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Sample records for age adjusted death

  1. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  2. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  3. Adolescent Adjustment Before and After HIV-Related Parental Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weiss, Robert; Alber, Susan; Lester, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    The impact of HIV-related parental death on 414 adolescents was examined over a period of 6 years. The adjustment of bereaved adolescents was compared over 4 time periods relative to parental death and was also compared with the adjustment of nonbereaved adolescents. Bereaved adolescents had significantly more emotional distress, negative life…

  4. Adjusted hospital death rates: a potential screen for quality of medical care.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, R W; Brook, R H; Rogers, W H

    1987-01-01

    Increased economic pressure on hospitals has accelerated the need to develop a screening tool for identifying hospitals that potentially provide poor quality care. Based upon data from 93 hospitals and 205,000 admissions, we used a multiple regression model to adjust the hospitals crude death rate. The adjustment process used age, origin of patient from the emergency department or nursing home, and a hospital case mix index based on DRGs (diagnostic related groups). Before adjustment, hospital death rates ranged from 0.3 to 5.8 per 100 admissions. After adjustment, hospital death ratios ranged from 0.36 to 1.36 per 100 (actual death rate divided by predicted death rate). Eleven hospitals (12 per cent) were identified where the actual death rate exceeded the predicted death rate by more than two standard deviations. In nine hospitals (10 per cent), the predicted death rate exceeded the actual death rate by a similar statistical margin. The 11 hospitals with higher than predicted death rates may provide inadequate quality of care or have uniquely ill patient populations. The adjusted death rate model needs to be validated and generalized before it can be used routinely to screen hospitals. However, the remaining large differences in observed versus predicted death rates lead us to believe that important differences in hospital performance may exist. PMID:3113272

  5. SIDS Family Adjustment Scale: A Method of Assessing Family Adjustment to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)

  6. Joint aging and chondrocyte cell death

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Shawn P; D’Lima, Darryl D

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage extracellular matrix and cell function change with age and are considered to be the most important factors in the development and progression of osteoarthritis. The multifaceted nature of joint disease indicates that the contribution of cell death can be an important factor at early and late stages of osteoarthritis. Therefore, the pharmacologic inhibition of cell death is likely to be clinically valuable at any stage of the disease. In this article, we will discuss the close association between diverse changes in cartilage aging, how altered conditions influence chondrocyte death, and the implications of preventing cell loss to retard osteoarthritis progression and preserve tissue homeostasis. PMID:20671988

  7. ANOVA like analysis of cancer death age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areia, Aníbal; Mexia, João T.

    2016-06-01

    We use ANOVA to study the influence of year, sex, country and location on the average cancer death age. The data used was from the World Health Organization (WHO) files for 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011. The locations considered were: kidney, leukaemia, melanoma of skin and oesophagus and the countries: Portugal, Norway, Greece and Romania.

  8. 5 CFR 880.207 - Adjustment of accounts after finding of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. 880.207 Section 880.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Procedures § 880.207 Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. After a missing annuitant is...

  9. 5 CFR 880.207 - Adjustment of accounts after finding of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. 880.207 Section 880.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Procedures § 880.207 Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. After a missing annuitant is...

  10. 5 CFR 880.207 - Adjustment of accounts after finding of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. 880.207 Section 880.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Procedures § 880.207 Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. After a missing annuitant is...

  11. Age and Death: A Defence of Gradualism

    PubMed Central

    MILLUM, JOSEPH

    2016-01-01

    According to standard comparativist views, death is bad insofar as it deprives someone of goods she would otherwise have had. In The Ethics of Killing, Jeff McMahan argues against such views and in favor of a gradualist account according to which how bad it is to die is a function of both the future goods of which the decedent is deprived and her cognitive development when she dies. Comparativists and gradualists therefore disagree about how bad it is to die at different ages. In this paper I examine two prominent criticisms of gradualism and show that both misconstrue McMahan. I develop a related criticism that seems to show that a gradualist cannot coherently relate morbidity and mortality. This criticism also fails, but has an instructive implication for how policy-makers setting priorities for health care investments should regard choices between life-saving interventions and interventions against non-fatal diseases in the very young. PMID:27453638

  12. Loneliness and Adjustment to Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Robert O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two studies examined loneliness in older adults (N=177). Loneliness was found to be related to poor psychological adjustment and to dissatisfaction with family and social relationships. It was also related to fears, expectations, and personality characteristics likely to inhibit the restoration of personal support networks after a stressful life…

  13. Early Parental Adjustment and Bereavement after Childhood Cancer Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Maru; O'connor, Kathleen; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Spencer, Lynlee; Nicholas, David; Jovcevska, Vesna; Tallet, Susan; Schneiderman, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This study comprehensively explored parental bereavement and adjustment at 6 months post-loss due to childhood cancer. Interviews were conducted with 18 mothers and 13 fathers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on qualitative methodology. A model describing early parental bereavement and adaptation emerged with 3 domains:…

  14. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section... age reduction. (a) General. If an age reduced employee or spouse overall minimum benefit is not...

  15. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  16. Preparedness for Death and Adjustment to Bereavement among Caregivers of Recently Placed Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Kathrin; Klinger, Julie; Rosen, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preparedness for death as a predictor of post-bereavement adjustment has not been studied prospectively. Little is known about pre-death factors associated with feeling prepared prior to the death of a loved one. Objective: Our aim was to prospectively assess the role of preparedness for death as a predictor of post-bereavement adjustment in informal caregivers (CGs) who experienced the death of their loved one and to identify predictors and correlates of complicated grief, depression, and preparedness for death among informal CGs. Methods: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study using data collected for a randomized trial testing the efficacy of an intervention for CGs of recently placed care recipients (CRs). Subjects were 217 informal CGs of care recipients recently placed in nursing homes, and they were followed for 18 months. CGs were assessed in person by certified interviewers at 6-month intervals. Eighty-nine CGs experienced the death of their loved one in the course of the study. Measurements used included preparedness for death, advance care planning (ACP), complicated grief, depression, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: CGs who reported feeling more prepared for the death experienced lower levels of complicated grief post-bereavement. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model showed that spouses as opposed to adult child CGs were less prepared for the death, depressed CGs were less prepared, and patients who engaged in ACP had CGs who felt more prepared. CR overt expressions about wanting to die was also related to higher levels of preparedness in the CG. Conclusions: We show prospectively that preparedness for death facilitates post-bereavement adjustment and identify factors associated with preparedness. ACP can be an effective means for preparing informal CGs for the death of their CRs. PMID:25469737

  17. Deaths among women of reproductive age: a forensic autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Menezes, Ritesh G; Pant, Sadip; Shetty, Soumya B

    2013-08-01

    Unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age (range 12-49 years) have a serious psychological and social impact on the family and community. Deaths among women of reproductive age reported as medico-legal cases were investigated to see the trend in terms of cause and manner of death. The study group consisted of a series of 328 consecutive forensic autopsies on women in the reproductive age group, performed between 2009 and 2011 at the Government Wenlock District Hospital, Mangalore, India by qualified specialist forensic medicine experts. Unnatural deaths formed 93.6% of the cohort. The top three causes of death included burns, poisoning and hanging forming 69.5% of the cases. The manner of death was suicide in 45.4% cases, accident in 43.6% cases and homicide in 4.6% cases. The circumstances of death were related to alleged medical negligence in 2.4% cases. Death in 4% cases was natural mannered with a disease being the cause of death. Three-fourths of the victims were married. Married women formed 63.1% of the suicidal victims. Homicidal deaths were not reported among unmarried women. The preponderant method of suicide was by poisoning at 42.3% (63 cases), followed by hanging (34.9%), burns (11.4%) and drowning (9.4%). These four methods comprised 98% of the total suicidal deaths in this study cohort. Accidental deaths were predominantly caused by burns (62.2%) and road traffic accident (23.1%). Two-thirds of the homicidal deaths were due to assault caused by blunt-force trauma, ligature strangulation and sharp-force trauma. One-third of the homicidal victims died due to burns. With a clear understanding of the cause and manner of death, it may be possible to predict, and hopefully prevent, future cases of unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age who form a very important group of society. PMID:23910855

  18. Life and death of neurons in the aging brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. H.; Hof, P. R.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by extensive neuron death that leads to functional decline, but the neurobiological correlates of functional decline in normal aging are less well defined. For decades, it has been a commonly held notion that widespread neuron death in the neocortex and hippocampus is an inevitable concomitant of brain aging, but recent quantitative studies suggest that neuron death is restricted in normal aging and unlikely to account for age-related impairment of neocortical and hippocampal functions. In this article, the qualitative and quantitative differences between aging and Alzheimer's disease with respect to neuron loss are discussed, and age-related changes in functional and biochemical attributes of hippocampal circuits that might mediate functional decline in the absence of neuron death are explored. When these data are viewed comprehensively, it appears that the primary neurobiological substrates for functional impairment in aging differ in important ways from those in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  19. [Death certificates of women in childbearing age: search for maternal deaths].

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana Marcos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flavia Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of complete records on death certificates, and its reliability is questioned, especially for causes attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. We investigated, based on death certificates of women in reproductive age, any fields for identifying maternal deaths. Documentary research, conducted in hospital records. We analyzed in death certificates, maternal and no maternal deaths, inconclusive deaths and hidden deaths. To analyze the underlying causes of death we used ICD 10th Revision. Of the 301 death certificates reviewed, 60% had the fields 43/44 completed, and 40% had these fields blank and/or ignored. We found 58.5% of no maternal deaths, 2% of maternal deaths and 39.5% inconclusive. The analysis of inconclusive deaths allowed us to classify 4.3% as hidden deaths. To overcome the incompletitudes of civil registries, it is necessary that all health professionals be committed to the reliability of the information, so the priority target could be reached. PMID:23887780

  20. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  1. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  2. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  3. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  4. Death Anxiety as a Function of Aging Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Jeremy P.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Walter, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    To assess how different facets of aging anxiety contributed to the prediction of tangible and existential death anxiety, 167 Americans of various Christian denominations completed a battery of questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic variables and previously demonstrated predictors of death anxiety, revealed that…

  5. Impact of Elderly Mother's Death on Middle Age Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Miriam S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined middle aged daughters' (n=107) responses to death of their mother. In first six months of bereavement, many daughters experienced themes of holding on and letting go. Depression, grief, somatic reactions, impact on sense of self, acceptance of death, and ways in which ties with mother endure were differentially associated with…

  6. Healthy aging and age-adjusted nutrition and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Mats; Ostgren, Carl Johan

    2013-10-01

    Expected life span is gradually increasing worldwide. Healthy dietary and exercise habits contribute to healthy ageing. Certain types of diet can prevent or reduce obesity, and may reduce the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, some cancers and some mental disturbances). A less sedentary life style seems at least as important as regular exercise. Exercise can probably be tailored to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and extent of bone loss. To ensure adherence, it is important to increase slowly the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise, and to find activities that suit the individual. More research is needed to find ideal modes and doses of exercise, and to increase long-term adherence. Dietary and exercise modification seem to be strong promoters of healthy ageing. PMID:23499263

  7. Smoking: additional burden on aging and death.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. It has been suggested that there is an approximately linear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and clinical outcome such as lung cancer mortality. It has also been proposed that there is a greater increase in mortality at high doses when the dose is represented by the duration of the smoking habit rather than the number of cigarettes. The multistep carcinogenesis theory indicates that a greater increase in mortality rate at high doses is possible, as is the case between aging and cancer, even though each dose-response relationship between a carcinogenic factor and a carcinogenic step forward is linear. The high incidence of lung cancer after long-term smoking and the decreased relative risk after smoking cessation suggests a similarity between the effects of smoking and aging. Prediction of lung cancer risk in former smokers by simple integration of smoking effects with aging demonstrated a good correlation with that estimated from the relative risk of the period of smoking cessation. In contrast to the smoking period, there appears to be a linear relationship between smoking strength and cancer risk. This might arise if the dose-response relationship between smoking strength and each carcinogenic step is less than linear, or the effects become saturated with a large dose of daily smoking. Such a dose-response relationship could lead to relatively large clinical effects, such as cardiovascular mortality, by low-dose tobacco smoke exposure, e.g., second-hand smoking. Consideration of the dose-response of each effect is important to evaluate the risk arising from each carcinogenic factor. PMID:27350823

  8. Modulation of cell death in age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Tezil, Tugsan; Basaga, Huveyda

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a stage of life of all living organisms. According to the free-radical theory, aging cells gradually become unable to maintain cellular homeostasis due to the adverse effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS can cause irreversible DNA mutations, protein and lipid damage which are increasingly accumulated in the course of time if cells could not overcome these effects by the antioxidant defence system. Accrued damaged molecules in cells may either induce cellular death or contribute to develop various pathologies. Hence, programmed cell death mechanisms, apoptosis and autophagy, play a vital role in the aging process. Although they are strictly controlled by various interconnected signalling pathways, alterations in their regulations may contribute to severe pathologies including cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this review, we summarized our current understanding and hypotheses regarding oxidative stress and age-related dysregulation of cell death signalling pathways. PMID:24079770

  9. 38 CFR 8.20 - Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of death, age... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Proof of Death, Age, Or Relationship § 8.20 Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship...

  10. 38 CFR 8.20 - Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of death, age... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Proof of Death, Age, Or Relationship § 8.20 Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship...

  11. 38 CFR 8.20 - Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of death, age... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Proof of Death, Age, Or Relationship § 8.20 Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship...

  12. Selective Disclosure in a First Conversation about a Family Death in James Agee's Novel "A Death in the Family"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/2006) novel "A Death in the Family," the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that…

  13. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses. PMID:24989440

  14. Lay theories of successful aging after the death of a spouse: a network text analysis of bereavement advice.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, M J; Holmes, M E

    2000-01-01

    Social theories of successful aging attempt to explain how individuals adapt to changes characteristically associated with aging and to predict whether older adults' adaptations will lead to successful aging. The death of a spouse and the accompanying bereavement process entail dramatic changes to personal networks and experience to which individuals must adapt to age successfully. Network text analysis (including word frequencies, cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling) of advice for adjusting to, and coping with, the loss of a spouse given by a sample of 60 bereaved spouses (mean age = 68) at 6 points in time after the death of their marital partner (3-4 weeks to 24 months) reveal respondents' lay theories of successful aging. Thematic clusters address social positioning and qualifiers, activity, communication, time, and spousal characteristics. Results indicate respondents frame their advice as unique to their context of social relationships while providing support for activity theory and negatively addressing disengagement theory. PMID:11063287

  15. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction factor... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments in the age reduction factor...

  16. Relationship Between Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Aging. Estimation of Age-at-death.

    PubMed

    Zapico, Sara C; Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2016-04-01

    Some studies have pointed to the relationship between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and age in different tissues, which are potentially interesting in aging research and in forensic identification because they could help to improve the estimation of age-at-death. The present study aims to evaluate the mutations in mtDNA from dentin and pulp and their relation with age. Healthy erupted third molars were extracted from individuals from two Spanish populations, aged 20-70. When analyzing the amplification of hypervariable region 2 of the mtDNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction, a negative strong linear correlation was found between the mtDNA amplification and age in dentin from both populations. In contrast, a significant correlation between mtDNA amplification and age in pulp was not discovered, probably due to the majority of the mitochondria are placed in dentin. A difference in mtDNA damage between these two populations was also detected, indicating the role of ancestry as a component. The findings from this research enrich the current studies related to aging and mitochondrial damage and provide a new quantitative tool for estimating the age-at-death that, in combination with traditional age markers, could improve identification accuracy in forensic cases. PMID:26286606

  17. Death anxiety in a national sample of United States funeral directors and its relationship with death exposure, age, and sex.

    PubMed

    Harrawood, Laura K; White, Lyle J; Benshoff, John J

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the level of death anxiety among a national sample of United States funeral directors with varying levels of death exposure, age, and sex. Utilizing the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS), the results showed a significant, but weak negative relationship between levels of death anxiety and the participants' reported number of funerals attended per year. The correlation between death anxiety scores and the number of reported embalming cases performed yearly was, however, not significant. We found a significant negative correlation between death anxiety and age in both men and women funeral directors. The difference in the death anxiety scores between men (n=166) and women (n=38) funeral directors was not significant. There was a significant negative correlation with age in both men and women in several fears of death including fear of the dying process, fear for significant others, and fear of premature death. The significant negative correlations were stronger for women than men across all three subscales. Results, direction for further research, and implications of the findings for mental health workers are discussed. PMID:19227002

  18. Age and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Prior to Diagnosis Predict Risk of Death from Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, F. Roy; Sprenkle, Preston C.; Walter, Louise C.; Rawson, Lori; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Morrell, Christopher H.; Kattan, Michael W.; Nawaf, Cayce B.; Neville, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    A single early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been correlated with a higher likelihood of prostate cancer diagnosis and death in younger men. PSA testing in older men has been considered of limited utility. We evaluated prostate cancer death in relation to age and PSA level immediately prior to prostate cancer diagnosis. Using the Veterans Affairs database, we identified 230,081 men aged 50–89 years diagnosed with prostate cancer and at least one prior PSA test between 1999 and 2009. Prostate cancer-specific death over time was calculated for patients stratified by age group (e.g., 50–59 years, through 80–89 years) and PSA range at diagnosis (10 ranges) using Kaplan–Meier methods. Risk of 10-year prostate cancer mortality across age and PSA was compared using log-rank tests with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. 10.5% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer died of cancer during the 10-year study period (mean follow-up = 3.7 years). Higher PSA values prior to diagnosis predict a higher risk of death in all age groups (p < 0.0001). Within the same PSA range, older age groups are at increased risk for death from prostate cancer (p < 0.0001). For PSA of 7–10 ng/mL, cancer-specific death, 10 years after diagnosis, increased from 7% for age 50–59 years to 51% for age 80–89 years. Men older than 70 years are more likely to die of prostate cancer at any PSA level than younger men, suggesting prostate cancer remains a significant problem among older men (even those aged 80+) and deserves additional study. PMID:27446803

  19. The Relation of Age to Personality Adjustment among DWI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meck, Donald S.; Baither, Rick

    1980-01-01

    Involved the assessment of perceived adjustment among individuals court assigned to DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) classes. Individuals 25 years and younger reported significantly higher levels of perceived maladjustment and emotional upset. Sex was related to interpersonal behavior. (Author)

  20. Effect of age on survival and causes of death after primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

    PubMed

    Fauchier, Laurent; Marijon, Eloi; Defaye, Pascal; Piot, Olivier; Sadoul, Nicolas; Perier, Marie-Cecile; Gras, Daniel; Klug, Didier; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Bordachar, Pierre; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Leclercq, Christophe; Babuty, Dominique; Boveda, Serge

    2015-05-15

    The benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) remains controversial in elderly patients and may be attenuated by a greater risk of nonarrhythmic death. We examined the effect of age on outcomes after prophylactic ICD implantation. All patients with coronary artery disease or dilated cardiomyopathy implanted with an ICD for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in 12 French medical centers were included in a retrospective observational study. The 5,534 ICD recipients were divided according to age: 18 to 59 years (n = 2,139), 60 to 74 years (n = 2,693), and ≥75 years (n = 702). Greater prevalences of coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation at the time of implant were observed with increasing age (both p <0.0001). During a mean follow-up of 3.1 ± 2.0 years, the annual mortality rate increased with age: 3.1% per year for age 18 to 59 years, 5.7% per year for age 60 to 74 years, and 7.5% per year for age ≥75 years (p <0.001). Older age was independently associated with a greater risk of death (adjusted odds ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.80 for age 60 to 74 years; and adjusted odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.22 for age >75 years). Proportions of cardiac deaths (55.2%, 57.6%, and 57.0%, p = 0.84), including ICD-unresponsive sudden death (9.9%, 6.0%, and 10.6%, p = 0.08), and rates of appropriate ICD therapies were similar in the 3 age groups. Older age was independently associated with a higher rate of early complications and a lower rate of inappropriate therapies. In conclusion, older patients exhibited higher global mortality after ICD implantation for primary prevention, whereas rates of sudden deaths and of appropriate device therapies were similar across age groups. PMID:25784518

  1. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  2. Prospective Cohort Study of Central Adiposity and Risk of Death in Middle Aged and Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Xianglan; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Asians have high prevalence of central obesity despite the low prevalence of general obesity. We evaluated associations between the central obesity measure, waist-hip ratio (WHR) with total and cause-specific mortality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese participants. Data arise from two prospective population-based cohort studies: the Shanghai Men’s Health Study involves 53,425 men (participation rate = 74.0%), age 40–74 at baseline, and the Shanghai Women’s Health Study involves 63,017 women (participation rate = 92.7%), age 40–70 at baseline. Information on lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline interview. Vital status and causes of death were obtained via surveys and annual linkages to relevant Shanghai registries through December 31, 2011. After median follow-up time of 7.5 years for the Shanghai Men’s Health Study and 13.2 years for the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, there were 2,058 and 3,167 deaths, respectively. In models adjusted for BMI and other potential confounders, WHR was associated with all-cause mortality; hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) across the first to fifth quintile increased from 1 (Reference), 1.10 (0.95,1.27), 1.21 (1.04,1.41), 1.11 (0.96,1.30), to 1.42 (1.22,1.65) in men and from 1 (Reference), 1.10 (0.96,1.27), 1.11 (0.97,1.27), 1.20 (1.05,1.37), to 1.48 (1.30,1.69) in women. WHR had a stronger association with cardiovascular disease, with multivariate-adjusted HRs of 1.5 to 1.7 observed for the highest versus lowest quintile of WHR. Dose-response associations were also seen for cancer and other-cause deaths. Stratified analyses suggested a stronger association with mortality among normal weight (BMI <25) than over-weight (BMI ≥25) individuals. Positive associations with mortality were observed in subgroups defined by follow-up duration, comorbidity, age, smoking, and physical activity. Greater central adiposity is associated with increased mortality in Chinese adults, even

  3. Circumstances and Contributing Causes of Fall Deaths among Persons Aged 65 and Older: United States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Judy A.; Rudd, Rose A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether the increasing fall death rate among people aged 65 and older is due in part to temporal changes in recording the underlying cause of death. DESIGN Analyses of multiple cause of death data using the online Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ON-line Data for Epidemiologic Research system, which uses the National Center for Health Statistics’ Multiple Cause of Death data set. SETTING United States, 1999 to 2010. PARTICIPANTS People aged 65 and older with a fall listed on their death record as the underlying or a contributing cause of death. MEASUREMENTS Circumstances and contributing causes off all deaths—records listing International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes W00 to W19 as the underlying cause of death—and underlying causes for records with falls as a contributing cause were examined. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to assess trends in the proportion of fall and fall-associated deaths to total deaths for 1999 to 2010. RESULTS In 2010, there were 21,649 fall deaths and 5,402 fall-associated deaths among people aged 65 and older; 48.7% of fall deaths involved a head injury. Approximately half the fall death records included diseases of the circulatory system as contributing causes. From 1999 to 2010, there was a trend toward more-specific reporting of falls circumstances, although total deaths remained unchanged. The proportion of fall deaths to total deaths increased 114.3%, and that of fall-associated deaths to total deaths increased 43.1%. CONCLUSION The reasons behind the increasing older adult fall death rate deserve further investigation. Possible contributing factors include changing trends in underlying chronic diseases and better reporting of falls as the underlying cause of death. PMID:24617970

  4. Death row inmate characteristics, adjustment, and confinement: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark D; Vigen, Mark P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews and summarizes research on death row inmates. The contributions and weaknesses of death row demographic data, clinical studies, and research based on institutional records are critiqued. Our analysis shows that death row inmates are overwhelmingly male and disproportionately Southern. Racial representation remains controversial. Frequently death row inmates are intellectually limited and academically deficient. Histories of significant neurological insult are common, as are developmental histories of trauma, family disruption, and substance abuse. Rates of psychological disorder among death row inmates are high, with conditions of confinement appearing to precipitate or aggravate these disorders. Contrary to expectation, the extant research indicates that the majority of death row inmates do not exhibit violence in prison even in more open institutional settings. These findings have implications for forensic mental health sentencing evaluations, competent attorney representation, provision of mental health services, racial disparity in death sentences, death row security and confinement policies, and moral culpability considerations. Future research directions on death row populations are suggested. PMID:11979498

  5. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  6. School Entry Age and Future Adjustment of Inner City Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William R.

    Randomly selected fourth grade teachers completed the Peterson and Quay Behavior Problem Checklist on 304 inner city children classified according to their age at entry into kindergarten. Findings revealed that earlier entry age children (children who were comparatively young when they started school) scored highest on the conduct subtest of the…

  7. Violent death in the pediatric age group: rural and urban differences.

    PubMed

    Gausche, M; Seidel, J S; Henderson, D P; Ness, B; Ward, P M; Wayland, B W

    1989-03-01

    Violent death (homicide and suicide) in the pediatric age group is a major public health problem. A descriptive study was undertaken to review retrospectively the 1077 pediatric coroner's cases in 11 California counties for differences between urban and rural violent death rates. Pediatric violent death was more prevalent in the urban region than in the rural region (P less than 0.0007). High urban homicide rates accounted for most of this difference. Suicide rates were not significantly different (P = 0.18). Seventy-four percent of the violent deaths were in the 15- to 18-year age group, and most of these deaths were caused by firearms (81%). Blacks had the highest homicide and suicide rates. Child abuse was an important cause of death for young children in the urban area only. Socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, high population density, and the availability of firearms were proposed as factors affecting violent death in the pediatric age group. PMID:2785264

  8. Depressive Symptoms on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Suicide Deaths in Older Middle-aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. Methods: A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Results: Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend <0.001). The unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in comparison to the absence of depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; p<0.001) than men without depression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; p<0.001). The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of GDS scores for suicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64). Conclusions: Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies. PMID:27255076

  9. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  10. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Verneau; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes. PMID:26497989

  11. Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India: Estimate adjusted for baseline mortality.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sourangsu; Dey, Sagnik

    2016-05-01

    In India, more than a billion population is at risk of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration exceeding World Health Organization air quality guideline, posing a serious threat to health. Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure is poorly known for India. Here we develop a non-linear power law (NLP) function to estimate the relative risk associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure using satellite-based PM2.5 concentration (2001-2010) that is bias-corrected against coincident direct measurements. We show that estimate of annual premature death in India is lower by 14.7% (19.2%) using NLP (integrated exposure risk function, IER) for assumption of uniform baseline mortality across India (as considered in the global burden of disease study) relative to the estimate obtained by adjusting for state-specific baseline mortality using GDP as a proxy. 486,100 (811,000) annual premature death in India is estimated using NLP (IER) risk functions after baseline mortality adjustment. 54.5% of premature death estimated using NLP risk function is attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 24.0% to ischemic heart disease (IHD), 18.5% to stroke and the remaining 3.0% to lung cancer (LC). 44,900 (5900-173,300) less premature death is expected annually, if India achieves its present annual air quality target of 40μgm(-3). Our results identify the worst affected districts in terms of ambient PM2.5 exposure and resulting annual premature death and call for initiation of long-term measures through a systematic framework of pollution and health data archive. PMID:27063285

  12. Comparison of hurricane exposure methods and associations with county fetal death rates, adjusting for environmental quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse effects of hurricanes are increasing as coastal populations grow and events become more severe. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy can influence fetal death rates through mechanisms related to healthcare, infrastructure disruption, nutrition, and injury. Estimation of hu...

  13. The Symbolism of Death in the Later Middle Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeland, John

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the gruesome images of death occurring in medieval art and letters. Suggests that the images are a form of symbolism based on body metaphors. By means of decomposing bodies, artists and poets symbolized the disintegration of medieval institutions and the transition to the early modern period in Europe. (JAC)

  14. Death and dessert: Nutrient signalling pathways and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Alic, Nazif; Partridge, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Reduction in nutrient intake without malnutrition can delay ageing and extend healthy life in diverse organisms from yeast to primates. This effect can be recapitulated by genetic or pharmacological dampening of the signal through nutrient signalling pathways, making them a promising target for intervention into human ageing and age-related diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of the interactions between nutrient signalling pathways and ageing, focusing on the findings emerged in the last few years. PMID:21835601

  15. Age Patterns of Mortality During the Black Death in London, A.D. 1349–1350

    PubMed Central

    DeWitte, Sharon N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines adult age-specific mortality patterns of one of the most devastating epidemics in recorded history, the Black Death of A.D. 1347–351. The goal was to determine whether the epidemic affected all ages equally or if it targeted certain age groups. Analyses were done using a sample of 337 individuals excavated from the East Smithfield cemetery in London, which contains only individuals who died during the Black Death in London in 1349–1350. The age patterns from East Smithfield were compared to a sample of 207 individuals who died from non-epidemic causes of mortality. Ages were estimated using the method of transition analysis, and age-specific mortality was evaluated using a hazards model. The results indicate that the risk of mortality during the Black Death increased with adult age, and therefore that age had an effect on risk of death during the epidemic. The age patterns in the Black Death cemetery were similar to those from the non-epidemic mortality sample. The results from this study are consistent with previous findings suggesting that despite the devastating nature of the Black Death, the 14th-century disease had general patterns of selectivity that were similar to those associated with normal medieval mortality. PMID:21572598

  16. Age at death estimation from bone histology in Malaysian males.

    PubMed

    Nor, Faridah Mohd; Pastor, Robert F; Schutkowski, Holger

    2014-10-01

    Estimation of age from microscopic examination of human bone utilizes bone remodeling. This allows 2 regression equation to be determined in a specific population based on the variation in osteon turnover in different populations. The aim of this study was to provide age estimation for Malaysian males. Ground undecalcified cross sections were prepared from long limb bones of 50 deceased males aged between 21 and 78 years. Ten microstructural parameters were measured and subjected to multivariate regression analysis. Results showed that osteon count had the highest correlation with age (R = 0.43), and age was estimated to be within 10.94 years of the true value in 98% of males. Cross validation of the equation on 50 individuals showed close correspondence of true ages with estimated ages. Further studies are needed to validate and expand these results. PMID:24189643

  17. Aging and Cell Death in the Other Yeasts, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Su-Ju; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2013-01-01

    How do cells age and die? For the past twenty years, the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used as a model organism to uncover the genes that regulate lifespan and cell death. More recently, investigators have begun to interrogate the other yeasts, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, to determine if similar longevity and cell death pathways exist in these organisms. After summarizing the longevity and cell death phenotypes in S. cerevisiae, this mini-review surveys the progress made in the study of both aging and programmed cell death (PCD) in the yeast models, with a focus on the biology of S. pombe and C. albicans. Particular emphasis is placed on the similarities and differences between the two types of aging, replicative aging and chronological aging, and between the three types of cell death, intrinsic apoptosis, autophagic cell death, and regulated necrosis, found in these yeasts. The development of the additional microbial models for aging and PCD in the other yeasts may help further elucidate the mechanisms of longevity and cell death regulation in eukaryotes. PMID:24205865

  18. The Paradox of Senescence: Mathematical and Biological Theories of Death and Ageing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Edmund P.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the mathematical and biological theories of death and aging, focusing primarily on higher animals and humans. Areas of the curriculum into which such topics could be introduced are outlined. (JN)

  19. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the life tenant, and the remainderman, immediately after the decedent's death is $56,000 ($58,000... any time after the decedent's death, proper adjustment must be made in order to reflect the change in... years after the transfer is made and the gift is held to have been made in contemplation of...

  20. Analysis of age-at-death estimation through the use of pubic symphyseal data.

    PubMed

    Kimmerle, Erin H; Konigsberg, Lyle W; Jantz, Richard L; Baraybar, Jose Pablo

    2008-05-01

    The question of whether age parameters derived from an American population will reliably estimate age-at-death for East European skeletal populations is important since the ability to accurately estimate an individual's age-at-death hinges on what standard is used. A reference sample of identified individuals with known ages-at-death from the regions of the Former Yugoslavia (n = 861) is used to determine the age structure of victims and serves as the prior in the Bayesian analysis. Pubic symphyseal data in the manners of Todd (Am J Phys Anthropol, 3 [1920], 285; Am J Phys Anthropol, 4 [1921], 1) and Suchey-Brooks (Am J Phys Anthropol, 80 [1986], 167) were collected for n = 296 Balkan males and females and for n = 2078 American males and females. An analysis of deviance is calculated using an improvement chi-square to test for population variation in the aging processes of American and East European populations using proportional odds probit regression. When males and females are treated separately, there is a significant association among females and the population (df = 1, chi-square likelihood ratio = 15.071, p = 0.001). New age estimates for Balkan populations are provided and are based on the calculated age distribution from the Gompertz-Makeham hazard analysis and the ages-of-transition. To estimate the age-at-death for an individual, the highest posterior density regions for each symphyseal phase are provided. PMID:18471198

  1. Cell Death Atlas of the Postnatal Mouse Ventral Forebrain and Hypothalamus: Effects of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Todd H.; Krug, Stefanie; Carr, Audrey V.; Murray, Elaine K.; Fitzpatrick, Emmett; Bengston, Lynn; McCutcheon, Jill; De Vries, Geert J.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain. PMID:23296992

  2. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  3. Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Predicts Immune Recovery, Death, and Loss to Follow-Up Among HIV-Infected Adults in Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jessica; Mwale, Jonas; Marx, Melissa A.; Goma, Fastone M.; Mulenga, Lloyd B.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.; Eron, Joseph J.; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the association of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with CD4+ T cell count recovery, death, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) among HIV-infected adults in Zambia. We compared baseline characteristics of patients by sex and age at ART initiation [categorized as 16–29 years, 30–39 years, 40–49 years, 50–59 years, and 60 years and older]. We used the medication possession ratio to assess adherence and analysis of covariance to measure the adjusted change in CD4+ T cell count during ART. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined the association of age with death and LTFU. In a secondary analysis, we repeated models with age as a continuous variable. Among 92,130 HIV-infected adults who initiated ART, the median age was 34 years and 6,281 (6.8%) were aged ≥50 years. Compared with 16–29 year olds, 40–49 year olds (–46 cells/mm3), 50–59 year olds (–53 cells/mm3), and 60+ year olds (–60 cells/mm3) had reduced CD4+ T cell gains during ART. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for death was increased for individuals aged ≥40 years (AHR 1.25 for 40–49 year olds, 1.56 for 50–59 year olds, and 2.97 for 60+ year olds). Adherence and retention in care were poorest among 16–29 year olds but similar in other groups. As a continuous variable, a 5-year increase in age predicted reduced CD4+ T cell count recovery and increased risk of death. Increased age at ART initiation was associated with poorer clinical outcomes, while age <30 years was associated with a higher likelihood of being lost to follow-up. HIV treatment guidelines should consider age-specific recommendations. PMID:24998881

  4. 38 CFR 8.20 - Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., relationship and marriage. 8.20 Section 8.20 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS..., relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship or marriage, the provisions found in Part 3 of this chapter will be followed. Age...

  5. 38 CFR 8.20 - Proof of death, age, relationship and marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., relationship and marriage. 8.20 Section 8.20 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS..., relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship or marriage, the provisions found in Part 3 of this chapter will be followed. Age...

  6. Lithium-ion Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve modelling and its ageing adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, L.; Sabatier, J.; Francisco, J. Mbala; Guillemard, F.; Noury, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a contribution to lithium-ion batteries modelling taking into account aging effects. It first analyses the impact of aging on electrode stoichiometry and then on lithium-ion cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. Through some hypotheses and an appropriate definition of the cell state of charge, it shows that each electrode equilibrium potential, but also the whole cell equilibrium potential can be modelled by a polynomial that requires only one adjustment parameter during aging. An adjustment algorithm, based on the idea that for two fixed OCVs, the state of charge between these two equilibrium states is unique for a given aging level, is then proposed. Its efficiency is evaluated on a battery pack constituted of four cells.

  7. A Bayesian approach to estimate skeletal age-at-death utilizing dental wear.

    PubMed

    Prince, Debra A; Kimmerle, Erin H; Konigsberg, Lyle W

    2008-05-01

    In the forensic context, teeth are often recovered in mass disasters, armed conflicts, and mass graves associated with human rights violations. Therefore, for victim identification, techniques utilizing the dentition to estimate the first parameters of identity (e.g., age) can be critical. This analysis was undertaken to apply a Bayesian statistical method, transition analysis, based on the Gompertz-Makeham (GM) hazard model, to estimate individual ages-at-death for Balkan populations utilizing dental wear. Dental wear phases were scored following Smith's eight-phase ordinal scoring method and chart. To estimate age, probability density functions for the posterior distributions of age for each tooth phase are calculated. Transition analysis was utilized to generate a mean age-of-transition from one dental wear phase to the next. The age estimates are based on the calculated age distribution from the GM hazard analysis and the ages-of-transition. To estimate the age-at-death for an individual, the highest posterior density region for each phase is calculated. By using a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate age, the population's age distribution is taken into account. Therefore, the age estimates are reliable for the Balkan populations, regardless of population or sex differences. The results showed that a vast amount of interpersonal variation in dental wear exists within the current sample and that this method may be most useful for classifying unknown individuals into broad age cohorts rather than small age ranges. PMID:18471201

  8. The Relationship between Dimensions of Interparental Conflict and Adjustment in College-Age Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Rochelle F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents research from a recently completed study investigating the relationship between college-age offsprings' perceptions of several dimensions of interparental conflict and indicants of adjustment. Analysis revealed that frequency of interparental conflict was the most important predictor of depression, externalizing behavior problems, and…

  9. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  10. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  11. Post-Retirement Adjustment: Effective Coping with the Stresses of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.

    A study was conducted to examine the role of positive and negative life circumstances and individual coping factors in the psychological adjustment of older individuals. Interviews were conducted with 32 men and 32 women between the ages of 65 and 75 who were retired from mid-level or managerial jobs at the University of Texas. Most of the…

  12. A kinetic theory for age-structured stochastic birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom; Greenman, Chris

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but they are structurally unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., carrying capacity) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a BBGKY-like hierarchy. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution. NSF.

  13. The impact of age at death on the lag time of radiocarbon values in human bone.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H; Thomas, Christian; Olson, Jacqueline E

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of modern bomb-pulse radiocarbon in human bone offers data needed to interpret the post-mortem interval in skeletonized human remains recovered from forensic contexts. Radiocarbon analysis of different tissues with distinct rates of remodeling allows proper placement of the values on the modern bomb-curve. However, the lag time between the date of intercept on the curve and the actual death date is largely affected by the age at death. Published data on radiocarbon analysis of individuals of known age at death and death dates indicate that this lag time increases with age until about 60 years. The lag time documented for each decade of life can be used to compensate for this age-related factor and increase the accuracy of interpretation of the death date. While this method could be greatly improved by original research with a larger sample size, this study provides an adequate point from which to launch further investigations into the subject. PMID:25863698

  14. Ageing prisoners' views on death and dying: contemplating end-of-life in prison.

    PubMed

    Handtke, Violet; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2014-09-01

    Rising numbers of ageing prisoners and goals on implementing equivalent health care in prison raise issues surrounding end-of-life care for prisoners. The paucity of research on this topic in Europe means that the needs of older prisoners contemplating death in prison have not been established. To investigate elderly prisoners' attitudes towards death and dying, 35 qualitative interviews with inmates aged 51 to 71 years were conducted in 12 Swiss prisons. About half of the prisoners reported having thought about dying in prison, with some mentioning it in relation with suicidal thoughts and others to disease and old age. Themes identified during data analysis included general thoughts about death and dying, accounts of other prisoners' deaths, availability of end-of-life services, contact with social relations, and wishes to die outside of prison. Study findings are discussed using Allmark's concept of "death without indignities," bringing forth two ethical issues: fostering autonomy and removing barriers. Attributing the identified themes to these two ethical actions clarifies the current needs of ageing prisoners in Switzerland and could be a first step towards the implementation of end-of-life services in correctional systems. PMID:24965438

  15. Age-adjustment and related epidemiology rates in education and research.

    PubMed

    Baker, John D; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence, crude, age-specific and age-adjustment rates into the gerontology classroom. Background information and formulas for each rate, as well as examples of how they can be applied are provided. A recent change, encouraged by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from a 1940 to a 2000 "standard million population" for ageadjusted rates, is reviewed. Finally, a teaching module with answers is provided for use in the gerontology classroom. PMID:16873207

  16. Kinetic theory of age-structured stochastic birth-death processes.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Chris D; Chou, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but are unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using, e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation do not resolve a population's age structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new, fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a Bogoliubov--Born--Green--Kirkwood--Yvon-like hierarchy. Explicit solutions are derived in three limits: no birth, no death, and steady state. These are then compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution. PMID:26871029

  17. Kinetic theory of age-structured stochastic birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenman, Chris D.; Chou, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but are unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using, e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation do not resolve a population's age structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new, fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a Bogoliubov--Born--Green--Kirkwood--Yvon-like hierarchy. Explicit solutions are derived in three limits: no birth, no death, and steady state. These are then compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution.

  18. Markers for Heightened Monitoring, Imminent Death, and Euthanasia in Aged Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Rita A; Cox, Lisa; Toth, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify objective criteria that would reliably predict spontaneous death in aged inbred mice. We evaluated male and female AKR/J mice, which die at a relatively young age due to the development of lymphoma, as well as male C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice. Mice were implanted subcutaneously with an identification chip that also allowed remote measurement of body temperature. Temperatures and body weights were measured weekly until spontaneous death occurred or until euthanasia was performed for humane reasons. In AKR/J mice, hypothermia and weight loss began about 4 wk prior to death and increased gradually during that antemortem interval. In C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice, these declines began earlier and were more prolonged prior to death. However, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice developed a relatively precipitous hypothermia during the 2 wk prior to death. For all 3 strains, the derived composite score of temperature × weight, expressed as a percentage of stable values for each mouse, was similarly informative. These changes in individual and composite measures can signal the need for closer observation or euthanasia of individual mice. Validated markers of clinical decline or imminent death can allow the use of endpoints that reduce terminal distress, do not significantly affect longevity or survival data, and permit timely collection of biologic samples. PMID:22776049

  19. Relative Age Effects in Athletic Sprinting and Corrective Adjustments as a Solution for Their Removal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Relative Age Effects (RAEs) refer to the selection and performance differentials between children and youth who are categorized in annual-age groups. In the context of Swiss 60m athletic sprinting, 7761 male athletes aged 8 – 15 years were analysed, with this study examining whether: (i) RAE prevalence changed across annual age groups and according to performance level (i.e., all athletes, Top 50%, 25% & 10%); (ii) whether the relationship between relative age and performance could be quantified, and corrective adjustments applied to test if RAEs could be removed. Part one identified that when all athletes were included, typical RAEs were evident, with smaller comparative effect sizes, and progressively reduced with older age groups. However, RAE effect sizes increased linearly according to performance level (i.e., all athletes – Top 10%) regardless of age group. In part two, all athletes born in each quartile, and within each annual age group, were entered into linear regression analyses. Results identified that an almost one year relative age difference resulted in mean expected performance differences of 10.1% at age 8, 8.4% at 9, 6.8% at 10, 6.4% at 11, 6.0% at 12, 6.3% at 13, 6.7% at 14, and 5.3% at 15. Correction adjustments were then calculated according to day, month, quarter, and year, and used to demonstrate that RAEs can be effectively removed from all performance levels, and from Swiss junior sprinting more broadly. Such procedures could hold significant implications for sport participation as well as for performance assessment, evaluation, and selection during athlete development. PMID:25844642

  20. A study of the effects of cause specific death rates on age-specific death rates with special reference to Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, K

    1983-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of cause specific death rates on age specific death rates for Tamil Nadu rural females during the period 1970-75 in various age groups. 2 regression lines have been fitted. The age specific death rates were taken as dependent variables and time as an independent variable; the age-cause specific death rates were dependent variables and time was an independent variable. In the analysis, the ratio of regression coefficients of 2 regression lines gives the effect of age specific death rates due to the j-th cause in the i-th group. The trend of mortality in the age groups (0-4) and (5-14) declines over the period 1970-75 and increases in the age groups (15-34), (34-54) and 55 and older. The causes of declining mortality in the 0-4 age group are cough, fever, other clear symptoms and other causes. The %s of contribution for this decline are respectively 14%, 41%, 21% and 72% to the overall decline in that age group. The cause group violence and injury, digestive disorders and causes peculiar to infancy have contributed to increase in the 0-4 age group death rates. Digestive disorders, coughs and other causes have contributed to declining mortality in the 5-14 age group. The cause group accidents and injury, digestive disorders, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy and other causes are promoted to increase the mortality of the 15-34 age group. The causes contributing to the increasing trend of mortality in the 35-54 age group are violence and injury, digestive disorders, coughs, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy. Digestive disorders and other causes contributed to the mortality increase in the over 55 age group. PMID:12266915

  1. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use. An Adjustment for Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline over time with increasing age in asthma symptoms and health care use of children. Develop a statistical procedure that enables adjustment that accounts for expected declines in these outcomes and is useable when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Methods: Mixed-effects models with mixture distributions were used to describe the pattern of symptoms and health care use in 3,021 children aged 2 to 15 years in a combined sample from three controlled trials. An adaptive least squares estimation was used to account for overestimation of intervention effects and make adjustments for pre-post only data. Termed “Adjustment for Natural Declines in Asthma Outcomes (ANDAO),” the adjustment method uses bootstrap sampling to create control cohorts comparable to subjects in the intervention study from existing control subjects. ANDAO accounts for expected declines in outcomes and is beneficial when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Measurements and Main Results: Children under 10 years of age experienced 18% (95% confidence interval, 15–21%) fewer symptom days and 28% (95% confidence interval, 24–32%) fewer symptom nights with each additional year of age. The decline was less than 10% after age 10 years, depending on baseline asthma severity. Emergency department visits declined regardless of baseline symptom frequency (P = 0.02). The adjustment method corrected estimates to within 2.4% of true effects through simulations using control cohorts. Conclusions: Because of the declines in symptoms and health care use expected with increasing age of children with asthma, pre

  2. Recent Changes in the U.S. Age at Death Distribution: Further Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, George C.; Manton, Kenneth G.

    1984-01-01

    Responds to discussion (Fries, 1984) of an earlier article (Myers and Manton, 1984) presenting empirical evidence on changes in the distribution of ages at death. Further analysis of the data is presented, including life expectancy changes from 1950-1978 and comparison of data for men and women from several countries. (JAC)

  3. Nursing Students' Attitudes Toward the Aged as a Function of Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackie, Norman K.

    A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…

  4. A survey of the causes of sudden cardiac death in the under 35-year-age group.

    PubMed

    Quigley, F; Greene, M; O'Connor, D; Kelly, F

    2005-09-01

    CRY (Cardiac Risk in the Young) is a registered Irish charity established by parents who are bereaved as a result of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study is to establish the incidence and causes of sudden cardiac death in Dublin city in the 10-year period from 1st January 1993 to 31st December 2002. All sudden cardiac deaths in the under 35-year age group which were reported to the city coroner in the study period were examined. Details regarding age, sex, previous symptoms, investigations, circumstances of death and main pathological finding were recorded in each case. A total of 72 cases of sudden cardiac death in the under-35 year age group were reported. 52 were men. The median age was 26.5 years (range 12-34 years). The cause of death in 20 cases was reported as atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease. The second commonest cause of death (24% cases) was Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy was the commonest cause of death under the age of 25 years. Overall atherosclerotic coronary artery disease was the commonest cause of death in this group. The importance of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is highlighted by the fact it was the commonest cause of death in the under 25-year age group. Screening those at high risk of sudden cardiac death especially the relatives of those affected by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy need to be discussed and implemented. PMID:16255113

  5. Variation in osteon histomorphometrics and their impact on age-at-death estimation in older individuals.

    PubMed

    Goliath, Jesse R; Stewart, Marissa C; Stout, Sam D

    2016-05-01

    Histomorphometric studies have reported relations between osteon size and age; however, data focused on the shape of osteons is sparse. The purpose of this study was to determine how osteon circularity (On.Cr) varies with age in different skeletal elements. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between age and osteon shape and size. We hypothesized that age would be negatively related to osteon size (area, On.Ar) and positively related to osteon shape (On.Cr). On.Cr and On.Ar were determined for the ribs and femora of 27 cadaveric specimens with known age-at-death. As predicted, age was significantly related to osteon size and shape for both the femur and rib. With age, there was a decrease in size and an increase in circularity. No relationship between sex and On.Cr was detected. An age predicting model, including On.Cr, On.Ar and OPD, is proposed to improve our ability to estimate age-at-death, especially for older individuals. PMID:27021159

  6. Improving adjustments for older age in pre-hospital assessment and care.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Population estimates projects a significant increase in the geriatric population making elderly trauma patients more common. The geriatric trauma patients experience higher incidence of pre-existing medical conditions, impaired age-dependent physiologic reserve, use potent drugs and suffer from trauma system related shortcomings that influence outcomes. To improve adjustments for older age in pre-hospital assessment and care, several initiatives should be implemented. Decision-makers should make system revisions and introduce advanced point-of-care initiatives to improve outcome after trauma for the elderly. PMID:23343340

  7. [Programmed cell death as a target to interrupt the aging program].

    PubMed

    Severin, F F; Skulachev, V P

    2009-01-01

    There are two opposite points of view on aging of organisms. The canonic concept assumes that aging is a stochastic process consisting in age-dependent accumulation of occasional injuries in living systems. However, many pieces of evidence are recently obtained in favor of the alternative scheme suggesting that aging is genetically programmed being the final step of ontogenesis. The latter concept predicts that (i) non-aging species should exist who has lost the aging program and (ii) the program in question can experimentally be interrupted by manipulating with corresponding genes or by low molecules operating as inhibitors of execution of aging program. In this paper, we summarize observations which are consistent with two above predictions. In both cases, interruption of the aging program is based upon inhibition of programmed cell death (apoptosis) mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is stated that the main difference between young and old multicellular organisms consists in the cellularity, i. e. in number of functional cells in organs or tissues rather than in quality of these cells. The cellularity decreases due to domination of apoptosis over proliferation in aging organisms. This means that apoptosis appears to be the basis for aging program. A pharmacological approach to switch off the aging program is considered, which is used mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and uncouplers. Such compounds prevent mitochondrial oxidative stress increasing with age and stimulating the age-dependent apoptosis. PMID:19827675

  8. PAFS: population-adjusted frequency of sensitization. (I) Influence of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A

    1996-06-01

    Sensitization rates are influenced by sex and age. Crude rates from different departments cannot be compared without taking into account these variables. However, the influence of sex and age has never been considered quantitatively. In 2 hypothetical populations with identical age-specific sensitizations rates, but differing age distributions, the influence of age on the overall sensitization rate (crude rate) is demonstrated. Furthermore, by an abstract reflection on rates, the influence of the proportions of a population category (e.g., age) on crude rates is shown (crude rate = sigma (category-specific rate x proportion of population in category)). To account for differing distributions of sex and age, we propose 2 ways. Sex-specific rates should be presented separately. Age-specific rates should be standardized. The standard rate is defined as: SR = sigma (category specific rate x proportion of standard population in category). Using a standard population with a rectangular structure (i.e., with equal proportions in each of the category (age) specific groups), the standardized rate is the arithmetic average of the category (age) specific rate. Only for simple routine evaluations can a standard population with 2 equal groups be used, namely over 39 years and under 40 years. The standardized rate can easily be calculated as SR: (positive rate (%under 40 + positive rate (%) over 39)/2. The general rule should be to use a "rectangular" standard population with 9 age groups of a 10-year sequence. By using the standardization procedure; remaining differences found in different departments can no longer be attributed to age and sex. Other factors, such as selection of patients or real epidemiological differences, can then be discussed. The application of population-adjusted frequency of sensitization (PAFS) in any publication on prevalences of sensitization is highly recommended. PMID:8879920

  9. No Association Between Apoε4 Alleles, HIV Infection, Age, Neuropsychological Outcome or Death

    PubMed Central

    Becker, James T.; Martinson, Jeremy J.; Penugonda, Sudhir; Kingsley, Lawrence; Molsberry, Samantha; Wolinsky, Steven; Reynolds, Sandra; Aronow, Aaron; Goodkin, Karl; Levine, Andrew; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-01-01

    The ε4 allele of the ApoE gene may have important interactions with physical health and cognitive function among individuals with HIV disease. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between ε4, HIV disease, age, neuropsychological impairment and death in a large, well-characterized study sample. 2,846 men participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study had ApoE genotyping and neuropsychological test data available for analysis. We found a significant association between HIV infection and time to death (from any cause), as well as older age, race, and education. But, ApoE status was not significantly associated with time to death. Similarly, we found a significant association between HIV infection and time to incident cognitive impairment, as well as age, education, and HIV serostatus; Apoε4 status was not related to incident cognitive impairment. There were no significant interactions between ApoE, HIV infection, and age on cognitive impairment. These data replicate and strengthen prior findings of the lack of association between ApoE ε4 and cognitive outcomes in HIV disease. We conclude that within the specific constraints of an exclusively male study in which the majority of participants were less than 65 years of age (range: 22-87 years), it appears reasonable to conclude that the ε4 allele is not significantly interacting with HIV serostatus. PMID:25388225

  10. No association between Apoε4 alleles, HIV infection, age, neuropsychological outcome, or death.

    PubMed

    Becker, James T; Martinson, Jeremy J; Penugonda, Sudhir; Kingsley, Lawrence; Molsberry, Samantha; Reynolds, Sandra; Aronow, Aaron; Goodkin, Karl; Levine, Andrew; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N; Munro, Cynthia A; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned

    2015-02-01

    The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene may have important interactions with physical health and cognitive function among individuals with HIV disease. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between ε4, HIV disease, age, neuropsychological impairment, and death in a large, well-characterized study sample. A total of 2846 men participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study had ApoE genotyping and neuropsychological test data available for analysis. We found a significant association between HIV infection and time to death (from any cause), as well as older age, race, and education. But, ApoE status was not significantly associated with time to death. Similarly, we found a significant association between HIV infection and time to incident cognitive impairment, as well as age, education, and HIV serostatus; Apoε4 status was not related to incident cognitive impairment. There were no significant interactions between ApoE, HIV infection, and age on cognitive impairment. These data replicate and strengthen prior findings of the lack of association between ApoE ε4 and cognitive outcomes in HIV disease. We conclude that within the specific constraints of an exclusively male study in which the majority of participants were less than 65 years of age (range 22-87 years), it appears reasonable to conclude that the ε4 allele is not significantly interacting with HIV serostatus. PMID:25388225

  11. Socio-Ecological Risk Factors for Prime-Age Adult Death in Two Coastal Areas of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Wierzba, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years) adult death. Methods and Findings The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. Conclusion Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam. PMID:24587031

  12. Inflammation and Cell Death in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Immunopathological and Ultrastructural Model.

    PubMed

    Ardeljan, Christopher P; Ardeljan, Daniel; Abu-Asab, Mones; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) remains elusive despite the characterization of many factors contributing to the disease in its late-stage phenotypes. AMD features an immune system in flux, as shown by changes in macrophage polarization with age, expression of cytokines and complement, microglial accumulation with age, etc. These point to an allostatic overload, possibly due to a breakdown in self vs. non-self when endogenous compounds and structures acquire the appearance of non-self over time. The result is inflammation and inflammation-mediated cell death. While it is clear that these processes ultimately result in degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor, the prevalent type of cell death contributing to the various phenotypes is unknown. Both molecular studies as well as ultrastructural pathology suggest pyroptosis, and perhaps necroptosis, are the predominant mechanisms of cell death at play, with only minimal evidence for apoptosis. Herein, we attempt to reconcile those factors identified by experimental AMD models and integrate these data with pathology observed under the electron microscope-particularly observations of mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA leakage, autophagy, and cell death. PMID:25580276

  13. Activation-induced and damage-induced cell death in aging human T cells.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    In multicellular organisms the proper system functionality is ensured by the balance between cell division, differentiation, senescence and death. This balance is changed during aging. Immunosenescence plays a crucial role in aging and leads to the shrinkage of T cell repertoire and the propensity to apoptosis. The elimination of expanded T cells at the end of immune response is crucial to maintain homeostasis and avoid any uncontrolled inflammation. Resting mature T lymphocytes, when activated via their antigen-specific receptor (TCR) and CD28 co-receptor, start to proliferate and then undergo the so called activation induced cell death (AICD), which mechanistically is triggered by the death receptor and leads to apoptosis. T lymphocytes, like other cells, are also exposed to damage, which can trigger the so called damage-induced cell death (DICD). It was hypothesized that oxidative stress and chronic antigenic load increasing with age reduced lymphocyte susceptibility to DICD and enhanced a proinflamatory status leading to increased AICD. However, data collected so far are inconsistent and does not support this assumption. Systematic and comprehensive studies are still needed for conclusive elucidation of the role of AICD and DICD in human immunosenescence, including the role of autophagy and necroptosis in the processes. PMID:25843236

  14. Application of the Bang and Ramm age at death estimation method to two known-age archaeological assemblages.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nancy; Antoine, Daniel; Hillson, Simon

    2014-11-01

    The Bang and Ramm method uses root dentine translucency (RDT) length in sectioned or unsectioned teeth as a sole indicator of chronological age at death in adult human remains. The formulae have been tested on modern remains of known age and on modern and archaeological remains of unknown age. This is the first published study of the method on known-age archaeological specimens and tests whether RDT is a good indicator of chronological age in buried human remains. We applied the Bang and Ramm equations to two 18th and 19th century assemblages excavated from the crypt of Christ Church, Spitalfields, and the cemetery of All Hallows by the Tower. Translucency was defined by shining a light through the external unsectioned root surface and was measured from digital images of 583 and 83 nonmolar roots from 126 Spitalfields and 12 All Hallows individuals, respectively, aged 21-81 years. Average absolute difference between real age and estimated age was 10.7 years and 8.4 years for Spitalfields and All Hallows individuals, respectively, with 58% and 75% estimated within 10 years of known age, and 29% and 33% estimated within five years of known age. These estimations are comparable to results from other ageing methods applied to the Spitalfields collection. Ages from both populations were estimated largely to the middle ranges, with younger individuals overestimated and older individuals underestimated. This is a common occurrence when using inverse calibration, where age is treated as the dependent variable and the ageing feature as the independent variable. PMID:25043454

  15. Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. PMID:25721885

  16. Death by color: differential cone loss in the aging mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Cunea, Alexander; Powner, Michael B; Jeffery, Glen

    2014-11-01

    Differential cell death is a common feature of aging and age-related disease. In the retina, 30% of rod photoreceptors are lost over life in humans and rodents. However, studies have failed to show age-related cell death in mouse cone photoreceptors, which is surprising because cone physiological function declines with age. Moreover in human, differential loss of short wavelength cone function is an aspect of age-related retinal disease. Here, cones are examined in young (3-month-old) and aged (12-month-old) C57 mice and also in complement factor H knock out mice (CFH-/-) that have been proposed as a murine model of age-related macular degeneration. In vivo imaging showed significant age-related reductions in outer retinal thickness in both groups over this period. Immunostaining for opsins revealed a specific significant decline of >20% for the medium/long (M/L)-wavelength cones but only in the periphery. S cones numbers were not significantly affected by age. This differential cell loss was backed up with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the 2 opsins, again showing S opsin was unaffected, but that M/L opsin was reduced particularly in CFH-/- mice. These results demonstrate aged cone loss, but surprisingly, in both genotypes, it is only significant in the peripheral ventral retina and focused on the M/L population and not S cones. We speculate that there may be fundamental differences in differential cone loss between human and mouse that may question the validity of mouse models of human outer retinal aging and pathology. PMID:24929970

  17. Effect of obesity on the reliability of age-at-death indicators of the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Wescott, Daniel J; Drew, Jessica L

    2015-04-01

    During medicolegal investigations, forensic anthropologists commonly use morphological changes in the auricular surface of the ilium and the symphyseal face of the pubis to estimate age. However, obesity may impact the reliability of age estimations based on pelvic joints. Over the past several decades, the prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased in the United States (US). Since the rate of progression through age-related stages of weight-bearing joints may be influenced by excessive body mass, it is important that anthropologists understand how obesity affects age-related morphological changes in the skeleton. This study investigates the effects of obesity on the validity of the estimated age-at-death based on the Buckberry-Chamberlin and Suchey-Brooks methods by comparing US adults considered normal BMI (BMI 18.5-24.9) and obese (BMI ≥ 30). The obese group exhibits overall greater bias (overestimation of age) and inaccuracy, less precision, and lower correlations between estimated and known age than the normal BMI group using both methods, although differences in the pubic symphysis are not statistically significant. For the auricular surface the age of transition from one phase to the next is lower and the standard deviations are greater for the obese as compared to normal weight individuals. This study helps to elucidate how obesity affects the rate of age-related skeletal change of the human pelvis, and shows that the pubic symphysis may be a more reliable indicator of age in obese individuals and that greater standard deviations are needed for obese individuals when estimating age-at-death from the pelvis. PMID:25447813

  18. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  19. 2006 Kent award lecture: is cell death and replacement a factor in aging?

    PubMed

    Warner, Huber R

    2007-11-01

    This article briefly summarizes the Kent Award Lecture I gave at the annual meeting of The Gerontological Society of America held in Dallas, Texas, in November 2006. Cell death is a normal response of cells to cytotoxic damage due to both internal and external threats, and this cell loss is normally countered by proliferation of neighboring cells and/or replacement of these cells from progenitor cell pools. Maintaining tissue homeostasis is a critical challenge during aging, and this article describes a few aspects of the dynamic cell turnover that occurs continuously in vivo, with particular reference to the adverse effects of mutations that accelerate cell death through dysfunctional DNA metabolism, and how these events might contribute to aging in general. PMID:18000142

  20. Using existing information from medico-legal death investigations to improve care of older people in residential aged care services.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ranson, David

    2013-12-01

    The care of older people in residential aged care services could be improved by optimising the use of existing information gathered for medico-legal death investigations. The authors address three myths contributing to underuse of this information: deaths are not preventable; public health gains are too small; and it is someone else's charter or responsibility A significant proportion of deaths are preventable, specifically those occurring prematurely from natural causes or due to injury and trauma. By addressing these preventable deaths, significant public health cost savings and better health outcomes for our growing ageing population can be achieved. Despite substantive monitoring of the provision of aged care, no single entity is explicitly responsible for systematically analysing medico-legal death information. The data and skills for using information from medico-legal death investigations currently exist. Dispelling the myths removes one impediment to investing in this area of public health. PMID:24597371

  1. The timing of fault motion in Death Valley from Illite Age Analysis of fault gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, E. A.; Haines, S. H.; Van der Pluijm, B.

    2014-12-01

    We constrained the timing of fluid circulation and associated fault motion in the Death Valley region of the US Basin and Range Province from Illite Age Analysis (IAA) of fault gouge at seven Low-Angle Normal Fault (LANF) exposures in the Black Mountains and Panamint Mountains, and in two nearby areas. 40Ar/39Ar ages of neoformed, illitic clay minerals in these fault zones range from 2.8 Ma to 18.6 Ma, preserving asynchronous fault motion across the region that corresponds to an evolving history of crustal block movements during Neogene extensional deformation. From north to south, along the western side of the Panamint Range, the Mosaic Canyon fault yields an authigenic illite age of 16.9±2.9 Ma, the Emigrant fault has ages of less than 10-12 Ma at Tucki Mountain and Wildrose Canyon, and an age of 3.6±0.17 Ma was obtained for the Panamint Front Range LANF at South Park Canyon. Across Death Valley, along the western side of the Black Mountains, Ar ages of clay minerals are 3.2±3.9 Ma, 12.2±0.13 Ma and 2.8±0.45 Ma for the Amargosa Detachment, the Gregory Peak Fault and the Mormon Point Turtleback detachment, respectively. Complementary analysis of the δH composition of neoformed clays shows a primarily meteoric source for the mineralizing fluids in these LANF zones. The ages fall into two geologic timespans, reflecting activity pulses in the Middle Miocene and in the Upper Pliocene. Activity on both of the range front LANFs does not appear to be localized on any single portion of these fault systems. Middle Miocene fault rock ages of neoformed clays were also obtained in the Ruby Mountains (10.5±1.2 Ma) to the north of the Death Valley region and to the south in the Whipple Mountains (14.3±0.19 Ma). The presence of similar, bracketed times of activity indicate that LANFs in the Death Valley region were tectonically linked, while isotopic signatures indicate that faulting pulses involved surface fluid penetration.

  2. The age-specific force of natural selection and biodemographic walls of death

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Evans, Steven N.; Steinsaltz, David

    2013-01-01

    W. D. Hamilton’s celebrated formula for the age-specific force of natural selection furnishes predictions for senescent mortality due to mutation accumulation, at the price of reliance on a linear approximation. Applying to Hamilton’s setting the full nonlinear demographic model for mutation accumulation recently developed by Evans, Steinsaltz, and Wachter, we find surprising differences. Nonlinear interactions cause the collapse of Hamilton-style predictions in the most commonly studied case, refine predictions in other cases, and allow walls of death at ages before the end of reproduction. Haldane’s principle for genetic load has an exact but unfamiliar generalization. PMID:23657010

  3. Use of free amino acid composition of shell to estimate age since death of recent molluscs

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, A.M.; Powell, E.N.; Stanton, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An understanding of death assemblage formation requires a measurement of time since death of constituent individuals. A new dating technique based on the measurement of the free amino acid content of mollusc shells has been developed which is inexpensive, rapid, and effective in dating time scales of a few decades to a few centuries. Since the breakdown of proteins of the matrix of mollusc shells begins soon after deposition, free amino acids gradually increase with shell age. The measurement of these can be used to determine the relative age among a group of shells. The future use of this technique depends on a clearer understanding of how free amino acid accumulation rate varies with age and species and developing effective calibration methods so that absolute rather than relative ages can be readily obtained. Three species were distributed widely enough for use - Rangia cuneata, Tagelus plebeius, and Phacoides pectinatus. A good relationship between free amino acids and relative age was present in all three species over the entire core; however some species and some amino acid were superior to others. Rangia cuneata produced the best correlation because it is epifaunal and thus died at the sediment surface rather than over an extended depth range and, also perhaps, because amino acid accumulation rates were more linear.

  4. Differences in late fetal death rates in association with determinants of small for gestational age fetuses: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cnattingius, Sven; Haglund, Bengt; Kramer, Michael S

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in late fetal death rates in association with determinants of small for gestational age fetuses. Design: Population based cohort study. Subjects: 1 026 249 pregnancies without congenital malformations. Setting: Sweden 1983-92. Main outcome measure: Late fetal death rate. Results: Depending on underlying determinants late fetal death rates were greatly increased in extremely small for gestational age fetuses (range 16 to 45 per 1000) compared with non-small for gestational age fetuses (1.4 to 4.6). In extremely small for gestational age fetuses late fetal death rates were increased from 31 per 1000 in mothers aged less than 35 years to 45 per 1000 in older mothers, and from 22 per 1000 in women <155 cm in height to 33 per 1000 in women ⩾175 cm tall. Late fetal death rates were also higher in extremely small for gestational age fetuses in singleton compared with twin pregnancies and in non-hypertensive pregnancies compared with pregnancies complicated by severe pre-eclampsia or other hypertensive disorders. Slightly higher late fetal death rates were observed in nulliparous compared with parous women and in non-smokers compared with smokers. Conclusions: Although the risk of late fetal death is greatly increased in fetuses that are extremely small for gestational age the risk is strongly modified by underlying determinants—for example, there is a lower risk of late fetal death in a small for gestational age fetus if the mother is of short stature, has a twin pregnancy, or has hypertension. Key messages Small for gestational age fetuses are at increased risk of late fetal death regardless of the underlying determinants The effect of birthweight ratio on risk of late fetal death is modified by underlying determinants, except maternal age Regardless of birthweight ratio the rates of late fetal death are higher among women aged 35 years or older compared with younger women In pregnancies of extremely small for gestational age

  5. Capitation funding: population, age, and mortality adjustments for regional and district health authorities in England.

    PubMed

    Raftery, J

    1993-10-30

    This study examined the three components (population projection, age, and mortality weights) in the national funding formula for hospital and community health services in regions and districts. The age cost weights, based on national average age use profiles of 29 programs, emphasized births and elderly age groups. The results of the application of the formula (mid year population projections by age group, age cost weights for each age group of total population, and adjustment to total population by the square root of the all cause standardized mortality ratio among those aged under 75 years) were as follows. The application to the 1997 population regionally showed many changes. Changes in population share for regional health authorities were due more to age weights and mortality and ranged from -9% in the Northwest Region to 6% in the South Western Region. At the District level the changes ranged from -17% to 28%. There were 99 districts that lost funding and 87 districts that gained funding. All regions had some of both districts, except the Northern Region and South Western Regions which had only 3 district losers. In North East Thames, there were only losers with the exception of one district. South East Thames had the widest disparity in gainers and losers from -15% to 28% and in the South West from -14% to 27%. Population projection effects indicated that new towns were gainers of funding and older areas were losers. The share from population projections ranged from -16% to 31%. The age cost weight's effects ranged from -20% to 30%. Some districts were affected greatly: gainers were seaside resorts with large elderly populations. The mortality weight's effects ranged from -9% to 14%. Northern districts and inner city London districts tended to be gainers. The conclusion was that age weights accounted for the bulk of gains. The methodology should be reexamined with attention to the age cost weights and dramatic changes in funding at the district level that are

  6. International variation in reported livebirth prevalence rates of Down syndrome, adjusted for maternal age.

    PubMed

    Carothers, A D; Hecht, C A; Hook, E B

    1999-05-01

    Reported livebirth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) may be affected by the maternal age distribution of the population, completeness of ascertainment, accuracy of diagnosis, extent of selective prenatal termination of affected pregnancies, and as yet unidentified genetic and environmental factors. To search for evidence of the latter, we reviewed all published reports in which it was possible to adjust both for effects of maternal age and for selective termination (where relevant). We constructed indices that allowed direct comparisons of prevalence rates after standardising for maternal age. Reference rates were derived from studies previously identified as having near complete ascertainment. An index value significantly different from 1 may result from random fluctuations, as well as from variations in the factors listed above. We found 49 population groups for which an index could be calculated. Methodological descriptions suggested that low values could often be attributed to under-ascertainment. A possible exception concerned African-American groups, though even among these most acceptable studies were compatible with an index value of 1. As we have reported elsewhere, there was also a suggestive increase in rates among US residents of Mexican or Central American origin. Nevertheless, our results suggest that "real" variation between population groups reported to date probably amounts to no more than +/-25%. However, reliable data in many human populations are lacking including, surprisingly, some jurisdictions with relatively advanced health care systems. We suggest that future reports of DS livebirth prevalence should routinely present data that allow calculation of an index standardised for maternal age and adjusted for elective prenatal terminations. PMID:10353785

  7. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  8. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships PMID:22582023

  9. Dendritic regression dissociated from neuronal death but associated with partial deafferentation in aging rat supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Flood, D G; Coleman, P D

    1993-01-01

    As neurons are lost in normal aging, the dendrites of surviving neighbor neurons may proliferate, regress, or remain unchanged. In the case of age-related dendritic regression, it has been difficult to distinguish whether the regression precedes neuronal death or whether it is a consequence of loss of afferent supply. The rat supraoptic nucleus (SON) represents a model system in which there is no age-related loss of neurons, but in which there is an age-related loss of afferents. The magnocellular neurosecretory neurons of the SON, that produce vasopressin and oxytocin for release in the posterior pituitary, were studied in male Fischer 344 rats at 3, 12, 20, 27, 30, and 32 months of age. Counts in Nissl-stained sections showed no neuronal loss with age, and confirmed similar findings in other strains of rat and in mouse and human. Nucleolar size increased between 3 and 12 months of age, due, in part, to nucleolar fusion, and was unchanged between 12 and 32 months of age, indicating maintenance of general cellular function in old age. Dendritic extent quantified in Golgi-stained tissue increased between 3 and 12 months of age, was stable between 12 and 20 months, and decreased between 20 and 27 months. We interpret the increase between 3 and 12 months as a late maturational change. Dendritic regression between 20 and 27 months was probably the result of deafferentation due to the preceding age-related loss of the noradrenergic input to the SON from the ventral medulla. PMID:7507575

  10. Age-adjusted plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heul; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Yoon, Jung Min; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent reports showed that plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a useful biomarker of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion (CAL) development in Kawasaki disease (KD). The levels of these peptides are critically influenced by age; hence, the normal range and upper limits for infants and children are different. We performed an age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level to validate its clinical use in the diagnosis of KD. Methods The data of 131 patients with KD were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 2 groups—group I (high NT-proBNP group) and group II (normal NT-proBNP group)—comprising patients with NT-proBNP concentrations higher and lower than the 95th percentile of the reference value, respectively. We compared the laboratory data, responsiveness to IVIG, and the risk of CAL in both groups. Results Group I showed significantly higher white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, aspartate aminotransferase level, and troponin-I level than group II (P<0.05). The risk of CAL was also significantly higher in group I (odds ratio, 5.78; P=0.012). IVIG unresponsiveness in group I was three times that in group II (odds ratio, 3.35; P= 0.005). Conclusion Age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level could be helpful in predicting IVIG unresponsiveness and risk of CAL development in patients with KD. PMID:27588030

  11. Mitochondria-Ros Crosstalk in the Control of Cell Death and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Saverio; Giorgi, Carlotta; Suski, Jan M.; Agnoletto, Chiara; Bononi, Angela; Bonora, Massimo; De Marchi, Elena; Missiroli, Sonia; Patergnani, Simone; Poletti, Federica; Rimessi, Alessandro; Duszynski, Jerzy; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules, mainly generated inside mitochondria that can oxidize DNA, proteins, and lipids. At physiological levels, ROS function as “redox messengers” in intracellular signalling and regulation, whereas excess ROS induce cell death by promoting the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Recent work has pointed to a further role of ROS in activation of autophagy and their importance in the regulation of aging. This review will focus on mitochondria as producers and targets of ROS and will summarize different proteins that modulate the redox state of the cell. Moreover, the involvement of ROS and mitochondria in different molecular pathways controlling lifespan will be reported, pointing out the role of ROS as a “balance of power,” directing the cell towards life or death. PMID:22175013

  12. A Hierarchical Kinetic Theory of Birth, Death and Fission in Age-Structured Interacting Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom; Greenman, Chris D.

    2016-07-01

    We develop mathematical models describing the evolution of stochastic age-structured populations. After reviewing existing approaches, we formulate a complete kinetic framework for age-structured interacting populations undergoing birth, death and fission processes in spatially dependent environments. We define the full probability density for the population-size age chart and find results under specific conditions. Connections with more classical models are also explicitly derived. In particular, we show that factorial moments for non-interacting processes are described by a natural generalization of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation, which describes mean-field deterministic behavior. Our approach utilizes mixed-type, multidimensional probability distributions similar to those employed in the study of gas kinetics and with terms that satisfy BBGKY-like equation hierarchies.

  13. A Hierarchical Kinetic Theory of Birth, Death and Fission in Age-Structured Interacting Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom; Greenman, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    We develop mathematical models describing the evolution of stochastic age-structured populations. After reviewing existing approaches, we formulate a complete kinetic framework for age-structured interacting populations undergoing birth, death and fission processes in spatially dependent environments. We define the full probability density for the population-size age chart and find results under specific conditions. Connections with more classical models are also explicitly derived. In particular, we show that factorial moments for non-interacting processes are described by a natural generalization of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation, which describes mean-field deterministic behavior. Our approach utilizes mixed-type, multidimensional probability distributions similar to those employed in the study of gas kinetics and with terms that satisfy BBGKY-like equation hierarchies.

  14. The programmed death phenomena, aging, and the Samurai law of biology.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, V P

    2001-07-01

    Analysis of the programmed death phenomena from mitochondria (mitoptosis) to whole organisms (phenoptosis) clearly shows that suicide programs are inherent at various levels of organization of living systems. Such programs perform very important functions, purifying (i) cells from damaged (or unwanted for other reasons) organelles, (ii) tissues from unwanted cells, (iii) organisms from organs transiently appearing during ontogenesis, and (iv) communities of organisms from unwanted individuals. Defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) is probably one of primary evolutionary functions of programmed death mechanisms. So far, it seems that ROS play a key role in the mito-, apo-, organo- and phenoptoses. Here a concept is described which tries to unite Weismann's concept of aging as an adaptive programmed death mechanism and the alternative point of view considering aging as an inevitable result of accumulation in an organism of occasional injuries. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by special system sending a death signal to actuate a phenoptotic program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system in question is organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before occasional injuries make the functioning of the organism impossible. This strategy is supposed to prevent the appearance of asocial monsters capable to ruining kin, community and entire population. These relationships are regarded as an example of the Samurai law of biology: 'It is better to die than to be wrong'. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that should be overcome to prolong the human life span. PMID:11404047

  15. Investigation of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Deaths Among US Children Aged <2 Years, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Prill, Mila M; Iwane, Marika K; Little, Delmar; Gerber, Susan I

    2016-09-01

    We validated the respiratory syncytial virus-coded deaths of children aged <2 years in 2004-2007 using national/state death data and medical records. There were 48 deaths in 4 states, and hospital records for 32 of them were available; 26 of those 32 (81%) had a laboratory finding of respiratory syncytial virus, and 21 of those 26 (81%) had a potential high-risk condition, most commonly preterm birth (35%). PMID:27534673

  16. The accuracy of histological assessments of dental development and age at death

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T M; Reid, D J; Sirianni, J E

    2006-01-01

    Histological analyses of dental development have been conducted for several decades despite few studies assessing the accuracy of such methods. Using known-period incremental features, the crown formation time and age at death of five pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were estimated with standard histological techniques and compared with known ages. Estimates of age at death ranged from 8.6% underestimations to 15.0% overestimations, with an average 3.5% overestimate and a 7.2% average absolute difference. Several sources of error were identified relating to preparation quality and section obliquity. These results demonstrate that histological analyses of dental development involving counts and measurements of short- and long-period incremental features may yield accurate estimates, particularly in well-prepared material. Values from oblique sections (or most naturally fractured teeth) should be regarded with caution, as obliquity leads to inflated cuspal enamel formation time and underestimated imbricational formation time. Additionally, Shellis's formula for extension rate and crown formation time estimation was tested, which significantly overestimated crown formation time due to underestimated extension rate. It is suggested that Shellis' method should not be applied to teeth with short, rapid periods of development, and further study is necessary to validate this application in other material. PMID:16420385

  17. Two phases of aging separated by the Smurf transition as a public path to death.

    PubMed

    Dambroise, E; Monnier, L; Ruisheng, L; Aguilaniu, H; Joly, J-S; Tricoire, H; Rera, M

    2016-01-01

    Aging's most obvious characteristic is the time dependent increase of an individual's probability to die. This lifelong process is accompanied by a large number of molecular and physiological changes. Although numerous genes involved in aging have been identified in the past decades its leading factors have yet to be determined. To identify the very processes driving aging we have developed in the past years an assay to identify physiologically old individuals in a synchronized population of Drosophila melanogaster. Those individuals show an age-dependent increase of intestinal permeability followed by a high risk of death. Here we show that this physiological marker of aging is conserved in 3 invertebrate species Drosophila mojavensis, Drosophila virilis, Caenorhabditis elegans as well as in 1 vertebrate species Danio rerio. Our findings suggest that intestinal barrier dysfunction may be an important event in the aging process conserved across a broad range of species, thus raising the possibility that it may also be the case in Homo sapiens. PMID:27002861

  18. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Standing Reach Tasks Among Middle-Aged Adults With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Su, Ivan Y W; Chow, Daniel H K

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that children with cerebral palsy (CP) exhibited premature anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) with high variability and excessive activity in the frontal plane. To better understand the effects of gross motor functioning level on APAs over the life course, the authors examined the presence and consistency of APAs in 11 adults with diplegia at 2 functioning levels against 8 age-matched healthy adults during unilateral and bilateral reaching. Results revealed an anticipatory vertical torque (TZ) and an increased likelihood of APAs during bilateral reaching for the lower functioning group. It is postulated that APAs may first emerge in TZ in CP. Results also indicated an excessive premovement postural activity in the frontal plane in both CP groups. PMID:26730748

  19. Weight-for-age as an index of risk of death in children.

    PubMed

    Kielmann, A A; McCord, C

    1978-06-10

    Between April, 1968, and May, 1973, the Department of International Health of Johns Hopkins University studied the effects of the interaction of nutrition and infection in fourteen villages of Punjab, North India. Serial anthropometric measurements (used as index of nutritional status) and vital statistics of almost 3000 children aged 1-36 months showed that, on average, child mortality doubled with each 10% decline below 80% of the Harvard weight median. The relation between season and mortality showed that mortality-rates were highest just before and during the main (wheat) harvest, reflecting the effects of food scarcity, relative child neglect, and climate on child deaths among those already underweight. PMID:78007

  20. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  1. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  2. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  3. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  4. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  5. Two phases of aging separated by the Smurf transition as a public path to death

    PubMed Central

    Dambroise, E.; Monnier, L.; Ruisheng, L.; Aguilaniu, H.; Joly, J.-S.; Tricoire, H.; Rera, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aging’s most obvious characteristic is the time dependent increase of an individual’s probability to die. This lifelong process is accompanied by a large number of molecular and physiological changes. Although numerous genes involved in aging have been identified in the past decades its leading factors have yet to be determined. To identify the very processes driving aging we have developed in the past years an assay to identify physiologically old individuals in a synchronized population of Drosophila melanogaster. Those individuals show an age-dependent increase of intestinal permeability followed by a high risk of death. Here we show that this physiological marker of aging is conserved in 3 invertebrate species Drosophila mojavensis, Drosophila virilis, Caenorhabditis elegans as well as in 1 vertebrate species Danio rerio. Our findings suggest that intestinal barrier dysfunction may be an important event in the aging process conserved across a broad range of species, thus raising the possibility that it may also be the case in Homo sapiens. PMID:27002861

  6. Familial factors in early deaths: twins followed 30 years to ages 51-61 in 1978.

    PubMed

    Hrubec, Z; Neel, J V

    1981-01-01

    Subjects in the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry of 31,848 male twin veterans were followed for mortality from 1 January 1946, or from the date of entry into military service if that was later, to 31 December 1978. During this time 3,573 deaths occurred among them, 837 due to trauma and 2,712 due to disease. Mortality from all causes for the entire follow-up period was 10.2% among 11,350 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 11.4% among 14,450 dizygotic (DZ) twins. Mortality of veterans is known to be favorable compared to U.S. males. Among U.S. males of the same ages as the two respective twin zygosity groups, a mortality of 13.9% would have been expected during this time period. Observed mortality from trauma was 2.3% for MZ twins and 2.5% for DZ twins, with 3.0% expected in either group. Observed mortality from all disease was 7.9% for MZ twins and 8.8% for DZ twins, with 10.9% expected in either group. For total mortality, the case twin concordance rates, based on individual deaths, were 28.2% among MZ twins and 17.7% among DZ twins. For trauma, respectively by zygosity, these concordance rates were 6.9% and 3.9%. In this sample, familial factors appear to be of little consequence in trauma deaths. For all disease the concordance rates were 30.1% and 17.4%. Estimating heritability of liability to death from disease, as proposed by Edwards (1969), provides values of h2 = r = 0.51 for MZ twins, h2 = 2r = 0.48 for DZ twins, and h2 = 2(rMZ-rDZ) = 0.54 using data for the two zygosity groups combined. PMID:10819020

  7. Curcumin in Cell Death Processes: A Challenge for CAM of Age-Related Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Salvioli, S.; Sikora, E.; Cooper, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, the yellow pigment from the rhizoma of Curcuma longa, is a widely studied phytochemical which has a variety of biological activities: anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. In this review we discuss the biological mechanisms and possible clinical effects of curcumin treatment on cancer therapy, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, with particular attention to the cell death processes induced by curcumin. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are major determinants of the aging process, we also argue that curcumin can have a more general effect that slows down the rate of aging. Finally, the effects of curcumin can be described as xenohormetic, since it activates a sort of stress response in mammalian cells. PMID:17549234

  8. A new model for the estimation of time of death from vitreous potassium levels corrected for age and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Bernard, S; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of potassium concentration in the vitreous fluid of the eye is frequently used by forensic pathologists to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), particularly when other methods commonly used in the early phase of an investigation can no longer be applied. The postmortem rise in vitreous potassium has been recognized for several decades and is readily explained by a diffusion of potassium from surrounding cells into the vitreous fluid. However, there is no consensus regarding the mathematical equation that best describes this increase. The existing models assume a linear increase, but different slopes and starting points have been proposed. In this study, vitreous potassium levels, and a number of factors that may influence these levels, were examined in 462 cases with known postmortem intervals that ranged from 2h to 17 days. We found that the postmortem rise in potassium followed a non-linear curve and that decedent age and ambient temperature influenced the variability by 16% and 5%, respectively. A long duration of agony and a high alcohol level at the time of death contributed less than 1% variability, and evaluation of additional possible factors revealed no detectable impact on the rise of vitreous potassium. Two equations were subsequently generated, one that represents the best fit of the potassium concentrations alone, and a second that represents potassium concentrations with correction for decedent age and/or ambient temperature. The former was associated with narrow confidence intervals in the early postmortem phase, but the intervals gradually increased with longer PMIs. For the latter equation, the confidence intervals were reduced at all PMIs. Therefore, the model that best describes the observed postmortem rise in vitreous potassium levels includes potassium concentration, decedent age, and ambient temperature. Furthermore, the precision of these equations, particularly for long PMIs, is expected to gradually improve by adjusting the

  9. Age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Ohashi, Yukari

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints. Fifteen young adults and 14 older adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. In the anterior-posterior direction, older adults demonstrated significantly decreased center of mass velocity at the swing foot contact under temporal constraints. Additionally, the distances between the 'extrapolated center of mass' position and base of support at the swing foot contact were greater in older adults than young adults. In the mediolateral direction, center of mass displacement was significantly increased in older adults compared with young adults. Consequently, older adults showed a significantly increased step width at the swing foot contact in the constraint condition. Overall, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate a conservative strategy to maintain anterior-posterior stability. By contrast, although older adults are able to modulate their step width to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance, age-related changes in mediolateral balance control under temporal constraints may increase the risk of falls in the lateral direction during obstacle negotiation. PMID:26852293

  10. ‘A confession of ignorance’: deaths from old age and deciphering cause-of-death statistics in Scotland, 1855–1949

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Alice; Garrett, Eilidh; Dibben, Chris; Williamson, Lee

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of the research undertaken in an attempt to discover the reasons underlying the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century mortality decline in Britain has relied on the statistics published by the Registrars General. The processes by which individual causes of death are recorded and then processed in order to create the statistics are not, however, well understood. In this article, the authors build on previous work to piece together a time series of causes of death for Scotland, which removes many of the discontinuities encountered in the published statistics that result from the Registrar General deciding to update the nosology, or classification system, which was being used to compile his figures. Having regrouped individual causes of death to ‘smooth’ the time series, the authors use the new groups to examine the changing causes of death in Scotland for selected age groups, before turning to undertake a detailed examination of mortality amongst those aged 55 or more. The authors find that when deaths from ‘old age’ in the latter age group are separated from other ‘ill-defined’ causes, it becomes obvious that there was a ‘rebranding’ of cause of death. The authors then use individual-level data from two Scottish communities to further dissect the roles played by ‘informants’ and ‘doctors’ in this rebranding, in order to see how these roles may have altered over time and what the consequences might be for one's view of how mortality changed in Scotland between 1855 and 1949. Finally, the authors argue that their findings have important implications for some of historical demography's most prominent theories: the McKeown thesis and the theory of epidemiological transition. PMID:26900320

  11. Aging: progressive decline in fitness due to the rising deleteriome adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-08-01

    Different theories posit that aging is caused by molecular damage, genetic programs, continued development, hyperfunction, antagonistic pleiotropy alleles, mutations, trade-offs, incomplete repair, etc. Here, I discuss that these ideas can be conceptually unified as they capture particular facets of aging, while being incomplete. Their respective deleterious effects impact fitness at different levels of biological organization, adjusting progression through aging, rather than causing it. Living is associated with a myriad of deleterious processes, both random and deterministic, which are caused by imperfectness, exhibit cumulative properties, and represent the indirect effects of biological functions at all levels, from simple molecules to systems. From this, I derive the deleteriome, which encompasses cumulative deleterious age-related changes and represents the biological age. The organismal deleteriome consists of the deleteriomes of cells, organs, and systems, which change along roughly synchronized trajectories and may be assessed through biomarkers of aging. Aging is then a progressive decline in fitness due to the increasing deleteriome, adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes. This model allows integration of diverse aging concepts, provides insights into the nature of aging, and suggests how lifespan may be adjusted during evolution and in experimental models. PMID:27060562

  12. Choosing a standard for adjusted mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, F

    1996-01-01

    For over half a century, the standard for age-adjustment in mortality studies has been based on the total population according to the 1940 census. The question periodically arises, however, whether a more recent census population might now be more appropriate. Thus, a study using the six censuses from 1940 to 1990 was conducted to see the effect each of these populations would have on the age-adjusted (standardized) death rates. While the size of the age-adjusted rates was affected by the censal standard populations from 1940 to 1990, these populations hardly changed the proportional mortality by age, sex, cause-of-death and geographic area. It appears that a shift from the 1940 standard will not be necessary, although if more detailed comparisons are needed, age-specific death rates can always be used. The 1940 standard also has the advantage of being consistent with many earlier studies. PMID:8744891

  13. Population-based mammography screening below age 50: balancing radiation-induced vs prevented breast cancer deaths

    PubMed Central

    de Gelder, R; Draisma, G; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to ionizing radiation at mammography screening may cause breast cancer. Because the radiation risk increases with lower exposure age, advancing the lower age limit may affect the balance between screening benefits and risks. The present study explores the benefit–risk ratio of screening before age 50. Methods: The benefits of biennial mammography screening, starting at various ages between 40 and 50, and continuing up to age 74 were examined using micro-simulation. In contrast with previous studies that commonly used excess relative risk models, we assessed the radiation risks using the latest BEIR-VII excess absolute rate exposure-risk model. Results: The estimated radiation risk is lower than previously assessed. At a mean glandular dose of 1.3 mGy per view that was recently measured in the Netherlands, biennial mammography screening between age 50 and 74 was predicted to induce 1.6 breast cancer deaths per 100 000 women aged 0–100 (range 1.3–6.3 extra deaths at a glandular dose of 1–5 mGy per view), against 1121 avoided deaths in this population. Advancing the lower age limit for screening to include women aged 40–74 was predicted to induce 3.7 breast cancer deaths per 100 000 women aged 0–100 (range 2.9–14.4) at biennial screening, but would also prevent 1302 deaths. Conclusion: The benefits of mammography screening between age 40 and 74 were predicted to outweigh the radiation risks. PMID:21364575

  14. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  15. Age-dependent Maintenance of Motor Control and Corticostriatal Innervation by Death Receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Twohig, Jason Peter; Roberts, Malcolm I.; Gavalda, Nuria; Rees-Taylor, Emma L.; Giralt, Albert; Adams, Debbie; Brooks, Simon P.; Bull, Melanie J.; Calder, Claudia J.; Cuff, Simone; Yong, Audrey A.; Alberch, Jordi; Davies, Alun; Dunnett, Stephen B.; Tolkovsky, Aviva M.; Wang, Eddie C. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Death Receptor 3 is a proinflammatory member of the immunomodulatory tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Intriguingly however, constitutive DR3 expression has been detected in the brains of mice, rats and humans although its neurological function remains unknown. By mapping the normal brain expression pattern of DR3, we found that DR3 is expressed specifically by cells of the neuron lineage in a developmentally regulated and region specific pattern. Behavioural studies on DR3-deficient (DR3ko) mice showed that constitutive neuronal DR3 expression was required for stable motor control function in the aging adult. DR3ko mice progressively developed behavioral defects characterised by altered gait, dyskinesia, and hyperactivity, which were associated with elevated dopamine and lower serotonin levels in the striatum. Importantly, retrograde tracing showed that absence of DR3 expression led to the loss of corticostriatal innervation without significant neuronal loss in aged DR3ko mice. These studies indicate that DR3 plays a key non-redundant role in the retention of normal motor control function during aging in mice and implicate DR3 in progressive neurological disease. PMID:20220013

  16. Mortality increase in late-middle and early-old age: heterogeneity in death processes as a new explanation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Yang, Yang Claire; Anderson, James J

    2013-10-01

    Deviations from the Gompertz law of exponential mortality increases in late-middle and early-old age are commonly neglected in overall mortality analyses. In this study, we examined mortality increase patterns between ages 40 and 85 in 16 low-mortality countries and demonstrated sex differences in these patterns, which also changed across period and cohort. These results suggest that the interaction between aging and death is more complicated than what is usually assumed from the Gompertz law and also challenge existing biodemographic hypotheses about the origin and mechanisms of sex differences in mortality. We propose a two-mortality model that explains these patterns as the change in the composition of intrinsic and extrinsic death rates with age. We show that the age pattern of overall mortality and the population heterogeneity therein are possibly generated by multiple dynamics specified by a two-mortality model instead of a uniform process throughout most adult ages. PMID:23743628

  17. Mortality Increase in Late-Middle and Early-Old Age: Heterogeneity in Death Processes as a New Explanation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang Claire; Anderson, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Deviations from the Gompertz law of exponential mortality increases in late-middle and early-old age are commonly neglected in overall mortality analyses. In this study, we examined mortality increase patterns between ages 40 and 85 in 16 low-mortality countries and demonstrated sex differences in these patterns, which also changed across period and cohort. These results suggest that the interaction between aging and death is more complicated than what is usually assumed from the Gompertz law and also challenge existing biodemographic hypotheses about the origin and mechanisms of sex differences in mortality. We propose a two-mortality model that explains these patterns as the change in the composition of intrinsic and extrinsic death rates with age. We show that the age pattern of overall mortality and the population heterogeneity therein are possibly generated by multiple dynamics specified by a two-mortality model instead of a uniform process throughout most adult ages. PMID:23743628

  18. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... insurance benefits in April 1981. He had no social security earnings before 1951 and his year-by-year...

  19. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... insurance benefits in April 1981. He had no social security earnings before 1951 and his year-by-year...

  20. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  1. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  2. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  3. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to University: Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Perceived Parenting Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between psychological separation and adjustment to university among college students. Found that two dimensions of psychological separation--independence from parents and positive separation feelings--predicted better adjustment to college life. Independence from parents was moderated by grade, gender, and perceived…

  4. Death Anxiety across the Adult Years: An Examination of Age and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russac, R. J.; Gatliff, Colleen; Reece, Mimi; Spottswood, Diahann

    2007-01-01

    Two studies examined death anxiety across the adult years. In the first study, 304 men and women between 18 and 87 years completed the Collett-Lester Fear of Death scale. Death anxiety peaked in both men and women during their 20s and declined significantly thereafter. However, women displayed a secondary spike during their 50s not seen in men. In…

  5. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  6. Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social and school adjustment: the moderating roles of age and parenting.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of 2,463 students who were in the first to ninth grade in northern Taiwan. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were inversely associated with academic performance and positively associated with social adjustment problems. Further, children's age and maternal parenting moderated the associations between ADHD symptoms and school and social adjustment. For example, maternal overprotection moderated the relation between hyperactivity and negative peer relationships (i.e., difficulty forming and maintaining friendships), such that this relation was stronger for children who experienced higher levels of overprotection than children who did not. Moreover, children's age moderated the association between attention problems and decreased academic performance, such that this association was stronger for older children and adolescents than for younger children. Furthermore, children's age and maternal affection interacted to influence the association between attention problems and school social problems (i.e., bullying, aggression, and peer rejection) with maternal affection acting as a buffer for older children (grades 4-6) only. These findings are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective. PMID:21858455

  7. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  8. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  9. Dynamic Adjustments in Channel Width in Response to a Forced Diversion: Gower Gulch, Death Valley National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, N. P.; Kammer, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    We study the 1941 diversion of Furnace Creek Wash (drainage area 439 km2) into Gower Gulch (5.8 km2) as an experiment in the transient response of channel geometry to a large change in water and sediment discharge. We measure sequential changes in valley width using a time series of aerial photographs (1948-1995), airborne laser elevation data from 2005, and a field survey. We find that response of the system varies depending on the pre-diversion channel morphology and geology. In two steep knickzone segments, narrowing, knickpoint retreat, and bedrock incision dominates-- a detachment-limited response. In the relatively low-gradient main part of Gower Gulch, fine-grained, soft sedimentary rocks underlie the channel, and widening dominates as the large, coarse post-diversion sediment load covers the channel bed. The response in this section is transport limited, with only modest incision and adjustments in gradient. Two different processes appear to cause the channel to widen. (1) In many reaches, the stream is attacking the valley walls, as evidenced by fresh plucking and scour marks. This probably occurs because the bed in the middle of the channel is alluviated and protected, which minimizes the opportunity for vertical incision. (2) Some reaches have experienced aggradation, which widens the valley by filling it in. This occurs in places where storage space exists (splay deposits in small tributary mouths, fill terraces in the wide valleys at larger tributary mouths) or in reaches upstream of constrictions. Over long periods, the lowering rate of Gower Gulch probably depends on knickpoint retreat, but the present-day response of this non-steady-state system is a hybrid of incision and narrowing in detachment-limited reaches and widening in transport-limited reaches. This system demonstrates the importance of initial conditions and evolving channel geometry in setting the transient response of rivers.

  10. Effects of autistic traits on social and school adjustment in children and adolescents: the moderating roles of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and their school and social adjustment (i.e., academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork/teachers/classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problems with peers) were assessed using the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). Both measures were completed by the mothers of the participants. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that autistic-like social deficits were associated with poor academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork, teachers, and classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problematic peer interactions. Moreover, gender and/or age moderated the associations between autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment problems. For example, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to negative school attitude, school social problems, and negative peer relationships in boys than in girls. Further, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to problems with peers in older girls than in older boys or younger children (regardless of gender). In conclusion, the present study suggests that autistic-like social deficits may place children and adolescents at increased risk for social and school maladjustment and that the extent of maladjustment may vary with the child's age and gender and the domains of adjustment under discussion. PMID:22960068

  11. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  12. Families created through surrogacy: mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-11-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  13. Children conceived by gamete donation: psychological adjustment and mother-child relationships at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-04-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in nondisclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families, suggesting that families may benefit from openness about the child's genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  14. Microglial AGE-albumin is critical for neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease: a possible implication for theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Lee, Jaesuk; Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Moon, Jeongsik; Park, Hye-Jeong; Roshini, Arivazhagan; Kim, Seung U; Song, Byoung-Joon; Jo, Seung-Mook; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), by inducing protein aggregation and cross-link, formation of Lewy body, and neuronal death. In this study, we observed that AGE-albumin, the most abundant AGE product in the human PD brain, is synthesized in activated microglial cells and accumulates in the extracellular space. AGE-albumin synthesis in human-activated microglial cells is distinctly inhibited by ascorbic acid and cytochalasin treatment. Accumulated AGE-albumin upregulates the receptor to AGE, leading to apoptosis of human primary dopamine (DA) neurons. In animal experiments, we observed reduced DA neuronal cell death by treatment with soluble receptor to AGE. Our study provides evidence that activated microglial cells are one of the main contributors in AGE-albumin accumulation, deleterious to DA neurons in human and animal PD brains. Finally, activated microglial AGE-albumin could be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker with high sensitivity for neurodegenerative disorders, including PD. PMID:27601894

  15. Understanding Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    Bibliotherapy can help children prepare for and understand the death of a loved one. An annotated bibliography lists references with age level information on attitudes toward death and deaths of a father, friend, grandparent, mother, pet, and sibling. (Author/CL)

  16. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1526901

  17. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  18. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  19. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  20. The relationship between state abortion-restrictions and homicide deaths among children under 5 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha Slay; Kirby, Russell

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether, in the U.S., there are associations between state-level variations in mortality among young children and state abortion restriction policies - such as parental-consent requirements, parental-notification requirements, mandatory delay laws, and restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion. To investigate this, we used NCHS Multiple Cause of Deaths public-use data files for the period 1983-2002, and compiled data on children ages 0-4 identified as having died as a result of assault/homicide in each state and year. Medicaid funding of abortion, mandatory delay laws, and parental involvement laws for minors seeking abortions were included as the main predictor variables of interest. Multivariate count data models using pooled state-year-age cohort data, with state and time fixed effects and other state-level controls, were estimated. Results indicated that, between 1983 and 2002, the average increase in the number of homicide deaths for children under 5 years of age was 5.70 per state among states that implemented stricter abortion policies over that time, and 2.00 per state for states that did not. In the count data models, parental-consent laws were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths; parental-notification laws were associated with an 8 percent increase in child homicide deaths though the results were less robust to alternate model specifications; mandatory delay requirements were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths. While these data do not allow us to discern precise pathways via which state abortion-restrictions can lead to more child homicide deaths, we speculate that state restrictions on abortion may result in a disproportionate increase in children born into relatively high-risk environments. Additional research is called for to explore the association of state abortion-restrictions with other measures of infant/child health and well-being. PMID:22497846

  1. Modeling Bone Surface Morphology: A Fully Quantitative Method for Age-at-Death Estimation Using the Pubic Symphysis.

    PubMed

    Slice, Dennis E; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B

    2015-07-01

    The pubic symphysis is widely used in age estimation for the adult skeleton. Standard practice requires the visual comparison of surface morphology against criteria representing predefined phases and the estimation of case-specific age from an age range associated with the chosen phase. Known problems of method and observer error necessitate alternative tools to quantify age-related change in pubic morphology. This paper presents an objective, fully quantitative method for estimating age-at-death from the skeleton, which exploits a variance-based score of surface complexity computed from vertices obtained from a scanner sampling the pubic symphysis. For laser scans from 41 modern American male skeletons, this method produces results that are significantly associated with known age-at-death (RMSE = 17.15 years). Chronological age is predicted, therefore, equally well, if not, better, with this robust, objective, and fully quantitative method than with prevailing phase-aging systems. This method contributes to forensic casework by responding to medico-legal expectations for evidence standards. PMID:25929827

  2. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  3. The risk of stillbirth and infant death by each additional week of expectant management stratified by maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Page, Jessica M.; Snowden, Jonathan M.; Cheng, Yvonne W.; Doss, Amy; Rosenstein, Melissa G.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine fetal/infant mortality by gestational age at term stratified by maternal age. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study was conducted using 2005 US national birth certificate data. For each week of term gestation, the risk of mortality associated with delivery was compared with composite mortality risk of expectant management. The expectant management measure included stillbirth and infant death. This expectant management risk was calculated to estimate the composite mortality risk with remaining pregnant an additional week by combining the risk of stillbirth during the additional week of pregnancy and infant death risk following delivery at the next week. Maternal age was stratified by 35 years or more compared with women younger than 35 years as well as subgroup analyses of younger than 20, 20–34, 35–39, or 40 years old or older. RESULTS The fetal/infant mortality risk of expectant management is greater than the risk of infant death at 39 weeks’ gestation in women 35 years old or older (15.2 vs 10.9 of 10,000, P < .05). In women younger than 35 years old, the risk of expectant management also exceeded that of infant death at 39 weeks (21.3 vs 18.8 of 10,000, P < .05). For women younger than 35 years old, the overall expectant management risk is influenced by higher infant death risk and does not rise significantly until 41 weeks compared with women 35 years old or older in which it increased at 40 weeks. CONCLUSION Risk varies by maternal age, and delivery at 39 weeks minimizes fetal/infant mortality for both groups, although the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater in older women. PMID:23707677

  4. Tree Death Leading To Ecosystem Renewal? Forecasting Carbon Storage As Eastern Forests Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, P.; Gough, C. M.; Bohrer, G.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The future trajectory of North American carbon (C) stocks remains uncertain as a subset of maturing trees die in mixed deciduous forests of the U.S. Midwest and East transitioning from early to middle and late succession. We are studying disturbance-structure-function relationships of aging forests in northern Michigan using long-term ecological and meteorological C cycling studies, a large-scale disturbance experiment, a 200-year forest chronosequence, and flux comparisons across three tower sites. We find that ecosystem responses to mortality are characterized by several processes that affect structure-function relationships and alter the way ecosystem functioning interacts with meteorological forcing. We subjected 39 ha of forest to moderate experimental disturbance, similar to that of age-related or climatically induced tree mortality. We found that the mortality of a third of all canopy trees minimally altered the balance between forest C uptake and release, as growth-limiting light and nitrogen resources were rapidly reallocated from dead and dying trees to undisturbed trees. Although disturbance-induced mortality increased soil N mineralization rates, nitrification, and denitrification, N exports from soils remained low. Upper canopy gap formation and a rise in structural complexity allowed increased photosynthetic contribution of sub-canopy vegetation to compensate for the death of canopy dominant trees. However, we found large differences between the transpirational response of maples and oaks to VPD and soil moisture, which led to relative declines in maple transpiration post-disturbance. These hydrologic differences may affect a species' ability to compete for resources following such a disturbance. Changes to canopy structure had a relatively small effect on roughness length and the turbulence forcing of fluxes from the canopy. We currently are studying how tree mortality driven changes in canopy structure affects within-canopy resource distribution and

  5. Younger Age at Crisis Following Parental Death in Male Children and Adolescents is Associated with Higher Risk for Dementia at Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Goldbourt, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of midlife report of crisis following parental death (CFPD) during childhood and adolescence, with dementia at old age. Methods In 1965, 9362 male participants of the Israel Ischemic Heart disease (IIHD) study were asked whether they have experienced CFPD (paternal or maternal) during the following ages: 0–6. 7–12. 13–18 or >18 years. Dementia was assessed over three decades later in 1889 survivors of the original cohort, 1,652 of whom were assessed for CFPD in 1965. Results Controlling for age, the estimated odds for dementia relative to individuals who reported crisis following paternal parental death (CFPR-P) at the age of 18 and above, were 3.06 (95%CI 1.42–6.61), 2.15 (95% CI 0.87–5.31) and 2.35 (95%CI 1.05–5.28) for those who reported CFPD-P at the ages of 0–6, 7–12 and 13–18 respectively. Odds for dementia were 0.60 (95% CI 0.32–1.11) for participants who reported CFPD-P at ages of 18 and above, compared to participants who did not report such a crisis. Similar results were obtained for the association of crisis reported following maternal parental death (CFPD-M) at different age groups and dementia. Conclusions CFPD during childhood is associated with increased risk for dementia in males who survived until old age. PMID:21537146

  6. Older Age Predicts Decreased Metastasis and Prostate Cancer-Specific Death for Men Treated With Radiation Therapy: Meta-Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Hamstra, Daniel A.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Pilepich, Miljenko V.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Grignon, David J.; McGowan, David G.; Roach, Mack; Lawton, Colleen; Lee, R. Jeffrey; Sandler, Howard

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The impact of age on prostate cancer (PCa) outcome has been controversial; therefore, we analyzed the effect of age on overall survival (OS), distant metastasis, prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD), and nonprostate cancer death (NPCD) on patients with locally advanced PCa. Methods and Materials: Patients who participated in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III trials, 8531, 8610, 9202, and 9413, were studied. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for OS analysis, and cumulative events analysis with Fine and Gray's regression was used for analyses of metastasis, PCSD, and NPCD. Results: Median follow-up of 4,128 patients with median age of 70 (range, 43-88 years) was 7.3 years. Most patients had high-risk disease: cT3 to cT4 (54%) and Gleason scores (GS) of 7 (45%) and 8 to 10 (27%). Older age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) predicted for decreased OS (10-year rate, 55% vs. 41%, respectively; p < 0.0001) and increased NPCD (10-year rate, 28% vs. 46%, respectively; p < 0.0001) but decreased metastasis (10-year rate, 27% vs. 20%, respectively; p < 0.0001) and PCSD (10-year rate, 18% vs. 14%, respectively; p < 0.0001). To account for competing risks, outcomes were analyzed in 2-year intervals, and age-dependent differences in metastasis and PCSD persisted, even in the earliest time periods. When adjusted for other covariates, an age of >70 years remained associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.70] p < 0.0001) but with decreased metastasis (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.63-0.83] p < 0.0001) and PCSD (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66-0.92] p < 0.0001). Finally, the impact of the duration of androgen deprivation therapy as a function of age was evaluated. Conclusions: These data support less aggressive PCa in older men, independent of other clinical features. While the biological underpinning of this finding remains unknown, stratification by age in future trials appears to be warranted.

  7. Estimation of individual age and season of death in woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799), from Sakha-Yakutia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, Irina V.; Shidlovskiy, Fedor K.

    2010-11-01

    A unique find of a woolly rhinoceros skull bearing both nasal and frontal horns is described from a thermokarst lake of the Bol'shaya Chukoch'ya River basin in north-eastern Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. Based on counts of cementum layers of the maxillary first molar and dark and transverse bands of the nasal and frontal horns a correlation of individual age records within these structures is established. Both estimations of individual age are agreed as well as three other age estimation criteria followed from cranial characteristics, general aspects of dentition and tooth wear pattern. Thus, the number of horn bands, which is equal to 30 or 31, does express the individual age at the moment when the woolly rhinoceros died. The tooth cementum and both horns are proved to be recording structures of woolly rhinoceroses which can be used as precise individual age estimation criteria. The season in which death occurred is also discussed.

  8. Spiritual Coping and Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescents with Chronic Illness: The Role of Cognitive Attributions, Age, and Disease Group

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nina; Mrug, Sylvie; Guion, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988

  9. Some considerations regarding the use of amino acid racemization in human dentine as an indicator of age at death.

    PubMed

    Carolan, V A; Gardner, M L; Lucy, D; Pollard, A M

    1997-01-01

    An HPLC method is described for simultaneously obtaining the enantiomeric ratio of three amino acids (aspartic acid, serine, and glutamic acid) from dental collagen, with a view to using this information for estimating age at death. Results are reported from a sample of twenty three known age modern teeth, six known age 19th C. AD teeth, and two unknown age Romano-British teeth. It was found (as expected) that all three D/L ratios changed significantly with chronological age. Standard calibration techniques were used to estimate ages for the six 19th C. AD specimens from regression equations estimated from the modern specimens, and also to predict (for the first time) the error associated with such estimates. Errors using aspartic acid were found to be similar to those obtained by other methods of age estimation from dental evidence, serine, and glutamic acid providing much poorer age estimates. Additionally, a systematic difference in the age-enantiomeric ratio relationship was observed between modern and older dental samples. It is concluded that there is some fundamental difference in the observed enantiomeric ratios between modern teeth and older samples, possibly as a result of the chemical alteration of the dental proteins. PMID:8988569

  10. The HTT CAG-Expansion Mutation Determines Age at Death but Not Disease Duration in Huntington Disease.

    PubMed

    Keum, Jae Whan; Shin, Aram; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi Srinidhi; Abu Elneel, Kawther; Lucente, Diane; Hadzi, Tiffany; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Orth, Michael; Kwak, Seung; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Lee, Jong-Min

    2016-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an expanded HTT CAG repeat that leads in a length-dependent, completely dominant manner to onset of a characteristic movement disorder. HD also displays early mortality, so we tested whether the expanded CAG repeat exerts a dominant influence on age at death and on the duration of clinical disease. We found that, as with clinical onset, HD age at death is determined by expanded CAG-repeat length and has no contribution from the normal CAG allele. Surprisingly, disease duration is independent of the mutation's length. It is also unaffected by a strong genetic modifier of HD motor onset. These findings suggest two parsimonious alternatives. (1) HD pathogenesis is driven by mutant huntingtin, but before or near motor onset, sufficient CAG-driven damage occurs to permit CAG-independent processes and then lead to eventual death. In this scenario, some pathological changes and their clinical correlates could still worsen in a CAG-driven manner after disease onset, but these CAG-related progressive changes do not themselves determine duration. Alternatively, (2) HD pathogenesis is driven by mutant huntingtin acting in a CAG-dependent manner with different time courses in multiple cell types, and the cellular targets that lead to motor onset and death are different and independent. In this scenario, processes driven by HTT CAG length lead directly to death but not via the striatal pathology associated with motor manifestations. Each scenario has important ramifications for the design and testing of potential therapeutics, especially those aimed at preventing or delaying characteristic motor manifestations. PMID:26849111

  11. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use: An Adjustment for Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X. K.; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline…

  12. Joint versus maternal custody for families with latency age boys: parent characteristics and child adjustment.

    PubMed

    Shiller, V M

    1986-07-01

    Families with boys aged 6-11 in joint and maternal physical custody were interviewed 1-6 years following the parental separation. According to ratings made by parents and teachers, boys in joint custody had fewer behavioral difficulties than their maternal custody counterparts. Joint custody parents also evidenced some strengths compared to parents with maternal physical custody. PMID:3740232

  13. Perspectives on Aging: Death, Dying, Bereavement. Papers Presented at a Symposium (Provo, Utah, April 12, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Howard R., Ed.; Averett, Claire H., Ed.

    This volume contains papers presented at a symposium on death, dying, and bereavement. Papers were presented on: (1) "A Psychologist in Hospice Care" (Clifford Morgan and Barbara McCann); (2) "Assessment of the Kubler-Ross Stages in Counseling" (G. Michael Averett and Claire H. Averett); (3) "Making the Road Less Lonely: Role of Volunteers in…

  14. Adjusting for car occupant injury liability in relation to age, speed limit, and gender-specific driver crash involvement risk.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael; Frith, William

    2004-12-01

    It is well established that older drivers' fragility is an important factor associated with higher levels of fatal crash involvement for older drivers. There has been less research on age-related fragility with respect to the sort of minor injuries that are more common in injury crashes. This study estimates a quantity that is related to injury fragility: the probability that a driver or a passenger of that driver will be injured in crashes involving two cars. The effects of other factors apart from drivers' fragility are included in this measure, including the fragility of the passengers, the crashworthiness of cars driven, seatbelt use by the occupants, and characteristics of crashes (including configuration and impact speed). The car occupant injury liability estimates appropriately includes these factors to adjust risk curves by age, gender, and speed limit accounting for overrepresentation in crashes associated with fragility and these other factors. PMID:15545071

  15. Social Cognitive Career Theory, the Theory of Work Adjustment, and Work Satisfaction of Retirement-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Pamela F.; Lytle, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60–87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample. PMID:26101456

  16. Role of family resources and paternal history of substance use problems in psychosocial adjustment among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use problems) and their mothers. Results draw attention to the differences between the subjective experiences of the child and those of the mother, and by indicating that the effect of the interaction between the father's and the mother's control parenting style on the child's psychosocial outcome is greater than the sum total of influences of each of them separately. PMID:19157043

  17. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  18. The Kenyan Political Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an…

  19. Ages at Onset of 5 Cardiometabolic Diseases Adjusting for Nonsusceptibility: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Yuh-Chyuan; Chen, Chen-Hsin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2016-09-01

    To shed light on the etiology of metabolic syndrome development, it is important to understand whether its 5 component disorders follow certain onset sequences. To explore disease progression of the syndrome, we studied the ages at onset of 5 cardiometabolic diseases: abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-α-lipoproteinemia. In analyzing longitudinal data from the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Two-Township Study (1989-2002) in Taiwan, we adjusted for nonsusceptibility, utilizing the logistic-accelerated failure time location-scale mixture regression models for left-truncated and interval-censored data to simultaneously estimate the associations of township and sex with the susceptibility probability and the age-at-onset distribution of susceptible individuals for each disease. We then validated the onset sequences of 5 cardiometabolic diseases by comparing the overall probability density curves across township-sex strata. Visualization of these curves indicates that women tended to have onsets of abdominal obesity and hypo-α-lipoproteinemia in young adulthood, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia in middle age, and diabetes later; men tended to have onsets of abdominal obesity, hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia in young adulthood, hypertension in middle age, and diabetes later. Different onset patterns of abdominal obesity, hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, and male hypertension were identified between townships. Our proposed method provides a novel strategy for investigating both pathogenesis and preventive measures of complex syndromes. PMID:27543092

  20. Does self-rated health predict death in adults aged 50 years and above in India? Evidence from a rural population under health and demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Juvekar, Sanjay; Sambhudas, Somnath; Lele, Pallavi; Blomstedt, Yulia; Wall, Stig; Berkman, Lisa; Tollman, Steve; Ng, Nawi

    2012-01-01

    Background The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) aims to improve empirical understanding of health and well-being of adults in developing countries. We examine the role of self-rated health (SRH) in predicting mortality and assess how socio-demographic and other disability measures influence this association. Methods In 2007, a shortened SAGE questionnaire was administered to 5087 adults aged ≥50 years under the Health Demographic Surveillance System in rural Pune district, India. Respondents rated their own health with a single global question on SRH. Disability and well-being were assessed using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index, Health State Score and quality-of-life score. Respondents were followed up every 6 months till June 2011. Any change in spousal support, migration or death during follow-up was updated in the SAGE dataset. Results In all, 410 respondents (8%) died in the 3-year follow-up period. Mortality risk was higher with bad/very bad SRH [hazard ratio (HR) in men: 3.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93–4.87; HR in women: 1.64, 95% CI: 0.94–2.86], independent of age, disability and other covariates. Disability measure (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index) and absence of spousal support were also associated with increased mortality risk. Conclusion Our findings confirm an association between bad/very bad SRH and mortality for men, independent of age, socio-demographic factors and other disability measures, in a rural Indian population. This association loses significance in women when adjusted for disability. Our study highlights the strength of nesting cross-sectional surveys within the context of the Health Demographic Surveillance System in studying the role of SRH and mortality. PMID:23175517

  1. [Elderly residents in homes for the aged: adjustment in the light of Callista Roy].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Maria Célia de; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante; de Galiza, Francisca Tereza; Nogueira, Jéssica de Menezes; Onofre, Marília Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the adaptation of elderly individuals voluntarily reside in Institution for the Aged (LTCF) in the city of Fortaleza-CE, based on the theoretical model of Roy. Descriptive study, in a IPLI involving thirteen elderly residents. Data collect was through interviews in the months of October and December 2011 and organized by thematic content analysis. The following themes has emerged: I Physical subdivided into body sensation and body image; Staff and I, subdivided into self-consistency and auto ideal be moral-ethical-spiritual. Thus, the option to live in ILPI not effectively changed the lives of elderly people. They managed to adapt to the local and coexist well with internal and external stimuli. PMID:25590880

  2. Preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress, oxidative stress or mitochondrial toxins with vitamin B anti-AGE agents.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rhea; Shangari, Nandita; O'Brien, Peter J

    2008-03-01

    Carbonyls generated by autoxidation of carbohydrates or lipid peroxidation have been implicated in advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation in tissues adversely affected by diabetes complications. Tissue AGE and associated pathology have been decreased by vitamin B(1)/B(6) in trials involving diabetic animal models. To understand the molecular cytoprotective mechanisms involved, the effects of B(1)/B(6) vitamers against cytotoxicity induced by AGE/advanced lipid end product (ALE) carbonyl precursors (glyoxal/acrolein) have been compared to cytotoxicity induced by oxidative stress (hydroperoxide) or mitochondrial toxins (cyanide/copper). Thiamin was found to be best at preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress and mitochondrial toxins but not oxidative stress cell death suggesting that thiamin pyrophosphate restored pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenases inhibited by mitochondrial toxicity. However, B(6) vitamers were most effective at preventing oxidative stress or lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity suggesting that pyridoxal or pyridoxal phosphate were antioxidants and/or Fe/Cu chelators. A therapeutic vitamin cocktail could provide maximal prevention against carbonyl stress toxicity associated with diabetic complications. PMID:17918169

  3. The plant metacaspase AtMC1 in pathogen-triggered programmed cell death and aging: functional linkage with autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Coll, N S; Smidler, A; Puigvert, M; Popa, C; Valls, M; Dangl, J L

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a major nutrient recycling mechanism in plants. However, its functional connection with programmed cell death (PCD) is a topic of active debate and remains not well understood. Our previous studies established the plant metacaspase AtMC1 as a positive regulator of pathogen-triggered PCD. Here, we explored the linkage between plant autophagy and AtMC1 function in the context of pathogen-triggered PCD and aging. We observed that autophagy acts as a positive regulator of pathogen-triggered PCD in a parallel pathway to AtMC1. In addition, we unveiled an additional, pro-survival homeostatic function of AtMC1 in aging plants that acts in parallel to a similar pro-survival function of autophagy. This novel pro-survival role of AtMC1 may be functionally related to its prodomain-mediated aggregate localization and potential clearance, in agreement with recent findings using the single budding yeast metacaspase YCA1. We propose a unifying model whereby autophagy and AtMC1 are part of parallel pathways, both positively regulating HR cell death in young plants, when these functions are not masked by the cumulative stresses of aging, and negatively regulating senescence in older plants. PMID:24786830

  4. Human actuarial aging increases faster when background death rates are lower: a consequence of differential heterogeneity?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Kristen; Smith, Ken R; Blevins, James K

    2012-01-01

    Many analyses of human populations have found that age-specific mortality rates increase faster across most of adulthood when overall mortality levels decline. This contradicts the relationship often expected from Williams' classic hypothesis about the effects of natural selection on the evolution of senescence. More likely, much of the within-species difference in actuarial aging is not due to variation in senescence, but to the strength of filters on the heterogeneity of frailty in older survivors. A challenge to this differential frailty hypothesis was recently posed by an analysis of life tables from historical European populations and traditional societies that reported variation in actuarial aging consistent with Williams' hypothesis after all. To investigate the challenge, we reconsidered those cases and aging measures. Here we show that the discrepancy depends on Ricklefs' aging rate measure, ω, which decreases as mortality levels drop because it is an index of mortality level itself, not the rate of increase in mortality with age. We also show unappreciated correspondence among the parameters of Gompertz-Makeham and Weibull survival models. Finally, we compare the relationships among mortality parameters of the traditional societies and the historical series, providing further suggestive evidence that differential heterogeneity has strong effects on actuarial aging. PMID:22220868

  5. Causes of disease and death from birth to 12 months of age in the Thoroughbred horse in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the causes of disease and death in a population of foals in Ireland during their first 12 months post partum. Foaling and veterinary records from 343 foals on four farms born between January 1, 2004 and May 30, 2008 were reviewed. Among 343 foals, 22 did not survive to 12 months of age. Over the five-year period, the incidence of stillbirth was 1.5% (5/343), mortality 5% (17/338) and overall morbidity was 88.5% (299/338). Morbidity was calculated to include all new conditions brought to the attention of the attending veterinary surgeon, no matter how minor. Of foals born alive: congenital abnormalities were the most common cause of death (35.3% 6/17 foals) followed by musculoskeletal trauma (5/17, 29.4%). Of 711 separate incidents of disease, 46.5% (331/711) were due to an infectious process, 25% (178/711) due to non-infectious musculoskeletal issues; and 14.9% (106/711) related to non-infectious gastrointestinal problems. Respiratory infection was the single most common disease accounting for 27.8% (178/711) of all disease incidents in this population. Findings from this study provide information regarding the causes and incidence of death and disease in the young Irish Thoroughbred population. PMID:21851741

  6. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  7. Rise of the Digitized Public Intellectual: Death of the Professor in the Network Neutral Internet Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The centralised discourse claiming ownership of "knowledge" and "higher education" seems to be declining as the decentralising discourse extolling open source software and informal social network communication are emerging: yet the two are complementary when higher education is seen as a commodity. Thus, in the internet age of…

  8. ‘From Death, Lead Me to Immortality’ – Mantra of Ageing Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Amarjit; Mastana, Sarabjit; Myers, Fiona; Lewis, Mark Peter

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a post-mitotic tissue maintained by repair and regeneration through a population of stem cell-like satellite cells. Following muscle injury, satellite cell proliferation is mediated by local signals ensuring sufficient progeny for tissue repair. Age–related changes in satellite cells as well as to the local and systemic environment potentially impact on the capacity of satellite cells to generate sufficient progeny in an ageing organism resulting in diminished regeneration. ‘Rejuvenation’ of satellite cell progeny and regenerative capacity by environmental stimuli effectors suggest that a subset of age-dependent satellite cell changes may be reversible. Epigenetic regulation of satellite stem cells that include DNA methylation and histone modifications which regulate gene expression are potential mechanisms for such reversible changes and have been shown to control organismal longevity. The area of health and ageing that is likely to benefit soonest from advances in the biology of adult stem cells is the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which epigenetic modifications regulate satellite stem cell function and will require an increased understanding of stem-cell biology, the environment of the aged tissue and the interaction between the two. PMID:24294106

  9. Selected Issues on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ruby D.

    Aging is a continuum which begins at birth and ends at death. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to the study of aging as a part of developmental psychology. The individual is a biological organism as well as a member of society. Biological adjustments to life are affected by physical changes which influence motives and emotions. Some of…

  10. Advanced age protects microvascular endothelium from aberrant Ca2+ influx and cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Socha, Matthew J; Boerman, Erika M; Behringer, Erik J; Shaw, Rebecca L; Domeier, Timothy L; Segal, Steven S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Endothelial cell Ca2+ signalling is integral to blood flow control in the resistance vasculature yet little is known of how its regulation may be affected by advancing age. We tested the hypothesis that advanced age protects microvascular endothelium by attenuating aberrant Ca2+ signalling during oxidative stress. Intact endothelial tubes (width, ∼60 μm; length, ∼1000 μm) were isolated from superior epigastric arteries of Young (3–4 months) and Old (24–26 months) male C57BL/6 mice and loaded with Fura-2 dye to monitor [Ca2+]i. At rest there was no difference in [Ca2+]i between age groups. Compared to Young, the [Ca2+]i response to maximal stimulation with acetylcholine (3 μm, 2 min) was ∼25% greater in Old, confirming signalling integrity with advanced age. Basal H2O2 availability was ∼33% greater in Old while vascular catalase activity was reduced by half. Transient exposure to elevated H2O2 (200 μm, 20 min) progressively increased [Ca2+]i to ∼4-fold greater levels in endothelium of Young versus Old. With no difference between age groups at rest, Mn2+ quench of Fura-2 fluorescence revealed 2-fold greater Ca2+ influx in Young during elevated H2O2; this effect was attenuated by ∼75% using ruthenium red (5 μm) as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of transient receptor potential channels. Prolonged exposure to H2O2 (200 μm, 60 min) induced ∼7-fold greater cell death in endothelium of Young versus Old. Thus, microvascular endothelium can adapt to advanced age by reducing Ca2+ influx during elevated oxidative stress. Protection from cell death during oxidative stress will sustain endothelial integrity during ageing. Key points Calcium signalling in endothelial cells of resistance arteries is integral to blood flow regulation. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction can prevail during advanced age and we questioned how calcium signalling may be affected. Intact endothelium was freshly isolated from superior epigastric arteries of

  11. Computational Astrophysics reaches its Third Age: From Star Formation to the Death of the Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Adam

    2006-12-01

    The use of simulations in astrophysics has progressed to the point where computational datasets can be as rich as those obtained from observations. In this sense the field has reached maturity or its “third age”. In this talk I will review progress in the use of simulations as a tool for astronomical research. The talk will include the basic elements of numerical simulations as well as advances in algorithms which have led to recent dramatic progress. The scientific focus will be hydrodynamic and magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of star formation and the death of solar-type stars. We will explore the most recent models of collimated outflows (jets) from young stars and their interaction with natal environments. The source of these outflows are magnetized disks surrounding the stars. Models of this process have also reached new levels of realism. At the other end of a star’s lifetime we also find outflows to be ubiquitous phenomena. Here magnetic fields are again a principle actor creating collimated jets though in this case binary companions may be critical. In all cases the physics involved is too non-linear to investigate solely with analytic methods. Direct simulation must be used to fill out the story. Finally we introduce the field of High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics where fusion devices are used to create astrophysically relevant laboratory experiments. Simulations play a key role in the design and analysis of these studies as well.

  12. Causes of Death among Children Aged 5 to 14 Years Old from 2008 to 2013 in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kersa HDSS), Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Zelalem, Desalew; Eskinder, Biniyam; Assefa, Nega; Ashenafi, Wondimye; Baraki, Negga; Damena Tesfatsion, Melake; Oljira, Lemessa; Haile, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    Background The global burden of mortality among children is still very huge though its trend has started declining following the improvements in the living standard. It presents serious challenges to the well-being of children in many African countries. Today, Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for about 50% of global child mortality. The overall objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of causes of death among children aged 5 to 14 year olds in the population of Kersa HDSS using verbal autopsy method for the period 2008 to 2013. Methods Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System(Kersa HDSS) was established in September 2007. The center consists of 10 rural and 2 urban kebeles which were selected randomly from 38 kebeles in the district. Thus this study was conducted in Kersa HDSS and data was taken from Kersa HDSS database. The study population included all children aged 5 to 14 years registered during the period of 2008 to 2013 in Kersa HDSS using age specific VA questionnaires. Data were extracted from SPSS database and analyzed using STATA. Results A total of 229 deaths were recorded over the period of six years with a crude death rate of 219.6 per 100,000 population of this age group over the study period. This death rate was 217.5 and 221.5 per 100,000 populations for females and males, respectively. 75% of deaths took place at home. The study identified severe malnutrition(33.9%), intestinal infectious diseases(13.8%) and acute lower respiratory infections(9.2%) to be the three most leading causes of death. In broad causes of death classification, injuries have been found to be the second most cause of death next to communicable diseases(56.3%) attributing to 13.1% of the total deaths. Conclusion and Recommendation In specific causes of death classification severe malnutrition, intestinal infectious diseases and acute lower respiratory infections were the three leading causes of death where, in broad causes of death

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States, 1999 to 2012☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Kanta; Clower, Jacquelyn; Shin, Mi kyong; Bailey, Cathy; King, Michael; Yip, Fuyuen

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintentional, non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning deaths are preventable. Surveillance of the populations most at-risk for unintentional, non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is crucial for targeting prevention efforts. Objective This study provides estimates on UNFR CO poisoning mortality in the United States and characterizes the at-risk populations. Methods We used 1999 to 2012 data to calculate death rates. We used underlying and multiple conditions variables from death records to identify UNFR CO poisoning cases. Results For this study, we identified 6136 CO poisoning fatalities during 1999 to 2012 resulting in an average of 438 deaths annually. The annual average age-adjusted death rate was 1.48 deaths per million. Fifty four percent of the deaths occurred in a home. Age-adjusted death rates were highest for males (2.21 deaths per million) and non-Hispanic blacks (1.74 deaths per million). The age-specific death rate was highest for those aged ≥85 years (6.00 deaths per million). The annual rate of UNFR CO poisoning deaths did not change substantially during the study period, but we observed a decrease in the rate of suicide and unintentional fire related cases. Conclusion CO poisoning was the second most common non-medicinal poisonings death. Developing and enhancing current public health interventions could reduce ongoing exposures to CO from common sources, such as those in the residential setting. PMID:26032660

  14. Effects of age and gender on success and death of mountaineers on Mount Everest.

    PubMed

    Huey, Raymond B; Salisbury, Richard; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng

    2007-10-22

    Increasing numbers of climbers are attempting Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth. We compiled interview data and computed the probabilities of summiting and of dying as a function of climber age and gender (2211 climbers, spring season) for the period of 1990-2005. Men and women had similar odds of summiting and of dying. However, climbers older than 40 years have reduced odds of summiting, and those older than 60 years have increased odds of dying, especially when descending from the summit. On Mount Everest, phenotypic selection appears blind to gender but favours young mountaineers. PMID:17698450

  15. Age-based disparities in end-of-life decisions in Belgium: a population-based death certificate survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing body of scientific research is suggesting that end-of-life care and decision making may differ between age groups and that elderly patients may be the most vulnerable to exclusion of due care at the end of life. This study investigates age-related disparities in the rate of end-of-life decisions with a possible or certain life shortening effect (ELDs) and in the preceding decision making process in Flanders, Belgium in 2007, where euthanasia was legalised in 2002. Comparing with data from an identical survey in 1998 we also study the plausibility of the ‘slippery slope’ hypothesis which predicts a rise in the rate of administration of life ending drugs without patient request, especially among elderly patients, in countries where euthanasia is legal. Method We performed a post-mortem survey among physicians certifying a large representative sample (n = 6927) of death certificates in 2007, identical to a 1998 survey. Response rate was 58.4%. Results While the rates of non-treatment decisions (NTD) and administration of life ending drugs without explicit request (LAWER) did not differ between age groups, the use of intensified alleviation of pain and symptoms (APS) and euthanasia/assisted suicide (EAS), as well as the proportion of euthanasia requests granted, was bivariately and negatively associated with patient age. Multivariate analysis showed no significant effects of age on ELD rates. Older patients were less often included in decision making for APS and more often deemed lacking in capacity than were younger patients. Comparison with 1998 showed a decrease in the rate of LAWER in all age groups except in the 80+ age group where the rate was stagnant. Conclusion Age is not a determining factor in the rate of end-of-life decisions, but is in decision making as patient inclusion rates decrease with old age. Our results suggest there is a need to focus advance care planning initiatives on elderly patients. The slippery slope hypothesis

  16. Neonatal Mortality Risk Associated with Preterm Birth in East Africa, Adjusted by Weight for Gestational Age: Individual Participant Level Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne; Clarke, Siân; Kariuki, Simon; ter Kuile, Feiko; Lusingu, John; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. Methods and Findings Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1) birth weight, (2) gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3) neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania) contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999–2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (<2,500 g) babies were either preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age). 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born <34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4–121.4]), with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34–36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0–10.7]), but the likelihood for babies born 34–36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3–47.4]). Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  17. The medico-legal aspects of road traffic deaths in children under 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    The family tragedy that results from a child who dies in a road traffic accident may be exacerbated by judicial consequences for the adult/parent driving the vehicle, carrying the child, or responsible for properly immobilising the child in the safety device that was used. The author presents two court cases of the road traffic accident deaths of two children under the age of five years. The two cases are presented using a methodological approach, which integrates competencies in other fields into the medico-legal aspects. An analysis of the two cases provides the opportunity to discuss the driver's responsibility to properly use child safety seat and to analyse and evaluate the efficacy and limits of child restraint systems. In the two cases, the responsibility for the application of a child safety device was excluded. It was confirmed that child protective devices are not always sufficient to avoid lesions or death in road accidents that occur with significant speed or other specific dynamics. PMID:26462201

  18. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  19. Cognitive dedifferentiation with increasing age and proximity of death: Within-person evidence from the Seattle Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Hülür, Gizem; Ram, Nilam; Willis, Sherry L; Schaie, K Warner; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-06-01

    A central aim of life-span psychology is to understand ontogenetic changes in the structure of individuals' actions, thoughts, and behaviors. The dedifferentiation hypothesis of cognitive aging suggests that the structure of individuals' cognitive abilities becomes less differentiated in old age. Empirical tests have almost exclusively approached this hypothesis from a between-person difference perspective and produced a mixed set of findings. In the present study, we pursue a within-person test of the hypothesis using up to 8 repeated measures of cognitive abilities over up to 49 years, covering fluid (inductive reasoning), visualization (spatial orientation), and crystallized abilities (number, verbal meaning, and word fluency), obtained from 419 now-deceased individuals who participated in the Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS) and have provided at least 4 observations for each cognitive test. Results revealed that with advancing age and proximity to death, within-person coupling increased (a) among the crystallized abilities, (b) between visualization and fluid abilities, (c) between visualization and crystallized abilities, and (d) between fluid abilities and crystallized abilities. We discuss the importance of within-person analyses for understanding changes in the structure of behavior and consider how our findings inform research on cognitive decline and dedifferentiation later in life. PMID:25961879

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values in older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geersing, G J; Koek, H L; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Janssen, Kristel J M; Douma, Renée A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer testing in older patients (>50 years) with suspected venous thromboembolism, using conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values. Design Systematic review and bivariate random effects meta-analysis. Data sources We searched Medline and Embase for studies published before 21 June 2012 and we contacted the authors of primary studies. Study selection Primary studies that enrolled older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism in whom D-dimer testing, using both conventional (500 µg/L) and age adjusted (age×10 µg/L) cut-off values, and reference testing were performed. For patients with a non-high clinical probability, 2×2 tables were reconstructed and stratified by age category and applied D-dimer cut-off level. Results 13 cohorts including 12 497 patients with a non-high clinical probability were included in the meta-analysis. The specificity of the conventional cut-off value decreased with increasing age, from 57.6% (95% confidence interval 51.4% to 63.6%) in patients aged 51-60 years to 39.4% (33.5% to 45.6%) in those aged 61-70, 24.5% (20.0% to 29.7% in those aged 71-80, and 14.7% (11.3% to 18.6%) in those aged >80. Age adjusted cut-off values revealed higher specificities over all age categories: 62.3% (56.2% to 68.0%), 49.5% (43.2% to 55.8%), 44.2% (38.0% to 50.5%), and 35.2% (29.4% to 41.5%), respectively. Sensitivities of the age adjusted cut-off remained above 97% in all age categories. Conclusions The application of age adjusted cut-off values for D-dimer tests substantially increases specificity without modifying sensitivity, thereby improving the clinical utility of D-dimer testing in patients aged 50 or more with a non-high clinical probability. PMID:23645857

  1. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    PubMed

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  2. Anticipatory postural adjustments are unaffected by age and are not absent in patients with the freezing of gait phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Plate, A; Klein, K; Pelykh, O; Singh, A; Bötzel, K

    2016-09-01

    In bipedal gait, the initiation of the first step is preceded by a complex sequence of movements which shift the centre of mass of the body towards the stance foot to allow for a step of the swing foot. These anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) have been investigated in order to elucidate movement strategies in healthy and diseased persons. We studied the influence of several external parameters (age, type of step initiation) on APAs and investigated whether Parkinsonian patients may have different APAs. As a result, we found that externally elicited steps were preceded by faster and larger APAs than self-timed steps. Parkinsonian patients without the freezing of gait (FOG) phenomenon showed overall slightly reduced APAs but did not clearly differ from patients with FOG. Multiple APAs were seen in up to 25 % of the steps of the patients and in a much lower percentage of the steps of control subjects. The results indicate that APAs are significantly influenced by the timing of a step, i.e. are larger in externally elicited steps. The patients showed an overall preserved APA pattern but slowed movements and amplitude, indicating that increased bradykinesia due to progressive illness is a plausible explanation for these findings. The freezing phenomenon is not explained by a general absence or massive reduction in APA measures. PMID:27173496

  3. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  4. The association of cerebral palsy and death with small-for-gestational age birth weight in preterm neonates by individualized and population-based percentiles

    PubMed Central

    Grobman, William A.; Lai, Yinglei; Rouse, Dwight J.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Mercer, Brian M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Iams, Jay D.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Thorp, John M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Malone, Fergal D.; O'sullivan, Mary J.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Caritis, Steve N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether an individualized growth standard (IS) improves identification of preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates at risk of developing moderate/severe cerebral palsy (CP) or death. STUDY DESIGN Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial of MgSO4 for prevention of CP or death among anticipated preterm births. Singleton non-anomalous liveborns delivered before 34 weeks’ were classified as SGA (< 10th % for their GA) by a population standard (PS) or an IS (incorporating maternal age, height, weight, parity, race/ethnicity, and neonatal gender). The primary outcome was prediction of moderate or severe CP or death by age 2. RESULTS Of 1588 eligible newborns, 143 (9.4%) experienced CP (N=33) or death (N=110). Forty-four (2.8%) were SGA by the PS and 364 (22.9%) by the IS. All PS-SGA newborns also were identified as IS-SGA. SGA newborns by either standard had a similarly increased risk of CP or death (PS: RR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3–4.3 vs. IS: RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5, respectively). The similarity of RRs remained after stratification by MgSO4 treatment group. The IS was more sensitive (36% vs. 6%, p <.001), but less specific (78% vs. 98%, p <.001) for CP or death. ROC curve analysis revealed a statistically lower AUC for the PS, although the ability of either method to predict which neonates would subsequently develop CP or death was poor (PS: 0.55, 95% CI 0.49–0.60 vs. IS: 0.59, 95% CI 0.54–0.64, p<.001). CONCLUSION An individualized SGA growth standard does not improve the association with, or prediction of, CP or death by age 2. PMID:23770470

  5. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body

  6. Rate of deaths due to child abuse and neglect in children 0-3 years of age in Germany.

    PubMed

    Banaschak, Sibylle; Janßen, Katharina; Schulte, Babette; Rothschild, Markus A

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the issue of (fatal) child abuse and neglect, largely due to the media attention garnered by some headline-grabbing cases. If media statements are to be believed, such cases may be an increasing phenomenon. With these published accounts in mind, publicly available statistics should be analysed with respect to the question of whether reliable statements can be formulated based on these figures. It is hypothesised that certain data, e.g., the Innocenti report published by UNICEF in 2003, may be based on unreliable data sources. For this reason, the generation of such data, and the reliability of the data itself, should also be discussed. Our focus was on publicly available German mortality and police crime statistics (Polizeiliche Kriminalstatistik). These data were classified with respect to child age, data origin, and cause of death (murder, culpable homicide, etc.). In our opinion, the available data could not be considered in formulating reliable scientific statements about fatal child abuse and neglect, given the lack of detail and the flawed nature of the basic data. Increasing the number of autopsies of children 0-3 years of age should be considered as a means to ensure the capture of valid, practical, and reliable data. This could bring about some enlightenment and assist in the development of preemptive strategies to decrease the incidence of (fatal) child abuse and neglect. PMID:25631691

  7. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  8. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  9. Intellectual and Emotional Development and School Adjustment in Preterm Children at 6 and 7 Years of Age. Continuation of a Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria

    1984-01-01

    Continues a previous five-year follow-up of preterm and full-term children by studying the continuity in their intellectual and emotional development. Prematurity was predictive for school adjustment at ages six and seven only when regression was performed on the preterm group, but failed to be predictive when mixed groups of preterm and full-term…

  10. a Snowball's Chance in Death Valley: Re-Evaluation of the Number and Magnitude of Neoproterozoic Ice Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Marenco, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    The Neoproterozoic Ibex Formation, previously considered to represent a basinal facies of platform carbonates in the lower Noonday Dolomite, Great Basin, USA, is shown to rest on the eroded surface of the lower Noonday and older units. At the type section, the basal Ibex Formation consists of polymict conglomerate and laminated mudstone; the upper surface of the mudstone is pierced by large angular clasts of all underlying units, including distinctive lower Noonday tube stromatolites. A thin, finely laminated pink dolostone unit that records negative carbon isotope values caps the Ibex conglomerate. We interpret the erosional unconformity upon which the basal Ibex Formation is deposited to be glacioeustatic in origin, the basal conglomerate-pierced mudstone to be glaciogenic, and the overlying dolostone to be a classic cap carbonate. Above the cap dolostone marine transgression led to the deposition of deeper water ferruginous shale and limestone, which is overlain by dolostone as water depths again shallowed. These post-glacial Ibex carbonates also record negative carbon isotope values similar to upper Noonday lithofacies preserved on the platform. A notable oxidized paleosol occurs at the top of the upper Ibex dolostone immediately below a coarse sandstone correlative with the basal Johnnie Formation. Combined with the record of glacial sediments and cap carbonates from underlying units, in particular the Kingston Peak Formation, the Death Valley succession unambiguously records three discrete Neoproterozoic ice ages in a single continuous section. These new observations provide the lithological and geochemical proof that at least three, and potentially more, ice ages characterized Neoproterozoic time. As each sustained global glaciation represents a critical environmental hurdle, the number and the magnitude of discrete ice ages is an important constraint on the tempo of metazoan evolution.

  11. Health in post-Black Death London (1350-1538): age patterns of periosteal new bone formation in a post-epidemic population.

    PubMed

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has shown that the Black Death targeted older adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. This project investigates whether this selectivity of the Black Death, combined with post-epidemic rising standards of living, led to significant improvements in patterns of skeletal stress markers, and by inference in health, among survivors and their descendants. Patterns of periosteal lesions (which have been previously shown, using hazard analysis, to be associated with elevated risks of mortality in medieval London) are compared between samples from pre-Black Death (c. 1,000-1,300, n = 464) and post-Black Death (c. 1,350-1,538, n = 133) London cemeteries. To avoid the assumptions that stress markers alone provide a direct measure of health and that a change in frequencies of the stress marker by itself indicates changes in health, this study assesses age-patterns of the stress marker to obtain a more nuanced understanding of the population-level effects of an epidemic disease. Age-at-death in these samples is estimated using transition analysis, which provides point estimates of age even for the oldest adults in these samples and thus allows for an examination of physiological stress across the lifespan. The frequency of lesions is significantly higher in the post-Black Death sample, which, at face value, might indicate a general decline in health. However, a significant positive association between age and periosteal lesions, as well as a significantly higher number of older adults in the post-Black Death sample more likely suggests improvements in health following the epidemic. PMID:24740642

  12. Role of TFEB Mediated Autophagy, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cell Death in Endotoxin Induced Myocardial Toxicity of Young and Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Lang, Fangfang; Zhang, Huilin; Xu, Liangdong; Wang, Yidan; Hao, Enkui

    2016-01-01

    Elderly patients are susceptible to sepsis. LPS induced myocardial injury is a widely used animal model to assess sepsis induced cardiac dysfunction. The age dependent mechanisms behind sepsis susceptibility were not studied. We analyzed age associated changes to cardiac function, cell death, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy in LPS induced myocardial injury. Both young and aged C57BL/6 mice were used for LPS administration. The results demonstrated that LPS induced more cardiac injury (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponin I, and cardiac myosin-light chains 1), cardiac dysfunction (left ventricular inner dimension, LVID, and ejection fraction (EF)), cell death, inflammation, and oxidative stress in aged mice compared to young mice. However, a significant age dependent decline in autophagy was observed. Translocation of Transcription Factor EB (TFEB) to nucleus and formation of LC3-II were significantly reduced in LPS administered aged mice compared to young ones. In addition to that, downstream effector of TFEB, LAMP-1, was induced in response to LPS challenge in young mice. The present study newly demonstrates that TFEB mediated autophagy is crucial for protection against LPS induced myocardial injury particularly in aging senescent heart. Targeting this autophagy-oxidative stress-inflammation-cell death axis may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for cardioprotection in the elderly. PMID:27200146

  13. Age-Related Differences in Responses to Thoughts of One’s Own Death: Mortality Salience and Judgments of Moral Transgressions

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Molly; Kluck, Benjamin; Greenberg, Jeff; Pyszczynski, Tom; Cox, Cathy R.; Solomon, Sheldon; Weise, David

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments explored age differences in response to reminders of death. Terror management research has shown that death reminders lead to increased adherence to and defense of one’s cultural worldview. In Study 1, the effect of mortality salience (MS) on evaluations of moral transgressions made by younger and older adults was compared. Whereas younger adults showed the typical pattern of harsher judgments in response to MS, older adults did not. Study 2 compared younger and older adults’ responses to both the typical MS induction and a more subtle death reminder. Whereas younger adults responded to both MS inductions with harsher evaluations, older adults made significantly less harsh evaluations after the subtle MS induction. Explanations for this developmental shift in responses to reminders of death are discussed. PMID:17563189

  14. Fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury, and death probability at accident scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Zangooei Dovom, Hossein; Shafahi, Yousef; Zangooei Dovom, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated road traffic deaths, but few have compared by road user type. Iran, with an estimated 44 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population in 2002 had higher road traffic deaths than any other country for which reliable estimates can be made. So, the present study was conducted on road death data and identified fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury as well as the influences of age and gender on deaths at accident scenes for all road user groups. Data used in this study are on fatal road accidents recorded by forensic medicine experts of the Khorasan Razavi province in Mashhad, the capital of the province, the second largest city and the largest place of pilgrimage, immigration and tourism in Iran. Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to identify the relation of death place with age and gender in 2495 fatal road accidents from 2006 to 2009. The t-test and analysis of variance were employed for continues variable, age, to compare males' and females' mean age for all road user categories. For two genders, all three groups of fatalities (pedestrian, motorcyclist and motor vehicle occupant) had a peak at the ages of 21-30. The youngest were male motorcyclists (mean age = 28). Old pedestrians were included in road deaths very much, too. Male/female overall ratio was 3.41 and the highest male/female ratio was related to motorcyclists (14). The overall ratio of head injury to other organ injuries (torso and underbody) was 2.51 and pedestrians had the largest amount of head injury (38.2%). Regarding death at accident scene, for all road users, gender did not have any significant relation with death at the scene (P-value > 0.1); on the contrary, age had significant relation (P-value < 0.05). Females were more vulnerable at accident scenes (male/female ratio at accident sense < 1). Pedestrians aged 21-30, motorcyclists 41-50 and motor vehicle occupants 31-40 died the most at accident scenes. Identifying the most

  15. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  16. An Examination of Relations among Taiwanese Elementary-Aged Children's Effortful Control, Social Relationships, and Adjustment at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among Taiwanese elementary school children's effortful control, social relationships and their adjustment at school. Data were gathered on 407 third- to sixth-grade children (81 third graders, 79 fourth graders, 116 fifth graders, and 131 sixth graders) attending three low- to…

  17. Shyness, Child-Teacher Relationships, and Socio-Emotional Adjustment in a Sample of Italian Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead…

  18. Deaths: Final Data for 2014.

    PubMed

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Murphy, Sherry L; Xu, Jiaquan; Tejada-Vera, Betzaida

    2016-06-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2014 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant mortality, and trends, by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, state of residence, and cause of death. PMID:27378572

  19. Methodology for adjusting scrotal circumference to 365 or 452 days of age and correlations of scrotal circumference with growth traits in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Bell, D J; Spitzer, J C; Bridges, W C; Olson, L W

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from 1983 through 1991, where weight and hip height were measured at start of test and every 28 d on 604 bulls completing a 224-d forage-based gain test. Scrotal circumference (SC) was measured at start of test, and at either end of test or end of the weigh period after individual bulls reached 365 d of age. Over 3 yr of this study, SC was additionally measured every 28 d. Bulls were representatives of 5 breed groups: Angus, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Continental (predominantly Charolais), and Zebu (predominantly Simbrah). Adjusted 365-d SC and adjusted 452-d SC were calculated by regression analysis and from formulas based on SC growth of individuals to 140 and 224 d on test, respectively. Breed group differences were observed for age of dam, birth weight, hip height, weight per day of age, average daily gain and SC at start of test, 140 d, and end of test (224 d). Scrotal circumference was positively correlated with all growth traits. Scrotal circumference was related to breed group, age, weight, hip height, average daily gain, weight per day of age, age by year, and age-by-breed group (P<0.05), as determined by regression analysis. However, omitting weight, hip height, average daily gain, and weight per day of age from the regression model did not significantly affect R2 value. Scrotal circumference growth was linear to 140 d on test; however, SC growth to 224 d on test was curvilinear. The 365-d SC predicted from the formula and from regression analysis differed for Simmental and Zebu by 0.3 and 0.4 cm, respectively (P<0.05). The 452-d SC differed for Santa Gertrudis and Zebu by 0.5 and 0.6 cm, respectively (P<0.05). Formulas based on SC growth of individuals are reasonably accurate predictors of SC at 365 and 452 d of age, when compared with more complex regression analysis. Basing SC adjustments on individual growth appears to account for variables known to affect yearling SC. PMID:16727931

  20. Adjusting for time-dependent sensitivity in an illness-death model, with application to mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Teeple, Elizabeth A; Brown, Elizabeth R

    2015-04-15

    In mother-to-child transmission of HIV, identifying infected infants relies on a diagnostic test with imperfect sensitivity that is administered at scheduled visits. Under this scenario, a participant's true state may be unknown at the start and end times of the study, and the detection of transitions into illness may be delayed or missed altogether. This could lead to biased estimates of the risk of transmission and covariate associations. When a test has imperfect sensitivity, but perfect specificity, the additional uncertainty can be captured as a random variable measuring delay in detection. The cumulative distribution then defines a time-dependent sensitivity function that increases over time. We present a maximum likelihood based illness-death model that accounts for imperfect sensitivity by including the delay as an exponential distribution. We specify transition rates as penalized B-splines to allow for nonhomogeneity of risk and discuss the model under Markov and semi-Markov assumptions. We apply this method to our motivating data set, a study of 1499 mother and infant pairs at three sites in Africa. PMID:25546029

  1. Weaker error signals do not reduce the effectiveness of post-error adjustments: comparing error processing in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Jentzsch, Ines

    2012-06-15

    In this study we investigated age-related differences in error processing, comparing performance measures and physiological indicators of error processing of middle-aged (41-59years) and young (18-31years) adults using a version of the Eriksen flanker task. Although middle-aged participants were overall slower, both groups showed a comparable decrease in reaction time on error trials as well as slower and more accurate post-error performance. Despite the preserved error speeding and post-error slowing effects, we found an amplitude reduction in the Ne/ERN, contradicting the existence of a direct relationship between the amplitude of this component and post-error adjustments. This was further supported by the lack of significant correlations between the single-trial Ne/ERN amplitude and error-related reaction times. The single-trial Ne/ERN distribution showed a reduced variance for middle-aged compared to young participants, suggesting that weaker overall error signals rather than lapses in error detection are responsible for the observed Ne/ERN amplitude reductions. However, we argue that the signal still reached the necessary threshold to trigger normal post-error adjustments. Finally, the early Pe showed a reduction in amplitude and an increase in latency for middle-aged compared to young adults. Together, the findings suggest clear signs of a physiological decline in error processing at an earlier age than previously known, but these changes do not yet affect implementation of adaptive behavioral changes in middle-aged participants. PMID:22578713

  2. Transcriptome-Wide Mapping of Pea Seed Ageing Reveals a Pivotal Role for Genes Related to Oxidative Stress and Programmed Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Colville, Louise; Lorenzo, Oscar; Graeber, Kai; Küster, Helge; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Kranner, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of seed ageing, which leads to viability loss during storage, is vital for ex situ plant conservation and agriculture alike. Yet the potential for regulation at the transcriptional level has not been fully investigated. Here, we studied the relationship between seed viability, gene expression and glutathione redox status during artificial ageing of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. Transcriptome-wide analysis using microarrays was complemented with qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes and a multilevel analysis of the antioxidant glutathione. Partial degradation of DNA and RNA occurred from the onset of artificial ageing at 60% RH and 50°C, and transcriptome profiling showed that the expression of genes associated with programmed cell death, oxidative stress and protein ubiquitination were altered prior to any sign of viability loss. After 25 days of ageing viability started to decline in conjunction with progressively oxidising cellular conditions, as indicated by a shift of the glutathione redox state towards more positive values (>−190 mV). The unravelling of the molecular basis of seed ageing revealed that transcriptome reprogramming is a key component of the ageing process, which influences the progression of programmed cell death and decline in antioxidant capacity that ultimately lead to seed viability loss. PMID:24205239

  3. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children’s Adjustment Among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents’ mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers’ depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:18645744

  4. Death Attitudes among Mid-Life Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Virginia; Sands, Roberta

    1987-01-01

    Examined death attitudes among 74 female college reentry students aged 30 through 49. Found relationships between: (1) developmental factors and death concern, death as interpersonal loss, and death as dimension of time; (2) age and death anticipation; and (3) income and death denial. Results suggest importance of considering both developmental…

  5. Trends and spatial distribution of deaths of children aged 12-60 months in São Paulo, Brazil, 1980-98.

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in the mortality of children aged 12-60 months and to perform spatial data analysis of its distribution at the inner city district level in São Paulo from 1980 to 1998. METHODS: Official mortality data were analysed in relation to the underlying causes of death. The population of children aged 12-60 months, disaggregated by sex and age, was estimated for each year. Educational levels, income, employment status, and other socioeconomic indices were also assessed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software was used for the statistical processing of time series. The Cochrane-Orcutt procedure of generalized least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the regression parameters with control of first-order autocorrelation. Spatial data analysis employed the discrimination of death rates and socioeconomic indices at the inner city district level. For classifying area-level death rates the method of K-means cluster analysis was used. Spatial correlation between variables was analysed by the simultaneous autoregressive regression method. FINDINGS: There was a steady decline in death rates during the 1980s at an average rate of 3.08% per year, followed by a levelling off. Infectious diseases remained the major cause of mortality, accounting for 43.1% of deaths during the last three years of the study. Injuries accounted for 16.5% of deaths. Mortality rates at the area level clearly demonstrated inequity in the city's health profile: there was an increasing difference between the rich and the underprivileged social strata in this respect. CONCLUSION: The overall mortality rate among children aged 12-60 months dropped by almost 30% during the study period. Most of the decline happened during the 1980s. Many people still live in a state of deprivation in underserved areas. Time-series and spatial data analysis provided indications of potential value in the planning of social policies promoting well-being, through the identification

  6. Children's Experience with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeligs, Rose

    Children's concepts of death grow with their age and development The three-year-old begins to notice that living things move and make sounds. The five-year-old thinks that life and death are reversable, but the six-year-old knows that death is final and brings sorrow. Children from eight through ten are interested in the causes of death and what…

  7. Luminescence ages for alluvial-fan deposits in Southern Death Valley: Implications for climate-driven sedimentation along a tectonically active mountain front

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, M.F.; Mahan, S.A.; Knott, J.R.; Bowman, D.D.

    2007-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether alluvial-fan sedimentation along tectonically active mountain fronts is driven by climatic changes or tectonics. Knowing the age of sedimentation is the key to understanding the relationship between sedimentation and its cause. Alluvial-fan deposits in Death Valley and throughout the arid southwestern United States have long been the subjects of study, but their ages have generally eluded researchers until recently. Most mapping efforts have recognized at least four major relative-age groupings (Q1 (oldest), Q2, Q3, and Q4 (youngest)), using observed changes in surface soils and morphology, relation to the drainage net, and development of desert pavement. Obtaining numerical age determinations for these morphologic stages has proven challenging. We report the first optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages for three of these four stages deposited within alluvial-fans along the tectonically active Black Mountains of Death Valley. Deposits showing distinct, remnant bar and swale topography (Q3b) have OSL ages from 7 to 4 ka., whereas those with moderate to poorly developed desert pavement and located farther above the active channel (Q3a) have OSL ages from 17 to 11 ka. Geomorphically older deposits with well-developed desert pavement (Q2d) have OSL ages ???25 ka. Using this OSL-based chronology, we note that alluvial-fan deposition along this tectonically active mountain front corresponds to both wet-to-dry and dry-to-wet climate changes recorded globally and regionally. These findings underscore the influence of climate change on alluvial fan deposition in arid and semi-arid regions. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  8. Re-evaluation of Pleistocene and Holocene long bone robusticity trends with regards to age-at-death estimates and size standardization procedures.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Lukáš; Eisová, Stanislava; Holliday, Trenton W

    2016-08-01

    Long-term trends in robusticity of lower limb bones in the genus Homo through the Pleistocene until the present have been proposed, which have been interpreted as a consequence of decreasing levels of mobility and activity patterns, changes in lifestyle, and environmental factors. There has also long been evidence that skeletal strength increases over an individual's lifespan. This increase is caused by continuous bone remodeling that optimizes the structure of a bone to resist mechanical loadings and creates a balance between endosteal resorption and subperiosteal apposition. However, none of the previous studies of temporal trends in robusticity has considered both processes and analyzed how individual age-related robusticity might influence higher-level temporal trends. This paper therefore explores temporal trends in robusticity of lower limb long bones within the genus Homo and considers how individual ages-at-death can confound published evolutionary trends, given the fact that some aspects of relative bone strength tend to increase over individual lifespans. Cross-sectional diaphyseal properties of the midshaft and proximal femur and midshaft tibia of Pleistocene and early Holocene individuals, together with data on age-at-death are used to analyze changes in relative bone strength relative to individuals' ages and evolutionary time. The results show increasing bone strength in adulthood until the fourth decade and then a slight decrease, an observation that conforms to previously published results on recent human populations. However, no significant impact of age-at-death on the trends along an evolutionary trajectory has been detected. The evolutionary trends in femoral and tibial relative strength can be described as fluctuating, probably as a consequence of changing mobility patterns, environmentally and technologically influenced behaviors, and demographic processes. The differences between evolutionary trends published in several studies are explained

  9. Age-at-death diagnosis and determination of life-history parameters by incremental lines in human dental cementum as an identification aid.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, P; Grupe, G

    2001-04-15

    Incremental lines in acellular extrinsic fiber cementum of 91 roots from 80 freshly extracted teeth have been investigated for a verification of the suitability of pathological teeth for a valid age-at-death diagnosis. Independent from tooth type, the accuracy of histological age-at-death diagnosis is clearly a function of a tooth's pathological state. Various periodontal diseases lead to a reduced number of incremental lines, while teeth with a sufficient nutritional support of their root showed a deviation of the histological age from the known actual age of 2-3 years only. For all patients, a detailed query concerning a variety of life-history parameters was established. We are able to show that especially previous pregnancies, skeletal traumata and renal diseases which all have a marked influence on the calcium metabolism result in hypomineralized incremental lines. The year of production of these hypomineralized lines could be dated precisely. Differential quality of incremental lines can, therefore, serve as a valuable tool in identification cases. PMID:11343858

  10. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  11. Comorbid Development of Disruptive Behaviors from age 1½ to 5 Years in a Population Birth-Cohort and Association with School Adjustment in First Grade.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Rene; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Nagin, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Comorbidity is frequent among disruptive behaviors (DB) and leads to mental health problems during adolescence and adulthood. However, the early developmental origins of this comorbidity have so far received little attention. This study investigated the developmental comorbidity of three DB categories during early childhood: hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression. Joint developmental trajectories of DB were identified based on annual mother interviews from age 1½ to 5 years, in a population-representative birth-cohort (N = 2045). A significant proportion of children (13 % to 21 %, depending on the type of DB) consistently displayed high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, or physical aggression from age 1½ to 5 years. Developmental comorbidity was frequent, especially for boys: 10 % of boys and 3.7 % of girls were on a stable trajectory with high levels of symptoms for the three categories of DB. Significant associations were observed between preschool joint-trajectories of DB and indicators of DB and school adjustment assessed by teachers in first grade. Preschoolers who maintained high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression, displayed the highest number of DB symptoms in first grade for all categories according to their teacher. They were also among the most disadvantaged of their class for school adjustment indicators. Thus, DB manifestations and developmental comorbidity of DB are highly prevalent in infancy. Early childhood appears to be a critical period to prevent persistent and comorbid DB that leads to impairment at the very beginning of school attendance and to long-term serious health and social adjustment problems. PMID:26311619

  12. Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The melatonin levels in various body fluids of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are compared with those of infants of comparable age who died of other causes to examine a possible relationship between pineal function and SIDS. After adjusting for age differences, cerebrospinal fluid melatonin levels are found to be significantly lower in the SIDS infants. It is suggested that diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

  13. Oxidative stress in microorganisms--I. Microbial vs. higher cells--damage and defenses in relation to cell aging and death.

    PubMed

    Sigler, K; Chaloupka, J; Brozmanová, J; Stadler, N; Höfer, M

    1999-01-01

    Oxidative stress in microbial cells shares many similarities with other cell types but it has its specific features which may differ in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. We survey here the properties and actions of primary sources of oxidative stress, the role of transition metals in oxidative stress and cell protective machinery of microbial cells, and compare them with analogous features of other cell types. Other features to be compared are the action of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on cell constituents, secondary lipid- or protein-based radicals and other stress products. Repair of oxidative injury by microorganisms and proteolytic removal of irreparable cell constituents are briefly described. Oxidative damage of aerobically growing microbial cells by endogenously formed ROS mostly does not induce changes similar to the aging of multiplying mammalian cells. Rapid growth of bacteria and yeast prevents accumulation of impaired macromolecules which are repaired, diluted or eliminated. During growth some simple fungi, such as yeast or Podospora spp., exhibit aging whose primary cause seems to be fragmentation of the nucleolus or impairment of mitochondrial DNA integrity. Yeast cell aging seems to be accelerated by endogenous oxidative stress. Unlike most growing microbial cells, stationary-phase cells gradually lose their viability because of a continuous oxidative stress, in spite of an increased synthesis of antioxidant enzymes. Unlike in most microorganisms, in plant and animal cells a severe oxidative stress induces a specific programmed death pathway--apoptosis. The scant data on the microbial death mechanisms induced by oxidative stress indicate that in bacteria cell death can result from activation of autolytic enzymes (similarly to the programmed mother-cell death at the end of bacillary sporulation). Yeast and other simple eukaryotes contain components of a proapoptotic pathway which are silent under normal conditions but can be activated by oxidative

  14. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

  15. Sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income in native Swedes and immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence with cash benefits from the sickness insurance gives an opportunity to be relieved from work without losing financial security. There are, however, downsides to taking sickness absence. Periods of sickness absence, even short ones, can increase the risk for future spells of sickness absence and unemployment. The sickness period may in itself have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is an association between exposure to sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income from work. Methods: Our cohort consisted of all immigrants aged 21–25 years in Sweden in 1993 (N = 38 207) and a control group of native Swedes in the same age group (N = 225 977). We measured exposure to sickness absence in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. We conducted separate analyses for men and women, and for immigrants and native Swedes. Results: Exposure to ≥60 days of sickness absence in 1993 increased the risk of sickness absence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6–11.4], unemployment (HR 1.1–1.2), disability pension (HR 1.2–5.3) and death (HR 1.2–3.5). The income from work, during the follow-up period, among individuals with spells of sick leave for ≥60 days in 1993 was around two-thirds of that of the working population who did not take sick leave. Conclusions: Individuals on sickness absence had an increased risk for work absence, death and lower future income. PMID:25634955

  16. Human actuarial aging increases faster when back ground death rates are lower: a consequence of differential heterogeneity?

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Kristen; Smith, Ken R.; Blevins, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Many analyses of human populations have found that age-specific mortality rates increase faster across most of adulthood when overall mortality levels decline. This contradicts the relationship often expected from Williams′ classic hypothesis about the effects of natural selection on the evolution of senescence. More likely, much of the within-species difference in actuarial aging is not due to variation in senescence, but to the strength of filters on the heterogeneity of frailty in older survivors. A challenge to this differential frailty hypothesis was recently posed by an analysis of life tables from historical European populations and traditional societies that reported variation in actuarial aging consistent with Williams′ hypothesis after all. To investigate the challenge, we reconsidered those cases and aging measures. Here we show that the discrepancy depends on Ricklefs′ aging rate measure,ω, which decreases as mortality levels drop because it is an index of mortality level itself, not the rate of increase in mortality with age. We also show unappreciated correspondence among the parameters of Gompertz–Makeham and Weibull survival models. Finally, we compare the relationships among mortality parameters of the traditional societies and the historical series, providing further suggestive evidence that differential heterogeneity has strong effects on actuarial aging. PMID:22220868

  17. Childhood parental death and lifetime suicide attempt of the opposite-gender offspring in a nationwide community sample of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Inamori, Aya; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Seong, Sujeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-12-01

    Although previous studies have shown that childhood parental death influences suicide attempts of their offspring, few studies have examined influence of gender and age at exposure. Koreans show the third highest suicide rate in the world, and many children and adolescents lost their parents during and after the Korean War. A total of 12,532 adults, randomly selected through a one-person-per-household method, completed the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and questionnaire for suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt (response rate 80.2%). A total of 2,332 subjects experienced biological parental death in childhood (18.6%). Male suicide attempts were associated with age of exposure to maternal death from 0 to 4 years (adjusted OR = 4.48, 95% CI 1.32-15.18) and from 5 to 9 years (adjusted OR = 5.52, 95% CI 1.97-16.46), but not with paternal death, after adjusting for age, education years, marital status, monthly income, and psychiatric comorbidities. Female suicide attempts were associated with paternal death from 5 to 9 years (adjusted OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.13-4.27), but not with maternal death. Childhood parental death is significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempt in the opposite-gender offspring, especially when exposure occurs before age 10. PMID:23834109

  18. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among youth aged 10-17 years by sex: data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 16 states, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Karch, Debra L; Logan, J; McDaniel, Dawn D; Floyd, C Faye; Vagi, Kevin J

    2013-07-01

    We examined the circumstances that precipitated suicide among 1,046 youth aged 10-17 years in 16 U.S. states from 2005 to 2008. The majority of deaths were among male subjects (75.2%), non-Hispanic whites (69.3%), those aged 16-17 years (58.1%), those who died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation (50.2%) and those who died in a house or an apartment (82.5%). Relationship problems, recent crises, mental health problems, and intimate partner and school problems were the most common precipitating factors and many differed by sex. School problems were reported for 25% of decedents, of which 30.3% were a drop in grades and 12.4% were bullying related. Prevention strategies directed toward relationship-building, problem-solving, and increasing access to treatment may be beneficial for this population. PMID:23790202

  19. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  20. Global and regional cause-of-death patterns in 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Lopez, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    Demographic estimation techniques suggest that worldwide about 50 million deaths occur each year, of which about 39 million are in the developing countries. In countries with adequate registration of vital statistics, the age at death and the cause can be reliably determined. Only about 30-35% of all deaths are captured by vital registration (excluding sample registration schemes); for the remainder, cause-of-death estimation procedures are required. Indirect methods which model the cause-of-death structure as a function of the level of mortality can provide reasonable estimates for broad cause-of-death groups. Such methods are generally unreliable for more specific causes. In this case, estimates can be constructed from community-level mortality surveillance systems or from epidemiological evidence on specific diseases. Some check on the plausibility of the estimates is possible in view of the hierarchical structure of cause-of-death lists and the well-known age-specific patterns of diseases and injuries. The results of applying these methods to estimate the cause of death for over 120 diseases or injuries, by age, sex and region, are described. The estimates have been derived in order to calculate the years of life lost due to premature death, one of the two components of overall disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) calculated for the 1993 World development report. Previous attempts at cause-of-death estimation have been limited to a few diseases only, with little age-specific detail. The estimates reported in detail here should serve as a useful reference for further public health research to support the determination of health sector priorities. PMID:8062402

  1. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  2. Deaths from homicides: a historical series1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. METHOD: study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. RESULTS: since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil. PMID:25591098

  3. The rotational origin and state of the whole: its relation to growth, fertility, aging, death, and diseases.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of my report is to synthetically summarize the concept of the rotatory essence of the Whole and to bring evidence that while aging responds to a precise inner "program" of the mammalian and any other species' "brain," acceleration of aging and all diseases are simply the direct outcome of a desynchronization of our inner "clock" with respect to the precise periodicity and hormone-integrated rhythmicity of the solar system. Those neuroendocrine, hormonal derangements of our inner clock are easily detectable and inevitably anticipate even by decades the onset of all diseases (autoimmune, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, neoplastic). I will introduce those interventions capable of detecting early alterations and of restoring hormonal rhythmicity, which will consequently restore immunological surveillance in a positive cascade sequence. PMID:16399884

  4. The Mortality Toll of Estrogen Avoidance: An Analysis of Excess Deaths Among Hysterectomized Women Aged 50 to 59 Years

    PubMed Central

    Njike, Valentine Y.; Vinante, Valentina; Katz, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effect of estrogen avoidance on mortality rates among hysterectomized women aged 50 to 59 years. Methods. We derived a formula to relate the excess mortality among hysterectomized women aged 50 to 59 years assigned to placebo in the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial to the entire population of comparable women in the United States, incorporating the decline in estrogen use observed between 2002 and 2011. Results. Over a 10-year span, starting in 2002, a minimum of 18 601 and as many as 91 610 postmenopausal women died prematurely because of the avoidance of estrogen therapy (ET). Conclusions. ET in younger postmenopausal women is associated with a decisive reduction in all-cause mortality, but estrogen use in this population is low and continuing to fall. Our data indicate an associated annual mortality toll in the thousands of women aged 50 to 59 years. Informed discussion between these women and their health care providers about the effects of ET is a matter of considerable urgency. PMID:23865654

  5. [Multicentric study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Melo, André Nascimento; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Franco, Saúl Alonso; Alazraqui, Marcio; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián

    2012-12-01

    This article is a descriptive epidemiological study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico) from 1990 to 2007. Deaths due to external causes and homicides, as codified in the 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases/ICD, were analyzed considering sex, age and manner of assault. The numbers, ratios and adjusted rates for deaths by homicide are presented. A linear regression model was used to ascertain the trend of homicide rates by age group. During the period, 4,086,216 deaths from external causes and 1,432,971 homicides were registered in these countries. Deaths from external causes rose 54.5% in Argentina but fell in the other countries (37% in Mexico, 31.8% in Colombia, and 8.1% in Brazil). The ratio for deaths by homicide for both sexes was 9.1 in Colombia, 4.4 in Brazil and 1.6 in Mexico, using the Argentinian rates as a benchmark. There were differences in the evolution of homicide rates by age and sex in the countries: the rate rose in Brazil and fell in Colombia for all age groups. The need to prioritize young males in public policies related to health care and prevention is stressed, as well as the need for the region to adopt inclusive policies and broaden and consolidate democracy and the rights of inhabitants. PMID:23175395

  6. Age-Related Changes in D-Aspartate Oxidase Promoter Methylation Control Extracellular D-Aspartate Levels and Prevent Precocious Cell Death during Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Punzo, Daniela; Errico, Francesco; Cristino, Luigia; Sacchi, Silvia; Keller, Simona; Belardo, Carmela; Luongo, Livio; Nuzzo, Tommaso; Imperatore, Roberta; Florio, Ermanno; De Novellis, Vito; Affinito, Ornella; Migliarini, Sara; Maddaloni, Giacomo; Sisalli, Maria Josè; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Pollegioni, Loredano; Maione, Sabatino; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Usiello, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    The endogenous NMDA receptor (NMDAR) agonist D-aspartate occurs transiently in the mammalian brain because it is abundant during embryonic and perinatal phases before drastically decreasing during adulthood. It is well established that postnatal reduction of cerebral D-aspartate levels is due to the concomitant onset of D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) activity, a flavoenzyme that selectively degrades bicarboxylic D-amino acids. In the present work, we show that d-aspartate content in the mouse brain drastically decreases after birth, whereas Ddo mRNA levels concomitantly increase. Interestingly, postnatal Ddo gene expression is paralleled by progressive demethylation within its putative promoter region. Consistent with an epigenetic control on Ddo expression, treatment with the DNA-demethylating agent, azacitidine, causes increased mRNA levels in embryonic cortical neurons. To indirectly evaluate the effect of a putative persistent Ddo gene hypermethylation in the brain, we used Ddo knock-out mice (Ddo(-/-)), which show constitutively suppressed Ddo expression. In these mice, we found for the first time substantially increased extracellular content of d-aspartate in the brain. In line with detrimental effects produced by NMDAR overstimulation, persistent elevation of D-aspartate levels in Ddo(-/-) brains is associated with appearance of dystrophic microglia, precocious caspase-3 activation, and cell death in cortical pyramidal neurons and dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. This evidence, along with the early accumulation of lipufuscin granules in Ddo(-/-) brains, highlights an unexpected importance of Ddo demethylation in preventing neurodegenerative processes produced by nonphysiological extracellular levels of free D-aspartate. PMID:26961959

  7. Suicide or accident? A psychological autopsy study of suicide in youths under the age of 16 compared to deaths labeled as accidents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective In the present paper, we describe suicide in youths under 16 years of age and compare their risk factors for suicide to those of older adolescents as described in the literature. Furthermore, we evaluate the possible mislabeling of suicides as accidents, and vice versa. Method We used the data from a nationwide psychological autopsy of youths 15 years and younger who had committed suicide or died in accidents in Norway from 1993 to 2004 (n = 84). We additionally constructed a suicide index to distinguish between the two causes of death. Results The young suicide victims presented, with little gender difference, fewer obvious risk factors and less suicide intent than commonly described for older adolescents. The suicide index distinguished quite well between suicides and accidents, with few cases indicating a possible mislabeling, although some suicide cases could have been labeled as uncertain. Conclusion In line with previous research, suicides in 11-15-year-olds have many similarities to suicides in older adolescents in terms of external circumstances, but they present less apparent warning signs. In our total sample of 84 deaths, there were few indications of incorrect labeling. PMID:22971572

  8. Disrupted axon-glia interactions at the paranode in myelinated nerves cause axonal degeneration and neuronal cell death in the aged Caspr mutant mouse shambling.

    PubMed

    Takagishi, Yoshiko; Katanosaka, Kimiaki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yoshiharu

    2016-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that axonal degeneration is a disease mechanism in various neurodegenerative diseases and that the paranodes at the nodes of Ranvier may be the initial site of pathogenesis. We investigated the pathophysiology of the disease process in the central and peripheral nervous systems of a Caspr mutant mouse, shambling (shm), which is affected by disrupted paranodal structures and impaired nerve conduction of myelinated nerves. The shm mice manifest a progressive neurological phenotype as mice age. We found extensive axonal degeneration and a loss of neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system in aged shm mice. Axonal alteration of myelinated nerves was defined by abnormal distribution and expression of neurofilaments and derangements in the status of phosphorylated and non/de-phosphorylated neurofilaments. Autophagy-related structures were also accumulated in degenerated axons and neurons. In conclusion, our results suggest that disrupted axon-glia interactions at the paranode cause the cytoskeletal alteration in myelinated axons leading to neuronal cell death, and the process involves detrimental autophagy and aging as factors that promote the pathogenesis. PMID:27255813

  9. Longitudinal study of dental development in chimpanzees of known chronological age: implications for understanding the age at death of Plio-Pleistocene hominids.

    PubMed

    Anemone, R L; Mooney, M P; Siegel, M I

    1996-01-01

    Reconstruction of life history variables of fossil hominids on the basis of dental development requires understanding of and comparison with the pattern and timing of dental development among both living humans and pongids. Whether dental development among living apes or humans provides a better model for comparison with that of Plio-Pleistocene hominids of the genus Australopithecus remains a contentious point. This paper presents new data on chimpanzees documenting developmental differences in the dentitions of modern humans and apes and discusses their significance in light of recent controversies over the human or pongid nature of australopithecine dental development. Longitudinal analysis of 299 lateral head radiographs from 33 lab-reared chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of known chronological age allows estimation of means and standard deviations for the age at first appearance of 8 developmental stages in the mandibular molar dentition. Results are compared with published studies of dental development among apes and with published standards for humans. Chimpanzees are distinctly different from humans in two important aspects of dental development. Relative to humans, chimpanzees show advanced molar development vis a vis anterior tooth development, and chimpanzees are characterized by temporal overlap in the calcification of adjacent molar crowns, while humans show moderate to long temporal gaps between the calcification of adjacent molar crowns. In combination with recent work on enamel incremental markers and CAT scans of developing dentitions of Plio-Pleistocene hominids, this evidence supports an interpretation of a rapid, essentially "apelike" ontogeny among australopithecines. PMID:8928715

  10. Disparities in late stage diagnosis, treatment, and breast cancer-related death by race, age, and rural residence among women in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Markossian, Talar W; Hines, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the outcomes of late stage breast cancer diagnosis, receiving first course treatment, and breast cancer-related death by race, age, and rural/urban residence in Georgia. The authors used cross-sectional and follow-up data (1992-2007) for Atlanta and Rural Georgia cancer registries that are part of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (N = 23,500 incident breast cancer cases in non-Hispanic whites or non-Hispanic African Americans). Multilevel modeling and Cox proportional hazard models revealed that compared to whites, African American women had significantly increased odds of late stage diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, p = 0.0001) and unknown tumor stage (OR = 1.27, p = 0.0001), decreased odds of receiving radiation (OR = 0.93, p = 0.041) or surgery (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0001), and increased risk of death following breast cancer diagnosis (hazard rate ratio [HR] = 1.50, p = 0.0001). Increased age was significantly associated with the odds of late/unknown stage at diagnosis, worse treatment, and survival. Women residing in rural areas had significantly decreased odds of receiving radiation and surgery with radiation (OR = 0.59, p = 0.0001), and for receiving breast-conserving surgery compared to mastectomy (OR = 0.73, p = 0.005). Factors affecting each level of the breast cancer continuum are distinct and should be examined separately. Efforts are needed to alleviate disparities in breast cancer outcomes in hard-to-reach populations. PMID:22591230

  11. Cause and Consequence: Mitochondrial Dysfunction Initiates and Propagates Neuronal Dysfunction, Neuronal Death and Behavioral Abnormalities in Age Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Starkov, Anatoly; Blass, John P.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Beal, M. Flint

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and accumulation of abnormal proteins. Within the cell, the mitochondria appears to be a dominant site for initiation and propagation of disease processes. Shifts in metabolism in response to mild metabolic perturbations may decrease the threshold for irreversible injury in response to ordinarily sub lethal metabolic insults. Mild impairment of metabolism accrue from and lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS change cell signaling via post transcriptional and transcriptional changes. The cause and consequences of mild impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is one focus of this review. Many experiments in tissues from humans support the notion that oxidative modification of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) compromises neuronal energy metabolism and enhance ROS production in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). These data suggest that cognitive decline in AD derives from the selective tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle abnormalities. By contrast in Huntington’s Disease (HD), a movement disorder with cognitive features distinct form AD, complex II + III abnormalities may dominate. These distinct mitochondrial abnormalities culminate in oxidative stress, energy dysfunction, and aberrant homeostasis of cytosolic calcium. Cytosolic calcium, elevations even only transiently, leads to hyperactivity of a number of enzymes. One calcium activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological import in HD and AD is transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is a cross linking enzymes that can modulate transcrption, inactivate metabolic enzymes, and cause aggregation of critical proteins. Recent data indicate that TGase can silence expression of genes involved in compensating for metabolic stress. Altogether, our results suggest that increasing KGDHC via inhibition of TGase or via a host of other strategies to be described would be effective therapeutic

  12. Death in the Digital Age: A Systematic Review of Information and Communication Technologies in End-of-Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Killoran, Peter; Shegog, Ross; Bruera, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: End-of-life (EOL) communication plays a critical role in ensuring that patients receive care concordant with their wishes and experience high quality of life. As the baby boomer population ages, scalable models of end-of-life communication will be needed to ensure that patients receive appropriate care. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) may help address the needs of this generation; however, few resources exist to guide the use of ICTs in EOL care. Objective: The primary objective was to identify the ICTs being used in EOL communication. The secondary objective was to compare the effectiveness of different ICTs in EOL communication. Methods: The study was a systematic review, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We systematically searched seven databases for experimental and observational studies on EOL communication between doctors and patients using ICTs, published in 1997–2013. Results: The review identified 38 relevant articles. Eleven types of technology were identified: video, website, telephone, videoconferencing, e-mail, telemonitoring, Internet search, compact disc, fax, PalmPilot, and short message service (SMS) text messaging. ICTs were most commonly used to provide information or education, serve as decision aids, promote advance care planning (ACP), and relieve physical symptom distress. Conclusions: The use of ICTs in EOL care is a small but growing field of research. Additional research is needed to adapt older, analog technologies for use in the digital age. Many of the interventions discussed in this review do not take full advantage of the affordances of mobile, connected health ICTs. The growing evidence base for e-health applications in related fields should guide future interventions in EOL care. PMID:26713368

  13. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age

  14. Predictive value of the age-adjusted charlson comorbidity index on perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Rudy S.; Leitao, Mario M.; Zivanovic, Oliver; Gardner, Ginger J.; Long Roche, Kara C.; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A.; Jewell, Elizabeth L.; Brown, Carol L.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.; Charlson, Mary E.; Chi, Dennis S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of the Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity index (ACCI) to predict perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods Data were analyzed for all patients with stage IIIB-IV EOC who underwent primary cytoreduction from 1/2001–1/2010 at our institution. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4. Clinical and survival outcomes were assessed and compared. Results We identified 567 patients; 199 (35%) had an ACCI of 0–1, 271 (48%) had an ACCI of 2–3, and 97 (17%) had an ACCI of ≥4. The ACCI was significantly associated with the rate of complete gross resection (0–1=44%, 2–3=32%, and ≥4=32%; p=0.02), but was not associated with the rate of minor (47% vs 47% vs 43%, p=0.84) or major (18% vs 19% vs 16%, p=0.8) complications. The ACCI was also significantly associated with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median PFS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 20.3, 16, and 15.4 months, respectively (p=0.02). Median OS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 65.3, 49.9, and 42.3 months, respectively (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, the ACCI remained a significant prognostic factor for both PFS (p=0.02) and OS (p<0.001). Conclusions The ACCI was not associated with perioperative complications in patients undergoing primary cytoreduction for advanced EOC, but was a significant predictor of PFS and OS. Prospective clinical trials in ovarian cancer should consider stratifying for an age-comorbidity covariate. PMID:26037900

  15. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  16. Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  17. TREND ANALYSIS OF DEATH RATES IN THE STATE OF ILLINOIS, 1967-1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes mortality trends in the State of Illinois and major cities with some air pollution trends during the nine year period, 1967-75. To examine an overall mortality trend in Chicago, downstate Illinois and both combined or Illinois total, age-adjusted death rate...

  18. The Response of Children to the Dying and Death of a Sibling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birenbaum, Linda K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated behavioral adjustment of 61 children (ages 4-16) during terminal illness and first year following sibling's death from cancer. Collected data from parents and teachers using Child Behavior Checklist. Results indicated that bereaved siblings demonstrated significantly higher levels of behavior problems and significantly lower social…

  19. The "How" and "When" of Parental Loss in Adulthood: Effects on Grief and Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, Bert; Pruett, Jessica H; Caballero, Daniela M

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of cause of death on the grief responses of parentally bereaved young and middle-aged adults, 400 individuals completed measures assessing their experiences and feelings surrounding the loss of a parent. Respondents included 247 young adults and 155 middle-aged adults. Cause of death was categorized as acute or anticipated with 209 participants reporting the parent's death as acute, while anticipated death was reported by 191 individuals. Results suggested that gender of the adult child and age level of the participant were important factors contributing to the grief response, and women were found to have more difficulty adjusting to the loss of a parent as well as demonstrating a more intense grief response. Young adults were found to be more impacted by the loss of a parent than were middle-aged adults. Those who were single or separated were similarly more impacted versus those who were married, where more young adults were single/separated and more middle-aged adults were married. Cause of death was only mildly influential in influencing responses to parental loss and did not interact with other studied variables. These results point to the importance of support from others in coping with a parent's death as well as for the counseling of bereaved persons who may be at risk for difficulties in coping with the death of a parent and enable a more precise understanding of individual grief processes across the adult lifespan. PMID:26152024

  20. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2014.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-06-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2014 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2014," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. PMID:27376998

  1. Death of an Adult Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  2. Death: Realism in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    In the past, books for children treated death fearfully, morbidly, and didactically, but now children's literature treats death in a more realistic manner and is sensitive to its emotional aspects. Current theories suggest that children perceive death differently at various ages. G. P. Koocher (1973) used J. Piaget's cognitive stages as the basis…

  3. Deaths: Final Data for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents final 1998 data on U.S. deaths and death rates according to demographic and medical characteristics such as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and cause of death. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal…

  4. Sex and age dependent effects of androgens on glutamate-induced cell death and intracellular calcium regulation in the developing hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zup, Susan L.; Edwards, N. Shalon; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal neurons must maintain control over cytosolic calcium levels, especially during development, as excitation and calcium flux is necessary for proper growth and function. But excessive calcium can lead to excitotoxic cell death. Previous work suggests that neonatal male and female hippocampal neurons regulate cytosolic calcium differently, thereby leading to differential susceptibility to excitotoxic damage. Hippocampal neurons are also exposed to gonadal hormones during development and express high levels of androgen receptors. Androgens have both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects in adults and developing animals. The present study sought to examine the effect of androgen on cell survival after an excitatory stimulus in the developing hippocampus, and whether androgen mediated calcium regulation was the governing mechanism. We observed that glutamate did not induce robust or sexually dimorphic apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons at an early neonatal time point, but did five days later – only in males. Further, pretreatment with the androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) protected males from apoptosis during this time, but had no effect on females. Calcium imaging of sex specific cultures revealed that DHT decreased the peak of intracellular calcium induced by glutamate, but only in males. To determine a possible mechanism for this androgen neuroprotection and calcium regulation, we quantified three calcium regulatory proteins, plasma membrane calcium ATPase1 (PMCA1), sodium/calcium exchanger1 (NCX1), and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2). Surprisingly, there was no sex difference in the level of any of the three proteins. Treatment with DHT significantly decreased PMCA1 and NCX1, but increased SERCA2 protein levels in very young animals but not at a later timepoint. Taken together, these data suggest a complex interaction of sex, hormones, calcium regulation and developmental age; however androgens acting during the first

  5. Death rate variation in US subpopulations.

    PubMed Central

    Kindig, David A.; Seplaki, Christopher L.; Libby, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To account for variations in death rates in population subgroups of the USA. METHODS: Factors associated with age-adjusted death rates in 366 metropolitan and non- metropolitan areas of the United States were examined for 1990-92. The rates ranged from 690 to 1108 per 100 000 population (mean = 885 +/- 78 per 100 000). FINDINGS: Least squares regression analysis explained 71% of this variance. Factors with the strongest independent positive association were ethnicity (African-American), less than a high school education, high Medicare expenditures, and location in western or southern regions. Factors with the strongest independent negative associations were employment in agriculture and forestry, ethnicity (Hispanic) and per capita income. CONCLUSION: Additional research at the individual level is needed to determine if these associations are causal, since some of the factors with the strongest associations, such as education, have long latency periods. PMID:11884968

  6. Death in the United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Miniño, Arialdi M

    2013-03-01

    In 2011, the age-adjusted death rate for the United States was 740.6 per 100,000 population (1). This rate represents a 0.9% drop from the rate in 2010 (747.0), and is a record low. The highest mortality was observed for the non-Hispanic black population (903.9), followed by the non-Hispanic white population (753.9). Death rates for all race groups of the U.S. population generally have been decreasing since 1935 (2), and the rates for the Hispanic population have been declining since the late 1990s (3). Data for 2011 maintain that trend. The figures presented in this report are based on preliminary mortality data for 2011 and final data for 2000-2010. PMID:23742756

  7. Death from respiratory diseases and temperature in Shiraz, Iran (2006-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadbakhsh, Manizhe; Khanjani, Narges; Bahrampour, Abbas; Haghighi, Pegah Shoae

    2016-07-01

    Some studies have suggested that the number of deaths increases as temperatures drops or rises above human thermal comfort zone. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relation between respiratory-related mortality and temperature in Shiraz, Iran. In this ecological study, data about the number of respiratory-related deaths sorted according to age and gender as well as average, minimum, and maximum ambient air temperatures during 2007-2011 were examined. The relationship between air temperature and respiratory-related deaths was calculated by crude and adjusted negative binomial regression analysis. It was adjusted for humidity, rainfall, wind speed and direction, and air pollutants including CO, NOx, PM10, SO2, O3, and THC. Spearman and Pearson correlations were also calculated between air temperature and respiratory-related deaths. The analysis was done using MINITAB16 and STATA 11. During this period, 2598 respiratory-related deaths occurred in Shiraz. The minimum number of respiratory-related deaths among all subjects happened in an average temperature of 25 °C. There was a significant inverse relationship between average temperature- and respiratory-related deaths among all subjects and women. There was also a significant inverse relationship between average temperature and respiratory-related deaths among all subjects, men and women in the next month. The results suggest that cold temperatures can increase the number of respiratory-related deaths and therefore policies to reduce mortality in cold weather, especially in patients with respiratory diseases should be implemented.

  8. Patterns of United States mortality for ten selected causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-11-06

    Income, ethnicity, education, and occupation are examples of socio-economic factors associated with the occurrence of disease, whether an investigation focuses on an individual or on an aggregation of individuals. In this study, data aggregated to the county level are used to explore two issues - geographic variation and geographic covariation of ten selected causes of death in the United States. The counties of the United States are characterized by 15 socio-economic variables and age-adjusted mortality rates for the ten selected causes of death. The observed variation among the US counties, as measured by the socio-economic variables, is first assessed, then the geographic variation and covariation are described for each cause of death and, finally, the covariation among causes of death is analyzed after adjusting for the influences of the measured sources of county variation.

  9. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  10. Population age and initial density in a patchy environment affect the occurrence of abrupt transitions in a birth-and-death model of Taylor's law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Zhang, B.; Cohen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Taylor's power law describes an empirical relationship between the mean and variance of population densities in field data, in which the variance varies as a power, b, of the mean. Most studies report values of b varying between 1 and 2. However, Cohen (2014a) showed recently that smooth changes in environmental conditions in a model can lead to an abrupt, infinite change in b. To understand what factors can influence the occurrence of an abrupt change in b, we used both mathematical analysis and Monte Carlo samples from a model in which populations of the same species settled on patches, and each population followed independently a stochastic linear birth-and-death process. We investigated how the power relationship responds to a smooth change of population growth rate, under different sampling strategies, initial population density, and population age. We showed analytically that, if the initial populations differ only in density, and samples are taken from all patches after the same time period following a major invasion event, Taylor's law holds with exponent b=1, regardless of the population growth rate. If samples are taken at different times from patches that have the same initial population densities, we calculate an abrupt shift of b, as predicted by Cohen (2014a). The loss of linearity between log variance and log mean is a leading indicator of the abrupt shift. If both initial population densities and population ages vary among patches, estimates of b lie between 1 and 2, as in most empirical studies. But the value of b declines to ~1 as the system approaches a critical point. Our results can inform empirical studies that might be designed to demonstrate an abrupt shift in Taylor's law.

  11. Utility of Hippocrates’ prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if one of Hippocrates’ aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Design Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Setting Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. Participants 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Main outcome measure Time to death. Methods We recreated the hippocratic prognosticator using an item that measures appetite drawn from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-depression subscale, and the mini-mental state examination, with a score of >25 being considered as normal. People with normal cognition and appetite were compared with those with either poor cognition or poor appetite. We constructed Cox regression models, adjusted for age, sex, education, and functional status. Results The prognostic aphorism predicted death, with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 2.37 (95% confidence interval 1.93 to 2.88) and a hazard ratio of 1.71 (1.37 to 2.12) adjusted for age, sex, and education. Both poor appetite and poor cognition predicted death. The sensitivity and specificity were not, however, sufficient for the measure to be used alone. Conclusion An aphorism devised by Hippocrates millennia ago can predict death in the modern era. PMID:25512328

  12. U.S. congressional district cancer death rates

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yongping; Ward, Elizabeth M; Jemal, Ahmedin; Pickle, Linda W; Thun, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Background Geographic patterns of cancer death rates in the U.S. have customarily been presented by county or aggregated into state economic or health service areas. Herein, we present the geographic patterns of cancer death rates in the U.S. by congressional district. Many congressional districts do not follow state or county boundaries. However, counties are the smallest geographical units for which death rates are available. Thus, a method based on the hierarchical relationship of census geographic units was developed to estimate age-adjusted death rates for congressional districts using data obtained at county level. These rates may be useful in communicating to legislators and policy makers about the cancer burden and potential impact of cancer control in their jurisdictions. Results Mortality data were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for 1990–2001 for 50 states, the District of Columbia, and all counties. We computed annual average age-adjusted death rates for all cancer sites combined, the four major cancers (lung and bronchus, prostate, female breast, and colorectal cancer) and cervical cancer. Cancer death rates varied widely across congressional districts for all cancer sites combined, for the four major cancers, and for cervical cancer. When examined at the national level, broad patterns of mortality by sex, race and region were generally similar with those previously observed based on county and state economic area. Conclusion We developed a method to generate cancer death rates by congressional district using county-level mortality data. Characterizing the cancer burden by congressional district may be useful in promoting cancer control and prevention programs, and persuading legislators to enact new cancer control programs and/or strengthening existing ones. The method can be applied to state legislative districts and other analyses that involve data aggregation from different geographic units. PMID:16796732

  13. Causes of death among persons of all ages within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Kenya, determined from verbal autopsies interpreted using the InterVA-4 model

    PubMed Central

    Ndila, Carolyne; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Nyirongo, Vysaul; Makazi, Alex; Kosgei, Patrick; Tsofa, Benjamin; Nyutu, Gideon; Etyang, Anthony; Byass, Peter; Williams, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of deaths in the Kilifi study area are not recorded through official systems of vital registration. As a result, few data are available regarding causes of death in this population. Objective To describe the causes of death (CODs) among residents of all ages within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) on the coast of Kenya. Design Verbal autopsies (VAs) were conducted using the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) standard VA questionnaires, and VA data further transformed to align with the 2012 WHO VA instrument. CODs were then determined using the InterVA-4 computer-based probabilistic model. Results Five thousand one hundred and eighty seven deaths were recorded between January 2008 and December 2011. VA interviews were completed for 4,460 (86%) deaths. Neonatal pneumonia and birth asphyxia were the main CODs in neonates; pneumonia and malaria were the main CODs among infants and children aged 1–4, respectively, while HIV/AIDS was the main COD for adult women of reproductive age. Road traffic accidents were more commonly observed among men than women. Stroke and neoplasms were common CODs among the elderly over the age of 65. Conclusions We have established the main CODs among people of all ages within the area served by the KHDSS on the coast of Kenya using the 2007 WHO VA questionnaire coded using InterVA-4. We hope that our data will allow local health planners to estimate the burden of various diseases and to allocate their limited resources more appropriately. PMID:25377342

  14. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  15. Practicing death.

    PubMed

    Avny, Ohad; Alon, Aya

    2016-07-01

    This narrative describes the struggle of a primary care physician contending with the challenge of remaining committed to his patient's care despite a sense of burnout in relation to an intense period of patient deaths. The story presents two patient deaths and the physician's reflections on how he handled both cases. PMID:26899633

  16. Death duties

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kathryn A.; Eden, David

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Family physicians are often called upon to pronounce and certify the deaths of patients. Inadequate knowledge of the Coroners Act (in the province of Ontario) and of the correct process of certifying death can make physicians uncomfortable when confronted with these tasks. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To educate family physicians about how to perform the administrative tasks required of them when patients die. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The program included an educational video, a tutorial outlining the process of death certification, and discussion with a regional coroner about key features of the Coroners Act. In small groups, participants worked through cases of patient deaths in which they were asked to determine whether a coroner needed to be involved, to determine the manner of death, and to complete a mock death certificate for each case. CONCLUSION All participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the workshop and thought the main objective of the program had been achieved. Results of a test given 3 months after the workshop showed substantial improvement in participants’ knowledge of the coroner’s role and of the process of death certification. PMID:17872782

  17. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN AGE-ADJUSTED MORTALITY RATES FOR WHITE MALES AND FEMALES IN THE UNITED STATES BY COUNTY, 1968-1972

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intercorrelations among county mortality rates for about 50 causes of death were investigated for white males (WM) and white females (WF) for the 5-year period between 1968 and 1972. All possible pairwise correlations (1128 for WM and 1275 for WF) were calculated; those correlati...

  18. Every death counts: measurement of maternal mortality via a census.

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, C.; Hobcraft, J.; Hill, K.; Kodjogbé, N.; Mapeta, W. T.; Munene, F.; Naghavi, M.; Rabeza, V.; Sisouphanthong, B.; Campbell, O.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe) which identified maternal deaths in their censuses. Standard demographic methods were used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of adult female deaths and births in the year prior to the census. The results from these exercises were used to adjust the data. In four countries, the numbers of adult female deaths needed to be increased and three countries required upward adjustment of the numbers of recent births. The number of maternal deaths was increased by the same factor as that used for adult female deaths on the assumption that the proportion of adult female deaths due to maternal causes was correct. Age patterns of the various maternal mortality indicators were plausible and consistent with external sources of data for other populations. Our data suggest that under favourable conditions a national census is a feasible and promising approach for the measurement of maternal mortality. Moreover, use of the census circumvents several of the weaknesses of methods currently in use. However, it should also be noted that careful evaluation of the data and adjustment, if necessary, are essential. The public health community is urged to encourage governments to learn from the experience of these five countries and to place maternal mortality estimation in the hands of statistical agencies. PMID:11477969

  19. Early Childhood Injury Deaths in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzyk, Patricia M.

    This paper discusses data on the deaths of children aged 1-4 years in Washington State. A two-fold approach was used in the analysis. First, Washington State death certificate data for 1979-85 were used to characterize the deaths and identify hazardous situations. Second, death certificates were linked to birth certificates of children born in…

  20. Death Perception in People with Suicidal Tendencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Veronique; Dussaucy, Edith

    The perception of death gradually develops in a child's mind, reaching maturity at about 8 or 9 years of age. A mature death concept usually means a definition which includes the perception of death as a natural process, its finality, its irreversibility, and its universality. A study was undertaken to improve knowledge about the death concept.…

  1. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  2. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  3. Age-specific periictal electroclinical features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and potential risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Joel; Kaur, Gurmeen; Fernandez, Guadalupe Baca-Vaca; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Kaffashi, Farhad; Loparo, Kenneth A; Rao, Shyam; Loplumlert, Jakrin; Kaiboriboon, Kitti; Amina, Shahram; Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2013-11-01

    Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) is the commonest seizure type associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This study examined the semiological and electroencephalographic differences (EEG) in the GTCSs of adults as compared with those of children. The rationale lies on epidemiological observations that have noted a tenfold higher incidence of SUDEP in adults. We analyzed the video-EEG data of 105 GTCS events in 61 consecutive patients (12 children, 23 seizure events and 49 adults, 82 seizure events) recruited from the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. Semiological, EEG, and 3-channel EKG features were studied. Periictal seizure phase durations were analyzed including tonic, clonic, total seizure, postictal EEG suppression (PGES), and recovery phases. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures including RMSSD (root mean square successive difference of RR intervals), SDNN (standard deviation of NN intervals), and SDSD (standard deviation of differences) were analyzed (including low frequency/high frequency power ratios) during preictal baseline and ictal and postictal phases. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to find associations between electroclinical features. Separate subgroup analyses were carried out on adult and pediatric age groups as well as medication groups (no antiepileptic medication cessation versus unchanged or reduced medication) during admission. Major differences were seen in adult and pediatric seizures with total seizure duration, tonic phase, PGES, and recovery phases being significantly shorter in children (p<0.01). Generalized estimating equation analysis, using tonic phase duration as the dependent variable, found age to correlate significantly (p<0.001), and this remained significant during subgroup analysis (adults and children) such that each 0.12-second increase in tonic phase duration correlated with a 1-second increase in PGES duration. Postictal EEG suppression durations were on average 28s shorter in

  4. 20 CFR 404.412 - After my benefits are reduced for age when and how will adjustments to that reduction be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...'s benefit, any month before attainment of full retirement age for which she or he was not entitled... records to identify when an individual has attained full retirement age and one or more months described... with the month of attainment of full retirement age. In the case of widow's or widower's benefits,...

  5. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  6. Neonatal Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Neonatal death ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Complications & Loss ...

  7. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  8. Children's Deaths in Maine, 1976-1980 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaper, Ruth; And Others

    The final report of a statistical study of 1,737 childhood deaths in Maine from 1976-80 by cause and age also looks at distribution of deaths by cause and age in Maine's low-income population. The findings showed disease was the major cause of death (1,068 deaths) followed by accidents (578 deaths), suicide (50 deaths), and homicide (29 deaths).…

  9. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  10. Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths--United States, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rose A; Aleshire, Noah; Zibbell, Jon E; Gladden, R Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of drug overdose (poisoning) deaths. Since 2000, the rate of deaths from drug overdoses has increased 137%, including a 200% increase in the rate of overdose deaths involving opioids (opioid pain relievers and heroin). CDC analyzed recent multiple cause-of-death mortality data to examine current trends and characteristics of drug overdose deaths, including the types of opioids associated with drug overdose deaths. During 2014, a total of 47,055 drug overdose deaths occurred in the United States, representing a 1-year increase of 6.5%, from 13.8 per 100,000 persons in 2013 to 14.7 per 100,000 persons in 2014. The rate of drug overdose deaths increased significantly for both sexes, persons aged 25-44 years and ≥55 years, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, and in the Northeastern, Midwestern, and Southern regions of the United States. Rates of opioid overdose deaths also increased significantly, from 7.9 per 100,000 in 2013 to 9.0 per 100,000 in 2014, a 14% increase. Historically, CDC has programmatically characterized all opioid pain reliever deaths (natural and semisynthetic opioids, methadone, and other synthetic opioids) as "prescription" opioid overdoses (1). Between 2013 and 2014, the age-adjusted rate of death involving methadone remained unchanged; however, the age-adjusted rate of death involving natural and semisynthetic opioid pain relievers, heroin, and synthetic opioids, other than methadone (e.g., fentanyl) increased 9%, 26%, and 80%, respectively. The sharp increase in deaths involving synthetic opioids, other than methadone, in 2014 coincided with law enforcement reports of increased availability of illicitly manufactured fentanyl, a synthetic opioid; however, illicitly manufactured fentanyl cannot be distinguished from prescription fentanyl in death certificate data. These findings indicate that the opioid overdose epidemic is worsening. There is a need for continued action to prevent opioid

  11. Unnatural sudden infant death

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.
METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.
RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 were given another cause of natural death. In 24 families, more than one child died; 58died before the age of 6 months and most died in the afternoon or evening. Seventy per cent had experienced unexplained illnesses; over half were admitted to hospital within the previous month, and 15 had been discharged within 24 hours of death. The mother, father, or both were responsible for death in 43, five, and two families, respectively. Most homes were disadvantaged—no regular income, receiving income support—and mothers smoked. Half the perpetrators had a history of somatising or factitious disorder. Death was usually by smothering and 43% of children had bruises, petechiae, or blood on the face.
CONCLUSIONS—Although certain features are indicative of unnatural infant death, some are also associated with SIDS. Despite the recent reduction in numbers of infants dying suddenly, inadequacies in the assessment of their deaths exist. Until a thorough postmortem examination is combined with evaluation of the history and circumstances of death by an experienced paediatrician, most cases of covert fatal abuse will go undetected. The term SIDS requires revision or abandonment.

 PMID:10325752

  12. Effects of Sudden vs. Chronic Illness Death on Bereavement Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Catherine M.

    1982-01-01

    Interviewed bereaved persons shortly after the death of a close family member and 18 months later. Respondents were grouped according to mode of death. The short-term chronic illness group made the most favorable adjustment. Sudden death and long-term chronic illness death groups sustained higher intensities of bereavement. (Author/RC)

  13. Liberalized abortion in Oregon: effects on fertility, prematurity, fetal death, and infant death.

    PubMed Central

    Quick, J D

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of Oregon Vital Statistics data from 1965 to 1975 was conducted to assess the impact of Oregon's 1969 abortion legislation, which substantially increased the number of reported medically induced abortions. This increase was associated with a slight increase in the age-adjusted 1970 fertility rate and there was no decrease in births to women in the age groups obtaining proportionately the most abortions. A significant and persistent 11 per cent reduction in premature births to women over age 20 (p less than .001) and a 22 per cent reduction in spontaneous fetal deaths (p less than .05) were associated with liberalized abortion. Decreases in neonatal and postneonatal infant mortality were observed, but were indistinguishable from an ongoing trend toward improved infant health. A gradual 25 per cent decline in the age-adjusted fertility rate occurred between 1969 and 1975, but the increase in the number of reported abortions could account for only one-fourth of this decrease. A seven-fold increase in the use of family planning clinics between 1970 and 1973 and more liberalized laws regarding provision of family planning service appeared to account for a much higher proportion of the decreased fertility than did liberalized abortion. PMID:568892

  14. Suicide following the death of a sibling: a nationwide follow-up study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The death of a sibling can trigger grief and depression. Sibling deaths from external causes may be particularly detrimental, since they are often sudden. We aimed to examine the association between the death of an adult sibling from external causes and the risk of suicide among surviving siblings up to 18 years after bereavement. We adjusted for intrafamily correlation in death risks, which might occur because of shared genetics and shared early-life experiences of siblings in the same family. Design A follow-up study between 1981 and 2002 based on the total population. Setting Sweden. Participants Swedes aged 25–64 years (n=1 748 069). Primary and secondary outcome measures Suicide from the Swedish cause of death register. Results An increased risk of mortality from suicide was found among persons who had experienced the death of a sibling. In women, the suicide risk was 1.55 times that of non-bereaved persons (95% CI 0.99 to 2.44), and in men it was 1.28 times higher (95% CI 0.93 to 1.77). If one sibling committed suicide, the risk of the remaining sibling also committing suicide was 3.19 (95% CI 1.23 to 8.25) among women and 2.44 (95% CI 1.34 to 4.45) among men. Associations with other main causes of death—such as external other than suicide, cardiovascular diseases or cancer—were generally much smaller and statistically not significant in either sex. We found no clear support for a specific time pattern according to time since a sibling's death. Conclusions Our study provided evidence for suicide risk associated with the death of a sibling at adult age, revealing that bereaved persons’ risk of suicide is higher when siblings die from suicide, even when adjusting for intrafamily correlation in death risks. PMID:23624991

  15. Behavior of chickens prior to death from sudden death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Newberry, R C; Gardiner, E E; Hunt, J R

    1987-09-01

    A study was made to determine if chickens dying from sudden death syndrome (SDS) showed any unusual behavioral characteristics during the final 12 h preceding death. Continuous video recordings were made of floor pens of 50 to 120 individually marked male broiler chickens between 3 and 10 wk of age. Behavioral data were obtained from video tapes played back following death of chickens from SDS. Analysis of the video tapes revealed no significant differences between 10 SDS chickens and their matched controls in the frequencies or proportions of time spent in each of 19 different behavioral activities. All SDS chickens exhibited a sudden attack prior to death lasting an average of 53 s and characterized by loss of balance, violent flapping, and strong muscular contractions. There was no evidence that death was preceded by a particular environmental or behavioral event. It was concluded that there were no consistent behavioral symptoms which could be used to identify SDS chickens prior to death. PMID:3684869

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... 35 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease & Stroke Improving care can save ... can reduce death among all ages. Problem Many deaths from heart disease and stroke can be prevented. ...

  17. Impact of Pregnancy-Related Deaths on Female Life Expectancy in Zambia: Application of Life Table Techniques to Census Data

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Richard; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Fylkesnes, Knut; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2000, the world has been coalesced around efforts to reduce maternal mortality. However, few studies have estimated the significance of eliminating maternal deaths on female life expectancy. We estimated, based on census data, the potential gains in female life expectancy assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related mortality in Zambia. Methods We used data on all-cause and pregnancy-related deaths of females aged 15–49 reported in the Zambia 2010 census, and evaluated, adjusted and smoothed them using existing and verified techniques. We used associated single decrement life tables, assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths to estimate the potential gains in female life expectancy at birth, at age 15, and over the ages 15–49. We compared these gains with the gains from eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, violence and suicide. Results Complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths would extend life expectancy at birth among Zambian women by 1.35 years and life expectancy at age 15 by 1.65 years. In rural areas, this would be 1.69 years and 2.19 years, respectively, and in urban areas, 0.78 years and 0.85 years. An additional 0.72 years would be spent in the reproductive age group 15–49; 1.00 years in rural areas and 0.35 years in urban areas. Eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, suicide and violence among women aged 15–49 would cumulatively contribute 0.55 years to female life expectancy at birth. Conclusion Eliminating pregnancy-related mortality would extend female life expectancy in Zambia substantially, with more gains among adolescents and females in rural areas. The application of life table techniques to census data proved very valuable, although rigorous evaluation and adjustment of reported deaths and age was necessary to attain plausible estimates. The collection of detailed high quality cause-specific mortality data in future censuses is indispensable. PMID:26513160

  18. Heart Rate and Risk of Cancer Death in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Jouven, Xavier; Escolano, Sylvie; Celermajer, David; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Bingham, Annie; Hermine, Olivier; Desnos, Michel; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Marijon, Eloi; Ducimetière, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background Data from several previous studies examining heart-rate and cardiovascular risk have hinted at a possible relationship between heart-rate and non-cardiac mortality. We thus systematically examined the predictive value of heart-rate variables on the subsequent risk of death from cancer. Methods In the Paris Prospective Study I, 6101 asymptomatic French working men aged 42 to 53 years, free of clinically detectable cardiovascular disease and cancer, underwent a standardized graded exercise test between 1967 and 1972. Resting heart-rate, heart-rate increase during exercise, and decrease during recovery were measured. Change in resting heart-rate over 5 years was also available in 5139 men. Mortality including 758 cancer deaths was assessed over the 25 years of follow-up. Findings There were strong, graded and significant relationships between all heart-rate parameters and subsequent cancer deaths. After adjustment for age and tobacco consumption and, compared with the lowest quartile, those with the highest quartile for resting heart-rate had a relative risk of 2.4 for cancer deaths (95% confidence interval: 1.9–2.9, p<0.0001) This was similar after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and was observed for the commonest malignancies (respiratory and gastrointestinal). Similarly, significant relationships with cancer death were observed between poor heart rate increase during exercise, poor decrease during recovery and greater heart-rate increase over time (p<0.0001 for all). Interpretation Resting and exercise heart rate had consistent, graded and highly significant associations with subsequent cancer mortality in men. PMID:21826196

  19. Adolescent Russian roulette deaths.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kim A

    2010-03-01

    Adolescence, between the ages of 10 and 19 years, is a unique period both physically and emotionally. During this time of life, individuals are known to experiment and engage in risky behavior, sometimes with unforeseen morbidity and mortality. We also see suicide emerge as a manner of death in this age group. The most common method is gunshot wound and sometimes in the form of Russian roulette. Few studies have looked at deaths by Russian roulette, the victims, and scenarios. In particular, no study examines the adolescent victim of Russian roulette. To better understand and classify this entity, adolescent Russian roulette autopsy cases over a 20-year period were examined looking at the victims, scenarios, autopsy findings, cause and manner of death, and the weapons. All victims were males, ages 13 to 19 years, with a Black-to-White ratio of 1:1. No victim had a previous psychiatric history. Toxicology was positive for alcohol and/or marijuana in 50% of the victims. Friends were present when the victim shot himself which occurred in the home the majority of the time. In all but 1 case, premeditation of the game was involved as the victim provided the weapon for the roulette. The cause of death was gunshot wound to the head (6 to the right side, 1 to the mouth, 1 to the forehead), and the manner of death was suicide in 6 cases and accident in 2 cases. A review of the literature discusses the adolescent victim, suicide, and Russian roulette. PMID:20010290

  20. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  1. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families. PMID:24182378

  2. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers. PMID:26027850

  3. Cryptobiosis, aging, and cancer: yin-yang balancing of signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zebo; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Some organisms adapt to persistent and severe stress by reversibly adjusting life-death balance to a new equilibrium, e.g., anhydrobiosis ("life without water") enables survival in a quiescent state on extreme desiccation. Aging is characterized by declining response and increasing vulnerability to stress, and the balance slowly, and irreversibly, tilts toward death. Although tumorigenesis tips the balance of cells to prolonged life, paradoxically it can cause organismal death. At the molecular level, all these phenomena involve complex signaling pathways, but it is highly likely that the overall balance of signaling outcomes, rather than individual signals themselves, plays the pivotal role in life-death decisions. PMID:16706657

  4. Comparison of cancer deaths in England and Wales and the developed world by age and gender 1973-92, and, new malignancies in England and Wales 1971-88.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, C; Evans, B

    1996-01-01

    Cancer deaths in England and Wales and the developed world were examined by age and gender between 1973-1992. Whilst over-all mortality levels increased, this was mainly linked to extended longevity, as the rate fell substantially for people under 55 in the majority of countries, possibly as a result of improved treatment and prevention outcomes. Whilst England and Wales had above average reductions in cancer deaths, especially for children, there were considerable rises in new malignancies, 1971-88, particularly amongst women under 35 years, and in certain selected sites. These over-all changes do not appear to be the result of improved diagnosis, thus, despite evidence of more effective therapeutic and preventative measures the incidence of new malignancies is increasing. The possible implications are briefly discussed, in the context of "medical audit', which increasing uses mortality rates as "indicators of effectiveness'. PMID:8685311

  5. The compression of deaths above the mode

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, A. Roger; Cheung, Siu Lan K.; Horiuchi, Shiro; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Kannisto (2001) has shown that as the frequency distribution of ages at death has shifted to the right, the age distribution of deaths above the modal age has become more compressed. In order to further investigate this old-age mortality compression, we adopt the simple logistic model with two parameters, which is known to fit data on old-age mortality well (Thatcher 1999). Based on the model, we show that three key measures of old-age mortality (the modal age of adult deaths, the life expectancy at the modal age, and the standard deviation of ages at death above the mode) can be estimated fairly accurately from death rates at only two suitably chosen high ages (70 and 90 in this study). The distribution of deaths above the modal age becomes compressed when the logits of death rates fall more at the lower age than at the higher age. Our analysis of mortality time series in six countries, using the logistic model, endorsed Kannisto’s conclusion. Some possible reasons for the compression are discussed. PMID:24058281

  6. Leisure home ownership and early death: a longitudinal study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Urban; Hartig, Terry

    2010-01-01

    People who perform paid work may benefit from psychological restoration afforded by a leisure home and its natural surroundings. This may hinder the development of some forms of life-threatening illness. Using longitudinal register data for 108,114 employed Swedes, we assessed the prospective association between leisure home ownership and death before age 65. Among men, but not among women, leisure home owners had lower odds of early death, after adjustment for sociodemographic and residential characteristics (OR=0.875, 95% CI=0.702-0.980). The results bear on natural environments as health resources, inform debate on urban densification, and broaden the discussion of residence and health. PMID:19775928

  7. Expressing death risk as condensed life experience and death intensity.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-08-01

    Some risk exposures, including many medical and surgical procedures, typically carry hazards of death that are difficult to convey and appreciate in absolute terms. I propose presenting the death risk as a condensed life experience (i.e., the equivalent amount of life T that would carry the same cumulative mortality hazard for a person of the same age and sex based on life tables). For example, if the risk of death during an elective 1-hour procedure is 0.01%, and same-age and same-sex people have a 0.01% death risk over 1 month, one can inform the patient that "this procedure carries the same death risk as living 1 month of normal life." Comparative standards from other risky activities or from a person with the same disease at the same stage and same predictive profile could also be used. A complementary metric that may be useful to consider is the death intensity. The death intensity λ is the hazard function that shows the fold-risk estimate of dying compared with the reference person. The death intensity can vary substantially for different phases of the event, operation, or procedure (e.g., intraoperative, early postoperative, late postoperative), and this variability may also be useful to convey. T will vary depending on the time window for which it is computed. I present examples for calculating T and λ using literature data on accidents, ascent to Mount Everest, and medical and surgical procedures. PMID:23579043

  8. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Rigi, Mohammed; Feldman, Robert M.; Bell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Methods Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–79 years). ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL), length of scleral spur landmark (SSL) to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM), iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM), pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe), and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter. Results Mean (±SD) values were 2.24 mm (±0.46), 4.06 mm (±0.27), 3.65 mm (±0.48), 4.16 mm (±0.47), 1.14 (±0.04), 1.51 mm2 (±0.23), and 38.42 μL (±4.91) for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002) and RICe (P = 0.027) decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002) and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001). ICR (P = 0.54) and iris volume (P = 0.49) were not affected by age. Conclusion This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states. PMID:26815917

  9. Religiosity and Death Distress in Arabic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sabwah, Mohammed N.; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between religiosity and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) among a sample (N = 570) of Egyptian women nursing undergraduates, mainly Muslims. Their ages ranged from 17 to 25. The correlations between religiosity and both death anxiety and death…

  10. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  11. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  12. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  13. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  14. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  15. Contribution of Excessive Alcohol Consumption to Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.; Zhang, Xingyou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of premature mortality in the United States. The objectives of this study were to update national estimates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) in the United States, calculate age-adjusted rates of AAD and YPLL in states, assess the contribution of AAD and YPLL to total deaths and YPLL among working-age adults, and estimate the number of deaths and YPLL among those younger than 21 years. Methods We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Alcohol-Related Disease Impact application for 2006–2010 to estimate total AAD and YPLL across 54 conditions for the United States, by sex and age. AAD and YPLL rates and the proportion of total deaths that were attributable to excessive alcohol consumption among working-age adults (20-64 y) were calculated for the United States and for individual states. Results From 2006 through 2010, an annual average of 87,798 (27.9/100,000 population) AAD and 2.5 million (831.6/100,000) YPLL occurred in the United States. Age-adjusted state AAD rates ranged from 51.2/100,000 in New Mexico to 19.1/100,000 in New Jersey. Among working-age adults, 9.8% of all deaths in the United States during this period were attributable to excessive drinking, and 69% of all AAD involved working-age adults. Conclusions Excessive drinking was responsible for 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults in the United States. AAD rates vary across states, but excessive drinking remains a leading cause of premature mortality nationwide. Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force can help reduce excessive drinking and harms related to it. PMID:24967831

  16. Children's Reactions to the Word Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenestam, Claes-Goran

    Although some research has been conducted in the past, few studies have investigated children's conceptions of life, death and dying. To study children's ideas about death, 112 children, age 4-18, were asked to draw what they thought of when they heard the word "death" and also to make verbal comments about their drawings. Three qualitatively…

  17. Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Conclusion Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina. PMID:25018627

  18. Deaths in Custody: A 25-Year Review of Jail Deaths in Bexar County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jason G; Molina, D Kimberley

    2015-12-01

    Although deaths in custody are an expected occurrence, they are often subjected to increased scrutiny and raise many questions as to circumstances surrounding the death as well as the cause and manner of death. It is usually the responsibility of the medical examiner to answer these questions. Relatively few studies have reviewed the causes and manners of death that occur while in custody and even fewer specific to jail populations. This study reviews the cause and manner of death of persons in custody in an urban county from 1985 to 2010. A retrospective review of death investigations, including death certificates and autopsy reports, was conducted on all deaths that occurred in custody during the period. The age and sex of the decedent as well as the place of death were also recorded. Most deaths were attributed to natural disease followed by suicide, and most deaths occurred either in the emergency department or in the hospital. Regarding the cause of death, cardiovascular disease followed by suicide by hanging accounted for the most number of deaths (25% and 20% of all deaths, respectively). It is recommended that all deaths in custody be reported to the medical examiner and that a thorough death investigation be conducted to properly define and document the cause and manner of death. This is particularly important given the increased scrutiny to which deaths in custody are often subjected. PMID:26196271

  19. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  20. Violent death in Connecticut, 2001 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Borrup, Kevin; Gelven, Erica S; Carver, H Wayne; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry

    2008-04-01

    We reviewed medical examiner, law enforcement, crime laboratory data, and death certificates on all 1,530 violent deaths (homicide, suicide, undetermined firearm) in Connecticut occurring from 2001-2004. There was an average of 383 deaths (rate = 11.2 deaths per 100,000 persons annually). Overall, males aged 20 to 29 were at the greatest risk of violent death (rate = 30.5/100,000). Of all violent deaths 72% were suicides and 28% were homicides. Firearms were used in 33% of suicides and 58% of homicides. The rate of violent death is lower than most other states in the country. In Connecticut suicide is the leading cause of violent death overall; however, in areas characterized by the highest levels of poverty and lowest levels of education, homicide is the leading cause of violent death. PMID:18478984

  1. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. PMID:26801472

  2. Does marital status predict the odds of suicidal death in taiwan? A seven-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2008-06-01

    Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups-total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly selected from age, sex, and geographic region matched controls, four per suicide)-were studied. Using multiple logistic regression analysis including age-marital status interaction, adjusted estimates show divorced status to be the most detrimental for suicide propensity, with males showing stronger effect size. Females never married, aged below 35 and 65-plus, and widowed 65-plus had lower suicide odds. PMID:18611128

  3. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  4. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  5. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  6. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  7. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  8. Technical note: The two step procedure (TSP) for the determination of age at death of adult human remains in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Baccino, Eric; Sinfield, Laura; Colomb, Sophie; Baum, Thierry Pascal; Martrille, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the principles and results of TSP (the two step procedure), a comprehensive (combined) method of age estimation in mature human skeletal remains. The first step consists of the examination of the pubic symphysis using the Suchey-Brooks system for a "pre-choice". Then for SBS phases I, II, III, (young adults up to about 40) the age estimate is given using the chronological interval corresponding to each phase. For SBS phase is IV, V or VI (mature adults, about 40 to 60), then (second step) the dental method of Lamendin (using single rooted tooth) will be applied alone. Both methods are fast, easy to learn and to use (requiring no preparation except cleaning soft tissues from the pubic bone) and are not expensive, making TSP usable by all pathologists or anthropologists in any Forensic unit. It is also of great practical use in mass disaster and mass grave situation. After 15 years of use, a literature review and four evaluation studies we confirm that TSP is more accurate than any single method for aging adults and at least as good as more complicated combined methods. Despite its advantages TSP is, like all other aging methods, not efficient in adults over 65 years of age. PMID:25282468

  9. Encountering Death: Structured Activities for Death Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ira David; And Others

    This book is intended to be used as a supplement to standard textbooks on death and dying for college students. Chapter 1 "Encountering Death in the Self" builds the foundation for increased self-awareness for the study of death and dying. Chapter 2 "Encountering Death in the Family" provides activities which are appropriate for a wide variety of…

  10. Observational intensity bias associated with illness adjustment: cross sectional analysis of insurance claims

    PubMed Central

    Staiger, Douglas O; Sharp, Sandra M; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Bevan, Gwyn; McPherson, Klim; Welch, H Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the bias associated with frequency of visits by physicians in adjusting for illness, using diagnoses recorded in administrative databases. Setting Claims data from the US Medicare program for services provided in 2007 among 306 US hospital referral regions. Design Cross sectional analysis. Participants 20% sample of fee for service Medicare beneficiaries residing in the United States in 2007 (n=5 153 877). Main outcome measures The effect of illness adjustment on regional mortality and spending rates using standard and visit corrected illness methods for adjustment. The standard method adjusts using comorbidity measures based on diagnoses listed in administrative databases; the modified method corrects these measures for the frequency of visits by physicians. Three conventions for measuring comorbidity are used: the Charlson comorbidity index, Iezzoni chronic conditions, and hierarchical condition categories risk scores. Results The visit corrected Charlson comorbidity index explained more of the variation in age, sex, and race mortality across the 306 hospital referral regions than did the standard index (R2=0.21 v 0.11, P<0.001) and, compared with sex and race adjusted mortality, reduced regional variation, whereas adjustment using the standard Charlson comorbidity index increased it. Although visit corrected and age, sex, and race adjusted mortality rates were similar in hospital referral regions with the highest and lowest fifths of visits, adjustment using the standard index resulted in a rate that was 18% lower in the highest fifth (46.4 v 56.3 deaths per 1000, P<0.001). Age, sex, and race adjusted spending as well as visit corrected spending was more than 30% greater in the highest fifth of visits than in the lowest fifth, but only 12% greater after adjustment using the standard index. Similar results were obtained using the Iezzoni and the hierarchical condition categories conventions for measuring comorbidity. Conclusion The

  11. Causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wahlberg, Anna; Källestål, Carina; Lundgren, AnnaCarin; Essén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Background Undocumented migrants are one of the most vulnerable groups in Swedish society, where they generally suffer from poor health and limited health care access. Due to their irregular status, such migrants are an under-researched group and are not included in the country’s Cause of Death Register (CDR). Objective To determine the causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden and to ascertain whether there are patterns in causes of death that differ between residents and undocumented migrants. Design This is a cross-sectional study of death certificates issued from 1997 to 2010 but never included in the CDR from which we established our study sample of undocumented migrants. As age adjustments could not be performed due to lack of data, comparisons between residents and undocumented migrants were made at specific age intervals, based on the study sample’s mean age at death±a half standard deviation. Results Out of 7,925 individuals surveyed, 860 were classified as likely to have been undocumented migrants. External causes (49.8%) were the most frequent cause of death, followed by circulatory system diseases, and then neoplasms. Undocumented migrants had a statistically significant increased risk of dying from external causes (odds ratio [OR] 3.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.83–4.52) and circulatory system diseases (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.73–2.82) compared to residents, and a lower risk of dying from neoplasms (OR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04–0.14). Conclusions We believe our study is the first to determine national figures on causes of death of undocumented migrants. We found inequity in health as substantial differences in causes of death between undocumented migrants and residents were seen. Legal ambiguities regarding health care provision must be addressed if equity in health is to be achieved in a country otherwise known for its universal health coverage. PMID:24909409

  12. Correlates of death anxiety in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Suhail, Kausar; Akram, Saima

    2002-01-01

    To ascertain the effect of gender, age, and religiosity on death anxiety, 132 participants were interviewed using Templer Death Anxiety Scale and Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale (CLS). Women, older participants, and less religious participants were found to be more scared of their impending death. Gender effect was more pronounced, however, on the CLS. Women and less religious people reported to experience greater anxiety than their respective counterparts about different dimensions of death, for example, the shortness of life, total isolation of death, fear of not being, and disintegration of body after dying. The findings of the current work indicate that the general predictors of death anxiety, gender, age, and religiosity reported in Western, predominantly Christian samples also hold in an Eastern, Muslim sample. PMID:11865882

  13. Longitudinal Neuropsychiatric Predictors of Death in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Long, Jeffrey D; Robinson, Robert G; Trequattrini, Alberto; Pizzoli, Sonia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Orfei, Maria D

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics associated with life expectancy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still far from known. Here we aimed at examining the ability of baseline/longitudinal clinical variables to predict time to death. One-hundred fifty AD outpatients underwent diagnostic, neuropsychiatric, and functional assessment at baseline (when ApoE ɛ4 was also investigated) and at each subsequent annual visit. A random effects joint modeling approach was used to simultaneously model the baseline and longitudinal trajectory of each factor and predict the time to death, adjusting for demographic covariates. An ancillary analysis of ApoE ɛ4 status as a predictor was also conducted. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed to elucidate the relationship between each factor and the estimated probability of death over time. Shorter survival was associated with male gender, higher education, older age, lower cognition, and worse functioning in daily life, but not ApoE ɛ4 status. Longitudinal trajectories increased predictive power over using just baseline levels highlighting apathy, and secondarily aberrant motor behaviors and sleep disorders, as a highly reliable predictor for mortality. Apathy was the strongest neuropsychiatric predictor of time to death, which supports its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. An increased knowledge of factors modulating survival in AD is a strategic prerequisite to plan therapeutic interventions. PMID:26402103

  14. Age-at-death estimation by pulp/tooth area ratio in canines: study of a 20th-century Mexican sample of prisoners to test Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Bautista, Josefina; Alemán, Inmaculada; Cameriere, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Accurate age estimation has always been a problem for forensic scientists, and apposition of secondary dentine is often used as an indicator of age. Cameriere et al. studied the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical X-ray images of the canines, to observe the apposition of secondary dentine. The present study examines the application of this technique in a Mexican identified sample coming from the Department of Physical Anthropology of the INAH, at Mexico City. The main aim of this work is to test the reliability of this method in a skeletal sample of a specific population, different from the samples used for its development. The obtained regression model explained 96.2% of total variance (R(2) = 0.962) with a standard error of estimate of 1.909 and a standard deviation of 1.947. These results demonstrate great reliability and that the age/secondary dentine relationship is not variable in this specific population. PMID:21496018

  15. Hyperactive mTOR signals in the proopiomelanocortin-expressing hippocampal neurons cause age-dependent epilepsy and premature death in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Shimmura, Mitsunori; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Nishio, Miki; Akamine, Satoshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Suzuki, Akira; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Recent studies utilizing massive sequencing data identified subsets of genes that are associated with epilepsy and FCD. AKT and mTOR-related signals have been recently implicated in the pathogenic processes of epilepsy and FCD. To clarify the functional roles of the AKT-mTOR pathway in the hippocampal neurons, we generated conditional knockout mice harboring the deletion of Pten (Pten-cKO) in Proopiomelanocortin-expressing neurons. The Pten-cKO mice developed normally until 8 weeks of age, then presented generalized seizures at 8-10 weeks of age. Video-monitored electroencephalograms detected paroxysmal discharges emerging from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These mice showed progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus (DG) with increased expressions of excitatory synaptic markers (Psd95, Shank3 and Homer). In contrast, the expression of inhibitory neurons (Gad67) was decreased at 6-8 weeks of age. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the abnormal sprouting of mossy fibers in the DG of the Pten-cKO mice prior to the onset of seizures. The treatment of these mice with an mTOR inhibitor rapamycin successfully prevented the development of seizures and reversed these molecular phenotypes. These data indicate that the mTOR pathway regulates hippocampal excitability in the postnatal brain. PMID:26961412

  16. Hyperactive mTOR signals in the proopiomelanocortin-expressing hippocampal neurons cause age-dependent epilepsy and premature death in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Shimmura, Mitsunori; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Nishio, Miki; Akamine, Satoshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Suzuki, Akira; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Recent studies utilizing massive sequencing data identified subsets of genes that are associated with epilepsy and FCD. AKT and mTOR-related signals have been recently implicated in the pathogenic processes of epilepsy and FCD. To clarify the functional roles of the AKT-mTOR pathway in the hippocampal neurons, we generated conditional knockout mice harboring the deletion of Pten (Pten-cKO) in Proopiomelanocortin-expressing neurons. The Pten-cKO mice developed normally until 8 weeks of age, then presented generalized seizures at 8–10 weeks of age. Video-monitored electroencephalograms detected paroxysmal discharges emerging from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These mice showed progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus (DG) with increased expressions of excitatory synaptic markers (Psd95, Shank3 and Homer). In contrast, the expression of inhibitory neurons (Gad67) was decreased at 6–8 weeks of age. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the abnormal sprouting of mossy fibers in the DG of the Pten-cKO mice prior to the onset of seizures. The treatment of these mice with an mTOR inhibitor rapamycin successfully prevented the development of seizures and reversed these molecular phenotypes. These data indicate that the mTOR pathway regulates hippocampal excitability in the postnatal brain. PMID:26961412

  17. Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    To examine a possible relationship between pineal function and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), samples of whole blood, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or vitreous humor (VH) were obtained at autopsy from 68 infants (45 male, 23 female) whose deaths were attributed to either SIDS (n = 32, 0.5-5.0 months of age; mean plus or minus S.E.M., 2.6 plus or minus 0.2 months) or other causes (non-SIDS, n = 36, 0.3-8.0 months of age 4.3 plus or minus 0.3 months). The melatonin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. A significant correlation was observed for melatonin levels in different body fluids from the same individual. After adjusting for age differences, CSF melatonin levels were significantly lower among the SIDS infants (91 plus or minus 29 pmol/l; n = 32) than among those dying from other causes (180 plus or minus 27; n = 35, P less than 0.05). A similar, but non-significant trend was also noted in blood (97 plus or minus 23, n = 30 vs. 144 plus or minus 22 pmol/l, n = 33) and vitreous humor (68 plus or minus 21, n = 10 vs. 81 plus or minus 17 pmol/l, n = 15). These differences do not appear to be explainable in terms of the interval between death and autopsy, gender, premortem infection, or therapeutic measures instituted prior to death. Diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

  18. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  19. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death. (a) When evidence of death is required. If you apply for benefits on the record of a deceased person,...

  20. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  1. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  2. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  3. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  4. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death. (a) When evidence of death is required. If you apply for benefits on the record of a deceased person,...

  5. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death. (a) When evidence of death is required. If you apply for benefits on the record of a deceased person,...

  6. Inverse Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes Obtained From Alzheimer's Patients and Skin Cancer Survivors: Increased Apoptosis in Alzheimer's and Reduced Necrosis in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Monica; Salech, Felipe; Ponce, Daniela P.; Merino, Daniela; Sinning, Mariana; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of cancer in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and low rates of AD in cancer survivors has been reported in epidemiological studies. Deregulation in opposite directions of biological mechanisms, such as susceptibility to cell death, might be shared in the two disorders. We analyzed lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients as well as healthy controls and found significantly increased vulnerability of AD lymphocytes to H2O2-induced apoptotic death and higher resistance to death of skin cancer lymphocytes, due to reduced necrosis, as compared with healthy controls by pairwise comparisons adjusted for age and sex. H2O2-induced death in lymphocytes was caspase independent and significantly reduced by PARP-1 inhibition in all three groups. These differences in the susceptibility to cell death observed for lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients may be one of the mechanisms that help explain the inverse correlation detected between these diseases in epidemiological studies. PMID:22367434

  7. Mild hyponatremia is associated with an increased risk of death in an ambulatory setting.

    PubMed

    Gankam-Kengne, Fabrice; Ayers, Colby; Khera, Amit; de Lemos, James; Maalouf, Naim M

    2013-04-01

    Hyponatremia is a common disorder associated with higher mortality in hospitalized patients, but its impact in an ambulatory setting remains unclear. Here we used data from the Dallas Heart Study, a prospective multiethnic cohort study that included ambulatory individuals, to determine the prevalence and determinants of hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mEq/l), and its impact on mortality. The analysis included 3551 individuals with a median age of 43 years followed up over a median of 8.4 years. The sample weight-adjusted prevalence of hyponatremia was 6.9%. Hyponatremia was mild (median serum sodium: 133 mEq/l), and was significantly associated with age, black ethnicity, presence of cirrhosis or congestive heart failure, and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. By the end of the follow-up period, there were 202 deaths including 29 in hyponatremic individuals. The unadjusted hazard ratio for hyponatremia and death was 1.94. Hyponatremia remained significantly associated with mortality after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol use, renal function, plasma C-reactive protein, use of antiepileptic drugs and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and history of congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, and cancer (hazard ratio of 1.75). Thus, mild hyponatremia is associated with an increased risk of death in a young and ethnically diverse community population. PMID:23325088

  8. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  9. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section 404.720 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death....

  10. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section 404.720 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death....

  11. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  12. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death. PMID:23054426

  13. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call SIDS "crib death" because many babies who die of SIDS are found in their ...

  14. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  15. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  16. The predictive value of albuminuria for renal and nonrenal natural deaths over 14 years follow-up in a remote aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zaimin; Hoy, Wendy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Australian aboriginal people living in remote regions have extraordinary higher rates of mortality compared with other Australian ethnicities. Albuminuria marks the underlying renal disease. This study assessed the predictive value of albuminuria for nonrenal and renal deaths in a remote Australian aboriginal community over a follow-up period of >14 years. Methods From 1992 to 1997, 85% of community members participated in a health screen, which included measurement of urine albumin/creatinine (ACR) levels. Deaths and dialysis initiations were recorded until 30 November 2010. The rates of natural nonrenal and renal deaths were assessed over a mean of 14 years in the 956 participants aged 18 years and over at baseline, and mortality associated with baseline levels of albuminuria (ACR ≥ 2.7 mg/mmol) was estimated. Results There were 203 natural deaths; 70 were renal deaths and 133 were nonrenal deaths, including 60 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. Higher baseline ACR predicted all categories of natural death, with no apparent lower threshold for effect. Baseline ACR ≥ 2.7 mg/mmol predicted a 3.3-fold increase in all natural deaths, a 2-fold increase in nonrenal deaths and a 1.7-fold increase in CVD deaths, after adjustment for other factors. Eighty-nine percent (62 out of 70) of renal deaths occurred in those with ACR ≥ 34 at baseline, with a 24-fold increase in risk. Albuminuria (ACR ≥ 2.7 mg/mmol) contributed to 66% of risk for all natural deaths over the interval. Conclusions Albuminuria was still a remarkable predictor for all-cause natural death over an average of 14 years follow-up interval in this aboriginal community. PMID:26064480

  17. Adjustment to Cancer: A Psychosocial and Rehabilitative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Paul S.

    1978-01-01

    Initial reaction to cancer is typically shock and denial followed by various coping strategies. A surgical or chemotherapeutic period is entered with concomitant adjustment reactions. The third adjustment period comes after treatment and may evolve into a prolonged death crisis which brings difficult changes and pressures to the patient and his or…

  18. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Katherine G.; Jose, Powell O.; Kapphahn, Kristopher I.; Frank, Ariel T. H.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Thompson, Caroline A.; Eggleston, Karen; Cullen, Mark R.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups. Methods and Findings We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%). Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer’s disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs. Conclusions Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these

  19. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  20. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  1. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  2. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  3. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  4. [High risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. Preliminary report after introducing a new version of New York (1997) protocol adjusted to the age of the patients. Report of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group].

    PubMed

    Skoczen, S; Klus, K; Armata, J; Kowalczyk, J; Wisniewska-Slusarz, H; Kolecki, P; Derwich, K; Matysiak, M; Krauze, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Pawelec, K; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Juszczak, K; Pisarek, J; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Tomaszewska, R; Łuszczynska, A; Wysocki, M; Styczyński, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group in the treatment of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children using a new version of the New York (1997-1999). Protocol with treatment intensity adjusted according to the age of the patients. From April 1997 to December 1999 a group of 49 children with leukocytosis ranging from 50 900/mm3 to 580 000/mm3 (median 122 000/mm3) and 6 children with leukocytosis below 50 000/mm3 and poor response to steroids were treated with this protocol. Children below 10 years (43 patients) were treated according to the previous protocol, children above 10 years (12 patients) were treated with intensified protocol (high doses of ARA-C in consolidation and intermediate doses of Mtx in maintenance). Induction was identical for all patients. Complete remission was achieved in 92.6% patients. There were 2 relapses. Six children died - 3 without remission, 2 due to a relapse, 1 due to treatment complications. The current opinions concerning classification of HRG-ALL and treatment possibilities in this group of children are discussed. PMID:12021459

  5. Dietary and nutritional manipulation of the nuclear transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins as a tool for reversing the primary diseases of premature death and delaying aging.

    PubMed

    Kurtak, Karen A

    2014-04-01

    Evolution over 2.1 billion years has equipped us with a biochemical pathway that has the power to literally reverse the primary disease etiologies that have become the leading causes of death and aging in the developed world. Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway arrests inflammatory signaling throughout the body, reverses damage to tissues, reverses insulin resistance, and can even dissolve beta-amyloid plaque in the brain. It has played a critical role in the evolution of the metazoans and the successful migration of humans to all corners of the Earth. For two decades, various pharmaceuticals have been designed to activate the PPAR pathway but have consistently fallen short of expectations. There is nothing wrong with these drugs. The problem has been the standard "healthy" diet creating mixed signals that render the drugs ineffective. This article explores the ongoing dance between the two primary nuclear receptors that mediate gene regulation of fatty acids. It discusses their interaction with sirtuins and telomerase, optimization of their obligate heterodimers, and why manipulation of dietary and nutritional factors, like the ketogenic diet, is the most effective means of activation. These are effective tools that we can start implementing now to slow, and in some cases reverse, the diseases of aging. PMID:24713058

  6. Poisoning deaths in married women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra

    2004-02-01

    Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime. PMID:15261005

  7. Death and Society in Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert; Owen, Greg

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)

  8. The effect of alternative case-mix adjustments on mortality differences between municipal and voluntary hospitals in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, M F; Park, R E; Keesey, J; Brook, R H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated how mortality differences between groups of municipal versus voluntary hospitals are affected by case-mix adjustment methods. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. We sampled about 10,000 random admissions from administrative data for patients hospitalized with each of six conditions in hospitals in New York City during 1984-1987. STUDY DESIGN. We developed logistic regression models adjusting for age and gender, for principal diagnosis, for "limited other diagnoses" (secondary diagnoses that were very unlikely to result from care received), for "full other diagnoses" (all secondary diagnoses irrespective of whether they might have been due to care received), for previous diagnoses, and for other variables. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. For five of the six conditions, when the limited other diagnoses adjustment was used there was higher mortality in the municipal hospitals (p < .05), with 3.3 additional deaths/100 admissions for myocardial infarction, 1.2 for pneumonia, 8.3 for stroke, 2.8 for head trauma, and 0.8 for hip repair. However, when the full other diagnoses adjustment was used, differences remained significant only for stroke (4.3 additional deaths/100 admissions) and head trauma (1.3) (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS. Estimates of mortality differences between New York City municipal and voluntary hospitals are substantially affected by which secondary diagnoses are used in case-mix adjustment. Judgments of quality should not be based on administrative data unless models can be developed that validly capture level of sickness at admission. PMID:8163382

  9. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population. PMID:9460067

  10. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    PubMed Central

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  11. Multiple cause of death mortality patterns among Californians

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.C.

    1989-11-28

    The purpose of this study was to describe mortality patterns among the elderly using single versus multiple cause of death data and examine ways that multiple cause of death data can best be processed, analyzed and presented. Deaths among white California aged 65 and older for the years 1970, 1975 and 1980 were analyzed. Overall, mortality rates decreased over time, at all ages and for both sexes but more so for females, although the number of causes of death increased with age. Underlying cause mortality rates were compared to rates based on any mention of a cause on the death certificate; diabetes and atherosclerosis were more frequent causes of both than would be indicated by single cause statistics, and heart diseases other than ischemic heart disease increased in mentions on the death certificated while ischemic heart disease underlying mortality rates decreased. Pairs of causes of death showed increased likelihood of occurrence of a number of combinations of chronic diseases. In all pair combinations studied, the addition of another serious chronic disease lowered the mean age of death resulted in an older mean age of death. This result combined with higher number of causes per death but lower mortality rates among females raised interesting questions about interpreting more causes on death certificates as an indication of a sicker person at time of death. This study confirmed morbidity and mortality work on other that mortality of older adults in decreasing but that the number of causes of death per person is increasing. 82 refs., 30 figs., 59 tabs.

  12. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Motor Vehicle Accident Deaths in the United States, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Charters, Thomas J; Strumpf, Erin C

    2015-10-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) mortality has been declining overall, but little is known about trends by socioeconomic position. We examined trends in education-related inequalities in US MVA death rates from 1995 to 2010. We used mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics and population estimates from the Current Population Survey, and we calculated vehicle- and person-miles traveled using data from the National Household Travel Survey. We used negative binomial regression to estimate crude and age-, sex-, and race-adjusted mortality rates among adults aged 25 years or more. We found larger mortality decreases among the more highly educated and some evidence of mortality increases among the least educated. Adjusted death rates were 15.3 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.7, 19.9) higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top of the education distribution in 1995, increasing to 17.9 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 14.8, 21.0) by 2010. In relative terms, adjusted death rates were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.0) times higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top in 1995, increasing to 4.3 times higher (95% CI: 3.4, 5.3) by 2010. Inequality increases were larger in terms of vehicle-miles traveled. Although overall MVA death rates declined during this period, socioeconomic differences in MVA mortality have persisted or worsened over time. PMID:26354899

  13. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    PubMed

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:26505283

  14. Deaths from electricity.

    PubMed

    Brokenshire, B; Cairns, F J; Koelmeyer, T D; Smeeton, W M; Tie, A B

    1984-03-14

    This paper reviews the circumstances of 95 fatalities from electrical injuries. Eighty-nine were accidental, four were suicides and two occurred during autoerotic electrical stimulation. Forty-nine of the accidental fatalities occurred at work, Twenty-eight in the home and twelve in the course of outside recreational activities. In many accidents the circumstances were distressingly similar and included: (1) Contact with overhead distribution lines by a length of conductor such as a yacht mast or crane. (2) Faulty wiring or electrical repairs performed by unqualified people. (3) Badly deteriorated cords, plugs and occasionally appliances. (4) Failure to use isolating transformers when indicated. Deaths involving children are a particular cause of concern. Nine fatalites involved children under the age of five years who contacted inadequately protected wires. PMID:6584755

  15. Comparative risk of death in older adults treated with antipsychotics: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schmedt, Niklas; Kollhorst, Bianca; Enders, Dirk; Jobski, Kathrin; Krappweis, Jutta; Garbe, Edeltraut; Schink, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Although the use of antipsychotics has been associated with an increased risk of death, data on the safety of individual substances is scarce. We thus aimed to compare the risk of death in new users of individual antipsychotics aged =>65 years and conducted a cohort study in the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database between 2005 and 2011. Patients were followed from initiation of treatment until death, 90 days after cohort entry, end of insurance or the end of the study period. Multivariable cox regression was used to estimate confounder adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of death for 14 individual antipsychotics compared to risperidone. In sensitivity analyses, we also applied high-dimensional propensity score (HDPS) methods to explore possible unmeasured confounding. In a cohort of 137,713 new users of antipsychotics, a higher risk of death was found for haloperidol (aHR: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.35-1.55), levomepromazine (aHR: 1.34; 1.16-1.54), zuclopenthixol (aHR: 1.32; 1.02-1.72) and to a lesser extent for melperone (aHR: 1.13; 1.07-1.19) compared to risperidone. Lower risks were observed for quetiapine, prothipendyl, olanzapine, tiapride, clozapine, perazine and flupentixol. In subgroup analyses, levomepromazine and chlorprothixene were only associated with a higher risk of death in patients aged =>80 years and with dementia. The application of HDPS methods did not substantially change the results. In conclusion, our study suggests that initiation of haloperidol, levomepromazine, zuclopenthixol and chlorprothixene treatment is associated with an increased risk of death compared to risperidone and should be avoided in older patients except in palliative care when treatment alternatives are available. PMID:27475994

  16. An Exploratory Study of Muslim Girls' Understanding of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Z.; Bhana, K.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between age and understanding of death among 20 Muslim girls aged 7 and 8 and 20 Muslim girls aged 9 and 10. Girls completed biographical inventory, classification and conservation tasks, and death understanding questionnaire. Found significant differences in children's understanding of life in hereafter and ideas…

  17. Bed sharing and the sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff-Cohen, H.; Edelstein, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether infants who died of the sudden infant death syndrome routinely shared their parents' bed more commonly than control infants. DESIGN--Case-control study. SETTING--Southern California. SUBJECTS--200 white, African-American, Latin American, and Asian infants who died and 200 living controls, matched by birth hospital, date of birth, sex, and race. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Routine bedding (for example, crib, cradle), day and night time sleeping arrangement (for example, alone or sharing a bed); for cases only, sleeping arrangement at death. Differences in bed sharing practices among races. RESULTS--Of the infants who died of the syndrome, 45 (22.4%) were sharing a bed. Daytime bed sharing was more common in African-American (P < 0.001) and Latin American families (P < 0.001) than in white families. The overall adjusted odds ratio for the syndrome and routine bed sharing in the daytime was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 3.22) and for night was 1.21 (0.59 to 2.48). These odds ratios were adjusted for routine sleep position, passive smoking, breast feeding, intercom use, infant birth weight, medical conditions at birth, and maternal age and education. There was no interaction between bed sharing and passive smoking or alcohol use by either parent. CONCLUSIONS--Although there was a significant difference between bed sharing among African-American and Latin American parents compared with white parents, there was no significant relation between routine bed sharing and the sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:7496236

  18. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania’s Experience 1979-2014

    PubMed Central

    Balmert, Lauren C.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.; Pringle, Janice L.; Williams, Karl E.; Burke, Donald S.; Marsh, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014. Methods Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49) from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates. Results Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35–44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton. Conclusions The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35–44. PMID:26963396

  19. Teacher Passion: Death at an Early Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience in teaching students with passion. She recalls the time when she was then what most first-year teachers are today: filled with hope and promise, determination and good will, ready to work hard and yearning to soak up the art and craft of teaching and learning. And whenever she gets tired and…

  20. Adolescent and Young Adult Mortality by Cause: Age, Gender, and Country, 1955 to 1994

    PubMed Central

    HEUVELINE, PATRICK; SLAP, GAIL B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare mortality rates from motor vehicle accidents (MVA), homicide, and suicide across countries, age groups, and time. Methods The World Health Organization Mortality Database was used to construct age- and gender-specific rates in 26 countries for individuals aged 15 to 34 years during the period 1955 to 1994. The rates were adjusted for differences among countries in the age-and-gender distributions of their populations. Cause-specific rates were compared by country, 4-year age groups, 8-year time blocks, and male/female ratios. Results The proportion of deaths in 15–34-year-olds owing to MVA, homicide, and suicide increased from 26% to 43% over the 40-year study period. Mortality rates differ by country more than time block, peak at ages 15–29 years, and are higher in males than females. Compared to the United States, 24 countries had lower homicide rates and 23 had lower MVA-death rates. Conclusions Despite declining rates of death from other causes, the rates of adolescent and young adult death from MVA, homicide, and suicide remain high in countries throughout the world. The proportion of deaths attributable to these causes increased steadily during the latter half of the 20th century. Fatal risk behaviors begin to increase during adolescence but do not peak until age 30 years, suggesting that the target population for prevention extends well beyond the teenage years. PMID:11755798

  1. Death in Unverricht-Lundborg disease.

    PubMed

    Khiari, Hela Mrabet; Franceschetti, Silvana; Jovic, Nebojsa; Mrabet, Amel; Genton, Pierre

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to report cases of unexpected deaths in Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) patients, a comparatively benign form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. We performed a multicentric study of the circumstances of death in ULD patients seen in the last 16 years. We assessed age, sex, severity and duration of disease, antiepileptic drugs, circumstances and presumed cause of death. Nineteen observations (12 females, 7 males) were collected from four centers (Tunis, Marseille, Milan, Belgrade). The most common causes of death are (1) SUDEP (six cases, all female), with 4/6 on phenobarbital alone, and (2) complications of severe ULD (six cases). Two patients committed suicide. Only one death was clearly unrelated to ULD (car accident), while four patients died of stroke, drowning, complications of chronic alcoholism and Wernicke encephalopathy, respectively. In conclusion, although the prognosis of ULD has progressed, there are still spontaneously severe forms and high risk of early death, including SUDEP. PMID:19499178

  2. Revisiting the developmental stage and age-at-death of the "Mrs. Ples" (Sts 5) and Sts 14 specimens from Sterkfontein (South Africa): do they belong to the same individual?

    PubMed

    Bonmatí, Alejandro; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Lorenzo, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    During the 1947 fieldwork season, Member 4 (2-3 My) of the South African Sterkfontein site yielded two important Australopithecus africanus fossils: a cranium popularly nicknamed "Mrs. Ples" (Sts 5), and a partial skeleton (Sts 14). Previous reports have proposed that Sts 5 was a nonfully grown adolescent individual (Thackeray et al., S Afr J Sci 2002a;98:21-22), and that Sts 14 was a sub-adult specimen (according to various signs of immaturity in the skeleton) (Berge and Gommery, C R Acad Sci Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes 1999;329:227-232; Häusler and Berger, J Hum Evol, 2001;40:411-417; Thackeray et al., S Afr J Sci, 2002b;98:211-212). It was subsequently proposed that these fossils actually belonged to the same individual (Thackeray et al., S Afr J Sci, 2002b;98:211-212), a proposition supported by their spatial positions within the site. The present work attempts to revise these different assertions. The results obtained: (i) show that the Sts 5 fossil represents a fully grown adult cranium; (ii) provide new evidence of immaturity in the Sts 14 skeletal elements (sustaining the proposed young adult age of this specimen), and (iii) suggest that although the revised ages-at-death for these fossils are partially compatible, there is no evidence to support the idea that they represent a single individual. Finally, the encephalization quotient associated with a hypothetical union of Sts 5 and Sts 14 (calculated using data from both specimens) lies between the upper and lower limits of the currently estimated range for this species and H. habilis, respectively. PMID:18951512

  3. Death by fraternity hazing.

    PubMed

    Boglioli, L R; Taff, M L

    1995-03-01

    Fraternity hazing can cause a variety of injuries and deaths. We recently had the opportunity to investigate a heat-related death that occurred during a college fraternity event. The original death investigation did not consider the circumstances of death, environmental conditions, or the subtle autopsy findings related to heat stroke. This case is intended to alert health care professionals that deaths on college campuses may be related to fraternity hazing and may require in-depth investigations. An analysis of the death and a discussion of heat-related injuries are presented. PMID:7771381

  4. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  5. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  6. Rising Lung Cancer Death Rates Among Black Men: The Importance of Occupation and Social Class

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William J.; Cooper, Richard

    1982-01-01

    From 1950 to 1977 the age-adjusted cancer death rates for nonwhite men in the United States rose an astonishing 63.2 percent, while rates for white men increased 22.2 percent and fell slightly for women of both races. The bulk of this increase can be accounted for by cancer of the lung. As a serious health problem that is increasing in severity, cancer in black men deserves close attention and definitive action. This discussion focuses on basic epidemiological relationships in the origins of this epidemic, particularly in regard to the relative importance of occupation, cigarette smoking, and social class. PMID:7120461

  7. Life-style and death patterns of the Missouri RLDS church members.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, L; Land, G

    1981-12-01

    Members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (RLDS) are dissuaded from the use of tobacco, alcohol, and hot drinks. A well-balanced diet is also stressed. This study compares the 1972-78 mortality experience of the Missouri RLDS with three other population groups. The findings show Missouri RLDS experiencing age-adjusted death rates which are 22.6 percent lower than rates for Missouri non-RLDs whites; 19.6 per cent lower than the non-RLDS of Independence, Missouri; and 14.4 per cent lower than Utah residents. The RLDS display lower death rates than the two Missouri comparison groups for each of seven selected causes-particularly lung cancer, pneumonia/influenza, and violent deaths. Comparisons between the Missouri RLDS and Utah residents show an inconsistent pattern, with Utah residents having non-significantly lower death rates for lung cancer and ischemic heart disease, but with the Missouri RLDS having significantly lower rates for pneumonia/influenza and violent deaths. These inconsistencies are of interest because 72 per cent of Utah's population belong to the Mormon Church which advocates life-styles similar to the RLDS. If these disparate mortality patterns persist under a more direct comparison between the Missouri RLDS and Utah Mormons, they could provide the opportunity to assess the impact of similar life-styles in separate settings. PMID:7316000

  8. 20 CFR 219.22 - When evidence of death is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence of death is required. 219.22... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.22 When evidence of death is required. (a) When evidence of the employee's death is required. Evidence to prove the employee's death is...

  9. 20 CFR 219.22 - When evidence of death is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence of death is required. 219.22... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.22 When evidence of death is required. (a) When evidence of the employee's death is required. Evidence to prove the employee's death is...

  10. 20 CFR 219.22 - When evidence of death is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence of death is required. 219.22... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.22 When evidence of death is required. (a) When evidence of the employee's death is required. Evidence to prove the employee's death is...

  11. 20 CFR 219.22 - When evidence of death is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When evidence of death is required. 219.22... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.22 When evidence of death is required. (a) When evidence of the employee's death is required. Evidence to prove the employee's death is...

  12. 20 CFR 219.22 - When evidence of death is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When evidence of death is required. 219.22... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.22 When evidence of death is required. (a) When evidence of the employee's death is required. Evidence to prove the employee's death is...

  13. Alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost--11 States, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Katherine; Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Tran, Annie; Saiki, Cathy; Johnson, Hal; Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Tom; Creppage, Kathleen; Lepp, Alicia; Miller, Tracy; Tarkhashvili, Nato; Lynch, Kristine E; Watson, Joanna R; Henderson, Danielle; Christenson, Megan; Geiger, Sarah Dee

    2014-03-14

    Excessive alcohol consumption, the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States, resulted in approximately 88,000 deaths and 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) annually during 2006-2010 and cost an estimated $223.5 billion in 2006. To estimate state-specific average annual rates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and YPLL caused by excessive alcohol use, 11 states analyzed 2006-2010 data (the most recent data available) using the CDC Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) application. The age-adjusted median AAD rate was 28.5 per 100,000 population (range = 50.9 per 100,000 in New Mexico to 22.4 per 100,000 in Utah). The median YPLL rate was 823 per 100,000 (range = 1,534 YPLL per 100,000 for New Mexico to 634 per 100,000 in Utah). The majority of AAD (median = 70%) and YPLL (median = 82%) were among working-age (20-64 years) adults. Routine monitoring of alcohol-attributable health outcomes, including deaths and YPLL, in states could support the planning and implementation of evidence-based prevention strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force to reduce excessive drinking and related harms. Such strategies include increasing the price of alcohol, limiting alcohol outlet density, and holding alcohol retailers liable for harms related to the sale of alcoholic beverages to minors and intoxicated patrons (dram shop liability). PMID:24622285

  14. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  15. The cost of inpatient death associated with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Page, Robert L; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Van Den Bos, Jill; Gray, Travis J; Hoetzer, Greta L; Bhandary, Durgesh; Nair, Kavita V

    2016-01-01

    Background No studies have addressed the cost of inpatient mortality during an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admission. Objective Compare ACS-related length of stay (LOS), total admission cost, and total admission cost by day of discharge/death for patients who died during an inpatient admission with a matched cohort discharged alive following an ACS-related inpatient stay. Methods Medical and pharmacy claims (2009–2012) were used to identify admissions with a primary diagnosis of ACS from patients with at least 6 months of continuous enrollment prior to an ACS admission. Patients who died during their ACS admission (deceased cohort) were matched (one-to-one) to those who survived (survived cohort) on age, sex, year of admission, Chronic Condition Index score, and prior revascularization. Mean LOS, total admission cost, and total admission cost by the day of discharge/death for the deceased cohort were compared with the survived cohort. A generalized linear model with log transformation was used to estimate the differences in the total expected incremental cost of an ACS admission and by the day of discharge/death between cohorts. A negative binomial model was used to estimate differences in the LOS between the two cohorts. Costs were inflated to 2013 dollars. Results A total of 1,320 ACS claims from patients who died (n=1,320) were identified and matched to 1,319 claims from the survived patients (n=1,319). The majority were men (68%) and mean age was 56.7±6.4 years. The LOS per claim for the deceased cohort was 47% higher (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.37–1.57) compared with claims from the survived cohort. Compared with the survived cohort, the adjusted mean incremental total cost of ACS admission claims from the deceased cohort was US$43,107±US$3,927 (95% confidence interval: US$35,411–US$50,803) higher. Conclusion Despite decreasing ACS hospitalizations, the economic burden of inpatient death remains high. PMID

  16. Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Marc

    1978-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a significant decrease in the hospital mortality of patients with coronary artery disease. However, sudden cardiac death, which accounts for the majority of deaths from coronary artery disease, hasbeen little affected. This report reviews the pathology, electrophysiology, demographics and clinical presentation of sudden cardiac death. Emergency care and possible preventative measures are examined. PMID:356435

  17. Dreams of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  18. Separation, Part I: Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Contends literature is the one place where death still abides, where grief is felt and consolation can be sought. States that young readers can gain a recognition in books that death is natural. Discusses death in folk and fairy tales, in 17th-century didactic children's books and in modern and contemporary literature. Outlines characteristics of…

  19. Psychosocial Functioning and Intelligence Both Partly Explain Socioeconomic Inequalities in Premature Death. A Population-Based Male Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Falkstedt, Daniel; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Deary, Ian J.; Melin, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The possible contributions of psychosocial functioning and intelligence differences to socioeconomic status (SES)-related inequalities in premature death were investigated. None of the previous studies focusing on inequalities in mortality has included measures of both psychosocial functioning and intelligence. Methods The study was based on a cohort of 49 321 men born 1949–1951 from the general community in Sweden. Data on psychosocial functioning and intelligence from military conscription at ∼18 years of age were linked with register data on education, occupational class, and income at 35–39 years of age. Psychosocial functioning was rated by psychologists as a summary measure of differences in level of activity, power of initiative, independence, and emotional stability. Intelligence was measured through a multidimensional test. Causes of death between 40 and 57 years of age were followed in registers. Results The estimated inequalities in all-cause mortality by education and occupational class were attenuated with 32% (95% confidence interval: 20–45%) and 41% (29–52%) after adjustments for individual psychological differences; both psychosocial functioning and intelligence contributed to account for the inequalities. The inequalities in cardiovascular and injury mortality were attenuated by as much as 51% (24–76%) and 52% (35–68%) after the same adjustments, and the inequalities in alcohol-related mortality were attenuated by up to 33% (8–59%). Less of the inequalities were accounted for when those were measured by level of income, with which intelligence had a weaker correlation. The small SES-related inequalities in cancer mortality were not attenuated by adjustment for intelligence. Conclusions Differences in psychosocial functioning and intelligence might both contribute to the explanation of observed SES-related inequalities in premature death, but the magnitude of their contributions likely varies with measure of socioeconomic

  20. The Influence of Demographic Variables on University Students' Adjustment in North Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderi, Mohd; Jdaitawi, Malek; Ishak, Noor Azniza; Jdaitawi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the student university adjustment particularly the determination of the adjustment level of first year university students in Jordan. The three domains are namely overall college adjustment, domain of social adjustment, and academic adjustment. In addition, in this analysis, gender, age, types of…

  1. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  2. Childhood Bereavement: Psychopathology in the 2 Years Postparental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerel, Julie; Fristad, Mary A.; Verducci, Joseph; Weller, Ronald A.; Weller, Elizabeth B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the death of a parent is one of the most significant stressors a child can experience, the psychiatric sequelae of parental death are not fully understood. Method: A total of 360 parent-bereaved children (ages 6-17) and their surviving parents were directly interviewed four times during the first 2 years following the death (at…

  3. Thoughts about Death and Dying in an African Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijana, E. W. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward death and dying among 163 Xhosa-speaking children and adults in South Africa. Found age, gender, belief in life after death, educational level, and exposure to death and dying were critical factors in formation of attitudes. Findings were similar to those from previous studies in African and western societies. (Author/NB)

  4. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it. PMID:25528930

  5. The Theory and Practice of Active Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fries, James F.

    2012-01-01

    “Active aging” connotes a radically nontraditional paradigm of aging which posits possible improvement in health despite increasing longevity. The new paradigm is based upon postponing functional declines more than mortality declines and compressing morbidity into a shorter period later in life. This paradigm (Compression of Morbidity) contrasts with the old, where increasing longevity inevitably leads to increasing morbidity. We have focused our research on controlled longitudinal studies of aging. The Runners and Community Controls study began at age 58 in 1984 and the Health Risk Cohorts study at age 70 in 1986. We noted that disability was postponed by 14 to 16 years in vigorous exercisers compared with controls and postponed by 10 years in low-risk cohorts compared with higher risk. Mortality was also postponed, but too few persons had died for valid comparison of mortality and morbidity. With the new data presented here, age at death at 30% mortality is postponed by 7 years in Runners and age at death at 50% (median) mortality by 3.3 years compared to controls. Postponement of disability is more than double that of mortality in both studies. These differences increase over time, occur in all subgroups, and persist after statistical adjustment. PMID:23118746

  6. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  7. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  8. Suicide Deaths of Active Duty U.S. Military and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status: A Case Control Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael D.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Johnson, Jeremiah E.; Lin, Yu Hong; Hyun, Duk Y.; Loewke, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent escalation of US Military suicide deaths to record numbers has been an sentinel for impaired force efficacy and has accelerated the search for reversible risk factors. Objective Determine if deficiencies of neuroactive highly unsaturated omega-3 essential fatty acids (n-3 HUFA), in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with increased risk of suicide death among a large random sample of active duty US military. Methods Serum fatty acids were quantified as % of total fatty acids, among US military suicide deaths (n= 800) and controls (n=800) matched for age, date of collection, sex, rank and year of incident. Participants were Active Duty US Military personnel (2002–2008). Outcome measures, included death by suicide, post deployment health assessment questionnaire and ICD-9 mental health diagnosis data. Results Risks of suicide death was 14% higher, per standard deviation [SD] lower DHA % (OR =1.14, 95% CI; 1.02–1.27, p<0.03), in adjusted logistic regressions. Among men risk of suicide death was 62% greater with low serum DHA status (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR] =1.62, 95% CI 1.12–2.34, p<0.01, comparing DHA below 1.75% [n=1,389] to above [n=141]). Risk of suicide death was 54% greater in those who reported having seen wounded, dead or killed coalition personnel (OR = 1.54, 95% CI; 1.12–2.12, p< 0.007.) Conclusion This US military population had a very low and narrow range of n-3 HUFA status. Although these data suggest that low serum DHA may be a risk factor for suicides, well designed intervention trials are needed to evaluate causality. PMID:21903029

  9. Work Identity and Marital Adjustment in Blue-Collar Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between work-identity and satisfaction and marital adjustment in 40 married male blue-collar workers, ages 25 to 41 years. Satisfaction with extrinsic work factors related to marital adjustment, while satisfaction with intrinsic work factors negatively related to secondary role salience. Age negatively related to…

  10. Infant death scene investigation.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations. PMID:25642921

  11. Survival Benefit From Kidney Transplantation Using Kidneys From Deceased Donors Aged ≥75 Years: A Time-Dependent Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sáez, M J; Arcos, E; Comas, J; Crespo, M; Lloveras, J; Pascual, J

    2016-09-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease have longer survival after kidney transplantation than they would by remaining on dialysis; however, outcome with kidneys from donors aged ≥75 years and the survival of recipients of these organs compared with their dialysis counterparts with the same probability of obtaining an organ is unknown. In a longitudinal mortality study, 2040 patients on dialysis were placed on a waiting list, and 389 of them received a first transplant from a deceased donor aged ≥75 years. The adjusted risk of death and survival were calculated by non-proportional hazards analysis with being transplanted as a time-dependent effect. Projected years of life since placement on the waiting list was almost twofold higher for transplanted patients. Nonproportional adjusted risk of death after transplantation was 0.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.32; p < 0.001) in comparison with those that remained on dialysis. Stratifying by age, adjusted hazard ratios for death were 0.17 (95% CI 0.47-0.06; p = 0.001) for those aged <65 years, 0.56 (95% CI 0.92-0.34; p = 0.022) for those aged 65-69 years and 0.82 (95% CI 1.28-0.52; p = 0.389) for those aged ≥70 years. Although kidney transplantation from elderly deceased donors is associated with reduced graft survival, transplanted patients have lower mortality than those remaining on dialysis. PMID:27004984

  12. Predictors of death anxiety among midwives who have experienced maternal death situations at work.

    PubMed

    Muliira, Rhoda Suubi; Sendikadiwa, Vito Bosco; Lwasampijja, Fred

    2015-05-01

    One of the hardships faced by midwives in developing countries is dealing with maternal death. Taking care of pregnant women who end up dying makes midwives mindful of their own mortality and this experience provokes discomfort and anxiety. To determine the predictors of death anxiety among midwives who have experienced maternal death at work in order to recommend interventions to facilitate effective coping with the distress. An exploratory, descriptive design was used to collect data about death anxiety from 224 midwives working in two rural districts of Uganda. Death anxiety was measured using a subscale of the Death Distress Scale. The majority of participants were female (80 %) and with associate degree level professional education (92 %). Participant's mean age and years of professional experience were 34 (±6.3) and 4 (±2.1) years, respectively. Most participants (74.6 %) had moderate or high death anxiety. The predictors of death anxiety were: having witnessed two and more maternal death in the past 2 years [odds ratio (OR) = 3.175; p ≤ .01]; being in charge of four or more maternal deaths (OR = 5.13; p ≤ .01); lack of professional training in handling death situations (OR = 3.32; p ≤ .01); and coping with maternal death situations using methods such as: planning (OR = 4.90; p ≤ .01), active coping (OR = 3.43; p ≤ .05) and acceptance (OR = 2.99; p ≤ .05). Multiple exposure to maternal death situations is associated with an increase in death anxiety among midwives working in rural settings. Employers need to provide deliberate support to enable midwives to cope effectively with death anxiety at work. PMID:25098369

  13. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  14. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  15. Height loss starting in middle age predicts increased mortality in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Masunari, Naomi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Yamada, Michiko; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality risk among Japanese men and women with height loss starting in middle age, taking into account lifestyle and physical factors. A total of 2498 subjects (755 men and 1743 women) aged 47 to 91 years old underwent physical examinations during the period 1994 to 1995. Those individuals were followed for mortality status through 2003. Mortality risk was estimated using an age-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. In addition to sex, adjustment factors such as radiation dose, lifestyle, and physical factors measured at the baseline--including smoking status, alcohol intake, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and diagnosed diseases--were used for analysis of total mortality and mortality from each cause of death. There were a total of 302 all-cause deaths, 46 coronary heart disease and stroke deaths, 58 respiratory deaths including 45 pneumonia deaths, and 132 cancer deaths during the follow-up period. Participants were followed for 20,787 person-years after baseline. Prior history of vertebral deformity and hip fracture were not associated with mortality risk. However, more than 2 cm of height loss starting in middle age showed a significant association with all-cause mortality among the study participants (HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.38, p = 0.0002), after adjustment was made for sex, attained age, atomic-bomb radiation exposure, and lifestyle and physical factors. Such height loss also was significantly associated with death due to coronary heart disease or stroke (HR = 3.35, 95% CI 1.63 to 6.86, p = 0.0010), as well as respiratory-disease death (HR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.22, p = 0.0130), but not cancer death. Continuous HL also was associated with all-cause mortality and CHD- or stroke-caused mortality. Association between height loss and mortality was still significant, even after excluding persons with vertebral deformity. Height loss of more than 2 cm starting in middle age

  16. Risk factors for death from pandemic influenza in 1918–1919: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Jennifer A; Stanley, James; Baker, Michael G; Wilson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the persisting threat from future influenza pandemics, much is still unknown about the risk factors for death from such events, and especially for the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic. Methods A case–control study was performed to explore possible risk factors for death from pandemic influenza among New Zealand military personnel in the Northern Hemisphere in 1918–1919 (n = 218 cases, n = 221 controls). Data were compiled from a Roll-of-Honour dataset, a dataset of nearly all military personnel involved in the war and archived individual records. Results In the fully adjusted multivariable model, the following were significantly associated with increased risk of death from pandemic influenza: age (25–29 years), pre-pandemic hospitalisations for a chronic condition (e.g. tuberculosis), relatively early year of military deployment, a relatively short time from enlistment to foreign service, and having a larger chest size (e.g. adjusted odds ratio for 90–99 cm versus <90 cm was 2·45; 95% CI=1·47–4·10). There were no significant associations in the fully adjusted model with military rank, occupational class at enlistment, and rurality at enlistment. Conclusions This is one of the first published case–control studies of mortality risk factors for the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic. Some of the findings are consistent with previous research on risk factors (such as chronic conditions and age groups), but others appear more novel (e.g., larger chest size). As all such historical analyses have limitations, there is a need for additional studies in other settings as archival World War One records become digitalised. PMID:24490663

  17. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. Results The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100 000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100 000 v 128.9/100 000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than

  18. Effect of Young Maternal Age on Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes: Results from the Tertiary Center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Oya; Yılmaz, Ertuğrul; Tosun, Özgür; Kumru, Pınar; Arınkan, Arzu; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Selçuk, Selçuk; Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Arısoy, Resul; Erdoğdu, Emre; Tarhan, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young maternal age is variously defined in studies of its effect on obstetrics and perinatal outcomes. Also, pregnancy has been reported as the leading cause of death in adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of obstetrics and perinatal adverse outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: This case-control study was derived from a database of the medical records between January 2008 and December 2012. In the present study, 1374 teenage pregnancy and 1294 adult pregnancy cases were included. After restriction of analyses to singleton primiparous women, 1282 teenage pregnancy and 735 adult pregnancy cases were analyzed. Maternal age was separated into three groups: 15 and less, 16–19, and 20–34 years. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were derived through logistic regression models for the potential confounding factors. Results: Adolescents aged 15 years and younger had higher risks of preterm delivery, early preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death compared with women aged 20 to 34 years after adjustment for confounding factors. In addition, both groups of adolescents had higher risks for anemia and episiotomy and lower risk of cesarean delivery. The rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, chronic diseases, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were higher in the adult group. Conclusion: Younger maternal age was correlated with increased risks of preterm delivery, fetal and neonatal death and anemia. PMID:27308080

  19. Risk Factors for Death from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Europe, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Joana Gomes; Hruba, Frantiska; Lopalco, Pier Luigi; Pastore-Celentano, Lucia; Gauci, Andrew J. Amato

    2015-01-01

    We studied the possible association between patient age and sex, clinical presentation, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype, antimicrobial resistance, and death in invasive pneumococcal disease cases reported by 17 European countries during 2010. The study sample comprised 2,921 patients, of whom 56.8% were men and 38.2% were >65 years of age. Meningitis occurred in 18.5% of cases. Death was reported in 264 (9.0%) cases. Older age, meningitis, and nonsusceptibility to penicillin were significantly associated with death. Non–pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) serotypes among children <5 years of age and 7-valent PCV serotypes among persons 5–64 years of age were associated with increased risk for death; among adults >65 years of age, risk did not differ by serotype. These findings highlight differences in case-fatality rates between serotypes and age; thus, continued epidemiologic surveillance across all ages is crucial to monitor the long-term effects of PCVs. PMID:25693604

  20. Death Does Matter—Cancer Risk in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shih-Feng; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Jan, Ren-Long; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chu, Chin-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a high mortality rate. We hypothesized that not accounting for death as a competing risk overestimates the event rate caused by ESRD. Thus, we examined the cancer risk for patients with ESRD (ESRDPos) after death as a competing risk event had been adjusted for. Patients with newly diagnosed ESRD (n = 64,299) between 1999 and 2007, together with age- and sex-matched controls without ESRD (ESRDNeg) (n = 128,592) were enrolled (1:2). In a Cox proportional hazards model that included death as a competing risk, ESRDPos patients in Taiwan had a lower overall incidence (subdistribution hazard ratio [sdHR] = 1.29) of cancer than did ESRDNeg patients in a Cox model that did not include death as a competing risk (HR = 1.70). After competing mortality had been adjusted for, ESRDPos patients ≥70 (sdHR = 0.82) and ESRDPos patients on long-term dialysis (> 5 follow-up years, sdHR = 0.62), had a lower risk for developing cancer than did ESRDNeg patients. This finding supported our hypothesis that standard survival analyses overestimate the event rate, especially when the mortality rate is high. It also showed that ESRDPos patients, when they grow older, were far less likely to develop cancer and far more likely to die because of underlying illnesses that might also affect the risk of death because of ESRD. PMID:26817891

  1. Latino risk-adjusted mortality in the men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Avis J; Eberly, Lynn E; Neaton, James D; Smith, George Davey

    2005-09-15

    Latinos are now the largest minority in the United States, but their distinctive health needs and mortality patterns remain poorly understood. Proportional hazards regressions were used to compare Latino versus White risk- and income-adjusted mortality over 25 years' follow-up from 5,846 Latino and 300,647 White men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Men were aged 35-57 years and residing in 14 states when screened in 1973-1975. Data on coronary heart disease risk factors, self-reported race/ethnicity, and home addresses were obtained at baseline; income was estimated by linking addresses to census data. Mortality follow-up through 1999 was obtained using the National Death Index. The fully adjusted Latino/White hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 0.87), based on 1,085 Latino and 73,807 White deaths; this pattern prevailed over time and across states (thus, likely across Latino subgroups). Hazard ratios were significantly greater than one for stroke (hazard ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.68), liver cancer (hazard ratio = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.37), and infection (hazard ratio = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.32). A substudy found only minor racial/ethnic differences in the quality of Social Security numbers, birth dates, soundex-adjusted names, and National Death Index searches. Results were not likely an artifact of return migration or incomplete mortality data. PMID:16076831

  2. Cervical Screening and Cervical Cancer Death Among Older Women: A Population-Based, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Alison S.; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D.; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55–79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980–2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5–7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55–79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening—a more sensitive test—to reduce cervical cancer death among older women. PMID:24685531

  3. Attitudes Toward Death Across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Robert; Walker, Gail

    To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…

  4. Estimated incidence and risk factors of sudden unexpected death

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng-Chang; Mehta, Neil; Mounsey, Louisa; Nwosu, Anthony; Pursell, Irion; Chung, Eugene H; Mounsey, J Paul; Simpson, Ross J

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this manuscript, we estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for sudden unexpected death in a socioeconomically and racially diverse population in one county in North Carolina. Estimates of the incidence and risk factors contributing to sudden death vary widely. The Sudden Unexpected Death in North Carolina (SUDDEN) project is a population-based investigation of the incidence and potential causes of sudden death. Methods From 3 March 2013 to 2 March 2014, all out-of-hospital deaths in Wake County, North Carolina, were screened to identify presumed sudden unexpected death among free-living residents between the ages of 18 and 64 years. Death certificate, public and medical records were reviewed and adjudicated to confirm sudden unexpected death cases. Results Following adjudication, 190 sudden unexpected deaths including 122 men and 68 women were identified. Estimated incidence was 32.1 per 100 000 person-years overall: 42.7 among men and 22.4 among women. The majority of victims were white, unmarried men over age 55 years, with unwitnessed deaths at home. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were common in men and women. African-American women dying from sudden unexpected death were over-represented. Women who were under age 55 years with coronary disease accounted for over half of female participants with coronary artery disease. Conclusions The overall estimated incidence of sudden unexpected death may account for approximately 10% of all deaths classified as ‘natural’. Women have a lower estimated incidence of sudden unexpected death than men. However, we found no major differences in age or comorbidities between men and women. African-Americans and young women with coronary disease are at risk for sudden unexpected death. PMID:27042316

  5. The Effects of Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David

    Although fear of death is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of death and the fear of death have only occurred for the last few decades. Death education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of death education on death anxiety by…

  6. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome: a national survey of sudden unexplained cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Behr, E R; Casey, A; Sheppard, M; Wright, M; Bowker, T J; Davies, M J; McKenna, W J; Wood, D A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) and compare its incidence with official national mortality statistics for unascertained deaths. Design and setting Sudden unexplained deaths were prospectively surveyed through 117 coroners' jurisdictions in England. Consecutive cases meeting the following criteria were included: white Caucasian, aged 4–64 years, no history of cardiac disease, last seen alive within 12 h of death, normal coroner's autopsy, cardiac pathologist's confirmation of a normal heart and negative toxicology. Main outcome measures The estimated mortality from SADS was calculated and the official mortality statistics for unascertained causes of deaths in 4–64‐year‐olds was identified for the same time period. Results 115 coroner's cases were reported and 56 (49%) SADS victims were identified: mean age 32 years, range 7–64 years and 35 (63%) male. 7 of 39 cases (18%) had a family history of other premature sudden deaths (<45). The estimated mortality from SADS was 0.16/100 000 per annum (95% CI 0.12 to 0.21), compared with an official mortality of 0.10/100 000 per annum for International Classification of Diseases 798.1 (sudden death, cause unknown—instantaneous death) or 1.34/100 000 per annum for unascertained causes of death. Conclusions Deaths from SADS occur predominantly in young males. When compared with official mortality, the incidence of SADS may be up to eight times higher than estimated: more than 500 potential SADS cases per annum in England. Families with SADS carry genetic cardiac disease, placing them at risk of further sudden deaths. SADS should therefore be a certifiable cause of death prompting specialised cardiological evaluation of families. PMID:17237131

  7. Sudden Death Following Exercise; a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Najari, Fares; Alimohammadi, Alimohammad; Ghodrati, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Natural and unexpected death that happens within less than one hour of first symptom occurrence is called sudden death. Cardiovascular diseases are the main known reason of sudden death and more than 75% of sudden deaths in athletes are assigned to it. Here we reported the autopsy results of all cases with sudden death following exercise that were referred to forensic center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014. Methods: In this cross sectional study all subjects who were registered to forensic medicine center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014, as a case of sudden death following exercise were evaluated. Demographic data and medical history as well as autopsy and toxicology findings were retrospectively gathered using profiles of the deceased. Results were reported using descriptive analysis. Results: 14 cases were registered as sudden death following exercise in forensic medicine profiles during the study period. Exploring the files of the mentioned deceased, revealed five non-compatible cases in this regard. Finally, 9 eligible cases were enrolled (88.9% male). The mean age of the deceased was 28.66 ± 10.86 years (range: 7 – 40). Toxicological tests were available for 7 cases, one of which was positive for tramadol. Sudden death following football was reported most frequently (44.4%). Only 3 (33.3%) cases had herald signs such as chest pain, syncope, or loss of consciousness. 1 case (11.11%) had a positive history of sudden death in relatives. Conclusion: Although most sudden death victims are asymptomatic until the event, all those who suffer from symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue and irregular heart rate during physical activities, should be screened regarding common probable causes of sudden death. PMID:27274521

  8. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents with Myelodysplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mary M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The psychosocial development of 20 adolescents with congenital paralysis due to myelodysplasia is compared to 20 age-and gender-matched subjects with no physical handicaps. On many of the measures, the myelodysplasia group showed poorer social and emotional adjustment and lower self esteem than the controls. (Author/GDC)

  9. Indian Family Adjustment to Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Lee Anne; Keltner, Bette

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the community response of how American Indian families adapt to having school age children with disabilities in two diverse American Indian communities. An ethnographic design was utilized to construct a taxonomy about family adjustment of American Indian families with disabilities. Community Assessment…

  10. Domestic Violence, Emotional Competence, and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Adjustment to Widowhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas-Hawkings, Gwen; And Others

    Although widowhood is a disruptive and inevitable phenomenon for many older people, few studies have explored either adjustment to widowhood or the impact of widowhood on the lives of elderly people. Recently widowed persons (N=51), ranging in age from 49 to 83 years old, were interviewed to examine their relatively immediate psychosocial…

  12. Factors Affecting Psychosocial Adjustment of Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Filiz

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 1,097 elementary and secondary students who are deaf found that degree of hearing loss, additional disability, and age at onset were negatively related to psychosocial adjustment. However, there was a positive relationship with the use of hearing aids, speech intelligibility, academic achievement, parental hearing status, and…

  13. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  14. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  15. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  16. Brain Death and Islam

    PubMed Central

    Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M.

    2014-01-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient’s religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999

  17. The Sociology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    When we start to look at the issues associated with dying and death, we must do so in terms of the broadest parameters imaginable. Presented at the Conference on Death and Dying: Education, Counseling, and Care, December 1-3, 1976, Orlando, Florida. (Author)

  18. Death Acceptance through Ritual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the author's original research, which sought to discover the elements necessary for using death-related ritual as a psychotherapeutic technique for grieving people who experience their grief as "stuck," "unending," "maladaptive," and so on. A "death-related ritual" is defined as a ceremony, directly involving at least 1…

  19. Conflicting Thoughts about Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Most research on children's conception of death has probed their understanding of its biological aspects: its inevitability, irreversibility and terminal impact. Yet many adults subscribe to a religious conception implying that death marks the beginning of a new life. Two recent empirical studies confirm that in the course of development, children…

  20. Reflections on Death Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskey, Raymond J.

    1977-01-01

    The author comments on the need to discuss death openly in the classroom, noting that engaging students with the idea of coming to grips with the fact of their own death can prepare them for living, working, and loving more fully. (SH)

  1. Education for Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puolimatka, Tapio; Solasaari, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Death is an unavoidable fact of human life, which cannot be totally ignored in education. Children reflect on death and raise questions that deserve serious answers. If an educator completely evades the issue, children will seek other conversation partners. It is possible to find arguments both from secular and religious sources, which alleviate…

  2. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  3. Programmed cell death

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  4. Death Obsession in Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Al-Arja, Nahida S.; Abdalla, Taysir

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N=601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha…

  5. SUICIDE ON DEATH ROW.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2015-12-01

    For the period 1976-2011, the suicide rate on death rows in the United States was only weakly (and non-significantly) associated with the marriage, birth, divorce, and unemployment rates in the general population. Possible explanations for why social indicators in the larger society might be associated with the behavior of prisoners on death row were discussed. PMID:26595302

  6. Death Writ Large

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

  7. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-01-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504

  8. Forensic epidemiology of childhood deaths in Nebraska, USA.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Cordelia N; Okoye, Matthias I

    2011-11-01

    In a 7-year period (April 1, 2003-March 31, 2010), all medico-legal childhood deaths aged 0-18 years investigated by the Lancaster County Coroner's Office under the auspices of Nebraska Institute of Forensic Sciences, Inc. (NIFS), were retrospectively reviewed (n = 140). This number of cases represents 10.9% of the 1287 forensic autopsies performed during the same period. Age, race, gender, cause and manner of deaths were analyzed for all victims categorized into five age groups: 0-1 year, 1-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-18 years. Male victims predominated with 98 cases (70%) versus 42 cases (30%) for females giving a male to female ratio of 2.3: 1. The mean age of the children was 7.6 years. The racial composition was 86.4% white, 10.7% Hispanic, 0.7% American Indian, 1.4% African American, and 0.7% Asian American. The majority of deaths occurred in the 0-1 age group (50 cases), followed in rank order by the 15-18 age group (40 cases), the 1-4 age group (23 cases), the 10-14 age group (17 cases), and the 5-9 age group (10 cases). The most common manner of death was accident, followed by natural, suicide, homicide, and undetermined. Accidents accounted for 71 cases (50.7%) of all the deaths and are amenable to prevention. Accidental blunt force trauma accounted for 41 cases or 58% of all the accident cases. The share of motor vehicle crashes in total blunt force trauma deaths was 33 cases. Natural deaths comprised 42 cases or 30% of all the deaths. Suicide (19 cases or 13.6% of all the deaths) was only encountered in the older age groups, the 10-14 age group (6 cases) and the 15-18 age group (13 cases). However, homicide which was observed as the least common manner of death (7 cases) was more predominant among the younger age groups (0-1 and 1-4 age groups). This review may provide useful information for the forensic pathologist, death investigators, law enforcement officers, policy makers, healthcare providers and Nebraska Child Death Review Team in

  9. Death in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M

    1990-01-01

    Does it matter that the hearts of 'brainstem dead' patients may persist in beating spontaneously? Hostile reactions, to the Danish inclusion of cardiac criteria in the determination of death, betray reductionist views of human life at the core of 'brainstem' conceptions of death. Such views (whether centred on neurological function or on abstractions concerning 'personhood') supplant the richness of human life and death with the poverty of essentialism: and mask the lethal nature of beating-heart organ retrieval. The affirmation of cardiac criteria for death is not an alternative form of essentialism as some critics suppose, but part of an understanding of human life and death which rejects essentialism altogether. The spontaneously persistent heartbeat does not constitute human life, but most certainly counts for it. PMID:2287015

  10. Abuse of alcohol in sudden out-of-hospital deaths in Finland.

    PubMed

    Perola, M; Vuori, E; Penttilä, A

    1994-04-01

    Alcoholism is known to be greatly underdiagnosed in death certificates, a fact that biases in estimates of alcohol-related mortality. An autopsy series of 1658 cases (920 with natural cause of death and 738 nonnatural) was reviewed to evaluate the extent of this bias, and also to see how well different sources of information served as indicators of alcoholism when alcohol-related disease diagnosed at autopsy was considered as a gold standard. A stepwise logistic regression model adjusted by age and sex showed police reports of individual's alcohol usage and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of > 2.9/1000 at autopsy to be the two most significant predictors of chronic alcohol abuse (p < 0.0001). The specificities of these two parameters as predictors of chronic alcohol abuse were generally high and sensitivities low. The authors see high BAC (> 2.9/1000), due to its high specificity, as particularly suggestive of chronic heavy drinking. However, it is wise to use these parameters only as an aid in decision-making, not as sole indicators of alcoholism. Deaths associated with chronic heavy drinking were frequent, 50.5% of the total series (male 56.4%, female 37.1%). For all but one age-group (male 45-64 years), however, death certificates mentioned alcohol-related diseases in less than half of these cases. Especially evident underdiagnosis was found for female and males 65 years and older. These results indicate that alcoholism is frequent in such a highly selected population as a series of forensic autopsies and suggest that estimates of prevalence of alcoholism based only on review of death certificates are to be considered with great caution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8048723

  11. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nabukalu, Dorean; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Herbst, Kobus; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo) were determined for females (aged 15–49 years) resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown). Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95% CI) was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1), peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1) and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.4–10.9). Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.2–11.1), accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR), 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05), self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15), and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82); external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.79–3.75). Conclusion HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV

  12. August 2003 heat wave in France: risk factors for death of elderly people living at home.

    PubMed

    Vandentorren, S; Bretin, P; Zeghnoun, A; Mandereau-Bruno, L; Croisier, A; Cochet, C; Ribéron, J; Siberan, I; Declercq, B; Ledrans, M

    2006-12-01

    The August 2003 heat wave in France resulted in many thousands of excess deaths particularly of elderly people. Individual and environmental risk factors for death among the community-dwelling elderly were identified. We conducted a case-control survey and defined cases as people aged 65 years and older who lived at home and died from August 8 through August 13 from causes other than accident, suicide, or surgical complications. Controls were matched with cases for age, sex, and residential area. Interviewers used questionnaires to collect data. Satellite pictures provided profiles of the heat island characteristics around the homes. Lack of mobility was a major risk factor along with some pre-existing medical conditions. Housing characteristics associated with death were lack of thermal insulation and sleeping on the top floor, right under the roof. The temperature around the building was a major risk factor. Behaviour such as dressing lightly and use of cooling techniques and devices were protective factors. These findings suggest people with pre-existing medical conditions were likely to be vulnerable during heat waves and need information on how to adjust daily routines to heat waves. In the long term, building insulation and urban planning must be adapted to provide protection from possible heat waves. PMID:17028103

  13. Early mortality and cause of deaths in patients using HAART in Brazil and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Luz, Paula M.; Campos, Dayse P.; Pilotto, José H.; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Moore, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the early mortality pattern and causes of death among patients starting HAART in Brazil and the United States. Methods: We analyzed the combined data from two clinical cohorts followed at the Johns Hopkins AIDS Service in Baltimore, United States, and the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute AIDS Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants included those who entered either cohort between 1999 and 2007 and were antiretroviral naive. Follow-up was at 1 year since HAART initiation. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the role of the city on the risk of death. Results: A total of 859 and 915 participants from Baltimore and Rio de Janeiro, respectively, were included. In Rio de Janeiro, 64.7% of deaths occurred within 90 days of HAART initiation; in Baltimore, 48.9% occurred between 180 and 365 days. AIDS-defining illness (61.8%) and non-AIDS-defining illness (55.6%) predominated as causes of death in Rio de Janeiro and Baltimore, respectively. Risk of death was similar in both cities (hazard ratio 1.04; P value=0.95) after adjusting for CD4+ T cell count, age, sex, HIV risk group, prior AIDS-defining illness, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and Mycobacterium avium prophylaxis. Individuals with CD4+ T cell count less than or equal to 50 cells/μl (hazard ratio 4.36; P = 0.001) or older (hazard ratio, 1.03; P = 0.03) were more likely to die. Conclusion: Although late HIV diagnosis is a problem both in developed and developing countries, differences in the timing and causes of deaths clearly indicate that, besides interventions for early HIV diagnosis, different strategies to curb early mortality need to be tailored in each country. PMID:19770698

  14. Limiting Cumulative HIV Viremia Copy-Years by Early Treatment Reduces Risk of AIDS and Death

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A. Sarah; Suthar, Amitabh B.; Sabin, Caroline; Bucher, Heiner C.; Jarrin, Inma; Moreno, Santiago; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Porter, Kholoud; Ford, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Viremia copy-years (VCY), a time-updated measure of cumulative HIV exposure, predicts AIDS/death; although its utility in deciding when to start combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of initiating versus deferring cART on risk of AIDS/death by levels of VCY both independent of and within CD4 cell count strata ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter. Methods: Using Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) data, we created a series of nested “trials” corresponding to consecutive months for individuals ≥16 years at seroconversion after 1995 who were cART-naive and AIDS-free. Pooling across all trials, time to AIDS/death by CD4, and VCY strata was compared in those initiating vs. deferring cART using Cox models adjusted for: country, sex, risk group, seroconversion year, age, time since last HIV-RNA, and current CD4, VCY, HIV-RNA, and mean number of previous CD4/HIV-RNA measurements/year. Results: Of 9353 individuals, 5312 (57%) initiated cART and 486 (5%) acquired AIDS/died. Pooling CD4 strata, risk of AIDS/death associated with initiating vs. deferring cART reduced as VCY increased. In patients with high CD4 cell counts, ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, there was a trend for a greater reduction for those initiating vs. deferring with increasing VCY (P = 0.09), with the largest benefit in the VCY ≥100,000 copy-years/mL group [hazard ratio (95% CI) = 0.41 (0.19 to 0.87)]. Conclusions: For individuals with CD4 ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, limiting the cumulative HIV burden to <100,000 copy-years/mL through cART may reduce the risk of AIDS/death. PMID:27116045

  15. Brain death and organ donation of children.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Şahin, Şanlıay; Uysal-Yazıcı, Mutlu; Ayar, Ganime; Yakut, Halil İbrahim; Akman, Alkım Öden; Hirfanoğlu, İbrahim Murat; Kalkan, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to define the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcome of patients with brain death, and to emphasize the importance of organ donation from children. Data for the period from September 2009 to October 2012 were collected retrospectively. Twenty children who were diagnosed as brain death were included. Data including demographics, major cause leading to brain death, duration of brain death evaluation, ancillary tests used to confirm brain death, complications and outcome, duration of hospitalization and organ donation were collected for statistical evaluation. The mean age was 6.2 years, and the male/female ratio 1.85. The major cause leading to brain death was most often traumatic brain injury, seen in 11 patients (55%). The mean duration of brain death evaluation was 6.7 and 1.7 days in Centers I and II respectively. The mean duration of hospitalization was 12.5 days. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used in 18 patients (90%). Complications included hyperglycemia in 13 cases and diabetes incipitus in 7 cases (65% and 35%, respectively). Mean duration of survival was 9.8 days. In Center I, one of the patients' parents gave consent to organ donation, while four parents in Center II agreed to organ donation. The study demonstrated that the duration of brain death evaluation was longer in Center I than in Center II (p<0.05). When both centers were compared, there was no significant difference in regard to obtaining consent for organ donation, survival after diagnosis of brain death and length of stay in the PICU (p>0.05). Early diagnosis of brain death and prompt evaluation of patients by ICU physicians once the diagnosis is taken into consideration will probably yield better organs and reduce costs. Training PICU physicians, nurses and organ donation coordinators, and increasing children's awareness of the need for organ donation via means of public communication may increase families' rate of agreement to organ donation in the future. PMID

  16. The child and the fear of death.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, N L; Schulman, K R

    1981-10-01

    The central hypothesis of this paper is that the innate fear of death in the human being is universal and that the child, least of all, is immune to death fear and its symbolic representation. This cuts across all ages and developmental levels. This paper is not concerned with the empirical knowledge of death, an area that has been extensively explored by others such as Nagy (1948), Piaget (1929), and Anthony (1940).Examination of the child and his relationship to death is important in order to reach the truth and understand the human meaning of the fear of death.The child's conception of himself and his relationship to the world is an ironic paradox. On one hand, he feels endowed with magical feelings of omnipotence. This feeling is the main defense against the fear of death. On the other hand, his wishes, both benevolent and malevolent, have power independent of him to influence events. The concept of chance is alien, and the differentiation between objective and wishful causation is obscured. Thus, the way in which the child perceives his world makes the terror of death more formidable.SEVERAL CONCLUSIONS ARE REACHED IN THIS PAPER: (1) that even in childhood, loss, endings, separations, and death are core concerns of the individual; (2) that fear of death in children is intensified by the absence of the intellectual equipment and the absence of the necessary defense mechanisms essential for comprehending the experience of loss; and (3) that repression of the fear of death is an evolutionary process which has its origin in childhood. PMID:7310912

  17. Odor Identification and Mortality in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The association of olfactory dysfunction with mortality was examined in 1162 older persons without dementia or Parkinson's disease. They completed a standard 12-item test of odor identification and then were followed for a mean of 4.2 years (standard deviation [SD] = 2.6, range: 0–9) during which 321 individuals died (27.6%). The relation of olfactory score to risk of death was assessed in a series of proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, education, and other covariates. Olfactory scores ranged from 0 to 12 correct (mean = 9.0, SD = 2.2). In an initial analysis, risk of death decreased by about 6% for each additional odor correctly identified (hazard ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 0.98). Thus, mortality risk was about 36% higher with a low score (6, 10th percentile) compared with a high score (11, 90th percentile). The association persisted in subsequent analyses that controlled for naming ability, disability, cerebrovascular disease, characteristic patterns of leisure activity, depressive symptoms, and apolipoprotein E genotype. The results indicate that difficulty identifying familiar odors in old age is associated with increased risk of death. PMID:20923931

  18. Urinary arsenic concentration adjustment factors and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nermell, Barbro; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Berglund, Marika; Persson, Lars Ake; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2008-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating the suitability of adjusting urinary concentrations of arsenic, or any other urinary biomarker, for variations in urine dilution by creatinine and specific gravity in a malnourished population. We measured the concentrations of metabolites of inorganic arsenic, creatinine and specific gravity in spot urine samples collected from 1466 individuals, 5-88 years of age, in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, where arsenic-contaminated drinking water and malnutrition are prevalent (about 30% of the adults had body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 kg/m(2)). The urinary concentrations of creatinine were low; on average 0.55 g/L in the adolescents and adults and about 0.35 g/L in the 5-12 years old children. Therefore, adjustment by creatinine gave much higher numerical values for the urinary arsenic concentrations than did the corresponding data expressed as microg/L, adjusted by specific gravity. As evaluated by multiple regression analyses, urinary creatinine, adjusted by specific gravity, was more affected by body size, age, gender and season than was specific gravity. Furthermore, urinary creatinine was found to be significantly associated with urinary arsenic, which further disqualifies the creatinine adjustment. PMID:17900556

  19. Test of the National Death Index and Equifax Nationwide Death Search.

    PubMed

    Rich-Edwards, J W; Corsano, K A; Stampfer, M J

    1994-12-01

    The authors compared the ability of the National Death Index and the Equifax Nationwide Death Search to ascertain deaths of participants in the Nurses' Health Study. Each service was sent information on 197 participants aged 60-68 years in 1989 whose deaths were reported by kin or postal authorities and 1,997 participants of the same age who were known to be alive. Neither service was aware of the authors' information regarding participants' vital status. The sensitivity of the National Death Index was 98 percent and that of Equifax was 79 percent. Sensitivity was similar for women aged 65-68 years; however, for women aged 61-64 years, the sensitivity of the National Death Index was 97.7 percent compared with 60.2 percent for Equifax. The specificity of both services was approximately 100 percent. The contrast between the sources of these databases and the matching algorithms they employ has implications for researchers and for those planning health data systems. PMID:7985649

  20. Unusual sudden death.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to usual sudden death seen in the course of coronary artery disease, individuals dying suddenly from other causes form a complex array of situations. In some the causes are readily identifiable. No simple pattern is available to identify the potential candidate, but on review of the many causes some moves by the physician may be helpful. For example, a more complete physical evaluation of young individuals participating in competitive athletics is in order. This is particularly true if the athlete reports an episode of unexplained syncope. This may well be the warning of a propensity towards sudden death under physical and emotional stress. Knowledge of the specific problems in underwater swimming and diving, in high altitude exposure and in various circumstances such as certain weight reduction diets and industrial exposures may lead to control of some types of unusual sudden death. Clearly, more studies are needed to give answers in so called crib death. As the incidence of usual sudden death falls, these unusual forms of sudden death will represent a more important fraction of sudden death in general. PMID:6537674

  1. 20 CFR 404.722 - Rebuttal of a presumption of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rebuttal of a presumption of death. 404.722... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.722 Rebuttal of a presumption of death. A presumption of death made based on § 404.721(b) can be rebutted by evidence...

  2. 20 CFR 404.722 - Rebuttal of a presumption of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rebuttal of a presumption of death. 404.722... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.722 Rebuttal of a presumption of death. A presumption of death made based on § 404.721(b) can be rebutted by evidence...

  3. 20 CFR 404.722 - Rebuttal of a presumption of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rebuttal of a presumption of death. 404.722... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.722 Rebuttal of a presumption of death. A presumption of death made based on § 404.721(b) can be rebutted by evidence...

  4. Eaten to death

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Charles; Baehrecke, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-autophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) delivers cytoplasmic material to the lysosome for degradation, and has been implicated in many cellular processes, including stress, infection, survival, and death. While the regulation and role that autophagy plays in stress, infection, and survival is apparent, the regulation of and role that autophagy has during cell death remains relatively unclear. In this review, we highlight what is known about the role that autophagy can play during physiological cell death, and discuss the implications of better understanding cellular destruction that involves autophagy. PMID:25323556

  5. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  6. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  7. Sudden cardiac death in the older athlete.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Sumeet S; Weiss, Joseph B

    2015-02-10

    The overwhelming majority of sports-related sudden deaths occur among those older than 35 years of age. Because increasing numbers of older people are participating in organized endurance and competitive sporting events, the incidence of sports-related sudden death in older adults is expected to rise. Older athletes will approach clinical cardiologists for advice regarding their fitness for participation. It is important to recognize both that strenuous exercise is associated with a transient elevation in risk of sudden cardiac death and that appropriate training substantially reduces this risk. The approach to pre-participation screening for risk of sudden death in the older athlete is a complex issue and at present is largely focused on identifying inducible ischemia due to significant coronary disease. In this brief review, we summarize the current state of knowledge in this area with respect to epidemiology, mechanisms, and approaches to risk stratification, as viewed from the perspective of the consulting clinical cardiologist. PMID:25660928

  8. Children's Death Concepts and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.

    1980-01-01

    Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…

  9. Interval to Testosterone Recovery After Hormonal Therapy for Prostate Cancer and Risk of Death

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Anthony V. Chen, M.-H.; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Loffredo, Marian; Kantoff, Philip W.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To assess whether the risk of death is associated with the time to testosterone recovery (TTR) after radiotherapy (RT) and hormonal therapy (HT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Patients and Methods: Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men with localized, unfavorable-risk PCa were randomized to receive RT or RT plus 6 months of HT. A multivariate postrandomization Cox regression analysis was used to assess whether the TTR in years was associated with the risk of death after adjusting for the known prognostic factors, age, Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 score, and the use of HT for recurrence. Results: Of the 102 men randomized to receive RT and HT, 57 (56%) had a TTR of >2 years, and none of these men had died of PCa after a median follow-up of 7.6 years. As the TTR increased, the risk of death decreased significantly (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.84; p = .003). A significant interaction was noted between the TTR and the comorbidity score (p = .002). The survival estimates were similar (p = 0.17) across the TTR values in men with moderate to severe comorbidity; however, these estimates increased significantly (p < .001) with decreasing PCa-specific mortality (p = .006) as the TTR increased in men with no or minimal comorbidity. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that a longer TTR after RT plus 6 months of HT for unfavorable-risk PCa is associated with a lower risk of death in men with no or minimal comorbidity.

  10. Pediatric fire deaths in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingming Amy; Bridgman-Acker, Karen; Edwards, Jim; Lauwers, Albert Edward

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the predictors of residential fire deaths in the Ontario pediatric population using systematically collected data from the Office of the Chief Coroner. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Ontario. Participants Children younger than 16 years of age who died in accidental residential fires in Ontario between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006. Main outcome measures The study retrospectively reviewed the coroner’s case files for 60 subjects who qualified according to the selection criteria. Reviewed documents included the coroner’s investigation statements, autopsy reports, toxicology reports, fire marshal’s reports, police reports, and Children’s Aid Society (CAS) reports. Information on a range of demographic, behavioural, social, and environmental factors was collected. Statistical tests, including relative risk, relative risk confidence intervals, and χ2 tests were performed to determine the correlation between factors of interest and to establish their significance. Results Thirty-nine fire events resulting in 60 deaths occurred between 2001 and 2006. Fire play and electrical failures were the top 2 causes of residential fires. More fires occurred during the night (midnight to 9 am) than during the day (9 am to midnight). Nighttime fires were most commonly due to electrical failures or unattended candles, whereas daytime fires were primarily caused by unsupervised fire play and stove fires. Smoke alarms were present at 32 of 39 fire events (82%), but overall alarm functionality was only 54%. Children from families with a history of CAS involvement were approximately 32 times more likely to die in fires. Conclusion Risk factors for pediatric fire death in Ontario include smoke alarm functionality, fire play, fire escape behaviour, and CAS involvement. Efforts to prevent residential fire deaths should target these populations and risk factors, and primary care physicians should consider education around these

  11. QALYs, euthanasia and the puzzle of death.

    PubMed

    Barrie, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    This paper considers the problems that arise when death, which is a philosophically difficult concept, is incorporated into healthcare metrics, such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). These problems relate closely to the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide because negative QALY scores can be taken to mean that patients would be 'better off dead'. There is confusion in the literature about the meaning of 0 QALY, which is supposed to act as an 'anchor' for the surveyed preferences on which QALYs are based. In the context of the debate over euthanasia, the QALY assumes an ability to make meaningful comparisons between life-states and death. Not only is this assumption questionable, but the ethical debate is much more broad than the question of whether death is preferable to a state of living. QALYs are derived from preferences about health states, so do not necessarily reflect preferences about events (eg, dying) or actions (eg, killing). This paper presents a new kind of problem for the QALY. As it stands, the QALY provides confused and unreliable information when it reports zero or negative values, and faces further problems when it appears to recommend death. This should preclude its use in the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide. These problems only apply where the QALY involves or seems to involve a comparison between life-states and death, and are not relevant to the more general discussion of the use of QALYs as a tool for comparing the benefits derived from treatment options. PMID:25082901

  12. Risk adjustment for a children's capitation rate.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Manning, W G; Keeler, E B

    1993-01-01

    Few capitation arrangements vary premiums by a child's health characteristics, yielding an incentive to discriminate against children with predictably high expenditures from chronic diseases. In this article, we explore risk adjusters for the 35 percent of the variance in annual out-patient expenditure we find to be potentially predictable. Demographic factors such as age and gender only explain 5 percent of such variance; health status measures explain 25 percent, prior use and health status measures together explain 65 to 70 percent. The profit from risk selection falls less than proportionately with improved ability to adjust for risk. Partial capitation rates may be necessary to mitigate skimming and dumping. PMID:10133708

  13. Continuing bonds, risk factors for complicated grief, and adjustment to bereavement.

    PubMed

    Field, Nigel P; Filanosky, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study examined type of continuing bonds (CB) expression in relation to risk factors for complicated grief and measures of bereavement-related adjustment. Externalized CB expressions involving illusions and hallucinations with the deceased were distinguished from internalized CB expressions involving use of the deceased as an autonomy promoting secure base. 502 bereaved participants completed over the internet a CB measure assessing externalized and internalized CB along with various known risk-factor measures that included cause of death (i.e., violent vs. non-violent death), responsibility for the death, and attachment style as well as measures of psychological adjustment that included complicated grief symptoms, perceived physical health, and personal growth. As predicted, externalized CB was positively associated with violent death and responsibility for the death, whereas internalized CB was negatively associated with these risk factors as well as uniquely positively linked to personal growth. The implications of the findings for the role of CB in adjustment are discussed. PMID:24479173

  14. Death and Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... a death or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, emotions, and spirit. People might notice or show ...

  15. Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)

  16. Hitler's Death Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)

  17. Firearm deaths among children and youth.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, C R

    1995-09-01

    Nationally, homicide and suicide are the 2nd and 3rd leading causes of death among children and youth under the age of 21. Sixteen to 19-year-olds now have the highest rate of handgun victimization among all age groups. The firearm suicide rate for White males is over 4 times higher than the rate for African American males, whereas the firearm homicide rate is over 9 times higher for African American males. Almost half of all deaths among African American male teenagers now involve firearms. Multiple steps, both short- and long-term, need to be taken to reduce firearm death rates among children and youth. Some of the possible methods to do so are discussed. PMID:7574187

  18. N-Terminal Pro-B Type Natriuretic Peptide as a Marker of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia or Death in Very Preterm Neonates: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sellmer, Anna; Hjortdal, Vibeke Elisabeth; Bjerre, Jesper Vandborg; Schmidt, Michael Rahbek; McNamara, Patrick J.; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious complication of preterm birth. Plasma N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been suggested as a marker that may predict BPD within a few days after birth. Objectives To investigate the association between NT-proBNP day three and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death and further to assess the impact of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on this association in neonates born before 32 gestational weeks. Methods A cohort study of 183 neonates born before 32 gestational weeks consecutively admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. On day three plasma samples were collected and echocardiography carried out. NT-proBNP was measured by routine immunoassays. The combined outcome BPD or death was assessed at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the discrimination ability of NT-proBNP by the natural log continuous measure to recognize BPD or death. The association of BPD or death was assessed in relation to natural log NT-proBNP levels day three. Results The risk of BPD or death increased 1.7-fold with one unit increase of natural log NT-proBNP day three when adjusted for gestational age at birth (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3; 2.3). The association was found both in neonates with and without a PDA. Adjusting for GA, PDA diameter, LA:Ao-ratio, or early onset sepsis did not change the estimate. Conclusion We found NT-proBNP to be associated with BPD or death in very preterm neonates. This association was not only explained by the PDA. We speculate that NT-proBNP may help the identification of neonates at risk of BPD as early as postnatal day three. PMID:26452045

  19. Funerals against death

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Tara; Walter, Tony

    2016-01-01

    While anthropological studies in non-Western societies show how funerals protect the community from the threat of death, sociological studies of British funerals have so far focused on meanings for the private family. The article reports on results from a Mass Observation directive – the first British study to focus specifically on the entire funeral congregation – and shows how attendees experience the contemporary life-centred funeral as a symbolic conquest of death. While the eulogy’s accuracy is important, even more so – at least for some – is its authenticity, namely that the speaker has personal knowledge of the deceased. Whereas Davies analyses the power of professionally delivered ritual words against death, our data reveals how admired is the courage exercised by non-professionals in speaking against death, however faltering their words. Further, the very presence of a congregation whose members have known the deceased in diverse ways embodies a configurational eulogy, which we term relationships against death. We thus argue that funerals symbolically conquer death not only through words delivered by ritual specialists, but also through those who knew the deceased congregating and speaking. PMID:27019605

  20. Classification of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107

  1. Roadway Proximity and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Women

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Laden, Francine; Albert, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    Background Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major source of mortality and is the first manifestation of heart disease for the majority of cases. Thus, there is a definite need to identify risk factors for SCD that can be modified on the population level. Exposure to traffic, measured by residential roadway proximity, has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to determine if roadway proximity was associated with an increased risk of SCD and to compare to the risk of other coronary heart disease (CHD) outcomes. Methods and Results A total of 523 cases of SCD were identified over 26 years of follow-up among 107,130 members of the prospective Nurses’ Health Study. We calculated residential distance to roadways at all residential addresses from 1986–2012. In age- and race-adjusted models, women living within 50 meters of a major roadway had an elevated risk of SCD (HR=1.56; 95%CI: 1.18–2.05). The association was attenuated but still statistically significant after controlling for potential confounders and mediators (HR=1.38; 95%CI:1.04–1.82). The equivalent adjusted HRs for nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD were 1.08 (95%CI: 0.96–1.23) and 1.24 (95%CI: 1.03–1.50), respectively. Conclusions Among this sample of middle-aged and older women, roadway proximity was associated with an elevated and statistically significant risks of SCD and fatal CHD, even after controlling for other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25332277

  2. Characteristics of pneumonia deaths after an earthquake and tsunami: an ecological study of 5.7 million participants in 131 municipalities, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Yosuke; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Tomata, Yasutake; Okada, Eisaku; Nakamura, Mieko; Kawado, Miyuki; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Objective On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck off Japan. Although some studies showed that the earthquake increased the risk of pneumonia death, no study reported whether and how much a tsunami increased the risk. We examined the risk for pneumonia death after the earthquake/tsunami. Design This is an ecological study. Setting Data on population and pneumonia deaths obtained from the Vital Statistics 2010 and 2012, National Census 2010 and Basic Resident Register 2010 and 2012 in Japan. Participants About 5.7 million participants residing in Miyagi, Iwate and Fukushima Prefectures during 1 year after the disaster were targeted. All municipalities (n=131) were categorised into inland (n=93), that is, the earthquake-impacted area, and coastal types (n=38), that is, the earthquake-impacted and tsunami-impacted area. Outcome measures The number of pneumonia deaths per week was totalled from 12 March 2010 to 9 March 2012. The number of observed pneumonia deaths (O) and the sum of the sex and age classes in the observed population multiplied by the sex and age classes of expected pneumonia mortality (E) were calculated. Expected pneumonia mortality was the pneumonia mortality during the year before. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for pneumonia deaths (O/E), adjusting for sex and age using the indirect method. SMRs were then calculated by coastal and inland municipalities. Results 6603 participants died of pneumonia during 1 year after the earthquake. SMRs increased significantly during the 1st–12th weeks. In the 2nd week, SMRs in coastal and inland municipalities were 2.49 (95% CI 2.02 to 7.64) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.24 to 2.61), respectively. SMRs of coastal municipalities were higher than those of inland municipalities. Conclusions An earthquake increased the risk of pneumonia death and tsunamis additionally increased the risk. PMID:26908515

  3. Novel Biomarker of Oxidative Stress Is Associated With Risk of Death in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Riyaz S.; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Eapen, Danny J.; Sher, Salman; Arshad, Shawn; Ko, Yi-an; Veledar, Emir; Samady, Habib; Zafari, A. Maziar; Sperling, Laurence; Vaccarino, Viola; Jones, Dean P.

    2016-01-01

    Background— Free radical scavengers have failed to improve patient outcomes, promoting the concept that clinically important oxidative stress may be mediated by alternative mechanisms. We sought to examine the association of emerging aminothiol markers of nonfree radical mediated oxidative stress with clinical outcomes. Methods and Results— Plasma levels of reduced (cysteine and glutathione) and oxidized (cystine and glutathione disulphide) aminothiols were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography in 1411 patients undergoing coronary angiography (mean age 63 years, male 66%). All patients were followed for a mean of 4.7±2.1 years for the primary outcome of all-cause death (n=247). Levels of cystine (oxidized) and glutathione (reduced) were associated with risk of death (P<0.001 both) before and after adjustment for covariates. High cystine and low glutathione levels (>+1 SD and <−1 SD, respectively) were associated with higher mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–2.21; HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.50–3.19; respectively) compared with those outside these thresholds. Furthermore, the ratio of cystine/glutathione was also significantly associated with mortality (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.39–2.64) and was independent of and additive to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. Similar associations were found for other outcomes of cardiovascular death and combined death and myocardial infarction. Conclusions— A high burden of oxidative stress, quantified by the plasma aminothiols, cystine, glutathione, and their ratio, is associated with mortality in patients with coronary artery disease, a finding that is independent of and additive to the inflammatory burden. Importantly, these data support the emerging role of nonfree radical biology in driving clinically important oxidative stress. PMID:26673559

  4. Children's Adjustment in Joint and Sole Physical Custody Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Marsha; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined patterns of custody and their relationship to the behavioral-emotional and social adjustment of 93 children of 3-14 years of age. Found no evidence that joint physical custody arrangements differ from sole physical custody arrangements with regard to postdivorce child adjustment. (RH)

  5. Newcomer Adjustment among Recent College Graduates: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemme Larson, Rachel E.; Bell, Alexandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Newcomer adjustment, the process an individual goes through within the first year at a new organization, can be a challenging transition for traditionally aged recent college graduates. Unsuccessful adjustment can have profound negative consequences for young adults, organizations, and undergraduate institutions. Gaps exist in the human resource…

  6. Gender Identity and Adjustment in Black, Hispanic, and White Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Brooke C.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years).…

  7. QT dispersion as a risk factor for sudden cardiac death and fatal myocardial infarction in a coronary risk population.

    PubMed Central

    Mänttäri, M.; Oikarinen, L.; Manninen, V.; Viitasalo, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test in a prospective study the hypothesis that increased QT dispersion in resting 12-lead ECG is a predictor of sudden cardiac death. DESIGN: A nested case-control study during a mean (SD) follow up time of 6.5 (2.8) years. SETTING: A prospective, placebo controlled, coronary prevention trial with gemfibrozil among dyslipidaemic middle aged men in primary (occupational) health care units: the Helsinki heart study. PATIENTS: 24 victims of fatal myocardial infarction, 48 victims of sudden cardiac death without acute myocardial infarction, and their matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: QT dispersion in baseline and pre-event electrocardiograms. RESULTS: At study baseline, QT dispersion was similar in all victims and controls. When estimated from the pre-event ECG on average 14 months before death, the risk of sudden cardiac death in the highest QTPEAK (up to the peak of the T wave) dispersion tertile (> or = 50 ms) was 6.2-fold (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 23.5) compared with the risk in the lowest tertile (< or = 30 ms), and 4.9-fold (1.2 to 19.5) after adjustment for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy, while QTPEAK dispersion could not predict fatal myocardial infarction. QTEND dispersion (up to the end of the T wave) in pre-event ECGs could not discriminate victims of either sudden cardiac death or fatal myocardial infarction from their matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: In middle aged men with a normal conventional QT interval in 12-lead resting ECG, increased QTPEAK dispersion is an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death, but not for fatal myocardial infarction. PMID:9391289

  8. Optical phantoms with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters.

    PubMed

    Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Bodenschatz, Nico; Simon, Emanuel; Stocker, Sabrina; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    A new epoxy-resin-based optical phantom system with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters is presented along with measurements of the intrinsic absorption, scattering, fluorescence, and refractive index of the matrix material. Both an aluminium oxide powder and a titanium dioxide dispersion were used as scattering agents and we present measurements of their scattering and reduced scattering coefficients. A method is theoretically described for a mixture of both scattering agents to obtain continuously adjustable anisotropy values g between 0.65 and 0.9 and values of the phase function parameter γ in the range of 1.4 to 2.2. Furthermore, we show absorption spectra for a set of pigments that can be added to achieve particular absorption characteristics. By additional analysis of the aging, a fully characterized phantom system is obtained with the novelty of g and γ parameter adjustment. PMID:26473589

  9. Optical phantoms with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Bodenschatz, Nico; Simon, Emanuel; Stocker, Sabrina; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    A new epoxy-resin-based optical phantom system with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters is presented along with measurements of the intrinsic absorption, scattering, fluorescence, and refractive index of the matrix material. Both an aluminium oxide powder and a titanium dioxide dispersion were used as scattering agents and we present measurements of their scattering and reduced scattering coefficients. A method is theoretically described for a mixture of both scattering agents to obtain continuously adjustable anisotropy values g between 0.65 and 0.9 and values of the phase function parameter γ in the range of 1.4 to 2.2. Furthermore, we show absorption spectra for a set of pigments that can be added to achieve particular absorption characteristics. By additional analysis of the aging, a fully characterized phantom system is obtained with the novelty of g and γ parameter adjustment.

  10. Adverse Lifestyle Leads to an Annual Excess of 2 Million Deaths in China

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G. Neil; Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Mak, Kwok Hang; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2014-01-01

    Background Adverse lifestyle factors have been associated with increased mortality, but data are lacking on their combined effect in developing populations, which we address in the present study. Methods In a death registry-based, case-control study among Hong Kong Chinese aged 30+y, proxy-reported lifestyle factors 10 y ago were collected for 21,363 cases (81% of all deaths) and 12,048 living controls. Risks associated with poor diet, inactivity, heavy alcohol intake, and smoking for all-cause and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for potential confounders, were determined, and excess deaths for the Chinese population were calculated. Results Adjusted odds ratios for all-cause mortality were 1.15 (95% CI 1.09, 1.23), 1.34 (1.27, 1.43), 1.36 (1.21, 1.52), and 1.58 (1.46, 1.70) for poor diet, inactivity, heavy alcohol intake and smoking, respectively. Increasing numbers of adverse lifestyle factors were associated with a dose-dependent increase in adjusted odds ratios of 1.30 (1.20, 1.40), 1.67 (1.54, 1.81), 2.32 (2.08, 2.60), and 3.85 (3.12, 4.75) for 1, 2, 3, and 4 risk factors relative to those with none. The population attributable fraction for all-cause, all-CVD and all-cancer mortality were 26.6%, 15.0%, and 32.1%, resulting in an excess of 2,017,541; 489,884; and 607,517 deaths annually, respectively. Although smoking was associated with the greatest excess loss of life (867,530), heavy drinking (680,466), and physical inactivity (678,317) were similarly important. Conclusion Adverse lifestyle factors contribute to one quarter of all deaths in China. Improving lifestyle practices, particularly focussing on moderating alcohol intake and increasing activity, and smoking cessation are critical to reducing the lifestyle-associated health burden. PMID:24586936

  11. Brain death declaration

    PubMed Central

    Wahlster, Sarah; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.; Patel, Pratik V.; Greer, David M.; Hemphill, J. Claude; Carone, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the practices and perceptions of brain death determination worldwide and analyze the extent and nature of variations among countries. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed globally to physicians with expertise in neurocritical care, neurology, or related disciplines who would encounter patients at risk of brain death. Results: Most countries (n = 91, response rate 76%) reported a legal provision (n = 63, 70%) and an institutional protocol (n = 70, 77%) for brain death. Institutional protocols were less common in lower-income countries (2/9 of low [22%], 9/18 lower-middle [50%], 22/26 upper-middle [85%], and 37/38 high-income countries [97%], p < 0.001). Countries with an organized transplant network were more likely to have a brain death provision compared with countries without one (53/64 [83%] vs 6/25 [24%], p < 0.001). Among institutions with a formalized brain death protocol, marked variability occurred in requisite examination findings (n = 37, 53% of respondents deviated from the American Academy of Neurology criteria), apnea testing, necessity and type of ancillary testing (most commonly required test: EEG [n = 37, 53%]), time to declaration, number and qualifications of physicians present, and criteria in children (distinct pediatric criteria: n = 38, 56%). Conclusions: Substantial differences in perceptions and practices of brain death exist worldwide. The identification of discrepancies, improvement of gaps in medical education, and formalization of protocols in lower-income countries provide first pragmatic steps to reconciling these variations. Whether a harmonized, uniform standard for brain death worldwide can be achieved remains questionable. PMID:25854866

  12. Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Asperger Syndrome: An Application of the Double ABCX Model of Family Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Samios, Christina; Sofronoff, Kate

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the applicability of the double ABCX model of family adjustment in explaining maternal adjustment to caring for a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-seven mothers completed questionnaires at a university clinic while their children were participating in an anxiety intervention. The children were aged between…

  13. Judging hospitals by severity-adjusted mortality rates: the influence of the severity-adjustment method.

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, L I; Ash, A S; Shwartz, M; Daley, J; Hughes, J S; Mackiernan, Y D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This research examined whether judgments about a hospital's risk-adjusted mortality performance are affected by the severity-adjustment method. METHODS: Data came from 100 acute care hospitals nationwide and 11880 adults admitted in 1991 for acute myocardial infarction. Ten severity measures were used in separate multivariable logistic models predicting in-hospital death. Observed-to-expected death rates and z scores were calculated with each severity measure for each hospital. RESULTS: Unadjusted mortality rates for the 100 hospitals ranged from 4.8% to 26.4%. For 32 hospitals, observed mortality rates differed significantly from expected rates for 1 or more, but not for all 10, severity measures. Agreement between pairs of severity measures on whether hospitals were flagged as statistical mortality outliers ranged from fair to good. Severity measures based on medical records frequently disagreed with measures based on discharge abstracts. CONCLUSIONS: Although the 10 severity measures agreed about relative hospital performance more often than would be expected by chance, assessments of individual hospital mortality rates varied by different severity-adjustment methods. PMID:8876505

  14. Structural imaging biomarkers of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wandschneider, Britta; Koepp, Matthias; Scott, Catherine; Micallef, Caroline; Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Thom, Maria; Harper, Ronald M.; Sander, Josemir W.; Vos, Sjoerd B.; Duncan, John S.; Lhatoo, Samden

    2015-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is a major cause of premature death in people with epilepsy. We aimed to assess whether structural changes potentially attributable to sudden death pathogenesis were present on magnetic resonance imaging in people who subsequently died of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. In a retrospective, voxel-based analysis of T1 volume scans, we compared grey matter volumes in 12 cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (two definite, 10 probable; eight males), acquired 2 years [median, interquartile range (IQR) 2.8] before death [median (IQR) age at scanning 33.5 (22) years], with 34 people at high risk [age 30.5 (12); 19 males], 19 at low risk [age 30 (7.5); 12 males] of sudden death, and 15 healthy controls [age 37 (16); seven males]. At-risk subjects were defined based on risk factors of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy identified in a recent combined risk factor analysis. We identified increased grey matter volume in the right anterior hippocampus/amygdala and parahippocampus in sudden death cases and people at high risk, when compared to those at low risk and controls. Compared to controls, posterior thalamic grey matter volume, an area mediating oxygen regulation, was reduced in cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and subjects at high risk. The extent of reduction correlated with disease duration in all subjects with epilepsy. Increased amygdalo-hippocampal grey matter volume with right-sided changes is consistent with histo-pathological findings reported in sudden infant death syndrome. We speculate that the right-sided predominance reflects asymmetric central influences on autonomic outflow, contributing to cardiac arrhythmia. Pulvinar damage may impair hypoxia regulation. The imaging findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and people at high risk may be useful as a biomarker for risk-stratification in future studies. PMID:26264515

  15. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Burden of Heat-Related Illness and Death within the Florida Population

    PubMed Central

    Harduar Morano, Laurel; Watkins, Sharon; Kintziger, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The failure of the human body to thermoregulate can lead to severe outcomes (e.g., death) and lasting physiological damage. However, heat-related illness (HRI) is highly preventable via individual- and community-level modification. A thorough understanding of the burden is necessary for effective intervention. This paper describes the burden of severe HRI morbidity and mortality among residents of a humid subtropical climate. Work-related and non-work-related HRI emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths among Florida residents during May to October (2005–2012) were examined. Sub-groups susceptible to HRI were identified. The age-adjusted rates/100,000 person-years for non-work-related HRI were 33.1 ED visits, 5.9 hospitalizations, and 0.2 deaths, while for work-related HRI/100,000 worker-years there were 8.5 ED visits, 1.1 hospitalizations, and 0.1 deaths. The rates of HRI varied by county, data source, and work-related status, with the highest rates observed in the panhandle and south central Florida. The sub-groups with the highest relative rates regardless of data source or work-relatedness were males, minorities, and rural residents. Those aged 15–35 years had the highest ED visit rates, while for non-work-related hospitalizations and deaths the rates increased with age. The results of this study can be used for targeted interventions and evaluating changes in the HRI burden over time. PMID:27258296

  16. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Burden of Heat-Related Illness and Death within the Florida Population.

    PubMed

    Harduar Morano, Laurel; Watkins, Sharon; Kintziger, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The failure of the human body to thermoregulate can lead to severe outcomes (e.g., death) and lasting physiological damage. However, heat-related illness (HRI) is highly preventable via individual- and community-level modification. A thorough understanding of the burden is necessary for effective intervention. This paper describes the burden of severe HRI morbidity and mortality among residents of a humid subtropical climate. Work-related and non-work-related HRI emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths among Florida residents during May to October (2005-2012) were examined. Sub-groups susceptible to HRI were identified. The age-adjusted rates/100,000 person-years for non-work-related HRI were 33.1 ED visits, 5.9 hospitalizations, and 0.2 deaths, while for work-related HRI/100,000 worker-years there were 8.5 ED visits, 1.1 hospitalizations, and 0.1 deaths. The rates of HRI varied by county, data source, and work-related status, with the highest rates observed in the panhandle and south central Florida. The sub-groups with the highest relative rates regardless of data source or work-relatedness were males, minorities, and rural residents. Those aged 15-35 years had the highest ED visit rates, while for non-work-related hospitalizations and deaths the rates increased with age. The results of this study can be used for targeted interventions and evaluating changes in the HRI burden over time. PMID:27258296

  17. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  18. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  19. Effect of Demographic Risk Factors on the Change in Cognitive Function in the Presence of Non-Participation and Truncation due to Death.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Kumar B; Leurgans, Sue E; Weuve, Jennifer; Beck, Todd L; Evans, Denis A

    2011-11-18

    Missing data due to non-participation and death are two common problems in longitudinal studies of the elderly. The effect of socio-demographic variables on the decline in cognitive function after adjusting for non-participation and truncation due to death has not been well studied. This study is based on 6,105 subjects enrolled in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), followed over four cycles of data collection approximately three years apart. Cognitive function was based on a standardized measure of mini-mental state examination. We will study the impact of non-participation and death on the decline in cognitive function with socio-demographic variables as risk factors, using four different modeling approaches: 1) a linear mixed effects model ignoring the missing data, 2) a pattern-mixture model using multiple imputation (MI) stratified by patterns of non-participation and death, 3) MI for non-participation stratified by patterns of non-participation and a pattern-mixture model stratified by the time of death, and 4) MI for non-participation stratified by patterns of non-participation and a pattern-mixture model with a categorical variable for time of death. The baseline association of socio-demographic variables with cognitive function was mostly unchanged among Blacks and Whites. However, the decline in cognitive function over a 10-year period had decreased by approximately 50% (Blacks coefficient changed from -0.544 to -0.285; Whites coefficient changed from -0.682 to -0.339) after accounting for non-participation and death. The effect of age on the change in cognitive function over a 10-year period had reduced by about 30% (Blacks coefficient changed from -0.033 to -0.010; Whites coefficient changed from -0.049 to -0.016). The trajectory of cognitive function for White males had reduced by approximately 45% (changed from 0.12 to 0.055) over a 10-year period. Education was significantly associated with the change in cognitive function among Blacks but

  20. Perspectives on Death: An Experiential Course on Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Edwin S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a college psychology course on death education (thanatology). Course objectives were to help students become aware of the feelings involved in facing death, encourage discussion on the subject of death, motivate students to change their attitudes about death, and encourage practical planning for funeral arrangements.…