Science.gov

Sample records for age adjusted death

  1. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations. PMID:27632152

  2. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  3. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  4. Does religiosity help Muslims adjust to death?: a research note.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Samir; Siddique, Mohammad Zakaria

    2008-01-01

    Death is the end of life. But Muslims believe death is an event between two lives, not an absolute cessation of life. Thus religiosity may influence Muslims differently about death. To explore the impact of religious perception, thus religiosity, a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytic and correlational study was conducted on 150 Muslims. Self-declared healthy Muslims equally from both sexes (N = 150, Age range--20 to 50 years, Minimum education--Bachelor) were selected by stratified sampling and randomly under each stratum. Subjects, divided in five levels of religiosity, were assessed and scored for the presence of maladjustment symptoms and stage of adjustment with death. ANOVA and correlation coefficient was applied on the sets of data collected. All statistical tests were done at the level of 95% confidence (P < 0.05). Final results were higher than the table values used for ANOVA and correlation coefficient yielded P values of < 0.05, < 0.01, and < 0.001. Religiosity as a criterion of Muslims influenced the quality of adjustment with death positively. So we hypothesized that religiosity may help Muslims adjust to death.

  5. Adolescent Adjustment Before and After HIV-Related Parental Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weiss, Robert; Alber, Susan; Lester, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    The impact of HIV-related parental death on 414 adolescents was examined over a period of 6 years. The adjustment of bereaved adolescents was compared over 4 time periods relative to parental death and was also compared with the adjustment of nonbereaved adolescents. Bereaved adolescents had significantly more emotional distress, negative life…

  6. Programmed cell death in aging

    PubMed Central

    Tower, John

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) pathways, including apoptosis and regulated necrosis, are required for normal cell turnover and tissue homeostasis. Mis-regulation of PCD is increasingly implicated in aging and aging-related disease. During aging the cell turnover rate declines for several highly-mitotic tissues. Aging-associated disruptions in systemic and inter-cell signaling combined with cell-autonomous damage and mitochondrial malfunction result in increased PCD in some cell types, and decreased PCD in other cell types. Increased PCD during aging is implicated in immune system decline, skeletal muscle wasting (sarcopenia), loss of cells in the heart, and neurodegenerative disease. In contrast, cancer cells and senescent cells are resistant to PCD, enabling them to increase in abundance during aging. PCD pathways limit life span in fungi, but whether PCD pathways normally limit adult metazoan life span is not yet clear. PCD is regulated by a balance of negative and positive factors, including the mitochondria, which are particularly subject to aging-associated malfunction. PMID:25862945

  7. SIDS Family Adjustment Scale: A Method of Assessing Family Adjustment to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)

  8. Growth adjusted sonographic age. A simplified method.

    PubMed

    Sabbagha, R E; Hughey, M; Depp, R

    1978-03-01

    It recently has been shown that the sonar predictive accuracy of gestational age can be markedly enhanced by separating fetuses into one of three cephalic growth patterns, namely, large, average, and small. In this way it becomes possible to adjust fetal age in relation to biparietal diameter (BPD) growth. In this report we are defining the application of a growth adjusted sonographic age (GASA). Additionally, we are introducing a table which simplifies the assignment of GASA on a routine basis.

  9. Joint aging and chondrocyte cell death

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Shawn P; D’Lima, Darryl D

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage extracellular matrix and cell function change with age and are considered to be the most important factors in the development and progression of osteoarthritis. The multifaceted nature of joint disease indicates that the contribution of cell death can be an important factor at early and late stages of osteoarthritis. Therefore, the pharmacologic inhibition of cell death is likely to be clinically valuable at any stage of the disease. In this article, we will discuss the close association between diverse changes in cartilage aging, how altered conditions influence chondrocyte death, and the implications of preventing cell loss to retard osteoarthritis progression and preserve tissue homeostasis. PMID:20671988

  10. ANOVA like analysis of cancer death age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areia, Aníbal; Mexia, João T.

    2016-06-01

    We use ANOVA to study the influence of year, sex, country and location on the average cancer death age. The data used was from the World Health Organization (WHO) files for 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011. The locations considered were: kidney, leukaemia, melanoma of skin and oesophagus and the countries: Portugal, Norway, Greece and Romania.

  11. 5 CFR 880.207 - Adjustment of accounts after finding of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. 880.207 Section 880.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Procedures § 880.207 Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. After a missing annuitant is...

  12. 5 CFR 880.207 - Adjustment of accounts after finding of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. 880.207 Section 880.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Procedures § 880.207 Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. After a missing annuitant is...

  13. [Death certificates of women in childbearing age: search for maternal deaths].

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana Marcos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flavia Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of complete records on death certificates, and its reliability is questioned, especially for causes attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. We investigated, based on death certificates of women in reproductive age, any fields for identifying maternal deaths. Documentary research, conducted in hospital records. We analyzed in death certificates, maternal and no maternal deaths, inconclusive deaths and hidden deaths. To analyze the underlying causes of death we used ICD 10th Revision. Of the 301 death certificates reviewed, 60% had the fields 43/44 completed, and 40% had these fields blank and/or ignored. We found 58.5% of no maternal deaths, 2% of maternal deaths and 39.5% inconclusive. The analysis of inconclusive deaths allowed us to classify 4.3% as hidden deaths. To overcome the incompletitudes of civil registries, it is necessary that all health professionals be committed to the reliability of the information, so the priority target could be reached.

  14. Age and Death: A Defence of Gradualism

    PubMed Central

    MILLUM, JOSEPH

    2016-01-01

    According to standard comparativist views, death is bad insofar as it deprives someone of goods she would otherwise have had. In The Ethics of Killing, Jeff McMahan argues against such views and in favor of a gradualist account according to which how bad it is to die is a function of both the future goods of which the decedent is deprived and her cognitive development when she dies. Comparativists and gradualists therefore disagree about how bad it is to die at different ages. In this paper I examine two prominent criticisms of gradualism and show that both misconstrue McMahan. I develop a related criticism that seems to show that a gradualist cannot coherently relate morbidity and mortality. This criticism also fails, but has an instructive implication for how policy-makers setting priorities for health care investments should regard choices between life-saving interventions and interventions against non-fatal diseases in the very young. PMID:27453638

  15. Early Parental Adjustment and Bereavement after Childhood Cancer Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Maru; O'connor, Kathleen; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Spencer, Lynlee; Nicholas, David; Jovcevska, Vesna; Tallet, Susan; Schneiderman, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This study comprehensively explored parental bereavement and adjustment at 6 months post-loss due to childhood cancer. Interviews were conducted with 18 mothers and 13 fathers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on qualitative methodology. A model describing early parental bereavement and adaptation emerged with 3 domains:…

  16. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section... age reduction. (a) General. If an age reduced employee or spouse overall minimum benefit is not paid for certain months before the employee or spouse attains retirement age, or the employee...

  17. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section... age reduction. (a) General. If an age reduced employee or spouse overall minimum benefit is not paid for certain months before the employee or spouse attains retirement age, or the employee...

  18. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section... age reduction. (a) General. If an age reduced employee or spouse overall minimum benefit is not paid for certain months before the employee or spouse attains retirement age, or the employee...

  19. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section... age reduction. (a) General. If an age reduced employee or spouse overall minimum benefit is not paid for certain months before the employee or spouse attains retirement age, or the employee...

  20. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  1. Life and death of neurons in the aging brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. H.; Hof, P. R.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by extensive neuron death that leads to functional decline, but the neurobiological correlates of functional decline in normal aging are less well defined. For decades, it has been a commonly held notion that widespread neuron death in the neocortex and hippocampus is an inevitable concomitant of brain aging, but recent quantitative studies suggest that neuron death is restricted in normal aging and unlikely to account for age-related impairment of neocortical and hippocampal functions. In this article, the qualitative and quantitative differences between aging and Alzheimer's disease with respect to neuron loss are discussed, and age-related changes in functional and biochemical attributes of hippocampal circuits that might mediate functional decline in the absence of neuron death are explored. When these data are viewed comprehensively, it appears that the primary neurobiological substrates for functional impairment in aging differ in important ways from those in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  2. [Death certificates of women in childbearing age: search for maternal deaths].

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana Marcos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flavia Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of complete records on death certificates, and its reliability is questioned, especially for causes attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. We investigated, based on death certificates of women in reproductive age, any fields for identifying maternal deaths. Documentary research, conducted in hospital records. We analyzed in death certificates, maternal and no maternal deaths, inconclusive deaths and hidden deaths. To analyze the underlying causes of death we used ICD 10th Revision. Of the 301 death certificates reviewed, 60% had the fields 43/44 completed, and 40% had these fields blank and/or ignored. We found 58.5% of no maternal deaths, 2% of maternal deaths and 39.5% inconclusive. The analysis of inconclusive deaths allowed us to classify 4.3% as hidden deaths. To overcome the incompletitudes of civil registries, it is necessary that all health professionals be committed to the reliability of the information, so the priority target could be reached. PMID:23887780

  3. The changing geography of major causes of death among middle age white Americans, 1939-1981.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M R

    1987-01-01

    Urban areas, especially the Northeast, are assumed to have the highest death rates from chronic diseases in the United States. Based on analysis of age-adjusted death rates of the white population 35-64 from 1939-1941 through 1979-1981, it is shown that chronic disease rates in the urban Northeast and Midwest have declined compared to the rest of the United States. High rates of chronic as well as traumatic causes of death now characterize the South. Hypotheses are offered to explain these changes, including changes in lifestyle, differences in state government policies, the changing geography of industry and ethnic populations, and the spread of medical care.

  4. Death Anxiety as a Function of Aging Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Jeremy P.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Walter, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    To assess how different facets of aging anxiety contributed to the prediction of tangible and existential death anxiety, 167 Americans of various Christian denominations completed a battery of questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic variables and previously demonstrated predictors of death anxiety, revealed that…

  5. Age, education and dementia related deaths. The Norwegian Counties Study and The Cohort of Norway.

    PubMed

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Rosness, Tor A; Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina; Engedal, Knut; Nafstad, Per; Tell, Grethe S; Ormstad, Heidi; Tambs, Kristian; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-10-15

    An inverse relationship between educational level and dementia has been reported in several studies. In this study we investigated the relationship between educational level and dementia related deaths for cohorts of people all born during 1915-39. The cohorts were followed up from adulthood or old age, taking into account possible confounders and mediating paths. Our study population comprised participants in Norwegian health examination studies in the period 1974-2002; The Counties Study and Cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dementia related deaths were defined as deaths with a dementia diagnosis on the death certificate and linked using the Cause of Death Registry to year 2012. The study included 90,843 participants, 2.06 million person years and 2440 dementia related deaths. Cox regression was used to assess the association between education and dementia related deaths. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with lower dementia related death risk compared to those with low education when follow-up started in adulthood (35-49 years, high versus low education: HR=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93; 50-69 years, high versus low education: HR=0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80). However, when follow-up started at old age (70-80 years) there was no significant association between education and dementia related death. Restricting the study population to those born during a five-year period 1925-29 (the birth cohort overlapping all three age groups), gave similar main findings. The protective effects found for both high and middle educational level compared to low education were robust to adjustment for cardiovascular health and life style factors, suggesting education to be a protective factor for dementia related death. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with decreased dementia related death risk compared with low educational level when follow-up started in adulthood, but no association was observed when follow-up started at old age.

  6. Healthy aging and age-adjusted nutrition and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Mats; Ostgren, Carl Johan

    2013-10-01

    Expected life span is gradually increasing worldwide. Healthy dietary and exercise habits contribute to healthy ageing. Certain types of diet can prevent or reduce obesity, and may reduce the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, some cancers and some mental disturbances). A less sedentary life style seems at least as important as regular exercise. Exercise can probably be tailored to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and extent of bone loss. To ensure adherence, it is important to increase slowly the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise, and to find activities that suit the individual. More research is needed to find ideal modes and doses of exercise, and to increase long-term adherence. Dietary and exercise modification seem to be strong promoters of healthy ageing.

  7. Fear of death in mid-old age.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2006-03-01

    A transition model hypothesizes that the discrepancy between desired and expected time left to live is greater for mid-old persons than young-old persons. This discrepancy arouses a greater fear of death, which is influenced by age, health, and purpose in life. With the use of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, 192 older adults (60 to 84 years of age) were assessed on these variables and death fear. In structural analyses, purpose in life and the difference between the desired and the expected time left to live had direct effects on fear of body loss, with indirect effects of health; the relative size of effects differed as expected for two age groups. These variables were not related to fear of the unknown. An awareness of approaching death appears to arouse a greater fear of physical loss, but not mental or spiritual loss, in mid-old persons than in young-old persons.

  8. Smoking: additional burden on aging and death.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. It has been suggested that there is an approximately linear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and clinical outcome such as lung cancer mortality. It has also been proposed that there is a greater increase in mortality at high doses when the dose is represented by the duration of the smoking habit rather than the number of cigarettes. The multistep carcinogenesis theory indicates that a greater increase in mortality rate at high doses is possible, as is the case between aging and cancer, even though each dose-response relationship between a carcinogenic factor and a carcinogenic step forward is linear. The high incidence of lung cancer after long-term smoking and the decreased relative risk after smoking cessation suggests a similarity between the effects of smoking and aging. Prediction of lung cancer risk in former smokers by simple integration of smoking effects with aging demonstrated a good correlation with that estimated from the relative risk of the period of smoking cessation. In contrast to the smoking period, there appears to be a linear relationship between smoking strength and cancer risk. This might arise if the dose-response relationship between smoking strength and each carcinogenic step is less than linear, or the effects become saturated with a large dose of daily smoking. Such a dose-response relationship could lead to relatively large clinical effects, such as cardiovascular mortality, by low-dose tobacco smoke exposure, e.g., second-hand smoking. Consideration of the dose-response of each effect is important to evaluate the risk arising from each carcinogenic factor. PMID:27350823

  9. The Impact of Peroxisomes on Cellular Aging and Death

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Selvambigai; Scheckhuber, Christian Quintus; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles, which perform a plethora of functions including hydrogen peroxide metabolism and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Reactive oxygen species produced by peroxisomes are a major contributing factor to cellular oxidative stress, which is supposed to significantly accelerate aging and cell death according to the free radical theory of aging. However, relative to mitochondria, the role of the other oxidative organelles, the peroxisomes, in these degenerative pathways has not been extensively investigated. In this contribution we discuss our current knowledge on the role of peroxisomes in aging and cell death, with focus on studies performed in yeast. PMID:22662318

  10. Death anxiety in Kuwaiti middle-aged personnel.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Al-Kandari, Yagoub

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the level of death anxiety, the sex-related differences among a middle-aged Kuwaiti personnel sample, and to explore the replicability of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) factors. A sample of 236 volunteer Kuwaiti personnel took part in the study. The mean ages of men and women were 41.5 (SD = 7.5) and 40.9 (SD = 7.1), respectively. The alpha reliability of the ASDA was found to be high (.93). Women had a significantly higher mean total score on the ASDA as well as on 17 out of its 20 items. Middle-aged personnel had a significantly lower mean ASDA total score than younger college students (M age = 22). The factor analysis of the ASDA items yielded three factors: fear of dead people and tombs; fear of postmortem events; and fear of lethal disease. These factors were highly replicable with previous factors extracted from a Kuwaiti college student sample. On the basis of the present findings, there are three general conclusions as follows: death anxiety is negatively associated with age; the sex-related differences on death anxiety are salient in the Arab samples; and the ASDA has a highly replicable factor structure. PMID:18027644

  11. The Impact of Parental Death on Middle Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the impact of the loss of a parent on middle-aged children. A lifelong process of anticipatory orphanhood is suggested as helping to prepare for the impact of a parent's death. Reaction involves the dialectic between the persistence and breaking of the bond and between finitude and personal growth. (JAC)

  12. Selective Disclosure in a First Conversation about a Family Death in James Agee's Novel "A Death in the Family"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/2006) novel "A Death in the Family," the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that…

  13. 38 CFR 8.20 - Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of death, age... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Proof of Death, Age, Or Relationship § 8.20 Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship...

  14. 38 CFR 8.20 - Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of death, age... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Proof of Death, Age, Or Relationship § 8.20 Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship...

  15. 38 CFR 8.20 - Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of death, age... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Proof of Death, Age, Or Relationship § 8.20 Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship...

  16. Estimation and evidence in forensic anthropology: age-at-death.

    PubMed

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Herrmann, Nicholas P; Wescott, Daniel J; Kimmerle, Erin H

    2008-05-01

    A great deal has previously been written about the use of skeletal morphological changes in estimating ages-at-death. This article looks in particular at the pubic symphysis, as it was historically one of the first regions to be described in the literature on age estimation. Despite the lengthy history, the value of the pubic symphysis in estimating ages and in providing evidence for putative identifications remains unclear. This lack of clarity primarily stems from the fact that rather ad hoc statistical methods have been applied in previous studies. This article presents a statistical analysis of a large data set (n = 1766) of pubic symphyseal scores from multiple contexts, including anatomical collections, war dead, and victims of genocide. The emphasis is in finding statistical methods that will have the correct "coverage."Coverage" means that if a method has a stated coverage of 50%, then approximately 50% of the individuals in a particular pubic symphyseal stage should have ages that are between the stated age limits, and that approximately 25% should be below the bottom age limit and 25% above the top age limit. In a number of applications it is shown that if an appropriate prior age-at-death distribution is used, then "transition analysis" will provide accurate "coverages," while percentile methods, range methods, and means (+/-standard deviations) will not. Even in cases where there are significant differences in the mean ages-to-transition between populations, the effects on the stated age limits for particular "coverages" are minimal. As a consequence, more emphasis needs to be placed on collecting data on age changes in large samples, rather than focusing on the possibility of inter-population variation in rates of aging.

  17. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses. PMID:24989440

  18. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses.

  19. Calcium and cell death signaling in neurodegeneration and aging.

    PubMed

    Smaili, Soraya; Hirata, Hanako; Ureshino, Rodrigo; Monteforte, Priscila T; Morales, Ana P; Muler, Mari L; Terashima, Juliana; Oseki, Karen; Rosenstock, Tatiana R; Lopes, Guiomar S; Bincoletto, Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Transient increase in cytosolic (Cac2+) and mitochondrial Ca2+ (Ca m2+) are essential elements in the control of many physiological processes. However, sustained increases in Ca c2+ and Ca m2+ may contribute to oxidative stress and cell death. Several events are related to the increase in Ca m2+, including regulation and activation of a number of Ca2+ dependent enzymes, such as phospholipases, proteases and nucleases. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play pivotal roles in the maintenance of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and regulation of cell death. Several lines of evidence have shown that, in the presence of some apoptotic stimuli, the activation of mitochondrial processes may lead to the release of cytochrome c followed by the activation of caspases, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic cell death. The aim of this review was to show how changes in calcium signaling can be related to the apoptotic cell death induction. Calcium homeostasis was also shown to be an important mechanism involved in neurodegenerative and aging processes.

  20. DNA methylation-based measures of biological age: meta-analysis predicting time to death

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian H.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Colicino, Elena; Peters, Marjolein J.; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Just, Allan C.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Guan, Weihua; Bressler, Jan; Fornage, Myriam; Studenski, Stephanie; Vandiver, Amy R.; Moore, Ann Zenobia; Tanaka, Toshiko; Kiel, Douglas P.; Liang, Liming; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Hernandez, Dena G.; Melzer, David; Nalls, Michael; Pilling, Luke C.; Price, Timothy R.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Gieger, Christian; Holle, Rolf; Kretschmer, Anja; Kronenberg, Florian; Kunze, Sonja; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christine; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Waldenberger, Melanie; Visscher, Peter M.; Shah, Sonia; Wray, Naomi R.; McRae, Allan F.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Tsao, Philip S.; Hou, Lifang; Manson, JoAnn E.; Carty, Cara L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Spector, Tim D.; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Levy, Daniel; Baccarelli, Andrea; van Meurs, Joyce; Bell, Jordana T.; Peters, Annette; Deary, Ian J.; Pankow, James S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of biological age based on DNA methylation patterns, often referred to as “epigenetic age”, “DNAm age”, have been shown to be robust biomarkers of age in humans. We previously demonstrated that independent of chronological age, epigenetic age assessed in blood predicted all-cause mortality in four human cohorts. Here, we expanded our original observation to 13 different cohorts for a total sample size of 13,089 individuals, including three racial/ethnic groups. In addition, we examined whether incorporating information on blood cell composition into the epigenetic age metrics improves their predictive power for mortality. All considered measures of epigenetic age acceleration were predictive of mortality (p≤8.2×10−9), independent of chronological age, even after adjusting for additional risk factors (p<5.4×10−4), and within the racial/ethnic groups that we examined (non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African Americans). Epigenetic age estimates that incorporated information on blood cell composition led to the smallest p-values for time to death (p=7.5×10−43). Overall, this study a) strengthens the evidence that epigenetic age predicts all-cause mortality above and beyond chronological age and traditional risk factors, and b) demonstrates that epigenetic age estimates that incorporate information on blood cell counts lead to highly significant associations with all-cause mortality. PMID:27690265

  1. Birth Dates and Death Dates: An Examination of Two Baseline Procedures and Age at Time of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Albert A.; Kroll, Neal E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Examined birth and death dates of males listed in "Who Was Who in America." Found that, compared to men aged 71 and younger, men aged 72 and older were more likely to die on the eve of their birthdays or on their birthdays themselves. Compared to younger subjects, older subjects' death dip began at earlier point in time. (Author/NB)

  2. Equations to estimate fetal age at the moment of death in the Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Martínez, Perla; Ortega-Palma, Albertina; Castrejón-Caballero, José Luis; Arteaga-Martínez, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Metric standards are presented for the estimation of fetal age at the time of death in the Mexican population. To obtain these standards, both metric and radiological studies were conducted on 97 fetuses and complete stillborn infants of both sexes, phenotypically normal between 10 and 38 weeks of morphological age. All the fetuses used were the product of spontaneous abortions in Mexico City between 1990 and 2000. Equations were obtained by calibrating quadratic linear regression models adjusted for the diaphyseal length of the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia and fibula, characterized as the most adequate indicators to represent the growth of long bones in this age group, and verified by the evaluation of the model assumptions and the coefficient of determination (R(2)). To conclude, these models facilitate a more precise prediction in fetuses of the Mexican population, constituting the first metric standards of their type at a national level.

  3. Parity, age at first birth, and risk of death from asthma: evidence from a cohort in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-06-11

    This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between age at first birth and parity and risk of asthma death. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women in Taiwan who had a first live birth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We tracked each woman from the date of their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios of death from asthma associated with parity and age at first birth. A trend of increasing risk of asthma death was seen with increasing age at first birth. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-1.08) among women with two live births and 0.53 (95% CI = 0.36-0.78) among those with three or more births, compared with women who had one live birth. There was a significant decreasing trend in adjusted hazard ratios of asthma death with increasing parity. This study is the first to provide evidences to support an association between reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) and the risk of asthma death.

  4. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  5. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  6. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  7. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  8. Age and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Prior to Diagnosis Predict Risk of Death from Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, F. Roy; Sprenkle, Preston C.; Walter, Louise C.; Rawson, Lori; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Morrell, Christopher H.; Kattan, Michael W.; Nawaf, Cayce B.; Neville, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    A single early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been correlated with a higher likelihood of prostate cancer diagnosis and death in younger men. PSA testing in older men has been considered of limited utility. We evaluated prostate cancer death in relation to age and PSA level immediately prior to prostate cancer diagnosis. Using the Veterans Affairs database, we identified 230,081 men aged 50–89 years diagnosed with prostate cancer and at least one prior PSA test between 1999 and 2009. Prostate cancer-specific death over time was calculated for patients stratified by age group (e.g., 50–59 years, through 80–89 years) and PSA range at diagnosis (10 ranges) using Kaplan–Meier methods. Risk of 10-year prostate cancer mortality across age and PSA was compared using log-rank tests with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. 10.5% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer died of cancer during the 10-year study period (mean follow-up = 3.7 years). Higher PSA values prior to diagnosis predict a higher risk of death in all age groups (p < 0.0001). Within the same PSA range, older age groups are at increased risk for death from prostate cancer (p < 0.0001). For PSA of 7–10 ng/mL, cancer-specific death, 10 years after diagnosis, increased from 7% for age 50–59 years to 51% for age 80–89 years. Men older than 70 years are more likely to die of prostate cancer at any PSA level than younger men, suggesting prostate cancer remains a significant problem among older men (even those aged 80+) and deserves additional study. PMID:27446803

  9. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.51 Adjustment of... entitlement to a spouse O/M benefit ends for any reason; (3) Months in which a spouse has in her care...

  10. Death row inmate characteristics, adjustment, and confinement: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark D; Vigen, Mark P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews and summarizes research on death row inmates. The contributions and weaknesses of death row demographic data, clinical studies, and research based on institutional records are critiqued. Our analysis shows that death row inmates are overwhelmingly male and disproportionately Southern. Racial representation remains controversial. Frequently death row inmates are intellectually limited and academically deficient. Histories of significant neurological insult are common, as are developmental histories of trauma, family disruption, and substance abuse. Rates of psychological disorder among death row inmates are high, with conditions of confinement appearing to precipitate or aggravate these disorders. Contrary to expectation, the extant research indicates that the majority of death row inmates do not exhibit violence in prison even in more open institutional settings. These findings have implications for forensic mental health sentencing evaluations, competent attorney representation, provision of mental health services, racial disparity in death sentences, death row security and confinement policies, and moral culpability considerations. Future research directions on death row populations are suggested.

  11. Prenatal risk factors for cot death in very preterm and small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, H; Brand, R; Geudeke, T; van Geijn, H P; van der Harten, H; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P

    1990-06-01

    In a nationwide prospective survey on very preterm and very-low-birthweight infants in The Netherlands, the incidence of cot death in infants discharged alive was 15%. The postnatal age at death in these infants did not differ significantly from age at death in other cot death infants. Using a case-control design, possible risk factors associated with cot death were identified: lower maternal age at first pregnancy; maternal smoking during pregnancy; hypothermia of the infant immediately after birth; decreased number of white blood cells and thrombocytes in the infant on the first day of life. Intrauterine hypoxia is hypothesized as the entity common to these factors.

  12. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  13. Circumstances and Contributing Causes of Fall Deaths among Persons Aged 65 and Older: United States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Judy A.; Rudd, Rose A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether the increasing fall death rate among people aged 65 and older is due in part to temporal changes in recording the underlying cause of death. DESIGN Analyses of multiple cause of death data using the online Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ON-line Data for Epidemiologic Research system, which uses the National Center for Health Statistics’ Multiple Cause of Death data set. SETTING United States, 1999 to 2010. PARTICIPANTS People aged 65 and older with a fall listed on their death record as the underlying or a contributing cause of death. MEASUREMENTS Circumstances and contributing causes off all deaths—records listing International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes W00 to W19 as the underlying cause of death—and underlying causes for records with falls as a contributing cause were examined. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to assess trends in the proportion of fall and fall-associated deaths to total deaths for 1999 to 2010. RESULTS In 2010, there were 21,649 fall deaths and 5,402 fall-associated deaths among people aged 65 and older; 48.7% of fall deaths involved a head injury. Approximately half the fall death records included diseases of the circulatory system as contributing causes. From 1999 to 2010, there was a trend toward more-specific reporting of falls circumstances, although total deaths remained unchanged. The proportion of fall deaths to total deaths increased 114.3%, and that of fall-associated deaths to total deaths increased 43.1%. CONCLUSION The reasons behind the increasing older adult fall death rate deserve further investigation. Possible contributing factors include changing trends in underlying chronic diseases and better reporting of falls as the underlying cause of death. PMID:24617970

  14. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  15. Depressive Symptoms on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Suicide Deaths in Older Middle-aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. Methods: A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Results: Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend <0.001). The unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in comparison to the absence of depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; p<0.001) than men without depression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; p<0.001). The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of GDS scores for suicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64). Conclusions: Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies. PMID:27255076

  16. Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India: Estimate adjusted for baseline mortality.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sourangsu; Dey, Sagnik

    2016-05-01

    In India, more than a billion population is at risk of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration exceeding World Health Organization air quality guideline, posing a serious threat to health. Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure is poorly known for India. Here we develop a non-linear power law (NLP) function to estimate the relative risk associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure using satellite-based PM2.5 concentration (2001-2010) that is bias-corrected against coincident direct measurements. We show that estimate of annual premature death in India is lower by 14.7% (19.2%) using NLP (integrated exposure risk function, IER) for assumption of uniform baseline mortality across India (as considered in the global burden of disease study) relative to the estimate obtained by adjusting for state-specific baseline mortality using GDP as a proxy. 486,100 (811,000) annual premature death in India is estimated using NLP (IER) risk functions after baseline mortality adjustment. 54.5% of premature death estimated using NLP risk function is attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 24.0% to ischemic heart disease (IHD), 18.5% to stroke and the remaining 3.0% to lung cancer (LC). 44,900 (5900-173,300) less premature death is expected annually, if India achieves its present annual air quality target of 40μgm(-3). Our results identify the worst affected districts in terms of ambient PM2.5 exposure and resulting annual premature death and call for initiation of long-term measures through a systematic framework of pollution and health data archive. PMID:27063285

  17. Impact of Father Absence During Childhood on College Age Females' Psychological Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, E. R.; Parish, T. S.

    This study was carried out with a group of 98 female volunteers. The control group consisted of 27 who had not lost their fathers; the experimental group consisted of 71 who had lost their fathers due to death or divorce. All subjects were administered two checklists to measure personal adjustment and security. Results revealed that fatherless…

  18. Comparison of hurricane exposure methods and associations with county fetal death rates, adjusting for environmental quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse effects of hurricanes are increasing as coastal populations grow and events become more severe. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy can influence fetal death rates through mechanisms related to healthcare, infrastructure disruption, nutrition, and injury. Estimation of hu...

  19. [Death].

    PubMed

    Ribas, Jordi Domingo

    2003-12-01

    Intercultural factors are essential for reflection. In this article, the authors deals with a more direct vision on the special edition about Grief and Mourning, about the topic which lies in the depths of all of our consciences: death and the question what lies beyond death? The author provides us elements to reflect about concepts, some accepted in various cases, rejected in others, but always polemical, which help us to penetrate farther into the real mystery of life: death and what follows death.

  20. Parity, Age at First Birth, and Risk of Death from Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-08-05

    We undertook this study to examine whether there exists an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Our sample included a total of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We followed each subject from their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and determined their vital status by merging natality data with Taiwan's national death certificate database. Hazard ratios (HR) of death from NHL associated with parity and age at first birth were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In all, 412 NHL deaths were recorded during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. NHL mortality rate was 1.18 cases per 100,000 person-years. Older age at first birth (>23 vs. ≤23 years) was linked to an increased risk of death from NHL (adjusted HR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.13-1.75). Controlling for age at first birth, the adjusted HR were 0.74 (95% CI = 0.55-0.98) for women with 2 births, and 0.71 (95% CI = 0.53-0.95) for women with 3 births or more, respectively, when compared with women with only 1 birth. A statistically significant downward trend in the adjusted HR for NHL death was detected with increasing parity (p for trend = 0.05). The HR of death from NHL was decreased by 7% (HR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.87-0.99) for each additional parity. Our findings are consistent with reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) conferring a protective effect against the risk of NHL death.

  1. Paleodemographic age-at-death distributions of two Mexican skeletal collections: a comparison of transition analysis and traditional aging methods.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Meggan; Márquez, Lourdes; Hernández, Patricia; Ruíz, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Traditional methods of aging adult skeletons suffer from the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection, as described by Bocquet-Appel and Masset (1982). Transition analysis (Boldsen et al., 2002) is a method of aging adult skeletons that addresses the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection by allowing users to select an appropriate prior probability. In order to evaluate whether transition analysis results in significantly different age estimates for adults, the method was applied to skeletal collections from Postclassic Cholula and Contact-Period Xochimilco. The resulting age-at-death distributions were then compared with age-at-death distributions for the two populations constructed using traditional aging methods. Although the traditional aging methods result in age-at-death distributions with high young adult mortality and few individuals living past the age of 50, the age-at-death distributions constructed using transition analysis indicate that most individuals who lived into adulthood lived past the age of 50.

  2. [Using Lamendin and Meindl-Lovejoy methods for age at death estimation of the unknown person].

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Jarosław; Engelgardt, Piotr; Bloch-Bogusławska, Elzbieta; Sliwka, Karol

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the precise description of two methods used for age estimation on the base of single rooted tooth and cranial suture obliteration. Using the methods mentioned above, the age at death of the unknown person was estimated. A comparison of the estimated age and chronological age derived after identification, showed high usefulness of the mentioned methods.

  3. The Symbolism of Death in the Later Middle Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeland, John

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the gruesome images of death occurring in medieval art and letters. Suggests that the images are a form of symbolism based on body metaphors. By means of decomposing bodies, artists and poets symbolized the disintegration of medieval institutions and the transition to the early modern period in Europe. (JAC)

  4. The impact of age at death on the lag time of radiocarbon values in human bone.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H; Thomas, Christian; Olson, Jacqueline E

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of modern bomb-pulse radiocarbon in human bone offers data needed to interpret the post-mortem interval in skeletonized human remains recovered from forensic contexts. Radiocarbon analysis of different tissues with distinct rates of remodeling allows proper placement of the values on the modern bomb-curve. However, the lag time between the date of intercept on the curve and the actual death date is largely affected by the age at death. Published data on radiocarbon analysis of individuals of known age at death and death dates indicate that this lag time increases with age until about 60 years. The lag time documented for each decade of life can be used to compensate for this age-related factor and increase the accuracy of interpretation of the death date. While this method could be greatly improved by original research with a larger sample size, this study provides an adequate point from which to launch further investigations into the subject.

  5. Age at death estimation from bone histology in Malaysian males.

    PubMed

    Nor, Faridah Mohd; Pastor, Robert F; Schutkowski, Holger

    2014-10-01

    Estimation of age from microscopic examination of human bone utilizes bone remodeling. This allows 2 regression equation to be determined in a specific population based on the variation in osteon turnover in different populations. The aim of this study was to provide age estimation for Malaysian males. Ground undecalcified cross sections were prepared from long limb bones of 50 deceased males aged between 21 and 78 years. Ten microstructural parameters were measured and subjected to multivariate regression analysis. Results showed that osteon count had the highest correlation with age (R = 0.43), and age was estimated to be within 10.94 years of the true value in 98% of males. Cross validation of the equation on 50 individuals showed close correspondence of true ages with estimated ages. Further studies are needed to validate and expand these results.

  6. King penguins adjust their diving behaviour with age.

    PubMed

    Le Vaillant, Maryline; Wilson, Rory P; Kato, Akiko; Saraux, Claire; Hanuise, Nicolas; Prud'homme, Onésime; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Increasing experience in long-lived species is fundamental to improving breeding success and ultimately individual fitness. Diving efficiency of marine animals is primarily determined by their physiological and mechanical characteristics. This efficiency may be apparent via examination of biomechanical performance (e.g. stroke frequency and amplitude, change in buoyancy or body angle, etc.), which itself may be modulated according to resource availability, particularly as a function of depth. We investigated how foraging and diving abilities vary with age in a long-lived seabird. During two breeding seasons, small accelerometers were deployed on young (5 year old) and older (8/9 year old) brooding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at the Crozet Archipelago, Indian Ocean. We used partial dynamic body acceleration (PDBA) to quantify body movement during dive and estimate diving cost. During the initial part of the descent, older birds exerted more effort for a given speed but younger penguins worked harder in relation to performance at greater depths. Younger birds also worked harder per unit speed for virtually the whole of the ascent. We interpret these differences using a model that takes into account the upthrust and drag to which the birds are subjected during the dive. From this, we suggest that older birds inhale more at the surface but that an increase in the drag coefficient is the factor leading to the increased effort to swim at a given speed by the younger birds at greater depths. We propose that this higher drag may be the result of young birds adopting less hydrodynamic postures or less direct trajectories when swimming or even having a plumage in poorer condition. PMID:23053365

  7. Sudden unexpected death in infants under 3 months of age and vaccination status – a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre; Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Barbeillon, Florence; Paris-Llado, Josepha

    2001-01-01

    Aims To determine whether DTPP+Hib vaccination (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis +/− haemophilus) increased the risk of sudden unexpected death (SUD) in children under 3 months of age. Methods We conducted a multicentre case-control study in the 28 French ‘SIDS Centers’. Case selection was based on death labelled sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) of an infant aged between 30 and 90 days. Three living controls were selected, matched for sex, gestational age and born immediately after the victim in the same maternity unit. Results We identified 114 cases of SUD aged between 30 and 90 days and 341 live controls matched for age and sex and born in the same maternity unit as the case. DTPP±Hib immunization did not increase the risk of SUD (OR 1.08) (95% CI 0.49, 2.36) in children under 3 months of age when adjusted for sleeping position, illness in the week before death, maternal tobacco consumption, birth weight, type of mattress, breastfeeding and sex. However, low birth-weight (6.53 [2.29, 18.9]), multiple birth (5.1 [1.76, 15.13]), no breastfeeding (1.77 [1.1, 2.85]), prone sleeping position (9.8 [5, 8, 18, 9]), soft mattress (3.26 [1.69, 6.29]), recent illness (3.44 [1.84, 6.41]) and parental smoking (1.74 [1.2, 2.96]) were confirmed as risk factors in early SIDS. Conclusions DTPP±Hib immunization is not a risk factor for early SUD. In this population, we found the same risk factors as described for SIDS. PMID:11298074

  8. Aging and Cell Death in the Other Yeasts, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Su-Ju; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2013-01-01

    How do cells age and die? For the past twenty years, the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used as a model organism to uncover the genes that regulate lifespan and cell death. More recently, investigators have begun to interrogate the other yeasts, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, to determine if similar longevity and cell death pathways exist in these organisms. After summarizing the longevity and cell death phenotypes in S. cerevisiae, this mini-review surveys the progress made in the study of both aging and programmed cell death (PCD) in the yeast models, with a focus on the biology of S. pombe and C. albicans. Particular emphasis is placed on the similarities and differences between the two types of aging, replicative aging and chronological aging, and between the three types of cell death, intrinsic apoptosis, autophagic cell death, and regulated necrosis, found in these yeasts. The development of the additional microbial models for aging and PCD in the other yeasts may help further elucidate the mechanisms of longevity and cell death regulation in eukaryotes. PMID:24205865

  9. [Norbert Elias and a narrative about ageing and death].

    PubMed

    do O, Alarcon Agra

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the contribution made by Norbert Elias (1897-1990) to the problematization of old age by analyzing his text "Envelhecer e morrer". Here, the sociologist is seen as an author of texts which can help build up references that span disciplinary boundaries, or even overcome the polarization between 'health-' and 'social-'related knowledge, making it possible to form the desired field of study on ageing. Though Elias sometimes aligns himself with ideas bordering on an idealization of ageing from a pre-capitalist 'Golden Age', he does offer insights which deserve to be taken into consideration, especially when he relates the contemporary experience of ageing to the invention of modernity itself.

  10. Age-related and death-related differences in emotional complexity.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Spalter, Tal; Kavé, Gitit; Shmotkin, Dov

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to examine an aspect of emotional complexity as seen in covariation between retrospective judgments of positive and negative affects. We assume that individuals can experience positive affect independently of negative affect. Theories argue that emotional complexity increases in old age, but research shows mixed evidence. Additionally, emotional complexity has been shown to decrease in situations prevalent in old age, such as physical illness and disability. Integrating distinct effects of age and distance to death, we propose that emotional complexity may remain intact or even increase in old age, and yet it decreases in light of functional deterioration shortly before death. The current research examined whether emotional complexity decreases as a function of subjective perception of closeness to death (subjective survival probability) or actual closeness to death. We used 3 large-scale databases: 2 cross-sectional (SHARE, N = 17,437, mean age = 64; HRS, N = 6,032, mean age = 67) and 1 longitudinal (CALAS, N = 1,310, mean age at baseline = 83). Hierarchical multiple regressions and multilevel models showed that respondents who perceived themselves as closer to death or were actually closer to death showed lower emotional complexity (a stronger negative correlation between positive and negative affects). Age and emotional complexity were unrelated or positively related, depending on the sample. Findings remained the same after controlling for demographic characteristics, as well as physical and cognitive functioning. The results indicate that both subjective and objective closeness to death are associated with lower emotional complexity. This death-related decrease in emotional complexity is discussed within current theories of aging.

  11. The Paradox of Senescence: Mathematical and Biological Theories of Death and Ageing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Edmund P.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the mathematical and biological theories of death and aging, focusing primarily on higher animals and humans. Areas of the curriculum into which such topics could be introduced are outlined. (JN)

  12. Death in very old age: a personal journey of caregiving.

    PubMed

    Hasselkus, B R

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes a personal journey of caregiving for a very old family member during dying and death. The phenomenology of caregiving reveals the inner struggle experienced by all caregivers, lay and professional, between the needs to support both the living and the dying of the terminally ill person. The lived experience unfolds in phases of caregiving that support a stage theory of development in professionals' work with dying persons. The concept of presencing or connecting is a vital component of terminal care and has implications for occupational therapy practice. Occupational therapists can use their knowledge and understanding of occupation to bring about connecting in the dying experience. The contributions of all participants in the dying experience--family caregivers, the dying person, and health professionals--are important as sources of mutual support in the work of dying. PMID:8352331

  13. Cell death atlas of the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus: effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Todd H; Krug, Stefanie; Carr, Audrey V; Murray, Elaine K; Fitzpatrick, Emmett; Bengston, Lynn; McCutcheon, Jill; De Vries, Geert J; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-08-01

    Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain.

  14. Using the acetabulum to estimate age at death of adult males.

    PubMed

    Rissech, Carme; Estabrook, George F; Cunha, Eugenia; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2006-03-01

    The acetabular region is often present and adequately preserved in adult human skeletal remains. Close morphological examination of the 242 left male os coxae from the identified collection of Coimbra (Portugal) has enabled the recognition of seven variables that can be used to estimate age at death. This paper describes these variables and argues their appropriateness by analyzing the correlation between these criteria and the age, the intra- and interobserver consistence, and the accuracy in age prediction using Bayesian inference to estimate age of identified specimens. Results show significant close correlation between the acetabular criteria and age, nonsignificant differences in intra- and interobserver test, and 89% accuracy in Bayes prediction. Obtained estimated age of the specimens had similar accuracy in all ages. These results indicate that these seven variables, based on the acetabular area, are potentially useful to estimate age at death for adult specimens.

  15. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  16. Effects of aging and dual tasking on step adjustments to perturbations in visually cued walking.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Masood; Hoogkamer, Wouter; Potocanac, Zrinka; Verschueren, Sabine; Roerdink, Melvyn; Beek, Peter J; Peper, C E; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Making step adjustments is an essential component of walking. However, the ability to make step adjustments may be compromised when the walker's attentional capacity is limited. This study compared the effects of aging and dual tasking on step adjustments in response to stepping-target perturbations during visually cued treadmill walking. Fifteen older adults (69.4 ± 5.0 years; mean ± SD) and fifteen young adults (25.4 ± 3.0 years) walked at a speed of 3 km/h on a treadmill. Both groups performed visually cued step adjustments in response to unpredictable shifts of projected stepping targets in forward (FW), backward (BW) or sideward (SW) directions, at different levels of task difficulty [which increased as the available response distance (ARD) decreased], and with and without dual tasking (auditory Stroop task). In both groups, step adjustments were smaller than required. For FW and BW shifts, older adults undershot more under dual-task conditions. For these shifts, ARD affected the age groups differentially. For SW shifts, larger errors were found for older adults, dual tasking and the most difficult ARD. Stroop task performance did not differ between groups in all conditions. Older adults have more difficulty than young adults to make corrective step adjustments while walking, especially under dual-tasking conditions. Furthermore, they seemed to prioritize the cognitive task over the step adjustment task, a strategy that may pose aging populations at a greater fall risk. For comparable task difficulty, the older adults performed considerably worse than the young adults, indicating a decreased ability to adjust steps under time pressure.

  17. Effects of aging and dual tasking on step adjustments to perturbations in visually cued walking.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Masood; Hoogkamer, Wouter; Potocanac, Zrinka; Verschueren, Sabine; Roerdink, Melvyn; Beek, Peter J; Peper, C E; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Making step adjustments is an essential component of walking. However, the ability to make step adjustments may be compromised when the walker's attentional capacity is limited. This study compared the effects of aging and dual tasking on step adjustments in response to stepping-target perturbations during visually cued treadmill walking. Fifteen older adults (69.4 ± 5.0 years; mean ± SD) and fifteen young adults (25.4 ± 3.0 years) walked at a speed of 3 km/h on a treadmill. Both groups performed visually cued step adjustments in response to unpredictable shifts of projected stepping targets in forward (FW), backward (BW) or sideward (SW) directions, at different levels of task difficulty [which increased as the available response distance (ARD) decreased], and with and without dual tasking (auditory Stroop task). In both groups, step adjustments were smaller than required. For FW and BW shifts, older adults undershot more under dual-task conditions. For these shifts, ARD affected the age groups differentially. For SW shifts, larger errors were found for older adults, dual tasking and the most difficult ARD. Stroop task performance did not differ between groups in all conditions. Older adults have more difficulty than young adults to make corrective step adjustments while walking, especially under dual-tasking conditions. Furthermore, they seemed to prioritize the cognitive task over the step adjustment task, a strategy that may pose aging populations at a greater fall risk. For comparable task difficulty, the older adults performed considerably worse than the young adults, indicating a decreased ability to adjust steps under time pressure. PMID:26298043

  18. Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Predicts Immune Recovery, Death, and Loss to Follow-Up Among HIV-Infected Adults in Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jessica; Mwale, Jonas; Marx, Melissa A.; Goma, Fastone M.; Mulenga, Lloyd B.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.; Eron, Joseph J.; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the association of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with CD4+ T cell count recovery, death, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) among HIV-infected adults in Zambia. We compared baseline characteristics of patients by sex and age at ART initiation [categorized as 16–29 years, 30–39 years, 40–49 years, 50–59 years, and 60 years and older]. We used the medication possession ratio to assess adherence and analysis of covariance to measure the adjusted change in CD4+ T cell count during ART. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined the association of age with death and LTFU. In a secondary analysis, we repeated models with age as a continuous variable. Among 92,130 HIV-infected adults who initiated ART, the median age was 34 years and 6,281 (6.8%) were aged ≥50 years. Compared with 16–29 year olds, 40–49 year olds (–46 cells/mm3), 50–59 year olds (–53 cells/mm3), and 60+ year olds (–60 cells/mm3) had reduced CD4+ T cell gains during ART. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for death was increased for individuals aged ≥40 years (AHR 1.25 for 40–49 year olds, 1.56 for 50–59 year olds, and 2.97 for 60+ year olds). Adherence and retention in care were poorest among 16–29 year olds but similar in other groups. As a continuous variable, a 5-year increase in age predicted reduced CD4+ T cell count recovery and increased risk of death. Increased age at ART initiation was associated with poorer clinical outcomes, while age <30 years was associated with a higher likelihood of being lost to follow-up. HIV treatment guidelines should consider age-specific recommendations. PMID:24998881

  19. 38 CFR 8.20 - Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., relationship and marriage. 8.20 Section 8.20 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS..., relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship or marriage, the provisions found in Part 3 of this chapter will be followed. Age...

  20. 38 CFR 8.20 - Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., relationship and marriage. 8.20 Section 8.20 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS..., relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship or marriage, the provisions found in Part 3 of this chapter will be followed. Age...

  1. Lithium-ion Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve modelling and its ageing adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, L.; Sabatier, J.; Francisco, J. Mbala; Guillemard, F.; Noury, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a contribution to lithium-ion batteries modelling taking into account aging effects. It first analyses the impact of aging on electrode stoichiometry and then on lithium-ion cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. Through some hypotheses and an appropriate definition of the cell state of charge, it shows that each electrode equilibrium potential, but also the whole cell equilibrium potential can be modelled by a polynomial that requires only one adjustment parameter during aging. An adjustment algorithm, based on the idea that for two fixed OCVs, the state of charge between these two equilibrium states is unique for a given aging level, is then proposed. Its efficiency is evaluated on a battery pack constituted of four cells.

  2. The Relationship between Dimensions of Interparental Conflict and Adjustment in College-Age Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Rochelle F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents research from a recently completed study investigating the relationship between college-age offsprings' perceptions of several dimensions of interparental conflict and indicants of adjustment. Analysis revealed that frequency of interparental conflict was the most important predictor of depression, externalizing behavior problems, and…

  3. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  4. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  5. An age-adjusted seroprevalence study of Toxoplasma antibody in a Malaysian ophthalmology unit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sujaya; Khang, Tsung Fei; Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Subrayan, Visvaraja

    2012-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a public health risk in developing countries, especially those located in the tropics. Widespread infection may inflict a substantial burden on state resources, as patients can develop severe neurological defects and ocular diseases that result in lifelong loss of economic independence. We tested sera for IgG antibody from 493 eye patients in Malaysia. Overall age-adjusted seroprevalence was estimated to be 25% (95% CI: [21%, 29%]). We found approximately equal age-adjusted seroprevalence in Chinese (31%; 95% CI: [25%, 38%]) and Malays (29%; 95% CI: [21%, 36%]), followed by Indians (19%; 95% CI: [13%, 25%]). A logistic regression of the odds for T. gondii seroprevalence against age, gender, ethnicity and the occurrence of six types of ocular diseases showed that only age and ethnicity were significant predictors. The odds for T. gondii seroprevalence were 2.7 (95% CI for OR: [1.9, 4.0]) times higher for a patient twice as old as the other, with ethnicity held constant. In Malays, we estimated the odds for T. gondii seroprevalence to be 2.9 (95% CI for OR: [1.8, 4.5]) times higher compared to non-Malays, with age held constant. Previous studies of T. gondii seroprevalence in Malaysia did not explicitly adjust for age, rendering comparisons difficult. Our study highlights the need to adopt a more rigorous epidemiological approach in monitoring T. gondii seroprevalence in Malaysia.

  6. A kinetic theory for age-structured stochastic birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom; Greenman, Chris

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but they are structurally unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., carrying capacity) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a BBGKY-like hierarchy. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution. NSF.

  7. Kinetic theory of age-structured stochastic birth-death processes.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Chris D; Chou, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but are unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using, e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation do not resolve a population's age structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new, fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a Bogoliubov--Born--Green--Kirkwood--Yvon-like hierarchy. Explicit solutions are derived in three limits: no birth, no death, and steady state. These are then compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution.

  8. Kinetic theory of age-structured stochastic birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenman, Chris D.; Chou, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but are unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using, e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation do not resolve a population's age structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new, fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a Bogoliubov--Born--Green--Kirkwood--Yvon-like hierarchy. Explicit solutions are derived in three limits: no birth, no death, and steady state. These are then compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution.

  9. Kinetic theory of age-structured stochastic birth-death processes.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Chris D; Chou, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but are unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using, e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation do not resolve a population's age structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new, fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a Bogoliubov--Born--Green--Kirkwood--Yvon-like hierarchy. Explicit solutions are derived in three limits: no birth, no death, and steady state. These are then compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution. PMID:26871029

  10. Age-adjusted dengue haemorrhagic fever morbidity in Thailand 1983-1987.

    PubMed

    Kitayaporn, D; Singhasivanon, P; Vasuvat, C

    1989-06-01

    Age-adjusted morbidity rates of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Thailand during the period 1983-1987 were analysed. The 1983 data were used as standard baseline rates. The age-adjusted rates showed increasing trend in the disease morbidity, i.e., 60.2, 138.2, 159.6, 55.2 and 344.7 (per 100,000 capita) respectively. These rates were consistently higher than the crude rates. The Standardised Morbidity Ratios (SMRs) as compared with the baseline 1983 were 1.00, 2.30, 2.65, 0.92 and 5.73 respectively. Regional comparisons revealed annual increases in Bangkok areas, other Central provinces, the North and the Northeast with fluctuations observed in the South. The epidemic was most of the time higher in the Central provinces other than Bangkok areas. The authors suggest that age-adjusted rates (or possibly sex) should be applied in the study of DHF morbidity data, since there were discrepancies in the age distribution among different regions of the country.

  11. A new method to estimate adult age-at-death using the acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Calce, Stephanie E

    2012-05-01

    Rissech et al. (J Forensic Sci 51 (2006) 213-229) described a method to estimate age-at-death of adult males using seven traits of the fused acetabulum. This study simplifies Rissech et al.'s technique and extends its application to adult females. Rissech et al.'s original scoring method was applied to a sample of 100 known-aged adults, three variables were selected based on stepwise multiple regression, and ages were collapsed into three broad ranges: young adult (17-39 years), middle adult (40-64 years), and old adult (65+ years). The revised method was applied to 249 new known-aged individuals from two other samples. To minimize observer bias, highlight the most critical traits, and encompass more age-related variation, unique digital renderings accompany morphological descriptions of age categories instead of photos. Three statistically significant characteristics highly correlated with age (P < 0.05) are capable of estimating age-at-death with 81% accuracy, both sexes combined. For misidentified individuals the tendency was to underestimate age. Results of both intraobserver error testing and inter-rater reliability demonstrated a moderate to substantial agreement in scoring between observers. When estimating the degree of development of features osteophyte development of the acetabular rim was the most inconsistent between observers. The revised acetabular method shows promise in estimating age for adults, particularly for those over the age of 65 years.

  12. Death of a child and parental wellbeing in old age: evidence from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chioun; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    The death of a child is one of the most traumatic events that a parent can experience. The psychological and physical consequences of bereavement are well established, and the consequences are more severe for mothers than fathers. However, little is known about how the death of an adult child affects parental wellbeing in old age or how the deceased child's sex may moderate the association. We use data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA) to investigate how the death of a son or a daughter differentially affects the wellbeing of older parents, measured by depressive symptoms and self-rated health. We find that for mothers, a son's death is associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and a decline in self-rated health, but fathers' health is not adversely affected by a son's death. There is little evidence that a daughter's death has a negative effect on either maternal or paternal wellbeing. We situate these findings within their social and cultural contexts and discuss social policies that would reduce gender and health inequality.

  13. Reliability of recording uterine cancer in death certification in France and age-specific proportions of deaths from cervix and corpus uteri.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Agnès; Belot, Aurélien; Suzan, Florence; Bossard, Nadine; Boussac, Marjorie; Arveux, Patrick; Buémi, Antoine; Colonna, Marc; Danzon, Arlette; Ganry, Olivier; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Grosclaude, Pascale; Velten, Michel; Jougla, Eric; Iwaz, Jean; Estève, Jacques; Chérié-Challine, Laurence; Remontet, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    French uterine cancer recordings in death certificates include 60% of "uterine cancer, Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)"; this hampers the estimation of mortalities from cervix and corpus uteri cancers. The aims of this work were to study the reliability of uterine cancer recordings in death certificates using a case matching with cancer registries and estimate age-specific proportions of deaths from cervix and corpus uteri cancers among all uterine cancer deaths by a statistical approach that uses incidence and survival data. Deaths from uterine cancer between 1989 and 2001 were extracted from the French National database of causes of death and case-to-case matched to women diagnosed with uterine cancer between 1989 and 1997 in 8 cancer registries. Registry data were considered as "gold-standard". Among the 1825 matched deaths, cancer registries recorded 830 cervix and 995 corpus uteri cancers. In death certificates, 5% and 40% of "true" cervix cancers were respectively coded "corpus" and "uterus, NOS" and 5% and 59% of "true" corpus cancers respectively coded "cervix" and "uterus, NOS". Miscoding cervix cancers was more frequent at advanced ages at death and in deaths at home or in small urban areas. Miscoding corpus cancers was more frequent in deaths at home or in small urban areas. From the statistical method, the estimated proportion of deaths from cervix cancer among all uterine cancer deaths was higher than 95% in women aged 30-40 years old but declined to 35% in women older than 70 years. The study clarifies the reason for poor encoding of uterus cancer mortality and refines the estimation of mortalities from cervix and corpus uteri cancers allowing future studies on the efficacy of cervical cancer screening.

  14. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use. An Adjustment for Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline over time with increasing age in asthma symptoms and health care use of children. Develop a statistical procedure that enables adjustment that accounts for expected declines in these outcomes and is useable when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Methods: Mixed-effects models with mixture distributions were used to describe the pattern of symptoms and health care use in 3,021 children aged 2 to 15 years in a combined sample from three controlled trials. An adaptive least squares estimation was used to account for overestimation of intervention effects and make adjustments for pre-post only data. Termed “Adjustment for Natural Declines in Asthma Outcomes (ANDAO),” the adjustment method uses bootstrap sampling to create control cohorts comparable to subjects in the intervention study from existing control subjects. ANDAO accounts for expected declines in outcomes and is beneficial when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Measurements and Main Results: Children under 10 years of age experienced 18% (95% confidence interval, 15–21%) fewer symptom days and 28% (95% confidence interval, 24–32%) fewer symptom nights with each additional year of age. The decline was less than 10% after age 10 years, depending on baseline asthma severity. Emergency department visits declined regardless of baseline symptom frequency (P = 0.02). The adjustment method corrected estimates to within 2.4% of true effects through simulations using control cohorts. Conclusions: Because of the declines in symptoms and health care use expected with increasing age of children with asthma, pre

  15. Newborns of mothers with intellectual disability have a higher risk of perinatal death and being small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Höglund, Berit; Lindgren, Peter; Larsson, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study mode of birth, perinatal health and death in children born to mothers with intellectual disability (ID) in Sweden. Design. Population-based register study. Setting. National registers; the National Patient Register linked to the Medical Birth Register. Sample. Children of first-time mothers with ID (n = 326; classified in the International Classification of Diseases 8–10) were identified and compared with 340 624 children of first-time mothers without ID or any other psychiatric diagnosis between 1999 and 2007. Methods. Population-based data were extracted from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Main outcome measures. Mode of birth, preterm birth, small for gestational age, Apgar score, stillbirth and perinatal death. Results. Children born to mothers with ID were more often stillborn (1.2 vs. 0.3%) or died perinatally (1.8 vs. 0.4%) than children born to mothers without ID. They had a higher proportion of cesarean section birth (24.5 vs. 17.7%) and preterm birth (12.2 vs. 6.1%), were small for gestational age (8.4 vs. 3.1%) and had lower Apgar scores (<7 points at five minutes; 3.7 vs 1.5%) compared with children born to mothers without ID. Logistic regression adjusted for maternal characteristics confirmed an increased risk of small for gestational age (odds ratio 2.25), stillbirth (odds ratio 4.53) and perinatal death (odds ratio 4.25) in children born to mothers with ID. Conclusions. Unborn and newborn children of mothers with ID should be considered a risk group, and their mothers may need better individual-based care and support. PMID:22924821

  16. Estimating age at death using the sternal end of the fourth ribs from Mexican males.

    PubMed

    Cerezo-Román, Jessica Inés; Hernández Espinoza, Patricia Olga

    2014-03-01

    The indicators proposed by İşcan et al. (1984) are said to reflect age changes that occur in the sternal end of the fourth rib. These indicators have been used to estimate age-at-death in adult skeletal samples. However, Isçan et al. developed their methods using a forensic sample from Florida (U.S.A.). In order to test the reproducibility of those methods we evaluate its accuracy for the fourth ribs by applying it to a sample of known age and sex but of different biological affinity: modern males from Mexico City. We found that the method developed by İşcan et al. underestimates age-at-death in the Mexican sample.

  17. A study of the effects of cause specific death rates on age-specific death rates with special reference to Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, K

    1983-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of cause specific death rates on age specific death rates for Tamil Nadu rural females during the period 1970-75 in various age groups. 2 regression lines have been fitted. The age specific death rates were taken as dependent variables and time as an independent variable; the age-cause specific death rates were dependent variables and time was an independent variable. In the analysis, the ratio of regression coefficients of 2 regression lines gives the effect of age specific death rates due to the j-th cause in the i-th group. The trend of mortality in the age groups (0-4) and (5-14) declines over the period 1970-75 and increases in the age groups (15-34), (34-54) and 55 and older. The causes of declining mortality in the 0-4 age group are cough, fever, other clear symptoms and other causes. The %s of contribution for this decline are respectively 14%, 41%, 21% and 72% to the overall decline in that age group. The cause group violence and injury, digestive disorders and causes peculiar to infancy have contributed to increase in the 0-4 age group death rates. Digestive disorders, coughs and other causes have contributed to declining mortality in the 5-14 age group. The cause group accidents and injury, digestive disorders, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy and other causes are promoted to increase the mortality of the 15-34 age group. The causes contributing to the increasing trend of mortality in the 35-54 age group are violence and injury, digestive disorders, coughs, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy. Digestive disorders and other causes contributed to the mortality increase in the over 55 age group. PMID:12266915

  18. Racial Disparities for Age at Time of Cardiovascular Events and Cardiovascular Death in SLE Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scalzi, Lisabeth V.; Hollenbeak, Christopher S.; Wang, Li

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine if there are racial disparities in regard to the age at which SLE patients experience CVD and CVD associated death. Methods Using the 2003–2006 National Inpatient Sample, we calculated the age difference between SLE patients and their race and gender-matched controls at the time of hospitalization for a cardiovascular (CVD) event and for CVD-associated death. In addition, we also calculated the age difference for the same outcomes between White SLE patients and gender-matched controls for each minority group. Results The mean age difference at the time of CVD event between women with and without SLE was 10.5 years. All age differences between women with SLE (n=3,625) and women without SLE admitted for CVD were significant (p<0.0001). Black women were the youngest female SLE racial group to be admitted with CVD (53.9 years) and have a CVD associated inhospital mortality (52.8 years; n=218). Black SLE women were 19.8 years younger than race and gender-matched controls at the time of CVD associated death. Admission trends for CVD were reversed for Black women such that the highest proportions of these patients were admitted before age 55 and then steadily decreased across age categories. There were 805 men with SLE admitted with a CVD event, with Black and Hispanic groups being the youngest. Conclusions There are significant racial disparities with regard to age at the time of hospital admission for CVD events and a CVD-related hospitalization resulting in death in patients with SLE. PMID:20506536

  19. Body mass index, smoking, and risk of death between 40 and 70 years of age in a Norwegian cohort of 32,727 women and 33,475 men.

    PubMed

    Hjellvik, Vidar; Selmer, Randi; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Tverdal, Aage; Vollset, Stein Emil

    2013-01-01

    Overweight-obesity and smoking are two main preventable causes of premature death. Because the relationship between smoking and body mass index (BMI) complicates the interpretation of associations between BMI and death risks, direct estimates of risks associated with joint exposures are helpful. We have studied the relationships of BMI and smoking to middle age (40-69 years) death risk-overall and by causes-in a Norwegian cohort of 32,727 women and 33,475 men who were 35-49 years old when baseline measurements and lifestyle information were collected in 1974-1988. Individuals with a history of cancer, cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline were excluded. Mortality follow-up was through 2009. The relationship between BMI and middle age death risk was U-shaped. Overall middle age death risks were 11% in women and 21 % in men. The combination of obesity and heavy smoking resulted in fivefold increase in middle age death risks in both women and men: For women middle age death risk ranged from 6 % among never smokers in the 22.5-24.9 BMI group to 31% (adjusted 28%) in obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) heavy smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day). The corresponding figures in men were 10% and 53% (adjusted 45%). Obese never smokers and light (1-9 cigarettes/day) smokers in the 22.5-24.9 BMI groups both experienced a twofold increase in middle age risks of death. For women, cancer (56%) was the most common cause of death followed by cardiovascular disease (22%). In men, cardiovascular disease was most common (41%) followed by cancer (34%). Cardiovascular disease deaths were more strongly related to BMI than were cancer deaths.

  20. Attitudes of Children towards Aging, the Elderly, and Death & Dying as Expressed through the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Gamal; Zaki, Sylvia

    The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptions, feelings and attitudes of elementary and junior high school students toward the topics of aging, the elderly, death, and dying. To gather data, an announcement was made to all schools within the state that the Rhode Island Gerontology Center would sponsor a contest for all school children…

  1. Recent Changes in the U.S. Age at Death Distribution: Further Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, George C.; Manton, Kenneth G.

    1984-01-01

    Responds to discussion (Fries, 1984) of an earlier article (Myers and Manton, 1984) presenting empirical evidence on changes in the distribution of ages at death. Further analysis of the data is presented, including life expectancy changes from 1950-1978 and comparison of data for men and women from several countries. (JAC)

  2. Inflammation and Cell Death in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Immunopathological and Ultrastructural Model.

    PubMed

    Ardeljan, Christopher P; Ardeljan, Daniel; Abu-Asab, Mones; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) remains elusive despite the characterization of many factors contributing to the disease in its late-stage phenotypes. AMD features an immune system in flux, as shown by changes in macrophage polarization with age, expression of cytokines and complement, microglial accumulation with age, etc. These point to an allostatic overload, possibly due to a breakdown in self vs. non-self when endogenous compounds and structures acquire the appearance of non-self over time. The result is inflammation and inflammation-mediated cell death. While it is clear that these processes ultimately result in degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor, the prevalent type of cell death contributing to the various phenotypes is unknown. Both molecular studies as well as ultrastructural pathology suggest pyroptosis, and perhaps necroptosis, are the predominant mechanisms of cell death at play, with only minimal evidence for apoptosis. Herein, we attempt to reconcile those factors identified by experimental AMD models and integrate these data with pathology observed under the electron microscope-particularly observations of mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA leakage, autophagy, and cell death. PMID:25580276

  3. Mortality Measurement at Advanced Ages: A Study of the Social Security Administration Death Master File

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of mortality at advanced ages are essential to improving forecasts of mortality and the population size of the oldest old age group. However, estimation of hazard rates at extremely old ages poses serious challenges to researchers: (1) The observed mortality deceleration may be at least partially an artifact of mixing different birth cohorts with different mortality (heterogeneity effect); (2) standard assumptions of hazard rate estimates may be invalid when risk of death is extremely high at old ages and (3) ages of very old people may be exaggerated. One way of obtaining estimates of mortality at extreme ages is to pool together international records of persons surviving to extreme ages with subsequent efforts of strict age validation. This approach helps researchers to resolve the third of the above-mentioned problems but does not resolve the first two problems because of inevitable data heterogeneity when data for people belonging to different birth cohorts and countries are pooled together. In this paper we propose an alternative approach, which gives an opportunity to resolve the first two problems by compiling data for more homogeneous single-year birth cohorts with hazard rates measured at narrow (monthly) age intervals. Possible ways of resolving the third problem of hazard rate estimation are elaborated. This approach is based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File (DMF). Some birth cohorts covered by DMF could be studied by the method of extinct generations. Availability of month of birth and month of death information provides a unique opportunity to obtain hazard rate estimates for every month of age. Study of several single-year extinct birth cohorts shows that mortality trajectory at advanced ages follows the Gompertz law up to the ages 102–105 years without a noticeable deceleration. Earlier reports of mortality deceleration (deviation of mortality from the Gompertz law) at ages below 100 appear to be

  4. School-age adopted Chinese girls' behavioral adjustment, academic performance, and social skills: longitudinal results.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2009-04-01

    Longitudinal data on 177 school-age adopted Chinese girls (Time 1: mean age = 8.92 years, SD = 1.76; Time 2: mean age = 11.18 years, SD = 1.79) were analyzed to determine their long-term outcomes in behavioral adjustment, academic performance (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18), and social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and how these outcomes were related to preadoption adversity. More than 90% of the girls were adopted at 24 months or younger (M = 19.25, SD = 21.67). Results revealed that over a 2-year period, there was a moderate to strong stability in the children's behavioral adjustment and academic performance. However, there was a significant increase in the number of children with deviant internalizing problems. At both times, higher degrees of preadoption adversity were related to more internalizing problems and poorer academic performance. Children who were adopted at older ages had poorer academic performance. Children who were older had a lower level of assertion and a higher level of responsibility. Children's attention problems at Time 1 mediated the effect of preadoption adversity on academic performance at Time 2.

  5. Death by color: differential cone loss in the aging mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Cunea, Alexander; Powner, Michael B; Jeffery, Glen

    2014-11-01

    Differential cell death is a common feature of aging and age-related disease. In the retina, 30% of rod photoreceptors are lost over life in humans and rodents. However, studies have failed to show age-related cell death in mouse cone photoreceptors, which is surprising because cone physiological function declines with age. Moreover in human, differential loss of short wavelength cone function is an aspect of age-related retinal disease. Here, cones are examined in young (3-month-old) and aged (12-month-old) C57 mice and also in complement factor H knock out mice (CFH-/-) that have been proposed as a murine model of age-related macular degeneration. In vivo imaging showed significant age-related reductions in outer retinal thickness in both groups over this period. Immunostaining for opsins revealed a specific significant decline of >20% for the medium/long (M/L)-wavelength cones but only in the periphery. S cones numbers were not significantly affected by age. This differential cell loss was backed up with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the 2 opsins, again showing S opsin was unaffected, but that M/L opsin was reduced particularly in CFH-/- mice. These results demonstrate aged cone loss, but surprisingly, in both genotypes, it is only significant in the peripheral ventral retina and focused on the M/L population and not S cones. We speculate that there may be fundamental differences in differential cone loss between human and mouse that may question the validity of mouse models of human outer retinal aging and pathology.

  6. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  7. Evaluation of age estimation technique: testing traits of the acetabulum to estimate age at death in adult males.

    PubMed

    Calce, Stephanie E; Rogers, Tracy L

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy and precision of a skeletal age estimation method, using the acetabulum of 100 male ossa coxae from the Grant Collection (GRO) at the University of Toronto, Canada. Age at death was obtained using Bayesian inference and a computational application (IDADE2) that requires a reference population, close in geographic and temporal distribution to the target case, to calibrate age ranges from scores generated by the technique. The inaccuracy of this method is 8 years. The direction of bias indicates the acetabulum technique tends to underestimate age. The categories 46-65 and 76-90 years exhibit the smallest inaccuracy (0.2), suggesting that this method may be appropriate for individuals over 40 years. Eighty-three percent of age estimates were ±12 years of known age; 79% were ±10 years of known age; and 62% were ±5 years of known age. Identifying a suitable reference population is the most significant limitation of this technique for forensic applications.

  8. Age-related gestation length adjustment in a large iteroparous mammal at northern latitude.

    PubMed

    Mysterud, Atle; Røed, Knut H; Holand, Øystein; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Nieminen, Mauri

    2009-09-01

    1. There is considerable interest in patterns of age-dependent reproductive effort and reproductive timing of large iteroparous mammals living in strongly seasonal environments. Due to lack of data on both timing of mating and birth, there is generally little insight into whether variation in gestation length play a role for life-history patterns observed for large mammals at northern latitudes. 2. Based on data on both timing of mating and birth of 88 female reindeer (and paternity confirmed with DNA fingerprinting), we explore the view that adjustment of gestation length plays a role in the reproductive tactic. 3. Observed gestation lengths of reindeer varied between 211 and 229 days (mean of 221 days). Consistent with a dynamic view of gestation length, variation could be predicted from life-history traits. Gestation length was longer for male than female offspring, which is expected in polygynous species where males benefit more from extra allocation of maternal resources. Gestation length increased with maternal age both due to direct effects and indirect effects linked to earlier mating of older, heavier females. Early mating females increased gestation length. A relatively small effect of female age on birth mass operated through variation in gestation length. 4. Our analysis supports the view that adjustment of gestation length is a part of the reproductive tactic of large mammals in northern environments.

  9. DNA alteration and programmed cell death during ageing of sunflower seed

    PubMed Central

    El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Mazuy, Claire; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed viability is affected by moisture content (MC) during ageing and is related to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and changes in energy metabolism. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of ageing on DNA alteration events by RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) analysis and to determine whether loss of seed viability might correspond to a controlled programmed cell death (PCD). Ageing of sunflower seeds was carried out at 35 °C for 7 d at different MCs. The higher the MC, the lower was the seed viability. RAPD analysis showed that DNA alterations occurred during ageing especially in seeds containing a high MC. In addition, PCD, as revealed by DNA fragmentation and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assay, was detected in aged seeds at MCs which resulted in ∼50% seed viability. At the cellular level, TUNEL assay and propidium iodide staining showed that cell death concerns all the cells of the embryonic axis. The quantification of the adenylate pool highlights mitochondrial dysfunction in aged seeds containing a high MC. The involvement of oxidative burst, mitochondria dysfunction, and PCD in seed loss of viability is proposed. PMID:21765164

  10. The timing of fault motion in Death Valley from Illite Age Analysis of fault gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, E. A.; Haines, S. H.; Van der Pluijm, B.

    2014-12-01

    We constrained the timing of fluid circulation and associated fault motion in the Death Valley region of the US Basin and Range Province from Illite Age Analysis (IAA) of fault gouge at seven Low-Angle Normal Fault (LANF) exposures in the Black Mountains and Panamint Mountains, and in two nearby areas. 40Ar/39Ar ages of neoformed, illitic clay minerals in these fault zones range from 2.8 Ma to 18.6 Ma, preserving asynchronous fault motion across the region that corresponds to an evolving history of crustal block movements during Neogene extensional deformation. From north to south, along the western side of the Panamint Range, the Mosaic Canyon fault yields an authigenic illite age of 16.9±2.9 Ma, the Emigrant fault has ages of less than 10-12 Ma at Tucki Mountain and Wildrose Canyon, and an age of 3.6±0.17 Ma was obtained for the Panamint Front Range LANF at South Park Canyon. Across Death Valley, along the western side of the Black Mountains, Ar ages of clay minerals are 3.2±3.9 Ma, 12.2±0.13 Ma and 2.8±0.45 Ma for the Amargosa Detachment, the Gregory Peak Fault and the Mormon Point Turtleback detachment, respectively. Complementary analysis of the δH composition of neoformed clays shows a primarily meteoric source for the mineralizing fluids in these LANF zones. The ages fall into two geologic timespans, reflecting activity pulses in the Middle Miocene and in the Upper Pliocene. Activity on both of the range front LANFs does not appear to be localized on any single portion of these fault systems. Middle Miocene fault rock ages of neoformed clays were also obtained in the Ruby Mountains (10.5±1.2 Ma) to the north of the Death Valley region and to the south in the Whipple Mountains (14.3±0.19 Ma). The presence of similar, bracketed times of activity indicate that LANFs in the Death Valley region were tectonically linked, while isotopic signatures indicate that faulting pulses involved surface fluid penetration.

  11. Use of free amino acid composition of shell to estimate age since death of recent molluscs

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, A.M.; Powell, E.N.; Stanton, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An understanding of death assemblage formation requires a measurement of time since death of constituent individuals. A new dating technique based on the measurement of the free amino acid content of mollusc shells has been developed which is inexpensive, rapid, and effective in dating time scales of a few decades to a few centuries. Since the breakdown of proteins of the matrix of mollusc shells begins soon after deposition, free amino acids gradually increase with shell age. The measurement of these can be used to determine the relative age among a group of shells. The future use of this technique depends on a clearer understanding of how free amino acid accumulation rate varies with age and species and developing effective calibration methods so that absolute rather than relative ages can be readily obtained. Three species were distributed widely enough for use - Rangia cuneata, Tagelus plebeius, and Phacoides pectinatus. A good relationship between free amino acids and relative age was present in all three species over the entire core; however some species and some amino acid were superior to others. Rangia cuneata produced the best correlation because it is epifaunal and thus died at the sediment surface rather than over an extended depth range and, also perhaps, because amino acid accumulation rates were more linear.

  12. Ecological correlation between arsenic level in well water and age-adjusted mortality from malignant neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.J.; Wang, C.J. )

    1990-09-01

    A significant dose-response relation between ingested arsenic and several cancers has recently been reported in four townships of the endemic area of blackfoot disease, a unique peripheral artery disease related to the chronic arsenic exposure in southwestern Taiwan. This study was carried out to examine ecological correlations between arsenic level of well water and mortality from various malignant neoplasms in 314 precincts and townships of Taiwan. The arsenic content in water of 83,656 wells was determined by a standard mercuric bromide stain method from 1974 to 1976, while mortality rates of 21 malignant neoplasms among residents in study precincts and townships from 1972 to 1983 were standardized to the world population in 1976. A significant association with the arsenic level in well water was observed for cancers of the liver, nasal cavity, lung, skin, bladder and kidney in both males and females as well as for the prostate cancer in males. These associations remained significant after adjusting for indices of urbanization and industrialization through multiple regression analyses. The multivariate-adjusted regression coefficient indicating an increase in age-adjusted mortality per 100,000 person-years for every 0.1 ppm increase in arsenic level of well water was 6.8 and 2.0, 0.7 and 0.4, 5.3 and 5.3, 0.9 and 1.0, 3.9 and 4.2, as well as 1.1 and 1.7, respectively, in males and females for cancers of the liver, nasal cavity, lung, skin, bladder and kidney. The multivariate-adjusted regression coefficient for the prostate cancer was 0.5. These weighted regression coefficients were found to increase or remain unchanged in further analyses in which only 170 southwestern townships were included.

  13. Hospital Versus Home Death: Results from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Tovalín-Ahumada, Horacio; Nates, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Characterizing where people die is needed to inform palliative care programs in Mexico. Objectives To determine whether access to health care influences the place of death of older Mexicans and examine the modifying effects of demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 2001 baseline and 2003 follow-up data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Cases included adults who completed the baseline interview and died before the follow-up interview and for whom a proxy interview was obtained in 2003. The main outcome variable was the place of death (hospital vs. home). The predictors of the place of death were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results The study group included 473 deceased patients; 52.9% died at home. Factors associated with hospital death were having spent at least one night in a hospital during the last year of life (odds ratio [OR]: 6.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 13.78) and dying in a city other than the city of usual residence (OR: 4.68, 95% CI: 2.56, 8.57). Factors associated with home death were not having health care coverage (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.34, 5.88), living in a city of less than 100,000 residents (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.43, 4.17), and older age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05). Conclusion Older Mexicans with access to health care services were more likely to die in the hospital even after controlling for important clinical and demographic characteristics. Findings from the study may be used to plan the provision of accessible end-of-life hospital and home-based services. PMID:21146354

  14. A Stochastic Version of the Brass PF Ratio Adjustment of Age-Specific Fertility Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jack; Alcantara, Adélamar; Ruan, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of age-specific fertility rates based on survey data are known to suffer down-bias associated with incomplete reporting. Previously, William Brass (1964, 1965, 1968) proposed a series of adjustments of such data to reflect more appropriate levels of fertility through comparison with data on children-ever-born by age, a measure of cohort-specific cumulative fertility. His now widely-used Parity/Fertility or PF ratio method makes a number of strong assumptions, which have been the focus of an extended discussion in the literature on indirect estimation. However, while it is clear that the measures used in making adjusted age-specific fertility estimates with this method are captured with statistical uncertainty, little discussion of the nature of this uncertainty around PF-ratio based estimates of fertility has been entertained in the literature. Since both age-specific risk of childbearing and cumulative parity (children ever born) are measured with statistical uncertainty, an unknown credibility interval must surround every PF ratio-based estimate. Using the standard approach, this is unknown, limiting the ability to make statistical comparisons of fertility between groups or to understand stochasticity in population dynamics. This paper makes use of approaches applied to similar problems in engineering, the natural sciences, and decision analysis—often discussed under the title of uncertainty analysis or stochastic modeling—to characterize this uncertainty and to present a new method for making PF ratio-based fertility estimates with 95 percent uncertainty intervals. The implications for demographic analysis, between-group comparisons of fertility, and the field of statistical demography are explored. PMID:21829718

  15. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  16. Use of age-adjusted rates of suicide in time series studies in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2009-01-01

    Durkheim's modified theory of suicide was examined to explore how consistent it was in predicting Israeli rates of suicide from 1965 to 1997 when using age-adjusted rates rather than crude ones. In this time-series study, Israeli male and female rates of suicide increased and decreased, respectively, between 1965 and 1997. Conforming to Durkheim's modified theory, the Israeli male rate of suicide was lower in years when rates of marriage and birth are higher, while rates of suicide are higher in years when rates of divorce are higher, the opposite to that of Israeli women. The corrected regression coefficients suggest that the Israeli female rate of suicide remained lower in years when rate of divorce is higher, again the opposite suggested by Durkheim's modified theory. These results may indicate that divorce affects the mental health of Israeli women as suggested by their lower rate of suicide. Perhaps the "multiple roles held by Israeli females creates suicidogenic stress" and divorce provides some sense of stress relief, mentally speaking. The results were not as consistent with predictions suggested by Durkheim's modified theory of suicide as were rates from the United States for the same period nor were they consistent with rates based on "crude" suicide data. Thus, using age-adjusted rates of suicide had an influence on the prediction of the Israeli rate of suicide during this period.

  17. Comparison of information on death certificates and matching 1960 census records: age, marital status, race, nativity and country of origin.

    PubMed

    Hambright, T Z

    1969-11-01

    A sample of death certificates matched with 1960 Census records permitted comparison of response data for items asked on both records. Estimates of bias in death rates which are based on information from the two records are derived from the comparison data. Most of the comparisons yielded small discrepancies of inconsequential effect on the mortality rates. Some large inconsistencies, however, of potentially serious impact on the death rates were observed. The comparisons are examined and the implications of the results for the relevant mortality rates are discussed. In addition, age-specific death rates "corrected" for the disparities found in the age information on the two records are presented.

  18. Diabetes death rates among youths aged ≤ 19 years--United States, 1968-2009.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Although diabetes mellitus most often is diagnosed in adulthood, it remains one of the most common serious chronic diseases of childhood. Youths with diabetes are at risk for diabetes-related mortality because of acute complications that can result from the condition, including diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. In the United States in 2010, an estimated 215,000 persons aged ≤ 19 years had diagnosed diabetes. Medical care for diabetes has improved considerably in recent decades, leading to improved survival rates. However, recent trends in diabetes death rates among youths aged <10 years and 10-19 years in the United States have not been reported. To assess these trends, CDC analyzed data from the National Vital Statistics System for deaths in the United States with diabetes listed as the underlying cause during 1968-2009. This report highlights the results of that analysis, which found that diabetes-related mortality decreased 61%, from an annual rate of 2.69 per million for the period 1968-1969 to a rate of 1.05 per million in 2008-2009. The percentage decrease was greater among youths aged <10 years (78%) than among youths aged 10-19 years (52%). These findings demonstrate improvements in diabetes mortality among youths but also indicate a need for continued improvement in diabetes diagnosis and care. PMID:23114253

  19. A Hierarchical Kinetic Theory of Birth, Death and Fission in Age-Structured Interacting Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom; Greenman, Chris D.

    2016-07-01

    We develop mathematical models describing the evolution of stochastic age-structured populations. After reviewing existing approaches, we formulate a complete kinetic framework for age-structured interacting populations undergoing birth, death and fission processes in spatially dependent environments. We define the full probability density for the population-size age chart and find results under specific conditions. Connections with more classical models are also explicitly derived. In particular, we show that factorial moments for non-interacting processes are described by a natural generalization of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation, which describes mean-field deterministic behavior. Our approach utilizes mixed-type, multidimensional probability distributions similar to those employed in the study of gas kinetics and with terms that satisfy BBGKY-like equation hierarchies.

  20. Investigation of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Deaths Among US Children Aged <2 Years, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Prill, Mila M; Iwane, Marika K; Little, Delmar; Gerber, Susan I

    2016-09-01

    We validated the respiratory syncytial virus-coded deaths of children aged <2 years in 2004-2007 using national/state death data and medical records. There were 48 deaths in 4 states, and hospital records for 32 of them were available; 26 of those 32 (81%) had a laboratory finding of respiratory syncytial virus, and 21 of those 26 (81%) had a potential high-risk condition, most commonly preterm birth (35%). PMID:27534673

  1. Calculating excess risk with age-dependent adjustment factors and cumulative doses: ethylene oxide case study.

    PubMed

    Sielken, Robert L; Flores, Ciriaco Valdez

    2009-10-01

    U.S. EPA's Supplemental Guidance in 2005 documented their procedure for incorporating age-dependent adjustment factors (ADAFs) into lifetime excess risk calculations. EPA's first attempt to implement an ADAF when the dose-response model had a cumulative dose metric was for ethylene oxide and that attempt (US EPA, 2006) failed to successfully follow EPA's own guidelines. The failure suggested that the incorporation of ADAFs would increase the lifetime excess risk for ethylene oxide by approximately 66%. However, if the procedure in the guidelines were followed correctly, then the increase would have only been 0.008% or approximately 8,000 fold less. Because cumulative exposure is a common dose metric in dose-response models of epidemiological data, a correct implementation of the guidelines is of widespread importance.

  2. Fear of Personal Death and the MMPI Profile of Middle-Age Men: The Moderating Impact of Personal Losses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Victor; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined association of fear of personal death and aspects of psychological maladjustment and moderating impact of personal losses among 97 middle-aged Israeli men. Found that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profile was significantly related to pattern of fear of personal death. Association only reached significance among subjects who…

  3. Maternal death after oocyte donation at high maternal age: case report

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Joke M; Schuitemaker, Nico WE; Steegers, Eric AP; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2008-01-01

    Background The percentage of women giving birth after the age of 35 increased in many western countries. The number of women remaining childless also increased, mostly due to aging oocytes. The method of oocyte donation offers the possibility for infertile older women to become pregnant. Gestation after oocyte-donation-IVF, however, is not without risks for the mother, especially at advanced age. Case presentation An infertile woman went abroad for oocyte-donation-IVF, since this treatment is not offered in The Netherlands after the age of 45. The first oocyte donation treatment resulted in multiple gestation, but was ended by induced abortion: the woman could not cope with the idea of being pregnant with twins. During the second pregnancy after oocyte donation, at the age of 50, she was mentally more stable. The pregnancy, again a multiple gestation, was uneventful until delivery. Immediately after delivery the woman had hypertension with nausea and vomiting. A few hours later she had an eclamptic fit. HELLP-syndrome was diagnosed. She died due to cerebral haemorrhage. Conclusion In The Netherlands, the age limit for women receiving donor oocytes is 45 years and commercial oocyte donation is forbidden by law. In other countries there is no age limit, the reason why some women are going abroad to receive the treatment of their choice. Advanced age, IVF and twin pregnancy are all risk factors for pre-eclampsia, the leading cause of maternal death in The Netherlands. Patient autonomy is an important ethical principle, but doctors are also bound to the principle of 'not doing harm', and do have the right to refuse medical treatment such as IVF-treatment. The discussion whether women above 50 should have children is still not closed. If the decision is made to offer this treatment to a woman at advanced age, the doctor should counsel her intensively about the risks before treatment is started. PMID:19116003

  4. Age-adjusted recipient pretransplantation telomere length and treatment-related mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Rodrigo T.; Busson, Marc; Abrams, Jeffrey; Adoui, Nadir; Robin, Marie; Larghero, Jérôme; Dhedin, Nathalie; Xhaard, Alienor; Clave, Emmanuel; Charron, Dominique; Toubert, Antoine; Loiseau, Pascale; Socié, Gérard; Young, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    Telomere attrition induces cell senescence and apoptosis. We hypothesized that age-adjusted pretransplantation telomere length might predict treatment-related mortality (TRM) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between 2000 and 2005, 178 consecutive patients underwent HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors after myeloablative conditioning regimens, mainly for hematologic malignancies (n = 153). Blood lymphocytes' telomere length was measured by real-time quantitative PCR before HSCT. Age-adjusted pretransplantation telomere lengths were analyzed for correlation with clinical outcomes. After age adjustment, patients' telomere-length distribution was similar among all 4 quartiles except for disease stage. There was no correlation between telomere length and engraftment, GVHD, or relapse. The overall survival was 62% at 5 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 54-70). After a median follow-up of 51 months (range, 1-121 months), 43 patients died because of TRM. The TRM rate inversely correlated with telomere length. TRM in patients in the first (lowest telomere length) quartile was significantly higher than in patients with longer telomeres (P = .017). In multivariate analysis, recipients' age (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, .0-1.1; P = .0001) and age-adjusted telomere length (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% CI; 0.2-0.8; P = .01) were independently associated with TRM. In conclusion, age-adjusted recipients' telomere length is an independent biologic marker of TRM after HSCT. PMID:22948043

  5. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  6. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  7. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period.

  8. Familial factors in early deaths: twins followed 30 years to ages 51-61 in 1978.

    PubMed

    Hrubec, Z; Neel, J V

    1981-01-01

    Subjects in the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry of 31,848 male twin veterans were followed for mortality from 1 January 1946, or from the date of entry into military service if that was later, to 31 December 1978. During this time 3,573 deaths occurred among them, 837 due to trauma and 2,712 due to disease. Mortality from all causes for the entire follow-up period was 10.2% among 11,350 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 11.4% among 14,450 dizygotic (DZ) twins. Mortality of veterans is known to be favorable compared to U.S. males. Among U.S. males of the same ages as the two respective twin zygosity groups, a mortality of 13.9% would have been expected during this time period. Observed mortality from trauma was 2.3% for MZ twins and 2.5% for DZ twins, with 3.0% expected in either group. Observed mortality from all disease was 7.9% for MZ twins and 8.8% for DZ twins, with 10.9% expected in either group. For total mortality, the case twin concordance rates, based on individual deaths, were 28.2% among MZ twins and 17.7% among DZ twins. For trauma, respectively by zygosity, these concordance rates were 6.9% and 3.9%. In this sample, familial factors appear to be of little consequence in trauma deaths. For all disease the concordance rates were 30.1% and 17.4%. Estimating heritability of liability to death from disease, as proposed by Edwards (1969), provides values of h2 = r = 0.51 for MZ twins, h2 = 2r = 0.48 for DZ twins, and h2 = 2(rMZ-rDZ) = 0.54 using data for the two zygosity groups combined. PMID:10819020

  9. Two phases of aging separated by the Smurf transition as a public path to death

    PubMed Central

    Dambroise, E.; Monnier, L.; Ruisheng, L.; Aguilaniu, H.; Joly, J.-S.; Tricoire, H.; Rera, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aging’s most obvious characteristic is the time dependent increase of an individual’s probability to die. This lifelong process is accompanied by a large number of molecular and physiological changes. Although numerous genes involved in aging have been identified in the past decades its leading factors have yet to be determined. To identify the very processes driving aging we have developed in the past years an assay to identify physiologically old individuals in a synchronized population of Drosophila melanogaster. Those individuals show an age-dependent increase of intestinal permeability followed by a high risk of death. Here we show that this physiological marker of aging is conserved in 3 invertebrate species Drosophila mojavensis, Drosophila virilis, Caenorhabditis elegans as well as in 1 vertebrate species Danio rerio. Our findings suggest that intestinal barrier dysfunction may be an important event in the aging process conserved across a broad range of species, thus raising the possibility that it may also be the case in Homo sapiens. PMID:27002861

  10. Age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Ohashi, Yukari

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints. Fifteen young adults and 14 older adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. In the anterior-posterior direction, older adults demonstrated significantly decreased center of mass velocity at the swing foot contact under temporal constraints. Additionally, the distances between the 'extrapolated center of mass' position and base of support at the swing foot contact were greater in older adults than young adults. In the mediolateral direction, center of mass displacement was significantly increased in older adults compared with young adults. Consequently, older adults showed a significantly increased step width at the swing foot contact in the constraint condition. Overall, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate a conservative strategy to maintain anterior-posterior stability. By contrast, although older adults are able to modulate their step width to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance, age-related changes in mediolateral balance control under temporal constraints may increase the risk of falls in the lateral direction during obstacle negotiation.

  11. Curcumin in cell death processes: a challenge for CAM of age-related pathologies.

    PubMed

    Salvioli, S; Sikora, E; Cooper, E L; Franceschi, C

    2007-06-01

    Curcumin, the yellow pigment from the rhizoma of Curcuma longa, is a widely studied phytochemical which has a variety of biological activities: anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. In this review we discuss the biological mechanisms and possible clinical effects of curcumin treatment on cancer therapy, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, with particular attention to the cell death processes induced by curcumin. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are major determinants of the aging process, we also argue that curcumin can have a more general effect that slows down the rate of aging. Finally, the effects of curcumin can be described as xenohormetic, since it activates a sort of stress response in mammalian cells.

  12. A new model for the estimation of time of death from vitreous potassium levels corrected for age and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Bernard, S; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of potassium concentration in the vitreous fluid of the eye is frequently used by forensic pathologists to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), particularly when other methods commonly used in the early phase of an investigation can no longer be applied. The postmortem rise in vitreous potassium has been recognized for several decades and is readily explained by a diffusion of potassium from surrounding cells into the vitreous fluid. However, there is no consensus regarding the mathematical equation that best describes this increase. The existing models assume a linear increase, but different slopes and starting points have been proposed. In this study, vitreous potassium levels, and a number of factors that may influence these levels, were examined in 462 cases with known postmortem intervals that ranged from 2h to 17 days. We found that the postmortem rise in potassium followed a non-linear curve and that decedent age and ambient temperature influenced the variability by 16% and 5%, respectively. A long duration of agony and a high alcohol level at the time of death contributed less than 1% variability, and evaluation of additional possible factors revealed no detectable impact on the rise of vitreous potassium. Two equations were subsequently generated, one that represents the best fit of the potassium concentrations alone, and a second that represents potassium concentrations with correction for decedent age and/or ambient temperature. The former was associated with narrow confidence intervals in the early postmortem phase, but the intervals gradually increased with longer PMIs. For the latter equation, the confidence intervals were reduced at all PMIs. Therefore, the model that best describes the observed postmortem rise in vitreous potassium levels includes potassium concentration, decedent age, and ambient temperature. Furthermore, the precision of these equations, particularly for long PMIs, is expected to gradually improve by adjusting the

  13. Using Laplace Regression to Model and Predict Percentiles of Age at Death When Age Is the Primary Time Scale.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Andrea; Discacciati, Andrea; Bottai, Matteo; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Increasingly often in epidemiologic research, associations between survival time and predictors of interest are measured by differences between distribution functions rather than hazard functions. For example, differences in percentiles of survival time, expressed in absolute time units (e.g., weeks), may complement the popular risk ratios, which are unitless measures. When analyzing time to an event of interest (e.g., death) in prospective cohort studies, the time scale can be set to start at birth or at study entry. The advantages of one time origin over the other have been thoroughly explored for the estimation of risks but not for the estimation of survival percentiles. In this paper, we analyze the use of different time scales in the estimation of survival percentiles with Laplace regression. Using this regression method, investigators can estimate percentiles of survival time over levels of an exposure of interest while adjusting for potential confounders. Our findings may help to improve modeling strategies and ease interpretation in the estimation of survival percentiles in prospective cohort studies.

  14. ‘A confession of ignorance’: deaths from old age and deciphering cause-of-death statistics in Scotland, 1855–1949

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Alice; Garrett, Eilidh; Dibben, Chris; Williamson, Lee

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of the research undertaken in an attempt to discover the reasons underlying the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century mortality decline in Britain has relied on the statistics published by the Registrars General. The processes by which individual causes of death are recorded and then processed in order to create the statistics are not, however, well understood. In this article, the authors build on previous work to piece together a time series of causes of death for Scotland, which removes many of the discontinuities encountered in the published statistics that result from the Registrar General deciding to update the nosology, or classification system, which was being used to compile his figures. Having regrouped individual causes of death to ‘smooth’ the time series, the authors use the new groups to examine the changing causes of death in Scotland for selected age groups, before turning to undertake a detailed examination of mortality amongst those aged 55 or more. The authors find that when deaths from ‘old age’ in the latter age group are separated from other ‘ill-defined’ causes, it becomes obvious that there was a ‘rebranding’ of cause of death. The authors then use individual-level data from two Scottish communities to further dissect the roles played by ‘informants’ and ‘doctors’ in this rebranding, in order to see how these roles may have altered over time and what the consequences might be for one's view of how mortality changed in Scotland between 1855 and 1949. Finally, the authors argue that their findings have important implications for some of historical demography's most prominent theories: the McKeown thesis and the theory of epidemiological transition. PMID:26900320

  15. Causes of Death in Children Aged < 15 Years in the Inner Mongolia Region of China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Du, Maolin; Hao, Zhihui; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Qing; Hao, Wenli; Xi, Lei; Sun, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify the causes of death in children <15 years of age in Inner Mongolia and to examine the age-specific causes of death. Study data from 2008–2012 were obtained from the Death Registry System that is maintained by the Inner Mongolia Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The mortality rate (per 100,000) for children <15 years of age was calculated and stratified by age in different years. We computed the proportion of age-specific causes of death for children <15 years that occurred between 2008 and 2012 across eight monitoring points in Inner Mongolia. We used a log-linear model to analyze the year and age effects on childhood mortality. From 2008-2012, the standardized mortality of children <15 years of age was 42.78/100,000. The mortality rate was not significantly different from 2008 to 2012 (p>0.05); the mortality rate was the highest in the <1-year age group (p<0.05); and the mortality rate of the <1-year age group was higher in 2012 compared to that in 2009 (p<0.05), 2010 (p<0.05), and 2011 (p<0.05). In children aged 1-14 years, the leading cause of death was injuries, among which transport accident injuries were the most prevalent. To reduce the childhood mortality rate in Inner Mongolia, China, we should focus on the prevention of perinatal deaths in infants <1 year of age and on the prevention of transport accident injuries among older children (1-14 years). PMID:27157187

  16. Aging: progressive decline in fitness due to the rising deleteriome adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-08-01

    Different theories posit that aging is caused by molecular damage, genetic programs, continued development, hyperfunction, antagonistic pleiotropy alleles, mutations, trade-offs, incomplete repair, etc. Here, I discuss that these ideas can be conceptually unified as they capture particular facets of aging, while being incomplete. Their respective deleterious effects impact fitness at different levels of biological organization, adjusting progression through aging, rather than causing it. Living is associated with a myriad of deleterious processes, both random and deterministic, which are caused by imperfectness, exhibit cumulative properties, and represent the indirect effects of biological functions at all levels, from simple molecules to systems. From this, I derive the deleteriome, which encompasses cumulative deleterious age-related changes and represents the biological age. The organismal deleteriome consists of the deleteriomes of cells, organs, and systems, which change along roughly synchronized trajectories and may be assessed through biomarkers of aging. Aging is then a progressive decline in fitness due to the increasing deleteriome, adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes. This model allows integration of diverse aging concepts, provides insights into the nature of aging, and suggests how lifespan may be adjusted during evolution and in experimental models. PMID:27060562

  17. The effect of age and time to death on primary care costs: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Atella, Vincenzo; Conti, Valentina

    2014-08-01

    A large body of literature shows that time to death (TTD) is by far a better predictor of health spending than age. In this paper, we investigate if this finding holds true also in presence of primary care costs (pharmaceuticals, diagnostic tests and specialist visits) in Italy, where they represent an important share (about 30%) of the total health care expenditure (HCE). Our analysis is based on a large sample of the Italian population (about 750,000 individuals), obtained from the Health Search-SiSSI database, which contains patient-level data collected routinely by General Practitioners in Italy since 2002. We study individuals aged 19 and older, over the period 2006-2009. By means of a two-part model which accounts for the presence of zero expenditure, our findings show that age represents the most important driver of primary care costs in Italy, although TTD remains a good predictor. These results suggest that age and TTD can have a different role in shaping health care costs according to the component of health expenditure examined. Therefore, our advice to policy makers is to use disaggregated models to better disentangle these contributions and to produce more reliable health spending forecasts.

  18. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  19. Population-based mammography screening below age 50: balancing radiation-induced vs prevented breast cancer deaths

    PubMed Central

    de Gelder, R; Draisma, G; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to ionizing radiation at mammography screening may cause breast cancer. Because the radiation risk increases with lower exposure age, advancing the lower age limit may affect the balance between screening benefits and risks. The present study explores the benefit–risk ratio of screening before age 50. Methods: The benefits of biennial mammography screening, starting at various ages between 40 and 50, and continuing up to age 74 were examined using micro-simulation. In contrast with previous studies that commonly used excess relative risk models, we assessed the radiation risks using the latest BEIR-VII excess absolute rate exposure-risk model. Results: The estimated radiation risk is lower than previously assessed. At a mean glandular dose of 1.3 mGy per view that was recently measured in the Netherlands, biennial mammography screening between age 50 and 74 was predicted to induce 1.6 breast cancer deaths per 100 000 women aged 0–100 (range 1.3–6.3 extra deaths at a glandular dose of 1–5 mGy per view), against 1121 avoided deaths in this population. Advancing the lower age limit for screening to include women aged 40–74 was predicted to induce 3.7 breast cancer deaths per 100 000 women aged 0–100 (range 2.9–14.4) at biennial screening, but would also prevent 1302 deaths. Conclusion: The benefits of mammography screening between age 40 and 74 were predicted to outweigh the radiation risks. PMID:21364575

  20. Mortality Increase in Late-Middle and Early-Old Age: Heterogeneity in Death Processes as a New Explanation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang Claire; Anderson, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Deviations from the Gompertz law of exponential mortality increases in late-middle and early-old age are commonly neglected in overall mortality analyses. In this study, we examined mortality increase patterns between ages 40 and 85 in 16 low-mortality countries and demonstrated sex differences in these patterns, which also changed across period and cohort. These results suggest that the interaction between aging and death is more complicated than what is usually assumed from the Gompertz law and also challenge existing biodemographic hypotheses about the origin and mechanisms of sex differences in mortality. We propose a two-mortality model that explains these patterns as the change in the composition of intrinsic and extrinsic death rates with age. We show that the age pattern of overall mortality and the population heterogeneity therein are possibly generated by multiple dynamics specified by a two-mortality model instead of a uniform process throughout most adult ages. PMID:23743628

  1. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... insurance benefits in April 1981. He had no social security earnings before 1951 and his year-by-year...

  2. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... insurance benefits in April 1981. He had no social security earnings before 1951 and his year-by-year...

  3. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  4. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  5. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  6. Hospitalizations and Deaths Because of Respiratory and Diarrheal Diseases Among Haitian Children Under Five Years of Age, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Vinekar, Kavita; Schaad, Nicolas; Lucien, Mentor Ali Ber; Leshem, Eyal; Oboho, Ikwo K.; Joseph, Gerard; Juin, Stanley; Dawood, Fatimah S.; Parashar, Umesh; Katz, Mark A.; Tohme, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory and diarrheal diseases are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years in developing countries. Data on the burden of these diseases in Haiti are scarce. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of hospital admission registries during January 1, 2011–December 31, 2013 for children younger than 5 years in 6 hospitals in Haiti. We recorded the number of all-cause, respiratory and diarrheal disease admissions and deaths by epidemiologic week and age. Results A total of 31,565 hospital admissions and 1763 deaths were recorded among children aged <5 years during the study period. Respiratory diseases accounted for 9183 (29%) hospitalizations and 301 (17%) deaths. Children aged 6–23 months had the highest percentage of hospitalizations attributable to respiratory diseases (38%), whereas children aged 36–47 months had the highest proportion of deaths attributable to respiratory diseases (37%). Respiratory disease hospitalizations followed a bimodal seasonal pattern, with peaks during May–June and October–December. Diarrheal diseases accounted for 8063 (26%) hospitalizations and 224 (13%) deaths. Children aged 6–11 months had the highest percentage of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations (39%) and deaths (29%). Diarrheal disease admissions peaked in January–April before the rainy season. Conclusions Respiratory and diarrheal diseases contributed to more than half of hospitalizations and almost a third of deaths in children younger than 5 years in Haiti. These data are essential to assess the impact of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines and other interventions in Haiti. PMID:26244833

  7. Death Anxiety across the Adult Years: An Examination of Age and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russac, R. J.; Gatliff, Colleen; Reece, Mimi; Spottswood, Diahann

    2007-01-01

    Two studies examined death anxiety across the adult years. In the first study, 304 men and women between 18 and 87 years completed the Collett-Lester Fear of Death scale. Death anxiety peaked in both men and women during their 20s and declined significantly thereafter. However, women displayed a secondary spike during their 50s not seen in men. In…

  8. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  9. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age.

  10. A test of a recently devised method of estimating skeletal age at death using features of the adult acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Mays, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of age at death from adult skeletal remains is highly problematic, due in great part to interpopulation variability in skeletal age changes. Thorough testing of aging methods is therefore of key importance. A method recently devised by Calce (Am J Phys Anthropol 148 (2012): 11-23) for placing adult skeletons into three broad age at death classes (17-39, 40-64, 65+ years) on the basis of acetabular morphology is tested on a collection of 18-19th century AD skeletons (N = 185) of documented age at death from London. Results showed that 45% were correctly assigned to age class using this method. This compares with 81% reported by Calce on 20th century North American material. This indicates significant interpopulation differences in the relationship between the Calce acetabular variables and age, even between populations of European ancestry. Until the sources of this variation are better understood, caution should be used before applying this method to estimate age in unknown skeletons.

  11. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  12. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  13. Family relationships and the psychosocial adjustment of school-aged children in intact families.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Esther M; Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M A

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The findings confirm associations between the marital and the parent-child relationship, and between the parent-child and the sibling relationship, Further, both father-child relationships and sibling relationships predict children's adjustment. Father-child conflicts contribute to children's problem behavior, while father-child acceptance and sibling affection contribute significantly to children's general self-esteem. However, contrary to previous studies no support was found for the association between marital relationship and sibling relationship, or for that between marital relationship quality and children's adjustment.

  14. The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

  15. Microglial AGE-albumin is critical for neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease: a possible implication for theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Lee, Jaesuk; Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Moon, Jeongsik; Park, Hye-Jeong; Roshini, Arivazhagan; Kim, Seung U; Song, Byoung-Joon; Jo, Seung-Mook; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), by inducing protein aggregation and cross-link, formation of Lewy body, and neuronal death. In this study, we observed that AGE-albumin, the most abundant AGE product in the human PD brain, is synthesized in activated microglial cells and accumulates in the extracellular space. AGE-albumin synthesis in human-activated microglial cells is distinctly inhibited by ascorbic acid and cytochalasin treatment. Accumulated AGE-albumin upregulates the receptor to AGE, leading to apoptosis of human primary dopamine (DA) neurons. In animal experiments, we observed reduced DA neuronal cell death by treatment with soluble receptor to AGE. Our study provides evidence that activated microglial cells are one of the main contributors in AGE-albumin accumulation, deleterious to DA neurons in human and animal PD brains. Finally, activated microglial AGE-albumin could be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker with high sensitivity for neurodegenerative disorders, including PD. PMID:27601894

  16. Microglial AGE-albumin is critical for neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease: a possible implication for theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Lee, Jaesuk; Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Moon, Jeongsik; Park, Hye-Jeong; Roshini, Arivazhagan; Kim, Seung U; Song, Byoung-Joon; Jo, Seung-Mook; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), by inducing protein aggregation and cross-link, formation of Lewy body, and neuronal death. In this study, we observed that AGE-albumin, the most abundant AGE product in the human PD brain, is synthesized in activated microglial cells and accumulates in the extracellular space. AGE-albumin synthesis in human-activated microglial cells is distinctly inhibited by ascorbic acid and cytochalasin treatment. Accumulated AGE-albumin upregulates the receptor to AGE, leading to apoptosis of human primary dopamine (DA) neurons. In animal experiments, we observed reduced DA neuronal cell death by treatment with soluble receptor to AGE. Our study provides evidence that activated microglial cells are one of the main contributors in AGE-albumin accumulation, deleterious to DA neurons in human and animal PD brains. Finally, activated microglial AGE-albumin could be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker with high sensitivity for neurodegenerative disorders, including PD.

  17. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1526901

  18. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method) applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method) applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method) used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly. PMID:22014275

  19. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  20. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  1. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  2. Hospital antibiotic use and its relationship to age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub consumption.

    PubMed

    Aldeyab, M A; McElnay, J C; Scott, M G; Darwish Elhajji, F W; Kearney, M P

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub on monthly hospital antibiotic usage, retrospectively. A multivariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was built to relate the monthly use of all antibiotics grouped together with age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub over a 5-year period (April 2005-March 2010). The results showed that monthly antibiotic use was positively related to the age-adjusted comorbidity index (concomitant effect, coefficient 1·103, P = 0·0002), and negatively related to the use of alcohol-based hand rub (2-month delay, coefficient -0·069, P = 0·0533). Alcohol-based hand rub is considered a modifiable factor and as such can be identified as a target for quality improvement programmes. Time-series analysis may provide a suitable methodology for identifying possible predictive variables that explain antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Future research should examine the relationship between infection control practices and antibiotic use, identify other infection control predictive factors for hospital antibiotic use, and evaluate the impact of enhancing different infection control practices on antibiotic use in a healthcare setting. PMID:23657218

  3. The relationship between state abortion-restrictions and homicide deaths among children under 5 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha Slay; Kirby, Russell

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether, in the U.S., there are associations between state-level variations in mortality among young children and state abortion restriction policies - such as parental-consent requirements, parental-notification requirements, mandatory delay laws, and restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion. To investigate this, we used NCHS Multiple Cause of Deaths public-use data files for the period 1983-2002, and compiled data on children ages 0-4 identified as having died as a result of assault/homicide in each state and year. Medicaid funding of abortion, mandatory delay laws, and parental involvement laws for minors seeking abortions were included as the main predictor variables of interest. Multivariate count data models using pooled state-year-age cohort data, with state and time fixed effects and other state-level controls, were estimated. Results indicated that, between 1983 and 2002, the average increase in the number of homicide deaths for children under 5 years of age was 5.70 per state among states that implemented stricter abortion policies over that time, and 2.00 per state for states that did not. In the count data models, parental-consent laws were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths; parental-notification laws were associated with an 8 percent increase in child homicide deaths though the results were less robust to alternate model specifications; mandatory delay requirements were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths. While these data do not allow us to discern precise pathways via which state abortion-restrictions can lead to more child homicide deaths, we speculate that state restrictions on abortion may result in a disproportionate increase in children born into relatively high-risk environments. Additional research is called for to explore the association of state abortion-restrictions with other measures of infant/child health and well-being.

  4. Modeling Bone Surface Morphology: A Fully Quantitative Method for Age-at-Death Estimation Using the Pubic Symphysis.

    PubMed

    Slice, Dennis E; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B

    2015-07-01

    The pubic symphysis is widely used in age estimation for the adult skeleton. Standard practice requires the visual comparison of surface morphology against criteria representing predefined phases and the estimation of case-specific age from an age range associated with the chosen phase. Known problems of method and observer error necessitate alternative tools to quantify age-related change in pubic morphology. This paper presents an objective, fully quantitative method for estimating age-at-death from the skeleton, which exploits a variance-based score of surface complexity computed from vertices obtained from a scanner sampling the pubic symphysis. For laser scans from 41 modern American male skeletons, this method produces results that are significantly associated with known age-at-death (RMSE = 17.15 years). Chronological age is predicted, therefore, equally well, if not, better, with this robust, objective, and fully quantitative method than with prevailing phase-aging systems. This method contributes to forensic casework by responding to medico-legal expectations for evidence standards.

  5. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well.

  6. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... the event may become too much for you. Stressors for people of any age include: Death of ... the following: The symptoms clearly come after a stressor, most often within 3 months The symptoms are ...

  7. The risk of stillbirth and infant death by each additional week of expectant management stratified by maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Page, Jessica M.; Snowden, Jonathan M.; Cheng, Yvonne W.; Doss, Amy; Rosenstein, Melissa G.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine fetal/infant mortality by gestational age at term stratified by maternal age. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study was conducted using 2005 US national birth certificate data. For each week of term gestation, the risk of mortality associated with delivery was compared with composite mortality risk of expectant management. The expectant management measure included stillbirth and infant death. This expectant management risk was calculated to estimate the composite mortality risk with remaining pregnant an additional week by combining the risk of stillbirth during the additional week of pregnancy and infant death risk following delivery at the next week. Maternal age was stratified by 35 years or more compared with women younger than 35 years as well as subgroup analyses of younger than 20, 20–34, 35–39, or 40 years old or older. RESULTS The fetal/infant mortality risk of expectant management is greater than the risk of infant death at 39 weeks’ gestation in women 35 years old or older (15.2 vs 10.9 of 10,000, P < .05). In women younger than 35 years old, the risk of expectant management also exceeded that of infant death at 39 weeks (21.3 vs 18.8 of 10,000, P < .05). For women younger than 35 years old, the overall expectant management risk is influenced by higher infant death risk and does not rise significantly until 41 weeks compared with women 35 years old or older in which it increased at 40 weeks. CONCLUSION Risk varies by maternal age, and delivery at 39 weeks minimizes fetal/infant mortality for both groups, although the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater in older women. PMID:23707677

  8. Age- and education-adjusted normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in older adults age 70-99.

    PubMed

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Belden, Christine M; O'Connor, Kathy; Evans, Linda; Coon, David W; Nieri, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The original validation study for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) suggests a cutoff score of 26; however, this may be too stringent for older adults, particularly for those with less education. Given the rapidly increasing number of older adults and associated risk of dementia, this study aims to provide appropriate age- and education-adjusted norms for the MoCA. Data from 205 participants in an ongoing longevity study were used to derive normative data. Individuals were grouped based on age (70-79, 80-89, 90-99) and education level (≤12 Years, 13-15, ≥16 Years). There were significant differences between age and education groups with younger and more educated participants outperforming their counterparts. Forty-six percent of our sample scored below the suggested cutoff of 26. These normative data may provide a more accurate representation of MoCA performance in older adults for specific age and education stratifications.

  9. Tree Death Leading To Ecosystem Renewal? Forecasting Carbon Storage As Eastern Forests Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, P.; Gough, C. M.; Bohrer, G.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The future trajectory of North American carbon (C) stocks remains uncertain as a subset of maturing trees die in mixed deciduous forests of the U.S. Midwest and East transitioning from early to middle and late succession. We are studying disturbance-structure-function relationships of aging forests in northern Michigan using long-term ecological and meteorological C cycling studies, a large-scale disturbance experiment, a 200-year forest chronosequence, and flux comparisons across three tower sites. We find that ecosystem responses to mortality are characterized by several processes that affect structure-function relationships and alter the way ecosystem functioning interacts with meteorological forcing. We subjected 39 ha of forest to moderate experimental disturbance, similar to that of age-related or climatically induced tree mortality. We found that the mortality of a third of all canopy trees minimally altered the balance between forest C uptake and release, as growth-limiting light and nitrogen resources were rapidly reallocated from dead and dying trees to undisturbed trees. Although disturbance-induced mortality increased soil N mineralization rates, nitrification, and denitrification, N exports from soils remained low. Upper canopy gap formation and a rise in structural complexity allowed increased photosynthetic contribution of sub-canopy vegetation to compensate for the death of canopy dominant trees. However, we found large differences between the transpirational response of maples and oaks to VPD and soil moisture, which led to relative declines in maple transpiration post-disturbance. These hydrologic differences may affect a species' ability to compete for resources following such a disturbance. Changes to canopy structure had a relatively small effect on roughness length and the turbulence forcing of fluxes from the canopy. We currently are studying how tree mortality driven changes in canopy structure affects within-canopy resource distribution and

  10. Younger Age at Crisis Following Parental Death in Male Children and Adolescents is Associated with Higher Risk for Dementia at Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Goldbourt, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of midlife report of crisis following parental death (CFPD) during childhood and adolescence, with dementia at old age. Methods In 1965, 9362 male participants of the Israel Ischemic Heart disease (IIHD) study were asked whether they have experienced CFPD (paternal or maternal) during the following ages: 0–6. 7–12. 13–18 or >18 years. Dementia was assessed over three decades later in 1889 survivors of the original cohort, 1,652 of whom were assessed for CFPD in 1965. Results Controlling for age, the estimated odds for dementia relative to individuals who reported crisis following paternal parental death (CFPR-P) at the age of 18 and above, were 3.06 (95%CI 1.42–6.61), 2.15 (95% CI 0.87–5.31) and 2.35 (95%CI 1.05–5.28) for those who reported CFPD-P at the ages of 0–6, 7–12 and 13–18 respectively. Odds for dementia were 0.60 (95% CI 0.32–1.11) for participants who reported CFPD-P at ages of 18 and above, compared to participants who did not report such a crisis. Similar results were obtained for the association of crisis reported following maternal parental death (CFPD-M) at different age groups and dementia. Conclusions CFPD during childhood is associated with increased risk for dementia in males who survived until old age. PMID:21537146

  11. Older Age Predicts Decreased Metastasis and Prostate Cancer-Specific Death for Men Treated With Radiation Therapy: Meta-Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Hamstra, Daniel A.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Pilepich, Miljenko V.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Grignon, David J.; McGowan, David G.; Roach, Mack; Lawton, Colleen; Lee, R. Jeffrey; Sandler, Howard

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The impact of age on prostate cancer (PCa) outcome has been controversial; therefore, we analyzed the effect of age on overall survival (OS), distant metastasis, prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD), and nonprostate cancer death (NPCD) on patients with locally advanced PCa. Methods and Materials: Patients who participated in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III trials, 8531, 8610, 9202, and 9413, were studied. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for OS analysis, and cumulative events analysis with Fine and Gray's regression was used for analyses of metastasis, PCSD, and NPCD. Results: Median follow-up of 4,128 patients with median age of 70 (range, 43-88 years) was 7.3 years. Most patients had high-risk disease: cT3 to cT4 (54%) and Gleason scores (GS) of 7 (45%) and 8 to 10 (27%). Older age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) predicted for decreased OS (10-year rate, 55% vs. 41%, respectively; p < 0.0001) and increased NPCD (10-year rate, 28% vs. 46%, respectively; p < 0.0001) but decreased metastasis (10-year rate, 27% vs. 20%, respectively; p < 0.0001) and PCSD (10-year rate, 18% vs. 14%, respectively; p < 0.0001). To account for competing risks, outcomes were analyzed in 2-year intervals, and age-dependent differences in metastasis and PCSD persisted, even in the earliest time periods. When adjusted for other covariates, an age of >70 years remained associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.70] p < 0.0001) but with decreased metastasis (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.63-0.83] p < 0.0001) and PCSD (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66-0.92] p < 0.0001). Finally, the impact of the duration of androgen deprivation therapy as a function of age was evaluated. Conclusions: These data support less aggressive PCa in older men, independent of other clinical features. While the biological underpinning of this finding remains unknown, stratification by age in future trials appears to be warranted.

  12. Estimation of individual age and season of death in woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799), from Sakha-Yakutia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, Irina V.; Shidlovskiy, Fedor K.

    2010-11-01

    A unique find of a woolly rhinoceros skull bearing both nasal and frontal horns is described from a thermokarst lake of the Bol'shaya Chukoch'ya River basin in north-eastern Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. Based on counts of cementum layers of the maxillary first molar and dark and transverse bands of the nasal and frontal horns a correlation of individual age records within these structures is established. Both estimations of individual age are agreed as well as three other age estimation criteria followed from cranial characteristics, general aspects of dentition and tooth wear pattern. Thus, the number of horn bands, which is equal to 30 or 31, does express the individual age at the moment when the woolly rhinoceros died. The tooth cementum and both horns are proved to be recording structures of woolly rhinoceroses which can be used as precise individual age estimation criteria. The season in which death occurred is also discussed.

  13. Estimation of age at death based on quantitation of the 4977-bp deletion of human mitochondrial DNA in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Meissner, C; von Wurmb, N; Schimansky, B; Oehmichen, M

    1999-11-01

    The 4977-bp deletion in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to accumulate in various tissues with age. Since this deletion in mtDNA correlates closest with age in muscle tissue, iliopsoas muscle tissue was taken at autopsy from 50 persons aged 24-97 years to determine whether age at death can be estimated based on the amount of the 4977-bp deletion in skeletal muscle. Total DNA (nuclear and mtDNA) was extracted from 100 mg tissue and the 4977-bp deletion quantified using a kinetic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by visualization of the products on silver stained polyacrylamide gels. The amount of the 4977-bp deletion of mtDNA ranged from 0.00049% to 0.14% depending on age, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.83 (P = 0.0001). In forensic practice this method can aid in the estimation of age at death with a relatively wide confidence interval, thus enabling a discrimination between young and elderly persons in the identification of human remains based solely on skeletal muscle.

  14. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); p<0.001). In elderly (aged ≥75 years) patients, an age-optimised hsTnT cut-off value of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged <75 years and ≥45 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged ≥75 years) provided additive and independent prognostic information on top of the simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) and echocardiography (OR 4.56 (1.30-16.01); p=0.018, C-index=0.77). A three-step approach based on the sPESI, hsTnT and echocardiography identified 16.6% of all patients as being at higher risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy.

  15. Impact of donor age in liver transplantation from donation after circulatory death donors: A decade of experience at Cleveland Clinic.

    PubMed

    Firl, Daniel J; Hashimoto, Koji; O'Rourke, Colin; Diago-Uso, Teresa; Fujiki, Masato; Aucejo, Federico N; Quintini, Cristiano; Kelly, Dympna M; Miller, Charles M; Fung, John J; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2015-12-01

    The use of liver grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors remains controversial, particularly with donors of advanced age. This retrospective study investigated the impact of donor age in DCD liver transplantation. We examined 92 recipients who received DCD grafts and 92 matched recipients who received donation after brain death (DBD) grafts at Cleveland Clinic from January 2005 to June 2014. DCD grafts met stringent criteria to minimize risk factors in both donors and recipients. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival in DCD recipients was significantly inferior to that in DBD recipients (82%, 71%, 66% versus 92%, 87%, 85%, respectively; P = 0.03). Six DCD recipients (7%), but no DBD recipients, experienced ischemic-type biliary stricture (P = 0.01). However, the incidence of biliary stricture was not associated with donor age (P = 0.57). Interestingly, recipients receiving DCD grafts from donors who were <45 years of age (n = 55) showed similar graft survival rates compared to those receiving DCD grafts from donors who were ≥45 years of age (n = 37; 80%, 69%, 66% versus 83%, 72%, 66%, respectively; P = 0.67). Cox proportional hazards modeling in all study populations (n = 184) revealed advanced donor age (P = 0.05) and the use of a DCD graft (P = 0.03) as unfavorable factors for graft survival. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of DBD graft failure increased with increasing age, but the risk of DCD graft failure did not increase with increasing age (P = 0.13). In conclusion, these data suggest that stringent donor and recipient selection may ameliorate the negative impact of donor age in DCD liver transplantation. DCD grafts should not be discarded because of donor age, per se, and could help expand the donor pool for liver transplantation.

  16. Assessing variation in skeletal production from surface death assemblages on the basis of age-frequency distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasovych, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M.; Foygel Barber, Rina

    2015-04-01

    Age-frequency distributions of dead skeletal material that capture information on the elapsed time since death of individuals on the landscape or seabed provide decadal- to millennial-scale windows into the history of production and on the processes that lead to skeletal disintegration and burial. However, models quantifying the dynamics of skeletal loss assumed that skeletal production has been constant during accumulation of death assemblages. Here, we assess the joint effects of temporally-variable production and skeletal loss on the shape of postmortem age-frequency distributions. We show that the modes of such distributions will tend to be shifted to younger age cohorts relative to the true timing of past production pulses. This shift in the timing of a past production will be higher where loss rates are high and/or the rate of decline in production is slow. We apply the models combining the dynamic of loss and production to death assemblages with the deposit-feeding bivalve Nuculana taphria from the Southern California continental shelf, finding that (1) an onshore-offshore gradient in time averaging is dominated by a gradient in the timing of production, corresponding to the tracking of shallow-water habitats under a sea-level rise, and (2) model estimates of the timing of past production are in good agreement with an independent sea-level curve.

  17. Age-dependent development of the splenic marginal zone in human infants is associated with different causes of death.

    PubMed

    Kruschinski, Carsten; Zidan, Mohamed; Debertin, Anette S; von Hörsten, Stephan; Pabst, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Infants are more susceptible to infections caused by T cell- independent type 2 (TI-2) polysaccharide antigens of certain encapsulated bacteria. Immune responses against this type of antigen are related to the splenic marginal zone (MZ). However, only few data exist on the age-dependent developmental stages of the human spleen in early childhood and on their association with different diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate spleens of a large number of children at very young ages (12 days to 32 months), derived from autopsy cases. Immunohistochemical labeling was performed on paraffin sections of 34 spleens using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The shape and size of the white pulp compartments were examined and correlated to the cause of death of the children. Results show that the development of the different compartments was statistically age-dependent, but no clear-cut time point for the maturity of each compartment was seen. Furthermore, the MZ was significantly more often missing when sudden infant death (SID) and/or infection were the cause of death, compared with other violent or traumatic reasons that served as controls. This association supports the concept that an immature state of the spleen and especially of the MZ might contribute to the increased susceptibility to bacterial infections in young infants.

  18. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use: An Adjustment for Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X. K.; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline…

  19. Balancing the risks of stillbirth and neonatal death in the early preterm small-for-gestational-age fetus

    PubMed Central

    TRUDELL, Amanda S.; TUULI, Methodius G.; CAHILL, Alison G.; MACONES, George A.; ODIBO, Anthony O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Timing of delivery for the early preterm small for gestational age (SGA) fetus remains unknown. Our aim was to estimate the risk of stillbirth in the early preterm SGA fetus compared to the risk of neonatal death. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies undergoing second trimester anatomy ultrasound excluding fetal anomalies, aneuploidy and pregnancies with incomplete neonatal follow-up. SGA was defined as birthweight < 10th percentile by the Alexander standard. Life-table analysis was used to calculate the cumulative risks of stillbirth/10,000 ongoing SGA pregnancies and risk of neonatal death/10,000 SGA live births for 2 week GA strata in the early preterm period (24-33 and 6/7 weeks). We further examined the composite risk of expectant management and then compared the risk of expectant management with the risk of immediate delivery. Results Of 76,453 singleton pregnancies, 7,036 SGA pregnancies meeting inclusion criteria were ongoing at 24 weeks with 64 stillbirths, 226 live births and 18 neonatal deaths between 24-33 and 6/7 weeks. As the risk of stillbirth increases with advancing GA, the risk of neonatal death falls, until the 32-33 and 6/7 week GA stratum. The relative risk of expectant management compared with immediate delivery remains <1 for each gestational age strata. Conclusion Our findings suggest the balance between the competing risks of stillbirth and neonatal death for the early preterm SGA fetus occurs at 32-33 and 6/7 weeks. These data can be useful when delivery timing remains uncertain. PMID:24746999

  20. Past trends and projections of hospital deaths to inform the integration of palliative care in one of the most ageing countries in the world

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento, Vera P; Higginson, Irene J; Ferreira, Pedro L; Gomes, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monitoring where people die is key to ensure that palliative care is provided in a responsive and integrated way. Aim: To examine trends of place of death and project hospital deaths until 2030 in an ageing country without integrated palliative care. Design: Population-based observational study of mortality with past trends analysis of place of death by gender, age and cause of death. Hospital deaths were projected until 2030, applying three scenarios modelled on 5-year trends (2006–2010). Setting/participants: All adult deaths (⩾18 years old) that occurred in Portuguese territory from 1988 to 2010. Results: There were 2,364,932 deceased adults in Portugal from 1988 to 2010. Annual numbers of deaths increased 11.1%, from 95,154 in 1988 to 105,691, mainly due to more than doubling deaths from people aged 85+ years. Hospital deaths increased by a mean of 0.8% per year, from 44.7% (n = 42,571) in 1988 to 61.7% (n = 65,221) in 2010. This rise was largest for those aged 85+ years (27.8% to 54.0%). Regardless of the scenario considered, and if current trends continue, hospital deaths will increase by more than a quarter until 2030 (minimum 27.7%, maximum 52.1% rise) to at least 83,293 annual hospital deaths, mainly due to the increase in hospital deaths in those aged 85+ years. Conclusion: In one of the most ageing countries in the world, there is a long standing trend towards hospitalised dying, more pronounced among the oldest old. To meet people’s preferences for dying at home, the development of integrated specialist home palliative care teams is needed. PMID:26163531

  1. Social Cognitive Career Theory, the Theory of Work Adjustment, and Work Satisfaction of Retirement-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Pamela F.; Lytle, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60–87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample. PMID:26101456

  2. Adjusting for car occupant injury liability in relation to age, speed limit, and gender-specific driver crash involvement risk.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael; Frith, William

    2004-12-01

    It is well established that older drivers' fragility is an important factor associated with higher levels of fatal crash involvement for older drivers. There has been less research on age-related fragility with respect to the sort of minor injuries that are more common in injury crashes. This study estimates a quantity that is related to injury fragility: the probability that a driver or a passenger of that driver will be injured in crashes involving two cars. The effects of other factors apart from drivers' fragility are included in this measure, including the fragility of the passengers, the crashworthiness of cars driven, seatbelt use by the occupants, and characteristics of crashes (including configuration and impact speed). The car occupant injury liability estimates appropriately includes these factors to adjust risk curves by age, gender, and speed limit accounting for overrepresentation in crashes associated with fragility and these other factors. PMID:15545071

  3. Death of lymphocytes: A clue to immune deficiency in human aging.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sudhir

    2005-06-01

    Extract: There is only one way to conceive; however, there are multiple ways to die. The latter is particularly true with each and every cell in our body. One of the ways to die is by programmed cell death or apoptosis (a suicidal form of cell death), which is a natural form of cell death. Apoptosis is critical in embryogenesis, metamorphosis, cellular homeostasis, and removal of unwanted and mutated cells. In the immune system, apoptosis plays an important role in the development of thymocytes (immature T lymphocytes in the thymus), selection of T cell repertoire, deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes, cytotoxicity towards target cells by natural killer and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and termination of effector lymphocytes at the end of an immune response. Apoptosis is tightly regulated by a set of genes, which either promote or inhibit apoptosis. There are several signaling pathways that mediate apoptosis, namely the death receptor (extrinsic) pathway, mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway. Common to these pathways is the recruitment of adaptor proteins to form a scaffold complex that activates initiator caspases (cysteine proteases), which in-turn activate effector caspases. These effector caspases act as a molecular chainsaw and cleave a large number of cytoplasmic and nuclear substrates, resulting in the morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis.

  4. Relationship between home and school adjustment: children's experiences at ages 10 and 14.

    PubMed

    Aman-Back, Susanna; Björkqvist, Kaj

    2007-06-01

    773 children (359 girls, 414 boys) of two age groups, 10 years and 14 years, completed a questionnaire about subjective experiences of home and school. Children who reported getting along well with their parents and finding it easy to communicate with them also reported being more satisfied with themselves, enjoying school more, feeling less lonely, being less bullied by others, and also bullying others less. Boys reported bullying more than girls and more satisfaction with themselves than girls. Girls reported enjoying school more, feeling lonelier, sometimes having trouble falling asleep, and having headaches more often than boys. Girls at age 14 reported experiencing a prominent increase in headaches and parental complaints about their eating habits.

  5. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  6. Should we adjust for gestational age when analysing birth weights? The use of z-scores revisited.

    PubMed

    Delbaere, Ilse; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Bacquer, Dirk; Verstraelen, Hans; Gerris, Jan; De Sutter, Petra; Temmerman, Marleen

    2007-08-01

    Birth weight is the single most important risk indicator for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity, which has led to the idiom that 'every ounce counts'. Birth weight in turn, however, tends to vary widely across populations as a result of differential fetal growth velocity with such demographic factors as ethnicity, maternal and paternal height and altitude of residence. Accordingly, it has been acknowledged that the appraisal of birth weight should rely on its position relative to the birth weight distribution of the background population. This is commonly done by standardizing birth weight through its deviation from the population mean in the given gestational age stratum, as can be obtained from population-customized birth weight nomograms. This issue was recently revisited in 'Human Reproduction' through a plea for reporting birth weight as z-scores. In this article, we argue that adjustment for factors, such as gestational age, which may lie on the causal pathway from exposures present at the time of conception [e.g. single-embryo transfer (SET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET)] to birth weight, may induce bias, regardless of whether the adjustment happens via stratification, regression or through the use of z-scores.

  7. Ages at Onset of 5 Cardiometabolic Diseases Adjusting for Nonsusceptibility: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Yuh-Chyuan; Chen, Chen-Hsin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2016-09-01

    To shed light on the etiology of metabolic syndrome development, it is important to understand whether its 5 component disorders follow certain onset sequences. To explore disease progression of the syndrome, we studied the ages at onset of 5 cardiometabolic diseases: abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-α-lipoproteinemia. In analyzing longitudinal data from the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Two-Township Study (1989-2002) in Taiwan, we adjusted for nonsusceptibility, utilizing the logistic-accelerated failure time location-scale mixture regression models for left-truncated and interval-censored data to simultaneously estimate the associations of township and sex with the susceptibility probability and the age-at-onset distribution of susceptible individuals for each disease. We then validated the onset sequences of 5 cardiometabolic diseases by comparing the overall probability density curves across township-sex strata. Visualization of these curves indicates that women tended to have onsets of abdominal obesity and hypo-α-lipoproteinemia in young adulthood, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia in middle age, and diabetes later; men tended to have onsets of abdominal obesity, hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia in young adulthood, hypertension in middle age, and diabetes later. Different onset patterns of abdominal obesity, hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, and male hypertension were identified between townships. Our proposed method provides a novel strategy for investigating both pathogenesis and preventive measures of complex syndromes. PMID:27543092

  8. The Kenyan Political Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an…

  9. Induction of programmed cell death in aging Prorocentrum donghaiense cells as was evidenced preliminarily by the identification of associated transcripts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufang; Yang, G; Liu, Y; Yu, W; Pan, K; Li, Ruixiang; Zhu, M

    2006-12-01

    Prorocentrum donghaiense caused large-scale red tides off Chinese coast in recent years. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was carried out for this dinoflagellate in order to identify the genes involved in its proliferation and death. A cDNA library was constructed for P. donghaiense at late exponential growth phase, and 308 groups of EST were generated, which include 36 contigs and 272 singletons. Among 22 groups showed homologies with known genes, 2 matched significantly with caspase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Caspase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen are 2 key proteins involved in programmed cell death. Their identification evidenced preliminarily the induction of PCD in aging P. donghaiense. The identified included also calmodulin and protein phosphatase, two proteins involved in diverse cell processes including PCD by binding to or modifying others. PMID:17278709

  10. [Elderly residents in homes for the aged: adjustment in the light of Callista Roy].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Maria Célia de; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante; de Galiza, Francisca Tereza; Nogueira, Jéssica de Menezes; Onofre, Marília Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the adaptation of elderly individuals voluntarily reside in Institution for the Aged (LTCF) in the city of Fortaleza-CE, based on the theoretical model of Roy. Descriptive study, in a IPLI involving thirteen elderly residents. Data collect was through interviews in the months of October and December 2011 and organized by thematic content analysis. The following themes has emerged: I Physical subdivided into body sensation and body image; Staff and I, subdivided into self-consistency and auto ideal be moral-ethical-spiritual. Thus, the option to live in ILPI not effectively changed the lives of elderly people. They managed to adapt to the local and coexist well with internal and external stimuli.

  11. The plant metacaspase AtMC1 in pathogen-triggered programmed cell death and aging: functional linkage with autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Coll, N S; Smidler, A; Puigvert, M; Popa, C; Valls, M; Dangl, J L

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a major nutrient recycling mechanism in plants. However, its functional connection with programmed cell death (PCD) is a topic of active debate and remains not well understood. Our previous studies established the plant metacaspase AtMC1 as a positive regulator of pathogen-triggered PCD. Here, we explored the linkage between plant autophagy and AtMC1 function in the context of pathogen-triggered PCD and aging. We observed that autophagy acts as a positive regulator of pathogen-triggered PCD in a parallel pathway to AtMC1. In addition, we unveiled an additional, pro-survival homeostatic function of AtMC1 in aging plants that acts in parallel to a similar pro-survival function of autophagy. This novel pro-survival role of AtMC1 may be functionally related to its prodomain-mediated aggregate localization and potential clearance, in agreement with recent findings using the single budding yeast metacaspase YCA1. We propose a unifying model whereby autophagy and AtMC1 are part of parallel pathways, both positively regulating HR cell death in young plants, when these functions are not masked by the cumulative stresses of aging, and negatively regulating senescence in older plants. PMID:24786830

  12. Causes of disease and death from birth to 12 months of age in the Thoroughbred horse in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the causes of disease and death in a population of foals in Ireland during their first 12 months post partum. Foaling and veterinary records from 343 foals on four farms born between January 1, 2004 and May 30, 2008 were reviewed. Among 343 foals, 22 did not survive to 12 months of age. Over the five-year period, the incidence of stillbirth was 1.5% (5/343), mortality 5% (17/338) and overall morbidity was 88.5% (299/338). Morbidity was calculated to include all new conditions brought to the attention of the attending veterinary surgeon, no matter how minor. Of foals born alive: congenital abnormalities were the most common cause of death (35.3% 6/17 foals) followed by musculoskeletal trauma (5/17, 29.4%). Of 711 separate incidents of disease, 46.5% (331/711) were due to an infectious process, 25% (178/711) due to non-infectious musculoskeletal issues; and 14.9% (106/711) related to non-infectious gastrointestinal problems. Respiratory infection was the single most common disease accounting for 27.8% (178/711) of all disease incidents in this population. Findings from this study provide information regarding the causes and incidence of death and disease in the young Irish Thoroughbred population. PMID:21851741

  13. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  14. Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for Injuries Using Death Certificates and Hospital Discharge Survey by the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A system for assessing the burdens imposed by disease and injury was developed to meet healthcare, priority setting, and policy planning needs. The first such system, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), was implemented in 1990. However, problems associated with limited data and assumed disability weightings remain to be resolved. The purpose of the present study was to estimate national burdens of injuries in Korea using more reliable data and disability weightings. The incidences of injuries were estimated using the Korean National Hospital Discharge Survey and the mortality data from the Korean National Statistical Office in 2010. Additionally, durations of injuries and age at injury onset were used to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALY) using disability weightings derived from the Korean Burden of Disease (KBD) study. Korea had 1,581,072 DALYs resulting from injuries (3,170 per 100,000), which was 22.9% higher than found by the GBD 2010 study. Males had almost twice as heavy an injury burden as females. Road injury, fall, and self-harm ranked 1st, 2nd, and 3rd in terms of burden of injury in 2010. Total injury burden peaked in the forties, while burden per person declined gradually from early adulthood. We hope that this study contributes to the reliable evaluation of injury burden and a better understanding of injury-related health status using nation-specific, dependable data. PMID:27775258

  15. NORMATIVE VALUES OF ECCENTRIC HIP ABDUCTION STRENGTH IN NOVICE RUNNERS: AN EQUATION ADJUSTING FOR AGE AND GENDER

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, M.B.; Kastrup, K.; Lønbro, S.; Jacobsen, J.S.; Thorborg, K.; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. Methods: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand–held dynamometer. The demographic variables associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. Results: A significant difference in maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was found between males and females: 1.62 ± 0.38 Nm/kg (SD) for males versus 1.41 ± 0.33 Nm/kg (SD) for females (p < 0.001). Age was associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength: per one year increase in age a ‐0.0045 ± 0.0013 Nm/kg (SD) decrease in strength was found, p < 0.001. Normative values were identified using a regression equation adjusting for age and gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * ‐0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0.354) Nm/kg. Conclusion: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners, and these variables should be taken into account when evaluating eccentric hip abduction strength in this group of athletes. Level of

  16. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... depreciation, obsolescence, amortization, and depletion allowed the taxpayer on such property for the period..., obsolescence, amortization, and depletion for the period held by the taxpayer prior to the decedent's death... in contemplation of death. Depreciation in the amount of $750 per year was allowable for each of...

  17. Histological estimation of age at death using microradiographs of humeral compact bone.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Imaizumi, K; Miyasaka, S; Seta, S

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an age estimating method for skeletal remains using microradiographs of compact bone. Compact bones of the humerus were collected from 40 Japanese males ranging from 23 to 80 years of age. Microradiographs taken from cross-sections were histomorphometrically examined by using an image analyzer. Histological parameters used in this study included 10 items, that is, osteon number, double-zoned osteon number, type II osteon number, low-density osteon number, osteon fragment number, resorption space number, total and average osteon area, and total and average Haversian canal area. The osteon fragment number showed the highest correlation coefficient with advancing age (r = 0.786). The measurement data obtained from 10 histological parameters were subjected to multiple regression analysis for producing multiple regression equations for age estimation. In practice, 8 histological parameters were selected for the equation and its multiple correlation coefficient and standard error of estimate were 0.903 and 6.1, respectively.

  18. Rise of the Digitized Public Intellectual: Death of the Professor in the Network Neutral Internet Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The centralised discourse claiming ownership of "knowledge" and "higher education" seems to be declining as the decentralising discourse extolling open source software and informal social network communication are emerging: yet the two are complementary when higher education is seen as a commodity. Thus, in the internet age of…

  19. Using textual cause-of-death data to study drug poisoning deaths.

    PubMed

    Ossiander, Eric M

    2014-04-01

    Death certificate data are often used to study the epidemiology of poisoning deaths, but the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes used to tabulate death data do not convey all of the available information about the drugs and other substances named on death certificates. In the United States and some other countries, the SuperMICAR computer system is used to assign ICD codes to deaths. The SuperMICAR system also stores a verbatim record of the text entered for the cause of death. We used the SuperMICAR text entries to study the 7,817 poisoning deaths that occurred among Washington State residents between 2003 and 2010. We tabulated the drugs named on death certificates and computed age-adjusted and age-specific death rates for the top-named drugs and for prescription and illicit drugs. Methadone was named on 2,149 death certificates and was the most frequently named substance, followed by alcohol, opiate, cocaine, oxycodone, and methamphetamine. For both men and women and at all ages, prescription drugs were involved in more deaths than were illicit drugs. Among the 25 drugs named most frequently, only 4 have unique ICD codes; the other 21 can be identified only by using the SuperMICAR data.

  20. Cell biology of normal brain aging: synaptic plasticity-cell death.

    PubMed

    Dorszewska, Jolanta

    2013-04-01

    Senescence of the brain seems to be related to increased levels of free oxygen radical (FOR). FOR may damage macromolecular compounds such as: proteins, lipids, and DNA. In the aging brain, increased FOR levels damage DNA, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and nuclear DNA (nDNA). In DNA they damage single and double strands, leading to mutations in mtDNA and nDNA. Damage to mtDNA seems to result in decay of mitochondria, decreased production of ATP, and in the activation of the apoptotic process. In the aging brain, apoptosis does not seem to be activated in wild-type p53-expressing cells because the elevated levels of the p53 protein are no longer accompanied by decreased levels of the Bcl-2 protein and increased levels of the Bax protein. It seems that, in the aging brain, changes in the metabolism of neurons may lead to their decreased numbers in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, hippocampus, basal nucleus of Meynert, locus ceruleus, and substantia nigra, as well as to decreased numbers of synapses and disturbed stimulation of synaptic plasticity in the senescent brain. Simultaneously, a decrease in neurogenesis in the aging brain may lead to a decline in the maintenance of tissue integrity, function, and regenerative response. Environmental enrichment and physical activity may improve hippocampal neurogenesis and induce neuronal plasticity. The morphological lesions in the senescent brain are undoubtedly followed by a disturbed balance between various types of neurons in the CNS. Nevertheless, the high plasticity of the CNS in humans most probably does not allow for the development of abnormalities in higher functions. PMID:23740630

  1. Causes of Death among Children Aged 5 to 14 Years Old from 2008 to 2013 in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kersa HDSS), Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Zelalem, Desalew; Eskinder, Biniyam; Assefa, Nega; Ashenafi, Wondimye; Baraki, Negga; Damena Tesfatsion, Melake; Oljira, Lemessa; Haile, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    Background The global burden of mortality among children is still very huge though its trend has started declining following the improvements in the living standard. It presents serious challenges to the well-being of children in many African countries. Today, Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for about 50% of global child mortality. The overall objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of causes of death among children aged 5 to 14 year olds in the population of Kersa HDSS using verbal autopsy method for the period 2008 to 2013. Methods Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System(Kersa HDSS) was established in September 2007. The center consists of 10 rural and 2 urban kebeles which were selected randomly from 38 kebeles in the district. Thus this study was conducted in Kersa HDSS and data was taken from Kersa HDSS database. The study population included all children aged 5 to 14 years registered during the period of 2008 to 2013 in Kersa HDSS using age specific VA questionnaires. Data were extracted from SPSS database and analyzed using STATA. Results A total of 229 deaths were recorded over the period of six years with a crude death rate of 219.6 per 100,000 population of this age group over the study period. This death rate was 217.5 and 221.5 per 100,000 populations for females and males, respectively. 75% of deaths took place at home. The study identified severe malnutrition(33.9%), intestinal infectious diseases(13.8%) and acute lower respiratory infections(9.2%) to be the three most leading causes of death. In broad causes of death classification, injuries have been found to be the second most cause of death next to communicable diseases(56.3%) attributing to 13.1% of the total deaths. Conclusion and Recommendation In specific causes of death classification severe malnutrition, intestinal infectious diseases and acute lower respiratory infections were the three leading causes of death where, in broad causes of death

  2. Effects of age and gender on success and death of mountaineers on Mount Everest.

    PubMed

    Huey, Raymond B; Salisbury, Richard; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng

    2007-10-22

    Increasing numbers of climbers are attempting Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth. We compiled interview data and computed the probabilities of summiting and of dying as a function of climber age and gender (2211 climbers, spring season) for the period of 1990-2005. Men and women had similar odds of summiting and of dying. However, climbers older than 40 years have reduced odds of summiting, and those older than 60 years have increased odds of dying, especially when descending from the summit. On Mount Everest, phenotypic selection appears blind to gender but favours young mountaineers.

  3. Age-based disparities in end-of-life decisions in Belgium: a population-based death certificate survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing body of scientific research is suggesting that end-of-life care and decision making may differ between age groups and that elderly patients may be the most vulnerable to exclusion of due care at the end of life. This study investigates age-related disparities in the rate of end-of-life decisions with a possible or certain life shortening effect (ELDs) and in the preceding decision making process in Flanders, Belgium in 2007, where euthanasia was legalised in 2002. Comparing with data from an identical survey in 1998 we also study the plausibility of the ‘slippery slope’ hypothesis which predicts a rise in the rate of administration of life ending drugs without patient request, especially among elderly patients, in countries where euthanasia is legal. Method We performed a post-mortem survey among physicians certifying a large representative sample (n = 6927) of death certificates in 2007, identical to a 1998 survey. Response rate was 58.4%. Results While the rates of non-treatment decisions (NTD) and administration of life ending drugs without explicit request (LAWER) did not differ between age groups, the use of intensified alleviation of pain and symptoms (APS) and euthanasia/assisted suicide (EAS), as well as the proportion of euthanasia requests granted, was bivariately and negatively associated with patient age. Multivariate analysis showed no significant effects of age on ELD rates. Older patients were less often included in decision making for APS and more often deemed lacking in capacity than were younger patients. Comparison with 1998 showed a decrease in the rate of LAWER in all age groups except in the 80+ age group where the rate was stagnant. Conclusion Age is not a determining factor in the rate of end-of-life decisions, but is in decision making as patient inclusion rates decrease with old age. Our results suggest there is a need to focus advance care planning initiatives on elderly patients. The slippery slope hypothesis

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States, 1999 to 2012☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Kanta; Clower, Jacquelyn; Shin, Mi kyong; Bailey, Cathy; King, Michael; Yip, Fuyuen

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintentional, non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning deaths are preventable. Surveillance of the populations most at-risk for unintentional, non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is crucial for targeting prevention efforts. Objective This study provides estimates on UNFR CO poisoning mortality in the United States and characterizes the at-risk populations. Methods We used 1999 to 2012 data to calculate death rates. We used underlying and multiple conditions variables from death records to identify UNFR CO poisoning cases. Results For this study, we identified 6136 CO poisoning fatalities during 1999 to 2012 resulting in an average of 438 deaths annually. The annual average age-adjusted death rate was 1.48 deaths per million. Fifty four percent of the deaths occurred in a home. Age-adjusted death rates were highest for males (2.21 deaths per million) and non-Hispanic blacks (1.74 deaths per million). The age-specific death rate was highest for those aged ≥85 years (6.00 deaths per million). The annual rate of UNFR CO poisoning deaths did not change substantially during the study period, but we observed a decrease in the rate of suicide and unintentional fire related cases. Conclusion CO poisoning was the second most common non-medicinal poisonings death. Developing and enhancing current public health interventions could reduce ongoing exposures to CO from common sources, such as those in the residential setting. PMID:26032660

  5. The medico-legal aspects of road traffic deaths in children under 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    The family tragedy that results from a child who dies in a road traffic accident may be exacerbated by judicial consequences for the adult/parent driving the vehicle, carrying the child, or responsible for properly immobilising the child in the safety device that was used. The author presents two court cases of the road traffic accident deaths of two children under the age of five years. The two cases are presented using a methodological approach, which integrates competencies in other fields into the medico-legal aspects. An analysis of the two cases provides the opportunity to discuss the driver's responsibility to properly use child safety seat and to analyse and evaluate the efficacy and limits of child restraint systems. In the two cases, the responsibility for the application of a child safety device was excluded. It was confirmed that child protective devices are not always sufficient to avoid lesions or death in road accidents that occur with significant speed or other specific dynamics.

  6. Differences in age-standardized mortality rates for avoidable deaths based on urbanization levels in Taiwan, 1971-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-02-05

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result.

  7. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  8. Age of dam and sex of calf adjustments and genetic parameters for gestation length in Charolais cattle.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H

    2006-01-01

    To estimate adjustment factors and genetic parameters for gestation length (GES), AI and calving date records (n = 40,356) were extracted from the Canadian Charolais Association field database. The average time from AI to calving date was 285.2 d (SD = 4.49 d) and ranged from 274 to 296 d. Fixed effects were sex of calf, age of dam (2, 3, 4, 5 to 10, > or = 11 yr), and gestation contemporary group (year of birth x herd of origin). Variance components were estimated using REML and 4 animal models (n = 84,332) containing from 0 to 3 random maternal effects. Model 1 (M1) contained only direct genetic effects. Model 2 (M2) was G1 plus maternal genetic effects with the direct x maternal genetic covariance constrained to zero, and model 3 (M3) was G2 without the covariance constraint. Model 4 (M4) extended G3 to include a random maternal permanent environmental effect. Direct heritability estimates were high and similar among all models (0.61 to 0.64), and maternal heritability estimates were low, ranging from 0.01 (M2) to 0.09 (M3). Likelihood ratio tests and parameter estimates suggested that M4 was the most appropriate (P < 0.05) model. With M4, phenotypic variance (18.35 d2) was partitioned into direct and maternal genetic, and maternal permanent environmental components (hd2 = 0.64 +/- 0.04, hm2 = 0.07 +/- 0.01, r(d,m) = -0.37 +/- 0.06, and c2 = 0.03 +/- 0.01, respectively). Linear contrasts were used to estimate that bull calves gestated 1.26 d longer (P < 0.02) than heifers, and adjustments to a mature equivalent (5 to 10 yr old) age of dam were 1.49 (P < 0.01), 0.56 (P < 0.01), 0.33 (P < 0.01), and -0.24 (P < 0.14) d for GES records of calves born to 2-, 3-, 4-, and > or = 11-yr-old cows, respectively. Bivariate animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters for GES with birth and adjusted 205-d weaning weights, and postweaning gain. Direct GES was positively correlated with direct birth weight (BWT; 0.34 +/- 0.04) but negatively correlated with maternal

  9. Anticipatory postural adjustments are unaffected by age and are not absent in patients with the freezing of gait phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Plate, A; Klein, K; Pelykh, O; Singh, A; Bötzel, K

    2016-09-01

    In bipedal gait, the initiation of the first step is preceded by a complex sequence of movements which shift the centre of mass of the body towards the stance foot to allow for a step of the swing foot. These anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) have been investigated in order to elucidate movement strategies in healthy and diseased persons. We studied the influence of several external parameters (age, type of step initiation) on APAs and investigated whether Parkinsonian patients may have different APAs. As a result, we found that externally elicited steps were preceded by faster and larger APAs than self-timed steps. Parkinsonian patients without the freezing of gait (FOG) phenomenon showed overall slightly reduced APAs but did not clearly differ from patients with FOG. Multiple APAs were seen in up to 25 % of the steps of the patients and in a much lower percentage of the steps of control subjects. The results indicate that APAs are significantly influenced by the timing of a step, i.e. are larger in externally elicited steps. The patients showed an overall preserved APA pattern but slowed movements and amplitude, indicating that increased bradykinesia due to progressive illness is a plausible explanation for these findings. The freezing phenomenon is not explained by a general absence or massive reduction in APA measures. PMID:27173496

  10. RemoveYoung: A tool for the removal of the young stellar component in galaxies within an adjustable age cutoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.

    2016-10-01

    The optical morphology of galaxies holds the cumulative record of their assembly history, and techniques for its quantitative characterization offer a promising avenue toward understanding galaxy formation and evolution. However, the morphology of star-forming galaxies is generally dictated by the youngest stellar component, which can readily overshine faint structural/morphological features in the older underlying stellar background (e.g., relics from recent minor mergers) that could hold important insights into the galaxy build-up process. Stripping off galaxy images from the emission from stellar populations younger than an adjustable age cutoff tcut can therefore provide a valuable tool in extragalactic research. RemoveYoung (), a publicly available tool that is presented here, exploits the combined power of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) and spectral population synthesis (SPS) toward this goal. Two-dimensional (2D) post-processing of SPS models to IFS data cubes with permits computation of the spectral energy, surface brightness, and stellar surface density distribution of stellar populations older than a user-defined tcut. This suggests a variety of applications of star-forming galaxies, such as interacting or merging galaxy pairs and lower mass starburst galaxies near and far; these include blue compact and tidal dwarf galaxies.

  11. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    PubMed

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  12. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  13. Canadian National Breast Screening Study: 1. Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 40 to 49 years.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A B; Baines, C J; To, T; Wall, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of annual screening with mammography, physical examination of the breasts and the teaching of breast self-examination in reducing the rate of death from breast cancer among women aged 40 to 49 years on entry. DESIGN: Individually randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen urban centres in Canada with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: Women with no history of breast cancer and no mammography in the previous 12 months were randomly assigned to undergo either annual mammography and physical examination (MP group) or usual care after an initial physical examination (UC group). The 50,430 women enrolled from January 1980 through March 1985 were followed for a mean of 8.5 years. DATA COLLECTION: Derived from the participants by initial and annual self-administered questionnaires, from the screening examinations, from the patients' physicians, from the provincial cancer registries and by record linkage to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base. Expert panels evaluated histologic and death data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of referral from screening, rates of detection of breast cancer from screening and from community care, nodal status, tumour size, and rates of death from all causes and from breast cancer. RESULTS: Over 90% of the women in each group attended the screening sessions or returned the annual questionnaires, or both, over years 2 to 5. The characteristics of the women in the two groups were similar. Compared with the Canadian population, the participants were more likely to be married, have fewer children, have more education, be in a professional occupation, smoke less and have been born in North America. The rate of screen-detected breast cancer on first examination was 3.89 per 1000 in the MP group and 2.46 per 1000 in the UC group; more node-positive tumours were found in the MP group than in the UC group. During years 2 through 5 the ratios of observed

  14. Phylogenetic analysis accounting for age-dependent death and sampling with applications to epidemics.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Amaury; Alexander, Helen K; Stadler, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    The reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on viral genetic sequence data sequentially sampled from an epidemic provides estimates of the past transmission dynamics, by fitting epidemiological models to these trees. To our knowledge, none of the epidemiological models currently used in phylogenetics can account for recovery rates and sampling rates dependent on the time elapsed since transmission, i.e. age of infection. Here we introduce an epidemiological model where infectives leave the epidemic, by either recovery or sampling, after some random time which may follow an arbitrary distribution. We derive an expression for the likelihood of the phylogenetic tree of sampled infectives under our general epidemiological model. The analytic concept developed in this paper will facilitate inference of past epidemiological dynamics and provide an analytical framework for performing very efficient simulations of phylogenetic trees under our model. The main idea of our analytic study is that the non-Markovian epidemiological model giving rise to phylogenetic trees growing vertically as time goes by can be represented by a Markovian "coalescent point process" growing horizontally by the sequential addition of pairs of coalescence and sampling times. As examples, we discuss two special cases of our general model, described in terms of influenza and HIV epidemics. Though phrased in epidemiological terms, our framework can also be used for instance to fit macroevolutionary models to phylogenies of extant and extinct species, accounting for general species lifetime distributions. PMID:24607743

  15. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    PubMed

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-01-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births).

  16. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  17. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  18. Follow-Up of a Preschool Epidemiological Sample: Cross-Age Continuities and Predictions of Later Adjustment with Internalizing and Externalizing Dimensions of Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Mariellen; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the continuity of behavioral adjustment from the preschool through elementary and junior high school years. Behavior checklist data were obtained from 541 children, ages 9 through 15, who had participated in a preschool epidemiological study. Analyses focused on the relationship between internalizing and externalizing behavior dimensions…

  19. Canadian National Breast Screening Study: 2. Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 50 to 59 years.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A B; Baines, C J; To, T; Wall, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of annual mammography over and above annual physical examination of the breasts and the teaching of breast self-examination among women aged 50 to 59 on entry. DESIGN: Individually randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen urban centres in Canada with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: Women with no history of breast cancer and no mammography in the previous 12 months were randomly assigned to undergo either annual mammography and physical examination (MP group) or annual physical examination only (PO group). The 39,405 women enrolled from January 1980 through March 1985 were followed for a mean of 8.3 years. DATA COLLECTION: Derived from the participants by initial and annual self-administered questionnaires, from the screening examinations, from the patients' physicians, from the provincial cancer registries and by record linkage to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base. Expert panels evaluated histologic and death data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of referral from screening, rates of detection of breast cancer from screening and from community care, nodal status, tumour size and rates of death from all causes and from breast cancer. RESULTS: Over 85% of the women in each group attended the screening sessions after screen 1. The characteristics of the women in the two groups were similar. Compared with the Canadian population the participants were more likely to be married, have fewer children, have more education, be in a professional occupation, smoke less and have been born in North America. The rate of screen-detected breast cancer on first examination was 7.20 per 1000 in the MP group and 3.45 per 1000 in the PO group, more node-positive tumours were found in the MP group than in the PO group. At subsequent screens the detection rates were a little less than half the rates at screen 1. During years 2 through 5 the ratios of observed to expected cases of invasive breast cancer

  20. a Snowball's Chance in Death Valley: Re-Evaluation of the Number and Magnitude of Neoproterozoic Ice Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Marenco, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    The Neoproterozoic Ibex Formation, previously considered to represent a basinal facies of platform carbonates in the lower Noonday Dolomite, Great Basin, USA, is shown to rest on the eroded surface of the lower Noonday and older units. At the type section, the basal Ibex Formation consists of polymict conglomerate and laminated mudstone; the upper surface of the mudstone is pierced by large angular clasts of all underlying units, including distinctive lower Noonday tube stromatolites. A thin, finely laminated pink dolostone unit that records negative carbon isotope values caps the Ibex conglomerate. We interpret the erosional unconformity upon which the basal Ibex Formation is deposited to be glacioeustatic in origin, the basal conglomerate-pierced mudstone to be glaciogenic, and the overlying dolostone to be a classic cap carbonate. Above the cap dolostone marine transgression led to the deposition of deeper water ferruginous shale and limestone, which is overlain by dolostone as water depths again shallowed. These post-glacial Ibex carbonates also record negative carbon isotope values similar to upper Noonday lithofacies preserved on the platform. A notable oxidized paleosol occurs at the top of the upper Ibex dolostone immediately below a coarse sandstone correlative with the basal Johnnie Formation. Combined with the record of glacial sediments and cap carbonates from underlying units, in particular the Kingston Peak Formation, the Death Valley succession unambiguously records three discrete Neoproterozoic ice ages in a single continuous section. These new observations provide the lithological and geochemical proof that at least three, and potentially more, ice ages characterized Neoproterozoic time. As each sustained global glaciation represents a critical environmental hurdle, the number and the magnitude of discrete ice ages is an important constraint on the tempo of metazoan evolution.

  1. Age-Related Differences in Responses to Thoughts of One’s Own Death: Mortality Salience and Judgments of Moral Transgressions

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Molly; Kluck, Benjamin; Greenberg, Jeff; Pyszczynski, Tom; Cox, Cathy R.; Solomon, Sheldon; Weise, David

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments explored age differences in response to reminders of death. Terror management research has shown that death reminders lead to increased adherence to and defense of one’s cultural worldview. In Study 1, the effect of mortality salience (MS) on evaluations of moral transgressions made by younger and older adults was compared. Whereas younger adults showed the typical pattern of harsher judgments in response to MS, older adults did not. Study 2 compared younger and older adults’ responses to both the typical MS induction and a more subtle death reminder. Whereas younger adults responded to both MS inductions with harsher evaluations, older adults made significantly less harsh evaluations after the subtle MS induction. Explanations for this developmental shift in responses to reminders of death are discussed. PMID:17563189

  2. Role of TFEB Mediated Autophagy, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cell Death in Endotoxin Induced Myocardial Toxicity of Young and Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Lang, Fangfang; Zhang, Huilin; Xu, Liangdong; Wang, Yidan; Hao, Enkui

    2016-01-01

    Elderly patients are susceptible to sepsis. LPS induced myocardial injury is a widely used animal model to assess sepsis induced cardiac dysfunction. The age dependent mechanisms behind sepsis susceptibility were not studied. We analyzed age associated changes to cardiac function, cell death, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy in LPS induced myocardial injury. Both young and aged C57BL/6 mice were used for LPS administration. The results demonstrated that LPS induced more cardiac injury (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponin I, and cardiac myosin-light chains 1), cardiac dysfunction (left ventricular inner dimension, LVID, and ejection fraction (EF)), cell death, inflammation, and oxidative stress in aged mice compared to young mice. However, a significant age dependent decline in autophagy was observed. Translocation of Transcription Factor EB (TFEB) to nucleus and formation of LC3-II were significantly reduced in LPS administered aged mice compared to young ones. In addition to that, downstream effector of TFEB, LAMP-1, was induced in response to LPS challenge in young mice. The present study newly demonstrates that TFEB mediated autophagy is crucial for protection against LPS induced myocardial injury particularly in aging senescent heart. Targeting this autophagy-oxidative stress-inflammation-cell death axis may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for cardioprotection in the elderly. PMID:27200146

  3. Age and Time-to-Death Trajectories of Change in Indicators of Cognitive, Sensory, Physical, Health, Social, and Self-Related Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Lindenberger, Ulman; Smith, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    Mortality-related processes are known to modulate late-life change in cognitive abilities, but it is an open question whether and how precipitous declines with impending death generalize to other domains of functioning. We investigated this notion by using 13-year longitudinal data from now-deceased participants in the Berlin Aging Study (N = 439;…

  4. The Kenyan political conflict and children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M; Myers, Sonya S

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an important protective factor postdisaster. Specifically, severity of the disaster experience was associated with increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior. Emotion regulation was associated with less aggression and more prosocial behavior postconflict. Findings are discussed in the context of a developmental, systems-oriented perspective of the impact of disasters on child adjustment.

  5. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  6. Licit prescription drug use in a Swedish population according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjusting for level of multi-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs among individuals in the population and the rate of licit prescription drug use among patients depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Methods The study was carried out on the total population aged 20 years or older in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for the individual level of multi-morbidity in the population to which we have related the odds ratio for individuals and incidence rate ratio (IRR) for patients of using licit prescription drugs, defined daily doses (DDDs) and total costs of licit prescription drugs after adjusting for age, gender and socioeconomic factors (educational and income level). Results After adjustment for multi-morbidity level male individuals had less than half the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.40-0.42)) compared to female individuals. Among the patients, males had higher total costs (IRR 1.14 (95% CI 1.13-1.15)). Individuals above 80 years had nine times the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 9.09 (95% CI 8.33-10.00)) despite adjustment for multi-morbidity. Patients in the highest education and income level had the lowest DDDs (IRR 0.78 (95% CI 0.76-0.80), IRR 0.73 (95% CI 0.71-0.74)) after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Conclusions This paper shows that there is a great variability in licit prescription drug use associated with gender, age and socioeconomic status

  7. Fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury, and death probability at accident scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Zangooei Dovom, Hossein; Shafahi, Yousef; Zangooei Dovom, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated road traffic deaths, but few have compared by road user type. Iran, with an estimated 44 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population in 2002 had higher road traffic deaths than any other country for which reliable estimates can be made. So, the present study was conducted on road death data and identified fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury as well as the influences of age and gender on deaths at accident scenes for all road user groups. Data used in this study are on fatal road accidents recorded by forensic medicine experts of the Khorasan Razavi province in Mashhad, the capital of the province, the second largest city and the largest place of pilgrimage, immigration and tourism in Iran. Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to identify the relation of death place with age and gender in 2495 fatal road accidents from 2006 to 2009. The t-test and analysis of variance were employed for continues variable, age, to compare males' and females' mean age for all road user categories. For two genders, all three groups of fatalities (pedestrian, motorcyclist and motor vehicle occupant) had a peak at the ages of 21-30. The youngest were male motorcyclists (mean age = 28). Old pedestrians were included in road deaths very much, too. Male/female overall ratio was 3.41 and the highest male/female ratio was related to motorcyclists (14). The overall ratio of head injury to other organ injuries (torso and underbody) was 2.51 and pedestrians had the largest amount of head injury (38.2%). Regarding death at accident scene, for all road users, gender did not have any significant relation with death at the scene (P-value > 0.1); on the contrary, age had significant relation (P-value < 0.05). Females were more vulnerable at accident scenes (male/female ratio at accident sense < 1). Pedestrians aged 21-30, motorcyclists 41-50 and motor vehicle occupants 31-40 died the most at accident scenes. Identifying the most

  8. Death at the End of the 20th Century: Individual Processes and Developmental Tasks in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocke, Christina; Cherry, Katie E.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we address the topic of death from historic and contemporary perspectives. In the first section, we describe the changes in life expectancy, personal experience, and public awareness of death that have occurred over the past century. In the next section, we examine the impact these changes have had on the mastery of the two…

  9. Socioemotional and Behavioral Adjustment among School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities: The Moderating Role of Maternal Personal Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the role of maternal personal resources (mother's attachment style, coping strategies, and affect) in moderating the effects of learning disabilities (LD) on children's socioemotional and behavioral adjustment (self-rated sense of coherence, loneliness, and hope; and mother-rated child behavior checklist measures), as well as on…

  10. Mortality in over 350,000 Insured Swedish Dogs from 1995–2000: II. Breed-Specific Age and Survival Patterns and Relative Risk for Causes of Death

    PubMed Central

    Egenvall, A; Bonnett, BN; Hedhammar, Å; Olson, P

    2005-01-01

    This study continues analysis from a companion paper on over 350,000 insured Swedish dogs up to 10 years of age contributing to more than one million dog-years at risk during 1995–2000. The age patterns for total and diagnostic mortality and for general causes of death (trauma, tumour, locomotor, heart and neurological) are presented for numerous breeds. Survival estimates at five, eight and 10 years of age are calculated. Survival to 10 years of age was 75% or more in Labrador and golden retrievers, miniature and toy poodles and miniature dachshunds and lowest in Irish wolfhounds (91% dead by 10 years). Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the relative risk for general and more specific causes of death between breeds accounting for gender and age effects, including two-way interactions. Older females had tumour as a designated cause of death more often than males in most breeds, but not in the Bernese mountain dog. Information presented in this and the companion paper inform our understanding of the population level burden of disease, and support decision-making at the population and individual level about health promotion efforts and treatment and prognosis of disease events. PMID:16261925

  11. Risk factor burden in middle age and lifetime risks for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death (Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry).

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Dyer, Alan R; Wang, Renwei; Daviglus, Martha L; Greenland, Philip

    2007-02-15

    Few data exist regarding the association of risk factor burden in middle age with lifetime risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-CVD death. In this study, participants in the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry aged 40 to 59 years in 1967 to 1973 were stratified into 5 groups on the basis of risk factor burden: favorable risk factor profile (untreated blood pressure or=1 unfavorable; or any 1, any 2, or >or=3 elevated (systolic >or=140 mm Hg or diastolic >or=90 mm Hg or treated hypertension; total cholesterol >or=240 mg/dl; current smoking; or body mass index >or=30 kg/m2). Remaining lifetime risks for CVD and non-CVD death were estimated through the age of 85 years. Eight thousand thirty-three men and 6,493 women were followed for 409,987 person-years; 2,582 died of CVD, and 3,955 died of non-CVD causes. A greater risk factor burden was associated with a higher incidence of CVD and non-CVD death. Compared with participants with >or=3 risk factors, those with favorable profiles had substantially lower lifetime risks for CVD death (20.5% vs 35.2% in men, 6.7% vs 31.9% in women) and markedly longer median Kaplan-Meier survival (>35 vs 26 years in men, >35 vs 28 years in women). In conclusion, having favorable risk factors in middle age is associated with a lower lifetime risk for CVD death and markedly longer survival. These results should encourage efforts aimed at preventing the development of risk factors in younger subjects to decrease CVD mortality and promote longevity.

  12. Mortality in Cambodia: an 18-month prospective community-based surveillance of all-age deaths using verbal autopsies.

    PubMed

    Goyet, Sophie; Rammaert, Blandine; McCarron, Margaret; Khieu, Virak; Fournier, Isabelle; Kitsutani, Paul; Ly, Sowath; Mounts, Anthony; Letson, William G; Buchy, Philippe; Vong, Sirenda

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the 2009-2010 death rates, causes, and patterns of mortality in rural Cambodia, we conducted active, population-based death surveillance in 25 rural villages of Cambodia from March 2009 to August 2010. Among the population of 28,053 under surveillance, 280 deaths were reported and explored by physician-certified verbal autopsies, using the International Classification of Diseases 10, yielding an overall mortality rate (MR) of 6.7/1000 persons-year (95% CI 5.74-7.68). The MR was 39.1/1000 live births for those younger than 5 years old. Infants accounted for 5.4% of all deaths. In children younger than 5 years, infectious and parasitic diseases were the leading causes of death. In children 5 to 14 years, 3 out of 4 deaths were due to injuries. Adult deaths were mainly attributed to noncommunicable diseases (52%). We conclude that this rural population is facing a substantial burden of noncommunicable diseases while still struggling with infectious diseases, respiratory diseases in particular.

  13. A "good death" for whom? Quality of spouse's death and psychological distress among older widowed persons.

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah

    2003-06-01

    Ethicists, policy makers, and care providers are increasingly concerned with helping the dying elderly to experience a "good death." A "good death" is characterized by physical comfort, social support, acceptance, and appropriate medical care, and it should minimize psychological distress for the dying and their families. I identify the predictors of death quality and evaluate how the quality of an older adult's death affects the surviving spouse's psychological adjustment six months after the loss. Analyses use Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) data, a prospective study of married persons ages 65 and older. Positive spousal relationships during the final days increase survivors' yearning yet reduce their anger. Having a spouse die a painful death is associated with elevated anxiety, yearning, and intrusive thoughts. The perception of physician negligence is associated with elevated anger. These findings suggest that improved end-of-life care and pain management will benefit both the dying and their bereaved spouses. PMID:12866391

  14. Methodology for adjusting scrotal circumference to 365 or 452 days of age and correlations of scrotal circumference with growth traits in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Bell, D J; Spitzer, J C; Bridges, W C; Olson, L W

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from 1983 through 1991, where weight and hip height were measured at start of test and every 28 d on 604 bulls completing a 224-d forage-based gain test. Scrotal circumference (SC) was measured at start of test, and at either end of test or end of the weigh period after individual bulls reached 365 d of age. Over 3 yr of this study, SC was additionally measured every 28 d. Bulls were representatives of 5 breed groups: Angus, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Continental (predominantly Charolais), and Zebu (predominantly Simbrah). Adjusted 365-d SC and adjusted 452-d SC were calculated by regression analysis and from formulas based on SC growth of individuals to 140 and 224 d on test, respectively. Breed group differences were observed for age of dam, birth weight, hip height, weight per day of age, average daily gain and SC at start of test, 140 d, and end of test (224 d). Scrotal circumference was positively correlated with all growth traits. Scrotal circumference was related to breed group, age, weight, hip height, average daily gain, weight per day of age, age by year, and age-by-breed group (P<0.05), as determined by regression analysis. However, omitting weight, hip height, average daily gain, and weight per day of age from the regression model did not significantly affect R2 value. Scrotal circumference growth was linear to 140 d on test; however, SC growth to 224 d on test was curvilinear. The 365-d SC predicted from the formula and from regression analysis differed for Simmental and Zebu by 0.3 and 0.4 cm, respectively (P<0.05). The 452-d SC differed for Santa Gertrudis and Zebu by 0.5 and 0.6 cm, respectively (P<0.05). Formulas based on SC growth of individuals are reasonably accurate predictors of SC at 365 and 452 d of age, when compared with more complex regression analysis. Basing SC adjustments on individual growth appears to account for variables known to affect yearling SC.

  15. Methodology for adjusting scrotal circumference to 365 or 452 days of age and correlations of scrotal circumference with growth traits in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Bell, D J; Spitzer, J C; Bridges, W C; Olson, L W

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from 1983 through 1991, where weight and hip height were measured at start of test and every 28 d on 604 bulls completing a 224-d forage-based gain test. Scrotal circumference (SC) was measured at start of test, and at either end of test or end of the weigh period after individual bulls reached 365 d of age. Over 3 yr of this study, SC was additionally measured every 28 d. Bulls were representatives of 5 breed groups: Angus, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Continental (predominantly Charolais), and Zebu (predominantly Simbrah). Adjusted 365-d SC and adjusted 452-d SC were calculated by regression analysis and from formulas based on SC growth of individuals to 140 and 224 d on test, respectively. Breed group differences were observed for age of dam, birth weight, hip height, weight per day of age, average daily gain and SC at start of test, 140 d, and end of test (224 d). Scrotal circumference was positively correlated with all growth traits. Scrotal circumference was related to breed group, age, weight, hip height, average daily gain, weight per day of age, age by year, and age-by-breed group (P<0.05), as determined by regression analysis. However, omitting weight, hip height, average daily gain, and weight per day of age from the regression model did not significantly affect R2 value. Scrotal circumference growth was linear to 140 d on test; however, SC growth to 224 d on test was curvilinear. The 365-d SC predicted from the formula and from regression analysis differed for Simmental and Zebu by 0.3 and 0.4 cm, respectively (P<0.05). The 452-d SC differed for Santa Gertrudis and Zebu by 0.5 and 0.6 cm, respectively (P<0.05). Formulas based on SC growth of individuals are reasonably accurate predictors of SC at 365 and 452 d of age, when compared with more complex regression analysis. Basing SC adjustments on individual growth appears to account for variables known to affect yearling SC. PMID:16727931

  16. Weaker error signals do not reduce the effectiveness of post-error adjustments: comparing error processing in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Jentzsch, Ines

    2012-06-15

    In this study we investigated age-related differences in error processing, comparing performance measures and physiological indicators of error processing of middle-aged (41-59years) and young (18-31years) adults using a version of the Eriksen flanker task. Although middle-aged participants were overall slower, both groups showed a comparable decrease in reaction time on error trials as well as slower and more accurate post-error performance. Despite the preserved error speeding and post-error slowing effects, we found an amplitude reduction in the Ne/ERN, contradicting the existence of a direct relationship between the amplitude of this component and post-error adjustments. This was further supported by the lack of significant correlations between the single-trial Ne/ERN amplitude and error-related reaction times. The single-trial Ne/ERN distribution showed a reduced variance for middle-aged compared to young participants, suggesting that weaker overall error signals rather than lapses in error detection are responsible for the observed Ne/ERN amplitude reductions. However, we argue that the signal still reached the necessary threshold to trigger normal post-error adjustments. Finally, the early Pe showed a reduction in amplitude and an increase in latency for middle-aged compared to young adults. Together, the findings suggest clear signs of a physiological decline in error processing at an earlier age than previously known, but these changes do not yet affect implementation of adaptive behavioral changes in middle-aged participants. PMID:22578713

  17. Parental control, parental warmth, and psychosocial adjustment in a sample of substance-abusing mothers and their school-aged and adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Suchman, Nancy E; Rounsaville, Bruce; DeCoste, Cindy; Luthar, Suniya

    2007-01-01

    Parenting interventions for substance-abusing adults have been broadly based on two approaches, one emphasizing parental control as a means to managing children's behavior and the second emphasizing parental warmth and sensitivity as means to fostering children's psychological development. In this investigation, we examined associations of parental control and parental warmth, respectively, with children's behavioral and psychological adjustment in a sample of 98 women enrolled in methadone maintenance and their school-aged and adolescent children. Using collateral data collected during the baseline phase of a randomized clinical trial (Luthar, S. S., Suchman, N. E., & Altomare, M. [in press]. Relational Psychotherapy Mothers Group: A randomized clinical trial for substance abusing mothers [in preparation]), we tested predictions that (a) parental control would be more strongly associated with children's behavioral adjustment and (b) parental warmth would be more strongly associated with children's psychological adjustment. Both predictions were generally confirmed, although some crossover among parenting and child dimensions was also evident. Results support the theoretical stance that parental limit setting and autonomy support, as well as nurturance and involvement, are important factors, respectively, in children's behavioral and psychological adjustment. PMID:17175393

  18. Stress-induced electrolyte leakage: the role of K+-permeable channels and involvement in programmed cell death and metabolic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Demidchik, Vadim; Straltsova, Darya; Medvedev, Sergey S; Pozhvanov, Grigoriy A; Sokolik, Anatoliy; Yurin, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Electrolyte leakage accompanies plant response to stresses, such as salinity, pathogen attack, drought, heavy metals, hyperthermia, and hypothermia; however, the mechanism and physiological role of this phenomenon have only recently been clarified. Accumulating evidence shows that electrolyte leakage is mainly related to K(+) efflux from plant cells, which is mediated by plasma membrane cation conductances. Recent studies have demonstrated that these conductances include components with different kinetics of activation and cation selectivity. Most probably they are encoded by GORK, SKOR, and annexin genes. Hypothetically, cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and ionotropic glutamate receptors can also be involved. The stress-induced electrolyte leakage is usually accompanied by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and often results in programmed cell death (PCD). Recent data strongly suggest that these reactions are linked to each other. ROS have been shown to activate GORK, SKOR, and annexins. ROS-activated K(+) efflux through GORK channels results in dramatic K(+) loss from plant cells, which stimulates proteases and endonucleases, and promotes PCD. This mechanism is likely to trigger plant PCD under severe stress. However, in moderate stress conditions, K(+) efflux could play an essential role as a 'metabolic switch' in anabolic reactions, stimulating catabolic processes and saving 'metabolic' energy for adaptation and repair needs.

  19. Transcriptome-Wide Mapping of Pea Seed Ageing Reveals a Pivotal Role for Genes Related to Oxidative Stress and Programmed Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Colville, Louise; Lorenzo, Oscar; Graeber, Kai; Küster, Helge; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Kranner, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of seed ageing, which leads to viability loss during storage, is vital for ex situ plant conservation and agriculture alike. Yet the potential for regulation at the transcriptional level has not been fully investigated. Here, we studied the relationship between seed viability, gene expression and glutathione redox status during artificial ageing of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. Transcriptome-wide analysis using microarrays was complemented with qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes and a multilevel analysis of the antioxidant glutathione. Partial degradation of DNA and RNA occurred from the onset of artificial ageing at 60% RH and 50°C, and transcriptome profiling showed that the expression of genes associated with programmed cell death, oxidative stress and protein ubiquitination were altered prior to any sign of viability loss. After 25 days of ageing viability started to decline in conjunction with progressively oxidising cellular conditions, as indicated by a shift of the glutathione redox state towards more positive values (>−190 mV). The unravelling of the molecular basis of seed ageing revealed that transcriptome reprogramming is a key component of the ageing process, which influences the progression of programmed cell death and decline in antioxidant capacity that ultimately lead to seed viability loss. PMID:24205239

  20. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ataíde Lima, Raquel Patrícia; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; Cristhine Pordeus Luna, Rafaella; Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição; Teixeira de Lima, Roberto; Batista Filho, Malaquias; Gouveia Filizola, Rosália; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Rios Asciutti, Luiza Sonia; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Brazil, demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological changes over time have led to a transition in nutritional standards, resulting in a gradual reduction of malnutrition and an increased prevalence of overweight and obese individuals, similar to the situation in developed countries in previous decades. This study assessed the body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of an overweight status and obesity, adjusted for various factors, in a population in northeastern Brazil including all age groups. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study using single sampling procedure composed of levels. Given the heterogeneity of the variable “income” and the relationship between income, prevalence of diseases and nutrition, a stratified sampling on blocks in the first level was used. In this, city districts were classified by income into 10 strata, according to information obtained from IBGE. A systematic sampling was applied on randomly selected blocks in order to choose the residences that would be part of the sample (second level), including 1165 participants from all age groups. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of an overweight status or obesity was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. When the Chi-square test was applied, a relationship was observed between the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity and the age group, gender, educational level and income of the participants. Regarding lifestyle parameters, only smoking was associated with the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity, in both adults and in the total sample. The results for the following groups were significant (p < 0.05): the age group from 20 to 59 years, when the individual presented an educational level greater than or equal to high school; and the age group ≥ 60 years, when the individual was female. It is noteworthy that educational level and being female were significant in adjusting for the total

  1. [Age-dependent changes in the intestinal contents of blowfly maggots--a study method in the framework of forensic determination of the time of death].

    PubMed

    Reiter, C; Hajek, P

    1984-01-01

    Maggots of the forensically important blowfly species Calliphora vicina were reared under three different temperature conditions. They were fed food containing insoluable contrast medium. Subsequent radiological examinations proved that the maggots stopped eating immediately upon attaining their maximum length. During the course of their subsequent development, the anterior intestine always remains empty. The evaluation of intestinal filling in blowfly maggots represents an efficient method of determining larval age in establishing time of death.

  2. Premature death of children aged 2 months to 5 years: the case of the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Mbassi Awa, Hubert D.; Dongmo, Roger; Nkwonkam Mafotso, Josiane; Ngo Um, Suzanne; Ambomatei, Calson; Koki Ndombo, Paul O.

    2016-01-01

    Background In hospital premature deaths of children less than 5 years of age admitted for different reasons still remains very high in our context warranting study in order to reverse the tendency (using appropriate means). Our study was aimed at describing and analyzing cases of those children aged from 2 months to 5 years who died within the first 48 hours of their admission at the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation (MCC/CBF). Methods It was a retrospective descriptive study. Data were extracted from the clinical records of the patients admitted from 2008 to 2012. Cases of accidental trauma were excluded from the study. Level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. The approval of the ethical committee of the Université des Montagnes was also obtained. Results During the period of our study, out of the 14,200 patients aged 2 months and 5 years who were hospitalized 522 premature deaths were registered. This gives an incidence of 4.9%, representing 74.3% of all hospitalized deaths in this age group. Considering the fact that some of the files had very little information, only 373 files were studied. The sex ratio was 1.2. More astonishing was that a majority of the deaths occurred between midnight and 8 am. The most frequent registered cases were patients with severe malaria (42.6%), severe sepsis (20.6%), and acute lower respiratory tract infections (RTI) (16.1%) cases. One third of the patients had a poor nutritional status. Conclusions The reinforcement of preventive measures and programs targeting the health of children such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Diseases (IMCD) would be a major priority in proffering a solution to this phenomenon. PMID:26835403

  3. Trends and spatial distribution of deaths of children aged 12-60 months in São Paulo, Brazil, 1980-98.

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in the mortality of children aged 12-60 months and to perform spatial data analysis of its distribution at the inner city district level in São Paulo from 1980 to 1998. METHODS: Official mortality data were analysed in relation to the underlying causes of death. The population of children aged 12-60 months, disaggregated by sex and age, was estimated for each year. Educational levels, income, employment status, and other socioeconomic indices were also assessed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software was used for the statistical processing of time series. The Cochrane-Orcutt procedure of generalized least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the regression parameters with control of first-order autocorrelation. Spatial data analysis employed the discrimination of death rates and socioeconomic indices at the inner city district level. For classifying area-level death rates the method of K-means cluster analysis was used. Spatial correlation between variables was analysed by the simultaneous autoregressive regression method. FINDINGS: There was a steady decline in death rates during the 1980s at an average rate of 3.08% per year, followed by a levelling off. Infectious diseases remained the major cause of mortality, accounting for 43.1% of deaths during the last three years of the study. Injuries accounted for 16.5% of deaths. Mortality rates at the area level clearly demonstrated inequity in the city's health profile: there was an increasing difference between the rich and the underprivileged social strata in this respect. CONCLUSION: The overall mortality rate among children aged 12-60 months dropped by almost 30% during the study period. Most of the decline happened during the 1980s. Many people still live in a state of deprivation in underserved areas. Time-series and spatial data analysis provided indications of potential value in the planning of social policies promoting well-being, through the identification

  4. Death Attitudes among Mid-Life Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Virginia; Sands, Roberta

    1987-01-01

    Examined death attitudes among 74 female college reentry students aged 30 through 49. Found relationships between: (1) developmental factors and death concern, death as interpersonal loss, and death as dimension of time; (2) age and death anticipation; and (3) income and death denial. Results suggest importance of considering both developmental…

  5. Deaths following influenza vaccination--background mortality or causal connection?

    PubMed

    Kokia, Ehud S; Silverman, Barbara G; Green, Manfred; Kedem, Hagai; Guindy, Michal; Shemer, Joshua

    2007-12-12

    In October 2006, four deaths occurred in Israel shortly after influenza immunization, resulting in a temporary halt to the vaccination campaign. After an epidemiologic investigation, the Ministry of Health concluded that these deaths were not related to the vaccine itself and the campaign resumed; however, vaccine uptake was markedly reduced. Estimates of true background mortality in this high-risk population would aid in public education and quell unnecessary concerns regarding vaccine safety. We used data from a large HMO to estimate mortality in influenza vaccine recipients aged 55 and over during four consecutive winters (2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006). Date of immunization was ascertained from patient treatment files, vital status through Israeli National Insurance Institute data. We calculated crude death rates within 7, 14 and 30 days of influenza immunization, and used a Cox Proportional Hazards Model to estimate the risk of death within 14 days of vaccination, adjusting for age and comorbid conditions (age over 75, history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, status as homebound patient) in 2006. The death rate among influenza vaccine recipients ranged from 0.01 to 0.02% within 7 days and 0.09-0.10% at 30 days. Influenza immunization was associated with a decreased risk of death within 14 days after adjustment for comorbidities (Hazard ratio, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.18-0.61). Our findings support the assumption that influenza vaccination is not associated with increased risk of death in the short term.

  6. Luminescence ages for alluvial-fan deposits in Southern Death Valley: Implications for climate-driven sedimentation along a tectonically active mountain front

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, M.F.; Mahan, S.A.; Knott, J.R.; Bowman, D.D.

    2007-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether alluvial-fan sedimentation along tectonically active mountain fronts is driven by climatic changes or tectonics. Knowing the age of sedimentation is the key to understanding the relationship between sedimentation and its cause. Alluvial-fan deposits in Death Valley and throughout the arid southwestern United States have long been the subjects of study, but their ages have generally eluded researchers until recently. Most mapping efforts have recognized at least four major relative-age groupings (Q1 (oldest), Q2, Q3, and Q4 (youngest)), using observed changes in surface soils and morphology, relation to the drainage net, and development of desert pavement. Obtaining numerical age determinations for these morphologic stages has proven challenging. We report the first optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages for three of these four stages deposited within alluvial-fans along the tectonically active Black Mountains of Death Valley. Deposits showing distinct, remnant bar and swale topography (Q3b) have OSL ages from 7 to 4 ka., whereas those with moderate to poorly developed desert pavement and located farther above the active channel (Q3a) have OSL ages from 17 to 11 ka. Geomorphically older deposits with well-developed desert pavement (Q2d) have OSL ages ???25 ka. Using this OSL-based chronology, we note that alluvial-fan deposition along this tectonically active mountain front corresponds to both wet-to-dry and dry-to-wet climate changes recorded globally and regionally. These findings underscore the influence of climate change on alluvial fan deposition in arid and semi-arid regions. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  7. Re-evaluation of Pleistocene and Holocene long bone robusticity trends with regards to age-at-death estimates and size standardization procedures.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Lukáš; Eisová, Stanislava; Holliday, Trenton W

    2016-08-01

    Long-term trends in robusticity of lower limb bones in the genus Homo through the Pleistocene until the present have been proposed, which have been interpreted as a consequence of decreasing levels of mobility and activity patterns, changes in lifestyle, and environmental factors. There has also long been evidence that skeletal strength increases over an individual's lifespan. This increase is caused by continuous bone remodeling that optimizes the structure of a bone to resist mechanical loadings and creates a balance between endosteal resorption and subperiosteal apposition. However, none of the previous studies of temporal trends in robusticity has considered both processes and analyzed how individual age-related robusticity might influence higher-level temporal trends. This paper therefore explores temporal trends in robusticity of lower limb long bones within the genus Homo and considers how individual ages-at-death can confound published evolutionary trends, given the fact that some aspects of relative bone strength tend to increase over individual lifespans. Cross-sectional diaphyseal properties of the midshaft and proximal femur and midshaft tibia of Pleistocene and early Holocene individuals, together with data on age-at-death are used to analyze changes in relative bone strength relative to individuals' ages and evolutionary time. The results show increasing bone strength in adulthood until the fourth decade and then a slight decrease, an observation that conforms to previously published results on recent human populations. However, no significant impact of age-at-death on the trends along an evolutionary trajectory has been detected. The evolutionary trends in femoral and tibial relative strength can be described as fluctuating, probably as a consequence of changing mobility patterns, environmentally and technologically influenced behaviors, and demographic processes. The differences between evolutionary trends published in several studies are explained

  8. Cohorts based on Decade of Death: No Evidence for Secular Trends Favoring Later Cohorts in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Hülür, Gizem; Infurna, Frank J.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Studies of birth-year cohorts examined over the same age range often report secular trends favoring later-born cohorts, who are cognitively fitter and show less steep cognitive declines than earlier-born cohorts. However, there is initial evidence that those advantages of later-born cohorts do not carry into the last years of life, suggesting that pervasive mortality-related processes minimize differences that were apparent earlier in life. Elaborating this work from an alternative perspective on cohort differences, we compared rates of cognitive aging and terminal decline in episodic memory between cohorts based on the year participants had died, earlier (between 1993 and 1999) or later in historical time (between 2000 and 2010). Specifically, we compared trajectories of cognitive decline in two death-year cohorts of participants in the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) Study that were matched on age at death and education and controlled for a variety of additional covariates. Results revealed little evidence of secular trends favoring later cohorts. To the contrary, the cohort that died in the 2000s showed a less favorable trajectory of age-related memory decline than the cohort who died in the 1990s. In examinations of change in relation to time-to-death, the cohort dying in the 2000s experienced even steeper terminal declines than the cohort dying in the 1990s. We suggest that secular increases in “manufacturing” survival may exacerbate age- and mortality-related cognitive declines among the oldest old. PMID:23046001

  9. Adjusting to personal and organisational change: views and experiences of female nurses aged 40-60 years.

    PubMed

    Gabrielle, Sarah; Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The Australian nursing workforce is ageing and there is a well-documented shortage of nurses. This global phenomenon means that retaining nurses in the workforce is gaining in importance as older nurses retire and leave nursing. The existing literature reveals deficiencies in knowledge about older nurses as they adapt to ageing often within stressful work environments. The aim of this narrative-based study, informed by feminist principles, was to explore the views and experiences of female registered nurses aged 40-60 years, in acute hospital and community health care settings. In-depth semi-structured interviews of approximately 1 h duration were gathered during late 2004. The transcribed narratives were subjected to thematic analysis. Two major themes were identified. The first theme: "Feeling uncared for" contained three sub-themes--Unsupportive work relationships: "We should be helping each other"; Workplace bullying: "It hurts me and I feel really bad"; and, Stress and burnout: "It's just like being in a pressure cooker all the time". The second major theme identified was "Adapting to ageing: my nursing career". Findings of this research suggest some unmet support needs for older nurses in the workforce which could discourage them from remaining in nursing. The findings highlight a need for further research into the support needs of older nurses. PMID:18780674

  10. Patterns of Close Relationships and Socioemotional and Academic Adjustment among School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Mikulincer, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This study examined patterns of close relationships among school-age children with learning disabilities (LD) as manifested in their attachment style, their self-perceived loneliness, their sense of coherence, and teacher ratings of their academic functioning. In line with resilience theory, this study also aimed to further explore predictors of…

  11. Cardiovascular Disease Death Before Age 65 in 168 Countries Correlated Statistically with Biometrics, Socioeconomic Status, Tobacco, Gender, Exercise, Macronutrients, and Vitamin K

    PubMed Central

    Agutter, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrition researchers recently recognized that deficiency of vitamin K2 (menaquinone: MK-4–MK-13) is widespread and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The deficiency of vitamin K2 or vitamin K inhibition with warfarin leads to calcium deposition in the arterial blood vessels. Methods Using publicly available sources, we collected food commodity availability data and derived nutrient profiles including vitamin K2 for people from 168 countries. We also collected female and male cohort data on early death from CVD (ages 15–64 years), insufficient physical activity, tobacco, biometric CVD risk markers, socioeconomic risk factors for CVD, and gender. The outcome measures included (1) univariate correlations of early death from CVD with each risk factor, (2) a multiple regression-derived formula relating early death from CVD (dependent variable) to macronutrient profile, vitamin K1 and K2 and other risk factors (independent variables), (3) for each risk factor appearing in the multiple regression formula, the portion of CVD risk attributable to that factor, and (4) similar univariate and multivariate analyses of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) (simulated from diabetes prevalence), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and cholesterol/ HDL-C ratio (simulated from serum cholesterol) (dependent variables) and dietary and other risk factors (independent variables). Results Female and male cohorts in countries that have vitamin K2 < 5µg per 2000 kcal/day per capita (n = 70) had about 2.2 times the rate of early CVD deaths as people in countries with > 24 µg/day of vitamin K2 per 2000 kcal/day (n = 72). A multiple regression-derived formula relating early death from CVD to dietary nutrients and other risk factors accounted for about 50% of the variance between cohorts in early CVD death. The attributable risks of the variables in the CVD early death formula were: too much alcohol (0.38%), too little vitamin K2 (6.95%), tobacco (6

  12. Cardiovascular Disease Death Before Age 65 in 168 Countries Correlated Statistically with Biometrics, Socioeconomic Status, Tobacco, Gender, Exercise, Macronutrients, and Vitamin K

    PubMed Central

    Agutter, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrition researchers recently recognized that deficiency of vitamin K2 (menaquinone: MK-4–MK-13) is widespread and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The deficiency of vitamin K2 or vitamin K inhibition with warfarin leads to calcium deposition in the arterial blood vessels. Methods Using publicly available sources, we collected food commodity availability data and derived nutrient profiles including vitamin K2 for people from 168 countries. We also collected female and male cohort data on early death from CVD (ages 15–64 years), insufficient physical activity, tobacco, biometric CVD risk markers, socioeconomic risk factors for CVD, and gender. The outcome measures included (1) univariate correlations of early death from CVD with each risk factor, (2) a multiple regression-derived formula relating early death from CVD (dependent variable) to macronutrient profile, vitamin K1 and K2 and other risk factors (independent variables), (3) for each risk factor appearing in the multiple regression formula, the portion of CVD risk attributable to that factor, and (4) similar univariate and multivariate analyses of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) (simulated from diabetes prevalence), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and cholesterol/ HDL-C ratio (simulated from serum cholesterol) (dependent variables) and dietary and other risk factors (independent variables). Results Female and male cohorts in countries that have vitamin K2 < 5µg per 2000 kcal/day per capita (n = 70) had about 2.2 times the rate of early CVD deaths as people in countries with > 24 µg/day of vitamin K2 per 2000 kcal/day (n = 72). A multiple regression-derived formula relating early death from CVD to dietary nutrients and other risk factors accounted for about 50% of the variance between cohorts in early CVD death. The attributable risks of the variables in the CVD early death formula were: too much alcohol (0.38%), too little vitamin K2 (6.95%), tobacco (6

  13. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  14. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  15. Long-term treatment with N-acetylcysteine, but not caloric restriction, protects mesenchymal stem cells of aged rats against tumor necrosis factor-induced death.

    PubMed

    Muscari, Claudio; Bonafe', Francesca; Farruggia, Giovanna; Stanic, Ivana; Gamberini, Chiara; Carboni, Marco; Basile, Ilaria; Giordano, Emanuele; Caldarera, Claudio Marcello; Guarnieri, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    The survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) stimulation was evaluated after a long-term antioxidant treatment, or caloric restriction, in aged rats. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of 30-month-old rats which orally received N-acetylcysteine in the last 18 months. The necrotic cell death-induced in vitro by TNFalpha, determined by trypan blue exclusion, was markedly attenuated in MSCs obtained from treated vs. control aged rats (percent mean+/-SEM: 10.9+/-2.17 vs. 17.8+/-0.53; p<0.05). Also, the proliferation rate of MSCs from control, but not N-acetylcysteine-treated, aged rats evaluated up to 2 weeks was significantly higher than that of MSCs from younger (4-month-old) rats. No significant effect was observed relative to the parameters investigated when the aged rats were previously subjected to a hypocaloric diet for 18 months. In conclusion, a prolonged supplementation with N-acetylcysteine in rats can increase resistance to necrotic death of MSCs and may also counteract an excessive rate of MSC proliferation.

  16. Age-at-death diagnosis and determination of life-history parameters by incremental lines in human dental cementum as an identification aid.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, P; Grupe, G

    2001-04-15

    Incremental lines in acellular extrinsic fiber cementum of 91 roots from 80 freshly extracted teeth have been investigated for a verification of the suitability of pathological teeth for a valid age-at-death diagnosis. Independent from tooth type, the accuracy of histological age-at-death diagnosis is clearly a function of a tooth's pathological state. Various periodontal diseases lead to a reduced number of incremental lines, while teeth with a sufficient nutritional support of their root showed a deviation of the histological age from the known actual age of 2-3 years only. For all patients, a detailed query concerning a variety of life-history parameters was established. We are able to show that especially previous pregnancies, skeletal traumata and renal diseases which all have a marked influence on the calcium metabolism result in hypomineralized incremental lines. The year of production of these hypomineralized lines could be dated precisely. Differential quality of incremental lines can, therefore, serve as a valuable tool in identification cases. PMID:11343858

  17. The effects of mechanical transparency on adjustment to a complex visuomotor transformation at early and late working age.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Herbert; Hegele, Mathias

    2010-12-01

    Mechanical tools are transparent in the sense that their input-output relations can be derived from their perceptible characteristics. Modern technology creates more and more tools that lack mechanical transparency, such as in the control of the position of a cursor by means of a computer mouse or some other input device. We inquired whether an enhancement of transparency by means of presenting the shaft of a virtual sliding lever, which governed the transformation of hand position into cursor position, supports performance of aimed cursor movement and the acquisition of an internal model of the transformation in both younger and older adults. Enhanced transparency resulted in an improvement of visual closed-loop control in terms of movement time and curvature of cursor paths. The movement-time improvement was more pronounced at older working age than at younger working age, so that the enhancement of transparency can serve as a means to mitigate age-related declines in performance. Benefits for the acquisition of an internal model of the transformation and of explicit knowledge were absent. Thus, open-loop control in this task did not profit from enhanced mechanical transparency. These findings strongly suggest that environmental support of transparency of the effects of input devices on controlled systems might be a powerful tool to support older users. Enhanced transparency may also improve simulator-based training by increasing motivation, even if training benefits do not transfer to situations without enhanced transparency.

  18. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  19. Changing epidemiology of trauma deaths leads to a bimodal distribution

    PubMed Central

    Gunst, Mark; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Gruszecki, Amy; Urban, Jill; Frankel, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Injury mortality was classically described with a trimodal distribution, with immediate deaths at the scene, early deaths due to hemorrhage, and late deaths from organ failure. We hypothesized that the development of trauma systems has improved prehospital care, early resuscitation, and critical care and altered this pattern. This population-based study of all trauma deaths in an urban county with a mature trauma system reviewed data for 678 patients (median age, 33 years; 81% male; 43% gunshot, 20% motor vehicle crashes). Deaths were classified as immediate (scene), early (in hospital, ≤4 hours from injury), or late (>4 hours after injury). Multinomial regression was used to identify independent predictors of immediate and early versus late deaths, adjusted for age, gender, race, intention, mechanism, toxicology, and cause of death. Results showed 416 (61%) immediate, 199 (29%) early, and 63 (10%) late deaths. Compared with the classical description, the percentage of immediate deaths remained unchanged, and early deaths occurred much earlier (median 52 vs 120 minutes). However, unlike the classic trimodal distribution, the late peak was greatly diminished. Intentional injuries, alcohol intoxication, asphyxia, and injuries to the head and chest were independent predictors of immediate death. Alcohol intoxication and injuries to the chest were predictors of early death, while pelvic fractures and blunt assaults were associated with late deaths. In conclusion, trauma deaths now have a predominantly bimodal distribution. Near elimination of the late peak likely represents advancements in resuscitation and critical care that have reduced organ failure. Further reductions in mortality will likely come from prevention of intentional injuries and injuries associated with alcohol intoxication. PMID:20944754

  20. Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The melatonin levels in various body fluids of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are compared with those of infants of comparable age who died of other causes to examine a possible relationship between pineal function and SIDS. After adjusting for age differences, cerebrospinal fluid melatonin levels are found to be significantly lower in the SIDS infants. It is suggested that diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

  1. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

  2. Age-associated Failure to Adjust Type I Interferon Receptor Signaling Thresholds after T-cell Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangjin; Ju, Jihang; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Goronzy, Jörg J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing age, naïve CD4 T cells acquire intrinsic defects that compromise their ability to respond and differentiate. Type I IFNs, pervasive constituents of the environment in which adaptive immune responses occur, are known to regulate T cell differentiation and survival. Activated naïve CD4 T cells from older individuals have reduced responses to type I IFN, a defect that develops during activation and is not observed in quiescent naïve CD4 T cells. Naïve CD4 T cells from young adults upregulate the expression of STAT1 and STAT5 after activation, lowering their threshold to respond to type I IFN stimulation. The heightened STAT signaling is critical to maintain the expression of CD69 that regulates lymphocyte egress and the ability to produce IL-2 and to survive. Although activation of T cells from older adults also induces transcription of STAT1 and STAT5, failure to exclude SHP1 to the signaling complex blunts their type I IFN response. In summary, our data show that type I IFN signaling thresholds in naïve CD4 T cells after activation are dynamically regulated to respond environmental cues for clonal expansion and memory cell differentiation. Naïve CD4 T cells from older adults have a defect in this threshold calibration. Restoring their ability to respond to type I IFN emerges as a promising target to restore T cell responses and improve the induction of T cell memory. PMID:26091718

  3. The determination of male adult age at death by central and posterior coxal analysis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Telmon, Norbert; Rissech, Carme; Malgosa, Assumption; Rougé, Daniel

    2004-03-01

    In forensic anthropological analysis, the pelvis is of particular interest as it is often a comparatively well-preserved part of the skeleton. This study in age determination uses the acetabulum, the central element of the pelvis, as a complement to the examination of the auricular surface. The test sample consisted of 30 individuals. First, the authors studied the auricular surface using the Lovejoy criteria. Second, they isolated four criteria based on chronological changes in the acetabulum. Third, they conducted an evaluation of each of these variables. The study examines the correlation between these criteria and the age of the individuals. A significant correlation was found between the acetabular criteria and age, and between the acetabular criteria and the Lovejoy criteria of the auricular surface. For forensic purposes, the acetabulum is an effective predictor in the determination of age. This newly proposed method explores the same criteria of ageing as the Lovejoy method. The combination of the two methods produces relatively consistent results in the estimation of age.

  4. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  5. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among youth aged 10-17 years by sex: data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 16 states, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Karch, Debra L; Logan, J; McDaniel, Dawn D; Floyd, C Faye; Vagi, Kevin J

    2013-07-01

    We examined the circumstances that precipitated suicide among 1,046 youth aged 10-17 years in 16 U.S. states from 2005 to 2008. The majority of deaths were among male subjects (75.2%), non-Hispanic whites (69.3%), those aged 16-17 years (58.1%), those who died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation (50.2%) and those who died in a house or an apartment (82.5%). Relationship problems, recent crises, mental health problems, and intimate partner and school problems were the most common precipitating factors and many differed by sex. School problems were reported for 25% of decedents, of which 30.3% were a drop in grades and 12.4% were bullying related. Prevention strategies directed toward relationship-building, problem-solving, and increasing access to treatment may be beneficial for this population. PMID:23790202

  6. Death imagery and death anxiety.

    PubMed

    McDonald, R T; Hilgendorf, W A

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between positive/negative death imagery and death anxiety. Subjects were 179 undergraduate students at a large, private, midwestern university. Results reveal that on five measures of death anxiety the subjects with low death anxiety scores had significantly more positive death images than did those with high death anxiety scores. The few subjects who imagined death to be young (N = 14) had a significantly more positive image of death than those who perceived it to be an old person. Death was seen as male by 92% of the male respondents and 74% of the female respondents. Significant differences in death imagery and death anxiety were found between subjects enrolled in an introductory psychology course and those enrolled in a thanatology course. No sex differences in death anxiety or positive/negative death imagery were found.

  7. Estimation of age-at-death for adult males using the acetabulum, applied to four Western European populations.

    PubMed

    Rissech, Carme; Estabrook, George F; Cunha, Eugenia; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2007-07-01

    Methods to estimate adult age from observations of skeletal elements are not very accurate and motivate the development of better methods. In this article, we test recently published method based on the acetabulum and Bayesian inference, developed using Coimbra collection (Portugal). In this study, to evaluate its utility in other populations, this methodology was applied to 394 specimens from four different documented Western European collections. Four strategies of analysis to estimate age were outlined: (a) each series separately; (b) on Lisbon collection, taken as a reference Coimbra collection; (c) on Barcelona collection, taken as a reference both Portuguese collections; and (d) on London collection taken as reference the three Iberian collections combined. Results indicate that estimates are accurate (83-100%). As might be expected, the least accurate estimates were obtained when the most distant collection was used as a reference. Observations of the fused acetabulum can be used to make accurate estimates of age for adults of any age, with less accurate estimates when a more distant reference collection is used.

  8. Global and regional cause-of-death patterns in 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Lopez, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    Demographic estimation techniques suggest that worldwide about 50 million deaths occur each year, of which about 39 million are in the developing countries. In countries with adequate registration of vital statistics, the age at death and the cause can be reliably determined. Only about 30-35% of all deaths are captured by vital registration (excluding sample registration schemes); for the remainder, cause-of-death estimation procedures are required. Indirect methods which model the cause-of-death structure as a function of the level of mortality can provide reasonable estimates for broad cause-of-death groups. Such methods are generally unreliable for more specific causes. In this case, estimates can be constructed from community-level mortality surveillance systems or from epidemiological evidence on specific diseases. Some check on the plausibility of the estimates is possible in view of the hierarchical structure of cause-of-death lists and the well-known age-specific patterns of diseases and injuries. The results of applying these methods to estimate the cause of death for over 120 diseases or injuries, by age, sex and region, are described. The estimates have been derived in order to calculate the years of life lost due to premature death, one of the two components of overall disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) calculated for the 1993 World development report. Previous attempts at cause-of-death estimation have been limited to a few diseases only, with little age-specific detail. The estimates reported in detail here should serve as a useful reference for further public health research to support the determination of health sector priorities. PMID:8062402

  9. New formulas to estimate age at death in Maya populations using histomorphological changes in the fourth human rib*.

    PubMed

    Pavón, Margarita Valencia; Cucina, Andrea; Tiesler, Vera

    2010-03-01

    This study develops new histomorphological algorithms for Maya populations' human ribs and tests the applicability of published algorithms. Thin sections from the fourth rib of 36 individuals of known age were analyzed under polarized light microscopy. Osteon population density (OPD, the concentration of intact and fragmented osteons per mm(2)), cortical area (CA), and osteon size (OS) were recorded. Seven algorithms were calculated, using all combinations of variables, and compared to the performance of published formulas. The OPD-based formulas deviate from the known age 8.7 years on average, while those from OS and CA deviate between 10.7 and 12.8 years. In comparison, our OPD-based algorithms perform better than the one by Stout and Paine and much better than Cho et al. In conclusion, algorithms should be developed using OPD for different ethnic groups; although Stout and Paine's can be used for Maya and maybe Mesoamerican individuals. PMID:20070468

  10. New formulas to estimate age at death in Maya populations using histomorphological changes in the fourth human rib*.

    PubMed

    Pavón, Margarita Valencia; Cucina, Andrea; Tiesler, Vera

    2010-03-01

    This study develops new histomorphological algorithms for Maya populations' human ribs and tests the applicability of published algorithms. Thin sections from the fourth rib of 36 individuals of known age were analyzed under polarized light microscopy. Osteon population density (OPD, the concentration of intact and fragmented osteons per mm(2)), cortical area (CA), and osteon size (OS) were recorded. Seven algorithms were calculated, using all combinations of variables, and compared to the performance of published formulas. The OPD-based formulas deviate from the known age 8.7 years on average, while those from OS and CA deviate between 10.7 and 12.8 years. In comparison, our OPD-based algorithms perform better than the one by Stout and Paine and much better than Cho et al. In conclusion, algorithms should be developed using OPD for different ethnic groups; although Stout and Paine's can be used for Maya and maybe Mesoamerican individuals.

  11. The rotational origin and state of the whole: its relation to growth, fertility, aging, death, and diseases.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of my report is to synthetically summarize the concept of the rotatory essence of the Whole and to bring evidence that while aging responds to a precise inner "program" of the mammalian and any other species' "brain," acceleration of aging and all diseases are simply the direct outcome of a desynchronization of our inner "clock" with respect to the precise periodicity and hormone-integrated rhythmicity of the solar system. Those neuroendocrine, hormonal derangements of our inner clock are easily detectable and inevitably anticipate even by decades the onset of all diseases (autoimmune, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, neoplastic). I will introduce those interventions capable of detecting early alterations and of restoring hormonal rhythmicity, which will consequently restore immunological surveillance in a positive cascade sequence. PMID:16399884

  12. Autophagy is a Protective Mechanism in Normal Cartilage and its Aging-related Loss is Linked with Cell Death and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Caramés, Beatriz; Taniguchi, Noboru; Otsuki, Shuhei; Blanco, Francisco J.; Lotz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Autophagy is a process for turnover of intracellular organelles and molecules that protects cells during stress responses. This study evaluated the potential role of ULK1, an inducer of autophagy, Beclin1, a regulator of autophagy and LC3, which executes autophagy, in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and in cartilage cell death. Methods Expression of ULK1, Beclin1 and LC3 were analyzed in normal and OA human articular cartilage and in knee joints of mice with aging-related and surgically induced OA by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting. Poly-ADP(ribose) polymerase (Parp p85) was used to determine the correlation between cell death and autophagy. Results In normal human articular cartilage ULK1, Beclin1 and LC3 were constitutively expressed. ULK1, Beclin1 and LC3 protein expression were reduced in OA chondrocytes and cartilage but these three proteins were strongly expressed in the OA cell clusters. In mouse knee joints loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) was observed at 9 and 12 months of age and in the surgical OA model 8 weeks after knee destabilization. Expression of ULK1, Beclin1 and LC3 decreased together with GAG loss while Parp p85 was increased. Conclusion Autophagy may be a protective or homeostatic mechanism in normal cartilage. By contrast, human OA, aging-related and surgically-induced OA in mice are associated with a reduction and loss of ULK1, Beclin1 and LC3 expression and a related increase in apoptosis. These results suggest that compromised autophagy represents a novel mechanism in the development of OA. PMID:20187128

  13. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  14. Deaths from homicides: a historical series1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. METHOD: study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. RESULTS: since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil. PMID:25591098

  15. Age-Related Changes in D-Aspartate Oxidase Promoter Methylation Control Extracellular D-Aspartate Levels and Prevent Precocious Cell Death during Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Punzo, Daniela; Errico, Francesco; Cristino, Luigia; Sacchi, Silvia; Keller, Simona; Belardo, Carmela; Luongo, Livio; Nuzzo, Tommaso; Imperatore, Roberta; Florio, Ermanno; De Novellis, Vito; Affinito, Ornella; Migliarini, Sara; Maddaloni, Giacomo; Sisalli, Maria Josè; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Pollegioni, Loredano; Maione, Sabatino; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Usiello, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    The endogenous NMDA receptor (NMDAR) agonist D-aspartate occurs transiently in the mammalian brain because it is abundant during embryonic and perinatal phases before drastically decreasing during adulthood. It is well established that postnatal reduction of cerebral D-aspartate levels is due to the concomitant onset of D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) activity, a flavoenzyme that selectively degrades bicarboxylic D-amino acids. In the present work, we show that d-aspartate content in the mouse brain drastically decreases after birth, whereas Ddo mRNA levels concomitantly increase. Interestingly, postnatal Ddo gene expression is paralleled by progressive demethylation within its putative promoter region. Consistent with an epigenetic control on Ddo expression, treatment with the DNA-demethylating agent, azacitidine, causes increased mRNA levels in embryonic cortical neurons. To indirectly evaluate the effect of a putative persistent Ddo gene hypermethylation in the brain, we used Ddo knock-out mice (Ddo(-/-)), which show constitutively suppressed Ddo expression. In these mice, we found for the first time substantially increased extracellular content of d-aspartate in the brain. In line with detrimental effects produced by NMDAR overstimulation, persistent elevation of D-aspartate levels in Ddo(-/-) brains is associated with appearance of dystrophic microglia, precocious caspase-3 activation, and cell death in cortical pyramidal neurons and dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. This evidence, along with the early accumulation of lipufuscin granules in Ddo(-/-) brains, highlights an unexpected importance of Ddo demethylation in preventing neurodegenerative processes produced by nonphysiological extracellular levels of free D-aspartate. PMID:26961959

  16. Longitudinal study of dental development in chimpanzees of known chronological age: implications for understanding the age at death of Plio-Pleistocene hominids.

    PubMed

    Anemone, R L; Mooney, M P; Siegel, M I

    1996-01-01

    Reconstruction of life history variables of fossil hominids on the basis of dental development requires understanding of and comparison with the pattern and timing of dental development among both living humans and pongids. Whether dental development among living apes or humans provides a better model for comparison with that of Plio-Pleistocene hominids of the genus Australopithecus remains a contentious point. This paper presents new data on chimpanzees documenting developmental differences in the dentitions of modern humans and apes and discusses their significance in light of recent controversies over the human or pongid nature of australopithecine dental development. Longitudinal analysis of 299 lateral head radiographs from 33 lab-reared chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of known chronological age allows estimation of means and standard deviations for the age at first appearance of 8 developmental stages in the mandibular molar dentition. Results are compared with published studies of dental development among apes and with published standards for humans. Chimpanzees are distinctly different from humans in two important aspects of dental development. Relative to humans, chimpanzees show advanced molar development vis a vis anterior tooth development, and chimpanzees are characterized by temporal overlap in the calcification of adjacent molar crowns, while humans show moderate to long temporal gaps between the calcification of adjacent molar crowns. In combination with recent work on enamel incremental markers and CAT scans of developing dentitions of Plio-Pleistocene hominids, this evidence supports an interpretation of a rapid, essentially "apelike" ontogeny among australopithecines. PMID:8928715

  17. Death understanding and fear of death in young children.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Griffiths, Maya

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the developmental acquisition of a mature concept of death, that is, understanding death as a biological event, affects young children's fear of death. Ninety children between the ages of 4 and 8 participated in an interview study in which their understanding of death and their fear of death were both assessed. Levels of general anxiety were also measured via parent report. A regression analysis indicated that more mature death understanding was associated with lower levels of death fear, when age and general anxiety were controlled. These data provide some empirical support for the widely held belief that discussing death and dying in biological terms is the best way to alleviate fear of death in young children.

  18. Death in the Digital Age: A Systematic Review of Information and Communication Technologies in End-of-Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Killoran, Peter; Shegog, Ross; Bruera, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: End-of-life (EOL) communication plays a critical role in ensuring that patients receive care concordant with their wishes and experience high quality of life. As the baby boomer population ages, scalable models of end-of-life communication will be needed to ensure that patients receive appropriate care. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) may help address the needs of this generation; however, few resources exist to guide the use of ICTs in EOL care. Objective: The primary objective was to identify the ICTs being used in EOL communication. The secondary objective was to compare the effectiveness of different ICTs in EOL communication. Methods: The study was a systematic review, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We systematically searched seven databases for experimental and observational studies on EOL communication between doctors and patients using ICTs, published in 1997–2013. Results: The review identified 38 relevant articles. Eleven types of technology were identified: video, website, telephone, videoconferencing, e-mail, telemonitoring, Internet search, compact disc, fax, PalmPilot, and short message service (SMS) text messaging. ICTs were most commonly used to provide information or education, serve as decision aids, promote advance care planning (ACP), and relieve physical symptom distress. Conclusions: The use of ICTs in EOL care is a small but growing field of research. Additional research is needed to adapt older, analog technologies for use in the digital age. Many of the interventions discussed in this review do not take full advantage of the affordances of mobile, connected health ICTs. The growing evidence base for e-health applications in related fields should guide future interventions in EOL care. PMID:26713368

  19. Identifying and quantifying misclassified and under-reported AIDS deaths in Brazil: a retrospective analysis from 1985 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Fazito, Erika; Cuchi, Paloma; Ma Fat, Doris; Ghys, Peter Denis; Pereira, Mauricio G; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati

    2012-01-01

    Background A retrospective analysis of deaths registered in the Brazilian Mortality System was conducted to quantify the under-reporting of HIV/AIDS deaths and those misclassified to AIDS-related conditions in the 15–49 years old population in Brazil. Methods Death rates for AIDS-related diseases were calculated by age and sex for 1985–2009. Changes in the age-sex-specific death rates over time were used to identify conditions likely to be misclassified AIDS deaths and to quantify the corresponding number of misclassified deaths. Deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed across all other natural causes of death. The resulting total number of AIDS deaths was further adjusted for incompleteness of the mortality reporting system. Results Out of the 28 potential causes of death investigated, five increased in the same distinct age pattern as AIDS: pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, other immunodeficiencies, other septicaemia and toxoplasmosis. 18 490 deaths due to these five causes were recoded to HIV/AIDS from 1985 to 2009. 38 145 deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed to AIDS and 15 485 were added to the number of AIDS deaths to correct for completeness of the mortality system in Brazil. Altogether, 72 120 deaths were recoded to AIDS between 1985 and 2009 and added to the reported 194 445 AIDS related deaths in the country, representing 27% misclassification of AIDS deaths in Brazil. Conclusions This study demonstrated that AIDS mortality is underestimated by the official mortality information system in Brazil. Efforts need to be made to reduce misclassification of causes of death in the future and identify ways in which the confidentiality of information regarding cause of death can be maintained. PMID:23172349

  20. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age

  1. Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  2. Death of an Adult Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  3. Death: Realism in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    In the past, books for children treated death fearfully, morbidly, and didactically, but now children's literature treats death in a more realistic manner and is sensitive to its emotional aspects. Current theories suggest that children perceive death differently at various ages. G. P. Koocher (1973) used J. Piaget's cognitive stages as the basis…

  4. Deaths: Final Data for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents final 1998 data on U.S. deaths and death rates according to demographic and medical characteristics such as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and cause of death. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal…

  5. Natural death while driving.

    PubMed

    Oström, M; Eriksson, A

    1987-07-01

    Of sudden natural deaths while driving, 126 occurred during 1980 through 1985 in the northern half of Sweden. The mean age of the 69 car driver victims was 59 years, considerably higher than that of traumatic car deaths, and all but 2 were males. The mean age of 57 operators of other vehicles was 66 years, and of these, 6 were women. Seven car drivers were stricken during commercial employment. Most accidents occurred during daytime and the distribution of the weekdays was fairly even. Ischemic heart disease accounted for 112 deaths, and other cardiovascular diseases for an additional 9 deaths. Only 1/5 of the victims experienced previous symptoms of disease. Out of at least 31 other persons at risk in the car deaths, only 2 passengers suffered minor injuries. The trauma in the deceased was in most cases minor in both car and other vehicle deaths. Property damage was also minimal. At least 1/3 of the drivers were able to stop the car before becoming unconscious. In none of the car cases was alcohol detected in the blood, while alcohol was identified in at least 2 of the other vehicle victims. The findings here agree with previous studies that natural deaths at the wheel are fairly uncommon, and that the risk for other persons is not significant. The value of adequate postmortem examinations of drivers dying in traffic is stressed--natural deaths can otherwise be overlooked. PMID:3612079

  6. Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

    To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

  7. Death rate variation in US subpopulations.

    PubMed Central

    Kindig, David A.; Seplaki, Christopher L.; Libby, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To account for variations in death rates in population subgroups of the USA. METHODS: Factors associated with age-adjusted death rates in 366 metropolitan and non- metropolitan areas of the United States were examined for 1990-92. The rates ranged from 690 to 1108 per 100 000 population (mean = 885 +/- 78 per 100 000). FINDINGS: Least squares regression analysis explained 71% of this variance. Factors with the strongest independent positive association were ethnicity (African-American), less than a high school education, high Medicare expenditures, and location in western or southern regions. Factors with the strongest independent negative associations were employment in agriculture and forestry, ethnicity (Hispanic) and per capita income. CONCLUSION: Additional research at the individual level is needed to determine if these associations are causal, since some of the factors with the strongest associations, such as education, have long latency periods. PMID:11884968

  8. Death from respiratory diseases and temperature in Shiraz, Iran (2006-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadbakhsh, Manizhe; Khanjani, Narges; Bahrampour, Abbas; Haghighi, Pegah Shoae

    2016-07-01

    Some studies have suggested that the number of deaths increases as temperatures drops or rises above human thermal comfort zone. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relation between respiratory-related mortality and temperature in Shiraz, Iran. In this ecological study, data about the number of respiratory-related deaths sorted according to age and gender as well as average, minimum, and maximum ambient air temperatures during 2007-2011 were examined. The relationship between air temperature and respiratory-related deaths was calculated by crude and adjusted negative binomial regression analysis. It was adjusted for humidity, rainfall, wind speed and direction, and air pollutants including CO, NOx, PM10, SO2, O3, and THC. Spearman and Pearson correlations were also calculated between air temperature and respiratory-related deaths. The analysis was done using MINITAB16 and STATA 11. During this period, 2598 respiratory-related deaths occurred in Shiraz. The minimum number of respiratory-related deaths among all subjects happened in an average temperature of 25 °C. There was a significant inverse relationship between average temperature- and respiratory-related deaths among all subjects and women. There was also a significant inverse relationship between average temperature and respiratory-related deaths among all subjects, men and women in the next month. The results suggest that cold temperatures can increase the number of respiratory-related deaths and therefore policies to reduce mortality in cold weather, especially in patients with respiratory diseases should be implemented.

  9. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age

  10. Patterns of United States mortality for ten selected causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-11-06

    Income, ethnicity, education, and occupation are examples of socio-economic factors associated with the occurrence of disease, whether an investigation focuses on an individual or on an aggregation of individuals. In this study, data aggregated to the county level are used to explore two issues - geographic variation and geographic covariation of ten selected causes of death in the United States. The counties of the United States are characterized by 15 socio-economic variables and age-adjusted mortality rates for the ten selected causes of death. The observed variation among the US counties, as measured by the socio-economic variables, is first assessed, then the geographic variation and covariation are described for each cause of death and, finally, the covariation among causes of death is analyzed after adjusting for the influences of the measured sources of county variation.

  11. Population age and initial density in a patchy environment affect the occurrence of abrupt transitions in a birth-and-death model of Taylor's law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Zhang, B.; Cohen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Taylor's power law describes an empirical relationship between the mean and variance of population densities in field data, in which the variance varies as a power, b, of the mean. Most studies report values of b varying between 1 and 2. However, Cohen (2014a) showed recently that smooth changes in environmental conditions in a model can lead to an abrupt, infinite change in b. To understand what factors can influence the occurrence of an abrupt change in b, we used both mathematical analysis and Monte Carlo samples from a model in which populations of the same species settled on patches, and each population followed independently a stochastic linear birth-and-death process. We investigated how the power relationship responds to a smooth change of population growth rate, under different sampling strategies, initial population density, and population age. We showed analytically that, if the initial populations differ only in density, and samples are taken from all patches after the same time period following a major invasion event, Taylor's law holds with exponent b=1, regardless of the population growth rate. If samples are taken at different times from patches that have the same initial population densities, we calculate an abrupt shift of b, as predicted by Cohen (2014a). The loss of linearity between log variance and log mean is a leading indicator of the abrupt shift. If both initial population densities and population ages vary among patches, estimates of b lie between 1 and 2, as in most empirical studies. But the value of b declines to ~1 as the system approaches a critical point. Our results can inform empirical studies that might be designed to demonstrate an abrupt shift in Taylor's law.

  12. Autoerotic deaths: four cases.

    PubMed

    Cooke, C T; Cadden, G A; Margolius, K A

    1994-07-01

    We describe the circumstances and post mortem medical findings of 4 unusual fatalities where death occurred during autoerotic practice. Three cases occurred in young to middle-aged men--hanging, electrocution and inhalation of a zucchini. The manner of death in each was accidental. The fourth case was an elderly man who died of ischemic heart disease, apparently whilst masturbating with a vacuum cleaner and a hair dryer.

  13. Childhood infectious disease and premature death from cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Peter W G; Parker, Louise; Thomas, Julian E; Craft, Sir Alan W; Pearce, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Studies of the association between early life infections and cancer have produced inconsistent findings, possibly due to limited adjustment for confounding and retrospective designs. This study utilised data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a prospective cohort of 1,142 individuals born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1947, to assess the impact of various childhood infectious diseases on cancer mortality during ages 15-60 years. Detailed information was collected prospectively on a number of early life factors. Deaths from cancer during ages 15-60 years were analysed in relation to childhood infections, adjusting for potential early-life confounders, using Cox proportional-hazards regression. In a subsample who returned questionnaires at aged 49-51 years, additional adjustment was made for adult factors to predict death from cancer during ages 50-60 years. Childhood history of measles and influenza, were both independently associated with lower cancer mortality during ages 15-60 years (adjusted hazard ratios = 0.39, 95% CI 0.17-0.88 and 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-0.98 respectively). In contrast, childhood pertussis was associated with higher cancer mortality during ages 15-60 years (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.88, 95% CI 2.29-10.38). In the subsample with additional adjustment for adult variables, measles and pertussis remained significantly associated with cancer mortality during ages 50-60 years. In this pre-vaccination cohort, childhood infection with measles and influenza were associated with a reduced risk of death from cancer in adulthood, while pertussis was associated with an increased risk. While these results suggest some disease-specific associations between early-life infections and cancer, further studies are required to confirm the specific associations identified.

  14. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  15. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  16. Scuba injury death rate among insured DAN members.

    PubMed

    Denoble, Petar J; Pollock, Neal W; Vaithiyanathan, Panchabi; Caruso, James L; Dovenbarger, Joel A; Vann, Richard D

    2008-12-01

    We calculated the annual rates of diving-related deaths among DAN-insured members in the period from 2000 to 2006 and investigated the effects of age and sex on death rate by logistic regression. We determined relative risks for divers < 50 and ≥ 50 years of age for drowning, arterial gas embolism, and cardiac incidents, the three most common disabling injuries associated with diving death. There were 1,141,367 insured member-years and 187 diving-related deaths. Males made up 64% of the members. Individuals ≥ 50 years of age constituted 31% of the fatalities. Insured mean age increased from 40 ± 12 to 43 ± 13 years over the seven-year study period. Annual fatality rates varied between 12.1 and 22.9 (average 16.4, 95% confidence intervals 14.2, 18.9) per 100,000 persons insured. The relative risk for male divers in their thirties was six times greater than the risk for female divers in the same age range. Fatality rates increased with age for both sexes, but the higher relative risk for males progressively decreased until the rates became similar for both sexes after age 60. Death associated with cardiac incidents was 12.9 times more likely in divers ≥ 50 years of age. We recommend that older divers adjust their participation in diving according to health status and physical fitness, maintain fitness with regular exercise, and abstain from diving in conditions likely to require unaccustomed physical activity.

  17. Does response on the PHQ-9 Depression Questionnaire predict subsequent suicide attempt or suicide death?

    PubMed

    Simon, Gregory E; Rutter, Carolyn M; Peterson, Do; Oliver, Malia; Whiteside, Ursula; Operskalski, Belinda; Ludman, Evette J

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVE As use of standard depression questionnaires in clinical practice increases, clinicians will frequently encounter patients reporting thoughts of death or suicide. This study examined whether responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9) predict subsequent suicide attempt or suicide death. METHODS Electronic records from a large integrated health system were used to link PHQ-9 responses from outpatient visits to subsequent suicide attempts and suicide deaths. A total of 84,418 outpatients age ≥13 completed 207,265 questionnaires between 2007 and 2011. Electronic medical records, insurance claims, and death certificate data documented 709 subsequent suicide attempts and 46 suicide deaths in this sample. RESULTS Cumulative risk of suicide attempt over one year increased from .4% among outpatients reporting thoughts of death or self-harm "not at all" to 4% among those reporting thoughts of death or self-harm "nearly every day." After adjustment for age, sex, treatment history, and overall depression severity, responses to item 9 of the PHQ-9 remained a strong predictor of suicide attempt. Cumulative risk of suicide death over one year increased from .03% among those reporting thoughts of death or self-harm ideation "not at all" to .3% among those reporting such thoughts "nearly every day." Response to item 9 remained a moderate predictor of subsequent suicide death after the same factor adjustments. CONCLUSIONS Response to item 9 of the PHQ-9 for depression identified outpatients at increased risk of suicide attempt or death. This excess risk emerged over several days and continued to grow for several months, indicating that suicidal ideation was an enduring vulnerability rather than a short-term crisis.

  18. The national financial adjustment policy and the equalisation of health levels among prefectures

    PubMed Central

    Takano, T; Nakamura, K

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES—The objectives of this study were to examine (1) trends concerning financial assistance from the national government to local governments, (2) trends regarding death rates and life expectancies among prefectures, and (3) the effect of the national financial adjustment policy in equalising both the revenues of local governments and variations in the health levels among prefectures in terms of death rates and life expectancies.
DESIGN—The study analysed prefectural income, the amount of national taxes collected, financial assistance from the national government to local governments, and age adjusted death rates and life expectancies of all of the prefectures in Japan during the period from 1965 through 1995.
MAIN RESULTS—(1) Under the financial adjustment policy, financial assistance from the national government to the local governments, which consists of the sum of the local allocation tax and treasury disbursements, increased from 1831 billion yen in 1965 to 31 116 billion yen in 1995. (2) During the same period, the age adjusted death rate per 100 000 people decreased from 1168.9 (1965) to 545.3 (1995). The range of variation in the age adjusted death rate among prefectures diminished as the coefficient of variation of the death rate declined from 0.060 in 1965 to 0.043 in 1995. (3) There was a significant statistical correlation between higher prefectural incomes and lower mortality rates during from 1965 until 1975 (p < 0.05), whereas this correlation was indistinct in the 1980s and has not been observed since 1990. (4) The relative health level of Tokyo has declined in terms of its ranking among all the prefectures with regard to life expectancy, from being the best in 1965 to below average in 1995.
CONCLUSIONS—The national financial adjustment policy to balance the revenues of local governments has increased the health levels of rural prefectures. It is probable that the policy reduced the disparity in death

  19. Death duties

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kathryn A.; Eden, David

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Family physicians are often called upon to pronounce and certify the deaths of patients. Inadequate knowledge of the Coroners Act (in the province of Ontario) and of the correct process of certifying death can make physicians uncomfortable when confronted with these tasks. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To educate family physicians about how to perform the administrative tasks required of them when patients die. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The program included an educational video, a tutorial outlining the process of death certification, and discussion with a regional coroner about key features of the Coroners Act. In small groups, participants worked through cases of patient deaths in which they were asked to determine whether a coroner needed to be involved, to determine the manner of death, and to complete a mock death certificate for each case. CONCLUSION All participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the workshop and thought the main objective of the program had been achieved. Results of a test given 3 months after the workshop showed substantial improvement in participants’ knowledge of the coroner’s role and of the process of death certification. PMID:17872782

  20. Age-specific periictal electroclinical features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and potential risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Joel; Kaur, Gurmeen; Fernandez, Guadalupe Baca-Vaca; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Kaffashi, Farhad; Loparo, Kenneth A; Rao, Shyam; Loplumlert, Jakrin; Kaiboriboon, Kitti; Amina, Shahram; Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2013-11-01

    Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) is the commonest seizure type associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This study examined the semiological and electroencephalographic differences (EEG) in the GTCSs of adults as compared with those of children. The rationale lies on epidemiological observations that have noted a tenfold higher incidence of SUDEP in adults. We analyzed the video-EEG data of 105 GTCS events in 61 consecutive patients (12 children, 23 seizure events and 49 adults, 82 seizure events) recruited from the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. Semiological, EEG, and 3-channel EKG features were studied. Periictal seizure phase durations were analyzed including tonic, clonic, total seizure, postictal EEG suppression (PGES), and recovery phases. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures including RMSSD (root mean square successive difference of RR intervals), SDNN (standard deviation of NN intervals), and SDSD (standard deviation of differences) were analyzed (including low frequency/high frequency power ratios) during preictal baseline and ictal and postictal phases. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to find associations between electroclinical features. Separate subgroup analyses were carried out on adult and pediatric age groups as well as medication groups (no antiepileptic medication cessation versus unchanged or reduced medication) during admission. Major differences were seen in adult and pediatric seizures with total seizure duration, tonic phase, PGES, and recovery phases being significantly shorter in children (p<0.01). Generalized estimating equation analysis, using tonic phase duration as the dependent variable, found age to correlate significantly (p<0.001), and this remained significant during subgroup analysis (adults and children) such that each 0.12-second increase in tonic phase duration correlated with a 1-second increase in PGES duration. Postictal EEG suppression durations were on average 28s shorter in

  1. Every death counts: measurement of maternal mortality via a census.

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, C.; Hobcraft, J.; Hill, K.; Kodjogbé, N.; Mapeta, W. T.; Munene, F.; Naghavi, M.; Rabeza, V.; Sisouphanthong, B.; Campbell, O.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe) which identified maternal deaths in their censuses. Standard demographic methods were used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of adult female deaths and births in the year prior to the census. The results from these exercises were used to adjust the data. In four countries, the numbers of adult female deaths needed to be increased and three countries required upward adjustment of the numbers of recent births. The number of maternal deaths was increased by the same factor as that used for adult female deaths on the assumption that the proportion of adult female deaths due to maternal causes was correct. Age patterns of the various maternal mortality indicators were plausible and consistent with external sources of data for other populations. Our data suggest that under favourable conditions a national census is a feasible and promising approach for the measurement of maternal mortality. Moreover, use of the census circumvents several of the weaknesses of methods currently in use. However, it should also be noted that careful evaluation of the data and adjustment, if necessary, are essential. The public health community is urged to encourage governments to learn from the experience of these five countries and to place maternal mortality estimation in the hands of statistical agencies. PMID:11477969

  2. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  3. The Role of Culture in Relational Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems in Japanese and US School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate psychometric properties that assess forms of aggression (i.e., relational and physical aggression) across cultures (i.e., Japan and the United States) and (2) to investigate the role of culture in the associations between forms of aggression and social-psychological adjustment problems such as…

  4. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  5. Death Perception in People with Suicidal Tendencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Veronique; Dussaucy, Edith

    The perception of death gradually develops in a child's mind, reaching maturity at about 8 or 9 years of age. A mature death concept usually means a definition which includes the perception of death as a natural process, its finality, its irreversibility, and its universality. A study was undertaken to improve knowledge about the death concept.…

  6. Adolescent Russian roulette deaths.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kim A

    2010-03-01

    Adolescence, between the ages of 10 and 19 years, is a unique period both physically and emotionally. During this time of life, individuals are known to experiment and engage in risky behavior, sometimes with unforeseen morbidity and mortality. We also see suicide emerge as a manner of death in this age group. The most common method is gunshot wound and sometimes in the form of Russian roulette. Few studies have looked at deaths by Russian roulette, the victims, and scenarios. In particular, no study examines the adolescent victim of Russian roulette. To better understand and classify this entity, adolescent Russian roulette autopsy cases over a 20-year period were examined looking at the victims, scenarios, autopsy findings, cause and manner of death, and the weapons. All victims were males, ages 13 to 19 years, with a Black-to-White ratio of 1:1. No victim had a previous psychiatric history. Toxicology was positive for alcohol and/or marijuana in 50% of the victims. Friends were present when the victim shot himself which occurred in the home the majority of the time. In all but 1 case, premeditation of the game was involved as the victim provided the weapon for the roulette. The cause of death was gunshot wound to the head (6 to the right side, 1 to the mouth, 1 to the forehead), and the manner of death was suicide in 6 cases and accident in 2 cases. A review of the literature discusses the adolescent victim, suicide, and Russian roulette.

  7. College women who had sexual intercourse when they were underage minors (13-15): age of their male partners, relation to current adjustment, and statutory rape implications.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, Harold; Saltzman, Heidi

    2003-04-01

    In a survey of 1,439 female college students, 24% reported that they had what they considered consensual sexual intercourse between ages 13 and 15 (2% at age 13, 7% at age 14, and 15% at age 15). Contrary to the impression left by studies of teenage mothers, the majority of their male sexual partners were not substantially older than them but instead were more typically "somewhat older" (2-4 years apart) or similar aged (less than 2 years apart). The percentage of "much older" partners (5 or more years older) was 31% for those who had intercourse at age 13, 17% for those who had intercourse at age 14, and 13% for those who had intercourse at age 15. Women who had intercourse at age 13 endorsed more current symptoms of psychological distress than those who first had intercourse at age 14 or 15. There were no significant differences between the groups in current levels of sexual satisfaction. Partner's age difference was not significantly associated with current levels of either psychological distress or sexual satisfaction. The implications of these results were discussed in light of recent calls in the United States for more strict and rigorous enforcement of statutory rape laws.

  8. Deaths among members of the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, 1965-89.

    PubMed Central

    Lange, W R; Frankenfield, D L; Carico, J; Pfeiffer, M B; Snyder, F R; Van Der Decker, J

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps performs health promotion and disease prevention activities and provides clinical care. The authors examined the epidemiology of deaths among active duty personnel and the hypothesis that, based on the mission, mortality would be less than in the general population, and that deaths would reflect nonpreventable causes. A retrospective record review for the period 1965-89 showed 118 active duty deaths, 26 percent of the number anticipated in a general population group adjusted for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. The five major causes of death were coronary heart disease, suicide, motor vehicle crash, malignant neoplasm, and drowning. Beginning with the mid-1980s, infectious disease became a principal cause of death, the only cause for which the rate trended upward. Among professionals, death rates were highest among sanitarians and veterinarians, and lowest among pharmacists. The only causes for which deaths exceeded the expected number involved suicides and possibly deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Active duty status in the Commissioned Corps was associated with a death rate less than that of comparable groups in the general population. Many of the premature deaths were attributable to preventable causes. PMID:1561297

  9. Neonatal Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Neonatal death ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Complications & Loss ...

  10. Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths--United States, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rose A; Aleshire, Noah; Zibbell, Jon E; Gladden, R Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of drug overdose (poisoning) deaths. Since 2000, the rate of deaths from drug overdoses has increased 137%, including a 200% increase in the rate of overdose deaths involving opioids (opioid pain relievers and heroin). CDC analyzed recent multiple cause-of-death mortality data to examine current trends and characteristics of drug overdose deaths, including the types of opioids associated with drug overdose deaths. During 2014, a total of 47,055 drug overdose deaths occurred in the United States, representing a 1-year increase of 6.5%, from 13.8 per 100,000 persons in 2013 to 14.7 per 100,000 persons in 2014. The rate of drug overdose deaths increased significantly for both sexes, persons aged 25-44 years and ≥55 years, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, and in the Northeastern, Midwestern, and Southern regions of the United States. Rates of opioid overdose deaths also increased significantly, from 7.9 per 100,000 in 2013 to 9.0 per 100,000 in 2014, a 14% increase. Historically, CDC has programmatically characterized all opioid pain reliever deaths (natural and semisynthetic opioids, methadone, and other synthetic opioids) as "prescription" opioid overdoses (1). Between 2013 and 2014, the age-adjusted rate of death involving methadone remained unchanged; however, the age-adjusted rate of death involving natural and semisynthetic opioid pain relievers, heroin, and synthetic opioids, other than methadone (e.g., fentanyl) increased 9%, 26%, and 80%, respectively. The sharp increase in deaths involving synthetic opioids, other than methadone, in 2014 coincided with law enforcement reports of increased availability of illicitly manufactured fentanyl, a synthetic opioid; however, illicitly manufactured fentanyl cannot be distinguished from prescription fentanyl in death certificate data. These findings indicate that the opioid overdose epidemic is worsening. There is a need for continued action to prevent opioid

  11. Unnatural sudden infant death

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.
METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.
RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 were given another cause of natural death. In 24 families, more than one child died; 58died before the age of 6 months and most died in the afternoon or evening. Seventy per cent had experienced unexplained illnesses; over half were admitted to hospital within the previous month, and 15 had been discharged within 24 hours of death. The mother, father, or both were responsible for death in 43, five, and two families, respectively. Most homes were disadvantaged—no regular income, receiving income support—and mothers smoked. Half the perpetrators had a history of somatising or factitious disorder. Death was usually by smothering and 43% of children had bruises, petechiae, or blood on the face.
CONCLUSIONS—Although certain features are indicative of unnatural infant death, some are also associated with SIDS. Despite the recent reduction in numbers of infants dying suddenly, inadequacies in the assessment of their deaths exist. Until a thorough postmortem examination is combined with evaluation of the history and circumstances of death by an experienced paediatrician, most cases of covert fatal abuse will go undetected. The term SIDS requires revision or abandonment.

 PMID:10325752

  12. Iowa record-linkage study: death rates in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Black, D W

    1998-09-01

    The Iowa record-linkage study was developed to investigate death rates in psychiatric patients, and involved computer matching of death certificates with a roster of patients. A list of all patients admitted to our hospital from 1972 through 1981 was obtained and after removing duplicate entries the list was pared to 5412 names. The record included multiple identifiers (e.g., name, gender, date-of-birth, hospital number). This information was then linked by computer with all Iowa death certificates for the same period; a total of 331 deaths were identified. Patients were assigned to a single psychiatric diagnostic category based on a computer program that reviewed each patient's clinical diagnoses and picked the one with the highest priority in a hierarchy we had created. Age and sex adjusted mortality tables were constructed, allowing us to compute expected numbers of deaths. Relative risk for premature death was greatest among women, and those under 20 years. Risk was associated with all psychiatric diagnoses and was significantly higher among patients of either gender with an organic mental disorder or schizophrenia; women with acute schizophrenia, depressive neuroses, alcoholism, drug abuse, and psychophysiological disorders; and men with neuroses. Death from natural causes, especially from heart disease, was significantly excessive among women, while death from accidents and suicides was excessive for both men and women. The overall SMR was 1.65 (P < 0.001). Most importantly, we found that the greatest excess of mortality occurred within the first 2 years following hospital discharge. Thus, we were able to demonstrate that risk of mortality in general, and of suicide specifically, differed according to age, gender, diagnosis, and portion of the follow-up. We have subsequently used this method to investigate specific risk factors associated with mortality in mood disorders, schizophrenia, and antisocial personality disorder. Findings from these studies are

  13. Children's Concepts of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    A total of 122 middle-class White boys and girls aged 3 through 12 years were interviewed to determine the nature and the development of their concepts of death and the impact of experience on those concepts. (Author/BH)

  14. Death Attitudes Across the Life-Span: The Development and Validation of the Death Attitude Profile (DAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser, Gina; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Death Attitude Profile was developed and four orthogonal factors were identified: Fear of Death/Dying, Approach-Oriented Death Acceptance, Escape-Oriented Death Acceptance, and Neutral Death Acceptance. An elderly sample (N=50) showed less fear of death and more acceptance (all three kinds of acceptance) than did middle aged (N=50) and young…

  15. Epidemiology of violent deaths in the world

    PubMed Central

    Reza, A; Mercy, J; Krug, E

    2001-01-01

    Objective—This study describes epidemiologic patterns of mortality due to suicide, homicide, and war for the world in order to serve as a benchmark against which to measure future progress and to raise awareness about violence as a global public health problem. Setting—The world and its eight major regions. Method—Data were derived from The Global Burden of Disease series and the US National Center for Health Statistics to estimate crude rates, age adjusted rates, sex rate ratios, and the health burden for suicide, homicide, and war related deaths for the world and its eight major regions in 1990. Results—In 1990, an estimated 1 851 000 people died from violence (35.3 per 100 000) in the world. There were an estimated 786 000 suicides. Overall suicide rates ranged from 3.4 per 100 000 in Sub-Saharan Africa to 30.4 per 100 000 in China. There were an estimated 563 000 homicides. Overall homicide rates ranged from 1.0 per 100 000 in established market economies to 44.8 per 100 000 in Sub-Saharan Africa with peaks among males aged 15–24 years old, and among females aged 0–4 years old. There were an estimated 502 000 war related deaths with peaks in rates for both sexes among people aged 0–4, 15–29, and 60–69 years old. Conclusion—The number of violence related deaths in the world is unacceptably high. Coordinated prevention and control efforts are urgently needed. PMID:11428556

  16. Effects of Sudden vs. Chronic Illness Death on Bereavement Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Catherine M.

    1982-01-01

    Interviewed bereaved persons shortly after the death of a close family member and 18 months later. Respondents were grouped according to mode of death. The short-term chronic illness group made the most favorable adjustment. Sudden death and long-term chronic illness death groups sustained higher intensities of bereavement. (Author/RC)

  17. [Deaths in hotels].

    PubMed

    Risse, Manfred; Weilbächer, Nadine; Birngruber, Christoph; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2010-01-01

    There are no verified statistics about deaths occurring in hotels, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. A recent case induced us to conduct a systematic search for deaths in hotels in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen for the period from 1968 to 2009. This search yielded 22 evaluable cases in which persons had been found dead or had died in hotels. Data evaluated in the study were sex and age of the deceased, reason for the stay in the hotel and cause of death. Among the deaths, 18 were males and 4 females and the average age was 41 and 40 years respectively. 6 of the male guests had died from a natural and 10 from a non-natural cause. In the remaining two cases, the cause of death could not be determined, but as there was no evidence that another party had been involved, the cases were not further investigated. Of the 4 female guests, 3 had died of a natural cause; in one case, the cause of death remained unclear even after morphological and toxicological investigations. Surprisingly, a third of the men were found to be temporarily living in hotels due to social circumstances. This was not true for any of the women. Our retrospective analysis is based on a comparatively small number of deaths in what were mostly hotels in small to medium-sized towns. Interestingly, the gender ratio of 18:4 for deceased men and women was significantly higher than the usual gender ratio of 2:1 found for forensic autopsies. To be able to draw further conclusions, a greater number of cases would have to be analysed, for example by recruiting additional case files from other institutes of legal medicine. This would also open up the option of investigating possible regional variations.

  18. Epidemiologic characteristics of death by poisoning in 1991-2001 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Do; Suh, Gil Joon; Rhee, Joong Eui; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jaiyong

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of the death by poisoning in Korea. We recoded the Death Certificates Database by injury based on the short version of the International Classification of External Causes of Injuries (ICECI). We evaluated the mortality rate by total injury and poisoning, and analyzed the mortality rate by age, gender, year and month, toxic agent, and intent. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to evaluate the effects of socioeconomic factors on suicidal poisoning death. The total number of death cases by injury was 346,656. The proportion of death cases by injury decreased from 13.53% of all death cases in 1991 to 11.89% in 2001. However, the mortality rate by poisoning increased rapidly from 1998, and then remained stable. The number of suicidal poisoning deaths has gradually increased, and its mortality rate was 6.41 (per 100,000) in 2001. Major toxic agents were pesticides and herbicides (50.90%) in 2001. Adjusted odds ratios of suicidal poisoning versus other poisonings showed significant differences in education attainment, region, and marital status. In conclusion, the mortality rate by poisoning has increased, and the proportion of suicidal poisoning also has increased compared to that of accidental poisoning.

  19. The age at death assessment in a multi-ethnic sample of pelvic bones using nature-inspired data mining methods.

    PubMed

    Buk, Zdenek; Kordik, Pavel; Bruzek, Jaroslav; Schmitt, Aurore; Snorek, Miroslav

    2012-07-10

    Recently published studies showed that age assessment methods are population specific. Authors analyse the senescence changes in pubic symphysis and sacro-pelvic surface of a pelvic bone using data mining methods. The multi-ethnic data set consists of 956 adult individuals ranging from 19 to 100 years of age derived from 9 different populations with known age and sex. The results show that accurate and reliable age assessment is possible to three age classes (less than 30, 30-60, 60 and more). The study confirms that population specificity of the methods exists and the variable "sex" is not important in age classification.

  20. Suicide following the death of a sibling: a nationwide follow-up study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The death of a sibling can trigger grief and depression. Sibling deaths from external causes may be particularly detrimental, since they are often sudden. We aimed to examine the association between the death of an adult sibling from external causes and the risk of suicide among surviving siblings up to 18 years after bereavement. We adjusted for intrafamily correlation in death risks, which might occur because of shared genetics and shared early-life experiences of siblings in the same family. Design A follow-up study between 1981 and 2002 based on the total population. Setting Sweden. Participants Swedes aged 25–64 years (n=1 748 069). Primary and secondary outcome measures Suicide from the Swedish cause of death register. Results An increased risk of mortality from suicide was found among persons who had experienced the death of a sibling. In women, the suicide risk was 1.55 times that of non-bereaved persons (95% CI 0.99 to 2.44), and in men it was 1.28 times higher (95% CI 0.93 to 1.77). If one sibling committed suicide, the risk of the remaining sibling also committing suicide was 3.19 (95% CI 1.23 to 8.25) among women and 2.44 (95% CI 1.34 to 4.45) among men. Associations with other main causes of death—such as external other than suicide, cardiovascular diseases or cancer—were generally much smaller and statistically not significant in either sex. We found no clear support for a specific time pattern according to time since a sibling's death. Conclusions Our study provided evidence for suicide risk associated with the death of a sibling at adult age, revealing that bereaved persons’ risk of suicide is higher when siblings die from suicide, even when adjusting for intrafamily correlation in death risks. PMID:23624991

  1. Death Anxiety and Personal Growth in Adolescents Experiencing the Death of a Grandparent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ens, Carla; Bond, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between bereavement following the death of a grandparent and adolescent death anxiety levels were examined using Hogan's Inventory of Bereavement and the revised Death Anxiety Scale within private schools. Of the 226 adolescent respondents (aged 11-18) who completed questionnaires, 124 had experienced the death of a grandparent. The…

  2. Behavior of chickens prior to death from sudden death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Newberry, R C; Gardiner, E E; Hunt, J R

    1987-09-01

    A study was made to determine if chickens dying from sudden death syndrome (SDS) showed any unusual behavioral characteristics during the final 12 h preceding death. Continuous video recordings were made of floor pens of 50 to 120 individually marked male broiler chickens between 3 and 10 wk of age. Behavioral data were obtained from video tapes played back following death of chickens from SDS. Analysis of the video tapes revealed no significant differences between 10 SDS chickens and their matched controls in the frequencies or proportions of time spent in each of 19 different behavioral activities. All SDS chickens exhibited a sudden attack prior to death lasting an average of 53 s and characterized by loss of balance, violent flapping, and strong muscular contractions. There was no evidence that death was preceded by a particular environmental or behavioral event. It was concluded that there were no consistent behavioral symptoms which could be used to identify SDS chickens prior to death. PMID:3684869

  3. [Sudden infant death syndrome].

    PubMed

    Espinosa Morett, A; Shkurovich, M; Carlos Ugartechea, J; Mallet Arelano, A; Salmón Rodríguez, L E

    1976-01-01

    This report is based on a review of the present situation of the sudden infant death syndrome through the presentation of four cases studied at the Unidad de Pediatría, Hospital General de México, S.S.A. All cases were in apparent good health before death. All babies were less than ten months of age. In three cases, necropsy was not performed, and the other one did not show significant abnormalities at the post-mortem examination. A complete review of the literature was made including: historical, epidemiological, genetic, clinical and pathological aspects. Special emphasis is made on the pathophysiology of the syndrome during MOR phase of sleep and muscular hypertrophy of the lungs arteriolae suggesting chronic hypoxia which are the most relevant theories in the sudden infant death syndrome. Psychological aspects and the family management by the physician and detection of possible future victims of the syndrome are finally discussed. PMID:973858

  4. Heart Rate and Risk of Cancer Death in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Jouven, Xavier; Escolano, Sylvie; Celermajer, David; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Bingham, Annie; Hermine, Olivier; Desnos, Michel; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Marijon, Eloi; Ducimetière, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background Data from several previous studies examining heart-rate and cardiovascular risk have hinted at a possible relationship between heart-rate and non-cardiac mortality. We thus systematically examined the predictive value of heart-rate variables on the subsequent risk of death from cancer. Methods In the Paris Prospective Study I, 6101 asymptomatic French working men aged 42 to 53 years, free of clinically detectable cardiovascular disease and cancer, underwent a standardized graded exercise test between 1967 and 1972. Resting heart-rate, heart-rate increase during exercise, and decrease during recovery were measured. Change in resting heart-rate over 5 years was also available in 5139 men. Mortality including 758 cancer deaths was assessed over the 25 years of follow-up. Findings There were strong, graded and significant relationships between all heart-rate parameters and subsequent cancer deaths. After adjustment for age and tobacco consumption and, compared with the lowest quartile, those with the highest quartile for resting heart-rate had a relative risk of 2.4 for cancer deaths (95% confidence interval: 1.9–2.9, p<0.0001) This was similar after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and was observed for the commonest malignancies (respiratory and gastrointestinal). Similarly, significant relationships with cancer death were observed between poor heart rate increase during exercise, poor decrease during recovery and greater heart-rate increase over time (p<0.0001 for all). Interpretation Resting and exercise heart rate had consistent, graded and highly significant associations with subsequent cancer mortality in men. PMID:21826196

  5. Parental death in childhood and self-inflicted injuries in young adults-a national cohort study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rostila, Mikael; Berg, Lisa; Arat, Arzu; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that parental death influences health and mortality in bereaved offspring. To date, few studies have examined whether exposure to parental bereavement in childhood is associated with suicidality later in life. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether parental death during childhood influences self-inflicted injuries/poisoning in young adulthood. A national cohort born during 1973-1982 (N = 871,402) was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from age 18 to 31-40 years. Cox regression analyses of proportional hazards, with adjustment for socio-demographic confounders and parental psychosocial covariates, were used to test hypotheses regarding parental loss and hospital admission due to self-inflicted injuries/poisoning. Parental deaths were divided into deaths caused by (1) external causes/substance abuse and (2) natural causes. Persons who had lost a parent to an external cause/substance abuse-related death had the highest risk of being admitted to a hospital for a self-inflicted injury/poisoning; HRs 2.03 (1.67-2.46) for maternal death and 2.03 (1.84-2.25) for paternal death, after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders and risk factors among surviving parents. Risks were also increased for parental death due to natural causes, but at a lower level: 1.19 (1.01-1.39) and 1.28 (1.15-1.43), respectively. Losing a father before school age was associated with a higher risk of hospital admission for a self-inflicted injury/poisoning than was loss at an older age for both genders. Maternal loss before school age was associated with a higher risk only for men, particularly maternal death by natural causes (p < 0.01).

  6. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  7. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.

  8. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Motor Vehicle Accident Deaths in the United States, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Charters, Thomas J; Strumpf, Erin C

    2015-10-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) mortality has been declining overall, but little is known about trends by socioeconomic position. We examined trends in education-related inequalities in US MVA death rates from 1995 to 2010. We used mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics and population estimates from the Current Population Survey, and we calculated vehicle- and person-miles traveled using data from the National Household Travel Survey. We used negative binomial regression to estimate crude and age-, sex-, and race-adjusted mortality rates among adults aged 25 years or more. We found larger mortality decreases among the more highly educated and some evidence of mortality increases among the least educated. Adjusted death rates were 15.3 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.7, 19.9) higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top of the education distribution in 1995, increasing to 17.9 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 14.8, 21.0) by 2010. In relative terms, adjusted death rates were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.0) times higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top in 1995, increasing to 4.3 times higher (95% CI: 3.4, 5.3) by 2010. Inequality increases were larger in terms of vehicle-miles traveled. Although overall MVA death rates declined during this period, socioeconomic differences in MVA mortality have persisted or worsened over time.

  9. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Rigi, Mohammed; Feldman, Robert M.; Bell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Methods Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–79 years). ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL), length of scleral spur landmark (SSL) to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM), iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM), pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe), and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter. Results Mean (±SD) values were 2.24 mm (±0.46), 4.06 mm (±0.27), 3.65 mm (±0.48), 4.16 mm (±0.47), 1.14 (±0.04), 1.51 mm2 (±0.23), and 38.42 μL (±4.91) for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002) and RICe (P = 0.027) decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002) and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001). ICR (P = 0.54) and iris volume (P = 0.49) were not affected by age. Conclusion This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states. PMID:26815917

  10. Adiponectin and noncardiovascular death: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Kajii, Eiji

    2008-06-01

    This study is to evaluate the associations between adiponectin level and noncardiovascular death and to test a hypothesis that adiponectin level reflects the degree of systemic wasting that precedes death. A nested case-control study was conducted involving 5243 subjects, drawn from 12490 subjects of the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study, whose blood samples had been drawn between 1992 and 1995. Over an average of 10.8 years of follow-up, 103 cases with noncardiovascular death and 565 controls without history/event/death of any cardiovascular disease were identified. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated relative to the lowest quintile of adiponectin level. The risks for noncardiovascular death of the second lowest quintile and the highest quintile of adiponectin level were significantly higher than that of the lowest quintile when adjusted for age and sex (model 1) (OR, 2.38 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-5.06] and 2.16 [1.01-4.80]). All the statistical significances disappeared when adjusted further for body mass index and C-reactive protein level (model 2). When excluding cases with cancer death, the odds for death in the highest 2 quintiles were significantly higher than those in the lowest quintile in model 1 (OR, 2.80 [95% CI, 1.04-7.59] and 3.74 [1.38-10.18]). The significant difference between the highest vs the lowest quintile remained significant in model 2 and even after adjusting further for smoking, diabetes, and total cholesterol level (model 3) (OR, 3.28 [95% CI, 1.02-10.51] and 3.98 [1.21-13.13]). Adiponectin levels had linear associations with the risks of noncardiovascular noncancer death in models 1, 2, and 3 (OR per 1 SD increase in log-adiponectin, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.23-2.40], 1.89 [1.23-2.91], and 2.01 [1.29-3.15]). Adiponectin is an independent indicator of noncardiovascular mortality that may relate with systemic wasting.

  11. Expressing death risk as condensed life experience and death intensity.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-08-01

    Some risk exposures, including many medical and surgical procedures, typically carry hazards of death that are difficult to convey and appreciate in absolute terms. I propose presenting the death risk as a condensed life experience (i.e., the equivalent amount of life T that would carry the same cumulative mortality hazard for a person of the same age and sex based on life tables). For example, if the risk of death during an elective 1-hour procedure is 0.01%, and same-age and same-sex people have a 0.01% death risk over 1 month, one can inform the patient that "this procedure carries the same death risk as living 1 month of normal life." Comparative standards from other risky activities or from a person with the same disease at the same stage and same predictive profile could also be used. A complementary metric that may be useful to consider is the death intensity. The death intensity λ is the hazard function that shows the fold-risk estimate of dying compared with the reference person. The death intensity can vary substantially for different phases of the event, operation, or procedure (e.g., intraoperative, early postoperative, late postoperative), and this variability may also be useful to convey. T will vary depending on the time window for which it is computed. I present examples for calculating T and λ using literature data on accidents, ascent to Mount Everest, and medical and surgical procedures.

  12. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  13. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  14. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  15. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  16. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  17. Religiosity and Death Distress in Arabic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sabwah, Mohammed N.; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between religiosity and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) among a sample (N = 570) of Egyptian women nursing undergraduates, mainly Muslims. Their ages ranged from 17 to 25. The correlations between religiosity and both death anxiety and death…

  18. Contribution of Excessive Alcohol Consumption to Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.; Zhang, Xingyou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of premature mortality in the United States. The objectives of this study were to update national estimates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) in the United States, calculate age-adjusted rates of AAD and YPLL in states, assess the contribution of AAD and YPLL to total deaths and YPLL among working-age adults, and estimate the number of deaths and YPLL among those younger than 21 years. Methods We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Alcohol-Related Disease Impact application for 2006–2010 to estimate total AAD and YPLL across 54 conditions for the United States, by sex and age. AAD and YPLL rates and the proportion of total deaths that were attributable to excessive alcohol consumption among working-age adults (20-64 y) were calculated for the United States and for individual states. Results From 2006 through 2010, an annual average of 87,798 (27.9/100,000 population) AAD and 2.5 million (831.6/100,000) YPLL occurred in the United States. Age-adjusted state AAD rates ranged from 51.2/100,000 in New Mexico to 19.1/100,000 in New Jersey. Among working-age adults, 9.8% of all deaths in the United States during this period were attributable to excessive drinking, and 69% of all AAD involved working-age adults. Conclusions Excessive drinking was responsible for 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults in the United States. AAD rates vary across states, but excessive drinking remains a leading cause of premature mortality nationwide. Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force can help reduce excessive drinking and harms related to it. PMID:24967831

  19. Sibling death and death fear in relation to depressive symptomatology in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2009-01-01

    Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65-97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile-Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a structural equation model. Death fear, sibling closeness, and proportion of dead siblings were directly related to depression, with path coefficients of .42, -.24, and .13, respectively. Proportion of dead siblings had indirect effects on depression, as did age and education. Depressive symptomatology in old age is influenced by death fear related to sibling death as well as by poor relationships with them; it must be understood within a situational context including death fear and sibling relationships.

  20. Fear of death.

    PubMed

    Penson, Richard T; Partridge, Rosamund A; Shah, Muhammad A; Giansiracusa, David; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J

    2005-02-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient and support to caregivers and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. For many, cancer is synonymous with death. Fearing death is a rational response. For too long, medicine has ignored this primeval fear. Increasingly, clinicians recognize and address end-of-life issues, facing patients' and our own emotional vulnerabilities in order to connect and explore problems and fears. Listening and learning from the patient guides us as we acknowledge much of the mystery that still surrounds the dying process. Rarely is there a simple or right answer. An empathetic response to suffering patients is the best support. Support is vital in fostering the adjustment of patients. A silent presence may prove more helpful than well-meant counsel for many patients. Through an examination of eight caregiver narratives of their patients' experiences, the role of the health care provider in the dying process, particularly in regard to challenging fear, is reviewed.

  1. Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Conclusion Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina. PMID:25018627

  2. [Accompany death].

    PubMed

    Salvador Borrell, Montserrat

    2010-11-01

    One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume death as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the Death (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency.

  3. Development of a method to estimate skeletal age at death in adults using the acetabulum and the auricular surface on a Portuguese population.

    PubMed

    Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Vielle, Bruno; Jousset, Nathalie; Chappard, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert; Cunha, Eugenia

    2009-07-01

    Aging techniques that use the posterior or middle part of the pelvis are of interest because this part of the body is very resistant to decay. In a preliminary study, acetabular criteria correlated with age were isolated. In a second study, three acetabular criteria and four auricular surface criteria were described and it was demonstrated that it is of interest to associate these criteria. The goal of the present study was to test these criteria in a larger sample and to elaborate a standardized procedure for the use of these criteria. The study concerned 462 os coxae (hip bones) of known age and sex. All of the criteria are correlated with age. Establishing a score allows a better correlation with age with lower intra-/inter-observer variability. Seven categories of overall score corresponding to eight age groups were defined and the probabilities of belonging to an age group depending on the overall score were calculated. The first main advantage of this procedure is that it is still applicable when only some parts of the body remain. The other benefit is its ability to discriminate older people.

  4. End Criteria for Reaching Maximal Oxygen Uptake Must Be Strict and Adjusted to Sex and Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Hem, Erlend; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe different end criteria for reaching maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a continuous graded exercise test on the treadmill, and to explore the manner by which different end criteria have an impact on the magnitude of the VO2max result. Methods A sample of 861 individuals (390 women) aged 20–85 years performed an exercise test on a treadmill until exhaustion. Gas exchange, heart rate, blood lactate concentration and Borg Scale6–20 rating were measured, and the impact of different end criteria on VO2max was studied;VO2 leveling off, maximal heart rate (HRmax), different levels of respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and postexercise blood lactate concentration. Results Eight hundred and four healthy participants (93%) fulfilled the exercise test until voluntary exhaustion. There were no sex-related differences in HRmax, RER, or Borg Scale rating, whereas blood lactate concentration was 18% lower in women (P<0.001). Forty-two percent of the participants achieved a plateau in VO2; these individuals had 5% higher ventilation (P = 0.033), 4% higher RER (P<0.001), and 5% higher blood lactate concentration (P = 0.047) compared with participants who did not reach a VO2 plateau. When using RER ≥1.15 or blood lactate concentration ≥8.0 mmol•L–1, VO2max was 4% (P = 0.012) and 10% greater (P<0.001), respectively. A blood lactate concentration ≥8.0 mmol•L–1 excluded 63% of the participants in the 50–85-year-old cohort. Conclusions A range of typical end criteria are presented in a random sample of subjects aged 20–85 years. The choice of end criteria will have an impact on the number of the participants as well as the VO2max outcome. Suggestions for new recommendations are given. PMID:24454832

  5. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  6. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population.

  7. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. PMID:26801472

  8. Cognitive control adjustments in healthy older and younger adults: Conflict adaptation, the error-related negativity (ERN), and evidence of generalized decline with age.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Keith, Cierra M; Hunt, Isaac J; Hedges, Dawson W; Nielsen, Brent L; Call, Vaughn R A

    2016-03-01

    Older adults display alterations in neural reflections of conflict-related processing. We examined response times (RTs), error rates, and event-related potential (ERP; N2 and P3 components) indices of conflict adaptation (i.e., congruency sequence effects) a cognitive control process wherein previous-trial congruency influences current-trial performance, along with post-error slowing, correct-related negativity (CRN), error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) amplitudes in 65 healthy older adults and 94 healthy younger adults. Older adults showed generalized slowing, had decreased post-error slowing, and committed more errors than younger adults. Both older and younger adults showed conflict adaptation effects; magnitude of conflict adaptation did not differ by age. N2 amplitudes were similar between groups; younger, but not older, adults showed conflict adaptation effects for P3 component amplitudes. CRN and Pe, but not ERN, amplitudes differed between groups. Data support generalized declines in cognitive control processes in older adults without specific deficits in conflict adaptation.

  9. Stress system development from age 4.5 to 6: family environment predictors and adjustment implications of HPA activity stability versus change.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Shaw, Daniel S; Fisher, Philip A; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-04-01

    This study addressed early calibration of stress systems by testing links between adversity exposures, developmental stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and behavior problems in a sample of adopted children. Families (n=200) were assessed when the child was 9, 18, and 27 months, 4.5 and 6 years to collect adversity information-parent psychopathology, stress, financial need, and home chaos. Morning and evening cortisol samples at the final two assessments indexed child HPA activity, and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing at the final assessment represented child behavior outcomes. Increases in cumulative adversity from 4.5 to 6 related to higher child morning cortisol, whereas age six cumulative adversities related to lower, unstable child evening cortisol. Examination of specific adversity dimensions revealed associations between (1) increasing home chaos and stable morning cortisol, which in turn related to internalizing problems; and (2) high parental stress and psychopathology and lower, unstable evening cortisol, which in turn related to externalizing problems.

  10. Invariant death

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter death’s scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter death’s curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of death’s invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend death’s scaling of time. Variability in death rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes. PMID:27785361

  11. Does marital status predict the odds of suicidal death in taiwan? A seven-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2008-06-01

    Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups-total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly selected from age, sex, and geographic region matched controls, four per suicide)-were studied. Using multiple logistic regression analysis including age-marital status interaction, adjusted estimates show divorced status to be the most detrimental for suicide propensity, with males showing stronger effect size. Females never married, aged below 35 and 65-plus, and widowed 65-plus had lower suicide odds. PMID:18611128

  12. A time to grow and a time to die: a new way to analyze the dynamics of size, light, age, and death of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C Jessica E; Horvitz, Carol C; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Clark, Deborah A

    2009-10-01

    In tropical rain forests, rates of forest turnover and tree species' life-history differences are shaped by the life expectancy of trees and the time taken by seedlings to reach the canopy. These measures are therefore of both theoretical and applied interest. However, the relationship between size, age, and life expectancy is poorly understood. In this paper, we show how to obtain, in a dynamic environment, age-related population parameters from data on size and light transitions and survival of individuals over single time steps. We accomplish this goal by combining two types of analysis (integral projection modeling and age-from-stage analysis for variable environments) in a new way. The method uses an index of crown illumination (CI) to capture the key tree life-history axis of movement through the light environment. We use this method to analyze data on nine tropical tree species, chosen to sample two main gradients, juvenile recruitment niche (gap/nongap) and adult crown position niche (subcanopy, canopy-emergent). We validate the method using independent estimates of age and size from growth rings and 14C from some of the same species at the same site and use our results to examine correlations among age-related population parameters. Finally, we discuss the implications of these new results for life histories of tropical trees.

  13. Technical note: The two step procedure (TSP) for the determination of age at death of adult human remains in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Baccino, Eric; Sinfield, Laura; Colomb, Sophie; Baum, Thierry Pascal; Martrille, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the principles and results of TSP (the two step procedure), a comprehensive (combined) method of age estimation in mature human skeletal remains. The first step consists of the examination of the pubic symphysis using the Suchey-Brooks system for a "pre-choice". Then for SBS phases I, II, III, (young adults up to about 40) the age estimate is given using the chronological interval corresponding to each phase. For SBS phase is IV, V or VI (mature adults, about 40 to 60), then (second step) the dental method of Lamendin (using single rooted tooth) will be applied alone. Both methods are fast, easy to learn and to use (requiring no preparation except cleaning soft tissues from the pubic bone) and are not expensive, making TSP usable by all pathologists or anthropologists in any Forensic unit. It is also of great practical use in mass disaster and mass grave situation. After 15 years of use, a literature review and four evaluation studies we confirm that TSP is more accurate than any single method for aging adults and at least as good as more complicated combined methods. Despite its advantages TSP is, like all other aging methods, not efficient in adults over 65 years of age.

  14. Deaths in the Cook County jail: 10-year report, 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seijeoung; Ting, Andrew; Puisis, Michael; Rodriguez, Sergio; Benson, Roger; Mennella, Connie; Davis, Faith

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe causes of death during the 10-year period between 1995 and 2004 in a large urban jail in Chicago; to compare disease specific mortality rates between the jail population and the general population; to explore demographic and incarceration characteristics of the inmates who died in the jail by cause of death; and to examine gender difference in demographic characteristics, incarceration patterns, and causes of death. A total of 178 deaths occurring in the jail over a 10-year period (1995-2004) were reviewed. Age-adjusted disease-specific mortality rates were computed for the jail population and compared with the rates in the US general population. Cause of death, demographic variables, and incarceration related factors were retrieved from multiple computerized databases. Descriptive analyses were performed to examine demographic and incarceration-related patterns by cause of death and gender. Heart disease was the most frequent cause of death in the jail population, followed by cerebrovascular disease and suicide. Mortality rates for heart diseases, infectious/inflammatory conditions and suicide were higher for jail inmates than the general population. Black inmates accounted for the majority of deaths due to illnesses and homicide, and a much higher proportion of white and Hispanic inmates were involved in suicide deaths. Deaths due to drug overdose or withdrawal were disproportionately higher among female inmates compared with male inmates. Consistent review of mortality rates and causes of deaths in jail can be a useful tool to better understand health issues and needs of jail inmates. Surveillance of acute and chronic illnesses and strategic reengineering of jail health care is a key to quality improvement for incarcerated populations for whom the jail system becomes their primary care provider. PMID:17136629

  15. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  16. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  17. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  18. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  19. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  20. Age-at-death estimation by pulp/tooth area ratio in canines: study of a 20th-century Mexican sample of prisoners to test Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Bautista, Josefina; Alemán, Inmaculada; Cameriere, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Accurate age estimation has always been a problem for forensic scientists, and apposition of secondary dentine is often used as an indicator of age. Cameriere et al. studied the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical X-ray images of the canines, to observe the apposition of secondary dentine. The present study examines the application of this technique in a Mexican identified sample coming from the Department of Physical Anthropology of the INAH, at Mexico City. The main aim of this work is to test the reliability of this method in a skeletal sample of a specific population, different from the samples used for its development. The obtained regression model explained 96.2% of total variance (R(2) = 0.962) with a standard error of estimate of 1.909 and a standard deviation of 1.947. These results demonstrate great reliability and that the age/secondary dentine relationship is not variable in this specific population.

  1. Hypochondriasis and fear of death.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Russell; Stuart, Scott; Longley, Susan L; Langbehn, Douglas R; Happel, Rachel L

    2002-08-01

    Although fear of death has been linked to hypochondriasis, the relationship of this fear to the disorder has received little study. To address this deficiency, we administered a fear of death scale along with measures of hypochondriasis, including the Whiteley Index and Somatic Symptom Inventory, to 162 general medical outpatients. Partial correlations, controlling for age, between the fear of death scale and both the Whiteley Index and Somatic Symptom Inventory were strongly positive. A factor analysis of the fear of death scale yielded three dimensions-fear of dying, loss of meaning, and fear of separation-that were also highly correlated with hypochondriasis. Fear of death and hypochondriasis showed comparable relationships to age and gender as well as to personality dimensions measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Fear of death appears to be an integral part of hypochondriasis. Its presence lends support to three models of hypochondriasis-the perceptual, existential, and interpersonal-that correspond to the dimensions of fear of death.

  2. Encountering Death: Structured Activities for Death Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ira David; And Others

    This book is intended to be used as a supplement to standard textbooks on death and dying for college students. Chapter 1 "Encountering Death in the Self" builds the foundation for increased self-awareness for the study of death and dying. Chapter 2 "Encountering Death in the Family" provides activities which are appropriate for a wide variety of…

  3. Adolescents' health and health behaviour as predictors of injury death. A prospective cohort follow-up of 652,530 person-years

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Ville M; Parkkari, Jari; Koivusilta, Leena; Nummi, Tapio; Kannus, Pekka; Rimpelä, Arja

    2008-01-01

    Background Injuries represent an important cause of mortality among young adults. Longitudinal studies on risk factors are scarce. We studied associations between adolescents' perceived health and health behaviour and injury death. Methods A prospective cohort of 57,407 Finns aged 14 to 18 years was followed for an average of 11.4 years. The end-point of study was injury death or termination of follow-up in 2001. The relationships of eight health and health behaviour characteristics with injury death were studied with adjusted Cox's proportional hazard model. Results We identified 298 (0.5%) injury deaths, 232 (0.9%) in men and 66 (0.2%) in women. The mean age at death was 23.8 years. In the models adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic background, the strongest risk factors for injury death were recurring drunkenness (HR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.4–3.1) and daily smoking (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3–2.2). Poor health did not predict injury death. Unintentional and intentional injury deaths had similar health and health behavioural risk factors. Conclusion Health compromising behaviour adopted at adolescence has a clear impact on the risk of injury death in adulthood independent from socioeconomic background. On the other hand, poor health as such is not a significant predictor of injury death. Promotion of healthy lifestyle among adolescents as part of public health programmes would seem an appropriate way to contribute to adolescent injury prevention. PMID:18366651

  4. Emergency department utilization and subsequent prescription drug overdose death

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Doyle, John J.; Richardson, Lynne D.; Li, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prescription drug overdose (PDO) deaths are a critical public health problem in the United States. This study aims to assess the association between emergency department (ED) utilization patterns in a cohort of ED patients and the risk of subsequent unintentional PDO mortality. Methods Using data from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System for 2006–2010, a nested case-control design was used to examine the relationship between ED utilization patterns in New York State residents of age 18–64 years and subsequent PDO death. Results The study sample consisted of 2732 case patients who died of PDO and 2732 control ED patients who were selected through incidence density sampling. With adjustment for demographic characteristics, and diagnoses of pain, substance abuse, and psychiatric disorders, the estimated odds ratios of PDO death relative to one ED visit or less in the previous year were 4.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.50–5.34) for those with two ED visits, 16.61 (95% CI: 14.72–18.75) for those with three ED visits, and 48.24 (95% CI: 43.23–53.83) for those with four ED visits or more. Conclusions Frequency of ED visits is strongly associated with the risk of subsequent PDO death. Intervention programs targeting frequent ED users are warranted to reduce PDO mortality. PMID:25935710

  5. Correlates of death anxiety in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Suhail, Kausar; Akram, Saima

    2002-01-01

    To ascertain the effect of gender, age, and religiosity on death anxiety, 132 participants were interviewed using Templer Death Anxiety Scale and Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale (CLS). Women, older participants, and less religious participants were found to be more scared of their impending death. Gender effect was more pronounced, however, on the CLS. Women and less religious people reported to experience greater anxiety than their respective counterparts about different dimensions of death, for example, the shortness of life, total isolation of death, fear of not being, and disintegration of body after dying. The findings of the current work indicate that the general predictors of death anxiety, gender, age, and religiosity reported in Western, predominantly Christian samples also hold in an Eastern, Muslim sample. PMID:11865882

  6. Hyperactive mTOR signals in the proopiomelanocortin-expressing hippocampal neurons cause age-dependent epilepsy and premature death in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Shimmura, Mitsunori; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Nishio, Miki; Akamine, Satoshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Suzuki, Akira; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Recent studies utilizing massive sequencing data identified subsets of genes that are associated with epilepsy and FCD. AKT and mTOR-related signals have been recently implicated in the pathogenic processes of epilepsy and FCD. To clarify the functional roles of the AKT-mTOR pathway in the hippocampal neurons, we generated conditional knockout mice harboring the deletion of Pten (Pten-cKO) in Proopiomelanocortin-expressing neurons. The Pten-cKO mice developed normally until 8 weeks of age, then presented generalized seizures at 8–10 weeks of age. Video-monitored electroencephalograms detected paroxysmal discharges emerging from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These mice showed progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus (DG) with increased expressions of excitatory synaptic markers (Psd95, Shank3 and Homer). In contrast, the expression of inhibitory neurons (Gad67) was decreased at 6–8 weeks of age. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the abnormal sprouting of mossy fibers in the DG of the Pten-cKO mice prior to the onset of seizures. The treatment of these mice with an mTOR inhibitor rapamycin successfully prevented the development of seizures and reversed these molecular phenotypes. These data indicate that the mTOR pathway regulates hippocampal excitability in the postnatal brain. PMID:26961412

  7. Aging: overview.

    PubMed

    Harman, D

    2001-04-01

    Aging is a universal process that began with the origination of life about 3.5 billion years ago. Accumulation of the diverse deleterious changes produced by aging throughout the cells and tissues progressively impairs function and can eventually cause death. Aging changes can be attributed to development, genetic defects, the environment, disease, and an inborn process--the aging process. The chance of death at a given age serves as a measure of the average number of aging changes accumulated by persons of that age, that is, of physiologic age, and the rate of change of this measure as the rate of aging. Chances for death are decreased by improvements in general living conditions. As a result, during the past two millennia average life expectancy at birth (ALE-B), determined by the chances for death, of humans has risen from 30 years, in ancient Rome, to almost 80 years today in the developed countries. Chances for death in the developed countries are now near limiting values and ALE-Bs are approaching plateau values that are 6-9 years less than the potential maximum of about 85 years. Chances for death are now largely determined by the inherent aging process after age 28. Only 1.1% of female cohorts in Sweden die before this age; the remainder die off at an exponentially increasing rate with advancing age. The inherent aging process limits ALE-B to around 85 years, and the maximum life span (MLS) to about 122 years. Past efforts to increase ALE-B did not require an understanding of aging. Such knowledge will be necessary in the future to significantly increase ALE-B and MLS, and to satisfactorily ameliorate the medical, economic, and social problems associated with advancing age. The many theories advanced to account for aging should be used, to the extent it is feasible, to help with these important practical problems, including applications of the free radical theory of aging. Past measures evolved by societies to ensure adequate care for older individuals are

  8. Prognostic value of the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index in chemosensitive recurrent or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphomas treated with high-dose BEAM therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, E; Peslin, N; Arnaud, P; Ferme, C; Carde, P; Vantelon, J M; Bocaccio, C; Bourhis, J H; Koscielny, S; Ribrag, V

    2005-06-01

    High-dose therapy (HDT) is now recommended for patients under 60 years of age with chemosensitive relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, approximately half of these patients will be cured by HDT. Prognostic factors are needed to predict which patients with chemosensitive lymphoma to second-line therapy could benefit from HDT. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic value of the widely used age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (AA-IPI) calculated at the time of relapse (35 patients) or just before second-line salvage therapy for primary refractory disease (5 patients). The median age was 51 years (range 18-64 years). Thirty-six patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Salvage cytoreductive therapy before HDT was DHAP/ESHAP (cytarabine, cysplatin, etoposide, steroids) in 17 patients, VIM3-Ara-c/MAMI (high-dose cytarabine, ifosfamide, methyl-gag, amsacrine) in 17 patients, CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) or reinforced CHOP in 4 patients, high-dose cyclophosphamide and etoposide in 2 patients. The HDT regimen consisted of BEAM (carmusine, cytarabine, etoposide, melphalan) in all cases. Eleven patients were in partial remission and 29 in complete remission at the time of HDT. Ten patients had an IPI >1, 16 had relapsed early (<6 months after first-line therapy) or disease was refractory to first-line therapy (5 of the 16 patients). The median follow-up was 6.07 years (range 1.24-9.74 years). Overall survival was not statistically different in patients with refractory disease or in those who relapsed early compared with late failures (>6 months after first-line chemotherapy) (P=1), but the AA-IPI >1 was associated with a poor outcome (P=0.03). In conclusion, the AA-IPI could have a prognostic value in patients with chemosensitive recurrent lymphoma treated with BEAM HDT.

  9. Two philosophical deaths: Hume and Hitchens.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G

    2013-01-01

    This essay describes the deaths of David Hume (1711-1776) and Christopher Hitchens (1949-2012). Both distinguished thinkers and writers, who shared much in their world views, died around the same age after a similarly prolonged course of terminal illness. However, the great difference in the power of medicine to intervene with the goal of cure or preserving life made their lives while facing death dramatically different. The narratives of these two deaths help shed light on some of the key features that make particular deaths and the processes of dying good or bad, as well as highlight the difficulty in achieving a good death in the world of contemporary medicine.

  10. Computations of adjusted rates and lifetime risks from occupational cohort data: a program package using FORTRAN and GLIM.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S Y; Mazumdar, S; Redmond, C K; Dong, M H; Costantino, J P

    1991-02-01

    A program package using FORTRAN and GLIM is presented to compute lifetime risks of dying from a particular cause of death for a worker subjected to specific risk exposures using death rates adjusted for selected covariates (risk factors). Calculations of the exposure index and adjusted rates depend on several commonly used procedures. Tests of homogeneity and trend for adjusted rates are provided. Lifetime risks are calculated in two different ways: adjusting or ignoring competing causes of death.

  11. Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    To examine a possible relationship between pineal function and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), samples of whole blood, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or vitreous humor (VH) were obtained at autopsy from 68 infants (45 male, 23 female) whose deaths were attributed to either SIDS (n = 32, 0.5-5.0 months of age; mean plus or minus S.E.M., 2.6 plus or minus 0.2 months) or other causes (non-SIDS, n = 36, 0.3-8.0 months of age 4.3 plus or minus 0.3 months). The melatonin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. A significant correlation was observed for melatonin levels in different body fluids from the same individual. After adjusting for age differences, CSF melatonin levels were significantly lower among the SIDS infants (91 plus or minus 29 pmol/l; n = 32) than among those dying from other causes (180 plus or minus 27; n = 35, P less than 0.05). A similar, but non-significant trend was also noted in blood (97 plus or minus 23, n = 30 vs. 144 plus or minus 22 pmol/l, n = 33) and vitreous humor (68 plus or minus 21, n = 10 vs. 81 plus or minus 17 pmol/l, n = 15). These differences do not appear to be explainable in terms of the interval between death and autopsy, gender, premortem infection, or therapeutic measures instituted prior to death. Diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

  12. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death. (a) When evidence of death is required. If you apply for benefits on the record of a deceased person,...

  13. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  14. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death. (a) When evidence of death is required. If you apply for benefits on the record of a deceased person,...

  15. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  16. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  17. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  18. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death. (a) When evidence of death is required. If you apply for benefits on the record of a deceased person,...

  19. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  20. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  1. Spinal reflexes in brain death.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Yesim; Çiftçi, Yeliz; Incesu, Tülay Kurt; Seçil, Yaprak; Akhan, Galip

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous and reflex movements have been described in brain death and these unusual movements might cause uncertainties in diagnosis. In this study we evaluated the presence of spinal reflexes in patients who fulfilled the criteria for brain death. Thirty-two (22 %) of 144 patients presented unexpected motor movements spontaneously or during examinations. These patients exhibited the following signs: undulating toe, increased deep tendon reflexes, plantar responses, Lazarus sign, flexion-withdrawal reflex, facial myokymia, neck-arm flexion, finger jerks and fasciculations. In comparison, there were no significant differences in age, sex, etiology of brain death and hemodynamic laboratory findings in patients with and without reflex motor movement. Spinal reflexes should be well recognized by physicians and it should be born in mind that brain death can be determined in the presence of spinal reflexes.

  2. Death Education and Death Fear Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary Louise

    1976-01-01

    The study examined the possibility of reducing the fear of death in early adolescents through a 12-lesson unit designed to assist the student to achieve an attitude of integration toward life and death. (NQ)

  3. Inverse Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes Obtained From Alzheimer's Patients and Skin Cancer Survivors: Increased Apoptosis in Alzheimer's and Reduced Necrosis in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Monica; Salech, Felipe; Ponce, Daniela P.; Merino, Daniela; Sinning, Mariana; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of cancer in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and low rates of AD in cancer survivors has been reported in epidemiological studies. Deregulation in opposite directions of biological mechanisms, such as susceptibility to cell death, might be shared in the two disorders. We analyzed lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients as well as healthy controls and found significantly increased vulnerability of AD lymphocytes to H2O2-induced apoptotic death and higher resistance to death of skin cancer lymphocytes, due to reduced necrosis, as compared with healthy controls by pairwise comparisons adjusted for age and sex. H2O2-induced death in lymphocytes was caspase independent and significantly reduced by PARP-1 inhibition in all three groups. These differences in the susceptibility to cell death observed for lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients may be one of the mechanisms that help explain the inverse correlation detected between these diseases in epidemiological studies. PMID:22367434

  4. Mild hyponatremia is associated with an increased risk of death in an ambulatory setting.

    PubMed

    Gankam-Kengne, Fabrice; Ayers, Colby; Khera, Amit; de Lemos, James; Maalouf, Naim M

    2013-04-01

    Hyponatremia is a common disorder associated with higher mortality in hospitalized patients, but its impact in an ambulatory setting remains unclear. Here we used data from the Dallas Heart Study, a prospective multiethnic cohort study that included ambulatory individuals, to determine the prevalence and determinants of hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mEq/l), and its impact on mortality. The analysis included 3551 individuals with a median age of 43 years followed up over a median of 8.4 years. The sample weight-adjusted prevalence of hyponatremia was 6.9%. Hyponatremia was mild (median serum sodium: 133 mEq/l), and was significantly associated with age, black ethnicity, presence of cirrhosis or congestive heart failure, and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. By the end of the follow-up period, there were 202 deaths including 29 in hyponatremic individuals. The unadjusted hazard ratio for hyponatremia and death was 1.94. Hyponatremia remained significantly associated with mortality after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol use, renal function, plasma C-reactive protein, use of antiepileptic drugs and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and history of congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, and cancer (hazard ratio of 1.75). Thus, mild hyponatremia is associated with an increased risk of death in a young and ethnically diverse community population. PMID:23325088

  5. Existential anxiety as related to conceptualization of self and of death, denial of death, and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Westman, A S

    1992-12-01

    82 students completed a questionnaire which measured their existential anxiety as described by Yalom, conceptualization of self and of death, denial of death, and religiosity. For these students, scores on existential anxiety correlated with identity confusion, feeling responsible toward others but fearing emotional closeness with them, seeing people as fundamentally different and not seeing oneself as living on in one's tasks or projects. Their existential anxiety scores were not related to a particular concept of death, but death was more likely to be seen as cold and denied. Their existential anxiety seemed symptomatic of adjustment problems for which religiosity was not helpful. Specific suggestions for further research are made.

  6. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  7. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  8. Weight Loss and Premature Death: The 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Emiliano; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Guralnik, Jack M.; Patel, Kushang V.; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship between weight loss and mortality has important clinical and public health significance but has proved to be complex. Evidence is mixed and particularly limited on the association between weight loss in mid-life and premature death (i.e. before 65 years of age), a small albeit important segment of total mortality. We aimed to study the association between midlife weight change and mortality accounting for health and lifestyle characteristics, and also considering potential bias due to preexisting chronic diseases and smoking status. Design Longitudinal, population-based, ‘the 1946 British’ birth cohort study. Subjects and Measures In 2750 men and women, mortality from age 53 through 65 years was analyzed according to categories of measured 10 year weight change between 43 and 53 years. Cox's hazard ratios (HR) were progressively adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics. Results Nearly 20% of participants lost weight and over 50% gained 5 kg or more in midlife. There were 164 deaths. Compared to those who gained between 2 and 5 kg, those who lost 5 kg or more had an increased risk of premature death independently of midlife physical activity, socio-economic circumstances and educational attainment. This association was unaltered when highest weight loss (lost more than 15 Kg) (p = 0.04) and early deaths were excluded (p<0.001), but was no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and health status (HR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.9 to 3.5). Conclusion The inverse association between weight loss in midlife and higher risk of premature death may be explained by vascular risk factors and ill health. In consideration of the burden of premature death, closer monitoring of weight loss in mid-life is warranted. PMID:24466002

  9. Adolescent archaics or adult moderns? Le Moustier 1 as a model for estimating the age at death of fragmentary supraorbital fossils in the modern human origins debate.

    PubMed

    Ahern, J C M; Smith, F H

    2004-01-01

    This study documents and examines selected implications of the adolescent supraorbital anatomy of the Le Moustier 1 Neandertal. Le Moustier's supraorbital morphology conforms to that expected of an adolescent Neandertal but indicates that significant development of the adult Neandertal torus occurs late in ontogeny. As the best preserved adolescent from the Late Pleistocene, Le Moustier 1's anatomy is used to help distinguish adolescent from adult anatomy in two cases of fragmentary supraorbital fossils, the Vindija late Neandertals and KRM 16425 from Klasies River Mouth (South Africa). It has been suggested that the modern-like aspects of the Vindija and Klasies supraorbital fossils are a function of developmental age rather than evolution. Although Le Moustier 1's anatomy does indicate that two of the Vindija fossils are adolescent; these two fossils have already been excluded from studies that demonstrate transitional aspects of the Vindija adult supraorbitals. Results of an analysis of KRM 16425 in light of Le Moustier 1 are more ambiguous. KRM 16425 is clearly not a Neandertal, but its morphology suggests that it may be an adolescent form of such late archaic Africans like Florisbad or Ngaloba. Both the Vindija and Klasies River Mouth cases highlight the need to be wary of confusing adolescent anatomy with modernity.

  10. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section 404.720 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death....

  11. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section 404.720 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death....

  12. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  13. Supporting families after sudden infant death.

    PubMed

    McClain, M E; Shaefer, S J

    1996-04-01

    Parents consistently report that supportive contacts with their health care providers make a difference in their overall adjustment to their baby's death. Parents require continuing validation that the baby's death is no one's fault, that it was not caused by anything they did or did not do. In supporting bereaved families, our goal is to assist parents to incorporate the baby's death into their lives in a way that allows them to continue to function and to recognize life as worth living and happiness as possible.

  14. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Katherine G.; Jose, Powell O.; Kapphahn, Kristopher I.; Frank, Ariel T. H.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Thompson, Caroline A.; Eggleston, Karen; Cullen, Mark R.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups. Methods and Findings We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%). Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer’s disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs. Conclusions Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these

  15. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  16. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  17. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  18. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  19. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  20. Religiosity and death distress in Arabic college students.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabwah, Mohammed N; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between religiosity and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) among a sample (N = 570) of Egyptian women nursing undergraduates, mainly Muslims. Their ages ranged from 17 to 25. The correlations between religiosity and both death anxiety and death depression were significant and negative, whereas the correlation between religiosity and death obsession was not. Significant, positive and high correlations were found between the different scales of death distress. Factor analysis of all the correlations yielded a single, salient, and bipolar factor labeled 'death distress versus religiosity.' It was argued that different situational variables may have had influenced the conceptual relationship between religiosity and death distress, including the young ages of the present sample.

  1. Fear of death and good death among the young and elderly with terminal cancers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Hu, Wen-Yu; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2005-04-01

    Fear of death is a common characteristic among palliative care patients. We might think that the elderly display a higher degree of acceptance of the inevitability and less fear in the face of death. This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between the death fear level and the good-death scale in two age groups. The study was conducted in 224 patients with terminal cancers admitted to the Palliative Care Unit in National Taiwan University Hospital during the period of January 1 through October 31, 2001. The mean age was 62.13 +/- 15.47 years. The duration of admission in the elderly group was shorter than that of the younger group (P < 0.05). The severity of death fear decreased gradually in both groups after being admitted to the hospice (P < 0.05). However, the elderly (> or = 65 years of age) displayed higher levels of death fear than the younger group at two days before death (P < 0.05). A significant negative correlation was observed between the degree of death fear and the total good death score in both groups at two days before death (P < 0.05). The comprehensive care in the palliative care unit might relate to the relief of the death fear of terminal cancer patients. There is a need for psychological and spiritual care in elderly patients.

  2. Death and Society in Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert; Owen, Greg

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)

  3. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population. PMID:9460067

  4. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    PubMed Central

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  5. Underweight as a risk factor for respiratory death in the Whitehall cohort study: exploring reverse causality using a 45-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J; Bell, Joshua A; Brunner, Eric J; Batty, G David; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Underweight adults have higher rates of respiratory death than the normal weight but it is unclear whether this association is causal or reflects illness-induced weight loss (reverse causality). Evidence from a 45-year follow-up of underweight participants for respiratory mortality in the Whitehall study (N=18 823; 2139 respiratory deaths) suggests that excess risk among the underweight is attributable to reverse causality. The age-adjusted and smoking-adjusted risk was 1.55-fold (95% CI 1.32 to 1.83) higher among underweight compared with normal weight participants, but attenuated in a stepwise manner to 1.14 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.71) after serial exclusions of deaths during the first 5-35 years of follow-up (P(trend)<0.001).

  6. Children and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.

    Health professionals and educators should develop their abilities to educate about death and to comfort the bereaved. Due to lower death rates, the lack of philosophical religious views, and distorted perceptions of death contributed by television, death has become a mystery instead of a segment of the common experience. Particularly when a child…

  7. Case-mix adjustment for evaluation of mortality in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Gerald T; Quinton, Hebe B; Kahn, Richard; Robichaud, Priscilla; Maddock, Joanne; Lever, Thomas; Detzer, Mark; Brooks, John G

    2002-02-01

    of age had almost 50% reduction in risk of death compared to those diagnosed before 6 months of age (HR 0.52 CI(95%) (0.44, 0.61), P < 0.001). When patients living in zip codes with a median household income > $50,000/year (corrected for the 1999 consumer price index) were compared with those living in areas with a median household income < $20,000/year, it was apparent that those in the wealthier areas had a 40% reduced risk of death (HR 0.60, CI(95%) (0.44, 0.82), P = 0.001). All of these characteristics were independently significant predictors of death, and all of these characteristics differed significantly across the CF Care Centers. This case-mix adjustment model uses patient and disease characteristics available at the time of diagnosis of CF, and is not believed to be influenced by subsequent treatment to predict the risk of death. If these case-mix adjustment methods are adopted broadly, they will make it possible to study treatment effects and differences in mortality outcomes, while adjusting for baseline differences in patient and disease characteristics.

  8. Multiple cause of death mortality patterns among Californians

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.C.

    1989-11-28

    The purpose of this study was to describe mortality patterns among the elderly using single versus multiple cause of death data and examine ways that multiple cause of death data can best be processed, analyzed and presented. Deaths among white California aged 65 and older for the years 1970, 1975 and 1980 were analyzed. Overall, mortality rates decreased over time, at all ages and for both sexes but more so for females, although the number of causes of death increased with age. Underlying cause mortality rates were compared to rates based on any mention of a cause on the death certificate; diabetes and atherosclerosis were more frequent causes of both than would be indicated by single cause statistics, and heart diseases other than ischemic heart disease increased in mentions on the death certificated while ischemic heart disease underlying mortality rates decreased. Pairs of causes of death showed increased likelihood of occurrence of a number of combinations of chronic diseases. In all pair combinations studied, the addition of another serious chronic disease lowered the mean age of death resulted in an older mean age of death. This result combined with higher number of causes per death but lower mortality rates among females raised interesting questions about interpreting more causes on death certificates as an indication of a sicker person at time of death. This study confirmed morbidity and mortality work on other that mortality of older adults in decreasing but that the number of causes of death per person is increasing. 82 refs., 30 figs., 59 tabs.

  9. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Motor Vehicle Accident Deaths in the United States, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Charters, Thomas J; Strumpf, Erin C

    2015-10-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) mortality has been declining overall, but little is known about trends by socioeconomic position. We examined trends in education-related inequalities in US MVA death rates from 1995 to 2010. We used mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics and population estimates from the Current Population Survey, and we calculated vehicle- and person-miles traveled using data from the National Household Travel Survey. We used negative binomial regression to estimate crude and age-, sex-, and race-adjusted mortality rates among adults aged 25 years or more. We found larger mortality decreases among the more highly educated and some evidence of mortality increases among the least educated. Adjusted death rates were 15.3 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.7, 19.9) higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top of the education distribution in 1995, increasing to 17.9 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 14.8, 21.0) by 2010. In relative terms, adjusted death rates were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.0) times higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top in 1995, increasing to 4.3 times higher (95% CI: 3.4, 5.3) by 2010. Inequality increases were larger in terms of vehicle-miles traveled. Although overall MVA death rates declined during this period, socioeconomic differences in MVA mortality have persisted or worsened over time. PMID:26354899

  10. [Fear of personal death among hospital physicians].

    PubMed

    Hamama-Raz, Y; Solomon, Z; Ohry, A

    1997-11-16

    Many studies have tried to explain why professionals experience difficulty when dealing with, and in treating efficiently situations connected with death. We studied levels of personal fear among physicians in general hospitals and addressed 2 questions: Does exposure to death on professional and personal levels, affect the level of the fear of personal death which physicians experience? Is there a relationship between personality variables, represented by the repression-sensitization dimension, and level of fear of personal death? A sample of 233 physicians from 22 general hospitals who specialized in oncology, internal medicine, surgery, psychiatry or pediatrics was studied. Each answered 4 questionnaires with regard to demographic information, fear of personal death, level of repression-sensitization and exposure to the death of relatives and significant others. There were no differences in level of fear of personal death of physicians according to specialization, but those who had been exposed to death on the personal level, feared less their own death. With respect to the personality variable, tendency to sensitization, it was found that those who were sensitized exhibited a higher level of the fear of their own death compared to those who were repressive. Of the various demographic variables examined (sex, level of religious observance, age, number of children, health, professional experience) it was found that those: with many years of professional experience, who were relatively older, who were nonobservant religiously and who were in good health, had lower levels of personal fear of death; gender was not a factor.

  11. Mortality and causes of death among incident cases of systemic lupus erythematosus in Finland 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Elfving, P; Puolakka, K; Kautiainen, H; Virta, L J; Pohjolainen, T; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate mortality and causes of death in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Finland. Data for patients with SLE for the study were collected (2000-2007) from the nationwide register on decisions of special reimbursements for drugs, maintained by the Social Insurance Institution (SII) in Finland. Data on deaths of the patients were obtained from the official death certificate statistics of Statistics Finland until the end of 2008. Of the 566 incident SLE patients, median follow-up time was 5.4 (IQR 3.3, 7.1) years, and 30 patients (23 females, seven males) died in the years 2000 through 2008. Mean age at death was 67.8 ± 17.2 years for females and 62.3 ± 15.2 years for males. The 5-year survival rates were 94.8% (95%CI 92.0-96.6%) and 88.2% (95%CI 76.5-94.3%), respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 1.48 (95%CI 1.01-2.12). Primary causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, malignancy and SLE itself. In conclusion, survival of the patients with SLE was inferior to that of the general population. Cardiovascular diseases were responsible for 37% of deaths.

  12. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    PubMed

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex.

  13. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    PubMed

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:26505283

  14. Comparative risk of death in older adults treated with antipsychotics: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schmedt, Niklas; Kollhorst, Bianca; Enders, Dirk; Jobski, Kathrin; Krappweis, Jutta; Garbe, Edeltraut; Schink, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Although the use of antipsychotics has been associated with an increased risk of death, data on the safety of individual substances is scarce. We thus aimed to compare the risk of death in new users of individual antipsychotics aged =>65 years and conducted a cohort study in the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database between 2005 and 2011. Patients were followed from initiation of treatment until death, 90 days after cohort entry, end of insurance or the end of the study period. Multivariable cox regression was used to estimate confounder adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of death for 14 individual antipsychotics compared to risperidone. In sensitivity analyses, we also applied high-dimensional propensity score (HDPS) methods to explore possible unmeasured confounding. In a cohort of 137,713 new users of antipsychotics, a higher risk of death was found for haloperidol (aHR: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.35-1.55), levomepromazine (aHR: 1.34; 1.16-1.54), zuclopenthixol (aHR: 1.32; 1.02-1.72) and to a lesser extent for melperone (aHR: 1.13; 1.07-1.19) compared to risperidone. Lower risks were observed for quetiapine, prothipendyl, olanzapine, tiapride, clozapine, perazine and flupentixol. In subgroup analyses, levomepromazine and chlorprothixene were only associated with a higher risk of death in patients aged =>80 years and with dementia. The application of HDPS methods did not substantially change the results. In conclusion, our study suggests that initiation of haloperidol, levomepromazine, zuclopenthixol and chlorprothixene treatment is associated with an increased risk of death compared to risperidone and should be avoided in older patients except in palliative care when treatment alternatives are available. PMID:27475994

  15. An investigation of unexplained infant deaths in houses contaminated with methyl parathion.

    PubMed Central

    Wasley, Annemarie; Lepine, Lisa A; Jenkins, Roland; Rubin, Carol

    2002-01-01

    In Lorain County, Ohio, unexplained infant deaths in homes sprayed with methyl parathion (MP), an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, prompted an investigation to determine whether infants living in treated homes are at higher risk for unexplained death. A case was defined as any death of an infant (12 months of age) in Lorain County between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1994, attributed to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or other unknown natural causes. For each case infant, birth certificate data were used to identify two control infants matched with regard to date of birth, sex, city of residence, and maternal race and educational level. Wipe samples from the home address listed on the birth certificate of control infants or the death certificate of case infants were analyzed for MP. Birth certificates provided additional risk factor information. The relationship between MP contamination and unexplained death was analyzed by exact conditional logistic regression. Wipe samples were collected from the residences of 34 case infants and 72 control infants. MP (>0.02 mg/100 cm2) was detected in five homes, three of which had been occupied by case infants. Case infants were 4.6 times more likely than control infants to have lived in MP-treated homes, but the confidence interval (CI) was wide (95% CI: 0.2, 274.7) and included 1. Maternal smoking, young maternal age, and the presence of other siblings in the family were each independently predictive of case status. In a multivariate model adjusting for these other variables and the matching variables, the estimated risk associated with MP exposure was 13.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 2,685.0). Although this association was not statistically significant and should be interpreted cautiously, it suggests an increased risk for unexplained death among infants living in MP-contaminated homes. The relationship between children's health and exposure to OP pesticides including MP should be evaluated further. PMID:12634139

  16. Hypertensive vascular disease as a cause of death in blacks versus whites: autopsy findings in 587 adults.

    PubMed

    Onwuanyi, A; Hodges, D; Avancha, A; Weiss, L; Rabinowitz, D; Shea, S; Francis, C K

    1998-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of excess mortality among urban US blacks, but autopsy data comparing black-white differences in underlying pathological causes of cardiovascular death are lacking. We reviewed all 720 adult cases autopsied in 1991 in the New York City Medical Examiner's Office in which the coded cause of death was cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes 391, 393 to 398, 401 to 404, 410, 411, 414 to 417, 420 to 438, and 440 to 444). After exclusion of 133 cases because race was missing or coded as other than black or white, gender was not coded, or there was an unusual circumstances of death or extreme obesity, 587 cases were available for analysis. There were 314 black and 273 white subjects. Black women were younger than white women at time of death (mean age, 54.7 versus 61.5 years; P<.001), whereas black and white men did not differ in mean age at death. Hypertensive vascular disease was the autopsy cause of death in 42% of blacks compared with 23% of whites (P<.001). Conversely, atherosclerotic heart disease was the autopsy cause of death in 64% of white subjects but only 38% of blacks. These patterns were consistent in both sexes and after adjustment for age. Hypertensive vascular disease was far more common than atherosclerotic heart disease as the cause of death at autopsy among blacks compared with whites in New York City, whereas atherosclerotic heart disease was more common in whites. These findings suggest that ineffective control of hypertension is a major factor contributing to excess cardiovascular mortality among urban blacks.

  17. Teacher Passion: Death at an Early Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience in teaching students with passion. She recalls the time when she was then what most first-year teachers are today: filled with hope and promise, determination and good will, ready to work hard and yearning to soak up the art and craft of teaching and learning. And whenever she gets tired and…

  18. Bed sharing and the sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff-Cohen, H.; Edelstein, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether infants who died of the sudden infant death syndrome routinely shared their parents' bed more commonly than control infants. DESIGN--Case-control study. SETTING--Southern California. SUBJECTS--200 white, African-American, Latin American, and Asian infants who died and 200 living controls, matched by birth hospital, date of birth, sex, and race. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Routine bedding (for example, crib, cradle), day and night time sleeping arrangement (for example, alone or sharing a bed); for cases only, sleeping arrangement at death. Differences in bed sharing practices among races. RESULTS--Of the infants who died of the syndrome, 45 (22.4%) were sharing a bed. Daytime bed sharing was more common in African-American (P < 0.001) and Latin American families (P < 0.001) than in white families. The overall adjusted odds ratio for the syndrome and routine bed sharing in the daytime was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 3.22) and for night was 1.21 (0.59 to 2.48). These odds ratios were adjusted for routine sleep position, passive smoking, breast feeding, intercom use, infant birth weight, medical conditions at birth, and maternal age and education. There was no interaction between bed sharing and passive smoking or alcohol use by either parent. CONCLUSIONS--Although there was a significant difference between bed sharing among African-American and Latin American parents compared with white parents, there was no significant relation between routine bed sharing and the sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:7496236

  19. Association of caesarean section and neonatal death: a population-based case-control study in Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghaedmohammadi, Z; Anaraki, A; Khajeian, A; Khajehian, M; Ostovar, A

    2015-06-09

    The high caesarean section rate in the Islamic Republic of Iran could be a risk for adverse neonatal outcomes. This population-based, case-control study investigated the association of caesarean section and neonatal death. A total of 146 mothers whose babies had died during 28 days after birth were compared with 549 mothers with live newborns, according to delivery route and reasons for undergoing caesarean section. The crude odds ratio (OR) for the association of caesarean section and neonatal death was 1.97 (1.35-2.87). The adjusted OR was 2.19 (1.48-3.24) controlled for mother's education, parity and age. Adjusted ORs for elective caesarean, previous caesarean and emergency caesarean were 0.65 (0.26-1.62), 2.77 (1.64-4.66) and 2.51 (1.56-4.03) respectively. The ORs for caesarean delivery and neonatal death varied by mother's education, parity and age. The association of caesarean section with neonatal death is complex and is modified by other influencing factors.

  20. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania’s Experience 1979-2014

    PubMed Central

    Balmert, Lauren C.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.; Pringle, Janice L.; Williams, Karl E.; Burke, Donald S.; Marsh, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014. Methods Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49) from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates. Results Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35–44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton. Conclusions The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35–44. PMID:26963396

  1. PAN-811 inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death of human Alzheimer's disease-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells via suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valery M; Dancik, Chantée M; Pan, Weiying; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Lebowitz, Michael S; Ghanbari, Hossein A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased oxidative stress has been shown to be a prominent and early feature of vulnerable neurons in AD. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells are affected at an early stage. Exposure to oxidative stress induces the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes cell damage in the form of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidations. Elevated ROS levels are also associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta and formation of senile plaques, a hallmark of the AD brain. If enhanced ROS exceeds the basal level of cellular protective mechanisms, oxidative damage and cell death will result. Therefore, substances that can reduce oxidative stress are sought as potential drug candidates for treatment or preventative therapy of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PAN-811, also known as 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone or Triapine, is a small lipophilic compound that is currently being investigated in several Phase II clinical trials for cancer therapy due to its inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Here we show PAN-811 to be effective in preventing or reducing ROS accumulation and the resulting oxidative damages in both AD-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells.

  2. Pre-hospital antibiotic treatment and mortality caused by invasive meningococcal disease, adjusting for indication bias

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Milla, Emilio; Olalla, Julián; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Martos, Francisco; Matute-Cruz, Petra; Carmona-López, Guadalupe; Fornieles, Yolanda; Cayuela, Aurelio; García-Alegría, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background Mortality from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) has remained stable over the last thirty years and it is unclear whether pre-hospital antibiotherapy actually produces a decrease in this mortality. Our aim was to examine whether pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy reduces mortality from IMD, adjusting for indication bias. Methods A retrospective analysis was made of clinical reports of all patients (n = 848) diagnosed with IMD from 1995 to 2000 in Andalusia and the Canary Islands, Spain, and of the relationship between the use of pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy and mortality. Indication bias was controlled for by the propensity score technique, and a multivariate analysis was performed to determine the probability of each patient receiving antibiotics, according to the symptoms identified before admission. Data on in-hospital death, use of antibiotics and demographic variables were collected. A logistic regression analysis was then carried out, using death as the dependent variable, and pre-hospital antibiotic use, age, time from onset of symptoms to parenteral antibiotics and the propensity score as independent variables. Results Data were recorded on 848 patients, 49 (5.72%) of whom died. Of the total number of patients, 226 had received oral antibiotics before admission, mainly betalactams during the previous 48 hours. After adjusting the association between the use of antibiotics and death for age, time between onset of symptoms and in-hospital antibiotic treatment, pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy remained a significant protective factor (Odds Ratio for death 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.15–0.93). Conclusion Pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy appears to reduce IMD mortality. PMID:19344518

  3. Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy: place and time of death

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, JFT; Thompson, AJ; Ingram, PJ

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many babies who die of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) in Northern Ireland are found dead in bed – i.e. co-sleeping – with an adult. In order to assess its frequency autopsy reports between April 1996 and August 2001 were reviewed and linked to temporal factors. The day and month of death, and the place where the baby was found were compared to a reference population of infant deaths between one week of age and the second birthday. Although the rate of SUDI was lower than the UK average, 43 cases of SUDI were identified, and two additional deaths with virtually identical autopsy findings that were attributed to asphyxia caused by suffocation due to overlaying. Thirty-two of the 45 (71%) were less than four months of age. In 30 of the 45 cases (67%) the history stated that the baby was bed sharing with others; 19 died sleeping in an adult bed, and 11 on a sofa or armchair. In 16 of the 30 (53%) there were at least two other people sharing the sleeping surface, and in one case, three. SUDI was twice as frequent at weekends (found dead Saturday – Monday mornings) compared to weekdays (p<0.02), and significantly more common compared to reference deaths (p<0.002). Co-sleeping deaths were also more frequent at weekends. Almost half of all SUDI (49%) occurred in the summer months – more than twice the frequency of reference deaths. While sharing a place of sleep per se may not increase the risk of death, our findings may be linked to factors such as habitual smoking, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs as reported in case-control studies. In advising parents on safer childcare practices, health professionals must be knowledgeable of current research and when, for example, giving advice on co-sleeping this needs to be person-specific cognisant of the risks within a household. New and better means of targeting such information needs to be researched if those with higher risk life-styles are to be positively influenced. PMID:16457407

  4. Rising lung cancer death rates among black men: the importance of occupation and social class.

    PubMed

    Miller, W J; Cooper, R

    1982-03-01

    From 1950 to 1977 the age-adjusted cancer death rates for nonwhite men in the United States rose an astonishing 63.2 percent, while rates for white men increased 22.2 percent and fell slightly for women of both races. The bulk of this increase can be accounted for by cancer of the lung. As a serious health problem that is increasing in severity, cancer in black men deserves close attention and definitive action. This discussion focuses on basic epidemiological relationships in the origins of this epidemic, particularly in regard to the relative importance of occupation, cigarette smoking, and social class.

  5. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  6. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  7. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  8. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  9. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  10. Trends in the leading causes of death in Korea, 1983-2012.

    PubMed

    Lim, Daroh; Ha, Mina; Song, Inmyung

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze trends in the 10 leading causes of death in Korea from 1983 to 2012. Death rates were derived from the Korean Statistics Information Service database and age-adjusted to the 2010 population. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify the points when statistically significant changes occurred in the trends. Between 1983 and 2012, the age-standardized death rate (ASR) from all causes decreased by 61.6% for men and 51.2% for women. ASRs from malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and transport accidents increased initially before decreasing. ASRs from hypertensive diseases, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases and diseases of the liver showed favorable trends (ASR % change: -94.4%, -53.8%, -76.0%, and -78.9% for men, and -77.1%, -36.5%, -67.8%, and -79.9% for women, respectively). ASRs from pneumonia decreased until the mid-1990s and thereafter increased. ASRs from intentional self-harm increased persistently since around 1990 (ASR % change: 122.0% for men and 217.4% for women). In conclusion, death rates from all causes in Korea decreased significantly in the last three decades except in the late 1990s. Despite the great strides made in the overall mortality, temporal trends varied widely by cause. Mortality trends for malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, pneumonia and intentional self-harm were unfavorable.

  11. Alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost--11 States, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Katherine; Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Tran, Annie; Saiki, Cathy; Johnson, Hal; Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Tom; Creppage, Kathleen; Lepp, Alicia; Miller, Tracy; Tarkhashvili, Nato; Lynch, Kristine E; Watson, Joanna R; Henderson, Danielle; Christenson, Megan; Geiger, Sarah Dee

    2014-03-14

    Excessive alcohol consumption, the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States, resulted in approximately 88,000 deaths and 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) annually during 2006-2010 and cost an estimated $223.5 billion in 2006. To estimate state-specific average annual rates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and YPLL caused by excessive alcohol use, 11 states analyzed 2006-2010 data (the most recent data available) using the CDC Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) application. The age-adjusted median AAD rate was 28.5 per 100,000 population (range = 50.9 per 100,000 in New Mexico to 22.4 per 100,000 in Utah). The median YPLL rate was 823 per 100,000 (range = 1,534 YPLL per 100,000 for New Mexico to 634 per 100,000 in Utah). The majority of AAD (median = 70%) and YPLL (median = 82%) were among working-age (20-64 years) adults. Routine monitoring of alcohol-attributable health outcomes, including deaths and YPLL, in states could support the planning and implementation of evidence-based prevention strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force to reduce excessive drinking and related harms. Such strategies include increasing the price of alcohol, limiting alcohol outlet density, and holding alcohol retailers liable for harms related to the sale of alcoholic beverages to minors and intoxicated patrons (dram shop liability). PMID:24622285

  12. 20 CFR 219.22 - When evidence of death is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When evidence of death is required. 219.22... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.22 When evidence of death is required. (a) When evidence of the employee's death is required. Evidence to prove the employee's death is...

  13. 20 CFR 219.22 - When evidence of death is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence of death is required. 219.22... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.22 When evidence of death is required. (a) When evidence of the employee's death is required. Evidence to prove the employee's death is...

  14. 20 CFR 219.22 - When evidence of death is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When evidence of death is required. 219.22... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.22 When evidence of death is required. (a) When evidence of the employee's death is required. Evidence to prove the employee's death is...

  15. 20 CFR 219.22 - When evidence of death is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence of death is required. 219.22... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.22 When evidence of death is required. (a) When evidence of the employee's death is required. Evidence to prove the employee's death is...

  16. 20 CFR 219.22 - When evidence of death is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence of death is required. 219.22... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.22 When evidence of death is required. (a) When evidence of the employee's death is required. Evidence to prove the employee's death is...

  17. Suicide on death row.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Tartaro, Christine

    2002-09-01

    The suicide rate on death row for the period 1976 through 1999 was found to be high (113 per 100,000 per year), some five times higher than the suicide rate for the male population of the United States. The death row suicide rate was predicted by features of the death row population (negatively with the population on death row) and by social indicators of the society as a whole (negatively with birth and divorce rates and positively with marriage rates).

  18. No life without death.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Peter H; Kamiński, Marcin; Kiessling, Michael; Gülow, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis-programed cell death-is the most common form of death in the body. Once apoptosis is induced, proper execution of the cell death program requires the coordinated activation and execution of multiple molecular processes. Here, we describe the pathways and the basic components of the death-inducing machinery. Since apoptosis is a key regulator of tissue homeostasis, an imbalance of apoptosis results in severe diseases like cancer, autoimmunity, and AIDS.

  19. The Influence of Demographic Variables on University Students' Adjustment in North Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderi, Mohd; Jdaitawi, Malek; Ishak, Noor Azniza; Jdaitawi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the student university adjustment particularly the determination of the adjustment level of first year university students in Jordan. The three domains are namely overall college adjustment, domain of social adjustment, and academic adjustment. In addition, in this analysis, gender, age, types of…

  20. Dreams of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  1. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  2. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  3. Childhood Bereavement: Psychopathology in the 2 Years Postparental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerel, Julie; Fristad, Mary A.; Verducci, Joseph; Weller, Ronald A.; Weller, Elizabeth B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the death of a parent is one of the most significant stressors a child can experience, the psychiatric sequelae of parental death are not fully understood. Method: A total of 360 parent-bereaved children (ages 6-17) and their surviving parents were directly interviewed four times during the first 2 years following the death (at…

  4. Adolescents' Perceptions and Experiences of Death and Grieving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Suzanne M.; Welsh, Lesley A.

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents (N=32) ages 13-18 were interviewed about their experiences of death and loss. Subjects attended suburban public high school or a facility for adjudicated urban youth. Urban adolescents' perception of death involved reference to violence or religion. The most distasteful aspect of death to suburban students was suffering, while to…

  5. Thoughts about Death and Dying in an African Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijana, E. W. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward death and dying among 163 Xhosa-speaking children and adults in South Africa. Found age, gender, belief in life after death, educational level, and exposure to death and dying were critical factors in formation of attitudes. Findings were similar to those from previous studies in African and western societies. (Author/NB)

  6. Revision and Factor Analysis of a Death Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, James A.; Powell, F. C.

    Earlier research on death anxiety using the 34-item scale developed by Nehrke-Templer-Boyar (NTB) indicated that females and younger persons have significantly higher death anxiety. To simplify a death anxiety scale for use with different age groups, and to determine the conceptual factors actually measured by the scale, a revised 25-item…

  7. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  8. Early death in patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bairey, Osnat; Bar-Natan, Michal; Shpilberg, Ofer

    2013-03-01

    This study sought to identify risk factors for early death in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The databases of a tertiary medical center were reviewed for adult patients diagnosed with NHL since 1985 who died within 4 months of diagnosis. Comprehensive background, disease-related data, and treatment-related data were collected and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Ninety-two patients (7 % of the patient registry) met the inclusion criteria: 40 men and 52 women of mean age 74 years. Most (86 %) had B cell NHL; the most frequent pathologic classification was diffuse large B cell lymphoma (75 %). Rates of other disease-related factors were as follows: aggressive disease, 90 %; stage IV, 73 %; bulky disease, 66 %; extranodal involvement, 86 % (usually >1 site); performance score 2-4, 76 %; international prognostic index 3-5, 89 %; and B symptoms, 84 %. Mean Ki-67 proliferation index was 71 %. Additionally, 80 % of patients had a high lactose dehydrogenase level, 89 % a high beta-2 microglobulin level, and 47 % serosal (mainly pleural) effusion. A history of other cancer or organ transplantation was documented in 24 %. Chemotherapy was administered to 59 %, mostly CHOP. In conclusion, early death occurs in at least 7 % of patients with newly diagnosed NHL. This patient group is characterized by older age, aggressive lymphoma, poor performance status, advanced-stage disease, extranodal disease, B symptoms, bulky disease, elevated lactate dehydrogenase and beta-2 microglobulin levels, and serosal effusion. These early death resulted from sepsis, severe underlying disease, disease progression, or gastrointestinal perforation. The selection of appropriate treatment modalities for these patients with poor prognostic features is a real challenge. They should undergo comprehensive geriatric assessment and receive individualized tailored treatments with protocol adjustment to their condition, strict clinical surveillance, best supportive care, and maybe, as recently suggested

  9. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  10. Predictors of death anxiety among midwives who have experienced maternal death situations at work.

    PubMed

    Muliira, Rhoda Suubi; Sendikadiwa, Vito Bosco; Lwasampijja, Fred

    2015-05-01

    One of the hardships faced by midwives in developing countries is dealing with maternal death. Taking care of pregnant women who end up dying makes midwives mindful of their own mortality and this experience provokes discomfort and anxiety. To determine the predictors of death anxiety among midwives who have experienced maternal death at work in order to recommend interventions to facilitate effective coping with the distress. An exploratory, descriptive design was used to collect data about death anxiety from 224 midwives working in two rural districts of Uganda. Death anxiety was measured using a subscale of the Death Distress Scale. The majority of participants were female (80 %) and with associate degree level professional education (92 %). Participant's mean age and years of professional experience were 34 (±6.3) and 4 (±2.1) years, respectively. Most participants (74.6 %) had moderate or high death anxiety. The predictors of death anxiety were: having witnessed two and more maternal death in the past 2 years [odds ratio (OR) = 3.175; p ≤ .01]; being in charge of four or more maternal deaths (OR = 5.13; p ≤ .01); lack of professional training in handling death situations (OR = 3.32; p ≤ .01); and coping with maternal death situations using methods such as: planning (OR = 4.90; p ≤ .01), active coping (OR = 3.43; p ≤ .05) and acceptance (OR = 2.99; p ≤ .05). Multiple exposure to maternal death situations is associated with an increase in death anxiety among midwives working in rural settings. Employers need to provide deliberate support to enable midwives to cope effectively with death anxiety at work. PMID:25098369

  11. Risk factors for death from pandemic influenza in 1918–1919: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Jennifer A; Stanley, James; Baker, Michael G; Wilson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the persisting threat from future influenza pandemics, much is still unknown about the risk factors for death from such events, and especially for the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic. Methods A case–control study was performed to explore possible risk factors for death from pandemic influenza among New Zealand military personnel in the Northern Hemisphere in 1918–1919 (n = 218 cases, n = 221 controls). Data were compiled from a Roll-of-Honour dataset, a dataset of nearly all military personnel involved in the war and archived individual records. Results In the fully adjusted multivariable model, the following were significantly associated with increased risk of death from pandemic influenza: age (25–29 years), pre-pandemic hospitalisations for a chronic condition (e.g. tuberculosis), relatively early year of military deployment, a relatively short time from enlistment to foreign service, and having a larger chest size (e.g. adjusted odds ratio for 90–99 cm versus <90 cm was 2·45; 95% CI=1·47–4·10). There were no significant associations in the fully adjusted model with military rank, occupational class at enlistment, and rurality at enlistment. Conclusions This is one of the first published case–control studies of mortality risk factors for the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic. Some of the findings are consistent with previous research on risk factors (such as chronic conditions and age groups), but others appear more novel (e.g., larger chest size). As all such historical analyses have limitations, there is a need for additional studies in other settings as archival World War One records become digitalised. PMID:24490663

  12. Apparent disapperance of hypernatraemic dehydration from infant deaths in Sheffield.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, R; Emery, J L

    1979-09-01

    The death certificates and necropsy reports of the 1115 Sheffield infants who died under 2 years of age in 1969-78 were examined. This study showed the apparent disappearance of deaths with hypernatraemia and in particular deaths presenting as cot deaths. The fall in incidence may be as much the result of an intensive local campaign on child care and infant feeding as of the change in the composition of dried milk for baby feeding.

  13. Effect of Young Maternal Age on Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes: Results from the Tertiary Center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Oya; Yılmaz, Ertuğrul; Tosun, Özgür; Kumru, Pınar; Arınkan, Arzu; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Selçuk, Selçuk; Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Arısoy, Resul; Erdoğdu, Emre; Tarhan, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young maternal age is variously defined in studies of its effect on obstetrics and perinatal outcomes. Also, pregnancy has been reported as the leading cause of death in adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of obstetrics and perinatal adverse outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: This case-control study was derived from a database of the medical records between January 2008 and December 2012. In the present study, 1374 teenage pregnancy and 1294 adult pregnancy cases were included. After restriction of analyses to singleton primiparous women, 1282 teenage pregnancy and 735 adult pregnancy cases were analyzed. Maternal age was separated into three groups: 15 and less, 16–19, and 20–34 years. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were derived through logistic regression models for the potential confounding factors. Results: Adolescents aged 15 years and younger had higher risks of preterm delivery, early preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death compared with women aged 20 to 34 years after adjustment for confounding factors. In addition, both groups of adolescents had higher risks for anemia and episiotomy and lower risk of cesarean delivery. The rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, chronic diseases, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were higher in the adult group. Conclusion: Younger maternal age was correlated with increased risks of preterm delivery, fetal and neonatal death and anemia. PMID:27308080

  14. Death Does Matter—Cancer Risk in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shih-Feng; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Jan, Ren-Long; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chu, Chin-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a high mortality rate. We hypothesized that not accounting for death as a competing risk overestimates the event rate caused by ESRD. Thus, we examined the cancer risk for patients with ESRD (ESRDPos) after death as a competing risk event had been adjusted for. Patients with newly diagnosed ESRD (n = 64,299) between 1999 and 2007, together with age- and sex-matched controls without ESRD (ESRDNeg) (n = 128,592) were enrolled (1:2). In a Cox proportional hazards model that included death as a competing risk, ESRDPos patients in Taiwan had a lower overall incidence (subdistribution hazard ratio [sdHR] = 1.29) of cancer than did ESRDNeg patients in a Cox model that did not include death as a competing risk (HR = 1.70). After competing mortality had been adjusted for, ESRDPos patients ≥70 (sdHR = 0.82) and ESRDPos patients on long-term dialysis (> 5 follow-up years, sdHR = 0.62), had a lower risk for developing cancer than did ESRDNeg patients. This finding supported our hypothesis that standard survival analyses overestimate the event rate, especially when the mortality rate is high. It also showed that ESRDPos patients, when they grow older, were far less likely to develop cancer and far more likely to die because of underlying illnesses that might also affect the risk of death because of ESRD. PMID:26817891

  15. Death anxiety in adolescents: the contributions of bereavement and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Ens, Carla; Bond, John B

    2007-01-01

    Possible relationships between bereavement and religiosity to death anxiety levels of adolescents were investigated. Scales measuring religiosity, bereavement, and death anxiety were incorporated into one questionnaire. Two hundred and twenty-six adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 participated in the study based in urban and rural private schools within Manitoba. Females exhibited significantly higher death anxiety levels than did males; differences between the death anxiety levels of adolescents having a no-previous-death-experience death and those who had experienced a familial death were not significant; while religiosity levels were significantly higher for students attending religion-based schools, the relationships between measurements of religiosity and death anxiety were weak. Grief due to bereavement was the major factor in determining death anxiety for the adolescent.

  16. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women.

  17. Cervical Screening and Cervical Cancer Death Among Older Women: A Population-Based, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Alison S.; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D.; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55–79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980–2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5–7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55–79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening—a more sensitive test—to reduce cervical cancer death among older women. PMID:24685531

  18. Attitudes Toward Death Across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Robert; Walker, Gail

    To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…

  19. Couples facing death. I-Psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Stedeford, A

    1981-01-01

    Forty-one couples facing the prospect of separation by death were followed up from the time of admission to a continuing care unit through death of the patient to an interview with the bereaved spouse. Half the patients were found to have anxiety or depression or both, usually as a result of failure to cope with specific difficulties. These fell into four groups: unsatisfactory communication, direct effects of illness and treatment, failure to adjust lifestyles to changing circumstances, and pre-existing marital and family problems. This paper examines in detail the problems in the second and third groups. Support was offered to the patient and family in an attempt to help them to adjust and make the best use of their resources. The responses obtained suggest that some of the suffering of terminal illness can be relieved when psychosocial problems are recognised and appropriated help is given. PMID:6794752

  20. The Effects of Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David

    Although fear of death is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of death and the fear of death have only occurred for the last few decades. Death education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of death education on death anxiety by…

  1. Sudden Death Following Exercise; a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Najari, Fares; Alimohammadi, Alimohammad; Ghodrati, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Natural and unexpected death that happens within less than one hour of first symptom occurrence is called sudden death. Cardiovascular diseases are the main known reason of sudden death and more than 75% of sudden deaths in athletes are assigned to it. Here we reported the autopsy results of all cases with sudden death following exercise that were referred to forensic center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014. Methods: In this cross sectional study all subjects who were registered to forensic medicine center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014, as a case of sudden death following exercise were evaluated. Demographic data and medical history as well as autopsy and toxicology findings were retrospectively gathered using profiles of the deceased. Results were reported using descriptive analysis. Results: 14 cases were registered as sudden death following exercise in forensic medicine profiles during the study period. Exploring the files of the mentioned deceased, revealed five non-compatible cases in this regard. Finally, 9 eligible cases were enrolled (88.9% male). The mean age of the deceased was 28.66 ± 10.86 years (range: 7 – 40). Toxicological tests were available for 7 cases, one of which was positive for tramadol. Sudden death following football was reported most frequently (44.4%). Only 3 (33.3%) cases had herald signs such as chest pain, syncope, or loss of consciousness. 1 case (11.11%) had a positive history of sudden death in relatives. Conclusion: Although most sudden death victims are asymptomatic until the event, all those who suffer from symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue and irregular heart rate during physical activities, should be screened regarding common probable causes of sudden death. PMID:27274521

  2. Programmed Death in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kim

    2000-01-01

    discriminate between nutrient deprivation and unrepairable damage. High levels of persistors are apparently responsible for the extraordinary survival properties of bacterial biofilms, and genes affecting persistence appear to be promising targets for development of drugs aimed at eradicating recalcitrant infections. PCD in unicellular eukaryotes is also considered, including aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Apoptosis-like elimination of defective cells in S. cerevisiae and protozoa suggests that all unicellular life forms evolved altruistic programmed death that serves a variety of useful functions. PMID:10974124

  3. Blue Monday phenomenon among men: suicide deaths in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Ito, Taku; Sekii, Hideaki; Kawamoto, Teruyoshi; Hashimoto, Masayasu; Ohida, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    The number of suicide deaths in Japan has continued to be high, and is a pressing social problem. Although the weekly distribution of suicide deaths has been documented, no nationwide analysis has yet been conducted. In the present study, the ratios of the number of suicide deaths per day, by day of the week, and on weekdays relative to holidays were calculated using the data for all suicide deaths recorded in 2003. The suicide deaths recorded on holidays were treated as the reference, and a confidence interval of 95% (95% CI) was used. We calculated the suicide death ratios among men and women of all ages (men:23,396, women:8,713, total:32,109) and also among those of productive age (age:15-64 years, men:18,552, women:5,481, total:24,033). Among men of all ages, the suicide death ratio on Mondays was found to be significantly high at 1.49 (95% CI:1.04-2.14), and the ratios were found to decrease over the course of the week from Monday to Friday. On each weekday, the suicide death ratios among men of productive age were found to be higher than those among men of all ages. Among women, the suicide death ratios on any weekday were found to be higher than 1, but there was no significant difference between the days. Among both men and women, the number of suicide deaths on holidays was lower than that on weekdays. This study revealed that the number of suicide deaths recorded per day on Mondays is 1.5 times higher than that on holidays among men. This suggests that the structure of the work week may possibly influence suicide deaths among men. Future discussions regarding the arrangement and distribution of weekly holidays should be conducted in order to reduce the number of suicide deaths.

  4. Modelling predictions of cancer deaths in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    French, D; Catney, D; Gavin, AT

    2006-01-01

    Background An ageing population has service planners concerned about future levels of disease which are age dependent. Predictions of mortality for colorectal, lung and breast cancers, which account for 30% of cancer cases and 40% of cancers deaths, were calculated for 2010 and 2015, based on trends in death rates and the predicted change in the demography of the Northern Ireland population. Methods The US National Cancer Institute's “Joinpoint” program was used to check for structural breaks in the time series of cancer death rates from 1984 to 2004. The prediction models applied to the data allowed variations in trends across age groups to be taken into account. A linear model was used for increasing or constant trends and a log linear model was used where the trend was decreasing. The models assume the number of deaths in each stratum, defined by age-sex and time-period, is Poisson distributed, with the average value determined by a log or linear function. Results Recent trends in rates of cancers studied were downwards except for female lung. Predictions include decreased colorectal cancer deaths in females and lung cancer deaths in males. In females, lung cancer deaths are predicted to more than double by the year 2015 (473 deaths), based on the 1984 level. Colorectal death rates in males are predicted to drop, but the number of deaths will increase by more than 10%, due to demographic change. Numbers of breast cancer deaths are likely to rise slightly, despite falling age standardised death rates, due to an ageing population. Conclusions This work has provided estimates of early future trends, useful to service planners, and highlights the need for tobacco control, to reduce numbers of lung cancer deaths in females. The recently announced control of environmental tobacco legislation is one welcome development which should reduce lung cancer mortality in Northern Ireland. PMID:16755941

  5. An Exploratory Study of Adjustment to Widowhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas-Hawkings, Gwen; And Others

    Although widowhood is a disruptive and inevitable phenomenon for many older people, few studies have explored either adjustment to widowhood or the impact of widowhood on the lives of elderly people. Recently widowed persons (N=51), ranging in age from 49 to 83 years old, were interviewed to examine their relatively immediate psychosocial…

  6. Indian Family Adjustment to Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Lee Anne; Keltner, Bette

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the community response of how American Indian families adapt to having school age children with disabilities in two diverse American Indian communities. An ethnographic design was utilized to construct a taxonomy about family adjustment of American Indian families with disabilities. Community Assessment…

  7. Simple, Internally Adjustable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Valve containing simple in-line, adjustable, flow-control orifice made from ordinary plumbing fitting and two allen setscrews. Construction of valve requires only simple drilling, tapping, and grinding. Orifice installed in existing fitting, avoiding changes in rest of plumbing.

  8. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  9. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  10. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  11. Fatty acid oxidation disorders as primary cause of sudden and unexpected death in infants and young children: an investigation performed on cultured fibroblasts from 79 children who died aged between 0-4 years.

    PubMed Central

    Lundemose, J B; Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N; Christensen, E; Gregersen, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disorders of fatty acid metabolism are known to be responsible for cases of sudden and unexpected death in infancy. At least 14 disorders are known at present. 120 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) had been examined for a prevalent mutation (G985) causing medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, which is inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. No over-representation of either homozygous or heterozygous cases was found. AIMS: To investigate a broader spectrum of fatty acid oxidation disorders in a wider range of sudden deaths in infants and young children. METHODS: Seventy nine cases of unexpected death in infants and young children younger than 4 years old were examined for a minimum of nine fatty acid oxidation disorders, using the global [9, 10-3H] myristic acid oxidation assay in cultured fibroblasts from achilles tendon biopsies taken at postmortem examination. RESULTS: Three cases with fatty acid oxidation disorders and two carriers of the G985 mutation were found, all categorized as non-SIDS or borderline SIDS. The global assay used has the advantage of simplicity. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that disorders of fatty acid oxidation play a small but significant role in the cause of unexpected death in infants and young children, and that infants and children dying in this way should be regarded as high risk candidates for metabolic diseases. PMID:9350306

  12. Brain Death and Islam

    PubMed Central

    Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M.

    2014-01-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient’s religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999

  13. Conflicting Thoughts about Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Most research on children's conception of death has probed their understanding of its biological aspects: its inevitability, irreversibility and terminal impact. Yet many adults subscribe to a religious conception implying that death marks the beginning of a new life. Two recent empirical studies confirm that in the course of development, children…

  14. Death Acceptance through Ritual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the author's original research, which sought to discover the elements necessary for using death-related ritual as a psychotherapeutic technique for grieving people who experience their grief as "stuck," "unending," "maladaptive," and so on. A "death-related ritual" is defined as a ceremony, directly involving at least 1…

  15. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-02-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct.

  16. The Psychology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, B. Celestine

    1976-01-01

    Forty-eight black men and women living and/or attending school in the St. Louis and Washington, D.C. areas responded to questionnaires concerning feelings, attitudes, emotions, etc. towards death and dying. It is concluded that blacks see death as a very significant happening; and that although in some areas blacks have become Americanized in…

  17. Death Writ Large

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

  18. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-01-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504

  19. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  20. Reflections on Death Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskey, Raymond J.

    1977-01-01

    The author comments on the need to discuss death openly in the classroom, noting that engaging students with the idea of coming to grips with the fact of their own death can prepare them for living, working, and loving more fully. (SH)

  1. SUICIDE ON DEATH ROW.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2015-12-01

    For the period 1976-2011, the suicide rate on death rows in the United States was only weakly (and non-significantly) associated with the marriage, birth, divorce, and unemployment rates in the general population. Possible explanations for why social indicators in the larger society might be associated with the behavior of prisoners on death row were discussed. PMID:26595302

  2. The Sociology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    When we start to look at the issues associated with dying and death, we must do so in terms of the broadest parameters imaginable. Presented at the Conference on Death and Dying: Education, Counseling, and Care, December 1-3, 1976, Orlando, Florida. (Author)

  3. Programmed cell death

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  4. Death Obsession in Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Al-Arja, Nahida S.; Abdalla, Taysir

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N=601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha…

  5. The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and risk of disease death in men: modification by magnesium intake.

    PubMed

    Mursu, Jaakko; Nurmi, Tarja; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K

    2015-04-01

    Low vitamin D status increases the risk of death. Magnesium plays an essential role in vitamin D metabolism and low magnesium intake may predispose to vitamin D deficiency and potentiate the health problems. We investigated whether magnesium intake modifies the serum 25(OH)D3 concentration and its associations with mortality in middle-aged and older men. We included 1892 men aged 42-60 years without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline in 1984-1989 from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Serum 25(OH)D3 was measured with the high-performance liquid chromatography using coulometric electrode array detection. Magnesium intake was assessed with 4-day food recording. Deaths were ascertained by a computer linkage to the national cause of death register. Deaths due accidents and suicides were excluded. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the associations. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death in the lowest (<32.1 nmol/L) versus the highest (>49.4 nmol/L) serum 25(OH)D3 tertile was 1.31 (95 % CI 1.07-1.60, Ptrend = 0.01). Stratified by the magnesium intake, the higher risk was observed only in the lower magnesium intake median (<414 mg/day); HR = 1.60 (95 % CI 1.19-2.13, Ptrend = 0.002) in the lowest versus the highest 25(OH)D3 tertile, whereas the corresponding HR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.75-1.36, Ptrend = 0.63) in the higher magnesium intake median, P for interaction = 0.08. In this cohort of middle-aged and older men low serum 25(OH)D3 concentration was associated with increased risk of death mainly in those with lower magnesium intake.

  6. Impact of depression on quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) directly as well as indirectly through suicide

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Matthew M.; Thompson, William W.; Crosby, Alex E.; Gottesman, Irving I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) loss among US adults due to depression and QALE losses associated with the increased risk of suicide attributable to depression. Method We ascertained depressive symptoms using the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) on the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. We estimated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores from BRFSS data (n = 276,442) and constructed life tables from US Compressed Mortality Files to calculate QALE by depression status. QALE loss due to depression is the difference in QALE between depressed and non-depressed adults. QALE loss associated with suicide deaths is the difference between QALE from only those deaths that did not have suicide recorded on the death certificate and QALE from all deaths including those with a suicide recorded on the death certificate. Results At age 18, QALE was 28.0 more years for depressed adults and 56.8 more years for non-depressed adults, a 28.9-year QALE loss due to depression. For depressed adults, only 0.41 years of QALE loss resulted from deaths by suicide, and only 0.26 years of this loss could be attributed to depression. Conclusion Depression symptoms lead to a significant burden of disease from both mortality and morbidity as assessed by QALE loss. The 28.9-year QALE loss at age 18 associated with depression markedly exceeds estimates reported elsewhere for stroke (12.4-year loss), heart disease (10.3-year loss), diabetes mellitus (11.1-year loss), hypertension (6.3-year loss), asthma (7.0-year loss), smoking (11.0-year loss), and physical inactivity (8.0-year loss). PMID:25660550

  7. Death in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M

    1990-01-01

    Does it matter that the hearts of 'brainstem dead' patients may persist in beating spontaneously? Hostile reactions, to the Danish inclusion of cardiac criteria in the determination of death, betray reductionist views of human life at the core of 'brainstem' conceptions of death. Such views (whether centred on neurological function or on abstractions concerning 'personhood') supplant the richness of human life and death with the poverty of essentialism: and mask the lethal nature of beating-heart organ retrieval. The affirmation of cardiac criteria for death is not an alternative form of essentialism as some critics suppose, but part of an understanding of human life and death which rejects essentialism altogether. The spontaneously persistent heartbeat does not constitute human life, but most certainly counts for it. PMID:2287015

  8. Death in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    1990-12-01

    Does it matter that the hearts of 'brainstem dead' patients may persist in beating spontaneously? Hostile reactions, to the Danish inclusion of cardiac criteria in the determination of death, betray reductionist views of human life at the core of 'brainstem' conceptions of death. Such views (whether centred on neurological function or on abstractions concerning 'personhood') supplant the richness of human life and death with the poverty of essentialism: and mask the lethal nature of beating-heart organ retrieval. The affirmation of cardiac criteria for death is not an alternative form of essentialism as some critics suppose, but part of an understanding of human life and death which rejects essentialism altogether. The spontaneously persistent heartbeat does not constitute human life, but most certainly counts for it.

  9. [Frequency of cancer at older ages].

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine; Doyon, Françoise

    2008-05-28

    The dependency between the risk of death and age is analysed, and the contribution of cancer to the overall risk of death is evaluated as a function of age. The frequency of the different cancer sites is described in different age groups. Lastly cancer mortality trends are presented by age. The risk of death from cancer increases markedly with age, but the risk of a death from a cardiovascular disease increases even more rapidly, consequently the importance of cancer as a cause of death decreases with age. In the male population, lung and head and neck cancers are the most frequent cancers before age 65, whereas prostate and colorectal cancers are more frequent at older ages. In the female population, breast and colorectal cancers are the most frequent cancers except for mortality before age 65 where lung cancer is the second killer after breast cancer. The risk of cancer death decreases in recent years for all age groups.

  10. Determinants of Suicide and Accidental or Violent Death in the Australian HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Franic, Teo; Kelly, Mark D.; Watson, Jo; O’Connor, Catherine C.; Jeanes, Mark; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A.; Law, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death) and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU) mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69–20.37), living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06–10.07), suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70–25.21), and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17–30.65). CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07–0.87) and HIV-positive date ≥1990 (1990–1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.89), post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.84)) were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ≥500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03–0.70) in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. Conclusions After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. PMID:24586519

  11. Biomarkers of inflammation and malnutrition associated with early death in healthy elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Carriere, Isabelle; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Lacroux, Annie; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Delcourt, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether malnutrition and inflammation biomarkers predict all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality in healthy elderly subjects. Design Prospective cohort. Setting Population-based study, Sète, French Mediterranean coast. Participants 553 men and 888 women aged 60+ years from the POLA (Pathologies Oculaires Liées à l’Age) cohort, free of known co-morbidities. Measurements Plasma levels of cholesterol, albumin, transthyretin (TTR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) were measured at baseline. To investigate the risks of 5-year (early) and 5–9 year (late) mortality hazard ratios (HR) were evaluated using Cox models. Results In men, the early death risk was increased for high CRP and AAG and for low albumin and TTR. In women, early death was associated with high AAG, low TTR and cholesterol. For late death, the only significant association was with CRP in men. A synergistic effect was observed between biomarkers of inflammation and malnutrition. The adjusted HR of early death was 4.98(95% Confidence Interval(CI)= 2.25–11.01) for both CRP in the highest quartile and albumin in the lowest in men. This risk was increased for AAG in the highest quartile and TTR in the lowest in men and women with an HR of 6.86(95%CI= 3.20–14.71) and 4.64(95%CI= 1.79–12.05) respectively. Cancer mortality was increased for high CRP and AAG and for low albumin and TTR in men but not in women. Conclusions Biomarkers of inflammation and malnutrition together predict early mortality. In healthy elderly subjects TTR and AAG could be helpful in identifying elderly subjects at higher risk of death. PMID:18410327

  12. Sudden death in racquet sports.

    PubMed

    Eichner, E R

    1988-04-01

    The regular playing of racquet sports tends to confer general health and to protect the heart--to produce the athletic heart syndrome. Strenuous play, however, can provoke ventricular arrhythmias and can kill individuals with heart disease. The overall risk for an exercise death from racquet sport play seems to be as low as from distance running. Middle-aged men, however, especially those with known coronary disease or coronary risk factors, should approach racquet sports with caution, and might benefit from timely medical advice.

  13. Independent determinants of early death in critically ill surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mario H; Moubarak, Patricia; Wolf, Hilde; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Hartl, Wolfgang H

    2008-07-01

    Abnormalities in cardiocirculatory, respiratory, or coagulatory parameters are frequent after major surgery, but so far, no study has investigated their predictive value for early intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. We aimed to describe and quantify the relation between these parameters that are routinely determined on ICU admission and early death after complex surgery. Individual patient data were available from a local ICU database. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study using prospectively collected data from March 1, 1993, through February 28, 2005. A cohort of 4,214 cases who were admitted to the ICU immediately after operation was analyzed. We studied age, sex, number of red blood cell units transfused on admission day, and admission values for heart rate, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin concentration, partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, respiratory function (Pao2/Fio2 ratio), and body temperature for their association with 4-day mortality. Effects were adjusted for the underlying disease and for disease severity during the first 24 h after admission. We used generalized additive models to fit continuous variables individually before combining them into the final generalized model. We found an independent linear association between the number of transfused red blood cell units, partial thromboplastin time, and body temperature with acute outcome. A smoothed model described the independent interaction between admission blood pressure and early death. Only values of less than 80 mmHg were associated with an increased risk of 4-day mortality. According to these results, bleeding complications after ICU admission should be treated aggressively to prevent early death of the patient. However, normotensive conditions do not seem to be required to prevent early mortality. Whether rapid rewarming may improve outcome needs further rigorous study.

  14. [A Study on problems associated with a patient's death during home care, based on the duration of home care and patient's age-why terminal home care is difficult for a patient's family].

    PubMed

    Ohara, Hiroo; Okabe, Hiromi; Tsuchiya, Kumiko; Kikuchi, Kana

    2012-12-01

    When a patient receives home care, an important factor is how the family accepts the patient's death. In this study, we observed that the number of long-term in-home terminal care cases increased, as well as the number of short-term in-home care cases. Moreover, the number of cancer cases among the young population is also increasing. Consequently, how to acceptance of a patient's death varies among their family. When tending to patients, suitable support from the medical staff is required. Additionally, various options need to be provided for terminal care. PMID:23268913

  15. Job strain, hypoxia and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Results from a death certificate study.

    PubMed

    Vanacore, Nicola; Cocco, Pierluigi; Fadda, Domenica; Dosemeci, Mustafa

    2010-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) most likely results from a multifactorial gene-environment interaction. Strenuous physical activity and occupational exposures have been suggested to play a role, and an abnormal response to hypoxia has been proposed in ALS pathogenesis. To test the hypothesis of an excess risk in occupations typically leading to intermittent hypoxia at the tissue level, we accessed a large publicly available database, including death certificates from 24 U.S. states in 1984-1998. We conducted a case-control analysis of 14,628 deaths due to ALS therein reported and 58,512 controls deceased from other selected causes of death, frequency matched by age, gender and broad geographic area. ALS risk associated with physical activity, and occupations leading to intermittent hypoxia, such as fire fighters and professional athletes, were calculated with unconditional logistic regression, adjusting by age, marital status, residence, and socioeconomic status. Physical activity in general did not show an association with ALS risk. Risk associated with occupation as a professional athlete was elevated (OR = 1.81, 99% CI 0.69-4.78), but not significantly so. Fire fighters showed a significant two-fold excess ALS risk (OR = 2.0; 99% CI 1.2-3.2). Based on our findings and the current clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidence, we suggest that occupational conditions typically leading to intermittent hypoxia, such as fire fighting, might be an ALS risk factor in subjects genetically prone to an abnormal response to hypoxia. PMID:20698805

  16. Limiting Cumulative HIV Viremia Copy-Years by Early Treatment Reduces Risk of AIDS and Death

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A. Sarah; Suthar, Amitabh B.; Sabin, Caroline; Bucher, Heiner C.; Jarrin, Inma; Moreno, Santiago; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Porter, Kholoud; Ford, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Viremia copy-years (VCY), a time-updated measure of cumulative HIV exposure, predicts AIDS/death; although its utility in deciding when to start combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of initiating versus deferring cART on risk of AIDS/death by levels of VCY both independent of and within CD4 cell count strata ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter. Methods: Using Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) data, we created a series of nested “trials” corresponding to consecutive months for individuals ≥16 years at seroconversion after 1995 who were cART-naive and AIDS-free. Pooling across all trials, time to AIDS/death by CD4, and VCY strata was compared in those initiating vs. deferring cART using Cox models adjusted for: country, sex, risk group, seroconversion year, age, time since last HIV-RNA, and current CD4, VCY, HIV-RNA, and mean number of previous CD4/HIV-RNA measurements/year. Results: Of 9353 individuals, 5312 (57%) initiated cART and 486 (5%) acquired AIDS/died. Pooling CD4 strata, risk of AIDS/death associated with initiating vs. deferring cART reduced as VCY increased. In patients with high CD4 cell counts, ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, there was a trend for a greater reduction for those initiating vs. deferring with increasing VCY (P = 0.09), with the largest benefit in the VCY ≥100,000 copy-years/mL group [hazard ratio (95% CI) = 0.41 (0.19 to 0.87)]. Conclusions: For individuals with CD4 ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, limiting the cumulative HIV burden to <100,000 copy-years/mL through cART may reduce the risk of AIDS/death. PMID:27116045

  17. Urinary arsenic concentration adjustment factors and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nermell, Barbro; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Berglund, Marika; Persson, Lars Ake; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2008-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating the suitability of adjusting urinary concentrations of arsenic, or any other urinary biomarker, for variations in urine dilution by creatinine and specific gravity in a malnourished population. We measured the concentrations of metabolites of inorganic arsenic, creatinine and specific gravity in spot urine samples collected from 1466 individuals, 5-88 years of age, in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, where arsenic-contaminated drinking water and malnutrition are prevalent (about 30% of the adults had body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 kg/m(2)). The urinary concentrations of creatinine were low; on average 0.55 g/L in the adolescents and adults and about 0.35 g/L in the 5-12 years old children. Therefore, adjustment by creatinine gave much higher numerical values for the urinary arsenic concentrations than did the corresponding data expressed as microg/L, adjusted by specific gravity. As evaluated by multiple regression analyses, urinary creatinine, adjusted by specific gravity, was more affected by body size, age, gender and season than was specific gravity. Furthermore, urinary creatinine was found to be significantly associated with urinary arsenic, which further disqualifies the creatinine adjustment. PMID:17900556

  18. Effects of Death Education on Conscious and Unconscious Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adults (n=162) varying in extent of participation in didactic or experiential forms of death education versus those who had no such exposure to death and dying-related issues completed measures of conscious and unconscious death fears. Findings suggest that didactic death education was effective in altering death anxiety, although effects were…

  19. The child and the fear of death.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, N L; Schulman, K R

    1981-10-01

    The central hypothesis of this paper is that the innate fear of death in the human being is universal and that the child, least of all, is immune to death fear and its symbolic representation. This cuts across all ages and developmental levels. This paper is not concerned with the empirical knowledge of death, an area that has been extensively explored by others such as Nagy (1948), Piaget (1929), and Anthony (1940).Examination of the child and his relationship to death is important in order to reach the truth and understand the human meaning of the fear of death.The child's conception of himself and his relationship to the world is an ironic paradox. On one hand, he feels endowed with magical feelings of omnipotence. This feeling is the main defense against the fear of death. On the other hand, his wishes, both benevolent and malevolent, have power independent of him to influence events. The concept of chance is alien, and the differentiation between objective and wishful causation is obscured. Thus, the way in which the child perceives his world makes the terror of death more formidable.SEVERAL CONCLUSIONS ARE REACHED IN THIS PAPER: (1) that even in childhood, loss, endings, separations, and death are core concerns of the individual; (2) that fear of death in children is intensified by the absence of the intellectual equipment and the absence of the necessary defense mechanisms essential for comprehending the experience of loss; and (3) that repression of the fear of death is an evolutionary process which has its origin in childhood. PMID:7310912

  20. The Child and the Fear of Death

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nelli L.; Schulman, Karen R.

    1981-01-01

    The central hypothesis of this paper is that the innate fear of death in the human being is universal and that the child, least of all, is immune to death fear and its symbolic representation. This cuts across all ages and developmental levels. This paper is not concerned with the empirical knowledge of death, an area that has been extensively explored by others such as Nagy (1948), Piaget (1929), and Anthony (1940). Examination of the child and his relationship to death is important in order to reach the truth and understand the human meaning of the fear of death. The child's conception of himself and his relationship to the world is an ironic paradox. On one hand, he feels endowed with magical feelings of omnipotence. This feeling is the main defense against the fear of death. On the other hand, his wishes, both benevolent and malevolent, have power independent of him to influence events. The concept of chance is alien, and the differentiation between objective and wishful causation is obscured. Thus, the way in which the child perceives his world makes the terror of death more formidable. Several conclusions are reached in this paper: (1) that even in childhood, loss, endings, separations, and death are core concerns of the individual; (2) that fear of death in children is intensified by the absence of the intellectual equipment and the absence of the necessary defense mechanisms essential for comprehending the experience of loss; and (3) that repression of the fear of death is an evolutionary process which has its origin in childhood. PMID:7310912