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Sample records for age adjusted incidence

  1. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  2. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  3. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  4. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  5. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  6. Incident light adjustable solar cell by periodic nanolens architecture

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Eunsongyi; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, Wayne A.; Kim, Joondong; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Zeng, Jinwei; Yi, Junsin; Kumar, M. Melvin David; Sun, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    Could nanostructures act as lenses to focus incident light for efficient utilization of photovoltaics? Is it possible, in order to avoid serious recombination loss, to realize periodic nanostructures in solar cells without direct etching in a light absorbing semiconductor? Here we propose and demonstrate a promising architecture to shape nanolenses on a planar semiconductor. Optically transparent and electrically conductive nanolenses simultaneously provide the optical benefit of modulating the incident light and the electrical advantage of supporting carrier transportation. A transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanolens was designed to focus the incident light-spectrum in focal lengths overlapping to a strong electric field region for high carrier collection efficiency. The ITO nanolens effectively broadens near-zero reflection and provides high tolerance to the incident light angles. We present a record high light-conversion efficiency of 16.0% for a periodic nanostructured Si solar cell. PMID:25371099

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury in the Netherlands: Incidence, Costs and Disability-Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Annemieke C.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Panneman, Martien J. M.; van Beeck, Ed F.; Polinder, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, leading to great personal suffering and huge costs to society. Integrated knowledge on epidemiology, economic consequences and disease burden of TBI is scarce but essential for optimizing healthcare policy and preventing TBI. This study aimed to estimate incidence, cost-of-illness and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of TBI in the Netherlands. Methods This study included data on all TBI patients who were treated at an Emergency Department (ED - National Injury Surveillance System), hospitalized (National Medical Registration), or died due to their injuries in the Netherlands between 2010–2012. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Disease burden was assessed by calculating years of life lost (YLL) owing to premature death, years lived with disability (YLD) and DALYs. Incidence, costs and disease burden were stratified by age and gender. Results TBI incidence was 213.6 per 100,000 person years. Total costs were €314.6 (USD $433.8) million per year and disease burden resulted in 171,200 DALYs (on average 7.1 DALYs per case). Men had highest mean costs per case (€19,540 versus €14,940), driven by indirect costs. 0–24-year-olds had high incidence and disease burden but low economic costs, whereas 25–64-year-olds had relatively low incidence but high economic costs. Patients aged 65+ had highest incidence, leading to considerable direct healthcare costs. 0–24-year-olds, men aged 25–64 years, traffic injury victims (especially bicyclists) and home and leisure injury victims (especially 0–5-year-old and elderly fallers) are identified as risk groups in TBI. Conclusions The economic and health consequences of TBI are substantial. The integrated approach of assessing incidence, costs and disease burden enables detection of important risk groups in TBI, development of prevention programs that

  8. Loneliness and Adjustment to Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Robert O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two studies examined loneliness in older adults (N=177). Loneliness was found to be related to poor psychological adjustment and to dissatisfaction with family and social relationships. It was also related to fears, expectations, and personality characteristics likely to inhibit the restoration of personal support networks after a stressful life…

  9. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section... age reduction. (a) General. If an age reduced employee or spouse overall minimum benefit is not...

  10. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  11. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  12. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  13. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  14. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  15. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  16. Healthy aging and age-adjusted nutrition and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Mats; Ostgren, Carl Johan

    2013-10-01

    Expected life span is gradually increasing worldwide. Healthy dietary and exercise habits contribute to healthy ageing. Certain types of diet can prevent or reduce obesity, and may reduce the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, some cancers and some mental disturbances). A less sedentary life style seems at least as important as regular exercise. Exercise can probably be tailored to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and extent of bone loss. To ensure adherence, it is important to increase slowly the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise, and to find activities that suit the individual. More research is needed to find ideal modes and doses of exercise, and to increase long-term adherence. Dietary and exercise modification seem to be strong promoters of healthy ageing. PMID:23499263

  17. Age-adjustment and related epidemiology rates in education and research.

    PubMed

    Baker, John D; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence, crude, age-specific and age-adjustment rates into the gerontology classroom. Background information and formulas for each rate, as well as examples of how they can be applied are provided. A recent change, encouraged by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from a 1940 to a 2000 "standard million population" for ageadjusted rates, is reviewed. Finally, a teaching module with answers is provided for use in the gerontology classroom. PMID:16873207

  18. Improving adjustments for older age in pre-hospital assessment and care.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Population estimates projects a significant increase in the geriatric population making elderly trauma patients more common. The geriatric trauma patients experience higher incidence of pre-existing medical conditions, impaired age-dependent physiologic reserve, use potent drugs and suffer from trauma system related shortcomings that influence outcomes. To improve adjustments for older age in pre-hospital assessment and care, several initiatives should be implemented. Decision-makers should make system revisions and introduce advanced point-of-care initiatives to improve outcome after trauma for the elderly. PMID:23343340

  19. Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are 52,380 cases of leukemia and 24,090 deaths from it in the US annually. Its causes are unknown and no preventive strategies have been implemented. We hypothesized that leukemia is due mainly to vitamin D deficiency, which is due mainly to low solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance. To test this hypothesis, we estimated age-standardized cloud-cover-adjusted winter UVB irradiance using cloud cover data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, latitudes of population centroids, and standard astronomical calculations. Incidence rates for 172 countries, available from the International Agency for Cancer Research, were plotted according to cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance. We used multiple regression to account for national differences in elevation and average life expectancy. Leukemia incidence rates were inversely associated with cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance in males (p ≤ 0.01) and females (p ≤ 0.01) in both hemispheres. There were few departures from the trend line, which was parabolic when plotted with the equator at the center of the display, northern hemisphere countries on the right side and southern hemisphere countries on the left. The bivariate association displayed by the polynomial trend line indicated that populations at higher latitudes had at least two times the risk of leukemia compared to equatorial populations. The association persisted in males (p ≤ 0.05) and females (p ≤ 0.01) after controlling for elevation and life expectancy. Incidence rates of leukemia were inversely associated with solar UVB irradiance. It is plausible that the association is due to vitamin D deficiency. This would be consistent with laboratory studies and a previous epidemiological study. Consideration should be given to prudent use of vitamin D for prevention of leukemia. PMID:26637119

  20. Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Garland, Cedric F; Gorham, Edward D; Mohr, Sharif B

    2015-01-01

    There are 52,380 cases of leukemia and 24,090 deaths from it in the US annually. Its causes are unknown and no preventive strategies have been implemented. We hypothesized that leukemia is due mainly to vitamin D deficiency, which is due mainly to low solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance. To test this hypothesis, we estimated age-standardized cloud-cover-adjusted winter UVB irradiance using cloud cover data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, latitudes of population centroids, and standard astronomical calculations. Incidence rates for 172 countries, available from the International Agency for Cancer Research, were plotted according to cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance. We used multiple regression to account for national differences in elevation and average life expectancy. Leukemia incidence rates were inversely associated with cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance in males (p ≤ 0.01) and females (p ≤ 0.01) in both hemispheres. There were few departures from the trend line, which was parabolic when plotted with the equator at the center of the display, northern hemisphere countries on the right side and southern hemisphere countries on the left. The bivariate association displayed by the polynomial trend line indicated that populations at higher latitudes had at least two times the risk of leukemia compared to equatorial populations. The association persisted in males (p ≤ 0.05) and females (p ≤ 0.01) after controlling for elevation and life expectancy. Incidence rates of leukemia were inversely associated with solar UVB irradiance. It is plausible that the association is due to vitamin D deficiency. This would be consistent with laboratory studies and a previous epidemiological study. Consideration should be given to prudent use of vitamin D for prevention of leukemia. PMID:26637119

  1. Covariate adjustment of cumulative incidence functions for competing risks data using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anke; Billionnet, Cécile

    2016-06-01

    In observational studies without random assignment of the treatment, the unadjusted comparison between treatment groups may be misleading due to confounding. One method to adjust for measured confounders is inverse probability of treatment weighting. This method can also be used in the analysis of time to event data with competing risks. Competing risks arise if for some individuals the event of interest is precluded by a different type of event occurring before, or if only the earliest of several times to event, corresponding to different event types, is observed or is of interest. In the presence of competing risks, time to event data are often characterized by cumulative incidence functions, one for each event type of interest. We describe the use of inverse probability of treatment weighting to create adjusted cumulative incidence functions. This method is equivalent to direct standardization when the weight model is saturated. No assumptions about the form of the cumulative incidence functions are required. The method allows studying associations between treatment and the different types of event under study, while focusing on the earliest event only. We present a SAS macro implementing this method and we provide a worked example. PMID:27084321

  2. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24502821

  3. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age.In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011.Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61-0.96, compared with the non-NPC group.The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  4. Incidence, prevalence, and hybrid approaches to calculating disability-adjusted life years

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a mere question of accounting. Such questions can be important, but they don’t raise deep theoretical concerns. If we do discount, however, choice of calculation method can change the relative burden attributed to different conditions over time. I conclude by recommending that studies involving disability-adjusted life years be explicit in noting what calculation method is being employed and in explaining why that calculation method has been chosen. PMID:22967055

  5. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia. PMID:26655068

  6. Sunlight Exposure, Pigmentation, and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara E. K.; Howard, Kerri P.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Examine potential effects of sunlight exposure, hair color, eye color, and selected gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on incidence of AMD. Methods. Subjects participated in up to five examinations over a 20-year period. Eye color, self-reported hair color as a teenager, and sunlight exposure were ascertained at the baseline examination. Presence and severity of AMD and its lesions were determined via fundus photographs. Genetic data were available on a subset of participants. The SNPs CFH Y402H rs1061170 and ARMS2 A69S rs10490924 were used to analyze genetic risk of AMD; OCA2 rs4778241 and HERC2 rs12913832 represented genetic determinants of eye color. Results. Incidence of early AMD was higher in blond/red-haired persons compared with brown/black-haired persons (hazard ratio [HR] 1.25, P = 0.02) and in persons with high sun exposure in their thirties (HR 1.41, P = 0.02). However, neither was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Eye (HR 1.36, P = 0.006) and hair color (HR 1.42, P = 0.003) were associated with incidence of any retinal pigmentary abnormalities (RPAs). Both remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Neither presence of alleles for light-colored eyes nor those associated with high risk of late AMD altered the association of eye or hair color with early AMD. None of the characteristics studied were significantly associated with late AMD. Conclusions. Modest associations of eye color, hair color, and HERC2 genotype with any RPAs were found. Genes for AMD did not affect these associations. Eye color phenotype was more strongly associated with outcomes than HERC2 or OCA2 genotype. PMID:25125603

  7. Uveitis in the Aging Eye: Incidence, Patterns, and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdulaal, Marwan R.; Abiad, Bachir H.; Hamam, Rola N.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis is a vision threatening inflammation of the eye that carries considerable morbidity. It is responsible for 10% of legal blindness in the United States and up to 25% in the developing world. Uveitis in patients more than 60 years of age is less common. The aging body has a changing response of the immune system, which might reflect a different pattern of uveitis in the elderly population. In this paper we review the incidence and patterns of uveitis in the elderly as reported in the literature and discuss changes with time. We also delineate a thorough differential diagnosis of de novo uveitis in the elderly. PMID:26090218

  8. Cognitive Reserve, Incident Dementia, and Associated Mortality in the Ibadan Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Ojagbemi, Akin; Bello, Toyin; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe factors associated with incident dementia and dementia mortality over 5 years in a large community sample of elderly persons. Design Longitudinal investigation of a household multistage probability sample. Setting Eight contiguous states of the Yoruba-speaking region of Nigeria. Participants Individuals aged 65 and older (N=2,149). Measurements Dementia was diagnosed using tools previously validated in the population. Incident cases of dementia over three follow-up waves were determined after censoring cases in the preceding wave. Information on mortality was collected from key informants in subjects’ households. Results A dementia incident rate was found of 20.9 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI)=17.7–24.9). The adjusted mortality hazard for those with dementia was 1.5 (95% CI=1.1–2.1). Along with previously identified social and demographic factors, poor predementia cognitive function (hazard ratio (HR)=1.8, 95% CI=1.1–2.8) and low occupational complexity (HR=3.2, 95% CI=1.3–8.0) were associated with incident dementia. Conclusion The findings confirm the low incidence of dementia in this population, as previously reported. The condition is nevertheless associated with higher risk of mortality. Along with some features of social disadvantage, proxies of lower cognitive reserve were risk factors for incident dementia. PMID:26926137

  9. Psychological wellbeing and incident frailty in men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2013-01-01

    Background Observations that older people who enjoy life more tend to live longer suggest that psychological wellbeing may be a potential resource for healthier ageing. We investigated whether psychological wellbeing was associated with incidence of physical frailty. Methods We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the prospective relation between psychological wellbeing, assessed using the CASP-19 questionnaire that assesses perceptions of control, autonomy, self-realization and pleasure, and incidence of physical frailty or pre-frailty, defined according to the Fried criteria, in 2557 men and women aged 60 to over 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results Men and women with higher levels of psychological wellbeing were less likely to become frail over the 4-year follow-up period. For a standard deviation higher score in psychological wellbeing at baseline, the relative risk ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident frailty, adjusted for age, sex and baseline frailty status, was 0.46 (0.40, 0.54). There was a significant association between psychological wellbeing and risk of pre-frailty: 0.69 (0.63, 0.77). Examination of scores for hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (control, autonomy and self-realization) wellbeing showed that higher scores on both were associated with decreased risk. Associations were partially attenuated by further adjustment for other potential confounding factors but persisted. Incidence of pre-frailty or frailty was associated with a decline in wellbeing, suggesting that the relationship is bi-directional. Conclusions Maintaining a stronger sense of psychological wellbeing in later life may protect against the development of physical frailty. Future research needs to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. PMID:23822897

  10. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987

  11. Incidence of Dementia Among Participants and Nonparticipants in a Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Cha, Ruth H.; Rocca, Walter A.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Geda, Yonas E.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of incident dementia have been reported from several populations, the impact of nonparticipation on dementia incidence in studies of cognitive aging is unknown. In 2004, investigators with the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging selected persons aged 70–89 years from an enumeration of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents (age- and sex-stratified random sample). Of 4,398 potential participants, 2,050 agreed to undergo an in-person health assessment. Those participants were reevaluated in person using standard diagnostic procedures approximately every 15 months over a median follow-up period of 5.7 years (through September 15, 2013). There were 1,679 persons who refused any participation. A trained nurse abstractor reviewed the medical records of nonparticipants using the Rochester Epidemiology Project's medical record linkage system a median of 3.9 years after refusal. Nonparticipants had a higher prevalence of dementia than participants evaluated in person (6.5% vs. 3.3%; P < 0.0001). The standardized incidence of dementia was not significantly higher among the nonparticipants (23.2 per 1,000 person-years) than in those evaluated in person (19.6 per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.43 (P = 0.13); adjusted for education and sex, with age as the time scale). The small, nonsignificant impact of nonparticipation on rates of incident dementia is reassuring for future studies based on incident dementia cases. PMID:24859276

  12. Patterns of Multiple Myeloma During the Past 5 Decades: Stable Incidence Rates for All Age Groups in the Population but Rapidly Changing Age Distribution in the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Turesson, Ingemar; Velez, Ramon; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Landgren, Ola

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define age-adjusted incidence trends in multiple myeloma (MM) in a well-characterized population during a long period, given that some, but not all, studies have reported increasing MM incidence over time and that clinical experience from some centers suggests an increased incidence mainly in younger age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all patients (N=773) with MM diagnosed in Malmö, Sweden, from January 1, 1950, through December 31, 2005. Using census data for the population of Malmö, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates. Incidence rates were also calculated for 10-year birth cohorts. Analyses for trends were performed using the Poisson regression. RESULTS: From 1950 through 2005, the average annual age-adjusted (European standard population) incidence rate remained stable (Poisson regression, P=.07 for men and P=.67 for women). Also, comparisons between 10-year birth cohorts (from 1870-1879 to 1970-1979) failed to detect any increase. Between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005, the median age at diagnosis of MM increased from 70 to 74 years, and the proportion of newly diagnosed patients aged 80 years or older increased from 16% to 31%. CONCLUSION: Our finding of stable MM incidence rates for all age groups during the past 5 decades suggests that recent clinical observations of an increase of MM in the young may reflect an increased referral stream of younger patients with MM, which in turn might be a consequence of improved access to better MM therapies. Importantly, because of the aging population, the proportion of patients with MM aged 80 years or older doubled between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005. PMID:20194150

  13. Well-Being and Chronic Disease Incidence: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Okely, Judith A.; Gale, Catharine R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Previous research suggests that greater well-being may protect against onset of chronic disease. However, it is unclear whether this association is similar across different types of disease. Method We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the prospective relationship between well-being (measured using the CASP-19 quality of life questionnaire) and incidence of arthritis, cancer, stroke, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and chronic lung disease over 8 years. The sample consisted of 8182 participants 50 years or older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results After adjustments for established risk factors, a standard deviation increase in CASP-19 score was associated with a decrease in arthritis risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83–0.96) and, in those younger than 65 years, a decrease in diabetes risk (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70–0.95) and chronic lung disease risk (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66–0.97). Higher CASP-19 scores were associated with reduced risk for stroke and myocardial infarction; however, these associations were no longer significant after adjustments for established risk factors. No association was observed for cancer incidence. An age interaction was observed for diabetes, myocardial infarction, and chronic lung disease, with a stronger association between CASP-19 score and disease incidence at younger ages. Conclusions The extent of association between well-being and incident disease risk is not consistent across different chronic diseases. Future studies should examine the cause of this variation. PMID:26569542

  14. Technology development of adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics for sub-arc second imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, P. B.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Cotroneo, V.; Davis, W.; Johnson-Wilke, R. L.; McMuldroch, S.; Ramsey, B. D.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Vikhlinin, A.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2012-09-01

    We report on technical progress made over the past year developing thin film piezoelectric adjustable grazing incidence optics. We believe such mirror technology represents a solution to the problem of developing lightweight, sub-arc second imaging resolution X-ray optics. Such optics will be critical to the development next decade of astronomical X-ray observatories such as SMART-X, the Square Meter Arc Second Resolution X-ray Telescope. SMART-X is the logical heir to Chandra, with 30 times the collecting area and Chandra-like imaging resolution, and will greatly expand the discovery space opened by Chandra’s exquisite imaging resolution. In this paper we discuss deposition of thin film piezoelectric material on flat glass mirrors. For the first time, we measured the local figure change produced by energizing a piezo cell - the influence function, and showed it is in good agreement with finite element modeled predictions. We determined that at least one mirror substrate material is suitably resistant to piezoelectric deposition processing temperatures, meaning the amplitude of the deformations introduced is significantly smaller than the adjuster correction dynamic range. Also, using modeled influence functions and IXO-based mirror figure errors, the residual figure error was predicted post-correction. The impact of the residual figure error on imaging performance, including any mid-frequency ripple introduced by the corrections, was modeled. These, and other, results are discussed, as well as future technology development plans.

  15. Development Status of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics for 0.5 Arcsecond X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Allured, Ryan; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Marquez, Vanessa; McMuldroch, Stuart; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    We describe progress in the development of adjustable grazing incidence X-ray optics for 0.5 arcsec resolution cosmic X-ray imaging. To date, no optics technology is available to blend high resolution imaging like the Chandra X-ray Observatory, with square meter collecting area. Our approach to achieve these goals simultaneously is to directly deposit thin film piezoelectric actuators on the back surface of thin, lightweight Wolter-I or Wolter- Schwarschild mirror segments. The actuators are used to correct mirror figure errors due to fabrication, mounting and alignment, using calibration and a one-time figure adjustment on the ground. If necessary, it will also be possible to correct for residual gravity release and thermal effects on-orbit. In this paper we discuss our most recent results measuring influence functions of the piezoelectric actuators using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We describe accelerated and real-time lifetime testing of the piezoelectric material, and we also discuss changes to, and recent results of, our simulations of mirror correction.

  16. Population-Based Age Group Specific Annual Incidence Rates of Symptomatic Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. Methods. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. Results. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). Conclusion: The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD. PMID:25674187

  17. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction factor... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments in the age reduction factor...

  18. Modeling age-specific cancer incidences using logistic growth equations: implications for data collection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xing-Rong; Feng, Rui; Chai, Jing; Cheng, Jing; Wang, De-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Large scale secular registry or surveillance systems have been accumulating vast data that allow mathematical modeling of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Most contemporary models in this regard use time series and APC (age-period-cohort) methods and focus primarily on predicting or analyzing cancer epidemiology with little attention being paid to implications for designing cancer registry, surveillance or evaluation initiatives. This research models age-specific cancer incidence rates using logistic growth equations and explores their performance under different scenarios of data completeness in the hope of deriving clues for reshaping relevant data collection. The study used China Cancer Registry Report 2012 as the data source. It employed 3-parameter logistic growth equations and modeled the age-specific incidence rates of all and the top 10 cancers presented in the registry report. The study performed 3 types of modeling, namely full age-span by fitting, multiple 5-year- segment fitting and single-segment fitting. Measurement of model performance adopted adjusted goodness of fit that combines sum of squred residuals and relative errors. Both model simulation and performance evalation utilized self-developed algorithms programed using C# languade and MS Visual Studio 2008. For models built upon full age-span data, predicted age-specific cancer incidence rates fitted very well with observed values for most (except cervical and breast) cancers with estimated goodness of fit (Rs) being over 0.96. When a given cancer is concerned, the R valuae of the logistic growth model derived using observed data from urban residents was greater than or at least equal to that of the same model built on data from rural people. For models based on multiple-5-year-segment data, the Rs remained fairly high (over 0.89) until 3-fourths of the data segments were excluded. For models using a fixed length single-segment of observed data, the older the age covered by the corresponding

  19. Sexual incidents in an extended care unit for aged men.

    PubMed

    Szasz, G

    1983-07-01

    A survey was conducted among the nursing staff of a 400-bed extended-care unit for aged men by questionnaire to find out what patient behaviors were identified as sexual by the staff and how they reacted to these behaviors. Three types of behavior were identified as sexual and as "causing problems": sex talk (e.g., using foul language); sexual acts (e.g., touching or grabbing, exposing genitalia); and implied sexual behavior (e.g., openly reading pornographic magazines). As many as 25 per cent of the residents were thought to create such incidents. Acceptable sexual behavior identified by the staff were limited to hugging and kissing on the cheek, although their answers implied that residents could need more intimate touching and affection. The survey raised questions about the nature and causes of different types of sexual behavior in the institutionalized elderly and about the roles nursing staff, physicians, and administrators can play in recognizing individual needs while safeguarding both the residents and the staff from the consequences of unacceptable incidents. PMID:6863791

  20. Endocrine determinants of incident sarcopenia in middle-aged and elderly European men

    PubMed Central

    Gielen, Evelien; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Adams, Judith E; Wu, Frederick C; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Ward, Kate A; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background In men, the long-term consequences of low serum levels of sex steroids, vitamin D metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the evolution of muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance are unclear. Moreover, there are no data about the relationship between these hormones and incident sarcopenia defined as low muscle mass and function. The aim of this study was to determine whether the baseline levels of sex hormones, vitamin D metabolites, and IGF-1 predict changes in muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and incident sarcopenia. Methods In 518 men aged 40–79 years, recruited for participation in the European Male Ageing Study, total, free, and bioavailable testosterone (T), oestradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and parathyroid hormone were assessed at baseline. Appendicular lean mass (aLM), gait speed, and grip strength were measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 4.3 years. Sarcopenia was defined by the definition of Baumgartner (relative aLM ≤7.26 kg/m2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Results aLM significantly decreased from age 50 years, while gait speed and grip strength significantly decreased from age 70 years. The incidence of sarcopenia by the definitions of Baumgartner, IWGS, and EWGSOP was 8.1%, 3.0%, and 1.6%, respectively. After adjustment for age, centre, body mass index, smoking, and number of comorbidities at baseline, baseline levels of T and vitamin D metabolites were not associated with change in aLM, gait speed, and/or grip strength, while a high baseline level of total E2 was associated with a greater decrease in aLM. In men aged ≥70 years, low IGF-1 was associated with a greater decrease in gait speed. Baseline endocrine variables were not independently associated with an increased risk of incident

  1. Lipids, Lipid Genes and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Three Continent Age-Related Macular Degeneration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Rochtchina, Elena; Gao, Xiaoyi; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Burlutsky, George; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Hofman, Albert; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Wang, Jie Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe associations of serum lipid levels and lipid pathway genes to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Meta-analysis. Methods Setting Three population-based cohorts. Population 6950 participants from the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) and Rotterdam Study (RS). Observation Procedures Participants were followed over 20 years and examined at 5-year intervals. Hazard ratios (HRs) associated with lipid levels per standard deviation above the mean or associated with each additional risk allele for each lipid pathway gene were calculated using random-effects inverse-weighted meta-analysis models, adjusting for known AMD risk factors. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of AMD. Results The average 5-year incidences of early AMD were 8.1%, 15.1%, and 13.0% in the BDES, BMES, and RS, respectively. Substantial heterogeneity in the effect of cholesterol and lipid pathway genes on the incidence and progression of AMD was evident when the data from the three studies were combined in meta-analysis. After correction for multiple comparisons, we did not find a statistically significant association between any of the cholesterol measures, statin use, or serum lipid genes and any of the AMD outcomes in the meta-analysis. Conclusion In a meta-analysis, there were no associations of cholesterol measures, history of statin use, or lipid pathway genes to the incidence and progression of AMD. These findings add to inconsistencies in earlier reports from our studies and others showing weak associations, no associations, or inverse associations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol with AMD. PMID:24879949

  2. The Relation of Age to Personality Adjustment among DWI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meck, Donald S.; Baither, Rick

    1980-01-01

    Involved the assessment of perceived adjustment among individuals court assigned to DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) classes. Individuals 25 years and younger reported significantly higher levels of perceived maladjustment and emotional upset. Sex was related to interpersonal behavior. (Author)

  3. Adjustable Grazing Incidence X-ray Optics with 0.5 Arc Second Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul

    We seek to develop adjustable grazing incidence optics for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this development is thin, lightweight mirrors with angular resolution of 0.5 arc seconds, comparable to the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The new mirror design consists of thin segments of a Wolter-I grazing incidence mirror, with piezo-electric material deposited directly on the back surface of the mirror. Depositing a pattern of independently addressable electrodes on top of the piezoelectric material produces an array of independent piezo cells. Energizing a particular cell introduces a localized deformation in the mirror without the need for a reaction structure. By applying the appropriate voltage to the piezo cells, it is possible to correct mirror figure errors that result from mirror fabrication, gravity release, mounting, and thermal effects. Because the thin mirrors segments are lightweight, they can be densely nested to produce collecting area thirty times that of Chandra, on an affordably priced mission. This Supporting Technology program is a follow-on to an existing APRA program. In the existing program we demonstrated the first successful deposition of piezoelectric material on thermally formed glass substrates. We showed that the localized deformations produced by the piezo cells match finite element predictions, and the piezo cell adjustment range meets requirements necessary to achieve the desired figure correction. We have also shown through simulation that representative mirror figure errors can be corrected via modeled influence functions to achieve 0.5 arc sec imaging performance. This provides a firm foundation on which to develop further the technology. We will continue to optimize the deposition of thin piezoelectric films onto thermally formed glass and electroplated metal mirror segments to improve yield and manufacturability. We will deposit piezoelectric material onto conical mirror segments and demonstrate figure correction in agreement with prediction

  4. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  5. Relationship between Age and Timely Placement of Vascular Access in Incident Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Rubette; Clark, Mary Jo; Norris, Keith C.; Yan, Guofen

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Placement of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) prior to initiating dialysis can affect clinical outcomes for patients who subsequently initiate chronic hemodialysis treatments. Age-related variation in receipt of a functioning AVF prior to initiating dialysis is not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine age-related rates in use of AVF at the first outpatient dialysis treatment among U.S. incident patients on hemodialysis. Findings Among 526,145 identified, the use of AVF at the first outpatient dialysis treatment was lower in the youngest (<55 year) and oldest (≥80 year) vs. both 55–66 year and 67–79 year age groups. These findings persisted after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle behavior, employment and insurance status, physical/functional conditions, and comorbid conditions. Conclusions The presence of a functioning AVF at initial dialysis treatment varies by age. Modifying healthcare policy and/or expanding the role of the renal nurse practitioner should be considered to address this issue. PMID:25802137

  6. 77 FR 71354 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ...This rule increases the rail equipment accident/incident reporting threshold from $9,500 to $9,900 for certain railroad accidents/incidents involving property damage that occur during calendar year 2013. This action is needed to ensure that FRA's reporting requirements reflect cost increases that have occurred since the reporting threshold was last published in November of...

  7. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  8. School Entry Age and Future Adjustment of Inner City Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William R.

    Randomly selected fourth grade teachers completed the Peterson and Quay Behavior Problem Checklist on 304 inner city children classified according to their age at entry into kindergarten. Findings revealed that earlier entry age children (children who were comparatively young when they started school) scored highest on the conduct subtest of the…

  9. Declines in Coronary Heart Disease Incidence and Mortality among Middle-Aged Adults with and without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Tanner, Rikki M.; Yun, Huifeng; Glasser, Stephen P.; Woolley, J. Michael; Thacker, Evan L.; Levitan, Emily B.; Farkouh, Michael E.; Rosenson, Robert S.; Brown, Todd M.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate secular changes in CHD incidence and mortality among adults with and without diabetes and determine the effect of increased lipid-lowering medication use and reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels on these changes. Methods We analyzed data on participants aged 45–64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study in 1987–1996 (early time period) and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study in 2003–2009 (late time period). Hazard ratios (HR) for the association of diabetes and time period with incident CHD and CHD mortality were obtained after adjustment for socio-demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, lipid-lowering medication use, and LDL-C. Results After multivariable adjustment, diabetes was associated with an increased CHD risk during the early (HR=1.99,95% CI=1.59,2.49) and late (HR=2.39,95% CI=1.69,3.35) time periods. CHD incidence and mortality declined between the early and late time periods for individuals with and without diabetes. Increased use of lipid-lowering medication and lower LDL-C explained 33.6% and 27.2% of the decline in CHD incidence and CHD mortality, respectively, for those with diabetes. Conclusions Although rates have declined, diabetes remains associated with an increased risk of CHD incidence and mortality, highlighting the need for continuing diabetes prevention and cardiovascular risk factor management. PMID:24970491

  10. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  11. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Verneau; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes. PMID:26497989

  12. Bias From Using Occupational Smoking Prevalence to Adjust Occupational Incidence Cohort Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how smoking correction factors based on comparing worker smoking prevalence with population smoking prevalence are biased if applied to an occupational incidence cohort. Methods: Relative rates of smoking for shorter-tenure workers derived from occupational cohort lung cancer studies were applied to incidence and prevalence population tenure distributions to calculate relative smoking estimates. Results: High smoking rates in short-tenure workers have little effect on prevalent worker rates (relative smoking estimates, 1.04 and 1.02) and much larger effect in occupational incidence populations (relative smoking estimates, 1.58 and 1.21), which have a much higher proportion of short tenure-workers. Conclusions: Smoking correction estimates derived from surveys of smoking habits in prevalent workers may introduce bias when applied to incidence workers because of very different proportions of short-tenure workers (length-time biased sampling). PMID:25427172

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of Incidents Reported by Community Aged Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Amina; Douglas, Heather E; Smith, Cheryl; Georgiou, Andrew; Osmond, Tracey; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the types of incidents that occur to aged care clients in the community. This limits the development of effective strategies to improve client safety. The objective of the study was to present a profile of incidents reported in Australian community aged care settings. All incident reports made by community care workers employed by one of the largest community aged care provider organizations in Australia during the period November 1, 2012, to August 8, 2013, were analyzed. A total of 356 reports were analyzed, corresponding to a 7.5% incidence rate per client year. Falls and medication incidents were the most prevalent incident types. Clients receiving high-level care and those who attended day therapy centers had the highest rate of incidents with 14% to 20% of these clients having a reported incident. The incident profile indicates that clients on higher levels of care had higher incident rates. Incident data represent an opportunity to improve client safety in community aged care. PMID:25526960

  14. 78 FR 77601 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Federal agencies to prepare a Statement of Energy Effects for any ``significant energy action.'' 66 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 225 RIN 2130-ZA12 Adjustment of Monetary Threshold...

  15. Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics based on thin PZT films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Marquez, Vanessa; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.

    2012-10-01

    The direct deposition of piezoelectric thin films on thin substrates offers an appealing technology for the realization of lightweight adjustable mirrors capable of sub-arcsecond resolution. This solution will make it possible to realize X-ray telescopes with both large effective area and exceptional angular resolution and, in particular, it will enable the realization of the adjustable optics for the proposed mission Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution X-ray Telescope (SMART-X). In the past years we demonstrated for the first time the possibility of depositing a working piezoelectric thin film (1-5 um) made of lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on glass. Here we review the recent progress in film deposition and influence function characterization and comparison with finite element models. The suitability of the deposited films is analyzed and some constrains on the piezoelectric film performances are derived. The future steps in the development of the technology are described.

  16. Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics: measurement of actuator influence functions and comparison with modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.

    2011-09-01

    The present generation of X-ray telescopes emphasizes either high image quality (e.g. Chandra with sub-arc second resolution) or large effective area (e.g. XMM-Newton), while future observatories under consideration (e.g. Athena, AXSIO) aim to greatly enhance the effective area, while maintaining moderate (~10 arc-seconds) image quality. To go beyond the limits of present and planned missions, the use of thin adjustable optics for the control of low-order figure error is needed to obtain the high image quality of precisely figured mirrors along with the large effective area of thin mirrors. The adjustable mirror prototypes under study at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory are based on two different principles and designs: 1) thin film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric actuators directly deposited on the mirror back surface, with the strain direction parallel to the glass surface (for sub-arc-second angular resolution and large effective area), and 2) conventional leadmagnesium- niobate (PMN) electrostrictive actuators with their strain direction perpendicular to the mirror surface (for 3-5 arc second resolution and moderate effective area). We have built and operated flat test mirrors of these adjustable optics. We present the comparison between theoretical influence functions as obtained by finite element analysis and the measured influence functions obtained from the two test configurations.

  17. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, N K; Linn, F H H; van der Plas, J A; Algra, A; Rinkel, G J E

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim To update our 1996 review on the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and assess the relation of incidence with region, age, gender and time period. Methods We searched for studies on the incidence of SAH published until October 2005. The overall incidences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We determined the relationship between the incidence of SAH and determinants by means of univariate Poisson regression. Results We included 51 studies (33 new), describing 58 study populations in 21 countries, observing 45 821 896 person‐years. Incidences per 100 000 person‐years were 22.7 (95% CI 21.9 to 23.5) in Japan, 19.7 (18.1 to 21.3) in Finland, 4.2 (3.1 to 5.7) in South and Central America, and 9.1 (8.8 to 9.5) in the other regions. With age category 45–55 years as the reference, incidence ratios increased from 0.10 (0.08 to 0.14) for age groups younger than 25 years to 1.61 (1.24 to 2.07) for age groups older than 85 years. The incidence in women was 1.24 (1.09 to 1.42) times higher than in men; this gender difference started at age 55 years and increased thereafter. Between 1950 and 2005, the incidence decreased by 0.6% (1.3% decrease to 0.1% increase) per year. Conclusions The overall incidence of SAH is approximately 9 per 100 000 person‐years. Rates are higher in Japan and Finland and increase with age. The preponderance of women starts only in the sixth decade. The decline in incidence of SAH over the past 45 years is relatively moderate compared with that for stroke in general. PMID:17470467

  18. Using linked birth, notification, hospital and mortality data to examine false-positive meningococcal disease reporting and adjust disease incidence estimates for children in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, A; Jorm, L; McIntyre, P

    2015-09-01

    Meningococcal disease is a rare, rapidly progressing condition which may be difficult to diagnose, disproportionally affects children, and has high morbidity and mortality. Accurate incidence estimates are needed to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination and treatment. We used linked notification, hospital, mortality and birth data for all children of an Australian state (2000-2007) to estimate the incidence of meningococcal disease. A total of 595 cases were notified, 684 cases had a hospital diagnosis, and 26 cases died from meningococcal disease. All deaths were notified, but only 68% (466/684) of hospitalized cases. Of non-notified hospitalized cases with more than one clinical admission, most (90%, 103/114) did not have meningococcal disease recorded as their final diagnosis, consistent with initial 'false-positive' hospital meningococcal disease diagnosis. After adjusting for false-positive rates in hospital data, capture-recapture estimation suggested that up to four cases of meningococcal disease may not have been captured in either notification or hospital records. The estimated incidence of meningococcal disease in NSW-born and -resident children aged 0-14 years was 5·1-5·4 cases/100 000 child-years at risk, comparable to international estimates using similar methods, but lower than estimates based on hospital data. PMID:25573266

  19. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  20. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  1. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P.

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of cancers varies with age, if normalized this is called the age-specific incidence. A mathematical model that describes this variation should provide a better understanding of how cancers develop. We suggest that the age-specific incidence should follow an extreme value distribution, based on three widely accepted assumptions: (1) a tumor develops from a single cell, (2) many potential tumor progenitor cells exist in a tissue, and (3) cancer is diagnosed when the first of these many potential tumor cells develops into a tumor. We tested this by comparing the predicted distribution to the age-specific incidence data for colon and prostate carcinomas collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results network of 17 cancer registries. We found that colon carcinoma age-specific incidence data is consistent with an extreme value distribution, while prostate carcinomas age-specific incidence data generally follows the distribution. This model indicates that both colon and prostate carcinomas only occur in a subset of the population (22% for prostate and 13.5% for colon.) Because of their very general nature, extreme value distributions might be applicable to understanding other chronic human diseases.

  2. High serum adiponectin levels predict incident falls among middle-aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Cui, Yufei; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. However, higher circulating adiponectin levels are related to poor muscle function and physical disability, which suggests a potential link between adiponectin and risk of falls. Nevertheless, no direct association between circulating adiponectin levels and incident fall risk has been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and incident falls in a population of middle-aged and older adults. Design: a prospective cohort study. Setting: Oroshisho Center in Sendai City, Japan. Subjects: Japanese adults who were ≥45 years old (n = 430). Measurements: serum adiponectin levels were measured at baseline, and the subjects were divided into sex-specific tertiles. Data regarding a history of falls were collected via participant recall using a self-reported questionnaire. Incident falls were defined as falls that were experienced by people without a history of falls at baseline. Results: during the 2-year follow-up, 15.6% (67/430) of the subjects experienced an incident fall. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, incident falls were significantly more frequent across the increasing sex-specific serum adiponectin tertiles (P for trend = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident falls were 2.31 (1.07–4.98) in the middle tertile and 3.61 (1.63–7.99) in the highest tertile; this risk was significantly higher than that for the lowest adiponectin tertile (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions: the findings of this prospective cohort study indicate that higher serum adiponectin levels may be a predictor of incident falls. PMID:27013505

  3. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  4. Trimodal age-specific incidence patterns for Burkitt lymphoma in the United States, 1973-2005.

    PubMed

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Anderson, William F; Bhatia, Kishor; Rosenberg, Philip S; Linet, Martha S; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a unique B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with 3 established clinical-epidemiological variants: endemic, sporadic and AIDS-related BL. BL variants show characteristic dysregulation of MYC gene, but the causes of MYC dysregulation or BL arising at different ages are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined population-based BL incidence patterns in the United States to determine age-related risk. BL case and population data were obtained from the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Databases (1973-2005). Standard cross-sectional age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates were stratified by sex and race and supplemented with age-period-cohort models. We analyzed 3,058 BL cases diagnosed during 1,160,300,297 person-years of observation. Age-standardized incidence rates rose 6.8% per year (95% CI 4.5-9.1) for males and 7.1% (95% CI 3.2-11.1) for females during the study period. The rate among males was 3.2 times that among females, and among Whites 1.3 times that among Blacks. Male-to-female incidence rate ratios did not differ by race, but were 4.2 for pediatric (0-19 years), 4.1 for adult (20-59 years) and 2.0 for geriatric (> or = 60 years) BL. Cross-sectional age-specific rates showed 2 separate peaks among males and females, near ages 10 and 75 years, and a 3rd peak near age 40 years among males. The tri/bimodal incidence pattern was present in sensitivity analyses excluding registries with many HIV/AIDS cases and in period-specific, cohort-specific analyses. To our knowledge, tri/bimodal incidence patterns have not previously been reported for BL. Trimodal/bimodal BL suggests heterogeneity in etiology or biology of BL diagnosed at different ages in males and females. PMID:19810101

  5. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  6. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  7. Lithium-ion Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve modelling and its ageing adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, L.; Sabatier, J.; Francisco, J. Mbala; Guillemard, F.; Noury, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a contribution to lithium-ion batteries modelling taking into account aging effects. It first analyses the impact of aging on electrode stoichiometry and then on lithium-ion cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. Through some hypotheses and an appropriate definition of the cell state of charge, it shows that each electrode equilibrium potential, but also the whole cell equilibrium potential can be modelled by a polynomial that requires only one adjustment parameter during aging. An adjustment algorithm, based on the idea that for two fixed OCVs, the state of charge between these two equilibrium states is unique for a given aging level, is then proposed. Its efficiency is evaluated on a battery pack constituted of four cells.

  8. Age at First Drink and the First Incidence of Adult-Onset DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah A.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Existing studies of the association between age at first drink (AFD) and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) suffer from inconsistent levels of control and designs that may inflate associations by failure to control for duration of exposure to risk. Methods This study examined associations between AFD (ages <15 and 15-17 versus 18+ years) and first incidence of DSM-IV alcohol dependence, abuse, and specific AUD criteria over a 3-year follow-up in a longitudinal study of U.S. drinkers 18 years of age and older at baseline (n=22,316), controlling for duration of exposure, family history and a wide range of baseline and childhood risk factors. Results After adjusting for all risk factors, the incidence of dependence was increased for AFD <15 years (OR=1.38) and for women only with AFD at ages 15-17 (OR=1.54). The incidence of abuse was increased at AFD <15 and 15-17 years (OR=1.52 and 1.30, respectively). Most dependence criteria showed significant associations with AFD, but hazardous drinking and continued drinking despite interpersonal problems were the only abuse criteria to do so. All associations were nonsignificant after controlling for volume of consumption, except that AFD at all ages <18 combined was associated with a reduced likelihood of impaired control and AFD at ages 15-17 was associated with lower odds of drinking more/longer than intended among heavy-volume drinkers. In a population of low-risk drinkers that excluded those with positive family histories, personality disorders and childhood risk factors, there were strong associations between early AFD (<18) and the incidence of dependence (OR=3.79) and continued drinking despite physical/psychological problems (OR=2.71), but no association with incidence of abuse. Conclusions There is a robust association between AFD and the risk of AUD that appears to reflect willful rather than uncontrolled heavy drinking, consistent with misuse governed by poor decision-making and/or reward

  9. The Relationship between Dimensions of Interparental Conflict and Adjustment in College-Age Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Rochelle F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents research from a recently completed study investigating the relationship between college-age offsprings' perceptions of several dimensions of interparental conflict and indicants of adjustment. Analysis revealed that frequency of interparental conflict was the most important predictor of depression, externalizing behavior problems, and…

  10. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  11. Post-Retirement Adjustment: Effective Coping with the Stresses of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.

    A study was conducted to examine the role of positive and negative life circumstances and individual coping factors in the psychological adjustment of older individuals. Interviews were conducted with 32 men and 32 women between the ages of 65 and 75 who were retired from mid-level or managerial jobs at the University of Texas. Most of the…

  12. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  13. Colorado IDDM Registry. Incidence and validation of IDDM in children aged 0-17 yr.

    PubMed

    Hamman, R F; Gay, E C; Cruickshanks, K J; Cook, M; Lezotte, D C; Klingensmith, G J; Chase, H P

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) among children aged 0-17 yr for age, sex, season, and urban and rural residence of onset in Colorado. Retrospective registration of new-onset cases was conducted from 1978 to 1980, and then prospective registration continued through 1983 with the use of physician reporting with hospital validation. The annual incidence of IDDM was 15.2/100,000 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.1, 16.3), with little difference between the sexes. The highest incidence was in the 10- to 14-yr age-group for both sexes. There was a seasonal peak of winter onset in those aged 10-17 yr, with similar patterns between sex and ethnic groups. No temporal trend over the 6 yr was seen, although an excess of cases was seen for 15- to 17-yr-old boys in 1980-1982. Rates were similar for urban and rural areas of the state. Case ascertainment was estimated to be 93.2% complete (95% CI 91.5, 95.5). Incidence was similar in Colorado to other populations in the United States at similar latitudes. These data serve as a baseline for evaluation of changes in incidence over time, by region, and for the identification of possible outbreaks. PMID:2351028

  14. Influence of Age on Incident Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Prostate Cancer Survivors Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morgans, Alicia K.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Koyama, Tatsuki; Albertsen, Peter C.; Goodman, Michael; Hamilton, Ann S.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Resnick, Matthew J.; Barocas, Daniel A.; Penson, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Observational data suggest that androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Using data from the population based PCOS we evaluated whether age at diagnosis and comorbidity impact the association of androgen deprivation therapy with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods We identified men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer diagnosed from 1994 to 1995 who were followed through 2009 to 2010. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the relationship of androgen deprivation therapy exposure (2 or fewer years, greater than 2 years or none) with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease, adjusting for age at diagnosis, race, stage and comorbidity. Results Of 3,526 eligible study participants 2,985 without diabetes and 3,112 without cardiovascular disease comprised the cohorts at risk. Androgen deprivation therapy was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in men diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 70 years. Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy and increasing age at diagnosis in older men was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (at age 76 years OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.4) and cardiovascular disease (at age 74 years OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.5). Men with comorbidities were at greater risk for diabetes (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.3–7.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 8.1, 95% CI 4.3–15.5) than men without comorbidities. Conclusions Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer who are older than approximately 75 years, especially those with other comorbidities. Older men who receive prolonged androgen deprivation therapy should be closely monitored for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25451829

  15. Prevalence and Incidence of Memory Complaints in Employed Compared to Non-Employed Aged 55–64 Years and the Role of Employment Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of employment status and characteristics with prevalent and incident memory complaints (MC) in 55–64-year-olds. Methods Subjects were participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Respondents with baseline data were selected to examine the association of employment status (n = 1525) and employment characteristics (n = 1071) with prevalent MC (i.e., MC at baseline). Respondents without MC at baseline were selected to examine the association of employment (n = 526) and employment characteristics (n = 379; working hours, job prestige, job level, psychological job demands, iso-strain) with incident MC (i.e., no MC at baseline and MC at three-year follow-up). Associations were adjusted for relevant covariates (demographics, memory performance, physical health, mental health, personality traits). Logistic regression was applied. Data were weighed according to gender and age of the Dutch population. Results At baseline 20.5% reported MC. At three-year follow-up, 15.4% had incident MC. No associations were found between employment status and MC. Adjusted analysis revealed that individuals with high occupational cognitive demands were more likely to have prevalent MC. Conclusions Middle-aged workers are equally as likely to experience MC as non-working age-peers. Among workers, those with cognitively demanding work were more likely to experience MC, independent of memory performance. Memory decline due to ageing may be noticed sooner in 55–64-year-olds performing cognitively demanding work. PMID:25742133

  16. Incidence of airflow limitation in subjects 65-100 years of age.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Johannes A; Elmståhl, Sölve; Wollmer, Per; Pihlsgård, Mats

    2016-02-01

    The true incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is largely unknown, because the few longitudinal studies performed have used diagnostic criteria no longer recommended by either the European Respiratory Society or the American Thoracic Society (ATS).We studied the incidence and significance of airflow limitation in a population-based geriatric sample using both an age-dependent predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) value and a fixed-ratio spirometric criterion.Out of 2025 subjects with acceptable spirometry at baseline, 984 subjects aged 65-100 years completed a 6-year follow-up visit. Smoking habits were registered at baseline. Exclusion criteria were non-acceptable spirometry performance according to ATS criteria and inability to communicate. Airflow limitation was defined both according to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and incidence of airflow limitation per 1000 person-years was 28.2 using a fixed ratio and 11.7 with LLN, corresponding to a 1.41-fold higher incidence rate using a fixed ratio. The incidence increased dramatically with age when using a fixed ratio, but less so when using LLN. In addition, a sex effect was observed with the LLN criterion. LLN airflow limitation was associated with increased 5-year mortality. Presence of fixed-ratio airflow limitation in individuals classified by LLN as non-obstructive was not associated with increased mortality. PMID:26677939

  17. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-03-01

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm.

  18. Relative Age Effects in Athletic Sprinting and Corrective Adjustments as a Solution for Their Removal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Relative Age Effects (RAEs) refer to the selection and performance differentials between children and youth who are categorized in annual-age groups. In the context of Swiss 60m athletic sprinting, 7761 male athletes aged 8 – 15 years were analysed, with this study examining whether: (i) RAE prevalence changed across annual age groups and according to performance level (i.e., all athletes, Top 50%, 25% & 10%); (ii) whether the relationship between relative age and performance could be quantified, and corrective adjustments applied to test if RAEs could be removed. Part one identified that when all athletes were included, typical RAEs were evident, with smaller comparative effect sizes, and progressively reduced with older age groups. However, RAE effect sizes increased linearly according to performance level (i.e., all athletes – Top 10%) regardless of age group. In part two, all athletes born in each quartile, and within each annual age group, were entered into linear regression analyses. Results identified that an almost one year relative age difference resulted in mean expected performance differences of 10.1% at age 8, 8.4% at 9, 6.8% at 10, 6.4% at 11, 6.0% at 12, 6.3% at 13, 6.7% at 14, and 5.3% at 15. Correction adjustments were then calculated according to day, month, quarter, and year, and used to demonstrate that RAEs can be effectively removed from all performance levels, and from Swiss junior sprinting more broadly. Such procedures could hold significant implications for sport participation as well as for performance assessment, evaluation, and selection during athlete development. PMID:25844642

  19. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use. An Adjustment for Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline over time with increasing age in asthma symptoms and health care use of children. Develop a statistical procedure that enables adjustment that accounts for expected declines in these outcomes and is useable when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Methods: Mixed-effects models with mixture distributions were used to describe the pattern of symptoms and health care use in 3,021 children aged 2 to 15 years in a combined sample from three controlled trials. An adaptive least squares estimation was used to account for overestimation of intervention effects and make adjustments for pre-post only data. Termed “Adjustment for Natural Declines in Asthma Outcomes (ANDAO),” the adjustment method uses bootstrap sampling to create control cohorts comparable to subjects in the intervention study from existing control subjects. ANDAO accounts for expected declines in outcomes and is beneficial when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Measurements and Main Results: Children under 10 years of age experienced 18% (95% confidence interval, 15–21%) fewer symptom days and 28% (95% confidence interval, 24–32%) fewer symptom nights with each additional year of age. The decline was less than 10% after age 10 years, depending on baseline asthma severity. Emergency department visits declined regardless of baseline symptom frequency (P = 0.02). The adjustment method corrected estimates to within 2.4% of true effects through simulations using control cohorts. Conclusions: Because of the declines in symptoms and health care use expected with increasing age of children with asthma, pre

  20. Higher Serum Direct Bilirubin Levels Were Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Middle Aged Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Zhang, Yiyi; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung; Park, Hyosoon; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Son, Hee Jung; Cho, Juhee; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between serum bilirubin levels and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between serum bilirubin concentration (total, direct, and indirect) and the risk of incident CKD. Methods and Findings Longitudinal cohort study of 12,823 Korean male workers 30 to 59 years old without CKD or proteinuria at baseline participating in medical health checkup program in a large worksite. Study participants were followed for incident CKD from 2002 through 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Parametric Cox models and pooled logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for incident CKD. We observed 238 incident cases of CKD during 70,515.8 person-years of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, the hazard ratios for CKD comparing quartiles 2–4 vs. quartile 1 of serum direct bilirubin were 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.28), 0.88 (0.60–1.27) and 0.60 (0.42–0.88), respectively. In multivariable models, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of serum direct bilirubin levels was 0.60 (95% CI 0.41–0.87; P trend = 0.01). Neither serum total nor indirect bilirubin levels were significantly associated with the incidence of CKD. Conclusions Higher serum direct bilirubin levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CKD, even adjusting for a variety of cardiometabolic parameters. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association and to establish the role of serum direct bilirubin as a marker for CKD risk. PMID:24586219

  1. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  2. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  3. Five-year incidence, progression and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Fridbert; Fisher, Diana E.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Klein, Ronald; Launer, Lenore J; Harris, Tamara; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence and progression of age related m acular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Participants 2868 participants from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study with retinal data at baseline and five-year follow-up. Methods Digital macular photographs were graded for presence of AMD. Participants completed a questionnaire and extensive clinical battery. Biomarkers were assessed. Risk factors for AMD were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Main outcome measures AMD, defined as early or late. Results Among 2196 participants free of AMD at baseline, 14.9% developed incident AMD. In multivariate models, incident AMD was significantly associated with age (OR per year 1.14 (95% CI 1.11, 1.17)), current smoking (OR 2.07 (1.38, 3.11)), former smoking (OR 1.36 (1.04, 1.79)), plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (OR 1.62 per mmol/L (1.19, 2.22)), and body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.04 per kg/m2 (1.01, 1.07)). Among 563 participants with early AMD at baseline, 22.7% progressed to late AMD (11.0% pure geographic atrophy (GA) and 11.7% exudative AMD). In multivariate analyses, age was significantly associated with progression to GA (OR 1.14 (1.07, 1.21)) and exudative AMD (OR 1.08 (1.01, 1.14)). Adjusting for age, female sex was associated with exudative AMD (OR 2.10 (1.10, 3.98)) and plasma HDL cholesterol with GA (OR 2.03 per mmol/L (1.02, 4.05)). Conclusion By age 85 years, 57.4% of participants had signs of AMD. Age, smoking, plasma HDL cholesterol, BMI and female sex are associated with AMD. Elevated HDL cholesterol is associated with GA development. PMID:24768241

  4. Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Incident Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Antonio B.; Panza, Gregory A.; Cramer, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Saurav; Jayaraman, Ramya; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss and blindness in people over 65 years old in the United States and has been associated with cardiovascular risk and decreased survival. There is conflicting data, however, regarding the contribution of AMD to the prediction of stroke. Aim To determine whether AMD is a risk indicator for incident stroke in a meta-analysis of available prospective and retrospective cohort studies published in the English literature. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of all studies published in English with Pub Med and other databases from 1966 to August 2014, reporting stroke incidence in patients with macular degeneration. Two investigators independently extracted the data. A random effects model was used to report Odds ratios (OR), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-regression using a mixed linear model was used to understand potential heterogeneity amongst studies. Results We identified 9 studies that reported stroke incidence in patients with and without early AMD (N = 1,420,978). No significant association was found between early AMD with incident stroke. Combined, these 9 studies demonstrated random effects (OR, 1.12; CI, 0.86–1.47; I2 = 96%). Meta-regression on baseline covariates of age, sex, and year of publication did not significantly relate to heterogeneity. Conclusions We found no significant relationship between AMD and incident stroke. Further studies are needed to clarify other causes of decreased survival in patients with AMD. PMID:26580396

  5. Age incidence and site distribution of mammary dysplasias in young beagle bitches.

    PubMed

    Warner, M R

    1976-07-01

    The age incidence and site distribution of 2,142 mammary dysplasias were documented for 39 beagle bitches 6 months to 4 years of age. Lesion onset was at 2-3 years of age, at which time more than 50% of the females had dysplasias. Dysplasias appeared before palpable tumors. Posterior mammae developed more lesions than did anterior mammae. Thus the gradient for early onset of lesions coincided with the gradient for tumor frequency reported previously; a preneoplastic potential is suggested for (some) dysplasias. Problems of defining normal tissue are discussed. PMID:1034018

  6. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Peter J.; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D.; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating “close” (shared conversation) and “casual” (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5–6 times higher (2.5%–10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  7. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Peter J; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating "close" (shared conversation) and "casual" (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5-6 times higher (2.5%-10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  8. PAFS: population-adjusted frequency of sensitization. (I) Influence of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A

    1996-06-01

    Sensitization rates are influenced by sex and age. Crude rates from different departments cannot be compared without taking into account these variables. However, the influence of sex and age has never been considered quantitatively. In 2 hypothetical populations with identical age-specific sensitizations rates, but differing age distributions, the influence of age on the overall sensitization rate (crude rate) is demonstrated. Furthermore, by an abstract reflection on rates, the influence of the proportions of a population category (e.g., age) on crude rates is shown (crude rate = sigma (category-specific rate x proportion of population in category)). To account for differing distributions of sex and age, we propose 2 ways. Sex-specific rates should be presented separately. Age-specific rates should be standardized. The standard rate is defined as: SR = sigma (category specific rate x proportion of standard population in category). Using a standard population with a rectangular structure (i.e., with equal proportions in each of the category (age) specific groups), the standardized rate is the arithmetic average of the category (age) specific rate. Only for simple routine evaluations can a standard population with 2 equal groups be used, namely over 39 years and under 40 years. The standardized rate can easily be calculated as SR: (positive rate (%under 40 + positive rate (%) over 39)/2. The general rule should be to use a "rectangular" standard population with 9 age groups of a 10-year sequence. By using the standardization procedure; remaining differences found in different departments can no longer be attributed to age and sex. Other factors, such as selection of patients or real epidemiological differences, can then be discussed. The application of population-adjusted frequency of sensitization (PAFS) in any publication on prevalences of sensitization is highly recommended. PMID:8879920

  9. Relation of smoking to the incidence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Klein, B E; Moss, S E

    1998-01-15

    To date, a number of reports have been published on the relation of cigarette smoking to age-related maculopathy, an important cause of blindness in the United States. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking and the incidence of age-related maculopathy. In this report, the authors examine this association in persons aged 43-86 years (n = 3,583) at baseline who were participants in the baseline examination and 5-year follow-up of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (1988-1990 and 1993-1995). Exposure data on cigarette smoking were obtained from questions about present and past smoking, duration of smoking, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Age-related maculopathy status was determined by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. After controlling for age, sex, vitamin supplement use, and beer consumption, men who smoked greater amounts of cigarettes were more likely to develop early age-related maculopathy (odds ratio (OR) per 10 pack-years smoked = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.13, p = 0.06) than men who had smoked less. This association was not observed in women. Men (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.09-9.45) and women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.04-4.66) who were current smokers at the time of the baseline examination had significantly higher odds of developing large drusen (> or = 250 microns in diameter) after 5 years than those who had never smoked or who quit before the baseline study. Current or past history of cigarette smoking was not related to the incidence of retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation. The authors conclude that smoking appears to be related to the incidence of some lesions associated with early age-related maculopathy. PMID:9456998

  10. A two decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, F. E.; Stephan, B. C. M.; Robinson, L.; Jagger, C.; Barnes, L. E.; Arthur, A.; Brayne, C.; Comas-Herrera, A.; Wittenberg, R.; Dening, T.; McCracken, C.F.M.; Moody, C.; Parry, B.; Green, E.; Barnes, R.; Warwick, J.; Gao, L.; Mattison, A.; Baldwin, C.; Harrison, S.; Woods, B.; McKeith, I.G.; Ince, P.G.; Wharton, S.B.; Forster, G.

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic global increases in future numbers of people with dementia have been predicted. No multicentre population-based study powered to detect changes over time has reported dementia incidence. MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) undertook baseline interviews in populations aged 65+ years in England and Wales (1989–1994). Three areas (CFAS I) were selected for new sampling two decades later (2008–2011) with same geographical boundaries, sampling and approach methods (CFAS II). At 2 years CFAS I interviewed 5,156 (76% response) with 5,288 interviewed in CFAS II (74% response). Here we report a 20% drop in incidence (95% CI: 0–40%), driven by a reduction in men across all ages above 65. In the UK we estimate 209,600 new dementia cases per year. This study was uniquely designed to test for differences across geography and time. A reduction of age-specific incidence means that the numbers of people estimated to develop dementia in any year has remained relatively stable. PMID:27092707

  11. Age-specific incidence of neutralization antibodies of Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Terzin, A. L.; Masic, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sera of 1255 individuals from Novi Sad, varying in age from less than 1 month to 69 years, have been tested for neutralization antibodies to Herpes implex virus type 1. The eight newborns tested and 97% of the 507 adults were positive, with titres ranging from 1/4 to 1/256. The titres in newborns were significantly lower than the titres in adults. After birth the maternal antibodies declined rapidly and 94% of infants at the age of greater than 6 months and less than 2 years were negative. After the first year infants in Novi Sad start to acquire herpes-neutralizing antibodies actively, reaching a 50% incidence of positives between the 2nd and 3rd year of age. Age-specific incidence rates of herpes positives found in Novi Sad have been compared with those reported from Edinburgh, Freiburg i. Br. and Louisiana. Possible influences of several circumstances upon the incidence rate of positives detected by the neutralization test are discussed. PMID:185287

  12. Effect of Walking Distance on 8-Year Incident Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Men With and Without Chronic Disease: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Toby L.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Fong, Kaon; Abbott, Robert D.; Ross, George W.; Petrovitch, Helen; Blanchette, Patricia L.; White, Lon R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of walking on incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men with and without chronic disease Design Prospective cohort study Setting The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study Participants Japanese-American men aged 71 to 93 years at baseline Measurements Physical activity was assessed by self-reported distance walked per day. Depressive symptoms were measured with an 11-question version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at the 4th exam (n=3196) and again at the 7th exam 8 years later (1999-2000, n=1417). Presence of incident depressive symptoms was defined as CESD-11 score ≥ 9 or taking anti-depressants at Exam 7. Subjects with prevalent depressive symptoms at baseline were excluded. Results Age adjusted 8-year incident depressive symptoms were 13.6%, 7.6% and 8.5% for low (< ¼ miles/day), intermediate (¼ to 1.5 miles/day) and high (> 1.5 miles/day) walking groups at baseline, p=0.008. Multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, marital status, cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent diseases and functional impairment found that those in the intermediate and highest walking groups had significantly lower odds for developing 8-year incident depressive symptoms (OR=0.52; 95% CI=0.32-0.83, p=0.006; and OR=0.61; 95% CI=0.39-0.97, p=0.04 respectively). Analysis found that this association was only significant in those without chronic diseases (CHD, CVA, Cancer, PD, Dementia or cognitive impairment) at baseline. Conclusion Daily physical activity (≥¼ mile/day) is significantly associated with a lower risk for 8-year incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men who do not have chronic disease at baseline. PMID:20670378

  13. Exploring the relationship between incidence and the average age of infection during seasonal epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Pitzer, Virginia E.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The inverse relationship between the incidence and the average age of first infection for immunizing agents has become a basic tenet in the theory underlying the mathematical modeling of infectious diseases. However, this relationship assumes that the infection has reached an endemic equilibrium. In reality, most infectious diseases exhibit seasonal and/or long-term oscillations in incidence. We use a seasonally-forced age-structured SIR model to explore the relationship between the number of cases and the average age of first infection over a single epidemic cycle. Contrary to the relationship for the equilibrium dynamics, we find that the average age of first infection is greatest at or near the peak of the epidemic when mixing is homogeneous. We explore the sensitivity of our findings to assumptions about the natural history of infection, population mixing behavior, the mechanism of seasonality, and of the timing of case reporting in relation to the infectious period. We conclude that seasonal variation in the average age of first infection tends to be greatest for acute infections, and the relationship between the number of cases and the average age of first infection can vary depending on the nature of population mixing and the natural history of infection. PMID:19527734

  14. Age-related incidence and other epidemiological aspects of myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Aul, C; Gattermann, N; Schneider, W

    1992-10-01

    Although most haematologists perceive a rising prevalence and incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), reliable epidemiological data on these disorders are largely lacking. The bone marrow register of the University of Düsseldorf allowed us to assess among other epidemiological features the incidence of MDS, which was compared to that of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Among a total of 18,416 different patients registered between 1975 and 1990, 584 cases of MDS (3.2%) and 506 cases of AML (2.8%) were identified. Over the study period, the percentage of newly diagnosed MDS rose from 1.3% to 4.5%, while there was no upward trend for AML. Among all patients undergoing bone marrow biopsy, the proportion of those over 60 years of age increased from 41.9% in 1975 to 54.1% in 1990. We found a strong correlation between the proportion of elderly patients and the relative frequency of MDS diagnoses. Thirty-one patients (5.3%) were classified as a secondary MDS because of previous treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or irradiation for a variety of malignancies. Twelve patients were identified in whom occupational exposure to organic solvents could not be ruled out. For calculating age-specific incidence rates, the analysis was confined to the town district of Düsseldorf (575,000 inhabitants), because exact demographical data were available for this population. In the last quinquennium of the study period (1986-90), myelodysplastic syndromes were more frequent than AML in the age group 50-70 years (4.9 v 1.8/100,000/year). In patients over 70, the incidence of MDS was more than 3 times that of AML (22.8 v 6.7/100,000). In this group, men had a higher incidence of MDS (33.9/100,000) than women (18/100,000). Crude annual incidence (all age groups) was also higher for MDS (4.1/100,000) than for AML (2.1/100,000) in recent years. We conclude that MDS are relatively common haematological neoplasias. The rising incidence in recent years is probably not due to changes in

  15. Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. PMID:25721885

  16. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  17. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  18. Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Tomaskovic, Lana; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Campbell, Harry

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical pneumonia (defined as respiratory infections associated with clinical signs of pneumonia, principally pneumonia and bronchiolitis) in children under five years of age is still the leading cause of childhood mortality in the world. In this paper we aim to estimate the worldwide incidence of clinical pneumonia in young children. METHODS: Our estimate for the developing world is based on an analysis of published data on the incidence of clinical pneumonia from community based longitudinal studies. Among more than 2000 studies published since 1961, we identified 46 studies that reported the incidence of clinical pneumonia, and 28 of these met pre-defined quality criteria. FINDINGS: The estimate of the median incidence from those studies was 0.28 episodes per child-year (e/cy). The 25-75% interquartile range was 0.21-0.71. We assessed the plausibility of this estimate using estimates of global mortality from acute respiratory infections and reported case fatality rates for all episodes of clinical pneumonia reported in community-based studies or the case-fatality rate reported only for severe cases and estimates of the proportion of severe cases occurring in a defined population or community. CONCLUSION: The overlap between the ranges of the estimates implies that a plausible incidence estimate of clinical pneumonia for developing countries is 0.29 e/cy. This equates to an annual incidence of 150.7 million new cases, 11-20 million (7-13%) of which are severe enough to require hospital admission. In the developed world no comparable data are available. However, large population-based studies report that the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia among children less than five years old is approximately 0.026 e/cy, suggesting that more than 95% of all episodes of clinical pneumonia in young children worldwide occur in developing countries. PMID:15654403

  19. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  20. Incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis in middle aged finnish men, 1981-91: two necropsy series.

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, J.; Laippala, P.; Penttila, A.; Karhunen, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and testicular tissue morphology have changed in middle aged Finnish men over 10 years. DESIGN: Two necropsy series completed in 1981 and in 1991. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. SUBJECTS: 528 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scoring of spermatogenesis and morphometric analysis of testicular tissue components. Individual risk factors for testicular disorders obtained by postmortem blind interviews with acquaintances. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 41.7% of the men (mean age 53.1 years). Between 1981 and 1991, the ratio of normal spermatogenesis decreased significantly (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 5.1) from 56.4% to 26.9%, with a parallel increase in the incidence of partial and complete spermatogenic arrest (2.1; 1.4 to 2.9 and 2.9; 1.7 to 5.0, respectively). During this period, the size of seminiferous tubules decreased, the amount of fibrotic tissue increased, and the weight of testicles decreased significantly. Alterations in testicular characteristics over time could not be explained by changes in body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, or exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of normal spermatogenesis decreased among middle aged Finnish men from 1981 to 1991, and the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and pathological alterations in testicles increased. Deteriorating spermatogenesis may thus be one important factor in the explanation of declining sperm counts observed worldwide. PMID:9001473

  1. The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Graetz, Nicholas; Bolliger, Ian; Naghavi, Mohsen; Higashi, Hideki; Mullany, Erin C; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Adofo, Koranteng; Alsharif, Ubai; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Barrero, Lope H; Bekele, Tolesa; Bose, Dipan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Derrett, Sarah; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Petrovich Ermakov, Sergey; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L; Gabbe, Belinda; Gosselin, Richard A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hijar, Martha; Hu, Guoqing; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jiang, Guohong; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Chanda; Lecky, Fiona E; Leung, Ricky; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Majdan, Marek; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Meaney, Peter A; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles N; Norman, Rosana E; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Refaat, Amany; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roy, Nobhojit; Schwebel, David C; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Skirbekk, Vegard; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Stein, Dan J; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Theadom, Alice M; Tran, Bach Xuan; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vavilala, Monica S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures. Results In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries. Conclusions Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made. PMID:26635210

  2. The Association Between Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits in Older Adults in Normal Macular Health and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna; Clark, Mark; Zhang, Yuhua; Curcio, Christine A.; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) have been associated with the progression to late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether SDD in eyes in normal macular health increases risk for early AMD, this study examined the association between presence of SDD at baseline in a cohort of older adults in normal macular health and incident AMD 3 years later. Methods Subjects enrolled in the Alabama Study on Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ALSTAR) were assessed for the presence of SDD using color fundus photos, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes. The study sample included 799 eyes from 455 participants in normal macular health per grading of color fundus photographs using the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification system. Age-related macular degeneration was defined as eyes having an AREDS grade ≥2 at the 3-year follow-up. Results Twenty-five percent of participants had SDD in one or both eyes at baseline. At follow-up visit, 11.9% of eyes in the sample developed AMD. Compared to eyes without SDD, those with SDD were 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–3.70) times more likely to have AMD at follow-up. After adjusting for age, C-reactive protein quartile, and family history of AMD, the association persisted. Conclusions Results suggest that SDD in older eyes with normal macular health as defined by the AREDS scale is a risk factor for the development of early AMD. Older adults in seemingly normal macular health yet having SDD may warrant closer clinical monitoring for the possible onset of early AMD. PMID:26906160

  3. Capitation funding: population, age, and mortality adjustments for regional and district health authorities in England.

    PubMed

    Raftery, J

    1993-10-30

    This study examined the three components (population projection, age, and mortality weights) in the national funding formula for hospital and community health services in regions and districts. The age cost weights, based on national average age use profiles of 29 programs, emphasized births and elderly age groups. The results of the application of the formula (mid year population projections by age group, age cost weights for each age group of total population, and adjustment to total population by the square root of the all cause standardized mortality ratio among those aged under 75 years) were as follows. The application to the 1997 population regionally showed many changes. Changes in population share for regional health authorities were due more to age weights and mortality and ranged from -9% in the Northwest Region to 6% in the South Western Region. At the District level the changes ranged from -17% to 28%. There were 99 districts that lost funding and 87 districts that gained funding. All regions had some of both districts, except the Northern Region and South Western Regions which had only 3 district losers. In North East Thames, there were only losers with the exception of one district. South East Thames had the widest disparity in gainers and losers from -15% to 28% and in the South West from -14% to 27%. Population projection effects indicated that new towns were gainers of funding and older areas were losers. The share from population projections ranged from -16% to 31%. The age cost weight's effects ranged from -20% to 30%. Some districts were affected greatly: gainers were seaside resorts with large elderly populations. The mortality weight's effects ranged from -9% to 14%. Northern districts and inner city London districts tended to be gainers. The conclusion was that age weights accounted for the bulk of gains. The methodology should be reexamined with attention to the age cost weights and dramatic changes in funding at the district level that are

  4. International variation in reported livebirth prevalence rates of Down syndrome, adjusted for maternal age.

    PubMed

    Carothers, A D; Hecht, C A; Hook, E B

    1999-05-01

    Reported livebirth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) may be affected by the maternal age distribution of the population, completeness of ascertainment, accuracy of diagnosis, extent of selective prenatal termination of affected pregnancies, and as yet unidentified genetic and environmental factors. To search for evidence of the latter, we reviewed all published reports in which it was possible to adjust both for effects of maternal age and for selective termination (where relevant). We constructed indices that allowed direct comparisons of prevalence rates after standardising for maternal age. Reference rates were derived from studies previously identified as having near complete ascertainment. An index value significantly different from 1 may result from random fluctuations, as well as from variations in the factors listed above. We found 49 population groups for which an index could be calculated. Methodological descriptions suggested that low values could often be attributed to under-ascertainment. A possible exception concerned African-American groups, though even among these most acceptable studies were compatible with an index value of 1. As we have reported elsewhere, there was also a suggestive increase in rates among US residents of Mexican or Central American origin. Nevertheless, our results suggest that "real" variation between population groups reported to date probably amounts to no more than +/-25%. However, reliable data in many human populations are lacking including, surprisingly, some jurisdictions with relatively advanced health care systems. We suggest that future reports of DS livebirth prevalence should routinely present data that allow calculation of an index standardised for maternal age and adjusted for elective prenatal terminations. PMID:10353785

  5. Anthropogenic pollutants may increase the incidence of neurodegenerative disease in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Stephen C

    2016-02-01

    The current world population contains an ever-increasing increased proportion of the elderly. This is due to global improvements in medical care and access to such care. Thus, a growing incidence of age-related neurodegenerative disorders is to be expected. Increased longevity also allows more time for interaction with adverse environmental factors that have the potential exert a gradual pressure, facilitating the onset of organismic aging. Nearly all neurodegenerative disorders have a relatively minor genetic element and a larger idiopathic component. It is likely that some of the unknown factors promoting neurological disease involve the appearance of some deleterious aspects of senescence, elicited prematurely by low but pervasive levels of toxic materials present in the environment. This review considers the nature of such possible toxicants and how they may hasten neurosenescence. An enhanced rate of emergence of normal age-related changes in the brain can lead to increased incidence of those specific neurological disorders where aging is an essential requirement. In addition, some xenobiotic agents appear to have the capability of engendering specific neurodegenerative disorders and some of these are also considered. PMID:26812399

  6. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  7. The efficacy of 0.75% bupivacaine with pH adjustment and hyaluronidase for peribulbar blockade: the incidence of prolonged ptosis.

    PubMed

    Mather, C; Smith, J H; Bloom, P A

    1994-01-01

    A prospective, double masked, randomised study was performed to compare the speed of onset of peribulbar anaesthesia using pH adjusted 0.75% bupivacaine, with and without the addition of hyaluronidase. No significant difference in speed of onset occurred due to the addition of hyaluronidase. There were 7 cases of post operative ptosis in the study group, including 1 case of orbital apex syndrome and 2 cases of transient 3rd nerve palsy. This incidence of post operative ptosis using pH adjusted 0.75% bupivacaine was statistically significantly greater than in a matched control group who received a 50:50 mixture of 1% lignocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine with hyaluronidase (p < 0.05). The possible causes of this increased incidence of post operative ptosis are discussed. PMID:8019117

  8. The incidence of cervical spondylosis decreases with aging in the elderly, and increases with aging in the young and adult population: a hospital-based clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanling; Tian, Fuming; Zhou, Yingjun; He, Wenbo; Cai, Zhiyou

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Cervical spondylosis is well accepted as a common degenerative change in the cervical spine. Compelling evidence has shown that the incidence of cervical spondylosis increases with age. However, the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis remains obscure. It is essential to note the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis through more and more clinical data. Methods In the case-controlled study reported here, retrospective clinical analysis of 1,276 cases of cervical spondylosis has been conducted. We analyzed the general clinical data, the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis, and the relationship between age-related risk factors and the incidence of cervical spondylosis. A chi-square test was used to analyze the associations between different variables. Statistical significance was defined as a P-value of less than 0.05. Results The imaging examination demonstrated the most prominent characteristic features of cervical spondylosis: bulge or herniation at C3-C4, C4-C5, and C5-C6. The incidence of cervical spondylosis increased with aging before age 50 years and decreased with aging after age 50 years, especially in the elderly after 60 years old. The occurrence rate of bulge or herniation at C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 increased with aging before age 50 years and decreased with aging after age 50 years, especially after 60 years. Moreover, the incidence of hyperosteogeny and spinal stenosis increased with aging before age 60 years and decreased with aging after age 60 years, although there was no obvious change in calcification. The age-related risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cerebral infarct, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and drinking, have no relationship with the incidence of cervical spondylosis. Conclusion A decreasing proportion of cervical spondylosis with aging occurs in the elderly, while the proportion of

  9. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships PMID:22582023

  10. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  11. Age-adjusted plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heul; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Yoon, Jung Min; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent reports showed that plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a useful biomarker of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion (CAL) development in Kawasaki disease (KD). The levels of these peptides are critically influenced by age; hence, the normal range and upper limits for infants and children are different. We performed an age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level to validate its clinical use in the diagnosis of KD. Methods The data of 131 patients with KD were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 2 groups—group I (high NT-proBNP group) and group II (normal NT-proBNP group)—comprising patients with NT-proBNP concentrations higher and lower than the 95th percentile of the reference value, respectively. We compared the laboratory data, responsiveness to IVIG, and the risk of CAL in both groups. Results Group I showed significantly higher white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, aspartate aminotransferase level, and troponin-I level than group II (P<0.05). The risk of CAL was also significantly higher in group I (odds ratio, 5.78; P=0.012). IVIG unresponsiveness in group I was three times that in group II (odds ratio, 3.35; P= 0.005). Conclusion Age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level could be helpful in predicting IVIG unresponsiveness and risk of CAL development in patients with KD. PMID:27588030

  12. Understanding the effects of age, period, and cohort on incidence and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Holford, T R

    1991-01-01

    Time trends for population-based disease rates often are summarized by using direct adjustment by period of diagnosis or death. Similarly, the effect of age often is presented graphically as age-specific rates for a given period of diagnosis. These approaches may be necessary if there is an absence of long-term data, as they provide a natural way for annually updating information when monitoring trends, or they may be a convenient way of summarizing a large amount of data (7, 10, 11, 39, 45). However, these summaries only can adjust for the effect of age in a given period; they implicitly ignore the cohort effect. The effect of cohort is an important factor in understanding time trends for many diseases. Thus, it is not advisable to use data analytic strategies that routinely ignore it. Another alternative to modeling is to give a graphical presentation of the age-specific rates themselves. As I noted in the introduction, some of the first analyses to identify the effect of cohort on diseases, such as tuberculosis and lung cancer, relied entirely on a graphical analysis. Although graphs certainly are an important part of the interpretation of time trends, it would be a mistake to limit your analysis to impressions of points on a graph. For example, such a perusal would not give an objective indication of the statistical significance of a particular pattern. Regression analysis forces us to recognize a fundamental problem with interpreting time trends in disease rates--a problem that you should remember, even when trying to understand a graphical display of time trends in age-specific rates. PMID:2049144

  13. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  14. The estimated prevalence and incidence of late stage age related macular degeneration in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Zakariya; Wormald, Richard; Cook, Derek G; Fletcher, Astrid E; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2012-01-01

    Background UK estimates of age related macular degeneration (AMD) occurrence vary. Aims To estimate prevalence, number and incidence of AMD by type in the UK population aged ≥50 years. Methods Age-specific prevalence rates of AMD obtained from a Bayesian meta-analysis of AMD prevalence were applied to UK 2007–2009 population data. Incidence was estimated from modelled age-specific prevalence. Results Overall prevalence of late AMD was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.7% to 3.3%), equivalent to 513 000 cases (95% CrI 363 000 to 699 000); estimated to increase to 679 000 cases by 2020. Prevalences were 4.8% aged ≥65 years, 12.2% aged ≥80 years. Geographical atrophy (GA) prevalence rates were 1.3% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.9%), 2.6% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.7%) and 6.7% (95% CrI 4.6% to 9.6%); neovascular AMD (NVAMD) 1.2% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.7%), 2.5% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.4%) and 6.3% (95% CrI 4.5% to 8.6%), respectively. The estimated number of prevalent cases of late AMD were 60% higher in women versus men (314 000 cases in women, 192 000 men). Annual incidence of late AMD, GA and NVAMD per 1000 women was 4.1 (95% CrI 2.4% to 6.8%), 2.4 (95% CrI 1.5% to 3.9%) and 2.3 (95% CrI 1.4% to 4.0%); in men 2.6 (95% CrI 1.5% to 4.4%), 1.7 (95% CrI 1.0% to 2.8%) and 1.4 (95% CrI 0.8% to 2.4%), respectively. 71 000 new cases of late AMD were estimated per year. Conclusions These estimates will guide health and social service provision for those with late AMD and enable estimation of the cost of introducing new treatments. PMID:22329913

  15. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  16. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Standing Reach Tasks Among Middle-Aged Adults With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Su, Ivan Y W; Chow, Daniel H K

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that children with cerebral palsy (CP) exhibited premature anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) with high variability and excessive activity in the frontal plane. To better understand the effects of gross motor functioning level on APAs over the life course, the authors examined the presence and consistency of APAs in 11 adults with diplegia at 2 functioning levels against 8 age-matched healthy adults during unilateral and bilateral reaching. Results revealed an anticipatory vertical torque (TZ) and an increased likelihood of APAs during bilateral reaching for the lower functioning group. It is postulated that APAs may first emerge in TZ in CP. Results also indicated an excessive premovement postural activity in the frontal plane in both CP groups. PMID:26730748

  17. Prevalence of aging population in the Middle East and its implications on cancer incidence and care

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, R. R.; Atli, T.; Al-Mandhari, Z.; Oudrhiri, M.; Balducci, L.; Silbermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle Eastern population is aging rapidly, and as aging is the main risk factor for cancer, the incidence and prevalence of that disease are increasing among all the populations in the region. These developments represent huge challenges to national and community-based health services. At the current state of affairs, most Middle Eastern countries require the cooperation of international agencies in order to cope with such new challenges to their health systems. The focus and emphasis in facing these changing circumstances lie in the education and training of professionals, mainly physicians and nurses, at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health services. It is imperative that these training initiatives include clinical practice, with priority given to the creation of multidisciplinary teams both at the cancer centers and for home-based services. PMID:24001758

  18. Age-Varying Association Between Statin Use and Incident Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge; Shofer, Jane B.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Kukull, Walter A.; Peskind, Elaine R.; McCormick, Wayne; Bowen, James D.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Crane, Paul K.; Breitner, John C.S.; Larson, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier post hoc analysis suggested possible benefits of statins in reducing risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in younger participants (< age 80 years) with the APOE ε4 allele. We further investigated these findings with more follow-up time and more recently enrolled participants. Design A cohort of cognitively intact elderly was assessed biennially for dementia and AD. Setting Community based. Participants 3,392 non-demented member of a health maintenance organization (HMO) aged ≥ 65 years. Measurements We identified statin use from the HMO pharmacy database and applied proportional hazards models with statin use as a time-dependent covariate to assess the statin-AD association and the modifying effects of age and the APOE ε4 allele. Results Over an average of 6.1 years of follow-up of 3099 participants, 263 participants developed probable AD. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for statin use was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 – 0.97) for AD in models including demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors as covariates. The strength of the statin-AD association diminished with age (statin × age-at-entry interaction p = 0.04); the aHR in those younger than 80 was 0.44 (CI 0.25 – 0.78) vs. 1.22 (CI 0.61 – 2.42) for those older than 80. The interaction term for statin use × APOE ε4 was not significant (p = 0.65). Conclusion This enlarged study confirms earlier findings that statin therapy in early old age, but not in late age, may be associated with reduced risk of AD. The relationship between statin use and AD was consistent across APOE genotypes. PMID:20533968

  19. Incidence and Mortality after Distal Radius Fractures in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and mortality of distal radius fracture among patients 50 years of age and older with diagnosis code (ICD10; S52.5, S52.6) and treatment code using a nationwide claims database from 2008 to 2012. All patients were followed using patient identification code to identify deaths. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of distal radius fracture were calculated based on age and gender-specific rates in the entire Korean population. The number of distal radius fractures increased by 54.2% over the 5-year study (48,145 in 2008 and 74,240 in 2012). The incidence of distal radius fracture increased from 367.4/100,000 in 2008 to 474.1/100,000 in 2012. The cumulative mortality rate over the first 12 months after distal radius fracture was decreased from 2.0% (968/48,145) in 2008 to 1.4% (1,045/74,240) in 2012. The mean year mortality over 5 years in men (2.6%, 1,279/50,128) over the first 12 months was 1.7-times higher than in women (1.5%, 3,952/257,045). The mean of SMR of distal radius fracture at 1 year post-fracture was 1.45 in men and 1.17 in women. This study using a nationwide database demonstrates that the distal radius fractures are increasing with a decreasing mortality in Korea. PMID:27051250

  20. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  1. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  2. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  3. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  4. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  5. Using a case-mix-adjusted pressure sore incidence study in a surgical directorate to improve patient outcomes in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Watret, L

    1999-10-01

    The Glasgow Acute Clinical Audit Sub-Committee on Pressure Sores has previously carried out studies of incidence of pressure ulcers in the medical directorates and case-mix-adjusted the figures for length of hospital stay and risk assessment score. Case-mix classification is 'classification of people or treatment placed into groups using characteristics associated with condition, treatment or outcome that can be used to predict need, resource, use of outcomes'. In this instance, crude pressure ulcer incidence figures may be adjusted for length of hospital stay and pressure sore risk assessment score, and stratified into groups, which allows like to be compared with like. The value in case-mix-adjusted figures lies in repeating the exercise, thus determining the trend for individual areas and assessing whether improvement in the quality of care is being achieved. This is more positive than creation of 'league tables' comparing simultaneous studies in a number of areas. The figures showed that there was no statistically significant difference between surgical directorates in trusts with regard to risk assessment scores and length of hospital stay. Gathering data on the incidence of pressure ulcer development allows us to identify where new sores are occurring, but does not critically analyse the nursing intervention taken in individual cases, which identifies preventive strategies. The Glasgow group's primary aim was to gather data on case-mix-adjusted incidence of pressure damage; the secondary objectives were to scrutinize the data to gather more general information on intrinsic and extrinsic factors which may predispose to pressure ulcer development. The study was carried out in the surgical directorate. Findings showed that incidence was low (1.1%), with the majority of sores being superficial. There was a correlation between pressure ulcer development and incontinence, evidence of under-utilization of moving and handling aids for prevention of pressure ulcers

  6. Explaining the Higher Incidence of Adjustment Problems among Children of Divorce Compared with Those in Two-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lin, Kuei-Hsiu; Gordon, Leslie C.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether differences between adolescent adjustment problems in divorced families and intact families can be explained by parental conflicts and parents' level of involvement. Determined the quality of mother's parenting and father's involvement explained the association between divorce and boys' externalizing problems; the quality of…

  7. Age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Ohashi, Yukari

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints. Fifteen young adults and 14 older adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. In the anterior-posterior direction, older adults demonstrated significantly decreased center of mass velocity at the swing foot contact under temporal constraints. Additionally, the distances between the 'extrapolated center of mass' position and base of support at the swing foot contact were greater in older adults than young adults. In the mediolateral direction, center of mass displacement was significantly increased in older adults compared with young adults. Consequently, older adults showed a significantly increased step width at the swing foot contact in the constraint condition. Overall, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate a conservative strategy to maintain anterior-posterior stability. By contrast, although older adults are able to modulate their step width to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance, age-related changes in mediolateral balance control under temporal constraints may increase the risk of falls in the lateral direction during obstacle negotiation. PMID:26852293

  8. Population profiling in China by gender and age: implication for HIV incidences

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. Method The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. Results The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. Conclusion The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible. PMID:19922693

  9. Aging: progressive decline in fitness due to the rising deleteriome adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-08-01

    Different theories posit that aging is caused by molecular damage, genetic programs, continued development, hyperfunction, antagonistic pleiotropy alleles, mutations, trade-offs, incomplete repair, etc. Here, I discuss that these ideas can be conceptually unified as they capture particular facets of aging, while being incomplete. Their respective deleterious effects impact fitness at different levels of biological organization, adjusting progression through aging, rather than causing it. Living is associated with a myriad of deleterious processes, both random and deterministic, which are caused by imperfectness, exhibit cumulative properties, and represent the indirect effects of biological functions at all levels, from simple molecules to systems. From this, I derive the deleteriome, which encompasses cumulative deleterious age-related changes and represents the biological age. The organismal deleteriome consists of the deleteriomes of cells, organs, and systems, which change along roughly synchronized trajectories and may be assessed through biomarkers of aging. Aging is then a progressive decline in fitness due to the increasing deleteriome, adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes. This model allows integration of diverse aging concepts, provides insights into the nature of aging, and suggests how lifespan may be adjusted during evolution and in experimental models. PMID:27060562

  10. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  11. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... insurance benefits in April 1981. He had no social security earnings before 1951 and his year-by-year...

  12. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... insurance benefits in April 1981. He had no social security earnings before 1951 and his year-by-year...

  13. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  14. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  15. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  16. Markers of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Endothelial Dysfunction and the 20-year Cumulative Incidence of Early Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Danforth, Lorraine G.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Modifying levels of factors associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may decrease risk of visual impairment in older persons. Objective To examine the relationships of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction to the 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD. Design Longitudinal population-based cohort study. Setting Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Participants A random sample of 975 persons in the Beaver Dam Eye Study without signs of AMD who participated in the baseline examination in 1988-1990 and up to four follow-up examinations in 1993-1995, 1998-2000, 2003-2005, and 2008-2010. Exposures Serum markers of inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 [TNF-αR2], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and white blood cell count), oxidative stress (8-isoprostane and total carbonyl content), and endothelial dysfunction (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1] and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were measured. Interactions with Complement Factor H (rs1061170) and Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (rs10490924), C3 (rs2230199) and C2/CFB (rs4151667) were examined using multiplicative models. AMD was assessed from fundus photographs. Main Outcome Measure Early AMD defined by the presence of any size drusen and the presence of pigmentary abnormalities, or by the presence of large-sized drusen (≥125 μm diameter), in the absence of late AMD. Results The 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD was 23.0%. Adjusting for age, sex, and other risk factors, hsCRP (odds ratio [OR] comparing 4th to 1st quartile 2.18, P=0.005), TNF-αR2 (1.78, P=0.04), and IL-6 (1.78, P=0.03) were associated with the incidence of early AMD. Increased incidence of early AMD was associated with sVCAM-1 (OR per standard deviation on the log ng/mL scale 1.21, P=0.04). Conclusions and Relevance We found modest evidence of relationships of serum hsCRP, TNF-αR2, and IL-6 and sVCAM-1 to the 20

  17. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to University: Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Perceived Parenting Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between psychological separation and adjustment to university among college students. Found that two dimensions of psychological separation--independence from parents and positive separation feelings--predicted better adjustment to college life. Independence from parents was moderated by grade, gender, and perceived…

  18. Does Older Age Confer an Increased Risk of Incident Neurocognitive Disorders Among Persons Living with HIV Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, David P.; Woods, Steven Paul; Bondi, Mark W.; Gilbert, Paul E.; Massman, Paul J.; Doyle, Katie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the combined effects of age and HIV infection on the risk of incident neurocognitive disorders. Method A total of 146 neurocognitively normal participants were enrolled at baseline into one of four groups based on age (≤ 40 years and ≥ 50 years) and HIV serostatus resulting in 24 younger HIV−, 27 younger HIV+, 39 older HIV−, and 56 older HIV+ individuals. All participants were administered a standardized clinical neuropsychological battery at baseline and 14.3 ±0.2 months later. Results A logistic regression predicting incident neurocognitive disorders from HIV, age group, and their interaction was significant (χ2[4] = 13.56, p = .009), with a significant main effect of HIV serostatus (χ2[1] = 5.01, p = .025), but no main effect of age or age by HIV interaction (ps > .10). Specifically, 15.7 percent of the HIV+ individuals had an incident neurocognitive disorder as compared to 3.2 percent of the HIV− group (odds ratio = 4.8 [1.2, 32.6]). Among older HIV+ adults, lower baseline cognitive reserve, prospective memory, and verbal fluency each predicted incident neurocognitive disorders at follow-up. Conclusions Independent of age, HIV infection confers a nearly 5-fold risk for developing a neurocognitive disorder over approximately one year. Individuals with lower cognitive reserve and mild weaknesses in higher-order neurocognitive functions may be targeted for closer clinical monitoring and preventative measures. PMID:26367342

  19. Mortality and Incidence of Hospital Admissions for Stroke among Brazilians Aged 15 to 49 Years between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Fernando; Figueiredo, Francisco Winter dos Santos; Paiva, Laércio da Silva; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Santos, Edige Felipe de Sousa; Martins, Bruno Luis; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to analyze rates of stroke-related mortality and incidence of hospital admissions in Brazilians aged 15 to 49 years according to region and age group between 2008 and 2012. Methods Secondary analysis was performed in 2014 using data from the Hospital and Mortality Information Systems and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Stroke was defined by ICD, 10th revision (I60–I64). Crude and standardized mortality (WHO reference) and incidence of hospital admissions per 100,000 inhabitants, stratified by region and age group, were estimated. Absolute and relative frequencies; and linear regression were also used. The software used was Stata 11.0. Results There were 35,005 deaths and 131,344 hospital admissions for stroke in Brazilians aged 15–49 years old between 2008 and 2012. Mortality decreased from 7.54 (95% CI 7.53; 7.54) in 2008 to 6.32 (95% CI 6.31; 6.32) in 2012 (β = -0.27, p = 0.013, r2 = 0.90). During the same time, incidence of hospital admissions stabilized: 24.67 (95% CI 24.66; 24.67) in 2008 and 25.11 (95% CI 25.10; 25.11) in 2012 (β = 0.09, p = 0.692, r2 = 0.05). There was a reduction in mortality in all Brazilian regions and in the age group between 30 and 49 years. Incidence of hospitalizations decreased in the South, but no significant decrease was observed in any age group. Conclusion We observed a decrease in stroke-related mortality, particularly in individuals over 30 years old, and stability of the incidence of hospitalizations; and also regional variation in stroke-related hospital admission incidence and mortality among Brazilian young adults. PMID:27332892

  20. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  1. Analysis of the contrast in normal-incidence surface plasmon photoemission microscopy in a pump-probe experiment with adjustable polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podbiel, Daniel; Kahl, Philip; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the fringe contrast in surface plasmon polariton-based two-photon photoemission microscopy in a normal-incidence geometry. In a pump-probe experiment with freely adjustable polarization of the probe pulse, we find a maximum contrast whenever the probe pulse polarization is parallel (or anti-parallel) to the propagation direction of the surface plasmon polariton wave packet. The experimental observation is compared to a wave simulation based on the known TM solution for surface plasmon polaritons. We estimate that at the Au/vacuum interface the in-plane component of the electric field of the surface plasmon polariton inside the metal is about five times larger than its out-of-plane component. We conclude that the locations of maximum plasmon-related nonlinear photoemission yield in a pump-probe experiment are the ones where the in-plane component of the electric field of the surface plasmon polariton is maximal.

  2. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  3. Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social and school adjustment: the moderating roles of age and parenting.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of 2,463 students who were in the first to ninth grade in northern Taiwan. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were inversely associated with academic performance and positively associated with social adjustment problems. Further, children's age and maternal parenting moderated the associations between ADHD symptoms and school and social adjustment. For example, maternal overprotection moderated the relation between hyperactivity and negative peer relationships (i.e., difficulty forming and maintaining friendships), such that this relation was stronger for children who experienced higher levels of overprotection than children who did not. Moreover, children's age moderated the association between attention problems and decreased academic performance, such that this association was stronger for older children and adolescents than for younger children. Furthermore, children's age and maternal affection interacted to influence the association between attention problems and school social problems (i.e., bullying, aggression, and peer rejection) with maternal affection acting as a buffer for older children (grades 4-6) only. These findings are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective. PMID:21858455

  4. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  5. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  6. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  7. Age-Related Incidence Curve of Hospitalized Shaken Baby Syndrome Cases: Convergent Evidence for Crying as a Trigger to Shaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald G.; Trent, Roger B.; Cross, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an age-specific incidence of hospitalized cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) that has similar properties to the previously reported ''normal crying curve,'' as a form of indirect evidence that crying is an important stimulus for SBS. Design and setting: The study analyzed cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome by…

  8. Five-Year Progression of Refractive Errors and Incidence of Myopia in School-Aged Children in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Ye; Li, Hua; Wu, Yu-Fei; Xu, Ji; Lv, Sha; Li, Ge; Liu, Shi-Chun; Song, Sheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the change in refractive error and the incidence of myopia among school-aged children in the Yongchuan District of Chongqing City, Western China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was initially conducted in 2006 among 3070 children aged 6 to 15 years. A longitudinal follow-up study was then conducted 5 years later between November 2011 and March 2012. Refractive error was measured under cycloplegia with autorefraction. Age, sex, and baseline refractive error were evaluated as risk factors for progression of refractive error and incidence of myopia. Results Longitudinal data were available for 1858 children (60.5%). The cumulative mean change in refractive error was −2.21 (standard deviation [SD], 1.87) diopters (D) for the entire study population, with an annual progression of refraction in a myopic direction of −0.43 D. Myopic progression of refractive error was associated with younger age, female sex, and higher myopic or hyperopic refractive error at baseline. The cumulative incidence of myopia, defined as a spherical equivalent refractive error of −0.50 D or more, among initial emmetropes and hyperopes was 54.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.2%–63.5%), with an annual incidence of 10.6% (95% CI, 8.7%–13.1%). Myopia was found more likely to happen in female and older children. Conclusions In Western China, both myopic progression and incidence of myopia were higher than those of children from most other locations in China and from the European Caucasian population. Compared with a previous study in China, there was a relative increase in annual myopia progression and annual myopia incidence, a finding which is consistent with the increasing trend on prevalence of myopia in China. PMID:26875599

  9. Effects of autistic traits on social and school adjustment in children and adolescents: the moderating roles of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and their school and social adjustment (i.e., academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork/teachers/classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problems with peers) were assessed using the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). Both measures were completed by the mothers of the participants. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that autistic-like social deficits were associated with poor academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork, teachers, and classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problematic peer interactions. Moreover, gender and/or age moderated the associations between autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment problems. For example, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to negative school attitude, school social problems, and negative peer relationships in boys than in girls. Further, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to problems with peers in older girls than in older boys or younger children (regardless of gender). In conclusion, the present study suggests that autistic-like social deficits may place children and adolescents at increased risk for social and school maladjustment and that the extent of maladjustment may vary with the child's age and gender and the domains of adjustment under discussion. PMID:22960068

  10. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  11. Families created through surrogacy: mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-11-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  12. Children conceived by gamete donation: psychological adjustment and mother-child relationships at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-04-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in nondisclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families, suggesting that families may benefit from openness about the child's genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  13. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990–2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Merletti, Franco; Novelli, Giulia; Falorni, Alberto; Iannilli, Antonio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Altobelli, Emma; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Piffer, Silvano; Pozzilli, Paolo; Iafusco, Dario; Songini, Marco; Roncarolo, Federico; Toni, Sonia; Carle, Flavia; Cherubini, Valentino

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate age-period-cohort effects on the temporal trend of type 1 diabetes in children age 0–14 years in Italian registries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This report is based on 5,180 incident cases in the period 1990–2003 from the Registry for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Italy (RIDI). Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. RESULTS The incidence rate was 12.26 per 100,000 person-years and significantly higher in boys (13.13 [95% CI 12.66–13.62]) than in girls (11.35 [10.90–11.82]). Large geographical variations in incidence within Italy were evident; incidence was highest in Sardinia, intermediate in Central-Southern Italy, and high in Northern Italy, particularly in the Trento Province, where the incidence rate was 18.67 per 100,000 person-years. An increasing temporal trend was evident (2.94% per year [95% CI 2.22–3.67]). With respect to the calendar period 1990–1992, the incidence rates increased linearly by 15, 27, 35, and 40% in the following time periods (P for trend < 0.001). With respect to the 1987–1993 birth cohort, the incidence rate ratio increased approximately linearly from 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.73) in the 1975–1981 cohort to 1.38 (1.06–1.80) in the 1999–2003 cohort. The best model, however, included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). CONCLUSIONS Large geographical variations and an increasing temporal trend in diabetes incidence are evident among type 1 diabetic children in Italy. Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. PMID:20566665

  14. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1526901

  15. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  16. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  17. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  18. Age-Period-Cohort approaches to back-calculation of cancer incidence rate

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Cheongeun; Holford, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    A compartment model for cancer incidence and mortality is developed in which healthy subjects may develop cancer, and subsequently die of cancer or another cause. In order to adequately represent the experience of a defined population, it is also necessary to allow for subjects who are diagnosed at death, as well as subjects who migrate and are subsequently lost to follow-up. Expressions are derived for the number of cancer deaths as a function of the number of incidence cases and vice versa, which allows for the use of mortality statistics to obtain estimates of incidence using survival information. In addition, the model can be used to obtain estimates of cancer prevalence, which is useful for health care planning. The method is illustrated using data on lung cancer among males in Connecticut. PMID:25715831

  19. Age-related changes in the incidence of pineal gland calcification in Turkey: A prospective multicenter CT study.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Karakaş, Hakkı Muammer; Ozsunar, Yelda; Altın, Levent; Ceken, Kağan; Alıcıoğlu, Banu; Sönmez, Iclal; Alparslan, Ahmet; Yürümez, Belde; Celik, Tayfun; Kazak, Eda; Geyik, Pınar Özdemir; Koşar, Uğur

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the incidence of pineal gland calcification (PGC), to investigate the interaction of PGC and aging, and to compare the incidence of PGC among the populations living in Turkey. In a prospective study the rate of PGC on CT scans of 1376 individuals in six referral centers from different regions of Turkey was investigated, with emphasis on effects of climatological parameters and aging on PGC. It was found that the incidence of PGC increased rapidly after first decade and the increase remains gradual thereafter, higher in males than in females for all age groups. There was a significant difference for incidence and degree of PGC between different clinics and between both sexes (p<0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference for the degree of PGC between the clinics in low altitude group and those in high altitude group (p<0.001 for each). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, altitude and intensity of sunlight exposure significantly affected the risk of PGC (odds ratios (OR) 1.335, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.261-1.414, p<0.001; OR 1.900, 95% CI 1.486-2.428, p<0.001; OR 0.715, 95% CI 0.517-0.990, p<0.05; OR 0.997, 95% CI 0.994-0.999, p<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, by multiple linear regression analysis, high altitude and increased intensity of sunlight exposure were found to affect the degree of PGC (beta=0.003, p<0.001). It is concluded that there is a close relationship between PGC and the aforementioned parameters, supporting a link between the development of PGC and these. This study provides some reference data for new clinical studies on the putative role of pineal gland in future. PMID:18420391

  20. Bone tumors in a population of 400 000 insured Swedish dogs up to 10 y of age: incidence and survival

    PubMed Central

    Egenvall, Agneta; Nødtvedt, Ane; von Euler, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of, survival until, and survival after the diagnosis of canine bone tumors by breed, sex, age, and geographic location of residence. Dogs under 10 y old and insured by a Swedish insurance company between 1995 and 2002 were studied. In total, 764 dogs had claims for bone tumors, and the incidence rate was 5.5 cases per 10 000 dog-years at risk (DYAR). At ages 6, 8, and 10 y, the proportions of dogs with bone tumors were 0.13%, 0.30%, and 0.64%. The top 3 breeds at risk were Irish wolfhound, St. Bernard, and leonberger (incidence rates 99, 78, and 53 cases per 10 000 DYAR, respectively). Median survival time after diagnosis was 56 d in the 419 dogs that survived ≥ 1 d. With a Cox regression model controlling for breed and age, females were shown to be at decreased risk of bone tumors, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (99% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.87). PMID:17955904

  1. Spiritual Coping and Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescents with Chronic Illness: The Role of Cognitive Attributions, Age, and Disease Group

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nina; Mrug, Sylvie; Guion, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988

  2. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Norovirus in the Community and Presenting to Primary Healthcare Facilities in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah J; Donaldson, Anna L; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Tam, Clarence C

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study and a study of primary-healthcare consultations, we had a rare opportunity to estimate age-specific rates of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in the United Kingdom. Rates in children aged <5 years were significantly higher than those for other age groups in the community (142.6 cases per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}, 99.8-203.9] vs 37.6 [95% CI, 31.5-44.7]) and those for individuals presenting to primary healthcare (14.4 cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 8.5-24.5] vs 1.4 [95% CI, .9-2.0]). Robust incidence estimates are crucial for vaccination policy makers. This study emphasises the impact of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease, especially in children aged <5 years. PMID:26744427

  3. Association of Serum Vitamin D with the Risk of Incident Dementia and Subclinical Indices of Brain Aging: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Karakis, Ioannis; Pase, Matthew P.; Beiser, Alexa; Booth, Sarah L.; Jacques, Paul F.; Rogers, Gail; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Annweiler, Cedric; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying nutrition- and lifestyle-based risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia may aid future primary prevention efforts. Objective We aimed to examine the association of serum vitamin D levels with incident all-cause dementia, clinically characterized Alzheimer’s disease (AD), MRI markers of brain aging, and neuropsychological function. Methods Framingham Heart Study participants had baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured between 1986 and 2001. Vitamin D status was considered both as a continuous variable and dichotomized as deficient (<10 ng/mL), or at the cohort-specific 20th and 80th percentiles. Vitamin D was related to the 9-year risk of incident dementia (n= 1663), multiple neuropsychological tests (n= 1291) and MRI markers of brain volume, white matter hyperintensities and silent cerebral infarcts (n = 1139). Results In adjusted models, participants with vitamin D deficiency (n = 104, 8% of the cognitive sample) displayed poorer performance on Trail Making B-A (β = −0.03 to −0.05 ±0.02) and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (β = −0.09 to −0.12 ±0.05), indicating poorer executive function, processing speed, and visuo-perceptual skills. These associations remained when vitamin D was examined as a continuous variable or dichotomized at the cohort specific 20th percentile. Vitamin D deficiency was also associated with lower hippocampal volumes (β = −0.01 ±0.01) but not total brain volume, white matter hyperintensities, or silent brain infarcts. No association was found between vitamin D deficiency and incident all-cause dementia or clinically characterized AD. Conclusions In this large community-based sample, low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with smaller hippocampal volume and poorer neuropsychological function. PMID:26890771

  4. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use: An Adjustment for Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X. K.; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline…

  5. Joint versus maternal custody for families with latency age boys: parent characteristics and child adjustment.

    PubMed

    Shiller, V M

    1986-07-01

    Families with boys aged 6-11 in joint and maternal physical custody were interviewed 1-6 years following the parental separation. According to ratings made by parents and teachers, boys in joint custody had fewer behavioral difficulties than their maternal custody counterparts. Joint custody parents also evidenced some strengths compared to parents with maternal physical custody. PMID:3740232

  6. Severity of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in 1 Eye and the Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Fellow Eye

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Importance Previous studies of the implications of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) severity in one eye on prognosis for the fellow eye have focused on incidence of neovascular AMD in the fellow eye of subjects with neovascular AMD in the other eye. It is unclear to what extent AMD severity in one eye impacts incidence, progression, and regression of AMD in its fellow eye across the entire range of AMD severity. Objective To investigate the impact of severity of AMD in one eye on incidence, progression, and regression of AMD in the fellow eye. Design, Setting and Participants The Beaver Dam Eye Study, a longitudinal population-based study of age-related eye diseases conducted in the city and township of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period (1988-1990 through 2008-2010). Study participants (N=4379) were aged 43 to 86 years at the baseline examination. At baseline and up to 4 subsequent examinations, retinal photographs were taken. Exposures Age, sex, and the Y402H polymorphism in the Complement Factor H gene on chromosome 1q; AMD severity in the fellow eye. Main Outcome Measures Incidence, progression, and regression of AMD assessed in retinal photographs according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System; mortality. Results More severe AMD in one eye was associated with increased incidence and progression of AMD in its fellow eye (Level 1 to 2: hazard ratio [HR] 4.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.26-5.63; Level 2 to 3: HR 2.09, CI 1.42-3.06; Level 3 to 4: HR 2.38, CI 1.74-3.25; Level 4 to Level 5: HR 2.46, CI 1.65-3.66). Less severe AMD in one eye was associated with less progression of AMD in its fellow eye (Level 2 to 3: HR 0.42, CI 0.33-0.55; Level 3 to 4: HR 0.50, CI 0.34-0.83). We estimate that 51% of subjects who develop any AMD always maintain AMD severity states within 1 step of each other between eyes; 90% stay within 2 steps. Conclusions and Relevance Using multi-state models, we

  7. Incidence estimation using a single cross-sectional age-specific prevalence survey with differential mortality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Sweeting, Michael J; Lindfield, Robert J; Deangelis, Daniela

    2014-02-10

    Here, we present a method for incidence estimation of a curable, non-recurring disease when data from a single cross-sectional survey are used together with population-level mortality rates and an assumption of differential mortality of diseased versus non-diseased individuals. The motivating example is cataract, and the VISION2020 goal to eliminate avoidable blindness globally by 2020. Reliable estimates of current and future cataract disease burden are required to predict how many surgeries would need to be performed to meet the VISION2020 goals. However, incidence estimates, needed to derive future burden, are not as easily available, due to the cost of conducting cohort studies. Disease is defined at the person-level in accordance with the WHO person-level definition of blindness. An extension of the standard time homogeneous illness-death model to a four-state model is described, which allows the disease to be cured, whereby surgery is performed on at least one diseased eye. Incidence is estimated, and the four-state model is used to predict disease burden assuming different surgical strategies whilst accounting for the competing risk of death. The method is applied to data from approximately 10,000 people from a survey of visual impairment in Nigeria. PMID:24009063

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Incident Dementia: Evidence from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Megan; Mather, Karen A; Xu, Jing; Assareh, Amelia A; Kochan, Nicole A; Reppermund, Simone; Draper, Brian; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-03-29

    Alcohol consumption is a potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia, but the literature is not completely consistent. This inconsistency may be partly due to an interaction with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, an established risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether alcohol consumption is associated with incident dementia or decline in specific cognitive domains over 4 years, and if this effect is modified by APOEɛ4 status. Non-demented community dwelling older adults (70-90 years) from an ongoing longitudinal study were assessed for cognitive impairment in attention/processing speed, language, executive function, visuospatial ability, and memory. Incident dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Compared to those who did not drink in the previous 12 months, neither low consumption (HR 0.64 95% CI 0.3-1.4) or risky consumption (HR 0.58 95% CI 0.2-1.5) was associated with incident dementia. Carriers of the APOEɛ4 allele were more likely to develop dementia, but there was no significant interaction with alcohol consumption. PMID:27031466

  9. Adjusting for car occupant injury liability in relation to age, speed limit, and gender-specific driver crash involvement risk.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael; Frith, William

    2004-12-01

    It is well established that older drivers' fragility is an important factor associated with higher levels of fatal crash involvement for older drivers. There has been less research on age-related fragility with respect to the sort of minor injuries that are more common in injury crashes. This study estimates a quantity that is related to injury fragility: the probability that a driver or a passenger of that driver will be injured in crashes involving two cars. The effects of other factors apart from drivers' fragility are included in this measure, including the fragility of the passengers, the crashworthiness of cars driven, seatbelt use by the occupants, and characteristics of crashes (including configuration and impact speed). The car occupant injury liability estimates appropriately includes these factors to adjust risk curves by age, gender, and speed limit accounting for overrepresentation in crashes associated with fragility and these other factors. PMID:15545071

  10. Social Cognitive Career Theory, the Theory of Work Adjustment, and Work Satisfaction of Retirement-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Pamela F.; Lytle, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60–87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample. PMID:26101456

  11. Role of family resources and paternal history of substance use problems in psychosocial adjustment among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use problems) and their mothers. Results draw attention to the differences between the subjective experiences of the child and those of the mother, and by indicating that the effect of the interaction between the father's and the mother's control parenting style on the child's psychosocial outcome is greater than the sum total of influences of each of them separately. PMID:19157043

  12. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  13. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  14. INCIDENCE OF, AND RISK FACTORS FOR, MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN AGED 5-7 YEARS IN SOUTH INDIA.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health problem contributing to the burden of disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, malnutrition among school-going children in south India. A total of 2496 children aged 5-7 years from rural and urban areas of south India were recruited in 1982 and followed up for malnutrition over a period of 9 years. Their body heights and weights were measured every six months and socio-demographic factors such as mother's education and father's education and relevant household characteristics and hygiene practices collected. Body mass index and height-for-age z-scores were used to determine children's levels of underweight and stunting, respectively, classified as normal, mild/moderate or severe. Risk factor analysis was done for pre-pubertal ages only using Generalized Estimating Equations with cumulative odds assumption. There was a significant difference between male and female children in the incidence of severe underweight and stunting (6.4% and 4.2% respectively). Children in households with no separate kitchen had 1.3 (1.0-1.6) times higher odds of being severely underweight (p=0.044) compared with those with a kitchen. Children without a toilet facility had significantly higher odds of severe underweight compared with those who did. Children with illiterate parents had higher odds of severe stunting than those with literate parents. In conclusion, the prevalence of malnutrition among these south Indian children has not changed over the years, and the incidence of severe malnutrition was highest in children when they were at pubertal age. The risk factors for stunting were mostly poverty-related, and those for underweight were mostly hygiene-related. Adolescent children in south India should be screened periodically at school for malnutrition and provided with nutritional intervention if necessary. PMID:26440753

  15. Incidence, and Gender, Age and Ethnic Distribution of Sarcomas in the Republic of Suriname from 1980 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Mans, DRA; Lall, AE Budhu; Macnack, VL; van Tholl, JA; Zandveld, EB; Vrede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report on the incidence and the gender, age and ethnic distribution of sarcomas diagnosed between 1980 and 2008 in the multi-ethnic Republic of Suriname. Methods: Total and average yearly number of cases, crude rates, as well as relevant population data were derived from the records of the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory and the General Bureau of Statistics, respectively, and stratified according to gender, age groups 0–19, 20–49 and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese and Maroons). Results: Between 1980 and 2008, 258 sarcomas were diagnosed in Suriname, ie at a frequency of nine per year and an annual rate of two per 100 000. Overall, there was 0.9 male per female, two to four cases per year in each age group, and one to three patients in each ethnic group. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprised approximately 80% of overall cases, with a male/female ratio that was approximately 0.5; almost 90% of patients were older than 20 years; more than one-third was Creole. Leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma were most frequently encountered (90 cases), particularly above 20 years of age, while leiomyosarcomas seemed, additionally, more common in women and Creoles or Maroons. The most numerous bone tumours were primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma (37 cases). They were more common in males, the youngest age group, and Hindustanis and Creoles. Conclusions: The incidence of sarcomas in Suriname, and their gender, age and ethnic distribution in general, seemed comparable with international data. The main exception might be leiomyosarcoma which might have a predilection for Afro-Surinamese. PMID:25303244

  16. Ages at Onset of 5 Cardiometabolic Diseases Adjusting for Nonsusceptibility: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Yuh-Chyuan; Chen, Chen-Hsin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2016-09-01

    To shed light on the etiology of metabolic syndrome development, it is important to understand whether its 5 component disorders follow certain onset sequences. To explore disease progression of the syndrome, we studied the ages at onset of 5 cardiometabolic diseases: abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-α-lipoproteinemia. In analyzing longitudinal data from the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Two-Township Study (1989-2002) in Taiwan, we adjusted for nonsusceptibility, utilizing the logistic-accelerated failure time location-scale mixture regression models for left-truncated and interval-censored data to simultaneously estimate the associations of township and sex with the susceptibility probability and the age-at-onset distribution of susceptible individuals for each disease. We then validated the onset sequences of 5 cardiometabolic diseases by comparing the overall probability density curves across township-sex strata. Visualization of these curves indicates that women tended to have onsets of abdominal obesity and hypo-α-lipoproteinemia in young adulthood, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia in middle age, and diabetes later; men tended to have onsets of abdominal obesity, hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia in young adulthood, hypertension in middle age, and diabetes later. Different onset patterns of abdominal obesity, hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, and male hypertension were identified between townships. Our proposed method provides a novel strategy for investigating both pathogenesis and preventive measures of complex syndromes. PMID:27543092

  17. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  18. Incidence of Elderly Eye Injuries in Automobile Crashes: The Effects of Lens Stiffness as a Function of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gail A.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Duma, Stefan M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the incidence of eye injuries with respect to occupant age in frontal automobile crashes as well as to investigate possible injury mechanisms of the elderly eye and the effects of lens stiffness. The National Automotive Sampling System was searched from years 1993–2000 for three separate occupant age groups of 16–35 years old, 36–65 years old, and 66 years old and greater in order to compare the total number of weighted occupants who sustained an eye injury to the number of occupants who sustained an eye injury per age group. Three separate impact scenarios simulating a foam particle (30 m/s), a steering wheel (15 m/s), and an air bag (67 m/s), were applied to a finite element eye model in order to elucidate the effects of aging on the eye when subjected to blunt trauma. The lens stiffness of the model was varied according to human lens stiffness values determined for each age group. Occupants aged 66 years old and greater were two to three times more likely to incur an eye injury than younger occupants. The computational eye model demonstrated that increased risk was related to the increasing stiffness of the lens, producing up to a 120% larger stress in the ciliary body. PMID:12941223

  19. Age- and gender-specific associations between sleep duration and incident hypertension in a Chinese population: the Kailuan study.

    PubMed

    Song, Q; Liu, X; Wang, X; Wu, S

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the age- and sex-dependent association between sleep duration and incident hypertension in a Chinese population. The Kailuan prospective cohort study recruited 101 510 participants. Those participants were followed for an average of 3.98 years and the data obtained from 32 137 participants out of 101 510 were analyzed in this study. Sleep duration was categorized as five groups of⩽5, 6, 7, 8 and ⩾9 h. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to analyze the association of sleep duration with incident hypertension. The 3.98 years' follow-up data showed that 12 732 out of 32 137 participants developed hypertension. Short duration of sleep (⩽5 h per night) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in woman (hazard ratio (HR) 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.58) and participants aged <60 years (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.21), when compared with the group reported with 7 h of sleep per day. This study suggested that short sleep duration could cause an increased risk of hypertension in Chinese females and population aged <60 years. PMID:26763887

  20. [Elderly residents in homes for the aged: adjustment in the light of Callista Roy].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Maria Célia de; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante; de Galiza, Francisca Tereza; Nogueira, Jéssica de Menezes; Onofre, Marília Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the adaptation of elderly individuals voluntarily reside in Institution for the Aged (LTCF) in the city of Fortaleza-CE, based on the theoretical model of Roy. Descriptive study, in a IPLI involving thirteen elderly residents. Data collect was through interviews in the months of October and December 2011 and organized by thematic content analysis. The following themes has emerged: I Physical subdivided into body sensation and body image; Staff and I, subdivided into self-consistency and auto ideal be moral-ethical-spiritual. Thus, the option to live in ILPI not effectively changed the lives of elderly people. They managed to adapt to the local and coexist well with internal and external stimuli. PMID:25590880

  1. Incidence of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Puget Sound fishes and its increase with age of Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Stick, K.; Bui, B.; Carroll, C.; Fall, B.; Mork, C.; Perry, J.A.; Sweeney, E.; Wittouck, J.; Winton, J.; Kocan, R.

    2002-01-01

    A recent decrease in the mean age of adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi in Puget Sound was associated with a high prevalence of Ichthyophonus hoferi, a protistan parasite that can be highly pathogenic to Pacific herring. In Puget Sound, high intensities of I. hoferiinfection may be maintained in older cohorts of Pacific herring because the prevalence ofI. hoferi increased with age from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the oldest, age-6 and older cohorts. Low intensities of I. hoferi infection in the region may be maintained in alternative fish hosts, such as surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus, Puget Sound rockfishSebastes emphaeus, Pacific tomcod Microgadus proximus, and speckled sanddabCithanichthys stigmaeus.

  2. Prediction Model for Prevalence and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Based on Genetic, Demographic, and Environmental Variables

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Johanna M.; Reynolds, Robyn; Maller, Julian; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Daly, Mark J.; Rosner, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed. Methods Participants in the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were included in a prospective evaluation of 1446 individuals, of which 279 progressed to advanced AMD (geographic atrophy or neovascular disease) and 1167 did not progress during 6.3 years of follow-up. For prevalent AMD, 509 advanced cases were compared with 222 controls. Covariates for the incidence analysis included age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), baseline AMD grade, and the AREDS vitamin–mineral treatment assignment. DNA specimens were evaluated for six variants in five genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed for prevalent and incident advanced AMD. An algorithm was developed and receiver operating characteristic curves and C statistics were calculated to assess the predictive ability of risk scores to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. Results All genetic polymorphisms were independently related to prevalence of advanced AMD, controlling for genetic factors, smoking, BMI, and AREDS treatment. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–7.1) for CFH Y402H; 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6 – 8.4) for CFH rs1410996; 25.4 (95% CI, 8.6 –75.1) for LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2); 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.7) for C2 E318D; 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.5) for CFB; and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.4 –9.4) for C3 R102G, comparing the homozygous risk/protective genotypes to the referent genotypes. For incident AMD, all these variants except CFB were significantly related to progression to advanced AMD, after controlling for baseline AMD grade and other factors, with ORs from 1.8 to 4.0 for presence of two risk alleles and 0.4 for the protective allele. An interaction was seen between CFH402H and treatment, after controlling for all genotypes. Smoking was independently

  3. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Predict Incident Depression in Well-Functioning Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Atkinson, Hal H.; Cauley, Jane A.; Yaffe, Kristine; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Rubin, Susan M.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Houston, Denise K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cross-sectional studies suggest that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) may be a risk factor for depression; however, there are few prospective studies. We examined the association between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged 70–79 years in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study (n = 2598). Methods. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and 2-, 3- and 4-year follow-up. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at 1-year follow-up and categorized as <20, 20–<30, and ≥30 ng/mL. Mixed models were used to examine change in CES-D scores according to 25(OH)D categories. The association between 25(OH)D categories and incident depression (CES-D short score ≥10 or antidepressant medication use) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, season, and chronic conditions. Results. Thirty-three percent of participants had 25(OH)D <20ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with CES-D scores at baseline (p = .51); however, CES-D scores increased over time and were significantly associated with 25(OH)D at 2-year (p = .003) and 4-year follow-up (p < .001). Among 2,156 participants free of depression at the 1-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of depression was 26.9%. Participants with 25(OH)D <20ng/mL were at greater risk of developing depression (HR [95% CI]: 1.65 [1.23–2.22]) over 4 years of follow-up compared with those with 25(OH)D ≥30ng/mL. Conclusion. Low 25(OH)D was independently associated with a greater increase in depressive symptom scores and incident depression in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:25326643

  4. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39-1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06-1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37-2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1

  5. Incidence of Dengue Virus Infection in School-Aged Children in Puerto Rico: A Prospective Seroepidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Argüello, D. Fermín; Tomashek, Kay M.; Quiñones, Luz; Beltran, Manuela; Acosta, Luz; Santiago, Luis M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington; Pollissard-Gadroy, Laurence; Luxemburger, Christine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by the mosquito-borne dengue viruses (DENV-1 to -4). To estimate DENV seroincidence in school-aged children, a 1-year prospective cohort study was conducted in Patillas, Puerto Rico; 10- to 18-year-olds (N = 345) were randomly selected from 13 public schools. At enrollment, 49.8% of the entire cohort had DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-DENV antibodies, and there were individuals with neutralizing antibodies specific to each of the four DENV. The mean age of participants with incident DENV infection was 13.4 years. The 1-year seroincidence rate was 5.6%, and 61.1% of infections were inapparent. Having IgG anti-DENV at enrollment was associated with seroincidence (risk ratio = 6.8). Acute febrile illnesses during the study period were captured by a fever diary and an enhanced and passive surveillance system in the municipios of Patillas and Guayama. In summary, at enrollment, nearly one-half of the participants had a prior DENV infection, with the highest incidence in the 10- to 11-year-olds, of which most were inapparent infections, and symptomatic infections were considered mild. PMID:25646256

  6. Analysis of retinoblastoma age incidence data using a fully stochastic cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Little, Mark P.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Stiller, Charles A.; Li, Guangquan; Kroll, Mary E.; Murphy, Michael F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is an important ocular malignancy of childhood. It has been commonly accepted for some time that knockout of the two alleles of the RB1 gene is the principal molecular target associated with the occurrence of RB. In this paper, we examine the validity of the two-hit theory for retinoblastoma by comparing the fit of a stochastic model with two or more mutational stages. Unlike many such models, our model assumes a fully stochastic stem cell compartment, which is crucial to its behavior. Models are fitted to a population-based dataset comprising 1,553 cases of retinoblastoma for the period 1962–2000 in Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales). The population incidence of retinoblastoma is best described by a fully stochastic model with two stages, although models with a deterministic stem cell compartment yield equivalent fit; models with three or more stages fit much less well. The results strongly suggest that knockout of the two alleles of the RB1 gene is necessary and may be largely sufficient for the development of retinoblastoma, in support of Knudson’s two-hit hypothesis. PMID:21387305

  7. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  8. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  9. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

  10. Incidence of Choroidal Neovascularization in the Fellow Eye in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Maureen G.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Shah, Ankoor R.; Grunwald, Juan E.; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.; Avery, Robert L.; Huang, Jiayan; Martin, Revell W.; Roth, Daniel B.; Castellarin, Alessandro A.; Bakri, Sophie J.; Fine, Stuart L.; Martin, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of drug, dosing regimen, and traditional, non-traditional, and genetic risk factors on the incidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the fellow eye of patients treated for CNV with ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Design Cohort study of patients enrolled in a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Participants Patients with no CNV in the fellow eye at the time of enrollment in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Methods Eligibility criteria for the clinical trial required that study eyes have evidence on fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and visual acuity between 20/25 and 20/320. Treatment for the study eye was assigned randomly to either ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to three different regimens for dosing over a two-year period. The genotypes for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) associated with risk of AMD were determined. Only patients without CNV in the fellow eye at baseline were considered at risk. CATT ophthalmologists examined patients every four weeks through two years and recorded treatment for CNV in the fellow eye. Main Outcome Measures Development of CNV in the fellow eye. Results Among 1185 CATT participants, 727 (61%) had no CNV in the fellow eye at enrollment. At two years, CNV had developed in 75 (20.6%) of 365 patients treated with ranibizumab and 60 (16.6%) of 362 patients treated with bevacizumab (absolute difference 4.0%, 95% confidence interval (−1.7%, 9.6%); p=0.17). The risk ratio for pro re nata (PRN) dosing relative to monthly dosing was 1.1 (95% confidence interval (0.8, 1.6)). Greater elevation of the retinal pigment epithelium and fluid in the foveal center of the study eye were associated with increased incidence of CNV in the fellow eye. Incidence was not associated with genotype on rs1061170 (CFH), rs10490924 (ARMS2), rs11200638 (HTRA1), and rs2230199 (C3

  11. Increased Age and Race-Specific Incidence of Cervical Cancer After Correction for Hysterectomy Prevalence in the United States From 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Nowak, Rebecca G.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Invasive cervical cancer is thought to decline in women over 65 years old, the age at which cessation of routine cervical cancer screening is recommended. However, national cervical cancer incidence rates do not account for the high prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States. METHODS Using estimates of hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer were calculated from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registry in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Trends in corrected cervical cancer incidence across age were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS Unlike the relative decline in uncorrected rates, corrected rates continue to increase after age 35–39 (APCCORRECTED = 10.43) but at a slower rate than in 20–34 years (APCCORRECTED = 161.29). The highest corrected incidence was among 65- to 69-year-old women, with a rate of 27.4 cases per 100,000 women as opposed to the highest uncorrected rate of 15.6 cases per 100,000 aged 40 to 44 years. Correction for hysterectomy had the largest impact on older, black women given their high prevalence of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer in older women may need to be reconsidered. PMID:24821088

  12. Is There Relationship between Brain Atrophy and Higher Incidence of Hip Fracture in Old Age? -A Preliminary Study-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Suh, Seung Woo; Yoon, Tae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The studies on the correlation between incidence of fall and brain atrophy have been going on to find out the cause of fall and its prevention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between incidence of hip fracture and brain volume, measured by magnetic resonance image. Materials and Methods A total of 14 subjects with similar conditions (age, height, weight, and past history) were selected for this study. Fracture group (FG) was consisted of 5 subjects with intertrochanteric fracture. Control group (CG) had 9 subjects without intertrochanteric fracture. MRI-based brain volumetry was done in FG and CG with imaging software (V-works, CyberMed Co., Korea). Total brain (tBV), absolute cerebellar volumes (aCV) and relative cerebellar volumes (rCV) were compared between two groups. Student t-test was used to statistically analyze the results. Results In FG, average tBV, aCV and rCV were 1034.676±38.80, 108.648±76.80 and 10.50±0.72 cm3, respectively. In CG, average tBV, aCV and rCV were found to be 1106.459±89.15, 114.899±98.06 and 10.39±0.53 cm3, respectively, having no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusion There was no significant difference between the fracture and control groups. Patients with neurologic disease such as cerebellar ataxia definitely have high incidence of fall that causes fractures and have brain changes as well. However, FG without neurologic disease did not have brain volume change. We consider that high risk of fall with hip fracture might decrease brain function which is not obvious to pickup on MRI. PMID:24142659

  13. With increasing ageing in Western populations, what are the prospects for lowering the incidence of coronary heart disease?

    PubMed

    Walker, A R

    2001-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD), rare in the early 1900s, in the 1970s was responsible for almost a third of deaths in Western populations. Although its mortality rate has fallen in the last 20 years, considerably in certain populations, it remains the leading cause of death, and there is little evidence of any fall in its incidence rate. The primary risk factors, which include pattern of diet, smoking practice, and level of physical activity, are well known, but explain only approximately 50% of variation in its occurrence. Despite the numerous health improvement recommendations made, alterations in diet have been relatively slight. Although smoking practice has halved in some populations, its prevalence is now rising in the young. The extent of physical activity is low, compared with that in the past, and may even be decreasing in the young. With the general ageing of populations, the near absence of strong encouragement from the state, and individuals' general failure to reduce risk factors significantly, the chances of decreases in the incidence of CHD appear remote. PMID:11181987

  14. Practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in normal aging vs. incident mild cognitive impairment and dementia in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Machulda, Mary M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in a population based cohort classified as clinically normal at their initial evaluation. We examined 1390 individuals with a median age of 78.1 years and re-evaluated them up to four times at approximate 15 month intervals, with an average follow-up time of five years. Of the 1390 participants, 947 (69%) individuals remained cognitively normal, 397 (29%) progressed to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 46 (3%) to dementia. The stable normal group showed an initial practice effect in all domains which was sustained in memory and visuospatial reasoning. There was only a slight decline in attention and language after visit 3. We combined individuals with incident MCI and dementia to form one group representing those who declined. The incident MCI/dementia group showed an unexpected practice effect in memory from baseline to visit 2, with a significant decline thereafter. This group did not demonstrate practice effects in any other domain and showed a downward trajectory in all domains at each evaluation. Modeling cognitive change in an epidemiologic sample may serve as a useful benchmark for evaluating cognitive change in future intervention studies. PMID:24041121

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values in older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geersing, G J; Koek, H L; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Janssen, Kristel J M; Douma, Renée A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer testing in older patients (>50 years) with suspected venous thromboembolism, using conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values. Design Systematic review and bivariate random effects meta-analysis. Data sources We searched Medline and Embase for studies published before 21 June 2012 and we contacted the authors of primary studies. Study selection Primary studies that enrolled older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism in whom D-dimer testing, using both conventional (500 µg/L) and age adjusted (age×10 µg/L) cut-off values, and reference testing were performed. For patients with a non-high clinical probability, 2×2 tables were reconstructed and stratified by age category and applied D-dimer cut-off level. Results 13 cohorts including 12 497 patients with a non-high clinical probability were included in the meta-analysis. The specificity of the conventional cut-off value decreased with increasing age, from 57.6% (95% confidence interval 51.4% to 63.6%) in patients aged 51-60 years to 39.4% (33.5% to 45.6%) in those aged 61-70, 24.5% (20.0% to 29.7% in those aged 71-80, and 14.7% (11.3% to 18.6%) in those aged >80. Age adjusted cut-off values revealed higher specificities over all age categories: 62.3% (56.2% to 68.0%), 49.5% (43.2% to 55.8%), 44.2% (38.0% to 50.5%), and 35.2% (29.4% to 41.5%), respectively. Sensitivities of the age adjusted cut-off remained above 97% in all age categories. Conclusions The application of age adjusted cut-off values for D-dimer tests substantially increases specificity without modifying sensitivity, thereby improving the clinical utility of D-dimer testing in patients aged 50 or more with a non-high clinical probability. PMID:23645857

  16. Anticipatory postural adjustments are unaffected by age and are not absent in patients with the freezing of gait phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Plate, A; Klein, K; Pelykh, O; Singh, A; Bötzel, K

    2016-09-01

    In bipedal gait, the initiation of the first step is preceded by a complex sequence of movements which shift the centre of mass of the body towards the stance foot to allow for a step of the swing foot. These anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) have been investigated in order to elucidate movement strategies in healthy and diseased persons. We studied the influence of several external parameters (age, type of step initiation) on APAs and investigated whether Parkinsonian patients may have different APAs. As a result, we found that externally elicited steps were preceded by faster and larger APAs than self-timed steps. Parkinsonian patients without the freezing of gait (FOG) phenomenon showed overall slightly reduced APAs but did not clearly differ from patients with FOG. Multiple APAs were seen in up to 25 % of the steps of the patients and in a much lower percentage of the steps of control subjects. The results indicate that APAs are significantly influenced by the timing of a step, i.e. are larger in externally elicited steps. The patients showed an overall preserved APA pattern but slowed movements and amplitude, indicating that increased bradykinesia due to progressive illness is a plausible explanation for these findings. The freezing phenomenon is not explained by a general absence or massive reduction in APA measures. PMID:27173496

  17. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  18. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  19. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body

  20. First incident hospitalisation for Australian women aged 70 and beyond: A 10 year examination using competing risks.

    PubMed

    Harris, Melissa L; Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Kendig, Hal; Byles, Julie E

    2016-01-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding high hospital use among older adults and the capacity to manage the economic impact of the ageing population trend on healthcare systems. First hospitalisation in old age may act as a catalyst for ongoing intensification of health problems and acute care use. This study examined factors associated with first incident hospitalisation in women aged over 70, accounting for the health inequalities associated with geographic location. Survey data from 3780 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were matched with the Admitted Patients Data Collection and National Death Index. Days to first event (hospitalisation or death) were modelled using competing risks methods. A total of 3065 (80.3%) women had at least one hospital admission. More than half of the top 15 reasons for first hospitalisation were related to cardiovascular disease, with atrial fibrillation the most common. Proportional subdistribution hazards models showed that first hospital admission was driven by enabling and need factors including asthma/bronchitis diagnosis (HR=1.16; p=0.047), private health insurance (HR=1.16; p=0.004) more than two prescribed medications in previous month (HR=1.31; p=0.001), more than four general practitioner visits in previous year (HR=1.50; p=0.034), lower physical functioning (HR=0.99; p<0.001) and living in an inner regional area (HR=1.17; p=0.003). First overnight hospitalisation was primarily related with potentially preventable and treatable chronic diseases. Primary and secondary strategies aimed at chronic disease generally, and better chronic disease management particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, may play a vital role in disease prevention or delay in readmissions among this population. PMID:26952374

  1. The Contribution of Mammography Screening to Breast Cancer Incidence Trends in the United States: An Updated Age-period-cohort Model

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Sprague, Brian L.; Stout, Natasha K.; Alagoz, Oguz; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald; Holford, Theodore R.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of screening mammography on breast cancer incidence is difficult to disentangle from cohort- and age-related effects on incidence. Methods We developed an age-period-cohort model of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer incidence in U.S. females using cancer registry data. Five functions were included in the model to estimate stage-specific effects for age, premenopausal birth cohorts, postmenopausal birth cohorts, period (for all years of diagnosis), and a mammography period effect limited to women aged ≥40 years after 1982. Incidence with and without the mammography period effect was calculated. Results More recent birth cohorts have elevated underlying risk compared to earlier cohorts for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Comparing models with and without the mammography period effect showed that overall breast cancer incidence would have been 23.1% lower in the absence of mammography in 2010 (95% CI 18.8, 27.4), including 14.7% (9.5, 19.3) lower for invasive breast cancer and 54.5% (47.4, 59.6) lower for DCIS. Incidence of distant-staged breast cancer in 2010 would have been 29.0% (13.1, 48.1) greater in the absence of mammography screening. Conclusions Mammography contributes to markedly elevated rates of DCIS and early stage invasive cancers, but also contributes to substantial reductions in the incidence of metastatic breast cancer. Impact Mammography is an important tool for reducing the burden of breast cancer, but future work is needed to identify risk factors accounting for increasing underlying incidence and to distinguish between indolent and potentially lethal early stage breast cancers that are detected via mammography. PMID:25787716

  2. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  3. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  4. Intellectual and Emotional Development and School Adjustment in Preterm Children at 6 and 7 Years of Age. Continuation of a Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria

    1984-01-01

    Continues a previous five-year follow-up of preterm and full-term children by studying the continuity in their intellectual and emotional development. Prematurity was predictive for school adjustment at ages six and seven only when regression was performed on the preterm group, but failed to be predictive when mixed groups of preterm and full-term…

  5. Risk Factors for Four-Year Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    CHOUDHURY, FARZANA; VARMA, ROHIT; MCKEAN-COWDIN, ROBERTA; KLEIN, RONALD; AZEN, STANLEY P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify risk factors for 4-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in adult Latinos. DESIGN Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS Participants, aged 40 or older, from The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) underwent standardized comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations at baseline and at 4 years of follow-up. Age-related macular degeneration was detected by grading 30-degree stereoscopic fundus photographs using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to examine the independent association of incidence and progression of AMD and baseline sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and ocular characteristics. RESULTS Multivariate analyses revealed that older age (OR per decade of age: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.85) and higher pulse pressure (OR per 10 mm Hg: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.36, 4.76) were independently associated with the incidence of any AMD. The same factors were associated with early AMD, soft indistinct drusen, and retinal pigmentary abnormalities. Additionally, presence of clinically diagnosed diabetes mellitus was independently associated with increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.85), and male gender was associated with retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR 2.50; 95% CI: 1.48, 4.23). Older age (OR per decade of age: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.82, 2.67) and current smoking (OR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.66, 4.90) were independently associated with progression of AMD. CONCLUSIONS Several modifiable risk factors were associated with 4-year incidence and progression of AMD in Latinos. The results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing pulse pressure and promoting smoking cessation may reduce incidence and progression of AMD, respectively. PMID:21679916

  6. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Grytdal, Scott P.; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP) health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0–98 years). Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested). In addition, 22 (2%) of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2%) were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1%) were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children <5 years of age (outpatient incidence = 25.6 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 152.2 per 1,000 person-years), followed by older adults aged >65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per

  7. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor and Statin Medication Use and Incident Mobility Limitation in Community Older Adults. The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Shelly L.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Shorr, Ronald I; Bauer, Douglas C.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Hanlon, Joseph T

    2012-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statin medications have been proposed as potential agents to prevent or delay physical disability; yet limited research has evaluated whether such use in older community dwelling adults is associated with a lower risk of incident mobility limitation. Design Longitudinal cohort study Setting Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Participants 3055 participants who were well functioning at baseline (e.g., no mobility limitations). Measurements Summated standardized daily doses (low, medium and high) and duration of ACE inhibitor and statin use was computed. Mobility limitation (two consecutive self-reports of having any difficulty walking 1/4 mile or climbing 10 steps without resting) was assessed every 6 months after baseline. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted adjusting for demographics, health status, and health behaviors. Results At baseline, ACE inhibitors and statins were used by 15.2% and 12.9%, respectively and both increased to over 25% by year 6. Over 6.5 years of follow-up, 49.8% had developed mobility limitation. In separate multivariable models, neither ACE inhibitor (multivariate hazard ratio [HR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82–1.09) nor statin use (multivariate HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.87–1.17) was associated with a lower risk for mobility limitation. Similar findings were seen in analyses examining dose- and duration-response relationships and sensitivity analyses restricted to those with hypertension. Conclusions These findings indicate that ACE inhibitors and statins widely prescribed to treat hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, respectively do not lower risk of mobility limitation, an important life quality indicator. PMID:22092102

  8. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  9. Incidences of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Japanese Adults Aged 50 Years and Older From a Community-based Prospective Cohort Study: The SHEZ Study

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Okeda, Masayuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Yano, Shuichiro; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cross-sectional studies have examined the incidences of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), but prospective studies in Japanese older adults are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a community-based prospective cohort study to determine the incidence in Japanese adults aged ≥50 years. Methods We recruited 12 522 participants from Shozu County, Kagawa Prefecture, between December 2008 and November 2009 and followed participants for 3 years. When a subject presented with symptoms suggestive of HZ, they were examined at collaborating medical institutions and cooperated with onset and recovery surveys (eg, measurement of varicella zoster virus-specific immunity and a pain survey). The hazard ratios (HRs) of HZ and PHN according to sex and age were analyzed by Cox regression analysis with a significance level of 5%. Results The incidence of HZ was 10.9/1000 person-years (men: 8.5/1000 person-years; women: 12.8/1000 person-years) and was significantly higher in women than in men (HR 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–1.8). The incidence of PHN was 2.1/1000 person-years (men: 1.7/1000 person-years; women: 2.4/1000 person-years), with no significant sex differences. A total of 19% of HZ cases progressed to PHN; no sex-specific difference in the proportion of PHN cases was observed. Conclusions We clarified the accurate incidences of HZ and PHN in a population of Japanese older adults. These incidences increased with age. HZ incidence was higher in women than in men, while PHN incidence did not differ markedly between the sexes. PMID:26399445

  10. Age-Dependent Sex Difference of the Incidence and Mortality of Status Epilepticus: A Twelve Year Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Cheung-Ter; Sheu, Shew-Meei; Tsai, Ching-Fang; Wong, Yi-Sin; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a serious neurologic emergency associated with a significant mortality. The objective of this study is to investigate its epidemiology in terms of age- and sex-specific incidences and mortality. By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2000 to 2011, we identified hospitalized patients with a discharged diagnosis of SE and calculated the incidence and in-hospital mortality of SE with respect to age and sex. The overall incidence of SE was 4.61 per 100,000 person-years, which displayed a “J-shaped” distribution by age with a little higher under the age of 5 and highest over 60 years. The male-to-female rate ratio was 1.57 and it demonstrated a “mountain-shape” across ages with the peak at 45 to 49 years old. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in males (7.38%) than in females (11.12%) with an odds ratio of 0.64 (95% CI 0.56-0.72). Notably, the in-hospital mortality for females increased rapidly after the age of 40 to 45 years. The multivariate analysis found males had a significantly lower risk of mortality than females after, but not before, 45 years of age with an odds ratio of 0.56 (95% CI 0.49-0.65). Sex and age are crucial factors associated with the incidence and in-hospital mortality of SE. The females over 45 years of age have a higher risk of occurrence and mortality from SE. The underlying mechanism deserves further study. PMID:25826701

  11. Incidence and recovery of neurosensory disturbances after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in different age groups: a retrospective study of 263 patients.

    PubMed

    Verweij, J P; Mensink, G; Fiocco, M; van Merkesteyn, J P R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence of neurosensory disturbance (NSD) after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in different age groups and to assess the probability of sensory recovery in patients aged <19 years, 19-30 years, and >30 years. Hypoaesthesia of the lower lip was assessed subjectively and objectively immediately after BSSO and at 1 week and 1, 6, and 12 months after BSSO. Hypoaesthesia was considered permanent if it was present 1 year after BSSO. The frequency of NSD immediately after surgery was significantly higher in older patients. The cumulative incidence of recovery at 1 year was lower and the mean time to recovery was longer in the older patients, although these differences were not statistically significant. Older age was a significant risk factor for permanent hypoaesthesia, with an incidence of 4.8% per patient aged <19 years, 7.9% per patient aged 19-30 years, and 15.2% per patient aged >30 years. These findings show that the risk of NSD after BSSO is significantly higher in older patients. These results may aid surgeons in preoperative patient counselling and in deciding the optimal age at which to perform BSSO. PMID:26846794

  12. Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high {sup 137}Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Tondel, M.; Flodin, U.; Skoeldestig, A.; Axelson, O.

    1996-12-01

    The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form {sup 137}Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from {sup 137}Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. The impact of cannabis use on age of onset and clinical characteristics in first-episode psychotic patients. Data from the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS).

    PubMed

    Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Mazzoncini, Rodolfo; Cristofalo, Doriana; De Santi, Katia; Bertani, Mariaelena; Bissoli, Sarah; Lazzarotto, Lorenza; Marrella, Giovanna; Lamonaca, Dario; Riolo, Rosanna; Gardellin, Francesco; Urbani, Anna; Tansella, Michele; Ruggeri, Mirella

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis use is frequent among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and has been associated with several clinical features. This study aimed in an FEP sample to determine whether cannabis use is associated with (1) a higher level of positive symptoms, a lower level of depression and a better premorbid adjustment, (2) an earlier age of onset, and a better premorbid IQ. The study was conducted within the framework of the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS), a multisite collaborative research on FEP patients who attended the psychiatric services in Veneto Region, Italy. Standardized instruments were used to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and drug use data. A total of 555 FEP patients met the inclusion criteria, 517 of whom received an ICD-10 diagnosis of psychosis; 397 (55% males; mean age: 32 yrs ± 9.5) were assessed. Out of these, 311 patients agreed to be interviewed on drug and alcohol misuse; 20.3% was positive for drug misuse: cannabis (19.0%), cocaine (3.9%), and hallucinogens (3.9%). Cannabis use was not associated with a higher level of positive symptoms, but correlated with less severe depressive symptoms. No relationship was observed between premorbid adjustment or IQ and cannabis use. FEP patients who used cannabis had an earlier age of onset than abstinent patients, even after adjusting for gender and diagnosis. Our results suggest a possible causal role of cannabis in triggering psychosis in certain vulnerable subjects. Particular attention must be paid to this behaviour, because reducing cannabis use can delay or prevent some cases of psychosis. PMID:23290558

  14. Trends in the Incidence of In Situ and Invasive Cervical Cancer by Age Group and Histological Type in Korea from 1993 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Sang-yoon

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our study aims to describe changes in carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) in Korean women diagnosed between 1993 and 2009. Methods All cases of CIS and invasive cervical carcinoma diagnosed from 1993 to 2009 in the Korean National Cancer Incidence database were analyzed. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) in incidence rates were compared according to age and histological type. Additionally, we used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to know the association between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate of cervical cancer. Results Between 1993 and 2009, 72,240 cases of ICC were reported in Korea. Total incidence rate of ICC was 14.7 per 100,000 females. ASRs of ICC declined 3.8% per year, from 19.3 per 100,000 in 1993 to 10.5 per 100,000 in 2009. Although the overall incidence rate of adenocarcinoma remained stable, invasive squamous cell carcinoma showed a decreasing trend (APC −4.2%). For women aged 60–79 years, ASRs for squamous cell carcinoma increased from 1993 to 2001, and decreased from 2001 to 2009 (APC: −4.6%). Total 62,300 cases of CIS were diagnosed from 1993 to 2009. Total incidence rate of CIS was 12.2 per 100,000 females. ASRs of CIS increased 5.7% per year, from 7.5 per 100,000 in 1993 to 19.0 per 100,000 in 2009. Adenocarcinoma in situ increased 13.2% per year. There was a strong positive correlation between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate for CIS (p-value = 0.03) whereas screening rate showed a strong negative correlation with incidence rate for squamous ICC (p-value = 0.04). Conclusions The increasing trend in CIS, coupled with a decreasing trend in ICC, suggests the important role of cervix cancer screening. The incidence of adenocarcinoma showed a plateau, but the incidence of adenocarcinoma in situ showed an increasing trend. PMID:23977194

  15. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  16. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  17. An Examination of Relations among Taiwanese Elementary-Aged Children's Effortful Control, Social Relationships, and Adjustment at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among Taiwanese elementary school children's effortful control, social relationships and their adjustment at school. Data were gathered on 407 third- to sixth-grade children (81 third graders, 79 fourth graders, 116 fifth graders, and 131 sixth graders) attending three low- to…

  18. Shyness, Child-Teacher Relationships, and Socio-Emotional Adjustment in a Sample of Italian Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead…

  19. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  20. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Guitart, Anna M.; Brugal, M. Teresa; Bravo, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period. Methods Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50–64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). Results Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1–7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00–1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08–2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60–0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17–1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95–0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conclusions Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern. PMID:26445239

  1. Methodology for adjusting scrotal circumference to 365 or 452 days of age and correlations of scrotal circumference with growth traits in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Bell, D J; Spitzer, J C; Bridges, W C; Olson, L W

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from 1983 through 1991, where weight and hip height were measured at start of test and every 28 d on 604 bulls completing a 224-d forage-based gain test. Scrotal circumference (SC) was measured at start of test, and at either end of test or end of the weigh period after individual bulls reached 365 d of age. Over 3 yr of this study, SC was additionally measured every 28 d. Bulls were representatives of 5 breed groups: Angus, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Continental (predominantly Charolais), and Zebu (predominantly Simbrah). Adjusted 365-d SC and adjusted 452-d SC were calculated by regression analysis and from formulas based on SC growth of individuals to 140 and 224 d on test, respectively. Breed group differences were observed for age of dam, birth weight, hip height, weight per day of age, average daily gain and SC at start of test, 140 d, and end of test (224 d). Scrotal circumference was positively correlated with all growth traits. Scrotal circumference was related to breed group, age, weight, hip height, average daily gain, weight per day of age, age by year, and age-by-breed group (P<0.05), as determined by regression analysis. However, omitting weight, hip height, average daily gain, and weight per day of age from the regression model did not significantly affect R2 value. Scrotal circumference growth was linear to 140 d on test; however, SC growth to 224 d on test was curvilinear. The 365-d SC predicted from the formula and from regression analysis differed for Simmental and Zebu by 0.3 and 0.4 cm, respectively (P<0.05). The 452-d SC differed for Santa Gertrudis and Zebu by 0.5 and 0.6 cm, respectively (P<0.05). Formulas based on SC growth of individuals are reasonably accurate predictors of SC at 365 and 452 d of age, when compared with more complex regression analysis. Basing SC adjustments on individual growth appears to account for variables known to affect yearling SC. PMID:16727931

  2. Weaker error signals do not reduce the effectiveness of post-error adjustments: comparing error processing in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Jentzsch, Ines

    2012-06-15

    In this study we investigated age-related differences in error processing, comparing performance measures and physiological indicators of error processing of middle-aged (41-59years) and young (18-31years) adults using a version of the Eriksen flanker task. Although middle-aged participants were overall slower, both groups showed a comparable decrease in reaction time on error trials as well as slower and more accurate post-error performance. Despite the preserved error speeding and post-error slowing effects, we found an amplitude reduction in the Ne/ERN, contradicting the existence of a direct relationship between the amplitude of this component and post-error adjustments. This was further supported by the lack of significant correlations between the single-trial Ne/ERN amplitude and error-related reaction times. The single-trial Ne/ERN distribution showed a reduced variance for middle-aged compared to young participants, suggesting that weaker overall error signals rather than lapses in error detection are responsible for the observed Ne/ERN amplitude reductions. However, we argue that the signal still reached the necessary threshold to trigger normal post-error adjustments. Finally, the early Pe showed a reduction in amplitude and an increase in latency for middle-aged compared to young adults. Together, the findings suggest clear signs of a physiological decline in error processing at an earlier age than previously known, but these changes do not yet affect implementation of adaptive behavioral changes in middle-aged participants. PMID:22578713

  3. [Time trends in cancer incidence in Osaka].

    PubMed

    Hanai, A; Fujimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Changes in environments and life styles in Japan have caused the recent changes in the time trends of cancer incidence for various sites. Using the data from the Osaka Cancer Registry, time trends during 1966-80 were analysed for cancer incidence of the leading 5 sites: stomach, lung, liver, uterus and breast. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancers of the stomach (both sexes) and uterus (invasive cancer) decreased to 75% and 64% respectively between the two periods of 1966-68 and 1978-80 while cancers of the lung, liver, and breast reached 163%, 140%, and 143 % during the same period. Decrease of stomach cancer incidence was observed in all age-groups under 79, however, not in the 25-44 age-groups among females. Analyzing the histological data in the registry, it was noticed that estimated incidence of the intestinal type of stomach carcinoma had decreased more rapidly than the diffuse type. In the 30-49 age-groups among females, no decrease was observed of the diffuse type of carcinoma. Concerning lung cancer, a marked increase was observed over 60 years of age. The age-specific incidence curves by birth cohort showed no or very small cohort effects for the population born 1920-29. Among males, percentages of adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma have increased and that of epidermoid carcinoma decreased. The change was more marked in the age-groups younger than 59. Liver cancer showed the 3rd highest incidence rate among males and 6th among females. A rising trend in recent years was noticeable over 45 years of age among males. For the invasive uterine carcinoma, the incidence rate has been decreasing in all ages. Comparing these figures with those of whites in Connecticut or of Japanese in Hawaii, the former was higher than the latter and the difference was larger in age-groups over 40. The recent age incidence curve of breast cancer in Osaka came to be close to that in Iceland in 1930-49 when the curve had kept a constant level for age-groups after

  4. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex.The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes.Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years.Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  5. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children’s Adjustment Among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents’ mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers’ depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:18645744

  6. Childhood cancer incidence patterns by race, sex and age for 2000-2006: a report from the South African National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Kielkowski, Danuta; Schonfeld, Sara J; Kellett, Patricia; Stanulla, Martin; Dickens, Caroline; Kaatsch, Peter; Singh, Elvira; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Higher childhood cancer incidence rates are generally reported for high income countries although high quality information on descriptive patterns of childhood cancer incidence for low or middle income countries is limited, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to quantify global differences by cancer types, and to investigate whether they reflect true incidence differences or can be attributed to under-diagnosis or under-reporting. For the first time, we describe childhood cancer data reported to the pathology report-based National Cancer Registry of South Africa in 2000-2006 and compare our results to incidence data from Germany, a high income country. The overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) for South Africa in 2000-2006 was 45.7 per million children. We observed substantial differences by cancer types within South Africa by racial group; ASRs tended to be 3-4-fold higher in South African Whites compared to Blacks. ASRs among both Black and White South Africans were generally lower than those from Germany with the greatest differences observed between the Black population in South Africa and Germany, although there was marked variation between cancer types. Age-specific rates were particularly low comparing South African Whites and Blacks with German infants. Overall, patterns across South African population groups and in comparison to Germans were similar for boys and girls. Genetic and environmental reasons may probably explain rather a small proportion of the observed differences. More research is needed to understand the extent to which under-ascertainment and under-diagnosis of childhood cancers drives differences in observed rates. PMID:25363616

  7. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions. PMID:24150169

  8. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children <5 years old at the diagnosis) in Brazil. Data from 18 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) were analyzed (period 1999-2010). The analysis consisted of frequencies, age-adjusted incidence rates, and joinpoint regression results, including annual average percent change (AAPC) in incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The median age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of overall early childhood leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies. PMID:26925506

  9. Incidence and risk factors for community-acquired hepatitis C infection from birth to 5 years of age in rural Egyptian children

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Doa’a A.; Shebl, Fatma M.; El-Kamary, Samer S.; Magder, Laurence S.; Allam, Alif; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mikhail, Nabiel; Hashem, Mohamed; Sharaf, Soraya; Stoszek, Sonia K.; Strickland, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A prospective study in three Egyptian villages (A, B and C) having a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection examined incidence of community-acquired HCV infection in children; 2852 uninfected infants were prospectively followed from birth for up to 5.5 years. Fifteen seroconverted for either HCV antibodies and/or HCV-RNA (incidence of 0.53%). Ten had both anti-HCV and HCV-RNA; four had only anti-HCV; and one had HCV-RNA in the absence of antibody. The incidence rate at all ages was 2.7/1000 person-years (PY). It was 3.8/1000 PY during infancy and 2.0/1000 PY for the 1–5-years age group. Hospitalization and low birth weight increased the risk of infection; while living in village B, the family having a higher socioeconomic status, and advanced maternal education were protective. Six of eight HCV-infected infants reported iatrogenic exposures (e.g. hospitalization, therapeutic injections, ear piercing) prior to infection whereas only 2/7 children older than 1 year reported these exposures. Having an HCV-positive mother was the only other reported risk in two of these older children. The virus cleared in six (40%) children by the end of follow-up. Health education targeting iatrogenic exposures and focusing on risk factors could reduce HCV infection in children in high-risk populations. PMID:20153495

  10. Incidence and Mortality after Proximal Humerus Fractures Over 50 Years of Age in South Korea: National Claim Data from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chanmi; Jang, Sunmee; Lee, Areum; Kim, Ha Young; Lee, Yong Beom; Ha, Yong Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been lack of epidemiology of proximal humerus fracture using nationwide database in Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of proximal humerus fracture and its mortality following proximal humerus fracture in Korean over 50 years of age. Methods The Korean National Health Insurance data were evaluated to determine the incidence and mortality of proximal humerus fracture aged 50 years or older from 2008 through 2012. Results Proximal humerus fracture increased by 40.5% over 5 year of study. The incidence of fracture increased from 104.7/100,000 in 2008 to 124.7/100,000 in 2012 in women and from 45.3/100,000 in 2008 to 52.0/100,000 in 2012 in men, respectively. One year mortality rate after proximal humerus fracture was 8.0% in 2008 and 7.0% in 2012. One year mortality rate were 10.8% for men and 7.0% for women in 2008 and 8.5% for men and 6.4% for women in 2012. Conclusions Our study showed that the proximal humerus fracture in elderly was recently increasing and associated with high mortality in Korea. Considering proximal humerus fracture was associated with an increased risk of associated fractures and an increased mortality risk, public health strategy to prevent the proximal humerus fracture in elderly will be mandatory. PMID:25774360

  11. [The incidence of caries in a school-age population sample of U.S.L. n. 15 Alta Val di Cecina-Volterra].

    PubMed

    Benetti, G L; Dini, M

    1990-01-01

    It was made a screening on children of some filter classes (1st and 3d class of primary school and 1st class of secondary school) of the Volterra's schools to estimate the incidence of caries and, if necessary, to activate programs for an adequate prevention. We examined 749 children arrived to the Dental Department of the Sanitary District owing an invitation letter; a set of question was given to their parents testing mainly alimentary and oral hygienic uses of the children examined by dentists. Elaboration of data obtained from replies and demonstrated that caries incidence in our population is of 65.29%, prevailing on male sex, and that this pathology is predominant on people taking insufficient care of oral hygiene, making no use of fluoridated toothpaste and eating any of cakes (especially between meals). These data show the high incidence of caries in evolutional age and how much this is strictly connected with wrong alimentary and hygienic uses. Therefore, to reduce this phenomenon, it's necessary to operate interventions of sanitary education and dental checking examinations, at least every 6-12 months, beginning in preschool age. PMID:2075102

  12. Analysis of 151 agricultural driveline-related incidents resulting in fatal and non-fatal injuries to U.S. children and adolescents under age 18 from 1970 through 2004.

    PubMed

    Beer, S R; Deboy, G R; Field, W E

    2007-04-01

    Agricultural driveline-related incidents have been identified as an important cause of farm-related injury resulting in death and permanently disabling conditions to children and adolescents. A database of driveline-related injuries, including both PTO drivelines and secondary shafts and drivelines on agricultural equipment, developed at Purdue University was mined to identify all cases involving children and adolescents under age 18 who had been involved in a driveline-related incident from 1970 through 2004. Although these incidents did not account for a high percentage of all childhood farm-related injuries, this age group was found to make up nearly one in four documented agricultural driveline incidents. Of the 685 cases in the database with known ages, 151 were identified as youth under age 18. Findings indicated that these incidents often resulted in catastrophic injuries including amputation, spinal cord injuries, and compound bone fractures. Over the period studied, the trend in documented cases is declining, with recent years reporting below the yearly average and 2004 reporting no fatalities. Youth, primarily males, age 13 had the highest frequency of incidents, and over 50% of all cases occurred to youth ages 12 to 17. Fall was identified as the season with the most reported incidents. Amputations were documented in nearly 50% of all cases, and augers, elevators, and conveyors were the machines most frequently identified as being involved in the incident. Recommendations and strategies that specifically target the childhood injury problem related to agricultural drivelines are provided. PMID:17555204

  13. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  14. Ergothioneine levels in an elderly population decrease with age and incidence of cognitive decline; a risk factor for neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Cheah, Irwin K; Feng, Lei; Tang, Richard M Y; Lim, Keith H C; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-09-01

    Ergothioneine (ET), a naturally occurring thione, can accumulate in the human body at high concentrations from diet. Following absorption via a specific transporter, OCTN1, ET may accumulate preferentially in tissues predisposed to higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Given its potential cytoprotective effects, we examined how ET levels change with age. We found that whole blood ET levels in elderly individuals decline significantly beyond 60 years of age. Additionally, a subset of these subjects with mild cognitive impairment had significantly lower plasma ET levels compared with age-matched subjects. This decline suggests that deficiency in ET may be a risk factor, predisposing individuals to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27444382

  15. Comorbid Development of Disruptive Behaviors from age 1½ to 5 Years in a Population Birth-Cohort and Association with School Adjustment in First Grade.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Rene; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Nagin, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Comorbidity is frequent among disruptive behaviors (DB) and leads to mental health problems during adolescence and adulthood. However, the early developmental origins of this comorbidity have so far received little attention. This study investigated the developmental comorbidity of three DB categories during early childhood: hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression. Joint developmental trajectories of DB were identified based on annual mother interviews from age 1½ to 5 years, in a population-representative birth-cohort (N = 2045). A significant proportion of children (13 % to 21 %, depending on the type of DB) consistently displayed high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, or physical aggression from age 1½ to 5 years. Developmental comorbidity was frequent, especially for boys: 10 % of boys and 3.7 % of girls were on a stable trajectory with high levels of symptoms for the three categories of DB. Significant associations were observed between preschool joint-trajectories of DB and indicators of DB and school adjustment assessed by teachers in first grade. Preschoolers who maintained high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression, displayed the highest number of DB symptoms in first grade for all categories according to their teacher. They were also among the most disadvantaged of their class for school adjustment indicators. Thus, DB manifestations and developmental comorbidity of DB are highly prevalent in infancy. Early childhood appears to be a critical period to prevent persistent and comorbid DB that leads to impairment at the very beginning of school attendance and to long-term serious health and social adjustment problems. PMID:26311619

  16. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-06-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into <7 h, 7∼<8 h (reference), 8∼<9 h, 9∼<10 h, and ≥ 10 h. Afternoon napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼<8 h and napping 0 min (all above p < 0.05). Conclusions Both long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26969344

  17. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  18. High incidence of adverse cerebral blood flow responses to spreading depolarization in the aged ischemic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Menyhárt, Ákos; Makra, Péter; Szepes, Borbála É; Tóth, Orsolya M; Hertelendy, Péter; Bari, Ferenc; Farkas, Eszter

    2015-12-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur spontaneously in the brain after stroke, exacerbate ischemic injury, and thus emerge as a potential target of intervention. Aging predicts worse outcome from stroke; yet, the impact of age on SD evolution is not clear. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in young (8-9 weeks old, n = 8) and old (2 year olds, n = 6) anesthetized rats. Sham-operated animals of both age groups served as control (n = 12). Electrocorticogram, direct current potential, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) variations were acquired via a small craniotomy above the parietal cortex. SDs were elicited by KCl through a second craniotomy distal to the recording site. Ischemia and age delayed the recovery from SD. CBF decreased progressively during ischemia in the old animals selectively, and inverse neurovascular coupling with SD evolved in the old but not in the young ischemic group. We propose that (mal)adaptation of cerebrovascular function with aging impairs the SD-related CBF response, which is implicated in the intensified expansion of ischemic damage in the old brain. PMID:26346140

  19. Immune-inflammatory Dysregulation Modulates the Incidence of Progressive Fibrosis and Diastolic Stiffness in the Aging Heart

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Katarzyna A.; Taffet, George E.; Carlson, Signe; Hermosillo, Jesus; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction in the aging heart is a grave condition that challenges the life and lifestyle of a growing segment of our population. This report seeks to examine the role and interrelationship of inflammatory dysregulation in interstitial myocardial fibrosis and progressive diastolic dysfunction in aging mice. We studied a population of C57BL/6 mice that developed progressive diastolic dysfunction over 30 months of life. This progressive dysfunction was associated with increasing infiltration of CD45+ fibroblasts of myeloid origin. In addition, increased rates of collagen expression as measured by cellular procollagen were apparent in the heart as a function of age. These cellular and functional changes were associated with progressive increases in mRNA for MCP-1 and IL-13 which correlated both temporally and quantitatively with changes in fibrosis and cellular procollagen levels. MCP-1 protein was also increased and found to be primarily in the venular endothelium. Protein assays also demonstrated elevation of IL-4 and IL-13 suggesting a shift to a Th2 phenotype in the aging heart. In vitro studies demonstrated that IL-13 markedly enhanced monocyte fibroblast transformation. Our results indicate that immunoinflammatory dysregulation in the aging heart induces progressive MCP-1 production and an increased shift to a Th2 phenotype paralleled by an associated increase in myocardial interstitial fibrosis, cellular collagen synthesis, and increased numbers of CD45+ myeloid-derived fibroblasts that contain procollagen. The temporal association and functional correlations suggests a causative relationship between age-dependent immunoinflammatory dysfunction, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. PMID:20974150

  20. International long-term trends and recent patterns in the incidence of leukemias and lymphomas among children and adolescents ages 0-19 years.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Brown, Linda M; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Check, David; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Landgren, Annelie; Devesa, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    To enhance understanding of etiology, we examined international population-based cancer incidence data for lymphoid leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloid leukemia among children aged 0-19. Based on temporal trends during 1978-2007 in 24 populations, lymphoid leukemia and myeloid leukemia incidence rates generally have not changed greatly and differences in rates for non-Hodgkin and for Hodgkin lymphoma have diminished in some regions. Lymphoid leukemia rates during 2003-2007 in 54 populations varied about 10-fold, with rates highest in US white Hispanics (50.2 per million person-years) and Ecuador (48.3) and lowest in US blacks (20.4), Tunisia (17.7) and Uganda (6.9). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 30-fold, with very high rates in sub-Saharan Africa (146.0 in Malawi and 54.3 in Uganda) and low rates (≤ 10) in some Asian populations (China, Japan, India, the Philippines and Thailand) and U.S. Asian-Pacific Islanders, eastern and northern European populations and Puerto Rico. Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 15-fold, with rates highest in Italy (21.3) and lowest in China (1.7). Myeloid leukemia rates varied only about fivefold, with rates highest in the Philippines and Korea (exceeding 14.0) and lowest in Eastern Europe (5.9 in Serbia and 5.3 in the Czech Republic) and Uganda (2.7). The boy/girl average incidence rate ratios were 2.00 or lower. Age-specific patterns differed among the four hematopoietic malignancies, but were generally consistent within major categories world-wide, except for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A systematic world-wide approach comparing postulated etiologic factors in low- versus high-risk populations may help clarify the etiology of these childhood malignancies. PMID:26562742

  1. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  2. Physical activity and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, A R; Kushi, L H; Hong, C P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether the incidence of diabetes is reduced among physically active older women. METHODS: We assessed physical activity by mailed questionnaire and 12-year incidence of diabetes (ostensibly type 2 diabetes) in a cohort of 34257 women aged 55 to 69 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, estrogen use, dietary variables, and family history of diabetes, women who reported any physical activity had a relative risk of diabetes of 0.69 (95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.77) compared with sedentary women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that physical activity is important for type 2 diabetes prevention among older women. PMID:10630154

  3. Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

    2015-07-01

    Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29.8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85.9%, 93.4% and 83.3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73.3% and 95.9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.4-54.1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40.3% (95% CI 33.0-47.5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults. PMID:25373419

  4. Incidence and Effects of Polypharmacy on Clinical Outcome among Patients Aged 80+: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Gao, Dewei; Liang, Zhiru; He, Jing; Gong, Weiqin; Gao, Linggen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Polypharmacy is a problem of growing interest in geriatrics with the increase in drug consumption in recent years, is defined according to the WHO criteria as the, ‘‘concurrent use of five or more different prescription medication”. We investigated the clinical characteristics of polypharmacy and identified the effects of polypharmacy on clinical outcome among patients aged 80+ admitted to Chinese PLA general hospital. Methods Older men aged ≥80 years (n = 1562) were included in this study. The included participants attended a structured clinical examination and an interview carried out by a geriatrician and trained nurses. A follow-up survey in 2014 was carried out on survivors in the same way as in 2009. The clinical outcome measured were adverse drug reactions, falls, frailty, disability, cognitive impairment, mortality. The association between polypharmacy and clinical outcome was assessed by logistic regression. Results The mean (range) age of the included participants was 85.2 (80–104) years. Medication exposure was reported by 100% of the population. Mean number of medications reported in this population was 9.56±5.68. The prevalence of polypharmacy (≥6 medications) in the present study was 70%. At the time of the follow-up survey, an increase in the number of taken medicines had occurred among half of the survivors. The risk of different outcomes in relation to number of medications rises significantly, the odds ratios were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]1.17–1.28) for adverse drug reactions, 1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.26) for falls, 1.16 (95% CI 1.09–1.24) for disability, and 1.19 (95% CI 1.12–1.23) for mortality. There was no association between increasing number of medications and cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that polypharmacy is very common in the very old patients, and observed that number of medications was a factor associated with difference clinical outcome independently of the age, type of

  5. A mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first six months of age

    PubMed Central

    Moro, G; Arslanoglu, S; Stahl, B; Jelinek, J; Wahn, U; Boehm, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Oligosaccharides may alter postnatal immune development by influencing the constitution of gastrointestinal bacterial flora. Aims To investigate the effect of a prebiotic mixture of galacto‐ and long chain fructo‐oligosaccharides on the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first six months of life in formula fed infants at high risk of atopy. Methods Prospective, double‐blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial; 259 infants at risk for atopy were enrolled. A total of 102 infants in the prebiotic group and 104 infants in the placebo group completed the study. If bottle feeding was started, the infant was randomly assigned to one of two hydrolysed protein formula groups (0.8 g/100 ml prebiotics or maltodextrine as placebo). All infants were examined for clinical evidence of atopic dermatitis. In a subgroup of 98 infants, faecal flora was analysed. Results Ten infants (9.8%; 95 CI 5.4–17.1%) in the intervention group and 24 infants (23.1%; 95 CI 16.0–32.1%) in the control group developed AD. The severity of the dermatitis was not affected by diet. Prebiotic supplements were associated with a significantly higher number of faecal bifidobacteria compared with controls but there was no significant difference in lactobacilli counts. Conclusion Results show for the first time a beneficial effect of prebiotics on the development of atopic dermatitis in a high risk population of infants. Although the mechanism of this effect requires further investigation, it appears likely that oligosaccharides modulate postnatal immune development by altering bowel flora and have a potential role in primary allergy prevention during infancy. PMID:16873437

  6. Prevalence and Incidence of HIV Infection, Trends, and Risk Factors Among Persons Aged 15–64 Years in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimanga, Davies O.; Ogola, Samuel; Umuro, Mamo; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Kimondo, Lucy; Murithi, Patrick; Muttunga, James; Waruiru, Wanjiru; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Sharrif, Shahnaaz; De Cock, Kevin M.; (UK), FRCP; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhanced HIV surveillance using demographic, behavioral, and biologic data from national surveys can provide information to evaluate and respond to HIV epidemics efficiently. Methods From October 2012 to February 2013, we conducted a 2-stage cluster sampling survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years in 9 geographic regions in Kenya. Participants answered questionnaires and provided blood for HIV testing. We estimated HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, described trends in HIV prevalence over the past 5 years, and identified factors associated with HIV infection. This analysis was restricted to persons aged 15–64 years. Results HIV prevalence was 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 6.3] in 2012, a significant decrease from 2007, when HIV prevalence, excluding the North Eastern region, was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6 to 7.9). HIV incidence was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9) in 2012. Among women, factors associated with undiagnosed HIV infection included being aged 35–39 years, divorced or separated, from urban residences and Nyanza region, self-perceiving a moderate risk of HIV infection, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and reporting 4 or more lifetime number of partners. Among men, widowhood, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and lack of circumcision were associated with undiagnosed HIV infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence has declined in Kenya since 2007. With improved access to treatment, HIV prevalence has become more challenging to interpret without data on new infections and mortality. Correlates of undiagnosed HIV infection provide important information on where to prioritize prevention interventions to reduce transmission of HIV in the broader population. PMID:24445338

  7. [Folate and iron in fertile age women from a Venezuelan community affected by incidence of neural tube defects].

    PubMed

    Mariela, Montilva; Jham, Papale; Nieves, García-Casal María; Yelitza, Berné; Yudith, Ontiveros; Lourdes, Durán

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. After signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (Graffar-Mendez Castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). In blood sample was determined Hemoglobin, and Erythrocytic Folate (FE). Serum was obtained to determine Ferritin and Serum Folate (FS). 53.53% of the sample presented low FS levels, 10.78% were FS deficient. Severe FE deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5.9%. For both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with Acido Fólico or pregnant (p = 0.000), median for FE was higher for adults (p = 0.001) and in non poor women (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of anemia was 11.2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p = 0.029) and in urban women (p = 0.042). Low ferritin were found in 37.3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects. PMID:21427880

  8. Incidence of Chromosome Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    A minority of conceptions result in live births. Of recognized conceptions, 15% result in spontaneous abortions, up to 60% of which are due to chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of the different disorders is given. Of live births, one in 200 suffers a chromosome abnormality. The common abnormalities are described with their incidence. The effect of maternal age on this incidence is pronounced, but even so must be kept in proportion for counselling purposes.

  9. Partial Edentulism and its Correlation to Age, Gender, Socio-economic Status and Incidence of Various Kennedy’s Classes– A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chitra Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Partial edentulism, one or more teeth missing is an indication of healthy behaviour of dental practices in the society and attitude towards dental and oral care. The pattern of partial edentulism has been evaluated in many selected populations in different countries by different methods. Most of the studies have evaluated partial edentulism by surveying of Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs), patients visiting clinics, clinical records and population in particular locality. The objective of the study is to review the prevalence of partial edentulousness and its correlation to age,gender, arch predominance, socio economic factors and incidence of various Kennedy’s Classes. Key observations drawn from the review are as below. There is no gender correlation for partial edentulism.Prevalence of partial edentulism is more common in mandibular arch than maxillary arch.Younger adults have more Class III and IV RPDs. Elders have more distal extension RPDs Class I and II. PMID:26266237

  10. Intracerebral hemorrhage mortality is not changing despite declining incidence

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Smith, Melinda A.; Brown, Devin L.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Adelman, Eric E.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine trends in incidence and mortality of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a rigorous population-based study. Methods: We identified all cases of spontaneous ICH in a South Texas community from 2000 to 2010 using rigorous case ascertainment methods within the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project. Yearly population counts were determined from the US Census, and deaths were determined from state and national databases. Age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted incidence was estimated for each year with Poisson regression, and a linear trend over time was investigated. Trends in 30-day case fatality and long-term mortality (censored at 3 years) were estimated with log-binomial or Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, stroke severity, and comorbid disease. Results: A total of 734 cases of ICH were included. The age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted ICH annual incidence rate was 5.21 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.36, 6.24) in 2000 and 4.30 per 10,000 (95% CI 3.21, 5.76) in 2010. The estimated 10-year change in demographic-adjusted ICH annual incidence rate was −31% (95% CI −47%, −11%). Yearly demographic-adjusted 30-day case fatality ranged from 28.3% (95% CI 19.9%, 40.3%) in 2006 to 46.5% (95% CI 35.5, 60.8) in 2008. There was no change in ICH case fatality or long-term mortality over time. Conclusions: ICH incidence decreased over the past decade, but case fatality and long-term mortality were unchanged. This suggests that primary prevention efforts may be improving over time, but more work is needed to improve ICH treatment and reduce the risk of death. PMID:24838789

  11. Predictive value of the age-adjusted charlson comorbidity index on perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Rudy S.; Leitao, Mario M.; Zivanovic, Oliver; Gardner, Ginger J.; Long Roche, Kara C.; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A.; Jewell, Elizabeth L.; Brown, Carol L.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.; Charlson, Mary E.; Chi, Dennis S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of the Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity index (ACCI) to predict perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods Data were analyzed for all patients with stage IIIB-IV EOC who underwent primary cytoreduction from 1/2001–1/2010 at our institution. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4. Clinical and survival outcomes were assessed and compared. Results We identified 567 patients; 199 (35%) had an ACCI of 0–1, 271 (48%) had an ACCI of 2–3, and 97 (17%) had an ACCI of ≥4. The ACCI was significantly associated with the rate of complete gross resection (0–1=44%, 2–3=32%, and ≥4=32%; p=0.02), but was not associated with the rate of minor (47% vs 47% vs 43%, p=0.84) or major (18% vs 19% vs 16%, p=0.8) complications. The ACCI was also significantly associated with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median PFS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 20.3, 16, and 15.4 months, respectively (p=0.02). Median OS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 65.3, 49.9, and 42.3 months, respectively (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, the ACCI remained a significant prognostic factor for both PFS (p=0.02) and OS (p<0.001). Conclusions The ACCI was not associated with perioperative complications in patients undergoing primary cytoreduction for advanced EOC, but was a significant predictor of PFS and OS. Prospective clinical trials in ovarian cancer should consider stratifying for an age-comorbidity covariate. PMID:26037900

  12. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  13. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955-2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed

    Merrill, Stephen J; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E

    2016-01-01

    The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955-2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-69, 70-85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0-14 and 15-29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I-III or III-IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  14. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  15. Spinal pain in adolescents: prevalence, incidence, and course: a school-based two-year prospective cohort study in 1,300 Danes aged 11–13

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). Methods This study was a school-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11–13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. Results The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain was 86% and 89% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. A group of 13.6% (95% CI: 11.8, 15.6) at baseline and 19.5% (95% CI: 17.1, 22.0) at follow-up reported that they had pain frequently. The frequency of pain was strongly associated with the intensity of pain, i.e., the majority of the participants reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from infrequent to more frequent was common over the two-year period. Conclusions Spinal pain is common at the age of 11–15 years, but some have more pain than others. The pain is likely to progress, i.e., to more locations, higher frequency, and higher pain intensity over a two-year period. PMID:24885549

  16. Incidence of Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Associated Factors: A Population-Based Study of Olmsted County, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Benjamin G.; Alikhan, Ali; Weaver, Amy L.; Wetter, David A.; Davis, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    There are no population-based incidence studies of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Using the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we sought to determine incidence, as well as other associations and characteristics, for HS patients diagnosed in Olmsted County, Minnesota between 1968 and 2008. Incidence was estimated using the decennial census data for the county. Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and disease severity. A total of 268 incident cases were identified, with an overall annual age- and sex-adjusted incidence of 6.0 per 100,000. Age-adjusted incidence was significantly higher in women compared to men [8.2 (95% CI, 7.0–9.3) vs. 3.8 (95% CI, 3.0–4.7)]. The highest incidence was among young women aged 20–29 (18.4 per 100,000). The incidence has risen over the past four decades, particularly among women. Women were more likely to have axillary and upper anterior torso involvement, while men were more likely to have perineal or perianal disease. Additionally, 54.9% (140/255) patients were obese; 70.2% were current or former smokers; 42.9% carried a diagnosis of depression; 36.2% carried a diagnosis of acne; and 6% had pilonidal disease. Smoking and gender were significantly associated with more severe disease. PMID:22931916

  17. Cardiometabolic Correlates of Low Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in Western Alaska Native People -- the WATCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Kathryn R.; Metzger, Jesse S.; Jolly, Stacey E.; Umans, Jason G.; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Kaufmann, Cristiane; Wilson, Amy S.; Ebbesson, Sven O. E.; Raymer, Terry W.; Austin, Melissa A.; Howard, Barbara V.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Previously rare among Alaska Native (AN) people, type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevalence as indicated by registry data has increased by as much as 300% in some western Alaska regions. We sought to determine prevalence and incidence of DM2 and analyze associated cardiometabolic risk factors in western AN people. Methods DM2 and prediabetes prevalence and incidence were determined by the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health using consolidated data from cohort studies conducted during 2000–2010. Crude and age-adjusted incidence for DM2 and prediabetes were calculated using 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria. Effects of covariates on DM2 and prediabetes were determined using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses, adjusted for age and sex. Results Excluding baseline diabetes (n=124, 4.5%), 53 cases of new DM2 were identified among 2,630 participants. Age- and sex-adjusted DM2 incidence was 4.3/1,000 (95% CI 2.9, 5.0) person-years over an average 5.9-year follow up. After excluding baseline prediabetes, 387 new cases of prediabetes were identified among 1,841 participants; adjusted prediabetes incidence was 44.5/1,000 (95% CI 39.5, 49.5) person years. Independent predictors for DM2 included age, impaired fasting glucose, and metabolic syndrome; family history of diabetes and obesity were additional independent predictors for prediabetes. Conclusions DM2 incidence in western AN people is substantially lower than that for U.S. whites; however, incidence of prediabetes is more than 10-fold higher than western AN DM2 incidence and more closely aligned with U.S. rates. Interventions aimed at achieving healthy lifestyles are needed to minimize risk factors and maximize protective factors for DM2 in this population. PMID:25805711

  18. Racial Differences in the Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Newsome, Britt; Kramer, Holly; Peralta, Carmen A.; Kim, Yongin; Jacobs, David R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The incidence of ESRD is higher in African Americans than in whites, despite reports of a similar or lower prevalence of CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study compared the incidence of CKD among young African-American and white adults over 20 years of follow-up in the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Participants included 4119 adults, 18–30 years of age, with an estimated GFR (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline. Incident CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and a ≥25% decline in eGFR at study visits conducted 10, 15, and 20 years after baseline. Results At baseline, the mean age of African Americans and whites was 24 and 26 years, respectively (P<0.001), and 56% and 53% of participants, respectively, were women (P=0.06). There were 43 incident cases of CKD during follow-up, 29 (1.4%) among African Americans and 14 (0.7%) among whites (P=0.02). The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for incident CKD comparing African Americans to whites was 2.56 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.35–5.05). After further adjustment for body mass index, systolic BP, fasting plasma glucose, and HDL cholesterol, the HR was 2.51 (95% CI, 1.25–5.05). After multivariable adjustment including albuminuria at year 10, the HR for CKD at year 15 or 20 was 1.12 (95% CI, 0.52–2.41). Conclusions In this study, the 20-year CKD incidence was higher among African Americans than whites, a difference that is explained in part by albuminuria. PMID:22076879

  19. Galectin 3 and incident atrial fibrillation in the community

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer E.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; McManus, David D.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Larson, Martin G.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Galectin 3 (Gal-3) is a potential mediator of cardiac fibrosis, and Gal-3 concentrations predict incident heart failure. The same mechanisms that lead to cardiac fibrosis in heart failure may influence development of atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation (AF). We examined the association of Gal-3 and incident AF in the community. Methods Plasma Gal-3 concentrations were measured in 3,306 participants of the Framingham Offspring cohort who attended the sixth examination cycle (1995–1998, mean age 58 years, 54% women). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of baseline Gal-3 concentrations and incident AF. Results Over a median follow-up period of 10 years, 250 participants developed incident AF. Crude incidence rates of AF by increasing sex-specific Gal-3 quartiles were 3.7%, 5.9%, 9.1%, and 11.5% (log-rank test P < .0001). In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, each 1-SD increase in loge-Gal-3 was associated with a 19% increased hazard of incident AF (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.05–1.36, P = .009). This association was not significant after adjustment for traditional clinical AF risk factors (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.98–1.28, P = .10). Conclusion Higher circulating Gal-3 concentrations were associated with increased risk of developing AF over the subsequent 10 years in age- and sex-adjusted analyses but not after accounting for other traditional clinical AF risk factors. Our results do not support a role for Gal-3 in AF risk prediction. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether Gal-3 plays a role in the development of AF substrate similar to HF. PMID:24766984

  20. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-adjusted, sex- and race-specific 1969-1971 cancer incidence ratios for the 722 census tracts of the San Francisco-Oakland Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with measured chrysotile asbestos counts in tract drinking waters. The water supplies serving the are...

  1. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER AND CANCER IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA: 1969-1974 INCIDENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between ingested asbestos (through drinking water) and cancer of various body sites was examined. This study was a follow-up to another article that investigated this relationship. Age-adjusted, sex and race specific 1969-1974 cancer incidence ratios for 410 cens...

  2. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 3. ASSOCIATION OF CANCER WITH INDICES OF CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    With data from the Iowa Cancer Registry, age-adjusted sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1981 were determined for towns with a population of 1,000-10,000 and a public water supply from a single stable ground source. These rates were related to levels of volati...

  3. Why have ovarian cancer mortality rates declined? Part I. Incidence.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Iqbal, Javaid; Rosen, Barry; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    The age-adjusted mortality rate from ovarian cancer in the United States has declined over the past several decades. The decline in mortality might be the consequence of a reduced number of cases (incidence) or a reduction in the proportion of patients who die from their cancer (case-fatality). In part I of this three-part series, we examine rates of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry database and we explore to what extent the observed decline in mortality can be explained by a downward shift in the stage distribution of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to early detection) or by fewer cases of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to a change in risk factors). The proportion of localized ovarian cancers did not increase, suggesting that a stage-shift did not contribute to the decline in mortality. The observed decline in mortality paralleled a decline in incidence. The trends in ovarian cancer incidence coincided with temporal changes in the exposure of women from different birth cohorts to various reproductive risk factors, in particular, to changes in the use of the oral contraceptive pill and to declining parity. Based on recent changes in risk factor propensity, we predict that the trend of the declining age-adjusted incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the United States will reverse and rates will increase in coming years. PMID:26080287

  4. Increasing incidence of celiac disease in a North American population

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; van Dyke, Carol T.; Melton, L. Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Lahr, Brian D.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) varies greatly, potentially because of incomplete ascertainment of cases and small study samples with limited statistical power. Previous reports indicate that the incidence of CD is increasing. We examined the prevalence of CD in a well-defined US county. METHODS Population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, US. Using the infrastructure of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, medical, histopathology, and CD serology records were used to identify all new cases of CD in Olmsted County since 2000. Age- and sex-specific and adjusted (to the US white 2000 population) incidence rates for CD were estimated. Clinical presentation at diagnosis was also assessed. RESULTS Between 2000 and 2010, 249 individuals (157 female or 63%, median age 37.9 years) were diagnosed with CD in Olmsted County. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CD in the study period was 17.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.2–19.6) per 100,000 person-years, increasing from 11.1 (95% CI=6.8–15.5) in 2000–2001 to 17.3 (95% CI=13.3–21.3) in 2008–2010. The temporal trend in incidence rates was modeled as a two-slope pattern, with the incidence leveling off after 2004. Based on the two classic CD symptoms of diarrhea and weight loss, the relative frequency of classical CD among incident cases decreased over time between 2000 and 2010 (p=0.044). CONCLUSION The incidence of CD has continued to increase in the past decade in a North American population. PMID:23511460

  5. Incidence of knee cartilage surgery in Norway, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Engen, Cathrine Nørstad; Årøen, Asbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objective A systematic and long-term data collection on the treatment of focal cartilage defects (FCDs) of the knee is needed. This can be achieved through the foundation of a National Knee Cartilage Defect Registry. The aim of this study was to establish the nationwide burden of knee cartilage surgery, defined as knee surgery in patients with an FCD. We also aimed to identify any geographical differences in incidence rates, patient demographics or trends within this type of surgery. Setting A population-based study with retrospective identification of patients undergoing knee cartilage surgery in Norway through a mandatory public health database from 2008 to 2011. Participants We identified all patients undergoing cartilage surgery, or other knee surgery in patients with an FCD. All eligible surgeries were assessed for inclusion on the basis of certain types of ICD-10 and NOMESKO Classification of Surgical Procedures codes. Primary and secondary outcome measures The variables were diagnostic and surgical codes, geographic location of the performing hospital, age and sex of the patients. Yearly incidence and incidence rates were calculated. Age-adjusted incidences for risk ratios and ORs between geographical areas were also calculated. Results A total of 10 830 cases of knee cartilage surgery were identified, with slight but significant decreases from 2008 to 2011 (p<0.0003). The national incidence rate was 56/100 000 inhabitants and varied between regions, counties and hospitals. More than 50% of the procedures were palliative and nearly 400 yearly procedures were reparative or restorative. Conclusions Knee cartilage surgery is common in Norway, counting 2500 annual cases with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 68.8/100 000 inhabitants. There are significant geographical variations in incidence and trends of surgery and in trends between public and private hospitals. We suggest that a national surveillance system would be beneficial for the future evaluation

  6. Ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940-1993: incidence, prevalence, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, E; Silverstein, M; Sandborn, W; Tremaine, W; Harmsen, W; Zinsmeister, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—There is significant geographic variation in the reported incidence of ulcerative colitis.
AIMS—To update the incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, examine temporal trends, and determine overall survival.
PATIENTS—All Olmsted County residents diagnosed with ulcerative colitis between 1940 and 1993 (incidence cases), and all residents with ulcerative colitis alive on 1 January 1991 (prevalence cases).
METHODS—Incidence and prevalence rates were adjusted using 1990 US census figures for whites. The effects of age, sex, and calendar year on incidence rates were evaluated using Poisson regression. Survival from diagnosis was compared with that expected for US north-central whites.
RESULTS—Between 1940 and 1993, 278 incidence cases were identified, for an adjusted incidence rate of 7.6 cases per 100 000 person years (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.7 to 8.5). On 1 January 1991, there were 218 residents with definite or probable ulcerative colitis, for an adjusted prevalence rate of 229 cases per 100 000 (95% CI, 198 to 260). Increased incidence rates were associated with later calendar years (p<0.002), younger age (p<0.0001), urban residence (p<0.0001), and male sex (p<0.003). Overall survival was similar to that expected (p>0.2).
CONCLUSIONS—The overall incidence rate of ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County increased until the 1970s, and remained stable thereafter. Incidence rates among men and urban residents were significantly higher. The prevalence rate in Rochester in 1991 was 19% higher than that in 1980. Overall survival was similar to that of the general population.


Keywords: ulcerative colitis; incidence; prevalence; survival; prognosis; epidemiology PMID:10673294

  7. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  8. Socioeconomic position and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: the ELSA study.

    PubMed

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Marmot, Michael; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    We examined the associations between childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and incident diabetes in 7,432 individuals aged 50 or older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We identified 174 and 189 cases of incident diabetes, in men and women, respectively, over 5.3 years of follow-up. Cox models were estimated. In women, childhood SEP, education, occupational class, income, wealth, and subjective social status (SSS) were related to incident diabetes. Occupational class, income, and SSS did not remain significantly related to incident diabetes after adjustment for individual sets of covariates (i.e. unhealthy behaviours, obesity, or psychosocial factors). Wealth (HR: 1.65, 95 % CI: 1.05, 2.60, poorest vs. wealthiest tertile) remained significantly related to incident diabetes after adjustment for all covariates, but education (HR: 1.46, 95 % CI: 0.92, 2.33, lowest vs. highest category) and childhood SEP (HR: 1.47, 95 % CI: 0.98, 2.19, lowest vs. highest category) did not. In men, only wealth and SSS were related to incident diabetes. SSS remained significantly related to incident diabetes after adjustment for all covariates (HR: 2.46, 95 % CI: 1.32, 4.68, lowest vs. highest category), but wealth did not (HR: 1.42, 95 % CI: 0.94, 2.15, poorest vs. wealthiest tertile). Additional adjustment for wealth did not greatly affect the association between incident diabetes and SSS in men. Incident diabetes in older women is associated with SEP from all life stages, while in older men only with current SEP. Psychosocial factors (in women), unhealthy behaviours, and obesity partly mediate these associations. PMID:22539241

  9. A Population-Based Study of the Incidence of Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kohorst, John J.; Bruce, Alison J.; Torgerson, Rochelle R.; Schenck, Louis A.; Davis, Mark D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To calculate the incidence of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 2000 to 2010. Patients and Methods Using the medical record linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we identified newly diagnosed cases of BMS from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010. Diagnoses were confirmed through the presence of burning pain symptoms of the oral mucosa with normal oral examination findings and no associated clinical signs. Incidence was estimated using decennial census data for Olmsted County. Results In total, 169 incident cases were identified, representing an annual age- and sex-adjusted incidence of BMS of 11.4 per 100,000 person-years. Age-adjusted incidence was significantly higher in women than men (18.8 [95% CI, 16.4–22.9] vs 3.7 [95% CI, 2.6–5.7] per 100,000 person-years [P<.001]). Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 89 years had the highest disease incidence, with the maximal rate in women aged 70 to 79 years (70.3 per 100,000 person-years). After age 50 years, BMS incidence in men and women significantly increased across age-groups (P=.02). Olmsted County study participants were predominantly white, which is a study limitation. In addition, diagnostic criteria for identifying BMS in the present study may not apply for all situations because no diagnostic criteria are universally recognized for identifying BMS. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first population-based incidence study of BMS reported to date. The data show that BMS is an uncommon disease highly associated with female sex and advancing age. PMID:25176397

  10. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50-1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66-1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  11. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50–1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66–1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  12. Perceived Discrimination and Incident Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Lewis, Tené T.; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Alonso, Alvaro; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is positively related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; its relationship with incident CVD is unknown. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based multiethnic cohort study of 6,508 adults aged 45–84 years who were initially free of clinical CVD, we examined lifetime discrimination (experiences of unfair treatment in 6 life domains) and everyday discrimination (frequency of day-to-day occurrences of perceived unfair treatment) in relation to incident CVD. During a median 10.1 years of follow-up (2000–2011), 604 incident events occurred. Persons reporting lifetime discrimination in ≥2 domains (versus none) had increased CVD risk, after adjustment for race/ethnicity and sociodemographic factors, behaviors, and traditional CVD risk factors (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.70) and after control for chronic stress and depressive symptoms (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.60). Reported discrimination in 1 domain was unrelated to CVD (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.30). There were no differences by race/ethnicity, age, or sex. In contrast, everyday discrimination interacted with sex (P = 0.03). Stratified models showed increased risk only among men (for each 1–standard deviation increase in score, adjusted HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27); controlling for chronic stress and depressive symptoms slightly reduced this association (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.25). This study suggests that perceived discrimination is adversely related to CVD risk in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:26085044

  13. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  14. Incidence and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among Navajo people living in the Navajo nation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Paul H; Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Bartholomew, Michael L; Cheek, James E; Rowland, Andrew S

    2015-04-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely unstudied among American Indians. Unique populations might harbor clues to elusive causes. We describe the incidence and prevalence of PD among Navajo people residing in the Navajo Nation, home to the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. We analyzed 2001-2011 inpatient and outpatient visit data for Navajo people obtained from the Indian Health Service, which provides health care to American Indian people living on the Navajo Reservation. Cases were defined by at least two inpatient or outpatient visits with the diagnosis of PD. Crude and age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates were calculated overall as well as by age, sex, region of residence, and time period. Five hundred twenty-four Navajo people with median age-at-onset of 74.0 years were diagnosed with PD during the study period, yielding an average annual crude incidence rate of 22.5/100,000. Age-specific incidence was 232.0 for patients 65 years of age or older and 302.0 for 80 years of age or older. Age-adjusted incidence was 35.9 overall (238.1 for ≥65 years), was higher in men than in women (47.5 vs. 27.7; P<0.001), varied by region (P=0.03), and was similar between time periods (2002-2004 vs. 2009-2011). The age-adjusted point prevalence rate was 261.0. The rate of PD among Navajo People appears to be as high as or higher than rates reported in many other populations. Rates increased to the highest age group, consistent with population-based studies. Further investigation is warranted to examine risk factors for PD in this remote population. PMID:25649219

  15. Prevalence and incidence of blindness and other degrees of sight impairment in patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a well-defined region of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, M; Lee, A; Mohamed, Q; Fletcher, E; Sallam, A; Healy, R; Stratton, I; Tufail, A; Johnston, R L

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of blindness, sight impairment, and other visual acuity (VA) states in patients receiving ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in Gloucestershire. Methods Serial VA and injection data for all treatment-naive patients receiving their first intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for nAMD in the Gloucestershire National Health Service Ophthalmology department between 2008 and 2010 were extracted from an electronic medical record system. Results The prevalence of blindness (VA in the better-seeing eye ≤25 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters) at the time of first intravitreal injection was 0.8%, increasing to 3.5% after 3 years. The prevalence of sight impairment (VA in the better-seeing eye 26–39 ETDRS letters) increased from 4.1% at baseline to 5.5% after 3 years. The incidence of initiating ranibizumab treatment for nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 111 people per 100 000 population in 2009, and 97 people in 2010. The incidence of patients meeting the visual criteria for blindness and sight impairment registration from treated nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 3.5 and 9.7 people, respectively per 100 000 population in 2010. Conclusion This is the first real-world study on the incidence and prevalence of eligibility for blindness and sight impairment registration in treated nAMD in the UK based on VA data. The incidence and prevalence of eligibility for certification of blindness or sight impairment in patients treated with ranibizumab for nAMD is low in Gloucestershire, with only 3.6% of the incident population progressing to blindness in 2010. PMID:25592123

  16. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  17. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  18. Incidence of first primary central nervous system tumors in California, 2001-2005: children, adolescents and teens.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monica; Schrot, Rudolph; Bauer, Katrina; Dodge, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    This study used data from the California Cancer Registry to comprehensively examine first primary central nervous system tumors (PCNST) by the International Classification of Childhood Cancers (ICCC) diagnostic groups and to compare their incidence by age groups, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and tumor behavior. The study period, 2001-2005, represents the first 5 years of benign PCNST data collection in the state. The age-adjusted incidence rates were 2.1 for malignant and 1.3 for benign per 100,000. Children younger than 5 years old had the highest incidence of malignant PCNST (2.6 per 100,000). Teens aged 15-19 had the highest incidence of benign PCNST (1.8 per 100,000). Age-specific incidence rates were nearly the same for Hispanics, non-Hispanic whites, and Asian/Pacific Islanders for malignant PCNST among children younger than 5 (2.6-2.7 per 100,000); non-Hispanic whites had the highest rates in the 5-14 year-old age group (2.5 per 100,000) and Asian/Pacific Islanders the highest among the 15-19 year old age group (2.3 per 100,000). We found no statistically significant differences in the incidence of malignant PCNST by race/ethnicity in any age group. Astrocytoma had the highest incidence for both malignant and benign histology in most age groups. PMID:19340399

  19. 20 CFR 404.412 - After my benefits are reduced for age when and how will adjustments to that reduction be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...'s benefit, any month before attainment of full retirement age for which she or he was not entitled... records to identify when an individual has attained full retirement age and one or more months described... with the month of attainment of full retirement age. In the case of widow's or widower's benefits,...

  20. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  1. Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial–temporal models☆

    PubMed Central

    Alegana, Victor A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wright, Jim A.; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2013-01-01

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

  2. Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial-temporal models.

    PubMed

    Alegana, Victor A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wright, Jim A; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2013-12-01

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

  3. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  4. Changing incidence of esophageal cancer among white women: analysis of SEER data (1992–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Rachna; Deorah, Sundeep; McDowell, Bradley D.; Hejleh, Taher Abu; Lynch, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To analyse trends in the incidence rates of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus (ACE and SCC, respectively) in white women between 1992 and 2010. Material and methods We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program to identify cases of esophageal cancer). Age adjusted incidence rates (IR) were calculated for ACE and SCC for two different time periods (1992–1996 and 2006–2010) and stratified by age, stage, and histologic type. We used joinpoint analysis to detect changes in rates between 1992 and 2010. Results Between the time periods 1992–1996 and 2006–2010, the age-adjusted incidence rates for SCC in white women decreased from 1.2/100,000 to 0.8/100,000 personyears, and for ACE it increased from 0.5/100,000 to 0.7/100,000 personyears. Similar to white men, the increase in the incidence of ACE was consistent for all stages and all age groups in white women. However, it was most pronounced in women aged 45–59 years, where the incidence of ACE (0.9/100,000 person-years) in 2006–2010 exceeded the incidence of SCC (0.6/100,000 person-years). On joinpoint regression analysis, an inflection point was seen in 1999 for ACE, indicating a slower rate of increase for ACE after 1999 (annual percentage change of 8.00 before 1999 vs. 0.88 starting in 1999). Conclusions The incidence of ACE is increasing in white women, irrespective of age or stage. Indeed, ACE is now more common than SCC in white women between 45 and 59 years of age. PMID:26557784

  5. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  6. The K-Ras 4A isoform promotes apoptosis but does not affect either lifespan or spontaneous tumor incidence in aging mice

    SciTech Connect

    Plowman, Sarah J.; Arends, Mark J.; Brownstein, David G.; Luo Feijun; Devenney, Paul S.; Rose, Lorraine; Ritchie, Ann-Marie; Berry, Rachel L.; Harrison, David J.; Hooper, Martin L.; Patek, Charles E. . E-mail: Charles.Patek@ed.ac.uk

    2006-01-01

    Ras proteins function as molecular switches in signal transduction pathways, and, here, we examined the effects of the K-ras4A and 4B splice variants on cell function by comparing wild-type embryonic stem (ES) cells with K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} (exon 4A knock-out) ES cells which express K-ras4B only and K-ras {sup -/-} (exons 1-3 knock-out) ES cells which express neither splice variant, and intestinal epithelium from wild-type and K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} mice. RT-qPCR analysis found that K-ras4B expression was reduced in K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} ES cells but unaffected in small intestine. K-Ras deficiency did not affect ES cell growth, and K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect intestinal epithelial proliferation. K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} and K-ras {sup -/-} ES cells showed a reduced capacity for differentiation following LIF withdrawal, and K-ras {sup -/-} cells were least differentiated. K-Ras4A deficiency inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in ES cells and intestinal epithelial cells. However, K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} ES cells were more resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis than K-ras {sup -/-} cells. The results indicate that (1) K-Ras4A promotes apoptosis while K-Ras4B inhibits it, and (2) K-Ras4B, and possibly K-Ras4A, promotes differentiation. The findings raise the possibility that alteration of the K-Ras4A/4B isoform ratio modulates tumorigenesis by differentially affecting stem cell survival and/or differentiation. However, K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect life expectancy or spontaneous overall tumor incidence in aging mice.

  7. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G.; Johnson, Jay R.; Miller, Federick W.; Matteson, Eric L.; Crowson, C. S.; Gabriel, S. E.

    2015-05-15

    Our objective was to examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: We used data from patients with GCA (1950-2004) and RA (1955-2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results: The correlation of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0-1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5-7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4-5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8-11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions: AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4-5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. Lastly, the link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases.

  8. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  9. Increased incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chia-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Ou, Tsan-Teng; Wu, Cheng-Chin; Sung, Wan-Yu; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Yen, Jeng-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Past studies have shown inconsistent results on whether there is an association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis. To investigate the possible relationship between the 2 autoimmune diseases, we performed a nationwide cohort study utilizing the National Health Insurance Research Database and the Registry of Catastrophic Illness. A total of 1456 newly diagnosed patients with MS and 10,362 control patients were matched for age, sex, and initial diagnosis date. Patients with MS had a higher incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (age-adjusted standardized incidence ratio: 1.72; 95% confidence interval = 1.01–2.91). There was a positive correlation in being diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis in patients previously diagnosed with MS when stratified by sex and age. The strength of this association remained statistically significant after adjusting for sex, age, and smoking history (hazard ratio: 1.78, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.56, P = 0.002). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that a diagnosis of MS increased the likelihood of a subsequent diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in patients, independent of sex, age, and smoking history. PMID:27368008

  10. Thoracic kyphosis and rate of incident vertebral fractures: the Fracture Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vittinghoff, E.; Kado, D. M.; Lane, N. E.; Ensrud, K. E.; Shipp, K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Biomechanical analyses support the theory that thoracic spine hyperkyphosis may increase risk of new vertebral fractures. While greater kyphosis was associated with an increased rate of incident vertebral fractures, our analysis does not show an independent association of kyphosis on incident fracture, after adjustment for prevalent vertebral fracture. Excessive kyphosis may still be a clinical marker for prevalent vertebral fracture. Introduction Biomechanical analyses suggest hyperkyphosis may increase risk of incident vertebral fracture by increasing the load on vertebral bodies during daily activities. We propose to assess the association of kyphosis with incident radiographic vertebral fracture. Methods We used data from the Fracture Intervention Trial among 3038 women 55–81 years of age with low bone mineral density (BMD). Baseline kyphosis angle was measured using a Debrunner kyphometer. Vertebral fractures were assessed at baseline and follow-up from lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine. We used Poisson models to estimate the independent association of kyphosis with incident fracture, controlling for age and femoral neck BMD. Results Mean baseline kyphosis was 48° (SD = 12) (range 7–83). At baseline, 962 (32 %) participants had a prevalent fracture. There were 221 incident fractures over a median of 4 years. At baseline, prevalent fracture was associated with 3.7° greater average kyphosis (95 % CI 2.8–4.6, p < 0.0005), adjusting for age and femoral neck BMD. Before adjusting for prevalent fracture, each 10° greater kyphosis was associated with 22 % increase (95 % CI 8–38 %, p = 0.001) in annualized rate of new radiographic vertebral fracture, adjusting for age and femoral neck BMD. After additional adjustment for prevalent fracture, estimated increased annualized rate was attenuated and no longer significant, 8 % per 10° kyphosis (95 % CI −4 to 22 %, p = 0.18). Conclusions While greater kyphosis increased the rate of

  11. Increased Cumulative Incidence of Dermatomyositis in Ulcerative Colitis: a Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chia-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Liao, Wei-Ting; Chan, Ya-Ting; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Ou, Tsan-Teng; Wu, Cheng-Chin; Sung, Wan-Yu; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Yen, Jeng-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    On a molecular level, two autoimmune diseases: ulcerative colitis (UC) and dermatomyositis share common genetic determinants. On a clinical level, case reports evidenced the co-occurrence of these two diseases. We therefore hypothesize that UC is potentially associated with increased cumulative incidence of dermatomyositis. The goals of this retrospective cohort study were to evaluate whether UC is associated with increased cumulative incidence of dermatomyositis independent of sex and age. For comparison, we also assessed the cumulative incidence of polymyositis in UC and control subjects. The study enrolled 3,133 UC subjects and 14,726 control subjects. The cumulative incidence of dermatomyositis was significantly higher in UC than that of control subjects (p = 0.026), but the cumulative incidence of polymyositis was comparable between UC and control subjects (p = 0.596). UC was independently associated with the increased incident dermatomyositis (hazard ratio: 6.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.77-21.59, p = 0.004) after adjusting for sex, age, and concomitant rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis. Similar trends of increased dermatomyositis in UC were observed when patients were stratified based on sex and age. In conclusion, our findings suggest that UC is probably associated with increased cumulative incidence of dermatomyositis, independent of sex, age, and concomitant autoimmune diseases. PMID:27325143

  12. Increased Cumulative Incidence of Dermatomyositis in Ulcerative Colitis: a Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chia-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Liao, Wei-Ting; Chan, Ya-Ting; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Ou, Tsan-Teng; Wu, Cheng-Chin; Sung, Wan-Yu; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Yen, Jeng-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    On a molecular level, two autoimmune diseases: ulcerative colitis (UC) and dermatomyositis share common genetic determinants. On a clinical level, case reports evidenced the co-occurrence of these two diseases. We therefore hypothesize that UC is potentially associated with increased cumulative incidence of dermatomyositis. The goals of this retrospective cohort study were to evaluate whether UC is associated with increased cumulative incidence of dermatomyositis independent of sex and age. For comparison, we also assessed the cumulative incidence of polymyositis in UC and control subjects. The study enrolled 3,133 UC subjects and 14,726 control subjects. The cumulative incidence of dermatomyositis was significantly higher in UC than that of control subjects (p = 0.026), but the cumulative incidence of polymyositis was comparable between UC and control subjects (p = 0.596). UC was independently associated with the increased incident dermatomyositis (hazard ratio: 6.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.77–21.59, p = 0.004) after adjusting for sex, age, and concomitant rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis. Similar trends of increased dermatomyositis in UC were observed when patients were stratified based on sex and age. In conclusion, our findings suggest that UC is probably associated with increased cumulative incidence of dermatomyositis, independent of sex, age, and concomitant autoimmune diseases. PMID:27325143

  13. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Great Britain, Sweden, and Malmö, Sweden: the impact of differences in case ascertainment on observed incidence trends

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Ramón; Turesson, Ingemar; Landgren, Ola; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Cuzick, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The increased incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) across China and East Asia stimulated us to examine the current rates in Great Britain, where rates increased dramatically in the second half of the 20th century. However, rates have been stable and high during this period in Malmö, Sweden, where there is a keen interest in MM. We thus assessed recent changes in MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden, and examined how these changes might explain recent reports of increased MM incidence across Asia. Design Estimation of MM incidence for Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. Populations MM incidence data for Great Britain (1975–2009) were obtained from Cancer Research UK and for Sweden (1970–2009) from the Swedish Cancer Registry. MM incidence data from Malmö, Sweden, were available from 1950 to 2012. Main outcome measures Age-specific incidence of MM in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. Results MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö increased progressively with age, even among the oldest group. The MM age-adjusted incidence (European standard population) increased by 69% from 1975–1979 to 2005–2009 in Great Britain, from 3.2/100 000 to 5.4/100 000. The largest increases occurred among those 70–79 years of age, for whom rates increased from 17.9/100 000 to 33.6/100 000; reflecting an increase of 69%. During this same period, the age-adjusted incidence (European stand population) in Sweden overall remained stable, at approximately 4.7/100 000. Conclusions MM age-specific incidence is now similar in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö. We believe this is a result of improvements in case ascertainment in Great Britain, particularly among the elderly. Similar changes can be predicted to occur across Asia as improved access to healthcare contributes to better diagnosis of MM. PMID:26801465

  14. Incidence pattern of thyroid cancer in Norway: influence of birth cohort and time period.

    PubMed

    Akslen, L A; Haldorsen, T; Thoresen, S O; Glattre, E

    1993-01-21

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in Norway increased about 2-fold for both sexes during the period 1955 to 1989 (4691 cases). In the last 5-year period, however, a decline was observed, especially among females. The ratio between age-adjusted incidence rates in Northern Norway compared with Southern Norway was 1.6 for females and 1.5 for males, and the incidence pattern during the period was similar in the 2 regions. The analysis of age-cohort-period models showed a strong cohort effect in both sexes. The reason for this is not clear, although radiation treatment during childhood and dietary habits may possibly be involved. A weaker but statistically significant and transient period effect was also present, giving relatively higher incidence rates, especially in the 1970s. Although this result may be consistent with an influence of radioactive fallout in the northern area, more detailed studies are needed. PMID:8425755

  15. Sociodemographic determinants of incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma, Finland 1953-97.

    PubMed

    Riska, Annika; Leminen, Arto; Pukkala, Eero

    2003-05-01

    Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is very rare. In Western countries, it accounts for about 1% of all female genital malignant tumors. Its etiology remains poorly known, but high parity is considered to be protective. We studied determinants of incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma in Finland. Incidence rates for primary fallopian tube carcinoma, according to the population based Finnish Cancer Registry, from 1953- 97 were assessed by age, year of diagnosis, and type of residential area. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for the years 1971- 95 were calculated by occupation and social class variables taken from the 1970 Population Census. There were 485 cases of primary fallopian tube carcinoma registered during 45 years. The age-adjusted incidence rate increased from 1.2/1000000 in 1953-57 to 5.4/1000000 in 1993-97. This 4.5-fold increase in incidence rate corresponds to a 7-fold increase in the number of new cases. The increase is attributable to the age group beyond 55 years, the peak incidence occurring between 60-64 years. Although the relative increase in incidence rate has been larger in rural areas than in cities, the rate in the latter remains 2-fold. Women in the 2 highest social classes had a 1.8-fold incidence (95% CI = 1.2-2.6) as compared to the lowest social class. Women in agriculture and those not working outside the home had only half the cancer incidence of those in academic or clerical occupations. The incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma increases in Finland. Evidently, the incidence has increased simultaneously with the affluence of urban life. Part of the variation in incidence correlates with variation in parity. PMID:12594821

  16. Fifteen-Year Follow-Up of 92 Hospitalized Adults with Down's Syndrome: Incidence of Cognitive Decline, Its Relationship to Age and Neuropathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margallo-Lana, M. L.; Moore, P. B.; Kay, D. W. K.; Perry, R. H.; Reid, B. E.; Berney, T. P.; Tyrer, S. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The clinical and neuropathological features associated with dementia in Down's syndrome (DS) are not well established. Aims: To examine clinico-pathological correlations and the incidence of cognitive decline in a cohort of adults with DS. Method: A total of 92 hospitalized persons with DS were followed up from 1985 to December 2000.…

  17. Incidence and Burden of the Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cogle, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    Since 2001, cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) have been tracked by cancer registries. Examining registry data in the USA, the reported age-adjusted incidence of MDS per 100,000 was 3.3 per year for 2001-2003 and 4.9 per year for 2007-2011, with increases likely a result of growing awareness of reporting requirements. However, active case-finding methods repeatedly demonstrate that population-based registries have underestimated the incidence of MDS due to underreporting and underdiagnosis. Using keyword search strategies of electronic pathology reports or other novel case capture methods, the true incidence of MDS has been estimated between 5.3 and 13.1 per 100,000. Using Medicare billing claims data, the incidence of MDS per 100,000 in patients aged ≥65 years has been estimated between 75 and 162. MDS prevalence is estimated to be 60,000 and -170,000 in the USA and projected to grow. Epidemiologic data can help estimate the burden of MDS and expose unmet clinical needs. For example, patients with MDS receiving transfusions had significantly higher reported health care costs versus those that did not (3-year mean of $88,824 vs $29,519). Epidemiologic data also revealed that most MDS patients receiving transfusions do not receive active therapies, despite strong evidence that hypomethylating agents and lenalidomide significantly reduce transfusion burden. Other unmet needs identified by epidemiologic studies include high need for treatment options after failing first-line therapy and shared decision making by older MDS patients. PMID:26134527

  18. Neonatal Mortality Risk Associated with Preterm Birth in East Africa, Adjusted by Weight for Gestational Age: Individual Participant Level Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne; Clarke, Siân; Kariuki, Simon; ter Kuile, Feiko; Lusingu, John; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. Methods and Findings Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1) birth weight, (2) gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3) neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania) contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999–2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (<2,500 g) babies were either preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age). 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born <34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4–121.4]), with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34–36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0–10.7]), but the likelihood for babies born 34–36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3–47.4]). Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  19. Relation of Multiple Inflammatory Biomarkers to Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Larson, Martin G.; Yamamoto, Jennifer F.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rong, Jian; Levy, Daniel; Keaney, John F.; Wang, Thomas J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2009-01-01

    Basic and clinical studies suggest that inflammation predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). We assessed the association of 12 circulating inflammatory biomarkers [C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (mass and activity), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, myeloperoxidase, CD40 ligand, osteoprotegerin, P-selectin, tumor necrosis factor receptor II] with incident AF in 2863 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 60.7 years, SD=9.4, 55% women). During follow-up (median 6 years), 148 participants (43% women) developed incident AF. In multivariable proportional-hazards models, the inflammatory biomarker panel was associated with incident AF (p=0.03). With stepwise selection (p<0.01 for entry and retention), log-transformed osteoprotegerin was associated with incident AF (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.56, p=0.006). Adjusting for interim myocardial infarction or heart failure attenuated the association between osteoprotegerin and incident AF (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.98–1.43, p=0.09). In conclusion, circulating osteoprotegerin concentration was significantly associated with incident AF in our community-based sample, possibly mediated by interim cardiovascular events. PMID:19576326

  20. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa. PMID:22111004

  1. Overtime work and incident coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin J.; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G.; Kivimäki, Mika

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between overtime work and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among middle-aged employees. Methods and results Six thousand and fourteen British civil servants (4262 men and 1752 women), aged 39–61 years who were free from CHD and worked full time at baseline (1991–1994), were followed until 2002–2004, an average of 11 years. The outcome measure was incident fatal CHD, clinically verified incident non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), or definite angina (a total of 369 events). Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics showed that 3–4 h overtime work per day was associated with 1.60-fold (95% CI 1.15–2.23) increased risk of incident CHD compared with employees with no overtime work. Adjustment for all 21 cardiovascular risk factors measured made little difference to these estimates (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11–2.19). This association was replicated in multivariate analysis with only fatal cardiovascular disease and incident non-fatal MI as the outcome (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.02–2.76). Conclusion Overtime work is related to increased risk of incident CHD independently of conventional risk factors. These findings suggest that overtime work adversely affects coronary health. PMID:20460389

  2. Purpose in life and incidence of sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric S; Hershner, Shelley D; Strecher, Victor J

    2015-06-01

    Purpose in life has been linked with better mental health, physical health, and health behaviors, but the association between purpose and sleep is understudied. Sleep disturbances increase with age and as the number of older adults rapidly increases, it is ever more important to identify modifiable factors that are associated with reduced incidence of sleep disturbances. We used multiple logistic regression models and data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50, to examine whether higher purpose was linked with a reduced incidence of sleep disturbances. Among 4144 respondents reporting minimal or no sleep disturbances at baseline, higher purpose was associated with a lower incidence of sleep disturbances over the 4-year follow-up. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, each unit increase in purpose (on a six-point scale) was associated with a 16 % reduced odds of developing sleep disturbances (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.77-0.92). The association between purpose and sleep disturbances remained after adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioral, psychological, and health covariates. Should future research replicate our findings, this area of research may lead to innovative efforts that improve the quality of sleep in older adults. PMID:25822118

  3. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  4. Geographic Variation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Incidence in New Jersey, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kevin A.; Fagliano, Jerald; Jordan, Heather M.; Rechtman, Lindsay; Kaye, Wendy E.

    2015-01-01

    Few analyses in the United States have examined geographic variation and socioeconomic disparities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incidence, because of lack of population-based incidence data. In this analysis, we used population-based ALS data to identify whether ALS incidence clusters geographically and to determine whether ALS risk varies by area-based socioeconomic status (SES). This study included 493 incident ALS cases diagnosed (via El Escorial criteria) in New Jersey between 2009 and 2011. Geographic variation and clustering of ALS incidence was assessed using a spatial scan statistic and Bayesian geoadditive models. Poisson regression was used to estimate the associations between ALS risk and SES based on census-tract median income while controlling for age, sex, and race. ALS incidence varied across and within counties, but there were no statistically significant geographic clusters. SES was associated with ALS incidence. After adjustment for age, sex, and race, the relative risk of ALS was significantly higher (relative risk (RR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.82) in the highest income quartile than in the lowest. The relative risk of ALS was significantly lower among blacks (RR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.83) and Asians (RR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.97) than among whites. Our findings suggest that ALS incidence in New Jersey appears to be associated with SES and race. PMID:26041711

  5. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers. PMID:26027850

  6. Secular trends and educational differences in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Finland, 1972-2007.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Marian; Wikström, Katja; Peltonen, Markku; Lindström, Jaana; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes prevalence is rising globally, and varies by socio-economic position. Amongst other factors, rising prevalence may reflect increasing incidence. Worldwide, few studies have examined population-level longitudinal trends in incident type 2 diabetes, and reports on secular trends in diabetes incidence by socio-economic measures such as educational attainment are lacking. Finland has a long-standing, comprehensive disease surveillance infrastructure. Using data collected over four decades from serial FINRISK surveys, the National Drug Reimbursement Register and the National Causes of Death Register, we examined secular trends in type 2 diabetes incidence in Finland from the 1970s to 2007. The diabetes status of 38,689 FINRISK participants aged 30-59 years at baseline assessment and without diagnosed diabetes at the time was followed for 10 years. Among men, incidence of diagnosed, pharmacologically managed type 2 diabetes increased over time. Compared with men surveyed in the 1970s, diabetes incidence was higher among men in the 1980s (adjusted HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.84) and 1990s (adjusted HR 1.72, 1.32-2.24). Body mass index explained some, but not all of this variation. Increases occurred predominantly among men with low (adjusted HR 1980s: 2.07, 95% CI 1.28-3.35; adjusted HR 1990s: 2.12, 95% CI 1.28-3.53) and middle (adjusted HR 1980s: 1.30, 95% CI 0.85-1.99; adjusted HR 1990s: 1.65, 95% CI 1.05-2.60) educational attainment. No secular changes were apparent among women. This rising diabetes incidence among men over recent decades has occurred despite Finland's sustained health promotion efforts. Renewed public health campaigns are urgently required. In addition to population-level initiatives, lower educational strata should be specifically targeted. PMID:25837966

  7. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Rigi, Mohammed; Feldman, Robert M.; Bell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Methods Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–79 years). ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL), length of scleral spur landmark (SSL) to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM), iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM), pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe), and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter. Results Mean (±SD) values were 2.24 mm (±0.46), 4.06 mm (±0.27), 3.65 mm (±0.48), 4.16 mm (±0.47), 1.14 (±0.04), 1.51 mm2 (±0.23), and 38.42 μL (±4.91) for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002) and RICe (P = 0.027) decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002) and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001). ICR (P = 0.54) and iris volume (P = 0.49) were not affected by age. Conclusion This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states. PMID:26815917

  8. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  9. Brain and Central Nervous System Cancer Incidence in Navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and Projections for 2014

    PubMed Central

    Etxeberria, J.; San Román, E.; Burgui, R.; Guevara, M.; Moreno-Iribas, C.; Urbina, M.J.; Ardanaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary. PMID:25561983

  10. Incidence and prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an HMO of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Mariela; Vicens, Jimena; Giunta, Diego Hernán; Rugiero, Marcelo; Cristiano, Edgardo

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ranges from 1.7 to 2.3 per 100,000 persons worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have been published in Latin America. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ALS in an HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) of Buenos Aires, capital city of Argentina. The population studied was affiliates of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, whose distribution across age and gender strata is similar to the population of Buenos Aires. Cases were detected from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010. Incidence density (ID) and prevalence for ALS were estimated for the whole period and at 31 December 2010, respectively. During the seven-year study period, the crude ID estimated was 3.17 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 2.24-4.48) and the age-adjusted ID for the Buenos Aires population was 2.23 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.45-3.01). Point prevalence at 31 December 2010 was 8.86 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 4.05-13.68). Mean age at diagnosis was 72.29 years (SD 8.5). In conclusion, estimated age-adjusted ID and prevalence of ALS were similar to the incidence and prevalence rates found in other geographical areas. PMID:23834086

  11. An investigation of the apparent breast cancer epidemic in France: screening and incidence trends in birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Official descriptive data from France showed a strong increase in breast-cancer incidence between 1980 to 2005 without a corresponding change in breast-cancer mortality. This study quantifies the part of incidence increase due to secular changes in risk factor exposure and in overdiagnosis due to organised or opportunistic screening. Overdiagnosis was defined as non progressive tumours diagnosed as cancer at histology or progressive cancer that would remain asymptomatic until time of death for another cause. Methods Comparison between age-matched cohorts from 1980 to 2005. All women residing in France and born 1911-1915, 1926-1930 and 1941-1945 are included. Sources are official data sets and published French reports on screening by mammography, age and time specific breast-cancer incidence and mortality, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol and obesity. Outcome measures include breast-cancer incidence differences adjusted for changes in risk factor distributions between pairs of age-matched cohorts who had experienced different levels of screening intensity. Results There was an 8-fold increase in the number of mammography machines operating in France between 1980 and 2000. Opportunistic and organised screening increased over time. In comparison to age-matched cohorts born 15 years earlier, recent cohorts had adjusted incidence proportion over 11 years that were 76% higher [95% confidence limits (CL) 67%, 85%] for women aged 50 to 64 years and 23% higher [95% CL 15%, 31%] for women aged 65 to 79 years. Given that mortality did not change correspondingly, this increase in adjusted 11 year incidence proportion was considered as an estimate of overdiagnosis. Conclusions Breast cancer may be overdiagnosed because screening increases diagnosis of slowly progressing non-life threatening cancer and increases misdiagnosis among women without progressive cancer. We suggest that these effects could largely explain the reported "epidemic" of breast cancer in

  12. Minor influence of lifelong voluntary exercise on composition, structure, and incidence of osteoarthritis in tibial articular cartilage of mice compared with major effects caused by growth, maturation, and aging.

    PubMed

    Närhi, Tommi; Siitonen, Ulrika; Lehto, Lauri J; Hyttinen, Mika M; Arokoski, Jari P A; Brama, Pieter A; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J; Julkunen, Petro

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the effects of lifelong voluntary exercise on articular cartilage of mice. At the age of 4 weeks C57BL mice (n = 152) were divided into two groups, with one group serving as a sedentary control whereas the other was allowed free access to a running wheel from the age of 1 month onward. Mice were euthanized at four different time points (1, 2, 6, and 18 months of age). Articular cartilage samples were gathered from the load-bearing area of the tibial medial plateaus, and osteoarthritis was graded. Additionally, the proteoglycan content distribution was assessed using digital densitometry, collagen fibril orientation, and parallelism with polarized light microscopy, and collagen content using Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy. The incidence of osteoarthritis increased with aging, but exercise had no effect on this trend. Furthermore, the structure and composition revealed significant growth, maturation, and age-dependent properties. Exercise exerted a minor effect on collagen fibril orientation in the superficial zone. Fibril orientation at 2 months of age was more perpendicular to surface (p < 0.05) in controls compared with runners, whereas the situation was reversed at the age of 18 months (p < 0.05). The collagen content of the superficial zone was higher (p < 0.01) at the age of 18 months in controls compared with runners but the proteoglycan content did not display any exercise-dependent changes. In conclusion, growth, maturation, and aging exerted a clear effect on integrity, structure, and composition of medial tibial plateau articular cartilage in mice, whereas lifelong voluntary exercise had only a minor effect on collagen architecture and content. PMID:21405978

  13. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a widespread toxic metal with potential cardiovascular effects, but no studies have evaluated cadmium and incident cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the association of urine cadmium concentration with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in a large population-based cohort. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3,348 American Indian adults aged 45–74 years from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989–1991. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Follow-up extended through 31 December 2008. Results The geometric mean cadmium level in the study population was 0.94 μg/g (95% confidence interval= 0.92 – 0.93). We identified 1,084 cardiovascular events, including 400 deaths. After adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratios (comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations) was 1.43 for cardiovascular mortality (95% confidence interval=1.21 – 1.70), and 1.34 for coronary heart disease mortality (1.10 – 1.63). The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure were 1.24 (1.11 – 1.38), 1.22 (1.08 – 1.38), 1.75 (1.17 – 2.59) and 1.39 (1.01 – 1.94), respectively. The associations were similar in most study subgroups including never-smokers. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term exposure, was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. These findings support that cadmium exposure is a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:23514838

  14. Incidence of type 1 diabetes in age groups above 15 years: facts, hypothesis and prospects for future epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Bruno, G; Gruden, G; Songini, M

    2016-06-01

    Although onset of type 1 diabetes can occur in adulthood, epidemiological data are scarce, limiting our potential to identify unknown determinants of the disease. Paucity of registries expanding the recruitment of incident cases up to adulthood, atypical clinical features of type 1 diabetes at onset, misclassification of type 1 as type 2 diabetes and little use of markers of β-cell autoimmunity represents major obstacles in studying the risk of type 1 diabetes in adults. New strategies in study design, data collection and analyses may overcome these problems in the future. Population-based surveys and registries including adulthood; use of etiological rather than clinical criteria to define type 1 diabetes; availability of electronic health records as prescription data sources to avoid missing data; and application of proper statistical methods will be instrumental to gain better insight on the epidemiology and natural history of the disease. PMID:26787492

  15. Sunlight and breast cancer incidence in the USSR.

    PubMed

    Gorham, E D; Garland, F C; Garland, C F

    1990-12-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory evidence suggest that vitamin D may play a role in reducing risk of breast cancer. Lack of exposure to ultraviolet sunlight can increase the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and may place some populations at higher risk of breast cancer. The association between total average annual sunlight energy striking the ground and age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates in the USSR was evaluated. Breast cancer had a threefold range of incidence. Sunlight levels varied from 210 to 400 calories per cm2 per day. A statistically significant negative association was found between breast cancer incidence rates and total sunlight levels (R = -0.75, p = 0.001). The slope of the regression line corresponded to two additional cases per 100,000 per year for each reduction of 35 calories per cm2 of sunlight. The pattern of increased breast cancer incidence in regions of low solar radiation in the USSR is consistent with the geographical pattern seen for breast cancer mortality in the US and worldwide. A positive relationship between socioeconomic status and breast cancer incidence was also present in the Soviet Union, based on an approximate socioeconomic measure, the number of doctors per 1000 population (R = +0.89, p = 0.0001). The possibility that correlates of socioeconomic status, such as dietary, ethnic, or behavioural factors, could account for the association is discussed. PMID:2084008

  16. Nervous System and Intracranial Tumour Incidence by Ethnicity in England, 2001–2007: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Maile, Edward J.; Barnes, Isobel; Finlayson, Alexander E.; Sayeed, Shameq; Ali, Raghib

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial variation in nervous system and intracranial tumour incidence worldwide. UK incidence data have limited utility because they group these diverse tumours together and do not provide data for individual ethnic groups within Blacks and South Asians. Our objective was to determine the incidence of individual tumour types for seven individual ethnic groups. Methods We used data from the National Cancer Intelligence Network on tumour site, age, sex and deprivation to identify 42,207 tumour cases. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. We used mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics. We analysed tumours by site using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios comparing non-White ethnicities to Whites after adjustment for sex, age and deprivation. Results Our study showed differences in tumour incidence by ethnicity for gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumours and cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours. Relative to Whites; South Asians, Blacks and Chinese have a lower incidence of gliomas (p<0.01), with respective incidence rate ratios of 0.68 (confidence interval: 0.60–0.77), 0.62 (0.52–0.73) and 0.58 (0.41–0.83). Blacks have a higher incidence of meningioma (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 1.29 (1.05–1.59) and there is heterogeneity in meningioma incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Blacks have a higher incidence of pituitary tumours relative to Whites (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 2.95 (2.37–3.67). There is heterogeneity in pituitary tumour incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Conclusions We present incidence data of individual tumour types for seven ethnic groups. Current understanding of the aetiology of these tumours cannot explain our results. These findings suggest avenues for further work. PMID:27135830

  17. Comparative performance of current definitions of sarcopenia against the prospective incidence of falls among community dwelling seniors age 65 and older

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To compare the extent to which 7 available definitions of sarcopenia and 2 related definitions predict the prospective rate of falling. Methods: We studied a cohort of 445 seniors (mean age 71 years, 45% men) living in the community who were followed with a detailed fall assessment for 3 ...

  18. Incidence, distribution, seasonality, and demographic risk factors of Salmonella Enteritidis human infections in Ontario, Canada, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, surveillance systems have highlighted the increasing trend of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections. Our study objectives were to evaluate the epidemiology of S. Enteritidis infections in Ontario using surveillance data from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2009. Methods Annual age-and-sex-adjusted incidence rates (IRs), annual and mean age-adjusted sex-specific IRs, and mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs by public health unit (PHU), were calculated for laboratory-confirmed S. Enteritidis cases across Ontario using direct standardization. Multivariable Poisson regression with PHU as a random effect was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of S. Enteritidis infections among years, seasons, age groups, and sexes. Results The annual age-and-sex-adjusted IR per 100,000 person-years was 4.4 [95% CI 4.0-4.7] in 2007, and 5.2 [95% CI 4.8-5.6] in both 2008 and 2009. The annual age-adjusted sex-specific IRs per 100,000 person-years ranged from 4.5 to 5.5 for females and 4.2 to 5.2 for males. The mean age-adjusted sex-specific IR was 5.1 [95% CI 4.8-5.4] for females and 4.8 [95% CI 4.5-5.1] for males. High mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs (6.001-8.10) were identified in three western PHUs, one northern PHU, and in the City of Toronto. Regression results showed a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections in 2009 [IRR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32; P = 0.003] and 2008 [IRR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.31; P = 0.005] compared to 2007. Compared to the fall season, a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections was observed in the spring [IRR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29; P = 0.040]. Children 0–4 years of age (reference category), followed by children 5–9 years of age [IRR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.52-0.78; P < 0.001] had the highest IRRs. Adults ≥ 60 years of age and 40–49 years of age [IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.26-0.37; P < 0.001] had the lowest IRRs. Conclusions The study findings suggest that there was an increase in the incidence of S

  19. Incidence of Primary Spinal Cord, Spinal Meninges, and Cauda Equina Tumors in Korea, 2006-2010

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Kwang Hyon; Ha, Johyun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Won, Young-Joo; Yoo, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Primary spinal cord and appendage tumors (PSCAT) originating from the spinal cord, spinal meninges, and cauda equina are uncommon. Worldwide, population-based cancer registry data are mostly based on malignant tumors only, which means few data are available on PSCATs, including non-malignant tumors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide information regarding the incidence of both non-malignant and malignant PSCATs in Korea on a national level. Materials and Methods Incidence of PSCATs was estimated from cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 using the National Cancer Incidence Database in Korea. Age-adjusted rates were calculated using the world standard population, and male-to-female rate ratios were calculated by histology type. Results Of all PSCATs registered (n=3,312), 86.6% were non-malignant. The overall age-adjusted incidence of PSCATs was 1.08 per 100,000 person-years, with an incidence of 0.99 per 100,000 in females and 1.15 in males. The most common site of PSCATs was the spinal cord (83.4%), followed by spinal meninges (16.1%) and cauda equina (0.5%). The most common histological type was neurilemmoma (41.3%), followed by meningiomas (20.1%) and ependymomas (7.6%). Men had significantly higher rates than women for ependymomas and lymphomas but had lower rates for meningiomas. Conclusion This study provides the first population-based analysis of PSCATs in Korea. PMID:25544579

  20. Decreasing incidence and changes in serotype distribution of invasive pneumococcal disease in persons aged under 18 years since introduction of 10-valent and 13-valent conjugate vaccines in Portugal, July 2008 to June 2012.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, S I; Brito, M J; Horacio, A N; Lopes, J P; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J

    2014-01-01

    The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) became available in Portugal in mid-2009 and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) in early 2010. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients aged under 18 years decreased from 8.19 cases per 100,000 in 2008–09 to 4.52/100,000 in 2011–12. However, IPD incidence due to the serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in children aged under two years remained constant. This fall resulted from significant decreases in the number of cases due to: (i) the additional serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13 (1, 5, 7F; from 37.6% to 20.6%), particularly serotype 1 in older children; and (ii) the additional serotypes included in PCV13 (3, 6A, 19A; from 31.6% to 16.2%), particularly serotype 19A in younger children. The decrease in serotype 19A before vaccination indicates that it was not triggered by PCV13 administration. The decrease of serotype 1 in all groups, concomitant with the introduction of PCV10, is also unlikely to have been triggered by vaccination, although PCVs may have intensified and supported these trends. PCV13 serotypes remain major causes of IPD, accounting for 63.2% of isolates recovered in Portugal in 2011–12, highlighting the potential role of enhanced vaccination in reducing paediatric IPD in Portugal. PMID:24698140

  1. Micro Ring Grating Spectrometer with Adjustable Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spectrometer includes a micro-ring grating device having coaxially-aligned ring gratings for diffracting incident light onto a target focal point, a detection device for detecting light intensity, one or more actuators, and an adjustable aperture device defining a circular aperture. The aperture circumscribes a target focal point, and directs a light to the detection device. The aperture device is selectively adjustable using the actuators to select a portion of a frequency band for transmission to the detection device. A method of detecting intensity of a selected band of incident light includes directing incident light onto coaxially-aligned ring gratings of a micro-ring grating device, and diffracting the selected band onto a target focal point using the ring gratings. The method includes using an actuator to adjust an aperture device and pass a selected portion of the frequency band to a detection device for measuring the intensity of the selected portion.

  2. Trends in the incidence and mortality of multiple births by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England: population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Manktelow, Bradley N; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M; Johnson, Samantha J; Field, David J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England. Design Population cohort study. Setting England. Participants All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008). Main outcome measures Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age. Results The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (−8.32% per annum 95% CI (−9.39% to −7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40 years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997–2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005–2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births. Conclusions This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time. PMID:24699461

  3. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (−1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and

  4. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (−1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and

  5. Height at Late Adolescence and Incident Diabetes among Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Furer, Ariel; Afek, Arnon; Beer, Zivan; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Reichman, Brian; Twig, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    Background Short stature was suggested as a risk factor for diabetes onset among middle age individuals, but whether this is the case among young adults is unclear. Our goal was to assess the association between height and incident diabetes among young men. Methods and Findings Incident diabetes was assessed among 32,055 men with no history of diabetes, from the prospectively followed young adults of the MELANY cohort. Height was measured at two time points; at adolescence (mean age 17.4±0.3 years) and grouped according to the US-CDC percentiles and at young adulthood (mean age 31.0±5.6 years). Cox proportional hazards models were applied. There were 702 new cases of diabetes during a mean follow-up of 6.3±4.3 years. There was a significant increase in the crude diabetes incidence rate with decreasing adolescent height percentile, from 4.23 cases/104 person-years in the <10th percentile group to 2.44 cases/104 person-years in the 75th≤ percentile group. These results persisted when clinical and biochemical diabetes risk factors were included in multivariable models. Compared to the 75th≤ percentile group, height below the 10th percentile was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.64 (95%CI 1.09–2.46, p = 0.017) for incident diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, white blood cells count, socioeconomic status, country of origin, family history of diabetes, sleep quality and physical activity. At age 30 years, each 1-cm decrement in adult height was associated with a 2.5% increase in diabetes adjusted risk (HR 1.025, 95%CI 1.01–1.04, p = 0.001). Conclusions Shorter height at late adolescence or young adulthood was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes among young men, independent of BMI and other diabetes risk factors. PMID:26305680

  6. International patterns and trends in thyroid cancer incidence, 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Han, Xuesong; Ward, Mary H.; Sjodin, Andreas; Zhang, Yaqun; Bai, Yana; Zhu, Cairong; Guo, Grace L.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-01-01

    During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in many parts of the world. To date, no study has compared trends in thyroid cancer incidence across continents. We examined incidence data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) over the 30-year period 1973–2002 from 19 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Thyroid cancer rates have increased from 1973–1977 to 1998–2002 for most of the populations except for Sweden, in which the incidence rates decreased about 18% for both males and females. The average increase was 48.0% among males and 66.7% among females. More recently, the age-adjusted international thyroid cancer incidence rates from 1998–2002 varied 5-fold by geographic region for males and nearly 10-fold for females by geographic region. Considerable variation in thyroid cancer incidence was present for every continent but Africa, in which the incidence rates were generally low. Our analysis of published CI5 data suggests that thyroid cancer rates increased between 1973 and 2002 in most populations worldwide and that the increase does not appear to be restricted to a particular region of the world or by the underlying rates of thyroid cancer. PMID:19016336

  7. Increased incidence of melanoma in situ in Denmark from 1997 to 2011: results from a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Toender, Anita; Kjær, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased markedly among white populations in the recent decades. This may suggest that the incidence of melanoma in situ (MIS), the precursor of malignant melanoma, has also increased; however, few studies have assessed the incidence of MIS drawing on large population-based data sets. The present study aimed to assess MIS incidence trends in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. Data on MIS overall and on the histological subtypes superficial spreading MIS (SSM) and lentigo maligna (LM) were obtained from the Danish Nationwide Registry of Pathology. We calculated overall and age-specific incidence rates for both sexes, age-adjusted according to the world standard population. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using log-linear Poisson models. Among both sexes, a high continued increase in MIS incidence rates overall and in that of the histological subtypes SSM and LM were observed during the period from 1997 to 2011. During this period, the age-adjusted MIS incidence rate increased from 2.6 to 8.1 cases among women and from 1.4 to 5.6 cases among men per 100 000 person-years. For both sexes, the highest AAPC in MIS incidence was observed during the most recent 5-year calendar period. A markedly higher AAPC was observed for SSM than for LM during the most recent 5-year calendar period for both sexes. The marked increase in incidence of MIS during the last 5 years of the period may indicate a growing awareness of skin cancer among the general Danish population and more frequent excision of suspicious skin lesions. PMID:24892956

  8. Estimating incidence trends in regular heroin use in 26 regions of Switzerland using methadone treatment data

    PubMed Central

    Nordt, Carlos; Landolt, Karin; Stohler, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Background Regional incidence trends in regular heroin use are important for assessing the effectiveness of drug policies and for forecasting potential future epidemics. Methods To estimate incidence trends we applied both the more traditional Reporting Delay Adjustment (RDA) method as well as the new and less data demanding General Inclusion Function (GIF) method. The latter describes the probability of an individual being in substitution treatment depending on time since the onset of heroin use. Data on year of birth, age at first regular heroin use and date of admission to and cessation of substitution treatment was available from 1997 to 2006 for 11 of the 26 regions (cantons) of Switzerland. For the remaining cantons, we used the number of patients in 5-year age group categories published in annual statistics between 1999 and 2006. Results Application of the RDA and GIF methods on data from the whole of Switzerland produced equivalent incidence trends. The GIF method revealed similar incidence trends in all of the Swiss cantons. Imputing a constant age of onset of 21 years resulted in almost equal trends to those obtained when real age of onset was used. The cantonal incidence estimates revealed that in the mid 80s there were high incidence rates in various regions distributed throughout all of the linguistic areas in Switzerland. During the following years these regional differences disappeared and the incidence of regular heroin use stabilized at a low level throughout the country. Conclusion It has been demonstrated that even with incomplete data the GIF method allows to calculate accurate regional incidence trends. PMID:19519920

  9. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  10. Population-Based Incidence Rates of First-Ever Stroke in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Ngoc, Mai Quang; Huy, Tran Van; Suzuki, Motoi; Tsujino, Akira; Toizumi, Michiko; Takahashi, Kensuke; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Anh, Dang Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hien; Tho, Le Huu; Maeda, Takahiro; Cox, Sharon E.; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke incidence data with methodologically acceptable design in Southeast Asia countries is limited. This study aimed to determine incidence of age-, sex- and subtype-specific first-ever stroke (FES) in Vietnam. Methods We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study, targeting all stroke cases hospitalized at a solo-provider hospital in our study site of Nha Trang from January 2009 to December 2011 with International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes I60-69. We calculated positive predictive values (PPVs) of each ICD-10-coded stroke by conducting a detailed case review of 190 randomly selected admissions with ICD-10 codes of I60-I69. These PPVs were then used to estimate annual incident stroke cases from the computerized database. National census data in 2009 was used as a denominator. Results 2,693 eligible admissions were recorded during the study period. The crude annual incidence rate of total FES was 90.2 per 100,000 population (95% CI 81.1–100.2). The age-adjusted incidence of FES was 115.7 (95% CI 95.9–139.1) when adjusted to the WHO world populations. Importantly, age-adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage was as much as one third of total FES: 36.9 (95% CI 26.1–51.0). Conclusions We found a considerable proportion of FES in Vietnam to be attributable to intracerebral hemorrhage, which is as high or exceeding levels seen in high-income countries. A high prevalence of improperly treated hypertension in Vietnam may underlie the high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this population. PMID:27513471

  11. Association of Change of Anthropometric Measurements With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Saskia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Medenwald, Daniel; Tiller, Daniel; Herzog, Beatrice; Schipf, Sabine; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Müller, Grit; Haerting, Johannes; Kluttig, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to investigate the association of change of anthropometric measurements and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within a pooled sample of 2 population-based cohorts. A final sample of 1324 women and 1278 men aged 31 to 83 years from 2 prospective cohorts in Germany, the CARLA (Cardiovascular Disease - Living and Ageing in Halle) and the SHIP study (Study of Health in Pomerania), were pooled. The association of change of body weight and waist circumference (WC) with incidence of T2DM was assessed by calculating sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs). We investigated the absolute change of markers of obesity as well as change relative to the baseline value and estimated crude and adjusted HRs. Furthermore, we conducted the analyses stratified by obesity status and age (<60 vs ≥60 years) at baseline. Associations were found for both change of body weight and WC and incidence of T2DM in the crude and adjusted analyses. In the stratified study sample, those participants with a body mass index of <30 kg/m2 at baseline showed considerably lower HRs compared with obese women and men for both weight and WC. In the age-stratified analysis, we still found associations between change of weight and WC and incident T2DM with only marginal differences between the age groups. Our study showed associations of change of weight and WC as markers of obesity with incidence of T2DM. Keeping a healthy and primarily stable weight should be the goal for preventing the development of T2DM. PMID:26313783

  12. Melanoma incidence increase in the elderly of Catalonia with stabilization of incidence in the younger population: effect of prevention or consequence of immigration?

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Susana; Marcoval, Joaquim; Paradelo, Cristina; Azon, Antoni; Bartralot, Ramon; Bel, Susana; Bigata, Xavier; Boada, Aram; Campoy, Antoni; Carrera, Cristina; Curco, Neus; Dalmau, Joan; Ferrandiz, Carlos; Ferreres, Josep R.; Formigon, Manel; Gallardo, Fernando; Gonzalez, Alberto; Just, Miquel; Llistosella, Enric; Marti, Rosa M.; Nogues, M. Elena; Pedragosa, Ramon; Pujol, Josep A.; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Sabat, Mireia; Salleras, Montserrat; Smandia, Juan A.; Zaballos, Pedro; Plana, Estel; Malvehy, Josep

    2016-01-01

    All cases of MM diagnosed in 23 Hospitals in Catalonia, from 2000 to 2007 were recorded and its incidence calculated and adjusted for the European standard population through the direct method. The age standardized rate varied from 6.74 in 2000 to 8.64 in 2007 for all melanomas and from 4.79 to 5.80 for invasive MMs, the Breslow thickness being stable during the period. The increase in invasive melanoma incidence in the elderly was remarkable, the crude rate increasing from 11.04 (2000) to 15.49 (2007) in the 60–64 yr population, while remaining more stable from 3.97 in 2000 to 4.55 in 2007 for the age range of 30–34 ys or with a tendency to decrease from 5.1 in 2000 to 2.5 in 2007 for age range of 25–29 yr, age ranges much more affected by immigration. Despite the large immigrant population (nearly one million immigrants that arrived in Catalonia during the study period from countries with a low melanoma incidence), melanoma incidence in our region has risen considerably and this trend will likely persist in the near future. PMID:25367888

  13. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  14. Self-Reported Periodontitis and Incident Type 2 Diabetes among Male Workers from a 5-Year Follow-Up to MY Health Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Atsushi; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to examine whether periodontitis is associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a Japanese male worker cohort. Methods The study participants were Japanese men, aged 36–55 years, without diabetes. Data were extracted from the MY Health Up study, consisting of self-administered questionnaire surveys at baseline and following annual health examinations for an insurance company in Japan. The oral health status of the participants was classified by two self-reported indicators: (1) gingival hemorrhage and (2) tooth loosening. Type 2 diabetes incidence was determined by self-reporting or blood test data. Modified Poisson regression approach was used to estimate the relative risks and the 95% confidence intervals of incident diabetes with periodontitis. Covariates included age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, hypertension, current smoking habits, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, and exercise habits. Results Of the 2895 candidates identified at baseline in 2004, 2469 men were eligible for follow-up analysis, 133 of whom were diagnosed with diabetes during the 5-year follow-up period. Tooth loosening was associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.14–2.64] after adjusting for other confounding factors. Gingival hemorrhage displayed a similar trend but was not significantly associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.95–1.85]. Conclusions Tooth loosening is an independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. PMID:27115749

  15. Cancer Incidence and Staging among American Indians in Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Janis E.; Martinez, Sydney A.; Janitz, Amanda E.; Pate, Anne E.; Erb-Alvarez, Julie; Wharton, David F; Gahn, David; Tall, Vicki L.; Snider, Cuyler; Anderson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background This study describes overall and site specific cancer incidence among AI/ANs compared to whites in Oklahoma and differences in cancer staging. Methods Age-adjusted incidence rates obtained from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry are presented for all cancer sites combined and for the most common cancer sites among AI/ANs with comparisons to whites. Percentages of late stage cancers for breast, colorectal, and melanoma cancers are also presented. Results AI/ANs had a significantly higher overall cancer incidence rate compared to whites (629.8/100,000 vs. 503.3/100,000), with a rate ratio of 1.25 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.28). There was a significant disparity in the percentage of late stage melanoma cancers between 2005 and 2009, with 14.0% late stage melanoma for whites and 20.0% for AI/ANs (p-value: 0.03). Conclusions Overall, there were cancer disparities between AI/ANs and whites in Oklahoma. Incidence rates were higher among AI/ANs for all cancers and many site specific cancers. PMID:24800463

  16. Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia, 1968--1977.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R. W.; Kannan Kutty, M.; Dharmalingam, S. K.; Ponnudurai, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A record of all known cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia is complete for 10 years from 1968 to 1977. Special efforts in case-finding were made in the State of Selangor where conditions are optimal. Age-adjusted incidence rates among Chinese males and females were 16.5 and 7.2 per 100,000, among Malay males and females 2.3 and 0.7 and among Indian males, 1.0. There were no significant changes in incidence rates over the 10-year period for sex and ethnic groups, or for Chinese subethnic groups. In Chinese subethnic groups, rates were highest among Cantonese, moderate among Khek and lowest among Hokkien and Teochiu. Standardized incidence ratios using Selangor as the standard population indicate considerable under-reporting in the less urban states of Malaysia, particularly among females. In Selangor, incidence rates were similar for urban and rural residents, but the frequency of cases was higher among Chinese working in industry and living in poor neighbourhoods. PMID:497106

  17. Incident-level analysis of 703 retrospective self-reports of ordinary violence recalled by 334 Swedes aged 6 to 45 years.

    PubMed

    Gill, Peter Edward; Larsson, Paula

    2015-07-01

    There is wide variation in how exposure to violence is conceptualized. Perceptions of ordinary violence are linked to people's actual experiences, which may be direct, indirect, observed, or vicarious, and all through filters of gender, class, community, and culture. Event-recall interviews were conducted among a convenience sample of Swedish males (n = 132) and females (n = 202) aged 6 to 45 years. Respondents spontaneously recalled 703 events (averaging 2.3 events for males, 2.1 for females). For men, 93% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 2% female-on-female, and 2% male(s)-on-female(s). For women, 42% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 19% female(s)-on-female(s), 24% male(s)-on-females, and 10% female(s)-on-male(s). Interviewee's roles differed. Of males, 17% were aggressors, 40% victims, and 43% observers. Of females, 12% were aggressors, 30% victims, and 58% observers. For males, there was a significant increase in degree of seriousness of events from junior-, to high school, to college. For females, events became more serious as interviewees progressed from aggressor to victim to observer. For males, violent events between strangers were significantly more serious than all other combinations of acquaintanceship. Most recently recalled events were the most serious for males (no effect for females). Participation in sports was linked to seriousness of events recalled by females, events being described as more serious by females who participated in sports, this effect being stronger for those females who participated in contact/collision and self-defense sports. The significant correlation between trauma and seriousness is nearly twice as strong for females which might be taken as an indication of stronger moral pathos. PMID:25304671

  18. High Serum SHBG Predicts Incident Vertebral Fractures in Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Vandenput, Liesbeth; Mellström, Dan; Kindmark, Andreas; Johansson, Helena; Lorentzon, Mattias; Leung, Jason; Redlund‐Johnell, Inga; Rosengren, Björn E; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wang, Yi‐Xiang; Kwok, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous prospective cohort studies have shown that serum levels of sex steroids and sex hormone‐binding globulin (SHBG) associate with nonvertebral fracture risk in men. The predictive value of sex hormones and SHBG for vertebral fracture risk specifically is, however, less studied. Elderly men (aged ≥65 years) from Sweden and Hong Kong participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study had baseline estradiol and testosterone analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and SHBG by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Incident clinical vertebral fractures (n = 242 cases) were evaluated in 4324 men during an average follow‐up of 9.1 years. In a subsample of these men (n = 2256), spine X‐rays were obtained at baseline and after an average follow‐up of 4.3 years to identify incident radiographic vertebral fractures (n = 157 cases). The likelihood of incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models, respectively. Neither serum estradiol (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80–1.08) nor testosterone (1.05, 0.91–1.21) predicted incident clinical vertebral fractures in age‐adjusted models in the combined data set. High serum SHBG, however, associated with increased clinical vertebral fracture risk (1.24, 1.12–1.37). This association remained significant after further adjustment for FRAX with or without bone mineral density (BMD). SHBG also associated with increased incident radiographic vertebral fracture risk (combined data set; odds ratio [OR] per SD increase = 1.23, 95% CI 1.05–1.44). This association remained significant after adjustment for FRAX with or without BMD. In conclusion, high SHBG predicts incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures in elderly men and adds moderate information beyond FRAX with BMD for vertebral fracture risk prediction. © 2015 The

  19. Estimating HIV Incidence among Adults in Kenya and Uganda: A Systematic Comparison of Multiple Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andrea A.; Hallett, Timothy; Stover, John; Gouws, Eleanor; Musinguzi, Joshua; Mureithi, Patrick K.; Bunnell, Rebecca; Hargrove, John; Mermin, Jonathan; Kaiser, Reinhard K.; Barsigo, Anne; Ghys, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been used for measuring HIV incidence in large areas, yet each presents specific challenges in incidence estimation. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a comparison of incidence estimates for Kenya and Uganda using multiple methods: 1) Epidemic Projections Package (EPP) and Spectrum models fitted to HIV prevalence from antenatal clinics (ANC) and national population-based surveys (NPS) in Kenya (2003, 2007) and Uganda (2004/2005); 2) a survey-derived model to infer age-specific incidence between two sequential NPS; 3) an assay-derived measurement in NPS using the BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay, adjusted for misclassification using a locally derived false-recent rate (FRR) for the assay; (4) community cohorts in Uganda; (5) prevalence trends in young ANC attendees. EPP/Spectrum-derived and survey-derived modeled estimates were similar: 0.67 [uncertainty range: 0.60, 0.74] and 0.6 [confidence interval: (CI) 0.4, 0.9], respectively, for Uganda (2005) and 0.72 [uncertainty range: 0.70, 0.74] and 0.7 [CI 0.3, 1.1], respectively, for Kenya (2007). Using a local FRR, assay-derived incidence estimates were 0.3 [CI 0.0, 0.9] for Uganda (2004/2005) and 0.6 [CI 0, 1.3] for Kenya (2007). Incidence trends were similar for all methods for both Uganda and Kenya. Conclusions/Significance Triangulation of methods is recommended to determine best-supported estimates of incidence to guide programs. Assay-derived incidence estimates are sensitive to the level of the assay's FRR, and uncertainty around high FRRs can significantly impact the validity of the estimate. Systematic evaluations of new and existing incidence assays are needed to the study the level, distribution, and determinants of the FRR to guide whether incidence assays can produce reliable estimates of national HIV incidence. PMID:21408182

  20. Sociodemographic distribution of gonorrhea incidence: implications for prevention and behavioral research.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, R J; Roberts, P L; Handsfield, H H; Holmes, K K

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite a declining incidence during the AIDS era, gonorrhea remains the most frequently reported communicable disease in the United States. METHODS. During 1986 and 1987 we supplemented gonorrhea case reporting with laboratory surveillance in King County, Washington. Incidence rates were correlated with demographic variables. RESULTS. Overall incidence of gonorrhea was similar for men and women, but highest for 16- to 21-year-old females and urban Seattle residents. Incidence rates by ethnicity were Blacks, 3033; Native Americans, 843; Hispanics, 617; Asians, 190; and Whites, 121. Census tracts representing the lowest socioeconomic status (SES) quartile accounted for 58% of reported gonorrhea. Black female teenagers residing in the lowest SES urban areas had highest incidence rates: aged 14 to 15, 3.4%; 16 to 17, 10.4%; 18, 17.0%; and 19, 15.4%. Rates in female teenagers were even higher after adjustment for estimated proportion of those who were sexually experienced. CONCLUSIONS. Gonorrhea incidence is associated with age, gender, ethnicity, SES, and residence. Identification of populations at highest risk for gonorrhea can direct interventions against all sexually transmitted diseases. Clearly, interventions to alter high-risk behaviors must be initiated in early adolescence. PMID:1928521

  1. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients: A 12-Year Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-12-01

    Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77-0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  2. Association of restaurant smoking ban and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Sipilä, Jussi Olli Tapani; Gunn, Jarmo Mikael; Kauko, Tommi; Rautava, Päivi; Kytö, Ville

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the changes in nationwide acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence following the implementation of a law banning smoking indoors in restaurants on 1 June 2007. Methods Retrospective registry study of all hospitalisations for AMI in Finland. All 34 887 hospitalisations for AMI between 1 June 2005 and 31 May 2009 were identified from the Care Register for Health Care (CRHC) and statistics for tobacco consumption were obtained from the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Comorbidities for individual hospitalisations were searched from the CRHC. Results The incidence rate of AMI was reduced by 6.3% (95% CI 4.1% to 8.6%; p<0.0001) in the latter half of the study period following the smoking ban when adjusted for age, gender and overall population prevalence of smoking. Short-term incidence of AMI (6-month prior vs 6 months after the smoking ban) was also reduced (4.5%, 95% CI 0.2% to 9.0%; p=0.0399) and was largest in the working middle-aged group (40–50 years) but observed also in the oldest age group (>70 years). The incidence rates declined similarly for men and women. Conclusions Banning indoor tobacco smoking in restaurants was associated with a mild additional reduction in AMI incidence on a nationwide level in Finland. PMID:26826146

  3. Premature Cardiac Contractions and Risk of Incident Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ofoma, Uchenna; He, Fan; Shaffer, Michele L.; Naccarelli, Gerard V.; Liao, Duanping

    2012-01-01

    Background The etiologies of ischemic stroke remain undetermined in 15% to 40% of patients. Apart from atrial fibrillation, other arrhythmias are less well-characterized as risk factors. Premature cardiac contractions are known to confer long-term cardiovascular risks, like myocardial infarction. Ischemic stroke as cardiovascular risk outcome remains a topic of interest. We examined the prospective relationships in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, to determine whether premature atrial (PAC) or ventricular (PVC) contractions are associated with increased risk for incident ischemic stroke. Methods and Results We analyzed 14 493 baseline stroke-free middle-aged individuals in the ARIC public-use data. The presence of PAC or PVC at baseline was assessed from 2-minute electrocardiogram. A physician-panel confirmed and classified all stroke cases. Average follow-up time was 13 years. Proportional hazards models assessed associations between premature contractions and incident stroke. PACs and PVCs were identified in 717 (4.9%) and 793 (5.5%) participants, respectively. In all, 509(3.5%) participants developed ischemic stroke. The hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) associated with PVC was 1.77 (1.30, 2.41), attenuated to 1.25 (0.91, 1.71) after adjusting for baseline stroke risk factors. The interaction between PVC and baseline hypertension was marginally significant (P=0.08). Among normotensives, having PVCs was associated with nearly 2-fold increase in the rate of incident ischemic stroke (HR 1.69; 95% CI 1.02, 2.78), adjusting for stroke risk factors. The adjusted risk of ischemic stroke associated with PACs was 1.30 (95% CI 0.92, 1.83). Conclusions Presence of PVCs may indicate an increased risk of ischemic stroke, especially in normotensives. This risk approximates risk of stroke from being black, male, or obese in normotensives from this cohort. PMID:23316293

  4. Estimation of HIV Incidence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hall, H. Irene; Song, Ruiguang; Rhodes, Philip; Prejean, Joseph; An, Qian; Lee, Lisa M.; Karon, John; Brookmeyer, Ron; Kaplan, Edward H.; McKenna, Matthew T.; Janssen, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Context HIV incidence in the United States has not been directly measured. New assays that differentiate recent versus long-standing HIV infections allow improved estimation of HIV incidence. Objective To estimate HIV incidence in the United States. Design Remnant diagnostic serum specimens from patients diagnosed with HIV during 2006 in 22 states were tested with the BED HIV-1 capture enzyme immunoassay to classify infections as recent or long-standing. Information was reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through June 2007. HIV incidence in the 22 states during 2006 was estimated using a statistical approach with adjustment for testing frequency and extrapolated to the U.S. Results were corroborated with back-calculation of HIV incidence for 1977–2006 based on HIV diagnoses from 40 states and on AIDS incidence from 50 states and the District of Columbia. Setting Data from 22 states were extrapolated to the U.S. Patients Persons newly diagnosed with HIV (age ≥ 13 years). Main outcome measure Estimated HIV incidence. Results An estimated 39,400 persons were diagnosed with HIV in 2006 in the 22 states. Of 6,864 diagnostic specimens tested using the BED assay, 2,133 (31%) were classified as recent infections. Based on extrapolations from these data, the estimated number of new infections for the U.S. in 2006 was 56,300 (95% confidence interval [CI] 48,200, 64,500); the estimated incidence rate was 22.8 per 100,000 population (95% CI 19.5, 26.1). Forty-five percent of infections were among blacks and 53% among men who have sex with men. The back-calculation (n=1.230 million HIV/AIDS cases reported by the end of 2006) yielded an estimate of 55,400 (95% CI 52,700, 58,100) new infections per year for 2003–2006, and indicated that HIV incidence increased in the mid-1990s, then slightly declined after 1999 and has been stable thereafter. Conclusions The estimates are the first direct estimate of HIV incidence in the United States using laboratory

  5. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  6. Time trends in incidence, clinical features and cardiovascular disease in Ankylosing Spondylitis over 3 decades: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kerry A.; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Michet, Clement J.; Matteson, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in the incidence and clinical presentation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among patients with AS and compare the observed incidence of CVD with that predicted by the Framingham risk score (FRS). Method A population-based inception cohort of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota ≥18 years who fulfilled modified New York criteria for AS in 1980-2009 was assembled. Clinical features at presentation were recorded. Age and sex adjusted incidence rates and survival were estimated. Incident CVD and CV risk factors were identified. The 10-year CVD risk was calculated using the FRS. Standardized incidence ratios (ratios of observed CVD in AS to that predicted by the FRS) were calculated. Results 86 patients were diagnosed with AS over the study period with an age and sex-adjusted incidence of 3.1 per 100,000 (95% CI 2.5, 3.8). The mean age at diagnosis was 35 years (range: 19-69). Inflammatory back pain, seen in 90%, was the most common presenting manifestation. The 10-year cumulative incidence of CVD was 15.8% ± 6.1%, three times higher than the predicted events based on the FRS (SIR 3.01; 95% CI 1.35, 6.69; p=0.007). Overall survival was similar to the general population. Conclusions AS occurs in about 3 persons per 100,000 per year. Clinical features, extra-articular manifestations and interval from symptom onset to diagnosis have remained constant in this population over the study period. The CVD risk in these patients is higher than expected and underestimated by the FRS. PMID:25384671

  7. A Population-Based Study of the Incidence of Delusional Infestation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1976–2010

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C. H.; Andersen, L. K.; Lowe, G. C.; Pittelkow, M. R.; Bostwick, J. M.; Davis, M. D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Delusional Infestation (DI) is a well-recognized clinical entity but there is a paucity of reliable data concerning its epidemiology. Knowledge of the epidemiology of disease is fundamental to an understanding of any disease and its implications. Epidemiology is most accurately assessed using population-based studies, which are most generalizable to the wider population in the US and worldwide. No population-based study of the epidemiology (particularly incidence) of DI, that we are aware of, has been reported to date. OBJECTIVES To determine the incidence of delusional infestation (DI) using a population-based study. METHODS Medical records of Olmsted County residents were reviewed using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to confirm the patient’s status as a true incident case of DI and to gather demographic information. Patients with a first-time diagnosis of DI or synonymous conditions between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 2010 were considered incident cases. RESULTS Of 470 identified possible diagnoses, 64 were true incident cases of DI in this population-based study. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5–2.4) per 100,000 person-years. Mean age at diagnosis was 61.4 years (range, 9–92 years). The incidence of DI increased over the 4 decades from 1.6 (95% CI, 0.6–2.6) per 100,000 person-years in 1976–1985 to 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4–3.8) per 100,000 person-years in 2006–2010. CONCLUSIONS In this population-based study of the incidence of DI, the age- and sex-adjusted rate was 1.9 per 100,000 person-years. PMID:24472115

  8. Fifty-Year Trends in Atrial Fibrillation Prevalence, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Mortality in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Yin, Xiaoyan; PhilimonGona; Larson, Martin G.; Beiser, Alexa S.; McManus, David D.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; SudhaSeshadri; Wolf, Philip A; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Comprehensive long-term data on atrial fibrillation trends in men and women are scant. Methods We investigated trends in atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and risk factors, and in stroke and mortality following its onset in Framingham Heart Study participants (n=9511) from 1958 to 2007. To accommodate sex differences in atrial fibrillation risk factors and disease manifestations, sex-stratified analyses were performed. Findings During 50 years of observation (202,417 person-years), there were 1,544 new-onset atrial fibrillation cases (46.8% women). We observed about a fourfold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence and more than a tripling in age-adjusted incidence of atrial fibrillation (prevalence 20.4 versus 96.2 per 1000 person-years in men; 13.7 versus 49.4 in women; incidence rates in first versus last decade 3.7 versus 13.4 per 1000 person-years in men; 2.5 versus 8.6 in women, ptrend<0.0001). For atrial fibrillation diagnosed by ECG during routine Framingham examinations, age-adjusted prevalence increased (12.6versus 25.7 per 1000 person-years in men; 8.1 versus 11.8 in women, ptrend<0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence increased, but did not achieve statistical significance. Although the prevalence of most risk factors changed over time, their associated hazards for atrial fibrillation changed little. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models revealed a 73.5% decline in stroke and a 25.4% decline in mortality following atrial fibrillation onset (ptrend=0.0001, ptrend=0.003, respectively). Interpretation Our data suggest that observed trends of increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in the community were partially due to enhanced surveillance. Stroke occurrence and mortality following atrial fibrillation onset declined over the decades, and prevalence increased approximately fourfold. The hazards for atrial fibrillation risk factors remained fairly constant. Our data indicate a need for measures to enhance early

  9. Monthly variation in acute urinary retention incidence among patients with benign prostatic enlargement in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Ching-Chun; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Chen, Yi-Kuang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) is characterized by a sudden and painful inability to pass urine and is the most common urological emergency. However, according to our knowledge, no study to date has attempted to explore the monthly variation of AUR after adjusting for climatic parameters. This study aimed to examine the monthly variation of AUR due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) in Taiwan. The data used in this study were sourced from 2 datasets: the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 and a meteorological dataset supplied by the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. We identified 1406 patients aged 40 years or more with a diagnosis of BPE that could all be followed throughout a 6-year study period (2003-2008). We used the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to examine the incidence of AUR for seasonality. The results show that January (midwinter) had the highest rates, decreasing in March to a trough in June (early summer). The incidence then increased again and reached a peak in December (early winter). The ARIMA test also revealed significant monthly variation in the incidence of AUR. In addition, the ARIMA regression revealed that January, February, August, October, November, and December had significantly higher monthly incidence rates of AUR compared with June, after adjusting for the time trend effect and climatic parameters. Our study concluded that significant monthly variation in the incidence of AUR occurred, and January (midwinter) had the highest rates. PMID:22518826

  10. Environment as a potential key determinant of the continued increase of prostate cancer incidence in martinique.

    PubMed

    Belpomme, Dominique; Irigaray, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980-2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer. PMID:22191038

  11. PAHs and PM2.5 emissions and female breast cancer incidence in metro Atlanta and rural Georgia.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Puja Vijay; Wei, Yudan

    2016-08-01

    Environmental chemical exposure could be an important etiologic factor for geographic differences in breast cancer incidence. In this study, we examined emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PM2.5 in relation to breast cancer incidence in metro Atlanta and rural Georgia by analyzing data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program and the Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that metro Atlanta had a significantly higher age-adjusted annual incidence rate of female breast cancer than rural Georgia (132.6 vs. 113.7 per 100,000) for 1992-2011. Emissions of both PAHs [adjusted β = 0.568 (95 % CI: 0.209, 0.927); p = 0.004] and PM2.5 [adjusted β = 2.964 (95 % CI: 0.468, 5.459); p = 0.023] were significantly associated with breast cancer incidence in metro Atlanta area. This study suggests that ambient air pollution, especially PAHs and PM2.5, could have a significant impact on the increased incidence of female breast cancer in urban areas. PMID:26983363

  12. Muscular Strength and Incident Hypertension in Normotensive and Prehypertensive Men

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Sui, Xuemei; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hussey, Jim; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    The protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on hypertension (HTN) are well known; however, the association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN has yet to be examined. Purpose This study evaluated the strength-HTN association with and without accounting for CRF. Methods Participants were 4147 men (20–82 years) in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study for whom an age-specific composite muscular strength score was computed from measures of a 1-repetition maximal leg and a 1-repetition maximal bench press. CRF was quantified by maximal treadmill exercise test time in minutes. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals of incident HTN events according to exposure categories. Results During a mean follow-up of 19 years, there were 503 incident HTN cases. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HRs of hypertension in normotensive men comparing middle and high strength thirds to the lowest third were not significant at 1.17 and 0.84, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HRs of hypertension in baseline prehypertensive men comparing middle and high strength thirds to the lowest third were significant at 0.73 and 0.72 (p=.01 each), respectively. The association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men was no longer significant after control for CRF (p=.26). Conclusions The study indicated that middle and high levels of muscular strength were associated with a reduced risk of HTN in prehypertensive men only. However, this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for CRF. PMID:19927030

  13. Statin Use Is Associated With Incident Diabetes Mellitus Among Patients in the HIV Outpatient Study

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Kenneth A.; Hart, Rachel L. D.; Wood, Kathleen C.; Bozzette, Samuel; Buchacz, Kate; Brooks, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Statin therapy is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in the general population but has been shown to modestly increase the risk for incident diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods We analyzed incident DM in HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants followed at 8 HIV clinic sites during 2002–2011, comparing rates among those who initiated statin therapy during that period with those who did not. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we examined the association between cumulative years of statin exposure and the risk of developing DM, after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, antiretroviral history, prevalent hepatitis C, body mass index, and cumulative exposure to protease inhibitor therapy. We also adjusted for propensity scores to account for residual confounding by indication. Results Of 4692 patients analyzed, 590 (12.6%) initiated statin therapy and 355 (7.2%) developed DM. Incident DM was independently associated with statin therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14 per year of statin use), as well as older age, Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, non-Hispanic/Latino black race, antiretroviral-naive status, prevalent hepatitis C, and body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (P < 0.05 for all). The association of statin use with incident DM was similar in the model adjusted for propensity score. Conclusions Statin use was associated with a modestly increased risk of incident DM in an HIV-infected population, similar to existing data for the general population. HIV-infected patients should be monitored for glucose intolerance, but statins should not be withheld if clinically indicated for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. PMID:26181706

  14. Low mean temperature rather than few sunshine hours are associated with an increased incidence of type 1 diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Waernbaum, Ingeborg; Dahlquist, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    The well-known north-south gradient and the seasonal variability in incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes indicate climatological factors to have an effect on the onset. Both sunshine hours and a low temperature may be responsible. In the present study we tried to disentangle these effects that tend to be strongly connected. Exposure data were sunshine hours and mean temperature respectively obtained from eleven meteorological stations in Sweden which were linked to incidence data from geographically matched areas. Incident cases during 1983-2008 were retrieved from the population based Swedish childhood diabetes register. We used generalized additive models to analyze the incidence as a function of mean temperature and hours of sun adjusted for the time trend, age and sex. In our data set the correlation between sun hours and temperature was weak (r = 0.36) implying that it was possible to estimate the effect of these variables in a regression model. We fit a general additive model with a smoothing term for the time trend. In the model with sun hours we found no significant effect on T1 incidence (p = 0.17) whereas the model with temperature as predictor was significant (p = 0.05) when adjusting for the time trend, sex and age. Adding sun hours in the model where mean temperature was already present did not change the effect of temperature. There is an association with incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and low mean temperature independent of a possible effect of sunshine hours after adjustment for age, sex and time trend. The findings may mirror the cold effect on insulin resistance and accords with the hypothesis that overload of an already ongoing beta cell destruction may accelerate disease onset. PMID:25821168

  15. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G.; Johnson, Jay R.; Miller, Federick W.; Matteson, Eric L.; Crowson, C. S.; Gabriel, S. E.

    2015-05-15

    Our objective was to examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: We used data from patients with GCA (1950-2004) and RA (1955-2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results: The correlationmore » of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0-1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5-7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4-5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8-11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions: AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4-5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. Lastly, the link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases.« less

  16. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G; Johnson, Jay R; Miller, Federick W; Matteson, Eric L; Gabriel, Sherine E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We used data from patients with GCA (1950–2004) and RA (1955–2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results The correlation of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0–1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5–7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4–5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8–11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4–5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. The link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases. PMID:25979866

  17. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  18. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  19. Ten-year fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction incidence in elderly populations in Spain: the EPICARDIAN cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Rafael; Alonso, Margarita; Reviriego, Blanca; Muñiz, Javier; Vega, Saturio; López, Isidro; Novella, Blanca; Suárez, Carmen; Rodríguez-Salvanés, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background In Spain, more than 85% of coronary heart disease deaths occur in adults older than 65 years. However, coronary heart disease incidence and mortality in the Spanish elderly have been poorly described. The aim of this study is to estimate the ten-year incidence and mortality rates of myocardial infarction in a population-based large cohort of Spanish elders. Methods A population-based cohort of 3729 people older than 64 years old, free of previous myocardial infarction, was established in 1995 in three geographical areas of Spain. Any case of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction was investigated until December 2004 using the "cold pursuit method", previously used and validated by the the WHO-MONICA project. Results Men showed a significantly (p < 0.001) higher cumulative incidence of myocardial infarction (7.2%; 95%CI: 5.94-8.54) than women (3.8%; 95%CI: 3.06-4.74). Although cumulative incidence increased with age (p < 0.05), gender-differences tended to narrow. Adjusted incidence rates were higher in men (957 per 100 000 person-years) than in women (546 per 100 000 person-years) (p < 0.001) and increased with age (p < 0.001). The increase was progressive in women but not in men. Adjusted mortality rates were also higher in men than in women (p < 0.001), being three times higher in the age group of ≥ 85 years old than in the age group of 65-74 years old (p < 0.001). Conclusion Incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction is high in the Spanish elderly population. Men show higher rates than women, but gender differences diminish with age. PMID:19778417

  20. Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Events, Tuberculosis, and Mortality in Untreated, HIV-Infected Children Enrolling in Care Before 1 Year of Age: An Iedea (International Epidemiologic Databases To Evaluate AIDS) East Africa Regional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea; Lu, Zhigang; Ayaya, Samuel; Losina, Elena; Musick, Beverly; Vreeman, Rachel; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Dillabaugh, Lisa; Doherty, Katie; Ssali, John; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East Africa region (10/01/2002-11/30/2008) were included. We estimated incidence rates of earliest clinical event (WHO3, WHO4, and TB), prior to ART initiation per local guidelines, stratified by current age (< or ≥6 months) and current CD4% (<15%, 15–24%, ≥25%). CD4%-stratified mortality rates were estimated separately for children who did not experience a clinical event (“background” mortality) and for children who experienced an event, including “acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) and “later” mortality (>30 days post-event). Results Among 847 children (median enrollment age: 4.8 months; median pre-ART follow-up: 10.8 months; 603 (71%) with ≥1 CD4% recorded), event rates were comparable for those aged <6 and ≥6 months. Current CD4% was associated with risk of WHO4 events for children <6 months old, and with all evaluated events for children ≥6 months old (p<0.05). “Background” mortality was 3.7–8.4/100py. “Acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) was 33.8/100py (after TB) and 41.1/100py (after WHO3 or WHO4). “Later” mortality (>30 days post-event) ranged by CD4% from 4.7–29.1/100py. Conclusions In treatment-naïve, HIV-infected infants, WHO3, WHO4, and TB events were common before and after 6 months of age and led to substantial increases in mortality. Early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment are critically important, regardless of CD4%. PMID:24378935

  1. [High risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. Preliminary report after introducing a new version of New York (1997) protocol adjusted to the age of the patients. Report of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group].

    PubMed

    Skoczen, S; Klus, K; Armata, J; Kowalczyk, J; Wisniewska-Slusarz, H; Kolecki, P; Derwich, K; Matysiak, M; Krauze, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Pawelec, K; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Juszczak, K; Pisarek, J; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Tomaszewska, R; Łuszczynska, A; Wysocki, M; Styczyński, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group in the treatment of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children using a new version of the New York (1997-1999). Protocol with treatment intensity adjusted according to the age of the patients. From April 1997 to December 1999 a group of 49 children with leukocytosis ranging from 50 900/mm3 to 580 000/mm3 (median 122 000/mm3) and 6 children with leukocytosis below 50 000/mm3 and poor response to steroids were treated with this protocol. Children below 10 years (43 patients) were treated according to the previous protocol, children above 10 years (12 patients) were treated with intensified protocol (high doses of ARA-C in consolidation and intermediate doses of Mtx in maintenance). Induction was identical for all patients. Complete remission was achieved in 92.6% patients. There were 2 relapses. Six children died - 3 without remission, 2 due to a relapse, 1 due to treatment complications. The current opinions concerning classification of HRG-ALL and treatment possibilities in this group of children are discussed. PMID:12021459

  2. Temporal Trends in Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke by Socioeconomic Position in Sweden 1987–2010

    PubMed Central

    Malki, Ninoa; Koupil, Ilona; Eloranta, Sandra; Weibull, Caroline E.; Tiikkaja, Sanna; Ingelsson, Erik; Sparén, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Background We analyzed temporal trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in Sweden by socioeconomic position and investigated whether social inequalities in incidence of these diseases changed over time. Materials and Methods We studied a cohort of almost three million Swedish residents born between 1932 and 1960 followed from 1987 until 2010. Incident cases of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke were identified in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and Cause of Death Register. Socioeconomic position was retrieved from the Population and Housing Censuses. Incidence rates of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke and incidence rate ratios comparing levels of socioeconomic position were estimated using flexible parametric survival models adjusted for calendar year, attained age, sex, and birth country. Results The overall incidences of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke decreased over time among men, but were stable over time among women. With regard to ischemic stroke incidence, socioeconomic inequality increased over time in the age group 55 to 59: the incidence rate ratios for low manual compared to high non-manual increased from 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2–1.4) in 1997 to 1.5 (1.4–1.7) in 2010 among men, and from 1.4 (1.3–1.6) in 1997 to 2.1 (1.8–2.5) in 2010 among women. The socioeconomic inequality in incidence of myocardial infarction was stable over time for both men and women. Conclusion There was a decrease in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke incidence over time among men but no significant change for women. Our study highlights existing, and in some cases increasing, social inequalities in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25170919

  3. Latitude of the study place and age of the patient are associated with incidence of mediastinitis and microbiology in open-heart surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelnoor, M; Vengen, Ø A; Johansen, O; Sandven, I; Abdelnoor, AM

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to summarize the pooled frequency of mediastinitis following open-heart surgery caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Gram-negative bacteria. Design This study was a systematic review and a meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Materials and methods We searched the literature, and a total of 97 cohort studies were identified. Random-effect model was used to synthesize the results. Heterogeneity between studies was examined by subgroup and meta-regression analyses, considering study and patient-level variables. Small-study effect was evaluated. Results Substantial heterogeneity was present. The estimated incidence of mediastinitis evaluated from 97 studies was 1.58% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.42, 1.75) and that of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and MRSA bacteria evaluated from 63 studies was 0.90% (95% CI 0.81, 1.21), 0.24% (95% CI 0.18, 0.32), and 0.08% (95% CI 0.05, 0.12), respectively. A meta-regression pinpointed negative association between the frequency of mediastinitis and latitude of study place and positive association between the frequency of mediastinitis and the age of the patient at operation. Multivariate meta-regression showed that prospective cohort design and age of the patients and latitude of study place together or in combination accounted for 17% of heterogeneity for end point frequency of mediastinitis, 16.3% for Gram-positive bacteria, 14.7% for Gram-negative bacteria, and 23.3% for MRSA bacteria. Conclusion Evidence from this study suggests the importance of latitude of study place and advanced age as risk factors of mediastinitis. Latitude is a marker of thermally regulated bacterial virulence and other local surgical practice. There is concern of increasing risk of mediastinitis and of MRSA in elderly patients undergoing sternotomy. PMID:27330329

  4. Incidence of pertussis in patients of general practitioners in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, P; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, I A; Lipke, M; Karasek, E; Rastawicki, W; Zasada, A; Samuels, S; Czajka, H; Pebody, R G

    2014-04-01

    We estimated the incidence of pertussis in patients consulting general practitioners (GPs). Between July 2009 and April 2011, we conducted a prospective cohort study of patients attending 78 general practices (158 863 persons overall). We included patients aged ≥ 3 years, with cough lasting 2-15 weeks, who gave informed consent. GPs interviewed eligible patients, collected a blood specimen, and a nasopharyngeal swab. At follow-up 30-60 days after the initial visit, physicians collected a second blood specimen and conducted patient interview. Cases were confirmed by specific IgA and/or IgG antibody titre exceeding significantly the general population background level or detection of bacterial DNA by real-time PCR. During the study period, 3864 patients with prolonged cough consulted the participating GPs, of those 1852 met the inclusion criteria, 1232 were recruited, and 288 were confirmed as pertussis cases (4% by PCR, 96% by serology). The adjusted incidence rate was 201.1/100 000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 133.9-302.0], ranging from 456.5 (95% CI 239.3-870.8) in the 15-19 years group to 94.0 (95% CI 33.4-264.5) in the 25-29 years group. The reporting ratio was 61, ranging from 4 in those aged 3-5 years, to 167 in those aged 65-69 years. The study confirmed high incidence of pertussis in all age groups in the general population, in particular in adults, not appropriately documented by the existing surveillance system. PMID:23870166

  5. Choosing a standard for adjusted mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, F

    1996-01-01

    For over half a century, the standard for age-adjustment in mortality studies has been based on the total population according to the 1940 census. The question periodically arises, however, whether a more recent census population might now be more appropriate. Thus, a study using the six censuses from 1940 to 1990 was conducted to see the effect each of these populations would have on the age-adjusted (standardized) death rates. While the size of the age-adjusted rates was affected by the censal standard populations from 1940 to 1990, these populations hardly changed the proportional mortality by age, sex, cause-of-death and geographic area. It appears that a shift from the 1940 standard will not be necessary, although if more detailed comparisons are needed, age-specific death rates can always be used. The 1940 standard also has the advantage of being consistent with many earlier studies. PMID:8744891

  6. Geospatial and Temporal Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Incidence in a Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, John P.; Jackson, Erin; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Sprague, Brian L.; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has resulted in the rate tripling over the past 30 years. Reasons for this increase have not been established. Geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) tools have emerged as powerful geospatial technologies to identify disease clusters, map patterns and trends, and assess the impact of ecological and socioeconomic factors (SES) on the spatial distribution of diseases. In this study, these tools were used to analyze thyroid cancer incidence in a rural population. Methods: Thyroid cancer incidence and socio-demographic factors in Vermont (VT), United States, between 1994 and 2007 were analyzed by logistic regression and geospatial and temporal analyses. Results: The thyroid cancer age-adjusted incidence in Vermont (8.0 per 100,000) was comparable to the national level (8.4 per 100,000), as were the ratio of the incidence of females to males (3.1:1) and the mortality rate (0.5 per 100,000). However, the estimated annual percentage change was higher (8.3 VT; 5.7 U.S.). Incidence among females peaked at 30–59 years of age, reflecting a significant rise from 1994 to 2007, while incidence trends for males did not vary significantly by age. For both females and males, the distribution of tumors by size did not vary over time; ≤1.0 cm, 1.1–2.0 cm, and >2.0 cm represented 38%, 22%, and 40%, respectively. In females, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounted for 89% of cases, follicular (FTC) 8%, medullary (MTC) 2%, and anaplastic (ATC) 0.6%, while in males PTC accounted for 77% of cases, FTC 15%, MTC 1%, and ATC 3%. Geospatial analysis revealed locations and spatial patterns that, when combined with multivariate incidence analyses, indicated that factors other than increased surveillance and access to healthcare (physician density or insurance) contributed to the increased thyroid cancer incidence. Nine thyroid cancer incidence hot spots, areas with very high normalized incidence, were identified

  7. [Incidence of cancer in Navarre].

    PubMed

    Ardanaz, E; Moreno, C; Pérez de Rada Arístegui, M E; Ezponda, C; Navaridas, N

    2004-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to 1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in both sexes and of breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men are notable. There continues to be a fall in the incidence rates of stomach cancer in both sexes, following the tendency begun in the 1970s. PMID:15644889

  8. Geographic clustering of testicular cancer incidence in the northern part of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, D J; Schaapveld, M; Sleijfer, D T; Meerman, G J; van der Graaf, W T; Sijmons, R H; Koops, H S; Hoekstra, H J

    1999-12-01

    Geographic variations in testicular cancer incidence may be caused by differences in environmental factors, genetic factors, or both. In the present study, geographic patterns of age-adjusted testicular cancer incidence rates (IRs) in 12 provinces in The Netherlands in the period 1989-1995 were analysed. In addition, the age-adjusted IR of testicular cancer by degree of urbanization was evaluated. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. The overall annual age-adjusted IR of testicular cancer in The Netherlands in the period 1989-1995 was 4.4 per 100000 men. The province Groningen in the north of the country showed the highest annual IR with 5.8 per 100000 men, which was higher (P < 0.05) than the overall IR in The Netherlands (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.6). The highest IR in Groningen was seen for both seminomas and non-seminomas. In addition, Groningen showed the highest age-specific IRs in all relevant younger age groups (15-29, 30-44 and 45-59 years), illustrating the consistency of data. The province Friesland, also situated in the northern part of the country, showed the second highest IR of testicular cancer with 5.3 cases per 100000 men per year (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5, not significant). This mainly resulted from the high IR of seminoma in Friesland. Analysis of age-adjusted IRs of testicular cancer by degree of urbanization in The Netherlands showed no urban-rural differences at analysis of all histological types combined, or at separate analyses of seminomas and non-seminomas. Geographic clustering of testicular cancer seems to be present in the rural north of The Netherlands with some stable founder populations, which are likely to share a relatively high frequency of genes from common ancestors including genes possibly related to testicular cancer. Although this finding does not exclude the involvement of shared environmental factors in the aetiology of testicular cancer, it may

  9. Allopurinol and the incidence of bladder cancer: a Taiwan national retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Liao, Wei-Ting; Chan, Ya-Ting; Chang, Shun-Jen

    2016-05-01

    Our aim is to investigate the risk association between allopurinol use and cancer incidence among gout patients using clinical evidence. Newly diagnosed male patients with gout, 20 years or older, were included after excluding those who had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and were followed up for 12 years in a retrospective cohort study of one million outpatients of a national database. The gout patients were matched to male controls by age and first diagnosis date of gout disease. We then estimated the risk associations between incident cancers and duration of allopurinol use by Cox hazard regression, age-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence per 1000 person-years. A total of 24 050 gout patients and 76 129 controls were included. The incidence of all-cause cancers for gout patients and controls was 8.26 cases and 7.49 cases/1000 person-years, respectively; it was markedly increased in gout patients who used allopurinol for over 90 days. The hazard ratio of all-cause cancers was 1.21 (95% confidence interval=1.03-1.42, P=0.019) after adjustment for age and 2.26 for bladder cancer (95% confidence interval=1.32-3.87, P=0.003) on comparing those who used allopurinol for over 90 days with nonusers. Meanwhile, other cancers did not show the same significant result. We concluded that those who used allopurinol for a long duration had a higher occurrence of both bladder cancer and all-cause cancers in clinical evidence. PMID:25830898

  10. Incidence and Time Trends of Cancer in Cyprus Over 11 Years (1998-2008)

    PubMed Central

    Cooter, Mary; Soliman, Amr S.; Pavlou, Pavlos; Demetriou, Anna; Orphanides, Chloe; Kritioti, Evie; Banerjee, Mousumi; Farazi, Paraskevi A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyprus maintains a population-based cancer registry that allows for in-depth study of cancer in a culturally- and environmentally-unique setting. Using eleven years of collected data (1998-2008), we present the first comprehensive analysis of cancer in Cyprus. We calculated gender-specific, world age-adjusted incidence rates and time trends for the 26 most incident cancers. This study revealed that overall world age-standardized rates among males increased from 195.4 cases per 100,000 in 1998-2002 to 239.0 cases per 100,000 in 2006-2008. For the entire eleven-year period, prostate, lung, colorectal, and bladder cancers were the most incident cancers among males. Among females, the overall world age-standardized rate increased from 180.6 cases per 100,000 in 1998-2002 to 217.1 cases per 100,000 in 2006-2008. Over the entire period, breast, colorectal, uterine, and thyroid were the most incident cancers in females. There were sixteen sex-specific cancers that indicated statistically significant increasing incidence trends over the study period, and no types for which the rate was significantly decreasing. Thyroid cancer illustrated rapid increases in rates. Results were compared to other Mediterranean European registries reported in Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents report for 1997-2002. Overall cancer incidence in Cyprus is lower than that of Southern Mediterranean countries, and given the known environmental risk factors in Cyprus, the low rate of lung cancer is especially interesting. The epidemiologic patterns reported in this study open the door for future etiologic studies to elucidate role of environmental and lifestyle factors of cancer in this population and highlight opportunities for cancer prevention and control. PMID:25702662

  11. Geographic variation in U.S. thyroid cancer incidence and a cluster near nuclear reactors in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, thyroid cancer incidence (along with liver cancer) is increasing more rapidly than any other malignancy, rising nearly threefold from 1980 to 2006. Improved diagnosis has been proposed by some as the major reason for this change, while others contend that additional factors also account for the increase. Among U.S. states, 2001-2005 age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence rates vary from 5.4 to 12.8 per 100,000. County-specific incidence data, available for the first time, document that most U.S. counties with the highest thyroid cancer incidence are in a contiguous area of eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and southern New York State. Exposures to radioactive iodine emissions from 16 nuclear power reactors within a 90-mile radius in this area indicate that these emissions are a likely etiological factor in rising thyroid cancer incidence rates. PMID:19927407

  12. Effects of Helicobacter pylori treatment on gastric cancer incidence and mortality in subgroups.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Ma, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Lian; Brown, Linda M; Li, Ji-You; Shen, Lin; Pan, Kai-Feng; Liu, Wei-Dong; Hu, Yuanreng; Han, Zhong-Xiang; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Pee, David; Blot, William J; Fraumeni, Joseph F; You, Wei-Cheng; Gail, Mitchell H

    2014-07-01

    Among 2258 Helicobacter pylori-seropositive subjects randomly assigned to receive one-time H. pylori treatment with amoxicillin-omeprazole or its placebo, we evaluated the 15-year effect of treatment on gastric cancer incidence and mortality in subgroups defined by age, baseline gastric histopathology, and post-treatment infection status. We used conditional logistic and Cox regressions for covariable adjustments in incidence and mortality analyses, respectively. Treatment was associated with a statistically significant decrease in gastric cancer incidence (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17 to 0.79) and mortality (hazard ratio = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.79) at ages 55 years and older and a statistically significant decrease in incidence among those with intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia at baseline (odds ratio = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.91). Treatment benefits for incidence and mortality among those with and without post-treatment infection were similar. Thus H. pylori treatment can benefit older members and those with advanced baseline histopathology, and benefits are present even with post-treatment infection, suggesting treatment can benefit an entire population, not just the young or those with mild histopathology. PMID:24925350

  13. Sickle Cell Trait and Incident Ischemic Stroke in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Caughey, Melissa C.; Loehr, Laura R.; Key, Nigel S.; Derebail, Vimal K.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V.; Grove, Megan L.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Numerous case reports describe stroke in individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT) in the absence of traditional risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. To date, no prospective epidemiological studies have investigated this association. Methods A population-based sample of African Americans (N=3,497, mean age=54, female=62%) was followed from 1987–2011 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC), contributing a total of 65,371 person-years. Hazard ratios and incidence rate differences for ischemic stroke were estimated, contrasting SCT to homozygous hemoglobin A (HbAA). Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, total cholesterol, atrial fibrillation, and coronary heart disease. Results SCT was identified in 223 (6.4%) participants. Over a median follow up of 22 years, 401 subjects experienced incident stroke (89% ischemic). Incident ischemic stroke was more frequent among those with SCT (13%) than HbAA (10%). SCT was associated with an ischemic stroke hazard ratio of 1.4 (1.0 – 2.0), and an incidence rate difference amounting to 1.9 (0.4 – 3.8) extra strokes per 1000 person-years. Conclusion We observed an increased risk of ischemic stroke in African Americans with SCT. Further investigation of the incidence and pathophysiology of stroke in SCT patients is warranted. PMID:25139879

  14. Comparing the Incidence of Falls/Fractures in Parkinson's Disease Patients in the US Population.

    PubMed

    Kalilani, Linda; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Palokangas, Tuire; Durgin, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may experience falls and/or fractures as a result of disease symptoms. There are limited data available from long-term studies estimating the incidence of falls/fractures in patients with PD. The objective was to compare the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD patients with non-PD patients in a US population. This was a retrospective study using a US-based claims database (Truven Health MarketScan®) that compared the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD subjects with non-PD subjects. The study period included the 12 months prior to index date (defined as earliest PD diagnosis [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 332.0]) and a postindex period to the end of data availability. Fractures were defined by inpatient/outpatient claims as a principal or secondary diagnosis and accompanying procedure codes during the postindex period. Incidence rates and 95% CIs for falls/fractures were calculated as the number of events per 10,000 person-years of follow-up using negative binomial or Poisson regression models. Twenty-eight thousand two hundred and eighty PD subjects were matched to non-PD subjects for the analysis (mean [SD] age, 71.4 [11.8] years; 53% male). A higher incidence rate (adjusted for comorbidities and medications) of all fall/fracture cases and by fall and fracture types was observed for PD subjects versus non-PD subjects; the overall adjusted incidence rate ratio comparing PD to non-PD subjects was 2.05; 95% CI, 1.88-2.24. The incidence rate of falls/fractures was significantly higher in subjects with PD compared with non-PD subjects in a US population. PMID:27583564

  15. Racial variation in incidence of trisomy 21: survey of 57,742 Chinese deliveries.

    PubMed

    Lau, T K; Fung, H Y; Rogers, M S; Cheung, K L

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to establish whether the influence of advanced maternal age on the incidence of trisomy 21 in the local Chinese population is similar to that seen among European patients by comparing the observed number of trisomy 21 cases against the expected number which was calculated from age-specific Caucasian data and adjusted for intrauterine lethality and rate of amniocentesis. The obstetric and neonatal data of 57,742 pregnancies in ethnic Chinese were reviewed, of which 10.5% were from mothers age 35 or over. A total of 74 cases of trisomy 21 was detected (overall incidence of 1.28 per 1,000 deliveries). The expected number of trisomy 21 cases in mothers younger than 35 was 45.6, which was similar to the observed number of 43. Among mothers age 35 or above, the expected and observed numbers of cases were 38.52 and 31, respectively, again a difference not statistically significant. Therefore we conclude that there is no significant racial variation in the incidence of trisomy 21, both in the younger and older age groups, when comparing Chinese to Caucasian populations. PMID:9482644

  16. Incidence of Major Cardiovascular Events in Immigrants to Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Anna; Rezai, Mohammad R.; Guo, Helen; Maclagan, Laura C.; Austin, Peter C.; Booth, Gillian L.; Manuel, Douglas G.; Chiu, Maria; Ko, Dennis T.; Lee, Douglas S.; Shah, Baiju R.; Donovan, Linda R.; Sohail, Qazi Zain; Alter, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Immigrants from ethnic minority groups represent an increasing proportion of the population in many high-income countries, but little is known about the causes and amount of variation between various immigrant groups in the incidence of major cardiovascular events. Methods and Results— We conducted the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team (CANHEART) Immigrant Study, a big data initiative, linking information from Citizenship and Immigration Canada’s Permanent Resident database to 9 population-based health databases. A cohort of 824 662 first-generation immigrants aged 30 to 74 as of January 2002 from 8 major ethnic groups and 201 countries of birth who immigrated to Ontario, Canada between 1985 and 2000 were compared with a reference group of 5.2 million long-term residents. The overall 10-year age-standardized incidence of major cardiovascular events was 30% lower among immigrants than among long-term residents. East Asian immigrants (predominantly ethnic Chinese) had the lowest incidence overall (2.4 in males, 1.1 in females per 1000 person-years), but this increased with greater duration of stay in Canada. South Asian immigrants, including those born in Guyana, had the highest event rates (8.9 in males, 3.6 in females per 1000 person-years), along with immigrants born in Iraq and Afghanistan. Adjustment for traditional risk factors reduced but did not eliminate the differences in cardiovascular risk between various ethnic groups and long-term residents. Conclusions— Striking differences in the incidence of cardiovascular events exist among immigrants to Canada from different ethnic backgrounds. Traditional risk factors explain a part but not all of these differences. PMID:26324719

  17. Prostate cancer trends in Canada: rising incidence or increased detection?

    PubMed Central

    Levy, I G; Gibbons, L; Collins, J P; Perkins, D G; Mao, Y

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse trends in the incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in Canada according to age distribution, temporal pattern and provincial variation; to determine any association with the rate of prostatectomy; and to determine whether any observed increase in the rate of prostate cancer was due to an increase in the detection rate. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiologic study based on Canadian population data from 1959 to 1989 and chart review from one Canadian hospital. SETTING: The chart review was conducted at the Ottawa Civic Hospital. SUBJECTS: The data on prostate cancer trends were obtained from the Canadian population. Charts were reviewed for two groups of patients: (a) men discharged from inpatient care during 1976 and 1986-87 with prostate cancer first diagnosed in the same year and (b) men who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) during 1976 and 1986. OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer, rates of prostatectomy and TURP, and correlations between them. From the hospital data, changes between 1976 and 1986-87 in distribution of cancer stages, distribution of cases detected incidentally after surgery for suspected benign prostatic hypertrophy and average number of slides analysed per gram of tissue obtained from prostatectomy. RESULTS: The epidemiologic data showed that the age-adjusted incidence rates increased by 72% overall, an increase seen in all age groups over 60 years. The mortality rates increased by 29% overall, primarily in men over 85 years old. The prostatectomy rate increased by 55%. There were significant linear correlations between the national and provincial incidence rates of prostate cancer and the TURP rates. The chart review revealed that during 1976, 53% of the cases of prostate cancer diagnosed were localized, as compared with 75% in 1986-87 (p < 0.01). The proportion of tumours diagnosed incidentally in men undergoing TURP increased by 11%, whereas the number of

  18. Reduced Risk of Incident Kidney Cancer from Walking and Running

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Test whether incident kidney cancer risk is associated with exercise energy expenditure (i.e., metabolic equivalents, 1 MET) when calculated from distance walked or run. Methods Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) from Cox proportional hazard analyses of self-reported physician-diagnosed incident kidney cancer vs. MET-hours/wk in 91,820 subjects recruited between 1991 and 1993 (7.7 yr follow-up of 42,833 subjects) and between 1998 and 1999 (6.4 yr follow-up of 33,053 subjects) as part of the National Runners' Health Study and between 1998 and 1999 as part of the National Walkers' Health Study (5.7 yr follow-up of 15,934 subjects). Results Fifty-two incident cancers were reported. Age- and sex-adjusted risk declined 1.9% per MET-hour/wk run or walked (HR: 0.981; 95%CI: 0.964 to 0.997, P=0.02). Compared to walking or running below guidelines levels (<7.5 MET-hours/wk), the risk for incident kidney cancer was 61% lower for meeting the guidelines (HR: 0.39, 95%CI: 0.11 to 1.08, P=0.07 for 7.5 to 12.5 MET-hours/wk), 67% lower for exercising one to two-times the recommended level (HR: 0.33; 95%CI: 0.15 to 0.72, P=0.005 for 12.6 to 25.1 MET-hours/wk), and 76.3% lower for exercising ≥2-times the recommended level (HR: 0.24; 95%CI: 0.11 to 0.52, P=0.0005 for ≥25.2 MET-hours/wk). Incident kidney cancer risk also increased in association with baseline BMI (P=0.002), smoking (P=0.02), and hypertensive (P=0.007) and diabetes medication use (P=0.01), however, exercise-associated reductions in kidney cancer risk persisted for 12.6 to 25.1 MET-hours/wk (HR: 0.35, P=0.01), and ≥ 25.2 MET-hours/wk (HR: 0.29, P=0.004) vis-à-vis <7.5 MET-hours/wk when also adjusted for BMI, hypertension, diabetes, and pack-years smoked. Conclusion Running and walking may reduce incident kidney cancer risk independent of its other known risk factors. PMID:23863620

  19. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Alan B; Fleischer, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999-2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers. PMID:27195056

  20. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Alan B.; Fleischer, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999–2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers. PMID:27195056

  1. Differences in incidence and trends of haematological malignancies in Japan and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Dai; Ito, Hidemi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katsumi, Akira; Nakamura, Shigeo; Tomotaka, Sobue; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of a malignant disease reflects the genetic and cumulative exposure to the environment of a population. Therefore, evaluation of the incidence and trends of a disease in different populations may provide insights into its aetiology and pathogenesis. To evaluate the incidence of haematological malignancies according to specific subtypes, we used population-based registry data in Japan (N = 125 148) and the United States (US; N = 172 925) from 1993 to 2008. The age-adjusted incidence of haematological malignancies in Japan was approximately one-half that in the US but has been increasing significantly, whereas no significant change was seen in the US [annual percent change (95% C confidence interval): Japan, +2·4% (1·7, 3·1); US, +0·1% (-0·1, 0·2)]. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) showed the largest differences in incidence, with the most remarkable differences observed for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, HL-nodular sclerosis, mycosis fungoides and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. HL and NHL are increasing substantially in Japan but not in the US, suggesting that environmental exposures, such as Westernization of the life style may be causing this increase. Differences in the incidence and trends for specific subtypes also showed a marked contrast across subtypes, which, in turn, may provide significant new insights into disease aetiology in the future. PMID:24245986

  2. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population. PMID:9460067

  3. Age-period-cohort analysis of trends in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Denmark, 1970-2009.

    PubMed

    Seals, Ryan M; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2013-10-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease of the motor neuron with poorly understood etiology. Recent studies have suggested that the incidence rate of ALS and the rate of death from ALS are increasing, but it is unclear whether this is due to changing exposures or improvements in diagnosis. We used age-period-cohort models to investigate trends in ALS incidence (hospitalization) from 1982 to 2009 and ALS mortality from 1970 to 2009 in Denmark. Among those 45 years of age or older, 4,265 deaths (incidence rate = 5.35 per 100,000 person-years) and 3,228 incident diagnoses (incidence rate = 5.55 per 100,000 person-years) were recorded. Age-adjusted mortality rates increased by an average of 3.0% annually between 1970 and 2009 and by an average of 2.1% annually after 1982. Age-period-cohort analyses suggested that the full age-period-cohort model provided the best fit to the mortality data (P < 0.001), although restriction to the post-1982 period suggested that the age-cohort model provided the best fit. Age-adjusted incidence rates increased by 1.6% annually after 1982 (P < 0.001), which was best explained by the age-period model, with borderline significant cohort effects (P = 0.08). A consistent finding regardless of parameterization or data subset appeared to be an increase in ALS incidence and mortality rate with later birth cohorts, up to a birth year of at least 1910. PMID:24064744

  4. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Trends in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Denmark, 1970–2009

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Ryan M.; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease of the motor neuron with poorly understood etiology. Recent studies have suggested that the incidence rate of ALS and the rate of death from ALS are increasing, but it is unclear whether this is due to changing exposures or improvements in diagnosis. We used age-period-cohort models to investigate trends in ALS incidence (hospitalization) from 1982 to 2009 and ALS mortality from 1970 to 2009 in Denmark. Among those 45 years of age or older, 4,265 deaths (incidence rate = 5.35 per 100,000 person-years) and 3,228 incident diagnoses (incidence rate = 5.55 per 100,000 person-years) were recorded. Age-adjusted mortality rates increased by an average of 3.0% annually between 1970 and 2009 and by an average of 2.1% annually after 1982. Age-period-cohort analyses suggested that the full age-period-cohort model provided the best fit to the mortality data (P < 0.001), although restriction to the post-1982 period suggested that the age-cohort model provided the best fit. Age-adjusted incidence rates increased by 1.6% annually after 1982 (P < 0.001), which was best explained by the age-period model, with borderline significant cohort effects (P = 0.08). A consistent finding regardless of parameterization or data subset appeared to be an increase in ALS incidence and mortality rate with later birth cohorts, up to a birth year of at least 1910. PMID:24064744

  5. Association between incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and solar ultraviolet radiation in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Bentham, G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine whether the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in different areas of England and Wales is associated with levels of solar ultraviolet radiation. DESIGN--Geographically based study examining the association between incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and estimated levels of solar ultraviolet radiation, controlling for social class and employment in agriculture. SETTING--59 counties in England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All registered cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma during the period 1968-85. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Age and sex adjusted odds ratio for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in each county. RESULTS--Incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly associated with solar ultraviolet radiation levels (P < 0.001), even after social class and employment in agriculture were controlled for (P = 0.004). In a comparison of counties in the highest and lowest quarters of solar ultraviolet radiation, the relative risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 1.27 (95% confidence interval 1.24 to 1.29), rising to 1.34 (1.32 to 1.37) after adjustment for social class and employment in agriculture. CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in different areas of England and Wales is positively associated with levels of solar ultraviolet radiation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:8620128

  6. Diabetes incidence in psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis: a UK population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Young Hee; Man, Ada; Zhu, Yanyan; Zhang, Yuqing; Love, Thorvardur Jon; Ogdie, Alexis; Gelfand, Joel M.; Choi, Hyon K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of diabetes among patients with PsA and RA in the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study using an electronic medical records database representative of the UK general population (1986–2010). We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes in PsA, psoriasis and RA cohorts compared with age- and sex-matched comparison cohorts without the corresponding conditions, adjusting for BMI, smoking, alcohol use, co-morbidities and glucocorticoids at baseline. Results. Cohorts included 4196 persons with PsA, 59 281 with psoriasis and 11 158 with RA, with mean follow-up times of 5.9, 5.8 and 5.5 years, respectively. Incidence rates for diabetes were 7.3, 6.4 and 6.3 cases per 1000 person-years among individuals with PsA, psoriasis and RA, respectively. Age- and sex-matched HRs for diabetes were 1.72 (95% CI 1.46, 2.02) in PsA, 1.39 (95% CI 1.32, 1.45) in psoriasis and 1.12 (95% CI 1.01, 1.25) in RA. After adjustment for BMI, smoking and alcohol, the HRs were attenuated substantially (1.43, 1.24 and 1.00, respectively). With further adjustment for baseline glucocorticoid use and co-morbidities, the HRs were 1.33 (1.09, 1.61) in PsA, 1.21 (1.15, 1.27) in psoriasis and 0.94 (0.84, 1.06) in RA. Conclusion. This general population study suggests an increased incidence of diabetes in PsA and RA, which is substantially explained by obesity and lifestyle factors. These findings support the importance of managing such factors in PsA and RA patients. PMID:24185762

  7. Colorectal polyp incidence among polypropylene manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R J; Lerman, S E; Schnatter, A R; Hughes, J I; Vernon, S W

    1994-02-01

    To follow up earlier findings of increased colorectal cancer and polyp risk among a group of Texas polypropylene manufacturing workers, a second company-sponsored colorectal cancer screening program was conducted. Ninety-four (64%) of the 147 male workers negative for polyps in the first screening were rescreened. Age- and examiner-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were modestly elevated for polypropylene manufacturing workers compared with patients screened at the same clinic for total (IRR = 1.31; 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84 to 2.03) and adenomatous (IRR = 1.80; 90% CI = 0.68 to 4.78) polyps. However, risk of adenomas among the highest exposed group (early term process/mechanical workers: IRR = 1.77; 90% CI = 0.51 to 6.18) was similar to risk in the least-exposed group (engineer/chemist/administrative workers: IRR = 2.02; 90% CI = 0.56 to 7.31). The modest, nonsignificant excesses and the similarity in risk across job categories does not suggest an occupationally related risk, although small numbers and potential biases preclude making definitive conclusions. PMID:8176517

  8. Incidence of Hospitalized Pneumococcal Pneumonia among Adults in Guatemala, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Carmen Lucía; Verani, Jennifer R.; Lopez, María Renee; Paredes, Antonio; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Roldan, Aleida; Arvelo, Wences; Lindblade, Kim A.; McCracken, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia worldwide. However, the burden of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults in low- and middle-income countries is not well described. Methods Data from 2008–2012 was analyzed from two surveillance sites in Guatemala to describe the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. A case of hospitalized pneumococcal pneumonia was defined as a positive pneumococcal urinary antigen test or blood culture in persons aged ≥ 18 years hospitalized with an acute respiratory infection (ARI). Results Among 1595 adults admitted with ARI, 1363 (82%) had either urine testing (n = 1286) or blood culture (n = 338) performed. Of these, 188 (14%) had pneumococcal pneumonia, including 173 detected by urine only, 8 by blood culture only, and 7 by both methods. Incidence rates increased with age, with the lowest rate among 18–24 year-olds (2.75/100,000) and the highest among ≥65 year-olds (31.3/100,000). The adjusted incidence of hospitalized pneumococcal pneumonia was 18.6/100,000 overall, with in-hospital mortality of 5%. Conclusions An important burden of hospitalized pneumococcal pneumonia in adults was described, particularly for the elderly. However, even adjusted rates likely underestimate the true burden of pneumococcal pneumonia in the community. These data provide a baseline against which to measure the indirect effects of the 2013 introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in Guatemala. PMID:26488871

  9. Ischemic stroke incidence in Santa Coloma de Gramenet (ISISCOG), Spain. A community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Alzamora, María Teresa; Sorribes, Marta; Heras, Antonio; Vila, Nicolás; Vicheto, Marisa; Forés, Rosa; Sánchez-Ojanguren, José; Sancho, Amparo; Pera, Guillem

    2008-01-01

    Background In Spain, stroke is one of the major causes of death and the main cause of severe disability in people over 65 years. We analyzed the incidence of ischemic stroke, stroke subtypes, case fatality and disability at 90 days after the event in a Spanish population. Methods A prospective community-based register of ischemic strokes was established in Santa Coloma de Gramenet (Barcelona) [116,220 inhabitants of all ages, according to the municipal census of December 31,2001], from January 1 to December 31, 2003. Standard definitions and case finding methods were used to identify all cases in all age groups. Every patient underwent a complete clinical evaluation and systematic tests including neuroimaging (CT/MRI) and vascular studies (carotid duplex ultrasound intra and extracranial and MR angiography). Results Over a one year period, 196 ischemic strokes were registered [107 men; median age = 76 years (range 39–98)], being the first event in 159 patients (81.1%) and a recurrent stroke in 37 (18.9%). After age-adjustment to the European population, the incidence of ischemic stroke per 100,000 inhabitants was 172 (95% CI, 148–196); 219 (176–261) in men and 133 (105–160) in women, with an annual incidence for first ischemic stroke of 139 (118–161); 165 (128–201) in men and 115 (89–140) in women. The incidence of stroke increased with age. Stroke subtypes (TOAST classification criteria) were lacunar in 28.8%, atherothrombotic in 18.6%, cardioembolic in 26.6% and undetermined in 26.0% of patients. At 90 days, the case-fatality was 12%, and among survivors, moderate-to-severe disability was present in 45 % at 3 months. Conclusion This prospective community-based study shows one of the lowest incidences of stroke in Europe, as well as one of the lowest case fatality and disability rates at 90 days after stroke. PMID:18371212

  10. Stroke Incidence Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Jennifer S.; Liu, Xinggang; Smith, Gordon S.; Baumgarten, Mona; Rattinger, Gail B.; Gambert, Steven R.; Langenberg, Patricia; Zuckerman, Ilene H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), older adults are at increased risk of hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events, but it is unclear whether the increased risk continues after hospital discharge. We estimated incidence rates of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke following hospital discharge for TBI among adults ≥65 and compared them with pre-TBI rates. Participants 16,936 Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 with a diagnosis of TBI in any position on an inpatient claim between 6/1/2006 and 12/31/2009 who survived to hospital discharge. Design Retrospective analysis of a random 5% sample of Medicare claims data Main Measures Hemorrhagic stroke was defined as ICD-9 codes 430.xx-432.xx. Ischemic stroke was defined as ICD-9 codes 433.xx-435.xx, 437.0x, and 437.1x. Results There was a six-fold increase in the rate of hemorrhagic stroke following TBI compared to the pre-TBI period (adjusted Rate Ratio (RR) 6.5; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 5.3, 7.8), controlling for age and sex. A smaller increase in the rate of ischemic stroke was observed (adjusted RR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2, 1.4). Conclusion Future studies should investigate causes of increased stroke risk post-TBI as well as effective treatments to reduce stroke risk and improve outcomes post-TBI among older adults. PMID:24816156

  11. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  12. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  13. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  14. Cancer incidence in the Zuni Indians of New Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Sorem, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The total age-adjusted incidence of cancer in the Zuni Indians of New Mexico was significantly lower than that of the New Mexico Anglo population during the period 1969-1982. Specific sites at which the Zunis had a significantly lower number of cases than expected, based on the rates for Anglos, are: colon, rectum and anus, lung, breast, endometrium, melanoma of the skin, pancreas, and the leukemias. Sites at which the Zunis had a higher number of cases than expected are stomach and gallbladder. The Zunis have a pattern of occurrence of cancer that is similar to other American Indians of New Mexico (Navajo, Apache, and Pueblo); however, rates of lung, colonic, and pancreatic cancer among the Zunis are significantly lower. The occurrence and anatomic distribution of cancer among the Zunis may be the result of cultural and environmental conditions or genetic influences. Further studies may clarify the risk factors which contribute to this pattern of disease. PMID:4090535

  15. Socioeconomic status in relation to incident fracture risk in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, C. J.; Han, W.; Greendale, G. A.; Seeman, T.; Tepper, P.; Thurston, R.; Karvonen-Gutierrez, C.; Karlamangla, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We examined baseline and annual follow-up data (through annual follow-up visit 9) from a cohort of 2,234 women aged 42 to 52 years at baseline. Independent of financial status, higher educational level was associated with lower fracture incidence among non-Caucasian women but not among Caucasian women. Introduction This study was conducted to determine the associations of education and income with fracture incidence among midlife women over 9 years of follow-up. Methods We examined baseline and annual follow-up data (through annual follow-up visit 9) from 2,234 participants of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation, a cohort of women aged 42 to 52 years at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine the associations of socioeconomic predictors (education, family-adjusted poverty-to-income ratio, and difficulty paying for basics) with time to first incident nontraumatic, nondigital, noncraniofacial fracture. Results Independent of family-adjusted poverty-to-income ratio, higher educational level was associated with decreased time to first incident fracture among non-Caucasian women but not among Caucasian women (pinteraction 0.02). Compared with non-Caucasian women who completed no more than high school education, non-Caucasian women who attained at least some postgraduate education had 87 % lower rates of incident nontraumatic fracture (adjusted hazard ratio 0.13, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.03–0.60). Among non-Caucasian women, each additional year of education was associated with a 16 % lower odds of nontraumatic fracture (adjusted odds ratio 0.84, 95 % CI 0.73–0.97). Income, family-adjusted poverty-to-income ratio, and degree of difficulty paying for basic needs were not associated with time to first fracture in Caucasian or non-Caucasian women. Conclusions Among non-Caucasian midlife women, higher education, but not higher income, was associated with lower fracture incidence. Elucidation of the mechanisms

  16. The incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Taiwan, 1986-2005: a distinct increasing trend with birth-cohort effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shang-Ju; Huang, Shang-Yi; Lin, Chien-Ting; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chang, Chee-Jen; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2010-11-25

    The incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Taiwan is markedly lower than that in Western countries, but we have seen a drastically increasing trend. We explored this distinct incidence trend of CLL for Taiwanese. The epidemiologic data of CLL for Taiwanese and Caucasian Americans during 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the Taiwan National Cancer Registry and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, respectively. The individual effects of time period and birth cohort on the incidence trends were analyzed using an age-period-cohort model. Although there was a weak period effect corresponding to the increased applications of immunophenotyping in 1991 to 1995 in Taiwan, evidences suggested that the age-adjusted incidence rate of CLL for Taiwanese was continuously increasing during the 20-year period while that for Caucasian Americans remained steady. In addition, a much stronger birth-cohort effect was identified for Taiwanese but not for Caucasian Americans. This effect corresponded to the westernization of lifestyle in Taiwan since 1960. We conclude that, in addition to the ethnic difference of incidence, there is distinct increasing incidence trend of CLL in Taiwan. The strong birth-cohort effect underlying this increasing trend indicates that lifestyles and environmental factors may play a role in the development of CLL for Taiwanese. PMID:20713960

  17. Increase of regional total cancer incidence in north Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident?

    PubMed Central

    Tondel, M.; Hjalmarsson, P.; Hardell, L.; Carlsson, G.; Axelson, O.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Is there any epidemiologically visible influence on the cancer incidence after the Chernobyl fallout in Sweden? Design: A cohort study was focused on the fallout of caesium-137 in relation to cancer incidence 1988–1996. Setting: In northern Sweden, affected by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, 450 parishes were categorised by caesium-137 deposition: <3 (reference), 3–29, 30–39, 40–59, 60–79, and 80–120 kiloBecquerel/m2. Participants: All people 0–60 years living in these parishes in 1986 to 1987 were identified and enrolled in a cohort of 1 143 182 persons. In the follow up 22 409 incident cancer cases were retrieved in 1988–1996. A further analysis focused on the secular trend. Main results: Taking age and population density as confounding factors, and lung cancer incidence in 1988–1996 and total cancer incidence in 1986–1987 by municipality as proxy confounders for smoking and time trends, respectively, the adjusted relative risks for the deposition categories were 1.00 (reference <3 kiloBecquerel/m2), 1.05, 1.03, 1.08, 1.10, and 1.21. The excess relative risk was 0.11 per 100 kiloBecquerel/m2 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.20). Considering the secular trend, directly age standardised cancer incidence rate differences per 100 000 person years between 1988 to 1996 and the reference period 1986–1987, were 30.3 (indicating a time trend in the reference category), 36.8, 42.0, 45.8, 50.1, and 56.4. No clear excess occurred for leukaemia or thyroid cancer. Conclusions: Unless attributable to chance or remaining uncontrolled confounding, a slight exposure related increase in total cancer incidence has occurred in northern Sweden after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:15547062

  18. Associations between psychosocial factors and incidence of sexually transmitted disease among South African adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Heeren, G. Anita; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry; Lewis, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents living in South Africa are at high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted disease (STD). The present study sought to identify correlates of curable STD incidence among a cohort of adolescents in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods Data were collected in conjunction with an HIV/STD prevention intervention randomized controlled trial1. At 54 months post-intervention, curable STD incidence (gonorrhea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis) was assayed and self-report measures of potential correlates of STD incidence were collected. Results Participants were adolescents reporting at least one sexual partner in the past 3 months (N = 659). As expected, univariate analyses revealed that girls were more likely than boys to have an STD. In addition, intimate partner violence, unprotected sex, and having older partners were associated with incident STD. In Poisson multiple regression analyses, gender (risk ratio [RR] = 4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.51–6.39), intimate partner violence (RR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12–1.35), unprotected sex (RR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09–2.01), and multiple partners (RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.11–2.61), but not partner’s age (RR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.94–1.07) were associated with incident STD, adjusting for 42-month STD prevalence. Binge drinking, forced sex, and age were unrelated to STD incidence in both analyses. Interactions between gender and the hypothesized correlates were non-significant, suggesting that gender did not modify these relationships. Conclusions Interventions to reduce HIV/STD incidence among adolescents in South Africa should address the risk associated with gender, unprotected sex, intimate partner violence, and multiple partnerships. PMID:25668645

  19. Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Screening in U.S. Medicaid Patients with and without HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Momplaisir, Florence; Re, Vincent Lo; Newcomb, Craig; Liu, Qing; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Long, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-AIDS defining malignancies, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC), may be more prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Further, PLWH may be less likely to receive CRC screening (CRCS). We studied the epidemiology of CRC and CRCS patterns in patients with and without HIV in a large US Medicaid population. We performed a matched cohort study examining CRC incidence in 2006 and CRCS between 1999 and 2007. Study participants were continuously enrolled in the Medicaid programs of California, Florida, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. All HIV-infected enrollees were matched to five randomly sampled HIV-uninfected enrollees on five-year age group, sex, and state. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for incident CRC (adjusted for comorbidity index) and the presence of CRCS (adjusted for comorbidity index and years in the dataset) among PLWH compared to HIV-negative enrollees were calculated. PLWH were not more likely to be diagnosed with CRC after adjusting for comorbidity index (AOR 1.29; 95% CI: 0.98-1.70). While CRCS rates were low overall, PLWH were more likely to have received CRCS in unadjusted analyses (35.8% vs. 33.7%; OR 1.10, 95% CI: 1.07-1.13). This relationship reversed after adjusting for comorbidity index and years in the dataset (AOR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.77-0.83). In conclusion, PLWH were not more likely to be diagnosed with CRC. In adjusted analyses, PLWH were less likely to have received CRCS. We showed a low rate of CRCS overall. Work should be done to improve CRC screening rates for all patients, particularly those with HIV. PMID:24188387

  20. The Influence of Demographic Variables on University Students' Adjustment in North Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderi, Mohd; Jdaitawi, Malek; Ishak, Noor Azniza; Jdaitawi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the student university adjustment particularly the determination of the adjustment level of first year university students in Jordan. The three domains are namely overall college adjustment, domain of social adjustment, and academic adjustment. In addition, in this analysis, gender, age, types of…

  1. Lung cancer incidence decreases with elevation: evidence for oxygen as an inhaled carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Kamen P; Himmelstein, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    The level of atmospheric oxygen, a driver of free radical damage and tumorigenesis, decreases sharply with rising elevation. To understand whether ambient oxygen plays a role in human carcinogenesis, we characterized age-adjusted cancer incidence (compiled by the National Cancer Institute from 2005 to 2009) across counties of the elevation-varying Western United States and compared trends displayed by respiratory cancer (lung) and non-respiratory cancers (breast, colorectal, and prostate). To adjust for important demographic and cancer-risk factors, 8-12 covariates were considered for each cancer. We produced regression models that captured known risks. Models demonstrated that elevation is strongly, negatively associated with lung cancer incidence (p < 10(-16)), but not with the incidence of non-respiratory cancers. For every 1,000 m rise in elevation, lung cancer incidence decreased by 7.23 99% CI [5.18-9.29] cases per 100,000 individuals, equivalent to 12.7% of the mean incidence, 56.8. As a predictor of lung cancer incidence, elevation was second only to smoking prevalence in terms of significance and effect size. Furthermore, no evidence of ecological fallacy or of confounding arising from evaluated factors was detected: the lung cancer association was robust to varying regression models, county stratification, and population subgrouping; additionally seven environmental correlates of elevation, such as exposure to sunlight and fine particulate matter, could not capture the association. Overall, our findings suggest the presence of an inhaled carcinogen inherently and inversely tied to elevation, offering epidemiological support for oxygen-driven tumorigenesis. Finally, highlighting the need to consider elevation in studies of lung cancer, we demonstrated that previously reported inverse lung cancer associations with radon and UVB became insignificant after accounting for elevation. PMID:25648772

  2. Incidence and Outcomes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Yih-Yuan; Tsai, Ching-Fang; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Lin, Ming-Shian; Ware, Lorraine B.; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most epidemiological studies of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been conducted in western countries, and studies in Asia are limited. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence, in-hospital mortality, and 1-year mortality of ARDS in Taiwan. We conducted a nationwide inpatient cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 1997 and 2011. A total of 40,876 ARDS patients (68% male; mean age 66 years) were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition coding and further analyzed for clinical characteristics, medical costs, and mortality. The overall crude incidence of ARDS was 15.74 per 100,000 person-years, and increased from 2.53 to 19.26 per 100,000 person-years during the study period. The age-adjusted incidence of ARDS was 15.19 per 100,000 person-years. The overall in-hospital mortality was 57.8%. In-hospital mortality decreased from 59.7% in 1997 to 47.5% in 2011 (P < 0.001). The in-hospital mortality rate was lowest (33.5%) in the youngest patients (age 18–29 years) and highest (68.2%) in the oldest patients (>80 years, P < 0.001). The overall 1-year mortality rate was 72.1%, and decreased from 75.8% to 54.7% during the study period. Patients who died during hospitalization were older (69 ± 17 versus 62 ± 19, P < 0.001) and predominantly male (69.8% versus 65.3%, P < 0.001). In addition, patients who died during hospitalization had significantly higher medical costs (6421 versus 5825 US Dollars, P < 0.001) and shorter lengths of stay (13 versus 19 days, P < 0.001) than patients who survived. We provide the first large-scale epidemiological analysis of ARDS incidence and outcomes in Asia. Although the overall incidence was lower than has been reported in a prospective US study, this may reflect underdiagnosis by International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition code and identification of only patients with more severe ARDS in this

  3. Feeding Practices in Infancy Associated with Caries Incidence in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Rodrigues, Priscila Humbert; Vítolo, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Early-life feeding behaviors foretell later dietary habits and health outcomes. Few studies have examined infant dietary patterns and caries occurrence prospectively. OBJECTIVE Assess whether patterns in food and drink consumption before age 12 months are associated with caries incidence by preschool age. METHODS We collected early-life feeding data within a birth cohort from low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Three dietary indexes were defined, based on refined sugar content and/or previously reported caries associations: a count of sweet foods or drinks introduced <6-months (e.g., candy, cookies, soft drinks), a count of other, non-sweet items introduced <6-months (e.g., beans, meat), and a count of sweet items consumed at 12 months. Incidence of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) at age 38 months (N=458) was compared by score tertile on each index, adjusted for family, maternal, and child characteristics using regression modeling. RESULTS Introduction to a greater number of presumably cariogenic items in infancy was positively associated with future caries. S-ECC incidence was highest in the uppermost tertile of the “6-month sweet index” (adjusted cumulative incidence ratio, RR, versus lowest tertile: 1.46; 95% CI: 0.97, 2.04) and the uppermost tertile of the “12-month sweet index” (RR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.23). The association was specific for sweet items: caries incidence did not differ by tertile of the “6-month non-sweet index” (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.40). Additionally, each one-unit increase on the 6-month and the 12-month sweet indexes, but not the 6-month non-sweet index, was statistically significantly associated with greater S-ECC incidence and associated with more decayed, missing or restored teeth. Results were robust to minor changes in the items constituting each index and persisted if liquid items were excluded. CONCLUSIONS Dietary factors observed before age 12-months were associated with S-ECC at preschool age

  4. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  5. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  6. Trends in the incidence of hip fracture in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain: 2007–2011 versus 1989–1993

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, P.; de Tejada, M. J. G.; Navarro, M.; Cabrera, D.; Melton, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hip fracture incidence in the Canaries was studied in two 5-year periods (1989–1993 and 2008–2011). The incidence in 2007–2011 was 24 % higher than in 1989, but did not differ between 2007–2011 and 1993. These findings suggest a trend to stabilize the incidence of hip fracture. Introduction A dramatic increase in hip fractures between 1988 and 2002 was reported in Northern Spain. We performed the present study in Gran Canaria, the Canary Islands, to compare changes in the incidence of hip fracture between 1989–1993 and 2007–2011. Methods We recorded every osteoporotic hip fracture admitted to any hospital in Gran Canaria in the population 50 years of age or older. Results In 1989–1993, we collected 1175 hip fractures (72 % women; mean age 78.2±9.9 years), and the total incidence rate was 152.1 cases/100,000 population/year. In 2007–2011, we collected 2222 hip fracture cases (71 % women; mean age 79±9.8 years). The total incidence was 180.9/100,000/year. A Poisson model showed that the incidence of fractures increased by 7.1 % (95 % CI=3.1 %; 11.8 %) each year in 1989–1993, while there was no statistically significant variation (p=0.515) during the period 2007–2011. The incidence in 2007–2011 was 24 % higher than in 1989 (first year in the first period) but did not differ between 2007–2011 and 1993 (the last year of the first period). Incidence rates were 76.7 % (95 % CI=63.9 %; 90.5 %) higher in women than in men, but the female/male ratio remained unchanged. The age-adjusted incidence of hip fractures increased by 7.3 % each year from 1989 to 1993. The proportions of trochanter and cervical fractures were similar in the two time periods, but the mean hospital stay was reduced from 11 days in 1989–1993 to 7 days in 2007–2011. Conclusions These findings suggest a trend to stabilize the incidence of hip fracture in the Canary Islands due to a decrease in men, while in women, the incidence increased. PMID:25572042

  7. The Prevalence and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jerrett K.; Yong, Andy Sze Chiang; Chow, Vincent; Kritharides, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background Symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major cause of cardiovascular death and morbidity. Estimated prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in developed countries are between 388–661 per 100,000, and 90–123 per 100,000 person-years respectively. However, the prevalence and incidence of AF in patients presenting with an acute PE and its predictors are not clear. Methods Individual patient clinical details were retrieved from a database containing all confirmed acute PE presentations to a tertiary institution from 2001–2012. Prevalence and incidence of AF was tracked from a population registry by systematically searching for AF during any hospital admission (2000–2013) based on International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) code. Results Of the 1,142 patients included in this study, 935 (81.9%) had no AF during index PE admission whilst 207 patients had documented baseline AF (prevalence rate 18,126 per 100,000; age-adjusted 4,672 per 100,000). Of the 935 patients without AF, 126 developed AF post-PE (incidence rate 2,778 per 100,000 person-years; age-adjusted 984 per 100,000 person-years). Mean time from PE to subsequent AF was 3.4 ± 2.9 years. Total mortality (mean follow-up 5.0 ± 3.7 years) was 42% (n = 478): 35% (n = 283), 59% (n = 119) and 60% (n = 76) in the no AF, baseline AF and subsequent AF cohorts respectively. Independent predictors for subsequent AF after acute PE include age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.08, p<0.001), history of congestive cardiac failure (HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.12–3.16, p = 0.02), diabetes (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.07–2.77, p = 0.02), obstructive sleep apnea (HR 4.83, 1.48–15.8, p = 0.009) and day-1 serum sodium level during index PE admission (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90–0.98, p = 0.002). Conclusions Patients presenting with acute PE have a markedly increased age-adjusted prevalence and subsequent incidence of AF. Screening for AF may be of importance post-PE. PMID:26930405

  8. Work Identity and Marital Adjustment in Blue-Collar Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between work-identity and satisfaction and marital adjustment in 40 married male blue-collar workers, ages 25 to 41 years. Satisfaction with extrinsic work factors related to marital adjustment, while satisfaction with intrinsic work factors negatively related to secondary role salience. Age negatively related to…

  9. Trends in the Incidence of Parkinson Disease in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Koudstaal, Peter J; Stricker, Bruno H; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-06-01

    We investigated trends in the incidence of parkinsonism and Parkinson disease (PD) by comparing data from the first 2 subcohorts of the Rotterdam Study, a prospective, population-based cohort study (first subcohort: baseline 1990 with 10 years of follow-up; second subcohort, baseline 2000 with 10 years of follow-up). From the baseline years, we observed differences in the second subcohort that were associated with a lower risk of PD for some but not all baseline risk factors. Participants in both subcohorts were followed for a maximum of 10 years and monitored for the onset of parkinsonism, the onset of dementia, or death, until January 1, 2011. We used Poisson regression models to compare the incidences of parkinsonism, both overall and by cause (PD and secondary causes), and competitive events (incident dementia and death) as well as the mortality of parkinsonism patients in the 2 subcohorts. In the 1990 subcohort, there were 182 cases of parkinsonism (84 of which were PD) during 57,052 person-years. In the 2000 subcohort, we observed 28 cases of parkinsonism (10 with PD) during 22,307 person-years. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of parkinsonism was lower in the 2000 subcohort (incidence rate ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.36, 0.81), and PD incidence declined sharply (incidence rate ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.72). Competitive event rates were lower in the 2000 subcohort, and mortality rates among persons with parkinsonism remained stable. These findings suggest that the incidence of parkinsonism in general, and of PD in particular, decreased between 1990 and 2011. PMID:27188952

  10. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  11. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  12. Dietary and lifestyle variables in relation to incidence of Parkinson's disease in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kyrozis, Andreas; Ghika, Apostolia; Stathopoulos, Panayiotis; Vassilopoulos, Dimitris; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Identification of dietary and lifestyle variables associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) may offer pathogenetic clues and prevention opportunities. In a population-based prospective cohort study, 26,173 participants in the EPIC-Greece cohort had sociodemographic, anthropometric, medical, dietary and lifestyle variables ascertained at enrolment and periodically reassessed with follow-up contacts. Based on these data, subjects were screened as possible PD cases if they (1) reported either a medical diagnosis of PD or use of anti-PD drugs and (2) did not report preceding causes of secondary parkinsonism. For diagnostic validation, possible incident PD cases were assessed by a focused 3-item telephone questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate associations between potential predictors and incident PD. The main multivariate model included gender, age, marital status, schooling years, farming occupation, smoking status, caffeinated coffee, body mass index, physical activity and energy intake. Additional models included all above variables plus one dietary item at a time. Incidence rate adjusted to the European population was 16.9 per 100,000 person-years. In multivariate models, incident PD exhibited strong positive association with consumption of milk, but not cheese or yoghurt. This finding may help narrow down the search for potential dairy product components with a facilitatory role in PD. Concerning other dietary components, inverse association was found between polyunsaturated fat intake and incident PD. Also, inverse association was found with tobacco smoking, in line with previous studies, but not with caffeine. PMID:23377703

  13. Community Diarrhea Incidence Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Meléndez, Marlon; Liu, Lan; Enrique Zambrana, Luis; Paniagua, Margarita; Weber, David J.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Cáceres, Mercedes; Källeståll, Carina; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix; Peña, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the incidence of watery diarrhea in the community before and after introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in León, Nicaragua. A random sample of households was selected before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. All children < 5 years of age in selected households were eligible for inclusion. Children were followed every 2 weeks for watery diarrhea episodes. The incidence rate was estimated as numbers of episodes per 100 child-years of exposure time. A mixed effects Poisson regression model was fit to compare incidence rates in the pre-vaccine and vaccine periods. The pre-vaccine cohort (N = 726) experienced 36 episodes per 100 child-years, and the vaccine cohort (N = 826) experienced 25 episodes per 100 child-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40, 0.91) during the vaccine period versus the pre-vaccine period, indicating a lower incidence of watery diarrhea in the community during the vaccine period. PMID:23817336

  14. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (−25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:24754650

  15. Evolving Trends in Female to Male Incidence and Male Mortality of Primary Biliary Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Lleo, Ana; Jepsen, Peter; Morenghi, Emanuela; Carbone, Marco; Moroni, Luca; Battezzati, Pier Maria; Podda, Mauro; Mackay, Ian R.; Gershwin, M. Eric; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) has been regarded as female-predominant without evidence of gender difference in survival. We aimed to compare the overall survival, incidence and prevalence of PBC in two well defined population-based studies over a recent decade, considering also sex ratios and mortality. We have taken advantage of population-wide records, during 2000–2009, in Lombardia, Northern Italy, and Denmark. We focused on the incident cases of PBC, including gender and outcome, among 9.7 million inhabitants of Lombardia and 5.5 million of Denmark. In Lombardia there were 2,970 PBC cases with a female:male ratio of 2.3:1. The age/sex-adjusted annual incidence of PBC was 16.7 per million. Point prevalence was 160 per million on January 1st 2009. In Denmark there were 722 cases of incident PBC, female:male ratio was 4.2:1, and the annual incidence was 11.4 per million, a point prevalence of 115 per million in 2009. Cox regression multivariate analysis identified male sex as an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in both Italian (HR 2.36) and Danish population (HR 3.04). Our data indicate for PBC a sex ratio significantly lower than previously cited, a reversal of the usual latitudinal difference in prevalence and a surprisingly higher overall mortality for male patients. PMID:27192935

  16. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1971-85.

    PubMed

    Lyon, J L; Gardner, K; Gress, R E

    1994-03-01

    We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 by religion (Mormon, non-Mormon) for Utah (United States) using the 49,182 cancer cases occurring between 1971-85. For all causes of cancer, the rate in Utah for male members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons) was about 24 percent less than the comparable US rate. There was a 50-percent lower rate of cancers associated with cigarette smoking among LDS men. Non-LDS (NLDS) men in Utah experienced an incidence of smoking-associated cancers slightly higher than other US men. LDS men had an incidence of those cancers not associated with smoking slightly lower than US men, and NLDS men had a 40-percent higher rate than US men because of higher rates of melanoma and cancers of the lip and prostate gland. LDS women had an all-sites cancer rate 24 percent below the comparable US rate, and a 60-percent lower rate of smoking-associated cancers. The incidence of cancer not associated with smoking was 20 percent lower for LDS women compared with US women and was the result of lower rates of cancers of the colon, breast, and uterine cervix. NLDS women had a 13-percent higher incidence of cancers not associated with smoking because of higher rates of cancers of the lip and breast. PMID:8167262

  17. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  18. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

    PubMed

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2015-01-01

    A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08) adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77). Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66). There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis. PMID:26000630

  19. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Papadopoulos, Fotios C.; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2015-01-01

    A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08) adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77). Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66). There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis. PMID:26000630

  20. Dietary flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Cassidy, Aedin; Rogers, Gail; Peterson, Julia J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2015-11-14

    This study examines the relationship between long-term intake of six flavonoid classes and incidence of CVD and CHD, using a comprehensive flavonoid database and repeated measures of intake, while accounting for possible confounding by components of a healthy dietary pattern. Flavonoid intakes were assessed using a FFQ among the Framingham Offspring Cohort at baseline and three times during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to characterise prospective associations between the natural logarithms of flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence using a time-dependent approach, in which intake data were updated at each examination to represent average intakes from previous examinations. Mean baseline age was 54 years, and 45 % of the population was male. Over an average 14·9 years of follow-up among 2880 participants, there were 518 CVD events and 261 CHD events. After multivariable adjustment, only flavonol intake was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD incidence (hazard ratios (HR) per 2·5-fold flavonol increase=0·86, P trend=0·05). Additional adjustment for total fruit and vegetable intake and overall diet quality attenuated this observation (HR=0·89, P trend=0·20 and HR=0·92, P trend=0·33, respectively). There were no significant associations between flavonoids and CHD incidence after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the observed association between flavonol intake and CVD risk may be a consequence of better overall diet. However, the strength of this non-significant association was also consistent with relative risks observed in previous meta-analyses, and therefore a modest benefit of flavonol intake on CVD risk cannot be ruled out. PMID:26334117

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a cohort study of Japanese male athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, although the incidence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25) is still low compared with that in Europe and the United States, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased over the last 15 years,. In both Japanese and Caucasian populations it has been reported that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness protects against the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no reports focused specifically on athletes that investigate whether high cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age can prevent disease later in life. We examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age and the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese athletes using a cohort study. Methods The cardiorespiratory fitness of male alumni of the physical education department of Juntendo University, as measured by stored data of a 1,500-m endurance run in college (1971–1991) was compared with their incidence of type 2 diabetes as determined by follow-up questionnaires (2007–2009). This study used Cox’s proportional hazards models and adjusted for age, year of graduation, BMI, smoking, and sports club participation at college age. Results We collected data on cardiorespiratory fitness at college age and medical history survey data during 2007–2009 from 570 male alumni. The median follow-up period was 26 years (IQR: 23–29 years), and 22 men had developed type 2 diabetes. An inverse relationship was observed between incidence of type 2 diabetes and level of cardiorespiratory fitness at time of college after adjustment for age, year of graduation, BMI, smoking, and sports participation. The adjusted hazards ratio and 95% CI by category (low, medium, and high) were 1.00 (reference), 0.40 (0.14–1.13) and 0.26 (0.07–1.00) (p = 0.03 for trend). Conclusions A high level of cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age can help prevent type 2 diabetes later in life. PMID:24885699

  2. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project

    PubMed Central

    Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. Methods the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. Results on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15–24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). Conclusions the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs. PMID:26427017

  3. Fast Food Consumption and Gestational Diabetes Incidence in the SUN Project

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Ligia J.; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Gea, Alfredo; Barbagallo, Mario; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2014-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes prevalence is increasing, mostly because obesity among women of reproductive age is continuously escalating. We aimed to investigate the incidence of gestational diabetes according to the consumption of fast food in a cohort of university graduates. Methods The prospective dynamic “Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” (SUN) cohort included data of 3,048 women initially free of diabetes or previous gestational diabetes who reported at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and March 2011. Fast food consumption was assessed through a validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fast food was defined as the consumption of hamburgers, sausages, and pizza. Three categories of fast food were established: low (0–3 servings/month), intermediate (>3 servings/month and ≤2 servings/week) and high (>2 servings/week). Non-conditional logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. Results We identified 159 incident cases of gestational diabetes during follow-up. After adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, total energy intake, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease/hypertension at baseline, parity, adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern, alcohol intake, fiber intake, and sugar-sweetened soft drinks consumption, fast food consumption was significantly associated with a higher risk of incident gestational diabetes, with multivariate adjusted OR of 1.31 (95% conficence interval [CI]:0.81–2.13) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.13–3.06) for the intermediate and high categories, respectively, versus the lowest category of baseline fast food consumption (p for linear trend: 0.007). Conclusion Our results suggest that pre-pregnancy higher consumption of fast food is an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes. PMID:25215961

  4. The Impact of HIV Viral Control on the Incidence of HIV-Associated Anal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Elizabeth Y.; Hartman, Christine M.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that the incidence of squamous cell cancer of the anus (SCCA) has increased in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era. The effect of undetectable HIV viral loads as a result of successful cART has not been evaluated. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study among male U.S. Veterans diagnosed with HIV and followed between 1985–2009 using the Veterans Affairs Immunologic Case Registry (VA-ICR). We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates and rate ratios for SCCA. We conducted Cox proportional hazards ratios of SCCA in a multivariable model including time varying covariates of nadir CD4 count, and overall percentage of time with an undetectable HIV viral load. Results The age-adjusted SCCA incidence rate among the group who ever received cART was 146.8/100,000 person-years (CI 124.1, 172.6) and was not significantly higher than the SCCA rate of those who never received cART (134.3/100,000 person-years, CI 112.5, 159.0). In a multivariable model limited to veterans who had ever received cART (adjusted for demographic variables, nadir and most recent CD4 counts) individuals who had 61%–80% or 81%–100% of follow-up time with undetectable HIV viral loads had significantly decreased SCCA risk compared with those who had undetectable HIV viral loads <20% of the time (OR 0.56, p=0.040, and OR 0.55, p=0.0004, respectively). Conclusion HIV control as measured by the percent of time with undetectable HIV viral load appears to decrease the risk of SCCA. Optimizing cART adherence and HIV viral load control may decrease the risk of subsequent SCCA. PMID:23614995

  5. Trends in incidence of type 1 diabetes among non-Hispanic white youth in the U.S., 2002-2009.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jean M; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Dabelea, Dana; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Linder, Barbara; Saydah, Sharon; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Dolan, Lawrence; Standiford, Debra A; Pihoker, Catherine; Pettitt, David J; Talton, Jennifer W; Thomas, Joan; Bell, Ronny A; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2014-11-01

    The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study prospectively identified youth aged <20 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes. Annual type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence per 100,000 person-years (95% CI) overall, by age-group, and by sex were calculated for at-risk non-Hispanic white (NHW) youth from 2002 through 2009. Joinpoint and Poisson regression models were used to test for temporal trends. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of T1D increased from 24.4/100,000 (95% CI 23.9-24.8) in 2002 to 27.4/100,000 (26.9-27.9) in 2009 (P for trend = 0.0008). The relative annual increase in T1D incidence was 2.72% (1.18-4.28) per year; 2.84% (1.12-4.58) per year for males and 2.57% (0.68-4.51) per year for females. After adjustment for sex, significant increases were found for youth aged 5-9 years (P = 0.0023), 10-14 years (P = 0.0008), and 15-19 years (P = 0.004) but not among 0-4-year-olds (P = 0.1862). Mean age at diagnosis did not change. The SEARCH study demonstrated a significant increase in the incidence of T1D among NHW youth from 2002 through 2009 overall and in all but the youngest age-group. Continued surveillance of T1D in U.S. youth to identify future trends in T1D incidence and to plan for health care delivery is warranted. PMID:24898146

  6. Trends in Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes Among Non-Hispanic White Youth in the U.S., 2002–2009

    PubMed Central

    Imperatore, Giuseppina; Dabelea, Dana; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Linder, Barbara; Saydah, Sharon; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Dolan, Lawrence; Standiford, Debra A.; Pihoker, Catherine; Pettitt, David J.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Thomas, Joan; Bell, Ronny A.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.

    2014-01-01

    The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study prospectively identified youth aged <20 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes. Annual type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence per 100,000 person-years (95% CI) overall, by age-group, and by sex were calculated for at-risk non-Hispanic white (NHW) youth from 2002 through 2009. Joinpoint and Poisson regression models were used to test for temporal trends. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of T1D increased from 24.4/100,000 (95% CI 23.9–24.8) in 2002 to 27.4/100,000 (26.9–27.9) in 2009 (P for trend = 0.0008). The relative annual increase in T1D incidence was 2.72% (1.18–4.28) per year; 2.84% (1.12–4.58) per year for males and 2.57% (0.68–4.51) per year for females. After adjustment for sex, significant increases were found for youth aged 5–9 years (P = 0.0023), 10–14 years (P = 0.0008), and 15–19 years (P = 0.004) but not among 0–4-year-olds (P = 0.1862). Mean age at diagnosis did not change. The SEARCH study demonstrated a significant increase in the incidence of T1D among NHW youth from 2002 through 2009 overall and in all but the youngest age-group. Continued surveillance of T1D in U.S. youth to identify future trends in T1D incidence and to plan for health care delivery is warranted. PMID:24898146

  7. Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Chambless, Lloyd E; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Zeisel, Steven H; Heiss, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    Background Low dietary intake of the essential nutrient choline and its metabolite betaine may increase atherogenesis both through effects on homocysteine methylation pathways as well as through choline's antioxidants properties. Nutrient values for many common foods for choline and betaine have recently become available in the U.S. nutrient composition database. Our objective was to assess the association of dietary intake of choline and betaine with incident coronary heart disease (CHD), adjusting for dietary intake measurement error. Methods We conducted a prospective investigation of the relation between usual intake of choline and betaine with the risk of CHD in 14,430 middle-aged men and women of the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutrient intake. Proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the risk of incident CHD. A regression calibration method was used to adjust for measurement error. Results During an average 14 years of follow-up (1987–2002), 1,072 incident CHD events were documented. Compared with the lowest quartile of intake, incident CHD risk was slightly and non-significantly higher in the highest quartile of choline and choline plus betaine, HR = 1.22 (0.91, 1.64) and HR = 1.14 (0.85, 1.53), controlling for age, sex, education, total energy intake, dietary intakes of folate, methionine and vitamin B6. No association was found between dietary choline intake and incident CHD when correcting for measurement error. Conclusion Higher intakes of choline and betaine were not protective for incident CHD. Similar investigations in other populations are of interest. PMID:17629908

  8. Incidence of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Malaysia, with Special Reference to the State of Selangor

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R. W.; Kutty, M.; Dharmalingam, S. K.

    1974-01-01

    A “registry” of all known cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia, 1968-72, was established. Attention was focused on the State of Selangor where conditions are best for case finding. Age-adjusted incidence rates among Chinese males and females were 17·3 and 7·3 per 100,000; among Malay males and females, the rates were 2·5 and 0·3 and among Indian males, 1·1. The detailed ethnicity of 192 cases in Selangor was established. Estimated incidence rates for the Chinese sub-groups agreed with the pattern observed elsewhere: highest among the Cantonese, lowest among the Hokkien/Teochiu, with the Khek in between. There was no correlation between histological type and sub-ethnic group among the Chinese cases. PMID:4413823

  9. The etiology and incidence of anaphylaxis in Rochester, Minnesota: A report from the Rochester Epidemiology Project

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Wyatt W.; Campbell, Ronna L.; Manivannan, Veena; Luke, Anuradha; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Amy; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Stead, Latha G.; Li, James T. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reported incidences of anaphylaxis range from 3.2 to 20 per 100,000 population. The incidence and trend over time has meaningful public health implications but has not been well characterized because of a lack of a standard definition and deficiencies in reporting of events. Objective We sought to determine the incidence and cause of anaphylaxis over a 10-year period. Methods We performed a population-based incidence study that was conducted in Rochester, Minnesota, from 1990 through 2000. Anaphylaxis episodes were identified on the basis of symptoms and signs of mast cell and basophil mediator release plus mucocutaneous, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, or cardiovascular system involvement. Results Two hundred eleven cases of anaphylaxis were identified (55.9% in female subjects). The mean age was 29.3 years (SD, 18.2 years; range, 0.8–78.2 years). The overall age-and sex-adjusted incidence rate was 49.8 (95% CI, 45.0–54.5) per 100,000 person-years. Age-specific rates were highest for ages 0 to 19 years (70 per 100,000 person-years). Ingested foods accounted for 33.2% (70 cases), insect stings accounted for 18.5% (39 cases), medication accounted for 13.7% (29 cases), radiologic contrast agent accounted for 0.5% (1 case), “other” causes accounted for 9% (19 cases), and “unknown” causes accounted for 25.1% (53 cases). The “other” group included cats, latex, cleaning agents, environmental allergens, and exercise. There was an increase in the annual incidence rate during the study period from 46.9 per 100,000 persons in 1990 to 58.9 per 100,000 persons in 2000 (P = .03). Conclusion The overall incidence rate is 49.8 per 100,000 person-years, which is higher than previously reported. The annual incidence rate is also increasing. Food and insect stings continue to be major inciting agents for anaphylaxis. PMID:18992928

  10. Mercury Exposure in Young Adulthood and Incidence of Diabetes Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    He, Ka; Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Morris, Steve; Reis, Jared; Guallar, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Laboratory studies suggest that exposure to methylmercury at a level similar to those found in fish may induce pancreatic islet β-cell dysfunction. Few, if any, human studies have examined the association between mercury exposure and diabetes incidence. We examined whether toenail mercury levels are associated with incidence of diabetes in a large prospective cohort. RESEACH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort of 3,875 American young adults, aged 20–32 years, free of diabetes in 1987 (baseline), were enrolled and followed six times until 2005. Baseline toenail mercury levels were measured with instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Incident diabetes was identified by plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetes medications. RESULTS A total of 288 incident cases of diabetes occurred over 18 years of follow-up. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and magnesium, and toenail selenium, toenail mercury levels were positively associated with the incidence of diabetes. The hazard ratio (95% CI) of incident diabetes compared the highest to the lowest quintiles of mercury exposure was 1.65 (1.07–2.56; P for trend = 0.02). Higher mercury exposure at baseline was also significantly associated with decreased homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function index (P for trend < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our results are consistent with findings from laboratory studies and provide longitudinal human data suggesting that people with high mercury exposure in young adulthood may have elevated risk of diabetes later in life. PMID:23423697

  11. Relations of the Mediterranean dietary pattern with insulin resistance and diabetes incidence in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Abiemo, Eunice E.; Alonso, Alvaro; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Jain, Aditya; Lutsey, Pamela L.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a highly prevalent but preventable disorder. We assessed the association between an a priori Mediterranean diet score (MeDiet) and fasting glucose and insulin at baseline and incident type 2 diabetes after 6-year follow-up in MESA. Dietary intake was measured at baseline by a 127-item food frequency questionnaire in 5,390 men and women aged 45-84 years free of prevalent diabetes and clinical CVD. A MeDiet score was created based on intake of 10 food components: vegetables, whole grains, nuts, legumes, fruits, ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat, red and processed meat, dairy, fish and alcohol. Multivariable linear and proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association of MeDiet, categorized in quintiles, with baseline insulin and glucose, and incident diabetes, respectively. Models adjusted for demographic, physiologic and behavioral characteristics. After multivariable adjustment, individuals with a higher MeDiet score had lower baseline mean (95% CI) insulin levels [mean Q1: = 5.8 (5.6-6.0) umol/l; mean Q5: = 4.8 (4.6-5.0) umol/l; p-trend= <0.0001]. A higher MeDiet score was also associated with significantly lower glucose levels after basic adjustment, but was attenuated after adjustment for waist circumference. During follow-up, 412 incident diabetes events accrued. MeDiet was not significantly related to risk of incident diabetes (p-trend=0.64). In summary, greater consistency with a Mediterranean-style diet, reflected by a higher a priori Mediterranean diet score, was cross-sectionally associated with lower insulin levels among non-diabetics, and lower blood glucose prior to adjustment for obesity, but not with lower incidence of diabetes. PMID:22932232

  12. Increased Incidence of Cutaneous Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection, 1980 to 2009: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wentworth, Ashley B.; Drage, Lisa A.; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Wilson, John W.; Lohse, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection during the past 30 years and whether the predominant species have changed. Patients and Methods Using Rochester Epidemiology Project data, we identified Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents with cutaneous NTM infections between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2009, examining the incidence of infection, patient demographic and clinical features, the mycobacterium species, and therapy. Results Forty patients (median age, 47 years; 58% female [23 of 40]) had positive NTM cultures plus 1 or more clinical signs. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of cutaneous NTM infection was 1.3 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 0.9–1.7 per 100,000 person-years). The incidence increased with age at diagnosis (P = .003) and was higher in 2000 to 2009 (2.0 per 100,000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.3–2.8 per 100,000 person-years) than in 1980 to 1999 (0.7 per 100,000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.3–1.1 per 100,000 person-years) (P = .002). The distal extremities were the most common sites of infection (27 of 39 patients [69%]). No patient had human immunodeficiency virus infection, but 23% (9 of 39) were immunosuppressed. Of the identifiable causes, traumatic injuries were the most frequent (22 of 29 patients [76%]). The most common species were Mycobacterium marinum (17 of 38 patients [45%]) and Mycobacterium chelonae/Mycobacterium abscessus (12 of 38 patients [32%]). In the past decade (2000–2009), 15 of 24 species (63%) were rapidly growing mycobacteria compared with only 4 of 14 species (29%) earlier (1980–1999) (P = .04). Conclusion The incidence of cutaneous NTM infection increased nearly 3-fold during the study period. Rapidly growing mycobacteria were predominant during the past decade. PMID:23218797

  13. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, APOE ε4, and the risk of incident dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pink, Anna; Stokin, Gorazd B.; Bartley, Mairead M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Sochor, Ondrej; Machulda, Mary M.; Krell-Roesch, Janina; Knopman, David S.; Acosta, Jazmin I.; Christianson, Teresa J.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Mielke, Michelle M.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the population-based interaction between a biological variable (APOE ε4), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the risk of incident dementia among subjects with prevalent mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We prospectively followed 332 participants with prevalent MCI (aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging for a median of 3 years. The diagnoses of MCI and dementia were made by an expert consensus panel based on published criteria, after reviewing neurologic, cognitive, and other pertinent data. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were determined at baseline using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models, with age as a time scale, to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Models were adjusted for sex, education, and medical comorbidity. Results: Baseline agitation, nighttime behaviors, depression, and apathy significantly increased the risk of incident dementia. We observed additive interactions between APOE ε4 and depression (joint effect HR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.24–3.91; test for additive interaction, p < 0.001); and between APOE ε4 and apathy (joint effect HR = 1.93; 95% CI = 0.93–3.98; test for additive interaction, p = 0.031). Anxiety, irritability, and appetite/eating were not associated with increased risk of incident dementia. Conclusions: Among prevalent MCI cases, baseline agitation, nighttime behaviors, depression, and apathy elevated the risk of incident dementia. There was a synergistic interaction between depression or apathy and APOE ε4 in further elevating the risk of incident dementia. PMID:25653291

  14. Inflammation Markers and Incident Venous Thromboembolism: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nels C.; Cushman, Mary; Lutsey, Pamela L.; McClure, Leslie A.; Judd, Suzanne; Tracy, Russell P.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Zakai, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation biomarkers are associated with the venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors obesity and age, however the relationships of inflammation with VTE risk remain controversial. Objectives To examine associations of four inflammation biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin, white blood cell count (WBC), and platelet count (PLTC), with incident VTE, and determine whether they mediate the association of age or obesity with VTE. Patients/Methods Hazards models adjusted for VTE risk factors were used to calculate prospective associations of each biomarker with incident VTE in 30,239 participants of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Mediation of the associations of obesity and age with VTE were examined by bootstrapping. Over 4.6 years, there were 268 incident VTE events. Adjusting for VTE risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 1.25 (1.09, 1.43) per standard deviation (SD) higher log-CRP and 1.25 (1.06, 1.48) per SD lower albumin, with no associations for WBC or PLTC. The association of BMI, but not age, with VTE was partially mediated by CRP and albumin. In risk factor-adjusted models, the percent attenuation of the BMI HR for VTE by introducing CRP or albumin to the models was 15.4% (95% CI: 7.7%, 33.3%) and 41.0% (95% CI: 12.8%, 79.5%), respectively. Conclusion Higher CRP and lower serum albumin were associated with increased VTE risk, and statistically mediated part of the association of BMI with VTE. These data suggest inflammation may be a potential mechanism underlying the relationship of obesity and VTE risk. PMID:25292154

  15. AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma in the United States: what do age and CD4 lymphocyte patterns tell us about etiology and/or biology?

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Edgar P.; Anderson, William F.; Engels, Eric A.; Bhatia, Kishor; Devesa, Susan S.; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.

    2010-01-01

    Trimodal or bimodal age-specific incidence rates for Burkitt lymphoma (BL) were observed in the United States general population, but the role of immunosuppression could not be excluded. Incidence rates, rate ratios, and 95% confidence intervals for BL and other non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), by age and CD4 lymphocyte count categories, were estimated using Poisson regression models using data from the United States HIV/AIDS Cancer Match study (1980-2005). BL incidence was 22 cases per 100 000 person-years and 586 for non-BL NHL. Adjusted BL incidence rate ratio among males was 1.6× that among females and among non-Hispanic blacks, 0.4× that among non-Hispanic whites, but unrelated to HIV-transmission category. Non-BL NHL incidence increased from childhood to adulthood; in contrast, 2 age-specific incidence peaks during the pediatric and adult/geriatric years were observed for BL. Non-BL NHL incidence rose steadily with decreasing CD4 lymphocyte counts; in contrast, BL incidence was lowest among people with ≤ 50 CD4 lymphocytes/μL versus those with ≥ 250 CD4 lymphocytes/μL (incidence rate ratio 0.3 [95% confidence interval = 0.2-0.6]). The bimodal peaks for BL, in contrast to non-BL NHL, suggest effects of noncumulative risk factors at different ages. Underascertainment or biological reasons may account for BL deficit at low CD4 lymphocyte counts. PMID:20813897

  16. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J.; Jacobs, David R.; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20–32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90–1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  17. Adherence to a home-based exercise program and incidence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Shinji, S; Shigeru, M; Ryusei, U; Mitsuru, M; Shigehiro, K

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between adherence to a home-based exercise program and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated 102 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 35 to 75 years, and followed them prospectively for 17.2 months. Before enrollment, all patients received a traditional exercise prescription. The exercise program consisted of a daily walking exercise at home for 20 - 30 minutes. Self-reported adherence to the exercise program and the incidence of CVD were confirmed by information obtained from telephone interviews. There were 38 dropouts among the patients in the exercise program. Dropouts were significantly younger than completers. The rate of obesity was significantly higher among the dropouts than among the completers. No differences were observed between the two groups for gender, history of CVD and other clinical characteristics. During the follow-up, we documented 8 new cases of CVD. The incidence of CVD during the follow-up was 1.56 percent among the program completers and 18.4 percent among the dropouts. Adherence to the home-based exercise was inversely related to the incidence of CVD (p < 0.01). These associations persisted after adjustment for age and other covariates. In conclusion, adherence to an exercise program is associated with a reduced incidence of CVD among patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:17436204

  18. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  19. Incidence Patterns and Temporal Trends of Invasive Nonmelanotic Vulvar Tumors in Germany 1999-2011. A Population-Based Cancer Registry Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buttmann-Schweiger, Nina; Klug, Stefanie J.; Luyten, Alexander; Holleczek, Bernd; Heitz, Florian; du Bois, Andreas; Kraywinkel, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Time trends on the incidence and characteristics of invasive vulvar cancer in Germany have so far been studied in few local population- and hospital based tumor registries. We aimed to provide an overview on recent developments of vulvar cancer in Germany, using population-based cancer registry data. Methods We analyzed the data on vulvar cancer of eight population-based German cancer registries for the period 1999-2011. ICD-10 codes and ICD-O-3 morphology codes were used to select site and histologic types. The annual percentage change was calculated on age-adjusted incidence rates with a joinpoint regression model. Results A total of 12,711 registered cases of invasive carcinoma of the vulva were included in the analyses, hereof were 12,205 of squamous cell origin. Age-standardized incidence rates of vulvar cancer annually increased by 6.7% (95% confidence limits: 5.6-7.9) from 1.7 per 100,000 women in 1999 to 3.6 per 100,000 women in 2011. An increase was observed among women of all ages, and especially between 30 and 69 years of age. Conclusion The annual incidence of invasive carcinoma of the vulva nearly doubled in the past decade in Germany, considerably exceeding the rates observed in other Western European countries. A combination of changes in risk factors, and documentation practice might have contributed to the observed substantial increase in vulvar cancer incidence. PMID:26020540

  20. Dietary flavonoid intake and incidence of erectile dysfunction1

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Aedín; Franz, Mary; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    Background: The predominant etiology for erectile dysfunction (ED) is vascular, but limited data are available on the role of diet. A higher intake of several flavonoids reduces diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, but no studies have examined associations between flavonoids and erectile function. Objective: This study examined the relation between habitual flavonoid subclass intakes and incidence of ED. Design: We conducted a prospective study among 25,096 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Total flavonoid and subclass intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires collected every 4 y. Participants rated their erectile function in 2000 (with historical reporting from 1986) and again in 2004 and 2008. Results: During 10 y of follow-up, 35.6% reported incident ED. After multivariate adjustment, including classic cardiovascular disease risk factors, several subclasses were associated with reduced ED incidence, specifically flavones (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.97; P-trend = 0.006), flavanones (RR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.95; P-trend = 0.0009), and anthocyanins (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.98; P-trend = 0.002) comparing extreme intakes. The results remained statistically significant after additional adjustment for a composite dietary intake score. In analyses stratified by age, a higher intake of flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavones was significantly associated with a reduction in risk of ED only in men <70 y old and not older men (11–16% reduction in risk; P-interaction = 0.002, 0.03, and 0.007 for flavones, flavanones, and anthocyanins, respectively). In food-based analysis, higher total intake of fruit, a major source of anthocyanins and flavanones, was associated with a 14% reduction in risk of ED (RR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.92; P = 0.002). Conclusions: These data suggest that a higher habitual intake of specific flavonoid-rich foods is associated with reduced ED incidence. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the

  1. Baseline Caries Risk Assessment as a Predictor of Caries Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated clinical outcomes following caries risk assessment in large datasets that reflect risk assessments performed during routine practice. OBJECTIVE From clinical records, compare 18-month caries incidence according to baseline caries risk designation. METHODS For this retrospective cohort study, data were collected from electronic records of non-edentulous adult patients who completed an oral examination and caries risk assessment (CRA) at a university instructional clinic from 2007 to 2012 (N=18,004 baseline patients). The primary outcome was the number of new decayed/restored teeth from the initial CRA to the ensuing oral examination, through June 30, 2013 (N=4468 patients with follow-up). We obtained doubly-robust estimates for 18-month caries increment by baseline CRA category (low, moderate, high, extreme), adjusted for patient characteristics (age, sex, payer type, race/ethnicity, number of teeth), provider type, and calendar year. RESULTS Adjusted mean decayed, restored tooth (DFT) increment from baseline to follow-up was greater with each rising category of baseline caries risk, from low (0.94), moderate (1.26), high (1.79), to extreme (3.26). The percentage of patients with any newly affected teeth (DFT increment >0) was similar among low-risk and moderate-risk patients (cumulative incidence ratio, RR: 1.01; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.83, 1.23), but was increased relative to low-risk patients among high-risk (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.52), and extreme-risk patients (RR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.87). CONCLUSIONS These results lend evidence that baseline caries risk predicts future caries in this setting, supporting the use of caries risk assessment to identify candidate patients for more intensive preventive therapy. PMID:25731155

  2. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus E.; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective To investigate the long-term effect of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for primary brain tumour associated with each 100 Bq/m3 increment in average residential radon levels was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.58) and this was exposure-dependently higher over the four radon exposure quartiles. This association was not modified by air pollution. Conclusions We found significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies. PMID:24066143

  3. Decreasing trend in tobacco-related cancer incidence, United States 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Underwood, J Michael; Richards, Thomas B; Henley, S Jane; Momin, Behnoosh; Houston, Keisha; Rolle, Italia; Holmes, Carissa; Stewart, Sherri L

    2015-06-01

    More than 1 in 3 cancer-related deaths are associated with tobacco use; these include cancers of the lung and bronchus, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, kidney and renal pelvis, urinary bladder, and cervix, and acute myeloid leukemia. In order to characterize the current cancer burden due to tobacco use, this study provides recent trends in tobacco-related cancer incidence across the US. We analyzed data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, covering 100% of the US population during 2005-2009. Age-adjusted incidence rates, 95% confidence intervals and annual percent change were calculated for each state, the District of Columbia, and the US. Tobacco-related cancer incidence in the US decreased significantly from 152.9 (per 100,000 persons) in 2005 to 145.8 in 2009. Men had higher incidence rates, but a greater decrease in tobacco-related cancers per year over the 5-year time period (-1.4% in men, compared to -0.8% in women). Incidence rates decreased the most per year for larynx (-2.4%), lung and bronchus (-1.9%) and stomach (-1.5%) cancers during the study period. Tobacco-related cancer incidence trends varied by state. While tobacco-related cancer incidence in the United States decreased overall from 2005 to 2009, tobacco continued to account for a large cancer burden. Our findings suggest that continued efforts in tobacco prevention and control are needed to further reduce tobacco-related cancer burden in general and among targeted sub-populations in the US. PMID:25301588

  4. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents with Myelodysplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mary M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The psychosocial development of 20 adolescents with congenital paralysis due to myelodysplasia is compared to 20 age-and gender-matched subjects with no physical handicaps. On many of the measures, the myelodysplasia group showed poorer social and emotional adjustment and lower self esteem than the controls. (Author/GDC)

  5. Indian Family Adjustment to Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Lee Anne; Keltner, Bette

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the community response of how American Indian families adapt to having school age children with disabilities in two diverse American Indian communities. An ethnographic design was utilized to construct a taxonomy about family adjustment of American Indian families with disabilities. Community Assessment…

  6. The Kenyan Political Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an…

  7. Domestic Violence, Emotional Competence, and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…

  8. An Exploratory Study of Adjustment to Widowhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas-Hawkings, Gwen; And Others

    Although widowhood is a disruptive and inevitable phenomenon for many older people, few studies have explored either adjustment to widowhood or the impact of widowhood on the lives of elderly people. Recently widowed persons (N=51), ranging in age from 49 to 83 years old, were interviewed to examine their relatively immediate psychosocial…

  9. Factors Affecting Psychosocial Adjustment of Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Filiz

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 1,097 elementary and secondary students who are deaf found that degree of hearing loss, additional disability, and age at onset were negatively related to psychosocial adjustment. However, there was a positive relationship with the use of hearing aids, speech intelligibility, academic achievement, parental hearing status, and…

  10. Twenty-Two Year Trends in Incidence of Myocardial Infarction, CHD Mortality, and Case-Fatality in Four US Communities, 1987 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Rosamond, Wayne D.; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Heiss, Gerardo; Mosley, Thomas H.; Coresh, Josef; Whitsel, Eric; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Ni, Hanyu; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of trends in the incidence of and survival after myocardial infarction (MI) in a community setting is important to understanding trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates. Methods and Results We estimated race and gender specific trends in the incidence of hospitalized MI, case-fatality and CHD mortality from community-wide surveillance and validation of hospital discharges and of in- and out-of-hospital deaths among 35 to 74 year old residents of four communities in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Biomarker adjustment accounted for change from reliance on cardiac enzymes to widespread use of troponin measurements overtime. Between 1987 and 2008, a total of 30,985 fatal or non-fatal hospitalized acute MI events occurred. Rates of CHD death among persons without a history of MI fell an average 4.7 percent per year among men and 4.3 percent per year among women. Rates of both in- and out-of-hospital CHD death declined significantly throughout the period. Age- and biomarker adjusted average annual rate of incident MI decreased 4.3 percent among white men, 3.8 percent among white women, 2.9 percent among black women, and 1.5 percent among black men. Declines in CHD mortality and MI incidence were greater in the second decade (1997–2008). Failure to account for biomarker shift would have masked declines in incidence, particularly among blacks. Age-adjusted 28-day case-fatality after hospitalized MI declined 4.2 percent per year among white men and 3.6 percent per year among black men, 2.6 percent per year among white women, and 2.4 percent per year among black women. Conclusions Although these findings from 4 communities may not directly generalize to blacks and whites in the entire US, we observed significant declines in MI incidence, primarily due to downward trends in rates between 1997 and 2008. PMID:22420957

  11. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  12. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  13. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  14. Ovarian cancer incidence and mortality in American Indian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white women in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schiff, M; Becker, T M; Smith, H O; Gilliland, F D; Key, C R

    1996-05-01

    Although ethnic and racial differences in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality have been reported worldwide, few published data have addressed the epidemiology of ovarian cancer among U.S. American Indians and Hispanics. We reviewed ovarian cancer incidence and survival data from New Mexico's population-based cancer registry collected from 1969 to 1992, and examined state vital records data for ovarian cancer deaths collected from 1958 to 1992, focusing on ethnic differences in occurrence and outcomes of ovarian malignancies. Non-Hispanic white women had age-adjusted incidence rates that were slightly higher (13.3/100,000) than rates for American Indians (11.4) and Hispanics (10.7) over the 24-year period. Ovarian cancer mortality rates were also higher for non-Hispanic whites than for minority women. Neither incidence rates nor mortality rates for ovarian cancer improved over the span of the study period. In addition, the stage at diagnosis did not shift substantially over time for any of the ethnic groups studied, nor did the distribution of various histopathological types shift proportionately. Only slight improvement was observed in 5-year survival over the time period of the study, with greater gains among younger (50 years old or less) versus older women. Ethnic differences in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality were apparent in our population-based data. However, our analysis indicated no reduction in ovarian cancer incidence or mortality in our state over the past quarter century and only slight improvement in 5-year survival. PMID:9162296

  15. Prevalence, incidence, and comorbidity of clinically diagnosed obsessive-compulsive disorder in Taiwan: a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Chung; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Sung, Pi-Shan; Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Hung, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2014-12-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic debilitating anxiety disorder significant in intrusive thoughts and compensation repetitive behaviors. Few studies have reported on this condition Asia. This study estimated the prevalence, incidence and psychiatric comorbidities of OCD in Taiwan. We identified study subjects for 2000-2008 with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic criteria by using National Health Research Institute database. These patients received either outpatient or inpatient care for their condition. Rates were directly age- and sex-adjusted to the 2004 Taiwan population distribution. The estimated mean annual incidence was 27.57 per 10(5) inhabitants and the one year prevalence was 65.05 per 10(5) inhabitants. Incidence and prevalence increased with age, peaking at age 18-24 years in males and at 35-44 years in females. About 53% of adults (≥18 years) and 48% of child and adolescent patients (6-17 years) had one or more comorbid psychiatric conditions. The most common comorbid diagnosis was depressive disorders for both adult and child-adolescent patients. We found a lower prevalence and incidence of clinically diagnosed OCD than that of community studies. Many Asian patients with OCD also had various psychiatric comorbidities, a clinically relevant finding. PMID:25169892

  16. Incidence rate of Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa: a prospective multi-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Eliane; Valeri, Fabio; Maskew, Mhairi; Prozesky, Hans; Rabie, Helena; Garone, Daniela; Dickinson, Diana; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Lumano-Mulenga, Priscilla; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Wyss, Natascha; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M.; Egger, Matthias; Chi, Benjamin H.; Bohlius, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) among HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well defined in resource-limited settings. We studied KS incidence rates and associated risk factors in children and adults on ART in Southern Africa. Methods We included patient data of six ART programs in Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We estimated KS incidence rates in patients on ART measuring time from 30 days after ART initiation to KS diagnosis, last follow-up visit, or death. We assessed risk factors (age, sex, calendar year, WHO stage, tuberculosis, and CD4 counts) using Cox models. Findings We analyzed data from 173,245 patients (61% female, 8% children aged <16 years) who started ART between 2004 and 2010. 564 incident cases were diagnosed during 343,927 person-years (pys). KS incidence rate overall was 164/100,000 pys (95% confidence interval [CI] 151–178). The incidence rate was highest 30 to 90 days after ART initiation (413/100,000 pys; 95% CI 342–497) and declined thereafter (86/100,000 pys[95% CI 71–105]>2 years after ART initiation). Male sex (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.34; 95% CI 1.12–1.61), low current CD4 counts (≥500 cells/µL versus <50 cells/µL, adjusted HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.23–0.55) and age (5 to 9 years versus 30 to 39 years, adjusted HR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05–0.79) were relevant risk factors for developing KS. Interpretation Despite ART, KS risk in HIV-infected persons in Southern Africa remains high. Early HIV testing and maintaining high CD4 counts is needed to further reduce KS-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25393941

  17. A case-cohort study of human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity and incident prostate cancer in Tobago

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We previously reported a cross-sectional association between the presence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) serum antibodies and screen-detected prostate cancer in men living in Tobago. In the same study population, we examined the association between HHV-8 seropositivity and incident prostate cancer discovered at later screenings. Methods In 40-81 year-old men without prostate cancer discovered at initial digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, a case-cohort design measured the association between baseline HHV-8 seropositivity (modified immunofluorescence assay for antibodies against HHV-8 lytic antigens) and incident prostate cancer detected at DRE and PSA screenings three or five years later. Results Analyses included 486 unique individuals, 96 incident prostate cancer cases, and 415 randomly selected subjects representing an at-risk cohort. By design, the random sub-cohort contained 25 incident prostate cancer cases. In the sub-cohort, the frequency of HHV-8 seropositivity increased across age groupings (40-49 years: 3.5%, 50-59 years: 13.6%, and ≥ 60 years: 22.9%). HHV-8 seropositivity was higher in men with elevated (≥ 4.0 ng/mL) than men with non-elevated PSA at initial screening (30.4% vs. 9.9% seropositive; crude odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-10.2; age-adjusted OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.91-6.47). HHV-8 seropositivity did not increase incident prostate cancer risk (age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.46-1.69). Conclusions Case-cohort analysis did not identify association between HHV-8 seropositivity and incident prostate cancer. However, analyses uncovered possible association between HHV-8 and PSA (a marker of prostate inflammation). Co-occurrence of HHV-8 seropositivity and PSA elevation may explain cross-sectional association between HHV-8 and PSA screen-detected prostate cancer. PMID:22151996

  18. Cancer incidence in children and young adults did not increase relative to parental exposure to atomic bombs.

    PubMed

    Izumi, S; Koyama, K; Soda, M; Suyama, A

    2003-11-01

    We have examined whether parental exposure to atomic bomb radiation has led to increased cancer risks among the offspring. We studied 40,487 subjects born from May 1946 through December 1984 who were cancer-free in January 1958. One or both parents were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombing and for childbirth. Using population-based tumor registry data we analyzed cancer incidence data from 1958 to 1997 by Cox regression models, and we examined the effects of both paternal and maternal irradiation with adjustment for city, sex, birth year, and migration. During follow-up, 575 solid tumor cases and 68 hematopoietic tumor cases were diagnosed. Median age at diagnosis was 39.7 years. Median doses were 143 millisierverts for 15,992 exposed (5+ millisierverts or unknown dose) fathers and 133 millisierverts for 10,066 exposed mothers. Cancer incidence was no higher for subjects with exposed parents than for the reference subjects (0-4 millisierverts), nor did the incidence rates increase with increasing dose. For 3568 subjects with two exposed parents, the adjusted risk ratio for all cancer was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.70-1.36). Because of the small number of cases, however, we cannot exclude an increase in cancer incidence at this time. PMID:14583774

  19. Incidence of nephrolithiasis in relation to environmental exposure to lead and cadmium in a population study.

    PubMed

    Hara, Azusa; Yang, Wen-Yi; Petit, Thibault; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte; Odili, Augustine N; Thijs, Lutgarde; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    Whether environmental exposure to nephrotoxic agents that potentially interfere with calcium homeostasis, such as lead and cadmium, contribute to the incidence of nephrolithiasis needs further clarification. We investigated the relation between nephrolithiasis incidence and environmental lead and cadmium exposure in a general population. In 1302 participants randomly recruited from a Flemish population (50.9% women; mean age, 47.9 years), we obtained baseline measurements (1985-2005) of blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) and covariables. We monitored the incidence of kidney stones until October 6, 2014. We used Cox regression to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for nephrolithiasis. At baseline, geometric mean BPb, BCd and UCd was 0.29µmol/L, 9.0nmol/L, and 8.5nmol per 24h, respectively. Over 11.5 years (median), nephrolithiasis occurred in 40 people. Contrasting the low and top tertiles of the distributions, the sex- and age-standardized rates of nephrolithiasis expressed as events per 1000 person-years were 0.68 vs. 3.36 (p=0.0016) for BPb, 1.80 vs. 3.28 (p=0.11) for BCd, and 1.65 vs. 2.95 (p=0.28) for UCd. In continuous analysis, with adjustments applied for sex, age, serum magnesium, and 24-h urinary volume and calcium, the hazard r