective and structurally distinct drug ligands N,N-dihexyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)indole-3-acetamide (FGIN-1-27) and benzodiazepine 4'-chlorodiazepam (Ro5-4864) on steroidogenesis by Leydig cells isolated from aged (21-24 months old) and young adult (3-6 months old) Brown Norway rats. The ligands stimulated Leydig cell T production significantly, and equivalently, in cells of both ages, an effect that was significantly inhibited by the specific TSPO inhibitor 5-androsten-3,17,19-triol (19-Atriol). Additionally, we examined the in vivo effects of administering FGIN-1-27 to young and aged rats. In both cases, serum T levels increased significantly, consistent with the in vitro results. Indeed, serum T levels in aged rats administered FGIN-1-27 were equivalent to T levels in the serum of control young rats. Taken together, these results indicate that although there are reduced amounts of TSPO in aged Leydig cells, its direct activation is able to increase T production. We suggest that this approach might serve as a therapeutic means to increase steroid levels in vivo in cases of primary hypogonadism.

  8. Effect of biostimulation on community level physiological profiles of microorganisms in field-scale biopiles composed of aged oil sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Qunhui; Wang, Shijie; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2012-05-01

    Four biopiles were constructed for the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in aged oily sludge by indigenous microorganisms. Three biopiles were treated with bulking agent, nutrients or their combination with the fourth pile serving as the control. Responses of microbial community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) to these biostimulation strategies were estimated, and variances among three layers within each biopile were evaluated. Microbial metabolic activity and diversity and the numbers of two species of bacteria were significantly enhanced by the addition of bulking agent, which also made the layers more homogeneous. In contrast, the application of large amounts of nutrients had a suppressing effect on the microbes. After 220 days, 49.62% of TPHs were removed from the middle layer of the bulking agent pile, whereas only 20.44% were removed from the inner layer of the control. This study aims to provide experience to improve the remediation efficiency of future investigations.

  9. Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Physical Capability in Early Old Age: British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Andrew J. M.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Kuh, Diana; Brage, Soren; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Methods Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed clinical assessment undertaken in 2006-2010. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between standardised measures of each of these behavioural variables with grip strength, chair rise and timed up-&-go (TUG) speed and standing balance time. Results Greater time spent in MVPA was associated with higher levels of physical capability; adjusted mean differences in each capability measure per 1standard deviation increase in MVPA time were: grip strength (0.477 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015 to 0.939), chair rise speed (0.429 stands/min, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.764), standing balance time (0.028 s, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.053) and TUG speed (0.019 m/s, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.026). In contrast, time spent sedentary was associated with lower grip strength (-0.540 kg, 95% CI: -1.013 to -0.066) and TUG speed (-0.011 m/s, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.004). Associations for PAEE were similar to those for MVPA. Conclusion Higher levels of MVPA and overall physical activity (PAEE) are associated with greater levels of physical capability whereas time spent sedentary is associated with lower levels of capability. Future intervention studies in older adults should focus on both the promotion of physical activity and reduction in time spent sedentary. PMID:25961736

  10. Female reproductive aging is master-planned at the level of ovary.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  11. Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  12. Activation of proinflammatory signaling by 4-hydroxynonenal-Src adducts in aged kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bonggi; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Chung, Ki Wung; Moon, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Min Jo; An, Hye Jin; Jeong, Ji Won; Kim, Ye Ra; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, reactive 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) was shown to activate Src (a non-receptor tyrosine kinase) by forming an adduct on binding with a specific residue of Src, leading to the activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways in cultured cells. However, to date, the deleterious roles of 4-HNE in inflammatory signaling activation in kidneys during aging have not been explored. The purpose of the present study was to document the mechanisms by which 4-HNE induces inflammation in the kidney during aging. Initial experiments revealed that activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression was caused by 4-HNE activation, which suppressed transcriptional activity in the aged kidney. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with 4-HNE revealed that Src caused senescence via NF-κB activation. Furthermore, our immunohistochemistry data showed that 4-HNE-adducted Src significantly increased in aged kidney tissues. The data showed age-related upregulation of downstream signaling molecules such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), activator protein-1 (AP-1), NF-κB, and COX-2 in a cell culture cell system. Taken together, the results of this study show that the formation of adducts between 4-HNE and Src activates inflammatory signaling pathways in the aged kidney, contributing to age-related nephropathy. PMID:27472463

  13. Using an Internet Activity to Enhance Students' Awareness of Age Bias in Social Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VonDras, Dean D.; Lor-Vang, Mai Nou

    2004-01-01

    Seeking to extend curricula in a Psychology of Aging course, an online Internet test that assesses user's implicit attitudes was used as part of a learning activity to enhance students' awareness of age-bias in social perceptions. A pretest-posttest methodology examined the efficacy of this learning activity in three separate investigations.…

  14. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  15. Service Providers' Perceptions of Active Ageing among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buys, L.; Aird, R.; Miller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention is currently being directed towards both active ageing and the revising of standards for disability services within Australia and internationally. Yet, to date, no consideration appears to have been given to ways to promote active ageing among older adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods:…

  16. Supplemental nitric oxide augments satellite cell activity on cultured myofibers from aged mice.

    PubMed

    Betters, Jenna L; Lira, Vitor A; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Drenning, Jason A; Criswell, David S

    2008-12-01

    Skeletal muscle regenerative potential is reduced with aging. We hypothesized that in vitro activation of muscle satellite cells would be compromised, and that nitric oxide (NO) supplementation would improve satellite cell activity in old muscle. Single intact myofibers were isolated from the gastrocnemius muscles of young (2 mo), adult (10 mo), and aged (22 mo) mice. Fibers were centrifuged to stimulate satellite cells and incubated with L-arginine (2mM), the NO donor, diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA-NO; 10 microM), or control media for 48 h. The number of activated satellite cells after centrifugation was reduced in aged fibers compared to young and adult. L-arginine or DETA-NO treatment increased satellite cell activation in all age groups. However, an age-dependent deficit in satellite cell activity persisted within treatment groups. In separate fibers, exogenous HGF was equally effective in activating satellite cells across age groups, indicating that events downstream of HGF release are intact in aged muscle. These data suggest that l-arginine bioavailability and NO production limit muscle satellite cell activity in response to a submaximal mechanical stimulus, regardless of age. Further, the decline in satellite cell activity in early senescence can be partially abrogated by exogenous L-arginine or an NO donor.

  17. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  18. Electrocortical activity distinguishes between uphill and level walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J Cortney; Lukos, Jamie R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if electrocortical activity is different between walking on an incline compared with level surface. Subjects walked on a treadmill at 0% and 15% grades for 30 min while we recorded electroencephalography (EEG). We used independent component (IC) analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent sources and then computed dipole estimations for each IC. We clustered cortical source ICs and analyzed event-related spectral perturbations synchronized to gait events. Theta power fluctuated across the gait cycle for both conditions, but was greater during incline walking in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor and posterior parietal clusters. We found greater gamma power during level walking in the left sensorimotor and anterior cingulate clusters. We also found distinct alpha and beta fluctuations, depending on the phase of the gait cycle for the left and right sensorimotor cortices, indicating cortical lateralization for both walking conditions. We validated the results by isolating movement artifact. We found that the frequency activation patterns of the artifact were different than the actual EEG data, providing evidence that the differences between walking condit