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Sample records for age adjusted odds

  1. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  2. Loneliness and Adjustment to Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Robert O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two studies examined loneliness in older adults (N=177). Loneliness was found to be related to poor psychological adjustment and to dissatisfaction with family and social relationships. It was also related to fears, expectations, and personality characteristics likely to inhibit the restoration of personal support networks after a stressful life…

  3. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section... age reduction. (a) General. If an age reduced employee or spouse overall minimum benefit is not...

  4. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  5. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  6. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  7. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  8. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  9. Healthy aging and age-adjusted nutrition and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Mats; Ostgren, Carl Johan

    2013-10-01

    Expected life span is gradually increasing worldwide. Healthy dietary and exercise habits contribute to healthy ageing. Certain types of diet can prevent or reduce obesity, and may reduce the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, some cancers and some mental disturbances). A less sedentary life style seems at least as important as regular exercise. Exercise can probably be tailored to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and extent of bone loss. To ensure adherence, it is important to increase slowly the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise, and to find activities that suit the individual. More research is needed to find ideal modes and doses of exercise, and to increase long-term adherence. Dietary and exercise modification seem to be strong promoters of healthy ageing. PMID:23499263

  10. Odds per adjusted standard deviation: comparing strengths of associations for risk factors measured on different scales and across diseases and populations.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L

    2015-11-15

    How can the "strengths" of risk factors, in the sense of how well they discriminate cases from controls, be compared when they are measured on different scales such as continuous, binary, and integer? Given that risk estimates take into account other fitted and design-related factors-and that is how risk gradients are interpreted-so should the presentation of risk gradients. Therefore, for each risk factor X0, I propose using appropriate regression techniques to derive from appropriate population data the best fitting relationship between the mean of X0 and all the other covariates fitted in the model or adjusted for by design (X1, X2, … , Xn). The odds per adjusted standard deviation (OPERA) presents the risk association for X0 in terms of the change in risk per s = standard deviation of X0 adjusted for X1, X2, … , Xn, rather than the unadjusted standard deviation of X0 itself. If the increased risk is relative risk (RR)-fold over A adjusted standard deviations, then OPERA = exp[ln(RR)/A] = RR(s). This unifying approach is illustrated by considering breast cancer and published risk estimates. OPERA estimates are by definition independent and can be used to compare the predictive strengths of risk factors across diseases and populations. PMID:26520360

  11. Age-adjusted plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heul; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Yoon, Jung Min; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent reports showed that plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a useful biomarker of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion (CAL) development in Kawasaki disease (KD). The levels of these peptides are critically influenced by age; hence, the normal range and upper limits for infants and children are different. We performed an age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level to validate its clinical use in the diagnosis of KD. Methods The data of 131 patients with KD were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 2 groups—group I (high NT-proBNP group) and group II (normal NT-proBNP group)—comprising patients with NT-proBNP concentrations higher and lower than the 95th percentile of the reference value, respectively. We compared the laboratory data, responsiveness to IVIG, and the risk of CAL in both groups. Results Group I showed significantly higher white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, aspartate aminotransferase level, and troponin-I level than group II (P<0.05). The risk of CAL was also significantly higher in group I (odds ratio, 5.78; P=0.012). IVIG unresponsiveness in group I was three times that in group II (odds ratio, 3.35; P= 0.005). Conclusion Age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level could be helpful in predicting IVIG unresponsiveness and risk of CAL development in patients with KD. PMID:27588030

  12. Measuring Impulsivity in School-Aged Boys and Examining Its Relationship with ADHD and Odd Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Cesar; Cuenca, Isabel; Felix, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antonia; Miranda, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Seven different laboratory measures of impulsivity were administered to a group of 165 school-aged boys. Parents' and teachers' ratings of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional/Defiant Disorder were also obtained. Factor analyses of impulsivity measures revealed the existence of a strong Inhibitory Control Factor including…

  13. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction factor... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments in the age reduction factor...

  14. The Relation of Age to Personality Adjustment among DWI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meck, Donald S.; Baither, Rick

    1980-01-01

    Involved the assessment of perceived adjustment among individuals court assigned to DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) classes. Individuals 25 years and younger reported significantly higher levels of perceived maladjustment and emotional upset. Sex was related to interpersonal behavior. (Author)

  15. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  16. LONG-TERM INTAKE OF VITAMINS AND CAROTENOIDS AND ODDS OF EARLY AGE-RELATED CORTICAL AND POSTERIOR SUBCAPSULAR LENS OPACITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Proper nutrition appears to protect against cataracts. Few studies have related nutrition to the odds of developing cortical or posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataracts. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relation between usual nutrient intakes and age-related cortical and PSC lens opacities. DESIG...

  17. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  18. School Entry Age and Future Adjustment of Inner City Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William R.

    Randomly selected fourth grade teachers completed the Peterson and Quay Behavior Problem Checklist on 304 inner city children classified according to their age at entry into kindergarten. Findings revealed that earlier entry age children (children who were comparatively young when they started school) scored highest on the conduct subtest of the…

  19. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  20. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Verneau; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes. PMID:26497989

  1. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  2. Lithium-ion Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve modelling and its ageing adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, L.; Sabatier, J.; Francisco, J. Mbala; Guillemard, F.; Noury, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a contribution to lithium-ion batteries modelling taking into account aging effects. It first analyses the impact of aging on electrode stoichiometry and then on lithium-ion cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. Through some hypotheses and an appropriate definition of the cell state of charge, it shows that each electrode equilibrium potential, but also the whole cell equilibrium potential can be modelled by a polynomial that requires only one adjustment parameter during aging. An adjustment algorithm, based on the idea that for two fixed OCVs, the state of charge between these two equilibrium states is unique for a given aging level, is then proposed. Its efficiency is evaluated on a battery pack constituted of four cells.

  3. The Relationship between Dimensions of Interparental Conflict and Adjustment in College-Age Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Rochelle F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents research from a recently completed study investigating the relationship between college-age offsprings' perceptions of several dimensions of interparental conflict and indicants of adjustment. Analysis revealed that frequency of interparental conflict was the most important predictor of depression, externalizing behavior problems, and…

  4. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  5. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  6. Post-Retirement Adjustment: Effective Coping with the Stresses of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.

    A study was conducted to examine the role of positive and negative life circumstances and individual coping factors in the psychological adjustment of older individuals. Interviews were conducted with 32 men and 32 women between the ages of 65 and 75 who were retired from mid-level or managerial jobs at the University of Texas. Most of the…

  7. Age-adjustment and related epidemiology rates in education and research.

    PubMed

    Baker, John D; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence, crude, age-specific and age-adjustment rates into the gerontology classroom. Background information and formulas for each rate, as well as examples of how they can be applied are provided. A recent change, encouraged by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from a 1940 to a 2000 "standard million population" for ageadjusted rates, is reviewed. Finally, a teaching module with answers is provided for use in the gerontology classroom. PMID:16873207

  8. Relative Age Effects in Athletic Sprinting and Corrective Adjustments as a Solution for Their Removal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Relative Age Effects (RAEs) refer to the selection and performance differentials between children and youth who are categorized in annual-age groups. In the context of Swiss 60m athletic sprinting, 7761 male athletes aged 8 – 15 years were analysed, with this study examining whether: (i) RAE prevalence changed across annual age groups and according to performance level (i.e., all athletes, Top 50%, 25% & 10%); (ii) whether the relationship between relative age and performance could be quantified, and corrective adjustments applied to test if RAEs could be removed. Part one identified that when all athletes were included, typical RAEs were evident, with smaller comparative effect sizes, and progressively reduced with older age groups. However, RAE effect sizes increased linearly according to performance level (i.e., all athletes – Top 10%) regardless of age group. In part two, all athletes born in each quartile, and within each annual age group, were entered into linear regression analyses. Results identified that an almost one year relative age difference resulted in mean expected performance differences of 10.1% at age 8, 8.4% at 9, 6.8% at 10, 6.4% at 11, 6.0% at 12, 6.3% at 13, 6.7% at 14, and 5.3% at 15. Correction adjustments were then calculated according to day, month, quarter, and year, and used to demonstrate that RAEs can be effectively removed from all performance levels, and from Swiss junior sprinting more broadly. Such procedures could hold significant implications for sport participation as well as for performance assessment, evaluation, and selection during athlete development. PMID:25844642

  9. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use. An Adjustment for Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline over time with increasing age in asthma symptoms and health care use of children. Develop a statistical procedure that enables adjustment that accounts for expected declines in these outcomes and is useable when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Methods: Mixed-effects models with mixture distributions were used to describe the pattern of symptoms and health care use in 3,021 children aged 2 to 15 years in a combined sample from three controlled trials. An adaptive least squares estimation was used to account for overestimation of intervention effects and make adjustments for pre-post only data. Termed “Adjustment for Natural Declines in Asthma Outcomes (ANDAO),” the adjustment method uses bootstrap sampling to create control cohorts comparable to subjects in the intervention study from existing control subjects. ANDAO accounts for expected declines in outcomes and is beneficial when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Measurements and Main Results: Children under 10 years of age experienced 18% (95% confidence interval, 15–21%) fewer symptom days and 28% (95% confidence interval, 24–32%) fewer symptom nights with each additional year of age. The decline was less than 10% after age 10 years, depending on baseline asthma severity. Emergency department visits declined regardless of baseline symptom frequency (P = 0.02). The adjustment method corrected estimates to within 2.4% of true effects through simulations using control cohorts. Conclusions: Because of the declines in symptoms and health care use expected with increasing age of children with asthma, pre

  10. Improving adjustments for older age in pre-hospital assessment and care.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Population estimates projects a significant increase in the geriatric population making elderly trauma patients more common. The geriatric trauma patients experience higher incidence of pre-existing medical conditions, impaired age-dependent physiologic reserve, use potent drugs and suffer from trauma system related shortcomings that influence outcomes. To improve adjustments for older age in pre-hospital assessment and care, several initiatives should be implemented. Decision-makers should make system revisions and introduce advanced point-of-care initiatives to improve outcome after trauma for the elderly. PMID:23343340

  11. PAFS: population-adjusted frequency of sensitization. (I) Influence of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A

    1996-06-01

    Sensitization rates are influenced by sex and age. Crude rates from different departments cannot be compared without taking into account these variables. However, the influence of sex and age has never been considered quantitatively. In 2 hypothetical populations with identical age-specific sensitizations rates, but differing age distributions, the influence of age on the overall sensitization rate (crude rate) is demonstrated. Furthermore, by an abstract reflection on rates, the influence of the proportions of a population category (e.g., age) on crude rates is shown (crude rate = sigma (category-specific rate x proportion of population in category)). To account for differing distributions of sex and age, we propose 2 ways. Sex-specific rates should be presented separately. Age-specific rates should be standardized. The standard rate is defined as: SR = sigma (category specific rate x proportion of standard population in category). Using a standard population with a rectangular structure (i.e., with equal proportions in each of the category (age) specific groups), the standardized rate is the arithmetic average of the category (age) specific rate. Only for simple routine evaluations can a standard population with 2 equal groups be used, namely over 39 years and under 40 years. The standardized rate can easily be calculated as SR: (positive rate (%under 40 + positive rate (%) over 39)/2. The general rule should be to use a "rectangular" standard population with 9 age groups of a 10-year sequence. By using the standardization procedure; remaining differences found in different departments can no longer be attributed to age and sex. Other factors, such as selection of patients or real epidemiological differences, can then be discussed. The application of population-adjusted frequency of sensitization (PAFS) in any publication on prevalences of sensitization is highly recommended. PMID:8879920

  12. Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. PMID:25721885

  13. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  14. Capitation funding: population, age, and mortality adjustments for regional and district health authorities in England.

    PubMed

    Raftery, J

    1993-10-30

    This study examined the three components (population projection, age, and mortality weights) in the national funding formula for hospital and community health services in regions and districts. The age cost weights, based on national average age use profiles of 29 programs, emphasized births and elderly age groups. The results of the application of the formula (mid year population projections by age group, age cost weights for each age group of total population, and adjustment to total population by the square root of the all cause standardized mortality ratio among those aged under 75 years) were as follows. The application to the 1997 population regionally showed many changes. Changes in population share for regional health authorities were due more to age weights and mortality and ranged from -9% in the Northwest Region to 6% in the South Western Region. At the District level the changes ranged from -17% to 28%. There were 99 districts that lost funding and 87 districts that gained funding. All regions had some of both districts, except the Northern Region and South Western Regions which had only 3 district losers. In North East Thames, there were only losers with the exception of one district. South East Thames had the widest disparity in gainers and losers from -15% to 28% and in the South West from -14% to 27%. Population projection effects indicated that new towns were gainers of funding and older areas were losers. The share from population projections ranged from -16% to 31%. The age cost weight's effects ranged from -20% to 30%. Some districts were affected greatly: gainers were seaside resorts with large elderly populations. The mortality weight's effects ranged from -9% to 14%. Northern districts and inner city London districts tended to be gainers. The conclusion was that age weights accounted for the bulk of gains. The methodology should be reexamined with attention to the age cost weights and dramatic changes in funding at the district level that are

  15. International variation in reported livebirth prevalence rates of Down syndrome, adjusted for maternal age.

    PubMed

    Carothers, A D; Hecht, C A; Hook, E B

    1999-05-01

    Reported livebirth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) may be affected by the maternal age distribution of the population, completeness of ascertainment, accuracy of diagnosis, extent of selective prenatal termination of affected pregnancies, and as yet unidentified genetic and environmental factors. To search for evidence of the latter, we reviewed all published reports in which it was possible to adjust both for effects of maternal age and for selective termination (where relevant). We constructed indices that allowed direct comparisons of prevalence rates after standardising for maternal age. Reference rates were derived from studies previously identified as having near complete ascertainment. An index value significantly different from 1 may result from random fluctuations, as well as from variations in the factors listed above. We found 49 population groups for which an index could be calculated. Methodological descriptions suggested that low values could often be attributed to under-ascertainment. A possible exception concerned African-American groups, though even among these most acceptable studies were compatible with an index value of 1. As we have reported elsewhere, there was also a suggestive increase in rates among US residents of Mexican or Central American origin. Nevertheless, our results suggest that "real" variation between population groups reported to date probably amounts to no more than +/-25%. However, reliable data in many human populations are lacking including, surprisingly, some jurisdictions with relatively advanced health care systems. We suggest that future reports of DS livebirth prevalence should routinely present data that allow calculation of an index standardised for maternal age and adjusted for elective prenatal terminations. PMID:10353785

  16. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  17. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships PMID:22582023

  18. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Standing Reach Tasks Among Middle-Aged Adults With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Su, Ivan Y W; Chow, Daniel H K

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that children with cerebral palsy (CP) exhibited premature anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) with high variability and excessive activity in the frontal plane. To better understand the effects of gross motor functioning level on APAs over the life course, the authors examined the presence and consistency of APAs in 11 adults with diplegia at 2 functioning levels against 8 age-matched healthy adults during unilateral and bilateral reaching. Results revealed an anticipatory vertical torque (TZ) and an increased likelihood of APAs during bilateral reaching for the lower functioning group. It is postulated that APAs may first emerge in TZ in CP. Results also indicated an excessive premovement postural activity in the frontal plane in both CP groups. PMID:26730748

  19. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  20. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  1. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  2. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  3. Age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Ohashi, Yukari

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints. Fifteen young adults and 14 older adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. In the anterior-posterior direction, older adults demonstrated significantly decreased center of mass velocity at the swing foot contact under temporal constraints. Additionally, the distances between the 'extrapolated center of mass' position and base of support at the swing foot contact were greater in older adults than young adults. In the mediolateral direction, center of mass displacement was significantly increased in older adults compared with young adults. Consequently, older adults showed a significantly increased step width at the swing foot contact in the constraint condition. Overall, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate a conservative strategy to maintain anterior-posterior stability. By contrast, although older adults are able to modulate their step width to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance, age-related changes in mediolateral balance control under temporal constraints may increase the risk of falls in the lateral direction during obstacle negotiation. PMID:26852293

  4. Parent-adolescent conflict in teenagers with ADHD and ODD.

    PubMed

    Edwards, G; Barkley, R A; Laneri, M; Fletcher, K; Metevia, L

    2001-12-01

    Eighty-seven male teens (ages 12-18 years) with ADHD/ODD and their parents were compared to 32 male teens and their parents in a community control (CC) group on mother, father, and teen ratings of parent-teen conflict and communication quality, parental self-reports of psychological adjustment, and direct observations of parent-teen problem-solving interactions during a neutral and conflict discussion. Parents and teens in the ADHD/ODD group rated themselves as having significantly more issues involving parent-teen conflict, more anger during these conflict discussions, and more negative communication generally, and used more aggressive conflict tactics with each other than did parents and teens in the CC group. During a neutral discussion, only the ADHD/ODD teens demonstrated more negative behavior. During the conflict discussion, however, the mothers, fathers, and teens in the ADHD/ODD group displayed more negative behavior, and the mothers and teens showed less positive behavior than did participants in the CC group. Differences in conflicts related to sex of parent were evident on only a few measures. Both mother and father self-rated hostility contributed to the level of mother-teen conflict whereas father self-rated hostility and anxiety contributed to father-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by level of teen ODD and ADHD symptoms. Results replicated past studies of mother-child interactions in ADHD/ODD children, extended these results to teens with these disorders, showed that greater conflict also occurs in father-teen interactions, and found that degree of parental hostility, but not ADHD symptoms, further contributed to levels of parent-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by severity of teen ADHD and ODD symptoms. PMID:11761288

  5. Aging: progressive decline in fitness due to the rising deleteriome adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-08-01

    Different theories posit that aging is caused by molecular damage, genetic programs, continued development, hyperfunction, antagonistic pleiotropy alleles, mutations, trade-offs, incomplete repair, etc. Here, I discuss that these ideas can be conceptually unified as they capture particular facets of aging, while being incomplete. Their respective deleterious effects impact fitness at different levels of biological organization, adjusting progression through aging, rather than causing it. Living is associated with a myriad of deleterious processes, both random and deterministic, which are caused by imperfectness, exhibit cumulative properties, and represent the indirect effects of biological functions at all levels, from simple molecules to systems. From this, I derive the deleteriome, which encompasses cumulative deleterious age-related changes and represents the biological age. The organismal deleteriome consists of the deleteriomes of cells, organs, and systems, which change along roughly synchronized trajectories and may be assessed through biomarkers of aging. Aging is then a progressive decline in fitness due to the increasing deleteriome, adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes. This model allows integration of diverse aging concepts, provides insights into the nature of aging, and suggests how lifespan may be adjusted during evolution and in experimental models. PMID:27060562

  6. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  7. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  8. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... insurance benefits in April 1981. He had no social security earnings before 1951 and his year-by-year...

  9. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... insurance benefits in April 1981. He had no social security earnings before 1951 and his year-by-year...

  10. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  11. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  12. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  13. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to University: Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Perceived Parenting Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between psychological separation and adjustment to university among college students. Found that two dimensions of psychological separation--independence from parents and positive separation feelings--predicted better adjustment to college life. Independence from parents was moderated by grade, gender, and perceived…

  14. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  15. Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social and school adjustment: the moderating roles of age and parenting.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of 2,463 students who were in the first to ninth grade in northern Taiwan. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were inversely associated with academic performance and positively associated with social adjustment problems. Further, children's age and maternal parenting moderated the associations between ADHD symptoms and school and social adjustment. For example, maternal overprotection moderated the relation between hyperactivity and negative peer relationships (i.e., difficulty forming and maintaining friendships), such that this relation was stronger for children who experienced higher levels of overprotection than children who did not. Moreover, children's age moderated the association between attention problems and decreased academic performance, such that this association was stronger for older children and adolescents than for younger children. Furthermore, children's age and maternal affection interacted to influence the association between attention problems and school social problems (i.e., bullying, aggression, and peer rejection) with maternal affection acting as a buffer for older children (grades 4-6) only. These findings are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective. PMID:21858455

  16. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  17. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  18. Effects of autistic traits on social and school adjustment in children and adolescents: the moderating roles of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and their school and social adjustment (i.e., academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork/teachers/classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problems with peers) were assessed using the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). Both measures were completed by the mothers of the participants. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that autistic-like social deficits were associated with poor academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork, teachers, and classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problematic peer interactions. Moreover, gender and/or age moderated the associations between autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment problems. For example, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to negative school attitude, school social problems, and negative peer relationships in boys than in girls. Further, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to problems with peers in older girls than in older boys or younger children (regardless of gender). In conclusion, the present study suggests that autistic-like social deficits may place children and adolescents at increased risk for social and school maladjustment and that the extent of maladjustment may vary with the child's age and gender and the domains of adjustment under discussion. PMID:22960068

  19. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  20. Families created through surrogacy: mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-11-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  1. Children conceived by gamete donation: psychological adjustment and mother-child relationships at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-04-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in nondisclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families, suggesting that families may benefit from openness about the child's genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  2. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1526901

  3. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  4. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  5. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  6. Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational Odds Ratio †

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.

    2013-01-01

    The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (i.e., information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs, analogous to relative risks (RRs) generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. This paper outlines how to compute power and sample size in the simple case of unadjusted IORs. PMID:24157518

  7. Spiritual Coping and Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescents with Chronic Illness: The Role of Cognitive Attributions, Age, and Disease Group

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nina; Mrug, Sylvie; Guion, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988

  8. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use: An Adjustment for Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X. K.; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline…

  9. Joint versus maternal custody for families with latency age boys: parent characteristics and child adjustment.

    PubMed

    Shiller, V M

    1986-07-01

    Families with boys aged 6-11 in joint and maternal physical custody were interviewed 1-6 years following the parental separation. According to ratings made by parents and teachers, boys in joint custody had fewer behavioral difficulties than their maternal custody counterparts. Joint custody parents also evidenced some strengths compared to parents with maternal physical custody. PMID:3740232

  10. Adjusting for car occupant injury liability in relation to age, speed limit, and gender-specific driver crash involvement risk.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael; Frith, William

    2004-12-01

    It is well established that older drivers' fragility is an important factor associated with higher levels of fatal crash involvement for older drivers. There has been less research on age-related fragility with respect to the sort of minor injuries that are more common in injury crashes. This study estimates a quantity that is related to injury fragility: the probability that a driver or a passenger of that driver will be injured in crashes involving two cars. The effects of other factors apart from drivers' fragility are included in this measure, including the fragility of the passengers, the crashworthiness of cars driven, seatbelt use by the occupants, and characteristics of crashes (including configuration and impact speed). The car occupant injury liability estimates appropriately includes these factors to adjust risk curves by age, gender, and speed limit accounting for overrepresentation in crashes associated with fragility and these other factors. PMID:15545071

  11. Social Cognitive Career Theory, the Theory of Work Adjustment, and Work Satisfaction of Retirement-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Pamela F.; Lytle, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60–87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample. PMID:26101456

  12. Role of family resources and paternal history of substance use problems in psychosocial adjustment among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use problems) and their mothers. Results draw attention to the differences between the subjective experiences of the child and those of the mother, and by indicating that the effect of the interaction between the father's and the mother's control parenting style on the child's psychosocial outcome is greater than the sum total of influences of each of them separately. PMID:19157043

  13. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  14. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  15. Ages at Onset of 5 Cardiometabolic Diseases Adjusting for Nonsusceptibility: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Yuh-Chyuan; Chen, Chen-Hsin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2016-09-01

    To shed light on the etiology of metabolic syndrome development, it is important to understand whether its 5 component disorders follow certain onset sequences. To explore disease progression of the syndrome, we studied the ages at onset of 5 cardiometabolic diseases: abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-α-lipoproteinemia. In analyzing longitudinal data from the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Two-Township Study (1989-2002) in Taiwan, we adjusted for nonsusceptibility, utilizing the logistic-accelerated failure time location-scale mixture regression models for left-truncated and interval-censored data to simultaneously estimate the associations of township and sex with the susceptibility probability and the age-at-onset distribution of susceptible individuals for each disease. We then validated the onset sequences of 5 cardiometabolic diseases by comparing the overall probability density curves across township-sex strata. Visualization of these curves indicates that women tended to have onsets of abdominal obesity and hypo-α-lipoproteinemia in young adulthood, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia in middle age, and diabetes later; men tended to have onsets of abdominal obesity, hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia in young adulthood, hypertension in middle age, and diabetes later. Different onset patterns of abdominal obesity, hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, and male hypertension were identified between townships. Our proposed method provides a novel strategy for investigating both pathogenesis and preventive measures of complex syndromes. PMID:27543092

  16. [Elderly residents in homes for the aged: adjustment in the light of Callista Roy].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Maria Célia de; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante; de Galiza, Francisca Tereza; Nogueira, Jéssica de Menezes; Onofre, Marília Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the adaptation of elderly individuals voluntarily reside in Institution for the Aged (LTCF) in the city of Fortaleza-CE, based on the theoretical model of Roy. Descriptive study, in a IPLI involving thirteen elderly residents. Data collect was through interviews in the months of October and December 2011 and organized by thematic content analysis. The following themes has emerged: I Physical subdivided into body sensation and body image; Staff and I, subdivided into self-consistency and auto ideal be moral-ethical-spiritual. Thus, the option to live in ILPI not effectively changed the lives of elderly people. They managed to adapt to the local and coexist well with internal and external stimuli. PMID:25590880

  17. Informational Odds Ratio: A Useful Measure of Epidemiologic Association in Environment Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; Lea, Suzanne; Toland, Amanda; Phillips, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (ie, information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility (ie, the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder). Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in environmental case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. PMID:22518087

  18. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  19. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values in older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geersing, G J; Koek, H L; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Janssen, Kristel J M; Douma, Renée A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer testing in older patients (>50 years) with suspected venous thromboembolism, using conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values. Design Systematic review and bivariate random effects meta-analysis. Data sources We searched Medline and Embase for studies published before 21 June 2012 and we contacted the authors of primary studies. Study selection Primary studies that enrolled older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism in whom D-dimer testing, using both conventional (500 µg/L) and age adjusted (age×10 µg/L) cut-off values, and reference testing were performed. For patients with a non-high clinical probability, 2×2 tables were reconstructed and stratified by age category and applied D-dimer cut-off level. Results 13 cohorts including 12 497 patients with a non-high clinical probability were included in the meta-analysis. The specificity of the conventional cut-off value decreased with increasing age, from 57.6% (95% confidence interval 51.4% to 63.6%) in patients aged 51-60 years to 39.4% (33.5% to 45.6%) in those aged 61-70, 24.5% (20.0% to 29.7% in those aged 71-80, and 14.7% (11.3% to 18.6%) in those aged >80. Age adjusted cut-off values revealed higher specificities over all age categories: 62.3% (56.2% to 68.0%), 49.5% (43.2% to 55.8%), 44.2% (38.0% to 50.5%), and 35.2% (29.4% to 41.5%), respectively. Sensitivities of the age adjusted cut-off remained above 97% in all age categories. Conclusions The application of age adjusted cut-off values for D-dimer tests substantially increases specificity without modifying sensitivity, thereby improving the clinical utility of D-dimer testing in patients aged 50 or more with a non-high clinical probability. PMID:23645857

  1. Anticipatory postural adjustments are unaffected by age and are not absent in patients with the freezing of gait phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Plate, A; Klein, K; Pelykh, O; Singh, A; Bötzel, K

    2016-09-01

    In bipedal gait, the initiation of the first step is preceded by a complex sequence of movements which shift the centre of mass of the body towards the stance foot to allow for a step of the swing foot. These anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) have been investigated in order to elucidate movement strategies in healthy and diseased persons. We studied the influence of several external parameters (age, type of step initiation) on APAs and investigated whether Parkinsonian patients may have different APAs. As a result, we found that externally elicited steps were preceded by faster and larger APAs than self-timed steps. Parkinsonian patients without the freezing of gait (FOG) phenomenon showed overall slightly reduced APAs but did not clearly differ from patients with FOG. Multiple APAs were seen in up to 25 % of the steps of the patients and in a much lower percentage of the steps of control subjects. The results indicate that APAs are significantly influenced by the timing of a step, i.e. are larger in externally elicited steps. The patients showed an overall preserved APA pattern but slowed movements and amplitude, indicating that increased bradykinesia due to progressive illness is a plausible explanation for these findings. The freezing phenomenon is not explained by a general absence or massive reduction in APA measures. PMID:27173496

  2. Regional and neighborhood disparities in the odds of type 2 diabetes: results from 5 population-based studies in Germany (DIAB-CORE consortium).

    PubMed

    Müller, Grit; Kluttig, Alexander; Greiser, Karin Halina; Moebus, Susanne; Slomiany, Uta; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Maier, Werner; Meisinger, Christa; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Berger, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between residential environment and type 2 diabetes. We pooled cross-sectional data from 5 population-based German studies (1997-2006): the Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study, the Dortmund Health Study, the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Study, and the Study of Health in Pomerania. The outcome of interest was the presence of self-reported type 2 diabetes. We conducted mixed logistic regression models in a hierarchical data set with 8,879 individuals aged 45-74 years on level 1; 226 neighborhoods on level 2; and 5 study regions on level 3. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, social class, and employment status. The odds ratio for type 2 diabetes was highest in eastern Germany (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.81, 2.14) and northeastern Germany (odds ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.40, 1.77) and lowest in southern Germany (reference) after adjustment for individual variables. Neighborhood unemployment rates explained a large proportion of regional differences. Individuals residing in neighborhoods with high unemployment rates had elevated odds of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.09). The diverging levels of unemployment in neighborhoods and regions are an independent source of disparities in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23648804

  3. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  4. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  5. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-09-14

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of {sup 170}Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.

  6. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body

  7. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  8. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  9. Intellectual and Emotional Development and School Adjustment in Preterm Children at 6 and 7 Years of Age. Continuation of a Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria

    1984-01-01

    Continues a previous five-year follow-up of preterm and full-term children by studying the continuity in their intellectual and emotional development. Prematurity was predictive for school adjustment at ages six and seven only when regression was performed on the preterm group, but failed to be predictive when mixed groups of preterm and full-term…

  10. Few Preschool Boys and Girls with ADHD Are Well-Adjusted during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Steve S.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of being well-adjusted in adolescence, boys and girls with (n = 96) and without (n = 26) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed seven times in eight years starting when they were 4-6 years of age. Symptoms of ADHD, ODD/CD, and depression/anxiety in addition to social skills and social preference…

  11. Neonatal Mortality Risk Associated with Preterm Birth in East Africa, Adjusted by Weight for Gestational Age: Individual Participant Level Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne; Clarke, Siân; Kariuki, Simon; ter Kuile, Feiko; Lusingu, John; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. Methods and Findings Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1) birth weight, (2) gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3) neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania) contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999–2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (<2,500 g) babies were either preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age). 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born <34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4–121.4]), with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34–36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0–10.7]), but the likelihood for babies born 34–36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3–47.4]). Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  12. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1985-01-15

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earch region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  13. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-09-07

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2011-11-30

    We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.

  15. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  16. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1993-09-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.

  17. On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.

  18. An Examination of Relations among Taiwanese Elementary-Aged Children's Effortful Control, Social Relationships, and Adjustment at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among Taiwanese elementary school children's effortful control, social relationships and their adjustment at school. Data were gathered on 407 third- to sixth-grade children (81 third graders, 79 fourth graders, 116 fifth graders, and 131 sixth graders) attending three low- to…

  19. Shyness, Child-Teacher Relationships, and Socio-Emotional Adjustment in a Sample of Italian Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead…

  20. The Interplay Among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later ODD symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Method Participants were 258 3-year-old children (138 boys and 120 girls) and their parents from diverse backgrounds who participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Results Early child behavior, parenting, and family adversity did not significantly interact in the predicted direction. Reciprocal relations between ODD symptoms and parent functioning were observed for maternal and paternal depression, and maternal warmth. Paternal laxness at age 4 predicted ODD symptoms at age 5 and paternal laxness at age 5 predicted ODD symptoms at age 6, but child ODD did not significantly predict paternal laxness. Conclusion Results suggest that ODD symptoms may develop through a transactional process between parent and child functioning across the preschool years. PMID:22530755

  1. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  2. Excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, T.; Reiter, P.; Hess, H.; Kalkühler, M.; Wendt, A.; Wiens, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Morgan, T.; Thirolf, P. G.; Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.

    2013-04-01

    The completely unknown spectrum of excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa was studied employing the one-neutron transfer reaction 231Pa(d,t)230Pa at a beam energy of 22 MeV. The excitation energy and the cross section were measured for, in total, 81 states below 1.4 MeV. Level assignments of these states are based on a semiempirical model and comparison with theoretical predictions, based on distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations for the cross sections. For 12 rotational bands the band-head energy and the rotational parameter are determined. The K quantum numbers and the Nilsson configurations are established. Empirical values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and for Newby shifts are obtained.

  3. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  4. Methodology for adjusting scrotal circumference to 365 or 452 days of age and correlations of scrotal circumference with growth traits in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Bell, D J; Spitzer, J C; Bridges, W C; Olson, L W

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from 1983 through 1991, where weight and hip height were measured at start of test and every 28 d on 604 bulls completing a 224-d forage-based gain test. Scrotal circumference (SC) was measured at start of test, and at either end of test or end of the weigh period after individual bulls reached 365 d of age. Over 3 yr of this study, SC was additionally measured every 28 d. Bulls were representatives of 5 breed groups: Angus, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Continental (predominantly Charolais), and Zebu (predominantly Simbrah). Adjusted 365-d SC and adjusted 452-d SC were calculated by regression analysis and from formulas based on SC growth of individuals to 140 and 224 d on test, respectively. Breed group differences were observed for age of dam, birth weight, hip height, weight per day of age, average daily gain and SC at start of test, 140 d, and end of test (224 d). Scrotal circumference was positively correlated with all growth traits. Scrotal circumference was related to breed group, age, weight, hip height, average daily gain, weight per day of age, age by year, and age-by-breed group (P<0.05), as determined by regression analysis. However, omitting weight, hip height, average daily gain, and weight per day of age from the regression model did not significantly affect R2 value. Scrotal circumference growth was linear to 140 d on test; however, SC growth to 224 d on test was curvilinear. The 365-d SC predicted from the formula and from regression analysis differed for Simmental and Zebu by 0.3 and 0.4 cm, respectively (P<0.05). The 452-d SC differed for Santa Gertrudis and Zebu by 0.5 and 0.6 cm, respectively (P<0.05). Formulas based on SC growth of individuals are reasonably accurate predictors of SC at 365 and 452 d of age, when compared with more complex regression analysis. Basing SC adjustments on individual growth appears to account for variables known to affect yearling SC. PMID:16727931

  5. Weaker error signals do not reduce the effectiveness of post-error adjustments: comparing error processing in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Jentzsch, Ines

    2012-06-15

    In this study we investigated age-related differences in error processing, comparing performance measures and physiological indicators of error processing of middle-aged (41-59years) and young (18-31years) adults using a version of the Eriksen flanker task. Although middle-aged participants were overall slower, both groups showed a comparable decrease in reaction time on error trials as well as slower and more accurate post-error performance. Despite the preserved error speeding and post-error slowing effects, we found an amplitude reduction in the Ne/ERN, contradicting the existence of a direct relationship between the amplitude of this component and post-error adjustments. This was further supported by the lack of significant correlations between the single-trial Ne/ERN amplitude and error-related reaction times. The single-trial Ne/ERN distribution showed a reduced variance for middle-aged compared to young participants, suggesting that weaker overall error signals rather than lapses in error detection are responsible for the observed Ne/ERN amplitude reductions. However, we argue that the signal still reached the necessary threshold to trigger normal post-error adjustments. Finally, the early Pe showed a reduction in amplitude and an increase in latency for middle-aged compared to young adults. Together, the findings suggest clear signs of a physiological decline in error processing at an earlier age than previously known, but these changes do not yet affect implementation of adaptive behavioral changes in middle-aged participants. PMID:22578713

  6. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children’s Adjustment Among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents’ mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers’ depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:18645744

  7. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.

  8. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  9. Comorbid Development of Disruptive Behaviors from age 1½ to 5 Years in a Population Birth-Cohort and Association with School Adjustment in First Grade.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Rene; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Nagin, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Comorbidity is frequent among disruptive behaviors (DB) and leads to mental health problems during adolescence and adulthood. However, the early developmental origins of this comorbidity have so far received little attention. This study investigated the developmental comorbidity of three DB categories during early childhood: hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression. Joint developmental trajectories of DB were identified based on annual mother interviews from age 1½ to 5 years, in a population-representative birth-cohort (N = 2045). A significant proportion of children (13 % to 21 %, depending on the type of DB) consistently displayed high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, or physical aggression from age 1½ to 5 years. Developmental comorbidity was frequent, especially for boys: 10 % of boys and 3.7 % of girls were on a stable trajectory with high levels of symptoms for the three categories of DB. Significant associations were observed between preschool joint-trajectories of DB and indicators of DB and school adjustment assessed by teachers in first grade. Preschoolers who maintained high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression, displayed the highest number of DB symptoms in first grade for all categories according to their teacher. They were also among the most disadvantaged of their class for school adjustment indicators. Thus, DB manifestations and developmental comorbidity of DB are highly prevalent in infancy. Early childhood appears to be a critical period to prevent persistent and comorbid DB that leads to impairment at the very beginning of school attendance and to long-term serious health and social adjustment problems. PMID:26311619

  10. General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.

  11. Does marital status predict the odds of suicidal death in taiwan? A seven-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2008-06-01

    Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups-total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly selected from age, sex, and geographic region matched controls, four per suicide)-were studied. Using multiple logistic regression analysis including age-marital status interaction, adjusted estimates show divorced status to be the most detrimental for suicide propensity, with males showing stronger effect size. Females never married, aged below 35 and 65-plus, and widowed 65-plus had lower suicide odds. PMID:18611128

  12. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-03-15

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  13. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  14. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  15. Steps in the Right Direction, against the Odds, an Evaluation of a Community-Based Programme Aiming to Reduce Inactivity and Improve Health and Morale in Overweight and Obese School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Claire; Lewis, Kiara; Manby, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The study describes an evaluation of a 48-week physical activity and nutritional education programme for overweight/obese school-age children using quantitative and qualitative methods. The majority of participants were obese or severely obese when enrolled, and while some improvements in body mass index, self-esteem and engagement in a range of…

  16. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical

  17. Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  18. Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence among Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    DANFORTH, Kim N.; TOWNSEND, Mary K.; LIFFORD, Karen; CURHAN, Gary C.; RESNICK, Neil M.; GRODSTEIN, Francine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Identify risk factors for urinary incontinence in middle-aged women. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 83,355 Nurses' Health Study II participants. Since 1989, women have provided health information on mailed questionnaires; in 2001, at age 37-54 years, information on urinary incontinence was requested. We examined adjusted odds ratios of incontinence using logistic regression. Results: 43% of women reported incontinence. After adjustment, African-American (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.40-0.60) and Asian-American women (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.46-0.72) were at reduced odds of severe incontinence compared to Caucasians. Increased age, body mass index, and parity were all positively associated with incontinence, as were current smoking, type 2 diabetes, and hysterectomy. Women aged 50-54 years had 1.81 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to women <40 years (95% CI 1.66-1.97); women with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 had 3.10 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to BMI 22-24 kg/m2 (95% CI 2.91-3.30). Conclusions: Urinary incontinence is highly prevalent among these middle-aged women. Potential risk factors include age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parity, smoking, diabetes, and hysterectomy. PMID:16458626

  19. The nuclear structure of deformed odd-odd nuclei: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.

    1988-06-06

    Previous surveys of experimental level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei have been updated with recent results for the lanthanide and actinide regions. The relative strengths of the effective neutron-proton interaction derived from these data are compared. The predictive power of a semi-empirical model for level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. Comparison is made with recent Hartree-Fock calculations of selected nuclei.

  20. Predictive value of the age-adjusted charlson comorbidity index on perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Rudy S.; Leitao, Mario M.; Zivanovic, Oliver; Gardner, Ginger J.; Long Roche, Kara C.; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A.; Jewell, Elizabeth L.; Brown, Carol L.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.; Charlson, Mary E.; Chi, Dennis S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of the Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity index (ACCI) to predict perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods Data were analyzed for all patients with stage IIIB-IV EOC who underwent primary cytoreduction from 1/2001–1/2010 at our institution. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4. Clinical and survival outcomes were assessed and compared. Results We identified 567 patients; 199 (35%) had an ACCI of 0–1, 271 (48%) had an ACCI of 2–3, and 97 (17%) had an ACCI of ≥4. The ACCI was significantly associated with the rate of complete gross resection (0–1=44%, 2–3=32%, and ≥4=32%; p=0.02), but was not associated with the rate of minor (47% vs 47% vs 43%, p=0.84) or major (18% vs 19% vs 16%, p=0.8) complications. The ACCI was also significantly associated with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median PFS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 20.3, 16, and 15.4 months, respectively (p=0.02). Median OS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 65.3, 49.9, and 42.3 months, respectively (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, the ACCI remained a significant prognostic factor for both PFS (p=0.02) and OS (p<0.001). Conclusions The ACCI was not associated with perioperative complications in patients undergoing primary cytoreduction for advanced EOC, but was a significant predictor of PFS and OS. Prospective clinical trials in ovarian cancer should consider stratifying for an age-comorbidity covariate. PMID:26037900

  1. Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385

  2. Distorting the odds on AIDS.

    PubMed

    Charen, M

    1992-04-20

    Rep. Pat Schroeder (D-CO) chairs the House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families which just issued a report titled: A Decade of Denial: Teens and AIDS in America. In the report, abstinence is seen as the best protection against AIDS; but, it is unrealistic to think teenagers are not going to have sex. Therefore, they should have free and ready access to condoms in their schools. The report claims that a decade long campaign of abstinence has failed, teenage pregnancy and STD rates are rising. This report fails to understand that our culture does not in fact encourage abstinence. Virgins are rarities because social pressure to have sex is so great that even the threat of AIDS is not enough to stop them. However, giving them condoms will only make the situation worse. If teenagers who used drugs were given free needles, they would continue their drug habits. In the same light, if teenagers are given condoms, they will continue to have sex. If condoms are hard to get, there is a deterrent to have sex, just as clean needle would deter teens from using drugs. According to William Bennett, the problem is cultural in nature. Teenagers seek answers and our society only gives them options. Cultural pressure was used to change drunk driving from accepted behavior to criminal behavior. Cultural pressure could be used to change teen age sexual habits and giving them condoms is not the right kind of pressure. PMID:12285357

  3. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  4. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  5. Predator fitness increases with selectivity for odd prey.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental currency of normative models of animal decision making is Darwinian fitness. In foraging ecology, empirical studies typically assess foraging strategies by recording energy intake rates rather than realized reproductive performance. This study provides a rare empirical link, in a vertebrate predator-prey system, between a predator's foraging behavior and direct measures of its reproductive fitness. Goshawks Accipiter gentilis selectively kill rare color variants of their principal prey, the feral pigeon Columba livia, presumably because targeting odd-looking birds in large uniform flocks helps them overcome confusion effects and enhances attack success. Reproductive performance of individual hawks increases significantly with their selectivity for odd-colored pigeons, even after controlling for confounding age effects. Older hawks exhibit more pronounced dietary preferences, suggesting that hunting performance improves with experience. Intriguingly, although negative frequency-dependent predation by hawks exerts strong selection against rare pigeon phenotypes, pigeon color polymorphism is maintained through negative assortative mating. PMID:22503502

  6. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  7. Teenage Parenthood among Child Welfare Clients: A Swedish National Cohort Study of Prevalence and Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial…

  8. Dyadic Adjustment and Spiritual Activities in Parents of Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Grossoehme, Daniel H.; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Dodd, Caitlin; Opipari-Arrigan, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Children’s diseases can negatively impact marital adjustment and contribute to poorer child health outcomes. To cope with increased marital stress and childhood diseases severity, many people turn to spirituality. While most studies show a positive relationship between spirituality and marital adjustment, spirituality has typically been measured only in terms of individual behaviors. Using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and Daily Phone Diary data from a sample of 126 parents of children with cystic fibrosis as a context for increased marital stress, spiritual behavior of mother-father dyads and of whole families were used as predictors of marital adjustment. Frequency and duration of individual, dyadic and familial spiritual activities correlated positively with dyadic adjustment. Significant differences in spiritual activities existed between couples with marital adjustment scores above and below the cutoff for distress. The only significant factors in regressions of spiritual activities on marital adjustment scores were number of pulmonary exacerbations and parent age. Higher odds of maintaining a marital adjustment score greater than 100 were significantly associated with spending approximately twelve minutes per day in individual, but not conjugal or familial, spiritual activities. The Daily Phone Diary is a feasible tool to study conjugal and familial activities and their relationships with beliefs and attitudes, including spirituality. PMID:26900486

  9. Odd-frequency Superconductivity in Driven Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander

    We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes in terms of parity under transformations that invert spin, space, time, and orbital degrees of freedom holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then discuss the conditions under which pair amplitudes which are odd in frequency can emerge in driven systems. Considering a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential, we investigate the influence of the drive on the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that the anomalous Green's function develops odd in frequency component in the presence of an external drive. Furthermore we investigate how these odd-frequency terms are related to satellite features in the density of states and spectral function. Supported by US DOE BES E 304.

  10. Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances.

    PubMed

    Depetri, G I; Sartorelli, J C; Marin, B; Baptista, M S

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case. PMID:27575118

  11. Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depetri, G. I.; Sartorelli, J. C.; Marin, B.; Baptista, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case.

  12. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  13. Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1985-04-04

    The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  14. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  15. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Enk, S.J. van

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  16. Odd-Man-Out and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diascro, Matthew N.; Brody, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between odd-man-out reaction time tasks and intelligence was examined in 2 experiments involving 79 college students. The two experiments indicate that tasks that assess the ability to perceive relationships among stimuli rapidly are good measures of general intelligence. (SLD)

  17. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  18. Odds ratios of work related deaths in United States workers.

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J P

    1988-01-01

    A new data set on job related mortality within 347 3 digit occupations is merged with two national probability samples of United States workers to assess which groups are in hazardous and which in safe jobs. Logistic regressions are fitted to the two samples and the following covariates are assumed to explain employment in a hazardous job: age, race, gender, schooling, region, and marital status. Results from both samples are remarkably similar. Odds ratios for non-whites versus whites are roughly 1.2/1; for high school dropouts versus people with some college education roughly 2.2/1; and for men versus women roughly 5.0/1. PMID:3348992

  19. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  20. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  1. 20 CFR 404.412 - After my benefits are reduced for age when and how will adjustments to that reduction be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...'s benefit, any month before attainment of full retirement age for which she or he was not entitled... records to identify when an individual has attained full retirement age and one or more months described... with the month of attainment of full retirement age. In the case of widow's or widower's benefits,...

  2. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  3. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  4. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  5. Latino High School Graduation. Defying the Odds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romo, Harriett D.; Falbo, Toni

    This book describes how "at-risk" Hispanic youth defy the odds and stay in school to earn a high school diploma. Information about success is needed because Hispanic youth drop out at about twice the rate of non-Hispanic Whites. The discussion is based on the results of a 4-year longitudinal study of 100 Hispanic youth labeled at-risk by their…

  6. Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.

  7. Odd top partners at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.

  8. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  9. Beyond-mean-field boson-fermion model for odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-05-01

    A novel method for calculating spectroscopic properties of medium-mass and heavy atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons is introduced, based on the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The deformation energy surface of the even-even core, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the odd particle(s), are obtained in a self-consistent mean-field calculation determined by the choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. This method uniquely determines the parameters of the Hamiltonian of the boson core, and only the strength of the particle-core coupling is specifically adjusted to selected data for a particular nucleus. The approach is illustrated in a systematic study of low-energy excitation spectra and transition rates of axially deformed odd-mass Eu isotopes.

  10. Odd-parity D states in He.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The states considered lie below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) and decay radiatively to the lower states. The most general D-state wave function of odd parity of two electrons is examined. The results presented are optimized with respect to four nonlinear parameters for 112 terms. A mass-polarization correction is given for all the states listed. The positions of the D states, including the reduced mass and the mass-polarization corrections, with respect to the ground state of He are reported.

  11. Empirical residual neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zheying; Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-03-01

    Two types of average neutron-proton interaction formulas are compared: In the first type, neutron-proton interactions for even-even and odd-A nuclei extracted from experimental binding energies show a smooth behavior as a function of mass number A and are dominated by the contribution from the symmetry energy. Whereas in the second type large systematic staggering is seen between even-A and odd-A nuclei. This deviation is understood in terms of the additional neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei relative to the neighboring even-even and odd-A systems. We explore three possible ways to extract this additional interaction from the binding energy difference of neighboring nuclei. The extracted interactions are positive in nearly all cases and show weak dependence on the mass number. The empirical interactions are also compared with theoretical values extracted from recent nuclear mass models where large unexpected fluctuations are seen in certain nuclei. The reproduction of the residual neutron-proton interaction and the correction of those irregular fluctuations can be a good criterion for the refinement of those mass models.

  12. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Location-scale cumulative odds models for ordinal data: a generalized non-linear model approach.

    PubMed

    Cox, C

    1995-06-15

    Proportional odds regression models for multinomial probabilities based on ordered categories have been generalized in two somewhat different directions. Models having scale as well as location parameters for adjustment of boundaries (on an unobservable, underlying continuum) between categories have been employed in the context of ROC analysis. Partial proportional odds models, having different regression adjustments for different multinomial categories, have also been proposed. This paper considers a synthesis and further generalization of these two families. With use of a number of examples, I discuss and illustrate properties of this extended family of models. Emphasis is on the computation of maximum likelihood estimates of parameters, asymptotic standard deviations, and goodness-of-fit statistics with use of non-linear regression programs in standard statistical software such as SAS. PMID:7667560

  14. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  16. Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Katsufumi

    2001-10-01

    We present theoretical results on the Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors with the order parameter of the form, sgn(ωn)φ(k,iωn), where φ(k,iωn) is even in the Matsubara frequency ωn as in the conventional case. It is shown that the spectral function of the anomalous Green's function is given in the form of the Hilbert transformation of the one for the even-frequency part, and the anomalous contribution to the paramagnetic kernel consists of the conventional term but with the opposite sign and a term expressed by the digamma function. In the static limit the latter term reduces to twice the former one with the opposite sign so that the net contribution becomes the same as the conventional one. This indicates the presence of the Meissner effect for this class of the odd-frequency superconductors. A model interaction is discussed that leads to the order parameter mentioned above.

  17. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.

  18. Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2007-10-26

    The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.

  19. Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.

  20. Odd perfect numbers have at least nine distinct prime factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Pace P.

    2007-12-01

    An odd perfect number, N , is shown to have at least nine distinct prime factors. If 3nmid N then N must have at least twelve distinct prime divisors. The proof ultimately avoids previous computational results for odd perfect numbers.

  1. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  2. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers. PMID:26027850

  3. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Rigi, Mohammed; Feldman, Robert M.; Bell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Methods Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–79 years). ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL), length of scleral spur landmark (SSL) to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM), iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM), pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe), and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter. Results Mean (±SD) values were 2.24 mm (±0.46), 4.06 mm (±0.27), 3.65 mm (±0.48), 4.16 mm (±0.47), 1.14 (±0.04), 1.51 mm2 (±0.23), and 38.42 μL (±4.91) for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002) and RICe (P = 0.027) decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002) and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001). ICR (P = 0.54) and iris volume (P = 0.49) were not affected by age. Conclusion This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states. PMID:26815917

  4. Adjustment Disorder in Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Correlates in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women is largely unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women (n = 300) attending in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico were studied. All enrolled pregnant women had a psychiatric interview to evaluate the presence of adjustment disorder using the DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was submitted to obtain general epidemiological data of the pregnant women studied. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of adjustment disorder with the epidemiological data of the women studied. Results Fifteen (5.0%) of the 300 women studied had adjustment disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. Adjustment disorder was not associated with age, occupation, marital status, or education of pregnant women. In contrast, multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables showed that adjustment disorder was associated with the variables lack of support from her couple (odds ratio (OR) = 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 - 14.63; P = 0.04) and couple living abroad (OR = 10.12; 95% CI: 1.56 - 65.50; P = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report about the epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results provide evidence of the presence of adjustment disorder and contributing psychosocial factors associated with this disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results point towards further clinical and research attention should be given to this neglected disorder in pregnant women. PMID:26346070

  5. W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.

  6. W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less

  7. Executive Functioning Deficits in Relation to Symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Wahlstedt, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between executive functioning and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children aged 4-6. A population-based sample (n = 201) was used and laboratory measures of inhibition, working memory and verbal fluency and teacher ratings of…

  8. Stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in referred preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in children aged 3.5-5.5 years. For diagnosing these disorders, a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), was used at the first assessment and at follow-up assessments (9 and 18 months). Five diagnostic stability groups (chronic, partial remission, full remission, new onset, no diagnosis) were compared with regard to impairment and number of symptoms. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71% male). Follow-up assessments allowed to distinguish children belonging to the chronic group of ODD, CD or ADHD from those belonging to one of the remission groups. In addition, there was a substantial number of children with a new onset diagnosis. In conclusion, as a complement to studies showing stability of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis into school age, present findings point to changes of diagnosis in the preschool and early school period. Diagnostic reassessments therefore are needed in this age group. PMID:24781411

  9. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  10. Predictors of Size for Gestational Age in St. Louis City and County

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify social, behavioral, and physiological risk factors associated with small for gestational age (SGA) by gestational age category in St. Louis City and County. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth certificate and fetal death records from 2000 to 2009 (n = 142,017). Adjusted associations of risk factors with SGA were explored using bivariate logistic regression. Four separate multivariable logistic regression analyses, stratified by gestational age, were conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain contributed significantly to increased odds for SGA across all gestational age categories. The point estimates ranged from a 3.41 increased odds among women with preeclampsia and 1.76 for women with inadequate weight gain at 24–28 weeks' gestational age to 2.19 and 2.11 for full-term infants, respectively. Among full-term infants, smoking (aOR = 2.08), chronic hypertension (aOR = 1.46), and inadequate prenatal care (aOR = 1.25) had the next most robust and significant impact on SGA. Conclusion. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain are significant risk factors for SGA, regardless of gestational age. Education on the importance of nutrition and adequate weight gain during pregnancy is vital. In this community, disparities in SGA and smoking rates are important considerations for interventions designed to improve birth outcomes. PMID:25105127

  11. The ODD protocol: A review and first update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Polhill, J. Gary; Giske, Jarl; Railsback, Steve F.

    2010-01-01

    The 'ODD' (Overview, Design concepts, and Details) protocol was published in 2006 to standardize the published descriptions of individual-based and agent-based models (ABMs). The primary objectives of ODD are to make model descriptions more understandable and complete, thereby making ABMs less subject to criticism for being irreproducible. We have systematically evaluated existing uses of the ODD protocol and identified, as expected, parts of ODD needing improvement and clarification. Accordingly, we revise the definition of ODD to clarify aspects of the original version and thereby facilitate future standardization of ABM descriptions. We discuss frequently raised critiques in ODD but also two emerging, and unanticipated, benefits: ODD improves the rigorous formulation of models and helps make the theoretical foundations of large models more visible. Although the protocol was designed for ABMs, it can help with documenting any large, complex model, alleviating some general objections against such models.

  12. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  13. Co-Occurring ODD and GAD Symptom Groups: Source-Specific Syndromes and Cross-Informant Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Loney, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Despite important clinical and nosological implications, the comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has received little attention. A clinic-based sample of 243 boys (ages 6–10 years), their parents, and teachers participated in an evaluation that involved assessments of behavioral, academic, and family functioning. ODD and GAD symptom groups were defined using various combinations of mother and teacher reports. ODD symptom groups were associated with conduct disorder symptoms, and GAD symptom groups with major depressive disorder symptoms, regardless of rater. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms were associated with ODD and GAD symptom groups; however, covarying ADHD symptoms altered few findings. The ODD+GAD symptom groups were associated with higher rates of co-occurring symptoms and risk factors within (source-specific syndromes) and across (cross-informant comorbidity) informants. PMID:18470769

  14. Isospin and deformation studies in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Ekman, J.; Erten, O.; Fahlander, C.; Johansson, E. K.; Andreoiu, C.; Bengtsson, R.; Ragnarsson, I.; Bentley, M. A.; Williams, S. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R. J.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Svensson, C. E.

    2010-11-15

    High-spin states in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co have been investigated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 28}Si({sup 32}S,1{alpha}1p1n){sup 54}Co. Gamma-ray information gathered with the Ge detector array Gammasphere was correlated with evaporated particles detected in the charged particle detector system Microball and a 1{pi} neutron detector array. A significantly extended excitation scheme of {sup 54}Co is presented, which includes a candidate for the isospin T=1, 6{sup +} state of the 1f{sub 7/2}{sup -2} multiplet. The results are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations in the fp shell. Effective interactions with and without isospin-breaking terms have been used to probe isospin symmetry and isospin mixing. A quest for deformed high-spin rotational cascades proved negative. This feature is discussed by means of cranking calculations.

  15. Influence of Traxiality on the Signature Inversion in Odd Odd Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ren-Rong; Zhu, Shun-Quan; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Janos, Timár; Andree, Gizon; Jean, Gizon; Sohler, D.; Nyakó M., B.; Zolnai, L.; Paul S., E.

    2004-08-01

    The nature of signature inversion in the pig9/2nuh11/2 bands of odd-odd 98,102Rh nuclei is studied. Calculations are performed by using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and are compared with the experimentally observed signature inversions. The calculations reproduce well the observations and suggest that, in these bands, the signature inversion can be interpreted mainly as a competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. The triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the signature inversion point to higher spin at large triaxial deformation.

  16. Meeting report for "OddPols" 2014: the odds invite an even.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2015-02-01

    The Ninth International Biennial Conference on RNA Polymerases I and III (the "OddPols") was held on June 19-21, 2014 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Sponsored by New England Biolabs, the Cayman Chemical Company, the Rackham Graduate School and the University of Michigan Health System, and organized by David Engelke, Craig Pikaard, Lawrence Rothblum, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. This year at the conference, the "odds" were increased by expanding the usual topics on the advances in RNA polymerases I and III research to include presentations on RNA polymerase IV and V. The keynote speaker, Craig Pikaard, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "Five nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases". The meeting drew attendees from fourteen countries that shared their research discoveries through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into 11 sessions covering seven distinct topics. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants. PMID:25445280

  17. Chiral Symmetry and Signature Splitting in Odd-Odd Neutron deficient Pr Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetea, Mirela; Nikolova, Veronika; Crider, Benjamin

    2004-10-01

    Over the past few years, sufficient data have been accumulated to enable a meaningful study of the systematic trends in nuclei far from stability. While general characteristics seen in experiments are understood by various mean-field nuclear models, there are key features that are not fully explained. Of particular interest are the chiral symmetry (chiral bands) and signature splitting/inversion phenomena. We report on our investigation on the association of signature inversion in an odd-odd band of two quasiparticles pointed along different axes with the formation of chiral twin bands, and understanding systematic chiral symmetry and signature splitting/inversion features within the framework of particle rotor model for neutron deficient Pr nuclei. This work was supported by the NSF Grant No. PHY 0204811 and U.S. Research Corporation Grant No. CC5494.

  18. Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.

    2011-05-15

    The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.

  19. Odd frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen; Woelfle, Peter; Balatsky, Alexandar

    Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. While the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e. non-interacting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory allowing to discuss a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing. Work supported by USDOE DE-AC52-06NA25396 E304, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and ERC DM-321031.

  20. Positronium Decay and C-Odd Bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalsey, M.; Conti, R. S.

    1996-05-01

    Triplet-state orthopositronium (o-Ps) decay rate measurements are in marked disagreement by 0.17% with QED theoretical calculations done up to, but not including order α ^2 radiative and relativistic corrections. The existence of a rare exotic decay branch o-Ps arrow 2γ + X^0 (where X^0 is a neutral, massive C-odd boson) could resolve the discrepancy. We have searched for, but have not found evidence of the X^0 in two recent experiments.(M. Skalsey and R.S. Conti, Phys. Rev. D51), 6292 (1995) and submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. Stringent limits are placed on the exotic decay branching ratio e^+ +e^- arrow X^0 +γ as a function of the X^0 mass and lifetime. The results are interpreted for two distinct models of X^0 interactions and related to o-Ps decay as well as other experiments, including singlet-state parapositronium decay rate measurements. *Supported by NSF grant PHY-9417854 and the University of Michigan.

  1. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:27095953

  2. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  3. GT Strength in Odd-A Nuclei^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. W.; Du, Q. Q.

    1998-04-01

    We measured the complete set of polarization-transfer observables (D_ij) for the ^13C(p,n)^13N and ^15N(p,n)^15O reactions at 135 MeV. From the D_ijs we constructed the spin-independent, spin-longitudinal, and spin-transverse responses [1] D_0, D_q, Dn and D_p. From these responses we extracted, in a model-independent way, the Δ J=0 and Δ J=1 (``F'' and ``GT'') fractions of the J^π=1/2^-arrow1/2^- g.s. to g.s. transitions for these reactions. The ``F'' fraction, f_F=D_0(0^circ); the ``GT'' fraction, f_GT=D_q(0^circ)+D_n(0^circ)+D_p(0^circ)= 1- D_0(0^circ). The extracted GT fractions, f_GT, are substantially larger than one would predict from β-decay matrix elements and the systematics of the (p,n) reaction on even-A nuclei. These results confirm earlier, model-dependent determinations of f_GT obtained from the (p,n) reaction on ^13C, ^15N and ^39K at other energies [2], [3], [4], indicating that considerable caution must be used when extracting B(GT) matrix elements from odd-A (p,n) data. * Research supported in part by the U.S. NSF. [1] M. Ichimura, K. Kawahigashi, Phys. Rev. C 45 1822 (1992). [2] T. N. Taddeucci, C. A. Goulding, T. A. Carey, R. C. Byrd, C. D. Goodman, C. Gaarde, J. Larsen, D. Horen, J. Rapaport, and E. Sugarbaker, Nucl. Phys. A469 125 (1987). [3] H. Sakai, H. Okamura, N. Matsuoka, A. Shimizu, T. Suda, M. Ieiri and H. M. Shimizu, Nuclear Physics A579 45-61 (1994). [4] W. Huang, Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana U., 1991, (unpublished).

  4. Influence of secondary decay on odd-even staggering of fragment cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelbauer, J. R.; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.

    2013-10-01

    Odd-even staggering (OES) appears in many areas of nuclear physics and is generally associated with the pairing term in the nuclear binding energy. To explore this effect, we use the improved statistical multifragmentation model to populate an ensemble of hot primary fragments, which are then de-excited using the Weisskopf-Ewing statistical emission formalism. The yields are then compared to experimental data. Our results show that, before secondary decay, OES appears only in the yields of even mass fragments and not in the yields of odd mass fragments. De-excitation of the hot fragments must be taken into account to describe the data, suggesting that the OES in fragment yields is a useful criterion for validating or adjusting theoretical de-excitation models.

  5. A Lifetime of Beating the Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Byron Seibold recently celebrated his 70th birthday, which is not a remarkable milestone in today's era of extended longevity. Mr. Seibold has the typical maladies of aging--some vision and hearing issues, a bad hip, some memory lapses but no signs of Alzheimer's. His primary care physician, Dr. Chris Prater, attributes Mr. Seibold's good health…

  6. The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported on adverse neonatal outcomes associated with parity and maternal age. Many of these studies have relied on cross-sectional data, from which drawing causal inference is complex. We explore the associations between parity/maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes using data from cohort studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods Data from 14 cohort studies were included. Parity (nulliparous, parity 1-2, parity ≥3) and maternal age (<18 years, 18-<35 years, ≥35 years) categories were matched with each other to create exposure categories, with those who are parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years as the reference. Outcomes included small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm, neonatal and infant mortality. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated per study and meta-analyzed. Results Nulliparous, age <18 year women, compared with women who were parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years had the highest odds of SGA (pooled adjusted OR: 1.80), preterm (pooled aOR: 1.52), neonatal mortality (pooled aOR: 2.07), and infant mortality (pooled aOR: 1.49). Increased odds were also noted for SGA and neonatal mortality for nulliparous/age 18-<35 years, preterm, neonatal, and infant mortality for parity ≥3/age 18-<35 years, and preterm and neonatal mortality for parity ≥3/≥35 years. Conclusions Nulliparous women <18 years of age have the highest odds of adverse neonatal outcomes. Family planning has traditionally been the least successful in addressing young age as a risk factor; a renewed focus must be placed on finding effective interventions that delay age at first birth. Higher odds of adverse outcomes are also seen among parity ≥3 / age ≥35 mothers, suggesting that reproductive health interventions need to address the entirety of a woman’s reproductive period. Funding Funding was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (810-2054) by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child

  7. Diabatic crossing of chiral "twins" in the odd-odd 106Ag nucleus: A theoretical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2016-07-01

    A systematic study of both the observed positive-parity magnetic rotation band and the negative-parity Δ I =1 doublet bands in an odd-odd 106Ag nucleus is carried out. The negative-parity doublet bands depict some unusual features that have not been observed in any isotope in the mass A =100 region. For instance, (i) the moment of inertia of the partner band is quite different from that of the yrast band, and (ii) these bands cross each other at an angular momentum of I =14 ℏ . Also, the observed significantly large but constant B (M 1 ) transitions confirm that the strong M 1 transitions are being reinforced by the contributions from collective rotation. To explain these features, a collective model has been developed whose kinetic and potential energies are extracted from the tilted-axis cranking model. Instead of the triaxial parameter γ , a second-order phase transition is found to be responsible for the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation has generated a doublet nondegenerate eigenvalue spectrum. The ensuing model results based on the two-quasiparticle configuration π g9/2⊗ν h11/2 exhibit similarities with many observed features of the negative-parity doublet bands and hence confirm their chiral character. The cranking mass parameter in kinetic energy plays an important role in diabatic crossing between these emerged chiral twin bands.

  8. Neutron-proton multiplets in the odd-odd nucleus 53 37 90Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwiński, M.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; BÄ czyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Timár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kuti, I.; Tornyi, T. G.; Atanasova, L.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Medium-spin excited levels in 90Rb, populated in the fission of 235U induced by neutrons, have been observed for the first time. γ radiation from fission has been measured by using the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the cold-neutron-beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. Low-energy levels are interpreted as members of the π p3/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , π f5/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , and π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 multiplets with the 0- ground state due to the seniority-3 coupling in the ν d5 /2 shell. Analogous anomalous coupling within the π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 configuration explains the 5+, 6+, and 7+ triplet of states, observed at medium spins, similar to the triplet seen in the N =53 isotone, 88Br. Shell-model calculations reproduce well the proposed structures in Rb,9088 and support the seniority-3 coupling in N =53 isotones and its absence in N =51 isotones. The structure of the odd-odd 88Rb and 90Rb nuclei provides an argument in favor of the collectivity building up at the neutron number N =53 .

  9. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  10. "Dealing" with Incidence, Prevalence, and Odds Concepts in Undergraduate Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senchina, David S.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts and associated statistical formulae of incidence, prevalence, and odds/odds ratios are core knowledge in epidemiology yet can be confusing for students. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of…

  11. On the largest prime divisor of an odd harmonic number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishiki, Yusuke; Goto, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo

    2007-09-01

    A positive integer is called a (Ore's) harmonic number if its positive divisors have integral harmonic mean. Ore conjectured that every harmonic number greater than 1 is even. If Ore's conjecture is true, there exist no odd perfect numbers. In this paper, we prove that every odd harmonic number greater than 1 must be divisible by a prime greater than 10^5 .

  12. Checking the odd Goldbach conjecture up to 10(20)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saouter, Y.

    1998-04-01

    Vinogradov's theorem states that any sufficiently large odd integer is the sum of three prime numbers. This theorem allows us to suppose the conjecture that this is true for all odd integers. In this paper, we describe the implementation of an algorithm which allowed us to-check this conjecture up to 10(20).

  13. Preoperative 3-Tesla Multiparametric Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and the Odds of Upgrading and Upstaging at Radical Prostatectomy in Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hegde, John V.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Mulkern, Robert V.; Fennessy, Fiona M.; D'Amico, Anthony V.; Tempany, Clare M.C.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether 3-T esla (3T) multiparametric endorectal MRI (erMRI) can add information to established predictors regarding occult extraprostatic or high-grade prostate cancer (PC) in men with clinically localized PC. Methods and Materials: At a single academic medical center, this retrospective study's cohort included 118 men with clinically localized PC who underwent 3T multiparametric erMRI followed by radical prostatectomy, from 2008 to 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in all men and in 100 with favorable-risk PC addressed whether erMRI evidence of T3 disease was associated with prostatectomy T3 or Gleason score (GS) 8-10 (in patients with biopsy GS {<=}7) PC, adjusting for age, prostate-specific antigen level, clinical T category, biopsy GS, and percent positive biopsies. Results: The accuracy of erMRI prediction of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion was 75% and 95%, respectively. For all men, erMRI evidence of a T3 lesion versus T2 was associated with an increased odds of having pT3 disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-16.98, P=.015) and pGS 8-10 (AOR 5.56, 95% CI 1.10-28.18, P=.038). In the favorable-risk population, these results were AOR 4.14 (95% CI 1.03-16.56), P=.045 and AOR 7.71 (95% CI 1.36-43.62), P=.021, respectively. Conclusions: Three-Tesla multiparametric erMRI in men with favorable-risk PC provides information beyond that contained in known preoperative predictors about the presence of occult extraprostatic and/or high-grade PC. If validated in additional studies, this information can be used to counsel men planning to undergo radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy about the possible need for adjuvant radiation therapy or the utility of adding hormone therapy, respectively.

  14. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  15. Lead burden and psychiatric symptoms and the modifying influence of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism: the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Pradeep; Kelsey, Karl T; Schwartz, Joel D; Bellinger, David C; Weuve, Jennifer; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Smith, Thomas J; Nie, Huiling; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O

    2007-12-15

    The authors evaluated the association between lead burden and psychiatric symptoms and its potential modification by a delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism. Lead measurements in blood or bone and self-reported ratings on the Brief Symptom Inventory from 1991 to 2002 were available for 1,075 US men participating in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study. The authors estimated the prevalence odds ratio for the association between interquartile-range lead and abnormal symptom score, adjusting for potential confounders. An interquartile increment in tibia lead (14 microg/g) was associated with 21% higher odds of somatization (95% confidence interval of the odds ratio: 1.01, 1.46). An interquartile increment in patella lead (20 microg/g) corresponded to a 23% increase in the odds of global distress (95% confidence interval of the odds ratio: 1.02, 1.47). An interquartile increment in blood lead (2.8 microg/dl) was associated with 14% higher odds of hostility (95% confidence interval of the odds ratio: 1.02, 1.27). In all other analyses, lead was nonsignificantly associated with psychiatric symptoms. The adverse association of lead with abnormal mood scores was generally stronger among ALAD 1-1 carriers than 1-2/2-2 carriers, particularly regarding phobic anxiety symptoms (p(interaction) = 0.004). These results augment evidence of a deleterious association between lead and psychiatric symptoms. PMID:17823382

  16. Nuclear spin of odd-odd α emitters based on the behavior of α -particle preformation probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A.; Botros, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The preformation probabilities of an α cluster inside radioactive parent nuclei for both odd-even and odd-odd nuclei are investigated. The calculations cover the isotopic chains from Ir to Ac in the mass regions 166 ≤A ≤215 and 77 ≤Z ≤89 . The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model. A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the α and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the N N interaction. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The correlation of the α -particle preformation probability and the neutron and proton level sequences of the parent nucleus as obtained in our previous work is extended to odd-even and odd-odd nuclei to determine the nuclear spin and parities. Two spin coupling rules are used, namely, strong and weak rules to determine the nuclear spin for odd-odd isotopes. This work can be a useful reference for theoretical calculation of undetermined nuclear spin of odd-odd nuclei in the future.

  17. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms Among Middle-Aged Women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Harlow, Sioban; Avis, Nancy; Kravitz, Howard M.; Cordal, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined racial/ethnic differences in significant depressive symptoms among middle-aged women before and after adjustment for socioeconomic, health-related, and psychosocial characteristics. Methods. Racial/ethnic differences in unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of significant depressive symptoms (score ≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) were assessed with univariate and multiple logistic regressions. Results. Twenty-four percent of the sample had a CES-D score of 16 or higher. Unadjusted prevalence varied by race/ethnicity (P < .0001). After adjustment for covariates, racial/ethnic differences overall were no longer significant. Conclusions. Hispanic and African American women had the highest odds, and Chinese and Japanese women had the lowest odds, for a CES-D score of 16 or higher. This variation is in part because of health-related and psychosocial factors that are linked to socioeconomic status. PMID:15284047

  18. Longitudinal Trends in Sexual Behaviors with Advancing Age and Menopause Among Women With and Without HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weedon, Jeremy; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Karpiak, Stephen E.; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Minkoff, Howard L.; Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Holman, Susan; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed changes in self-reported sexual activity (SA) over 13 years among HIV-infected and uninfected women. The impact of aging and menopause on SA and unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAVI) was examined among women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), stratifying by HIV status and detectable viral load among HIV-infected women. Generalized mixed linear models were fitted for each outcome, adjusted for relevant covariates. HIV-uninfected women evidenced higher levels of SA and UAVI than HIV-infected. The odds of SA declined by 62–64 % per decade of age. The odds of SA in a 6-month interval for women aged 40–57 declined by 18–22 % post-menopause (controlling for age). Among HIV+/detectable women only, the odds of any UAVI decreased by 17 % per decade of age; the odds of UAVI were unchanged pre-menopause, and then decreased by 28 % post-menopause. Elucidating the factors accounting for ongoing unprotected sex among older women should inform interventions. PMID:25245474

  19. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  20. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  1. Observation of odd toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes.

    PubMed

    Kramer, G J; Sharapov, S E; Nazikian, R; Gorelenkov, N N; Budny, R V

    2004-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd toroidicity induced Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge of the joint European torus. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high-field side to excite the TAEs. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs. PMID:14753994

  2. The competition between alpha decay and spontaneous fission in odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the range 99 ≤ Z ≤ 129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.

    2015-08-01

    The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.

  3. Lifestyle and Socioeconomic Determinants of Multimorbidity Patterns among Mid-Aged Women: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Caroline A.; Dobson, Annette J.; Tooth, Leigh R.; Mishra, Gita D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about patterns of associative multimorbidity and their aetiology. We aimed to identify patterns of associative multimorbidity among mid-aged women and the lifestyle and socioeconomic factors associated with their development. Methods Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We included 4896 women born 1946–51, without multimorbidity in 1998. We identified multimorbidity patterns at survey 6 (2010) using factor analysis, and related these patterns to baseline lifestyle and socioeconomic factors using logistic regression. We dichotomised factor scores and determined odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between characteristics and odds of a high versus low factor score. Results We identified five multimorbidity patterns: psychosomatic; musculoskeletal; cardiometabolic; cancer; and respiratory. Overweight and obesity were respectively associated with increased odds of having a high score for the musculoskeletal (adjusted ORs 1.45 [95% CI 1.23, 1.70] and 2.14 [95% CI 1.75, 2.60]) and cardiometabolic (adjusted ORs 1.53 [95% CI 1.31, 1.79] and 2.46 [95% CI 2.02, 2.98]) patterns. Physical inactivity was associated with increased odds of a high score for the psychosomatic, musculoskeletal and cancer patterns (adjusted ORs 1.41 [95% CI 1.13, 1.76]; 1.39 [95% CI 1.11, 1.74]; and 1.35 [95% CI 1.08, 1.69]). Smoking was associated with increased odds of a high score for the respiratory pattern. Education and ability to manage on income were associated with increased odds of a high score for the psychosomatic pattern (adjusted ORs 1.34 [95% CI 1.03, 1.75] and 1.73 [95% CI 1.37, 1.28], respectively) and musculoskeletal pattern (adjusted ORs 1.43 [95% CI 1.10, 1.87] and 1.38 [1.09, 1.75], respectively). Conclusions Distinct multimorbidity patterns can be identified among mid-aged women. Social inequality, physical activity and BMI are risk factors common to multiple patterns and are

  4. [High risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. Preliminary report after introducing a new version of New York (1997) protocol adjusted to the age of the patients. Report of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group].

    PubMed

    Skoczen, S; Klus, K; Armata, J; Kowalczyk, J; Wisniewska-Slusarz, H; Kolecki, P; Derwich, K; Matysiak, M; Krauze, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Pawelec, K; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Juszczak, K; Pisarek, J; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Tomaszewska, R; Łuszczynska, A; Wysocki, M; Styczyński, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group in the treatment of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children using a new version of the New York (1997-1999). Protocol with treatment intensity adjusted according to the age of the patients. From April 1997 to December 1999 a group of 49 children with leukocytosis ranging from 50 900/mm3 to 580 000/mm3 (median 122 000/mm3) and 6 children with leukocytosis below 50 000/mm3 and poor response to steroids were treated with this protocol. Children below 10 years (43 patients) were treated according to the previous protocol, children above 10 years (12 patients) were treated with intensified protocol (high doses of ARA-C in consolidation and intermediate doses of Mtx in maintenance). Induction was identical for all patients. Complete remission was achieved in 92.6% patients. There were 2 relapses. Six children died - 3 without remission, 2 due to a relapse, 1 due to treatment complications. The current opinions concerning classification of HRG-ALL and treatment possibilities in this group of children are discussed. PMID:12021459

  5. Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.

    1995-08-01

    The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.

  6. New description of the doublet bands in doubly odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.; Brant, S.; Ventura, A.

    2009-04-15

    The experimentally observed {delta}I=1 doublet bands in some odd-odd nuclei are analyzed within the orthosymplectic extension of the interacting vector boson model (IVBM). A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the obtained boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. It is illustrated by its application to three odd-odd nuclei from the A{approx}130 region, namely {sup 126}Pr, {sup 134}Pr, and {sup 132}La. The theoretical predictions for the energy levels of the doublet bands as well as E2 and M1 transition probabilities between the states of the yrast band in the last two nuclei are compared with experiment and the results of other theoretical approaches. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the orthosymplectic extension of the IVBM.

  7. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...

  8. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...

  9. Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use 3 of 4 who tried the illicit ... narcotic painkillers may be at high risk for heroin use, a new study cautions. The research included ...

  10. Choosing a standard for adjusted mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, F

    1996-01-01

    For over half a century, the standard for age-adjustment in mortality studies has been based on the total population according to the 1940 census. The question periodically arises, however, whether a more recent census population might now be more appropriate. Thus, a study using the six censuses from 1940 to 1990 was conducted to see the effect each of these populations would have on the age-adjusted (standardized) death rates. While the size of the age-adjusted rates was affected by the censal standard populations from 1940 to 1990, these populations hardly changed the proportional mortality by age, sex, cause-of-death and geographic area. It appears that a shift from the 1940 standard will not be necessary, although if more detailed comparisons are needed, age-specific death rates can always be used. The 1940 standard also has the advantage of being consistent with many earlier studies. PMID:8744891

  11. The odd-number sequence: squares and sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.

  12. Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.

    2011-02-15

    Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.

  13. Age-associated vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kale, Sushant P; Edgell, Randall C; Alshekhlee, Amer; Borhani Haghighi, Afshin; Sweeny, Justin; Felton, Jason; Kitchener, Jacob; Vora, Nirav; Bieneman, Bruce K; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Abdulrauf, Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between age and vasospasm caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is controversial. We evaluated this relationship in a contemporary sample from a single institution. In a retrospective study design, we included patients with SAH caused by ruptured intracranial aneurysms. All patients underwent an evaluation that included head imaging, cerebral angiography, and treatment for the underlying aneurysm. Vasospasm was classified as absent, any vasospasm, or symptomatic vasospasm. Age was classified into 2 categories with a cutoff of 50 years, and also was stratified by decade. All patients had received preventative and therapeutic measures for vasospasm. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between age and the occurrence of vasospasm. A total of 108 patients were included in this analysis, 67 of whom were age ≥50 years. The older patients had a higher incidence of vascular risk factors, and the younger patients had a higher incidence of smoking and illicit substance abuse. The mean age of the patients with any vasospasm (n = 41) was 48.51 ± 11.23 years, compared with 59.67 ± 13.30 years in those without vasospasm (P < .0001). Adjusted analysis found a greater risk of vasospasm in the younger patients compared with the older patients (odds ratio, 5.83; 95% confidence interval, 2.41-14.12 for any vasospasm; odds ratio, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.008-7.052 for symptomatic vasospasm). This risk of vasospasm decreased with advanced age (P < .0001). Our findings suggest that patients age <50 years are at 5-fold greater risk of any vasospasm compared with older patients, and that age-adjusted prevention protocols may need to be considered. PMID:21719308

  14. Intelligence in youth and health at age 50

    PubMed Central

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55–1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components—income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities. PMID:26766880

  15. Maternal Age at Birth and Childhood Type 1 Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis of 30 Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cardwell, Chris R.; Stene, Lars C.; Joner, Geir; Bulsara, Max K.; Cinek, Ondrej; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Jané, Mireia; Svensson, Jannet; Goldacre, Michael J.; Waldhoer, Thomas; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława; Gimeno, Suely G.A.; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Parslow, Roger C.; Wadsworth, Emma J.K.; Chetwynd, Amanda; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigis, Girts; Urbonaitė, Brone; Šipetić, Sandra; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E.; Stoyanov, Denka; Buschard, Karsten; Patterson, Chris C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim if the study was to investigate whether children born to older mothers have an increased risk of type 1 diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies using individual patient data to adjust for recognized confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Relevant studies published before June 2009 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of studies were contacted and asked to provide individual patient data or conduct prespecified analyses. Risk estimates of type 1 diabetes by maternal age were calculated for each study, before and after adjustment for potential confounders. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios and to investigate heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS Data were available for 5 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 14,724 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was, on average, a 5% (95% CI 2–9) increase in childhood type 1 diabetes odds per 5-year increase in maternal age (P = 0.006), but there was heterogeneity among studies (heterogeneity I2 = 70%). In studies with a low risk of bias, there was a more marked increase in diabetes odds of 10% per 5-year increase in maternal age. Adjustments for potential confounders little altered these estimates. CONCLUSIONS There was evidence of a weak but significant linear increase in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes across the range of maternal ages, but the magnitude of association varied between studies. A very small percentage of the increase in the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in recent years could be explained by increases in maternal age. PMID:19875616

  16. Co-Occurring ODD and GAD Symptom Groups: Source-Specific Syndromes and Cross-Informant Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Loney, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Despite important clinical and nosological implications, the comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has received little attention. A clinic-based sample of 243 boys (ages 6-10 years), their parents, and teachers participated in an evaluation that involved assessments of behavioral, academic, and…

  17. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977

  18. Vitamin D Status and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Voland, Rick; Sondel, Sherie A.; Parekh, Niyati; Horst, Ronald L.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hageman, Gregory S.; Chappell, Rick; Blodi, Barbara A.; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (nmol/L) and the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was investigated among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Methods Stereoscopic fundus photographs, taken from 2001–2004, assessed AMD status. Baseline (1994–1998) serum samples were available for 25(OH)D assays in 1,313 women with complete ocular and risk factor data. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early AMD (n=241), among 1,287 without advanced disease, were estimated with logistic regression and adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, family history of AMD, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hormone therapy use. Results In multivariate models, no significant relationship was observed between early AMD and 25(OH)D (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.79, 95% CI=0.50–1.24; p for trend=0.47). A significant age interaction (p=0.0025) suggested selective mortality bias in women ≥75 years: serum 25(OH)D was associated with decreased odds of early AMD in women <75 years (n=968) and increased odds in women ≥75 years (n=319) (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.52, 95% CI=0.29–0.91; p for trend=0.02 and 1.76, 95% CI=0.77–4.13; p for trend=0.05, respectively). Further adjustment for body mass index and recreational physical activity, predictors of 25(OH)D, attenuated the observed association in women <75 years. Additionally, among women <75 years, intake of vitamin D from foods and supplements was related to decreased odds of early AMD in multivariate models; no relationship was observed with self-reported time spent in direct sunlight. Conclusions High serum 25(OH)D concentrations may protect against early AMD in women <75 years. PMID:21482873

  19. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  20. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  1. Multicomponent fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Mixtures of hard hyperspheres in odd-space dimensionalities are studied with an analytical approximation method. This technique is based on the so-called rational function approximation and provides a procedure for evaluating equations of state, structure factors, radial distribution functions, and direct correlation functions of additive mixtures of hard hyperspheres with any number of components and in arbitrary odd-dimension space. The method gives the exact solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation coupled with the Percus-Yevick closure, thus, extending the solution for hard-sphere mixtures [J. L. Lebowitz, Phys. Rev.PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.133.A895 133, A895 (1964)] to arbitrary odd dimensions. Explicit evaluations for binary mixtures in five dimensions are performed. The results are compared with computer simulations, and a good agreement is found.

  2. Do subfertile women adjust their habits when trying to conceive?

    PubMed Central

    Joelsson, Lana Salih; Berglund, Anna; Wånggren, Kjell; Lood, Mikael; Rosenblad, Andreas; Tydén, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate lifestyle habits and lifestyle adjustments among subfertile women trying to conceive. Materials and methods Women (n = 747) were recruited consecutively at their first visit to fertility clinics in mid-Sweden. Participants completed a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, t tests, and chi-square tests. Results The response rate was 62% (n = 466). Mean duration of infertility was 1.9 years. During this time 13.2% used tobacco daily, 13.6% drank more than three cups of coffee per day, and 11.6% consumed more than two glasses of alcohol weekly. In this sample, 23.9% of the women were overweight (body mass index, BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), and 12.5% were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Obese women exercised more and changed to healthy diets more frequently than normal-weight women (odds ratio 7.43; 95% confidence interval 3.7–14.9). Six out of ten women (n = 266) took folic acid when they started trying to conceive, but 11% stopped taking folic acid after some time. Taking folic acid was associated with a higher level of education (p < 0.001). Conclusions Among subfertile women, one-third were overweight or obese, and some had other lifestyle factors with known adverse effects on fertility such as use of tobacco. Overweight and obese women adjusted their habits but did not reduce their body mass index. Women of fertile age would benefit from preconception counseling, and the treatment of infertility should routinely offer interventions for lifestyle changes. PMID:27216564

  3. Effect of time-odd fields on odd-even mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Zhou, XianRong; Cui, JiWei; Sagawa, H.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of time-odd fields of Skyrme interaction on neutron odd-even mass differences is studied in the framework of axially deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock (DSHF)+BCS model. To this end, we take into account both the time-even and time-odd fields to calculate the one-neutron and two-neutron separation energies and pairing gaps of semi-magic Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopic chains. In the calculations, a surface-type pairing interaction (IS pairing) and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction (IS+IV pairing) are adopted on top of Skyrme interactions SLy4, SLy6 and SkM*, respectively. We find that the time-odd fields have in general small effects on pairing gaps, but achieve better agreement with experimental data using SLy4 and Sly6 interactions, respectively. It is also shown that the calculations with IS+IV pairing reproduce the one-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes better than those with the IS pairing interaction when the contributions of the time-odd fields are included.

  4. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Delnatus, Jacques R; Odom, Audrey R; Eaton, Jacob C; Griggs, Jennifer J; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B

    2015-11-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3-13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30-4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  5. Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

  6. Lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and their relation to age-related maculopathy in the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Mares-Perlman, J A; Fisher, A I; Klein, R; Palta, M; Block, G; Millen, A E; Wright, J D

    2001-03-01

    Relations of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum to photographic evidence of early and late age-related maculopathy (ARM) among persons over age 40 years (n = 8,222) were examined. Inverse relations of these carotenoids in the diet or serum to any form of ARM were not observed overall. There was a direct relation of dietary levels to one type of early ARM (soft drusen). However, relations differed by age and race. In the youngest age groups who were at risk for developing early (ages 40-59 years) or late (ages 60-79 years) ARM, higher levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet were related to lower odds for pigmentary abnormalities, one sign of early ARM (odds ratio among persons in high vs. low quintiles = 0.1, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.1, 0.3) and of late ARM (odds ratio = 0.1, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.0, 0.9) after adjustment for age, gender, alcohol use, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index. Relations of these carotenoids to ARM may be influenced by age and race and require further evaluation in separate populations and in prospective studies. PMID:11226974

  7. The Influence of Demographic Variables on University Students' Adjustment in North Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderi, Mohd; Jdaitawi, Malek; Ishak, Noor Azniza; Jdaitawi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the student university adjustment particularly the determination of the adjustment level of first year university students in Jordan. The three domains are namely overall college adjustment, domain of social adjustment, and academic adjustment. In addition, in this analysis, gender, age, types of…

  8. Association between age and use of intensive care among surgical Medicare beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Wunsch, Hannah; Gershengorn, Hayley B.; Guerra, Carmen; Rowe, John; Li, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the role age plays in use of intensive care for patients who have major surgery. Materials and Methods Retrospective cohort study examining the association between age and admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) for all Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 or older who had a hospitalization for one of five surgical procedures: esophagectomy, cystectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (open AAA), and elective endovascular AAA repair (endo AAA) from 2004–08. The primary outcome was admission to an ICU. Secondary outcomes were complications and hospital mortality. We used multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression to adjust for other patient and hospital-level factors associated with each outcome. Results The percentage of hospitalized patients admitted to ICU ranged from 41.3% for endo AAA to 81.5% for open AAA. In-hospital mortality also varied, from 1.1% for endo AAA to 6.8% for esophagectomy. After adjusting for other factors, age was associated with admission to ICU for cystectomy (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 1.56 (95% CI 1.36–1.78) for age 80–84+; 2.25 (1.85–2.75) age 85+ compared with age 65–69), PD (AOR 1.26 (1.06–1.50) age 80–84; 1.49 (1.11–1.99) age 85+) and esophagectomy (AOR 1.26 (1.02–1.55) age 80–84; 1.28 (0.91–1.80) age 85+). Age was not associated with use of intensive care for open or endo AAA. Older age was associated with increases in complication rates and in-hospital mortality for all five surgical procedures. Conclusions The association between age and use of intensive care was procedure-specific. Complication rates and in-hospital mortality increased with age for all five surgical procedures. PMID:23787024

  9. Evening chronotypes have the increased odds for bronchial asthma and nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Merikanto, Ilona; Englund, Ani; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo

    2014-02-01

    Earlier studies have found associations of chronotypes with a range of health-related factors. In the light of these findings, the behavioral trait of eveningness in particular associates with determinants that might have a negative impact on health. In this study, based on a random sample of population aged 25-74 years living in five large geographical areas in Finland (N = 6089), we tested whether the evening chronotypes have the increased odds for respiratory symptoms and diseases. As a result, after controlling for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, evening-types had wheezy breathing without respiratory infection, a diagnosed or treated bronchial asthma, awoken in shortness of breath, awoken in heavy to breath, wheezy breathing with dyspnea, wheezy breathing as such and medication for asthma more often than morning-types (odds ratios (ORs) of 1.5-1.9) and intermediate-types (ORs of 1.3-1.6). In addition, evening-types had current medication for asthma, and awoken in coughing more often (OR = 1.5 and OR = 1.4, respectively) than morning-types. Evening-types did not have a diagnosed or treated chronic bronchitis more frequently than others. Our results suggest that the behavioral trait of eveningness associates with the increased odds for the bronchial asthma and nocturnal asthma in particular. PMID:24131153

  10. Multilevel built environment features and individual odds of overweight and obesity in Utah

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanqing; Wen, Ming; Wang, Fahui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2007, 2009 and 2011 in Utah, this research uses multilevel modeling (MLM) to examine the associations between neighborhood built environments and individual odds of overweight and obesity after controlling for individual risk factors. The BRFSS data include information on 21,961 individuals geocoded to zip code areas. Individual variables include BMI (body mass index) and socio-demographic attributes such as age, gender, race, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and whether an individual smokes. Neighborhood built environment factors measured at both zip code and county levels include street connectivity, walk score, distance to parks, and food environment. Two additional neighborhood variables, namely the poverty rate and urbanicity, are also included as control variables. MLM results show that at the zip code level, poverty rate and distance to parks are significant and negative covariates of the odds of overweight and obesity; and at the county level, food environment is the sole significant factor with stronger fast food presence linked to higher odds of overweight and obesity. These findings suggest that obesity risk factors lie in multiple neighborhood levels and built environment features need to be defined at a neighborhood size relevant to residents' activity space. PMID:26251559

  11. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  12. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  13. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  14. The Competition Between Collective and Single - Effects in the Odd-Odd Nuclei LANTHANUM-128,130.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Mark Jonathan

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Excited states in the odd-odd nuclei ^{128,130}La have been investigated to high-spin using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The nucleus ^{128}La was identified using the Daresbury Recoil Separator, and gamma -gamma coincidence data were taken on both nuclei with the TESSA3 array. Angular distributions were also measured for ^{128} La. Seven distinct bands have been observed, three in ^{128}La and four in ^{130}La, with four of these structures being seen for the first time. Two of the bands in each nucleus correspond to near-prolate nuclear shapes, one based on a pih _{11/2} otimes nuh _{11/2} structure and the other on a pih_{11/2 } otimes nug_{7/2 } configuration. A further band in each nucleus has similar properties to what would be expected for a collective oblate structure. In addition the first odd -proton system superdeformed band has been found in ^{130}La. The experimental evidence for these structures will be discussed in terms of the variation in energy level signature splitting, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and mixing ratios as a function of rotational frequency and single particle configuration. The nature of the particles responsible for backbends in the near-prolate bands will be conclusively proved. The results will be interpreted in terms of the cranked shell model, an odd-odd particle-rotor model and deformation self-consistent cranking calculations. They will be compared to other odd and odd-odd systems in the A = 130 region. Long-range p-n and n-n interactions are investigated through the measurement of residual interactions. Theoretical interactions are obtained from deformation self-consistent cranking calculations, which contain no long-range interactions, to estimate the nuclear mean field. The results are discussed in terms of the variation in the spatial overlap of the various wavefunctions and changes in the mean field, as a function of particle number, configuration and rotational frequency.

  15. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-10-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.

  16. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the anti-evolutionists…

  17. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  18. Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

  19. Despite the Odds: The Contentious Politics of Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Merilee S.

    2004-01-01

    "Despite the Odds" poses an important question: How can we account for successful policy reform initiatives when the political cards are stacked against change? Theories of politics usually predict that reform initiatives will be unsuccessful when powerful groups are opposed to change and institutions are biased against it. This book, however,…

  20. The Differential Graded Odd NilHecke Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Alexander P.; Qi, You

    2016-05-01

    We equip the odd nilHecke algebra and its associated thick calculus category with diagrammatically local differentials. The resulting differential graded Grothendieck groups are isomorphic to two different forms of the positive part of quantum {{{sl}_2}} at a fourth root of unity.

  1. Quantum description of T-odd correlations in ternary fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.

    2008-07-15

    A quantum version of a unified description of two T-odd effects recently observed in the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized neutrons is considered. These effects are explained by the effect of the Coriolis interaction of the rotating fissile system on the angular distributions of light charged particles in the interior and exterior regions of the nucleus.

  2. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  3. Work Identity and Marital Adjustment in Blue-Collar Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between work-identity and satisfaction and marital adjustment in 40 married male blue-collar workers, ages 25 to 41 years. Satisfaction with extrinsic work factors related to marital adjustment, while satisfaction with intrinsic work factors negatively related to secondary role salience. Age negatively related to…

  4. Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Néel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Néel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Néel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.

  5. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:25773521

  6. Isospin Dependence in the Odd-Even Staggering of Nuclear Binding Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinov, Yu.A.; Geissel, H.; Buervenich, T.J.; Novikov, Yu.N.; Patyk, Z.; Scheidenberger, C.; Attallah, F.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Franzke, B.; Klepper, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nolden, F.; Radon, T.; Steck, M.; Typel, S.; Audi, G.; Falch, M.

    2005-07-22

    The FRS-ESR facility at GSI provides unique conditions for precision measurements of large areas on the nuclear mass surface in a single experiment. Values for masses of 604 neutron-deficient nuclides (30{<=}Z{<=}92) were obtained with a typical uncertainty of 30 {mu}u. The masses of 114 nuclides were determined for the first time. The odd-even staggering (OES) of nuclear masses was systematically investigated for isotopic chains between the proton shell closures at Z=50 and Z=82. The results were compared with predictions of modern nuclear models. The comparison revealed that the measured trend of OES is not reproduced by the theories fitted to masses only. The spectral pairing gaps extracted from models adjusted to both masses, and density related observables of nuclei agree better with the experimental data.

  7. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  8. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  9. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…

  10. Alignments, additivity, and signature inversion in odd-odd {sup 170}Ta : a comprehensive high-spin study.

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A.; Hartley, D. J.; Riley, M. A.; Teal, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Danchev, M.; Djongolov, M. K.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Ma, W. C.; Mohr, W. H.; Moore, E. F.; Odegard, S. W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Sletten, G.; Tandel, S. K.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.; Florida State Univ.; U.S. Naval Academy; Univ. of Massachusetts; Univ. of Tennessee; Niels Bohr Inst.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Oslo

    2010-01-01

    High-spin states (I?50?) of the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta have been investigated with the 124Sn(51V,5n) reaction. The resolving power of Gammasphere has allowed for the observation of eleven rotational bands (eight of which are new) and over 430 transitions ( 350 of which are new) in this nucleus. Many interband transitions have been observed such that the relative spins and excitation energies of the 11 bands have been established. This is an unusual circumstance in an odd-odd study. Configurations have been assigned to most of these bands based upon features such as alignment properties, band crossings, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, and the additivity of Routhians. A systematic study of the frequency at which normal signature ordering occurs in the ?h9/2?i13/2 band has been performed and it is found that its trend is opposite to that observed in the ?h11/2?i13/2 bands. A possible interpretation of these trends is discussed based on a proton-neutron interaction.

  11. Precision spectroscopy of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F molecule: Implications for measurement of P-odd and T-odd effects

    SciTech Connect

    Alphei, Lukas D.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Petrov, A. N.; Mawhorter, Richard; Murphy, Benjamin; Baum, Alexander; Sears, Trevor J.; Yang, T. Zh.; Rupasinghe, P. M.; McRaven, C. P.; Shafer-Ray, N. E.

    2011-04-15

    Here we report precision microwave spectroscopy of pure rotational transitions of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F isotopologue. We use these data to make predictions of the sensitivity of the molecule to P-odd, T-even and P-odd, T-odd effects.

  12. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. PMID:26854502

  13. Does the Prevalence of CD and ODD Vary across Cultures?

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Rohde, Luis A.; Frick, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is presented in order to examine the first of four criteria used in other studies to determine the validity of psychiatric disorders across cultures. The authors searched Medline and PsycINFO from 1987 to 2008. Studies were included if they were representative of specific communities or countries and reported point prevalence of CD or ODD according to DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for children 18 years or younger. Only methodological and not geographic factors were associated with variability of the prevalence estimates. The results are discussed in terms of their significance for the classification of disorders and the need for further research to establish the validity of these two disorders across cultures. PMID:20532864

  14. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  15. Beating the regulatory odds with new simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.B.

    1994-06-20

    Complying with environmental regulations is like a horse race. When it comes to selecting pollution control technologies, the odds against picking a winner are high. A system that`s supposedly an odds-on favorite can come up short if the track conditions are wrong. The penalty for picking a loser is steep and even the best manufacturers can be put out to pasture for poor performance. Certainly, the stakes are high: the federal government projects that environmental rules will cost industry $184 billion annually by 2000. Others say it could be four times that. {open_quotes}But unless you have a crystal ball no one knows what it will cost{close_quotes}, says Robert Sackellares, head of the Atlanta office of SBE Environmental Company, New York City. {open_quotes}The final price tag will depend on the technologies that companies choose, and how effective they are.{close_quotes}.

  16. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  17. Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  18. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  19. Improved techniques for lower bounds for odd perfect numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, R. P.; Cohen, G. L.; Riele, H. J. J. Te

    1991-10-01

    If N is an odd perfect number, and {q^k}\\vert\\vert N , q prime, k even, then it is almost immediate that N > {q^{2k}} . We prove here that, subject to certain conditions verifiable in polynomial time, in fact N > {q^{5k/2}} . Using this and related results, we are able to extend the computations in an earlier paper to show that N > {10^{300}} .

  20. Even-odd effect in short antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machens, A.; Konstantinidis, N. P.; Waldmann, O.; Schneider, I.; Eggert, S.

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on chemically synthesized magnetic molecular chains, we investigate the lowest-lying energy band of short spin-s antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains focusing on effects of open boundaries. By numerical diagonalization we find that the Landé pattern in the energy levels, i.e., E(S)∝S(S+1) for total spin S, known from, e.g., ring-shaped nanomagnets, can be recovered in odd-membered chains, while strong deviations are found for the lowest excitations in chains with an even number of sites. This particular even-odd effect in the short Heisenberg chains cannot be explained by simple effective Hamiltonians and symmetry arguments. We go beyond these approaches, taking into account quantum fluctuations by means of a path-integral description and the valence bond basis, but the resulting quantum edge-spin picture which is known to work well for long chains does not agree with the numerical results for short chains and cannot explain the even-odd effect. Instead, by analyzing also the classical chain model, we show that spatial fluctuations dominate the physical behavior in short chains, with length N≲eπs, for any spin s. Such short chains are found to display a unique behavior, which is not related to the thermodynamic limit and cannot be described well by theories developed for this regime.

  1. Wind-induced odd gravitational harmonics of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    While the rotational distortion of Jupiter makes a major contribution to its lowermost order even zonal gravitational coefficients Jn with n ≥ 2, the component of the zonal winds with equatorial antisymmetry, if sufficiently deep, produces a gravitational signature contained in the odd zonal gravitational coefficients Jn with n ≥ 3. Based on a non-spherical model of a polytropic Jupiter with index unity, we compute Jupiter's odd gravitational coefficients J3, J5, J7, …, J11 induced by the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds that are assumed to be deep. It is found that the lowermost odd gravitational coefficients J3, J5 and J7 are of the same order of magnitude with J3 = -1.6562 × 10-6, J5 = 1.5778 × 10-6 and J7 = -0.7432 × 10-6, and are within the accuracy of high-precision gravitational measurements to be carried out by the Juno spacecraft.

  2. Fluctuation theorems and entropy production with odd-parity variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunggyu; Lee, Hyun Keun; Kwon, Chulan

    2013-03-01

    We show that the total entropy production in stochastic processes with odd-parity variables (under time reversal) is separated into three parts, only two of which satisfy the integral fluctuation theorems in general. One is the usual excess contribution, which can appear only transiently and is called non-adiabatic. Another one is attributed solely to the breakage of detailed balance. The last part not satisfying the fluctuation theorem comes from the steady-state distribution asymmetry for odd-parity variables, which is activated in a non-transient manner. The latter two parts combine together as the house-keeping (adiabatic) contribution, whose positivity is not guaranteed except when the excess contribution completely vanishes. Our finding reveals that the equilibrium requires the steady-state distribution symmetry for odd-parity variables independently, in addition to the usual detailed balance. This work was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant (No. 2010-0026627) funded by the MEST.

  3. A loop group extension of the odd Chern character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Scott O.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the universal odd Chern form, defined on the stable unitary group U, extends to the loop group LU as an equivariantly closed differential form. This provides an odd analogue to the Bismut-Chern form that appears in supersymmetric field theories. We also describe the associated transgression form, the so-called Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and explicate some properties it inherits as a differential form on the space of maps of a cylinder into the stable unitary group. As one corollary, we show that in a precise sense the spectral flow of a loop of self adjoint Fredholm operators equals the lowest degree component of the Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and the latter, when restricted to cylinders which are tori, is an equivariantly closed extension of spectral flow. As another corollary, we construct the Chern character homomorphism from odd K-theory to the periodic cohomology of the free loop space, represented geometrically on the level of differential forms.

  4. Identifying the Irritability Dimension of ODD: Application of a Modified Bifactor Model Across Five Large Community Samples of Children

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Boylan, Khrista; Rowe, Richard; Duku, Eric; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of irritability as measured among the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has dramatically come to the fore in recent years. New diagnostic categories rely on the distinct clinical utility of irritability, and models of psychopathology suggest it plays a key role in explaining developmental pathways within and between disorders into adulthood. However, only a few studies have tested multidimensional models of ODD, and the results have been conflicting. Further, consensus has not been reached regarding which symptoms best identify irritability. The present analyses use data from five large community data sets with five different measures of parent-reported ODD, comprising 16,280 youth in total, to help resolve these questions. Across the samples, ages ranged from 5 to 18, and included both boys and girls. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a modified bifactor model showed the best fit in each of the five data sets. The structure of the model included two correlated specific factors (irritability and oppositional behavior) in addition to a general ODD factor. In four of the five models, the best fit was obtained using the items of being touchy, angry and often losing temper as indicators of irritability. Given the structure of the models and the generally high correlation between the specific dimensions, the results suggest that irritability may not be sufficiently distinct from oppositional behavior to support an entirely independent diagnosis. Rather, irritability may be better understood as a dimension of psychopathology that can be distinguished within ODD, and which may be related to particular forms of psychopathology apart from ODD. PMID:25314267

  5. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents with Myelodysplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mary M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The psychosocial development of 20 adolescents with congenital paralysis due to myelodysplasia is compared to 20 age-and gender-matched subjects with no physical handicaps. On many of the measures, the myelodysplasia group showed poorer social and emotional adjustment and lower self esteem than the controls. (Author/GDC)

  6. Indian Family Adjustment to Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Lee Anne; Keltner, Bette

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the community response of how American Indian families adapt to having school age children with disabilities in two diverse American Indian communities. An ethnographic design was utilized to construct a taxonomy about family adjustment of American Indian families with disabilities. Community Assessment…

  7. The Kenyan Political Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an…

  8. Domestic Violence, Emotional Competence, and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…

  9. An Exploratory Study of Adjustment to Widowhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas-Hawkings, Gwen; And Others

    Although widowhood is a disruptive and inevitable phenomenon for many older people, few studies have explored either adjustment to widowhood or the impact of widowhood on the lives of elderly people. Recently widowed persons (N=51), ranging in age from 49 to 83 years old, were interviewed to examine their relatively immediate psychosocial…

  10. Factors Affecting Psychosocial Adjustment of Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Filiz

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 1,097 elementary and secondary students who are deaf found that degree of hearing loss, additional disability, and age at onset were negatively related to psychosocial adjustment. However, there was a positive relationship with the use of hearing aids, speech intelligibility, academic achievement, parental hearing status, and…

  11. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  12. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  13. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  14. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  15. Neighborhood Physical Disorder, Social Cohesion and Insomnia: Results from Participants Over Age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P.; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Wennberg, Alexandra M. V.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    Background We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g., vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g., friendliness of people, availability of help when needed); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, feeling unrested). Results After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR)=1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.14), waking too early (OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.02–1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) and feeling unrested (OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). Conclusions Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population. PMID:25222023

  16. Neighborhood physical disorder, social cohesion, and insomnia: results from participants over age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M; Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Smith, Michael T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-15

    ABSTRACT Background: We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods: Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g. vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, and cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g. friendliness of people, availability of help when needed, etc.); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, and feeling unrested). Results: After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.14), waking too early (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 years (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and feeling unrested (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population. PMID:25222023

  17. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  18. Early maternal age at first birth is associated with chronic diseases and poor physical performance in older age: cross-sectional analysis from the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early maternal age at first birth and elevated parity may have long-term consequences for the health of women as they age. Both are known risk factors for obstetrical complications with lifelong associated morbidities. They may also be related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. Methods We examine the relationship between early maternal age at first birth, defined as ≤18 years of age, multiparity (>2 births), and poor physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery ≤8) in community samples of women between 65 and 74 years of age from Canada, Albania, Colombia, and Brazil (N = 1040). Data were collected in 2012 to provide a baseline assessment for a longitudinal cohort called the International Mobility in Aging Study. We used logistic regression and general linear models to analyse the data. Results Early maternal age at first birth is significantly associated with diabetes, chronic lung disease, high blood pressure, and poor physical performance in women at older ages. Parity was not independently associated with chronic conditions and physical performance in older age. After adjustment for study site, age, education, childhood economic adversity and lifetime births, women who gave birth at a young age had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17 – 2.64) the odds of poor SPPB compared to women who gave birth > 18 years of age. Adjustment for chronic diseases attenuated the association between early first birth and physical performance. Results were weaker in Colombia and Brazil, than Canada and Albania. Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent childbirth may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases and physical limitations in older age. Results likely reflect both the biological and social consequences of early childbearing and if the observed relationship is causal, it reinforces the importance of providing contraception and sex education to young women, as the consequences of early pregnancy may be life

  19. Urinary arsenic concentration adjustment factors and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nermell, Barbro; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Berglund, Marika; Persson, Lars Ake; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2008-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating the suitability of adjusting urinary concentrations of arsenic, or any other urinary biomarker, for variations in urine dilution by creatinine and specific gravity in a malnourished population. We measured the concentrations of metabolites of inorganic arsenic, creatinine and specific gravity in spot urine samples collected from 1466 individuals, 5-88 years of age, in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, where arsenic-contaminated drinking water and malnutrition are prevalent (about 30% of the adults had body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 kg/m(2)). The urinary concentrations of creatinine were low; on average 0.55 g/L in the adolescents and adults and about 0.35 g/L in the 5-12 years old children. Therefore, adjustment by creatinine gave much higher numerical values for the urinary arsenic concentrations than did the corresponding data expressed as microg/L, adjusted by specific gravity. As evaluated by multiple regression analyses, urinary creatinine, adjusted by specific gravity, was more affected by body size, age, gender and season than was specific gravity. Furthermore, urinary creatinine was found to be significantly associated with urinary arsenic, which further disqualifies the creatinine adjustment. PMID:17900556

  20. Closely Spaced Pregnancies Are Associated With Increased Odds of Autism in California Sibling Births

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the interpregnancy interval (IPI) is associated with the risk of autism in subsequent births. METHODS: Pairs of first- and second-born singleton full siblings were identified from all California births that occurred from 1992 to 2002 using birth records, and autism diagnoses were identified by using linked records of the California Department of Developmental Services. IPI was calculated as the time interval between birth dates minus the gestational age of the second sibling. In the primary analysis, logistic regression models were used to determine whether odds of autism in second-born children varied according to IPI. To address potential confounding by unmeasured family-level factors, a case-sibling control analysis determined whether affected sibling (first versus second) varied with IPI. RESULTS: An inverse association between IPI and odds of autism among 662 730 second-born children was observed. In particular, IPIs of <12, 12 to 23, and 24 to 35 months were associated with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for autism of 3.39 (3.00–3.82), 1.86 (1.65–2.10), and 1.26 (1.10–1.45) relative to IPIs of ≥36 months. The association was not mediated by preterm birth or low birth weight and persisted across categories of sociodemographic characteristics, with some attenuation in the oldest and youngest parents. Second-born children were at increased risk of autism relative to their firstborn siblings only in pairs with short IPIs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that children born after shorter intervals between pregnancies are at increased risk of developing autism; the highest risk was associated with pregnancies spaced <1 year apart. PMID:21220394

  1. Behavioral and electrophysiological indicators of auditory distractibility in children with ADHD and comorbid ODD.

    PubMed

    Oja, L; Huotilainen, M; Nikkanen, E; Oksanen-Hennah, H; Laasonen, M; Voutilainen, A; von Wendt, L; Alho, K

    2016-02-01

    Involuntary switching of attention to distracting sounds was studied by measuring effects of these events on auditory discrimination performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 6-11-year-old boys with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and in age-matched controls. The children were instructed to differentiate between two animal calls by pressing one response button, for example, to a dog bark and another button to a cat mew. These task-relevant sounds were presented from one of two loudspeakers in front of the child, and there were occasional task-irrelevant changes in the sound location, that is, the loudspeaker. In addition, novel sounds (e.g., a sound of hammer, rain, or car horn) unrelated to the task were presented from a loudspeaker behind the child. The percentage of correct responses was lower for target sounds preceded by a novel sound than for targets not preceded by such sound in the ADHD group, but not in the control group. In both groups, a biphasic positive P3a response was observed in ERPs to the novel sounds. The later part of the P3a appeared to continue longer over the frontal scalp areas in the ADHD group than in the controls presumably because a reorienting negativity (RON) ERP response following the P3a was smaller in the ADHD group than in the control group. This suggests that the children with ADHD had problems in reorienting their attention to the current task after a distracting novel sound leading to deterioration of performance in this task. The present study also indicates that children with ADHD and comorbid ODD show same kind of distractibility as found in previous studies for children with ADHD without systematic comorbid ODD. PMID:26688114

  2. GENERAL: Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Odd Coherent State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-07-01

    We propose a decoy state quantum key distribution scheme with odd coherent state which follows sub-Poissonian distributed photon count and has low probability of the multi-photon event and vacuum event in each pulse. The numerical calculations show that our scheme can improve efficiently the key generation rate and secure communication distance. Furthermore, only one decoy state is necessary to approach to the perfect asymptotic limit with infinite decoy states in our scheme, but at least two decoy states are needed in other scheme.

  3. Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2015-12-01

    We study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T - and P -odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. We present the renormalization matrix to one loop in the MS ¯ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the MS ¯ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and 't Hooft-Veltman prescriptions for γ5.

  4. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  5. Head Injury and Aging: The Importance of Bleeding Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Ann

    The current study analyzed 1993–2007 data from NASS/CDS (National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System) to explore the types of serious head injuries sustained by adult motor vehicle crash occupants and how the types of head injuries sustained shifted with age. The purpose was to determine which head injuries are most important for older occupants by identifying specific injuries that become more likely for aging occupants and taking into consideration previous reports on the potential outcome of those injuries for an older population. Results confirmed previous reports that older head injury victims in motor vehicle collisions were more likely to sustain bleeding injuries than younger head injury victims. The current study showed that, in particular, the rate of extra-axial bleeding injury (which includes epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid bleeding) increased with age. The increase in extra-axial bleeding injury rate was especially prominent in relatively low Delta-V crashes. Among the extra-axial bleeding injuries that had increased odds of injury for older occupants, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage were notable, with increased odds of injury for occupants age 50 to 69 as well as for occupants age 70 and older. The importance of subdural hematoma for aging occupants is emphasized by previous studies showing its high mortality rate, while the impact of subarachnoid hemorrhage is linked in previous studies to its aggravating effect on other injuries. The results highlight a need to further explore the injury mechanisms of subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage in older occupants in order to define age-adjusted injury tolerance and develop countermeasures. PMID:21050591

  6. [Razón de posibilidades: a proposed translation of the term odds ratio].

    PubMed

    Tapia, J A; Nieto, F J

    1993-01-01

    In English, odds ratio is a basic epidemiological measure approximating the relative risk. Odds ratio has been translated into Spanish in several ways, which has produced great terminological confusion. On the other hand, the English word odds is often used in epidemiology or statistics English textbooks, alone or as part of other expressions, but always keeping a definite mathematical meaning, which calls for a similarly definite term in Spanish. We discuss several translations of odds ratio found in the literature and propose the Spanish word "posibilidades" as a translation of odds and "razón de posibilidades" as a translation of odds ratio. PMID:8342087

  7. Breastfeeding and Later Psychosocial Development of Children at 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruowei; Perrine, Cria G.; Schieve, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of breastfeeding duration with psychosocial development at 6 years of age. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2005–2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and its 2012 Year 6 Follow-Up (N = 1442). Our breastfeeding duration variable combined overall and exclusive breastfeeding reported during infancy (never breastfed, breastfed <6 months, breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding <3 months, and breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding ≥3 months). Maternal responses to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to create our child psychosocial outcome domains (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, prosocial behavior, and total difficulties). Separate multivariable logistic regression models controlling for maternal sociodemographic characteristics, maternal mental health, and child characteristics were used to assess the likelihood of having difficulties on the 6 domains based on breastfeeding duration. RESULTS: Compared with children who were never breastfed, those who were breastfed for ≥6 months and exclusively breastfed for ≥3 months had decreased odds of difficulties with emotional symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27–0.99), conduct problems (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10–0.54), and total difficulties (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18–0.85) before adjustment. These associations were no longer significant after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Although in our unadjusted analyses we observed significant associations between breastfeeding duration and later psychosocial development, including decreased odds of emotional, conduct, and total difficulties at 6 years of age, these findings were no longer detectable after adjusting for the many potential confounding factors that play a role in psychosocial development. PMID:25183753

  8. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  9. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  10. Risk adjustment for a children's capitation rate.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Manning, W G; Keeler, E B

    1993-01-01

    Few capitation arrangements vary premiums by a child's health characteristics, yielding an incentive to discriminate against children with predictably high expenditures from chronic diseases. In this article, we explore risk adjusters for the 35 percent of the variance in annual out-patient expenditure we find to be potentially predictable. Demographic factors such as age and gender only explain 5 percent of such variance; health status measures explain 25 percent, prior use and health status measures together explain 65 to 70 percent. The profit from risk selection falls less than proportionately with improved ability to adjust for risk. Partial capitation rates may be necessary to mitigate skimming and dumping. PMID:10133708

  11. An Odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme Finite State Machine.

    PubMed

    Eshra, Abeer; El-Sayed, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A finite-state machine (FSM) is an abstract mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. Considered as an abstract model of computation, FSM is weak; it has less computational power than some other models of computation such as the Turing machine. This paper discusses the finite-state automata based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and different implementations of DNA FSMs. Moreover, a comparison was made to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of presented DNA FSMS. Since it is a major goal for nanoscince, nanotechnology and super molecular chemistry is to design synthetic molecular devices that are programmable and run autonomously. Programmable means that the behavior of the device can be modified without redesigning the whole structure. Autonomous means that it runs without externally mediated change to the work cycle. In this paper we present an odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme FSM. Our paper makes use of a known design for a DNA nanorobotic device due to Reif and Sahu for executing FSM computations using DNAzymes. The main contribution of our paper is a description of how to program that device to do a FSM computation known as odd parity checking. We describe in detail finite state automaton built on 10-23 DNAzyme, and give its procedure of design and computation. The design procedure has two major phases: designing the language potential alphabet DNA strands, and depending on the first phase to design the DNAzyme possible transitions. PMID:26355779

  12. Odd-even staggering in neutron drip line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-07-01

    We have done systematic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations in coordinate space on the one-quasi-particle energies and binding energy odd-even staggering (OES) in semi-magic nuclei with the zero-range volume, mixed and surface pairing forces in order to explore the influence of their density dependence. The odd-N isotopes are calculated within the blocking scheme. The strengths for the pairing forces are determined in two schemes by fitting locally to reproduce pairing gap in 120Sn and globally to all available data on the OES of semi-magic nuclei with Z ≥ 8. In the former calculations, there is a noticeable difference between the neutron mean gaps in neutron-rich O, Ca, Ni and Sn isotopes calculated with the surface pairing and those with the mixed and volume pairing. The difference gets much smaller if the globally optimized pairing strengths are employed. The heavier Pb isotopes show the opposite trend. Moreover, large differences between the mean gap and the OES may be expected in both calculations when one goes towards the neutron drip line.

  13. Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2014-10-17

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. PMID:25361253

  14. Structure of hard-hypersphere fluids in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés

    2007-11-01

    The structural properties of single component fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd space dimensionalities d are studied with an analytical approximation method that generalizes the rational function approximation earlier introduced in the study of hard-sphere fluids [S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, Phys. Rev. A 43, 5418 (1991)]. The theory makes use of the exact form of the radial distribution function to first order in density and extends it to finite density by assuming a rational form for a function defined in Laplace space, the coefficients being determined by simple physical requirements. Fourier transform in terms of reverse Bessel polynomials constitute the mathematical framework of this approximation, from which an analytical expression for the static structure factor is obtained. In its most elementary form, the method recovers the solution of the Percus-Yevick closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equation for hyperspheres at odd dimensions. The present formalism allows one to go beyond by yielding solutions with thermodynamic consistency between the virial and compressibility routes to any desired equation of state. Excellent agreement with available computer simulation data at d=5 and d=7 is obtained.

  15. Beyond Mean-Field Calculations for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, B.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2014-10-01

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to Mg25 illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.

  16. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations. PMID:26745273

  17. At Odds: Concerns Raised by Using Odds Ratios for Continuous or Common Dichotomous Outcomes in Research on Physical Activity and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Gina S.; Underhill, Lindsay J.; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. Methods We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. Results First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. Conclusion Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups. PMID:23002407

  18. Children's Adjustment in Joint and Sole Physical Custody Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Marsha; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined patterns of custody and their relationship to the behavioral-emotional and social adjustment of 93 children of 3-14 years of age. Found no evidence that joint physical custody arrangements differ from sole physical custody arrangements with regard to postdivorce child adjustment. (RH)

  19. Newcomer Adjustment among Recent College Graduates: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemme Larson, Rachel E.; Bell, Alexandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Newcomer adjustment, the process an individual goes through within the first year at a new organization, can be a challenging transition for traditionally aged recent college graduates. Unsuccessful adjustment can have profound negative consequences for young adults, organizations, and undergraduate institutions. Gaps exist in the human resource…

  20. Gender Identity and Adjustment in Black, Hispanic, and White Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Brooke C.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years).…

  1. Ageing, retirement and changes in vegetable consumption in France: findings from the prospective GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Plessz, Marie; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Czernichow, Sébastien; Zins, Marie

    2015-09-28

    The aim of this study was to describe the change in vegetable consumption with ageing and the transition to retirement. Study subjects were the participants of the GAZEL prospective cohort (Gaz and Électricité de France) aged 40-49 years at inclusion in 1989 who retired between 1991 and 2008 (12,942 men and 2739 women). Four FFQ were completed from 1990 to 2009. We used multiple imputation by chained equations in order to avoid dropping incomplete cases. The OR for eating vegetables everyday was estimated as a function of ageing, retirement status and the place of lunch before retirement through generalised estimating equations. Analyses were stratified by sex, and models were adjusted for confounders, including current spousal status. In 1990, 17.7% of men and 31% of women reported eating vegetables daily. The odds of consuming vegetables everyday increased with ageing for both men and women. The usual place of lunch was home for less than half the sample before retirement and for almost every respondent after retirement. For those who changed their place of lunch, the association between being retired and the odds of eating vegetables daily was positive and significant. We found that, in this cohort, vegetable consumption increased with ageing. Retirement had an indirect effect on vegetable consumption mediated by changes in the place of lunch. PMID:26283534

  2. The relation of midlife diet to healthy aging: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Samieri, Cecilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Willett, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding how to maintain health and well-being in aging populations is critical. Objective To examine the relation of dietary patterns in midlife to the prevalence of healthy aging. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study. Participants 10,670 women with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984–1986, when they were in their late 50’s and early 60s (median age = 59 years); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average 15 years later. Measurements Diet quality in midlife was ascertained using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) and Alternate Mediterranean diet (A-MeDi) scores, averaged from two food frequency questionnaires (1984–1986). We defined “healthy” vs “usual” aging as of age 70 years; healthy aging was based on survival to 70+ years with maintenance of four health domains - no major chronic diseases, or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health. Results After multivariable adjustment, greater adherence to the AHEI-2010 (upper vs. lower quintile) in midlife was related to 34% (95% CI=9% to 66%, P-trend<0.001) greater odds of healthy versus usual aging. Greater adherence to A-MeDi was related to 46% (95% CI=17% to 83%, P-trend=0.002) greater odds of healthy aging. When the 4 components of healthy aging were analyzed separately, AHEI-2010 and A-MeDi were significantly associated with higher likelihood of no major limitations in physical function and mental health. Limitations Possibility of residual confounding, although we controlled for many confounding factors; bias due to complex patterns of measurement error within diet scores cannot be excluded. Conclusions Better diet quality at midlife appears strongly linked to greater health and well-being among those surviving to older ages. PMID:24189593

  3. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may

  4. Optical phantoms with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters.

    PubMed

    Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Bodenschatz, Nico; Simon, Emanuel; Stocker, Sabrina; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    A new epoxy-resin-based optical phantom system with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters is presented along with measurements of the intrinsic absorption, scattering, fluorescence, and refractive index of the matrix material. Both an aluminium oxide powder and a titanium dioxide dispersion were used as scattering agents and we present measurements of their scattering and reduced scattering coefficients. A method is theoretically described for a mixture of both scattering agents to obtain continuously adjustable anisotropy values g between 0.65 and 0.9 and values of the phase function parameter γ in the range of 1.4 to 2.2. Furthermore, we show absorption spectra for a set of pigments that can be added to achieve particular absorption characteristics. By additional analysis of the aging, a fully characterized phantom system is obtained with the novelty of g and γ parameter adjustment. PMID:26473589

  5. Optical phantoms with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Bodenschatz, Nico; Simon, Emanuel; Stocker, Sabrina; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    A new epoxy-resin-based optical phantom system with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters is presented along with measurements of the intrinsic absorption, scattering, fluorescence, and refractive index of the matrix material. Both an aluminium oxide powder and a titanium dioxide dispersion were used as scattering agents and we present measurements of their scattering and reduced scattering coefficients. A method is theoretically described for a mixture of both scattering agents to obtain continuously adjustable anisotropy values g between 0.65 and 0.9 and values of the phase function parameter γ in the range of 1.4 to 2.2. Furthermore, we show absorption spectra for a set of pigments that can be added to achieve particular absorption characteristics. By additional analysis of the aging, a fully characterized phantom system is obtained with the novelty of g and γ parameter adjustment.

  6. Odd-frequency superconducting states with different types of Meissner response: Problem of coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fominov, Ya. V.; Tanaka, Y.; Asano, Y.; Eschrig, M.

    2015-04-01

    We consider physical properties of a superconductor with a recently proposed type of odd-frequency pairing that exhibits diamagnetic Meissner response ("odd-dia state"). Such a state was suggested in order to address stability issues arising in an odd-frequency superconducting state with paramagnetic Meissner response ("odd-para state"). Assuming the existence of an odd-dia state (due to a proper retarded interaction), we study its coexistence with an odd-para state. The latter is known to be generated as an induced superconducting component in, e.g., singlet superconductor/ferromagnet proximity structures or triplet superconductor/normal metal systems. Calculating the superfluid density of the mixed odd-para/odd-dia state and the Josephson current between the odd-para and odd-dia states, we find that the expressions for the currents in both cases have nonvanishing imaginary contributions and are therefore unphysical. We show that a realization of the odd-dia state implies the absence of a Hamiltonian description of the system, and suggest that there exists no physically realizable perturbation that could give rise to the spontaneous symmetry breaking necessary for an actual realization of the odd-dia superconducting state.

  7. The Euler current and relativistic parity odd transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar, Siavash; Roberts, Matthew M.; Son, Dam T.

    2015-04-01

    For a spacetime of odd dimensions endowed with a unit vector field, we introduce a new topological current that is identically conserved and whose charge is equal to the Euler character of the even dimensional spacelike foliations. The existence of this current allows us to introduce new Chern-Simons-type terms in the effective field theories describing relativistic quantum Hall states and (2 + 1) dimensional superfluids. Using effective field theory, we calculate various correlation functions and identify transport coefficients. In the quantum Hall case, this current provides the natural relativistic generalization of the Wen-Zee term, required to characterize the shift and Hall viscosity in quantum Hall systems. For the superfluid case this term is required to have nonzero Hall viscosity and to describe superfluids with non s-wave pairing.

  8. Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.

  9. Phase transition in odd-N Pd-isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hou-Bing; Dong, Guo-Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Phase transition in odd-N isotopes 99,101,103Pd are investigated via the E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves, which strongly suggest a structure evolution from vibration to rotation along the yrast lines with increasing spin. Theoretical calculations have been performed for the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd in the framework of the cranked shell model (CSM) and the alignment properties observed experimentally are analyzed employing this model. The results show that the phase transition in the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd can be interpreted as the valence nucleons start to occupy the g9/2 proton orbitals with increasing spin which would polarize the core to a small, but rigid quadrupole deformation. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2014jjBA10016, 2014jjDA10012) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11465005)

  10. Topological Blount's theorem of odd-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayshi, Shingo; Shiozaki, Ken; Sato, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Yukio

    2014-03-01

    Nontrivial nodal structures are one of the most salient features of gap functions of the unconventional superconductors. In a system with spin-orbit coupling and crystal field, the group theory plays a key role to determine the node of the gap function. From the group theoretical ground, Blount proved that the line node is ``vanishingly improbable'' in spin-triplet superconductors. Namely, it is impossible to create a stable line node in odd-parity superconductors. Our motivation is to compare the group theoretical result with topological stability of nodes by K-theory As a result, we found that K-theory not only rebuilds the original Blount's argument but also exhibits counterexamples with the stable line node. In this talk, we will show the physical interpretation of them.

  11. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  12. Cotunneling into a Kondo lattice with odd hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Vojta, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Cotunneling into Kondo systems, where an electron enters an f -electron material via a cotunneling process through the local-moment orbital, has been proposed to explain the characteristic line shapes observed in scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy (STS) experiments. Here we extend the theory of electron cotunneling to Kondo-lattice systems in which the bulk hybridization between conduction and f electrons is odd under inversion, being particularly relevant to Kondo insulators. Compared to the case of even hybridization, we show that the interference between normal tunneling and cotunneling processes is fundamentally altered: it is entirely absent for layered, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional materials, while its energy dependence is strongly modified for three-dimensional materials. We discuss implications for STS experiments.

  13. Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Asperger Syndrome: An Application of the Double ABCX Model of Family Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Samios, Christina; Sofronoff, Kate

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the applicability of the double ABCX model of family adjustment in explaining maternal adjustment to caring for a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-seven mothers completed questionnaires at a university clinic while their children were participating in an anxiety intervention. The children were aged between…

  14. Cerebral microbleeds and age-related macular degeneration: the AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chengxuan; Cotch, Mary Frances; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jonasson, Fridbert; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Harris, Tamara B; van Buchem, Mark A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2012-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that cerebral microbleeds (CMB) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), both linked to amyloid-β deposition, are correlated. This study includes 4205 participants (mean age 76.2; 57.8% women) in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study (2002-2006). CMB were assessed from magnetic resonance images, and AMD was assessed using digital retinal images. Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic models controlling for major confounders. Evidence of CMB was detected in 476 persons (272 with strict lobar CMB and 204 with nonlobar CMB). AMD was detected in 1098 persons (869 with early AMD, 140 with exudative AMD, and 89 with pure geographic atrophy). Early and exudative AMD were not associated with CMB. The adjusted odds ratio of pure geographic atrophy was 1.62 (95% confidence interval 0.93-2.82, p = 0.089) for having any CMB, 1.43 (0.66-3.06, p = 0.363) for strict lobar CMB, and 1.85 (0.89-3.87, p = 0.100) for nonlobar CMB. This study provides no evidence that amyloid deposits in the brain and AMD are correlated. However, the suggestive association of geographic atrophy with CMB warrants further investigation. PMID:22382405

  15. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25 to 8 kHz and pure tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K x-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:20638461

  16. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  17. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  18. Multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Block, Stephen B; Yurs, Lena A; Kornau, Kathryn M; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Wright, John C

    2009-12-01

    Extending current coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) methods to higher order multiwave mixing requires excitation intensities where dynamic Stark effects become important. This paper examines the dynamic Stark effects that occur in mixed frequency/time domain CMDS methods at high excitation intensities in a model system with an isolated vibrational state. The phase-matching restrictions in CMDS define the excitation beams that interact by nonlinear mixing while the dynamic Stark effects create vibrational ladders of increasingly more energetic overtone and combination band states. The excited quantum states form coherences that reemit the output beams. This paper uses the phase-matching conditions k(out) = k(1) - k(2) + k(2') and k(out) =- k(1) + k(2) + k(2'), where the subscripts denote the excitation frequencies of each excitation pulse and the output pulse. The phase-matching condition constrains each pulse to have an odd number of interactions so the overall mixing process that creates the output coherence must also involve an odd number of interactions. Tuning the excitation frequencies and spectrally resolving the output intensity creates three-dimensional spectra that resolve the individual overtone states. Changing the excitation pulse time delays measures the dynamics of the coherences and populations created by the multiple excitations. The multidimensional spectra probe the highly excited states of a molecular potential energy surface. This paper uses tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)(6)) as a model for observing how dynamic Stark effects change the multidimensional spectra of a simple system. The simplicity of the W(CO)(6) system provides the experimental data required to develop the nonperturbative theoretical methods that will be necessary to model this new approach to CMDS. PMID:19860444

  19. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  20. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  1. Cognitive decline and oral health in middle-aged adults in the ARIC study.

    PubMed

    Naorungroj, S; Slade, G D; Beck, J D; Mosley, T H; Gottesman, R F; Alonso, A; Heiss, G

    2013-09-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). Cognitive decline scores were computed as 'studentized' residuals of 1996-1998 scores regressed against 1990-1992 scores. In 1996-1998, 10,050 participants answered dental screening questions, and 5,878 of 8,782 dentate participants received a comprehensive oral examination. Multiple regression models used cognitive change to predict oral health behaviors and conditions with adjustment for covariates. In the fully adjusted models, greater decline in all three measures of cognitive function was associated with increased odds of complete tooth loss. Greater decline in DSS and WF scores was associated with infrequent toothbrushing. Decline in WF scores was also associated with higher plaque levels. In these middle-aged adults, six-year cognitive decline was modestly associated with less frequent toothbrushing, plaque deposit, and greater odds of edentulism, but not with other oral behaviors or diseases. PMID:23872988

  2. Cognitive Decline and Oral Health in Middle-aged Adults in the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Naorungroj, S.; Slade, G.D.; Beck, J.D.; Mosley, T.H.; Gottesman, R.F.; Alonso, A.; Heiss, G.

    2013-01-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). Cognitive decline scores were computed as ‘studentized’ residuals of 1996-1998 scores regressed against 1990-1992 scores. In 1996-1998, 10,050 participants answered dental screening questions, and 5,878 of 8,782 dentate participants received a comprehensive oral examination. Multiple regression models used cognitive change to predict oral health behaviors and conditions with adjustment for covariates. In the fully adjusted models, greater decline in all three measures of cognitive function was associated with increased odds of complete tooth loss. Greater decline in DSS and WF scores was associated with infrequent toothbrushing. Decline in WF scores was also associated with higher plaque levels. In these middle-aged adults, six-year cognitive decline was modestly associated with less frequent toothbrushing, plaque deposit, and greater odds of edentulism, but not with other oral behaviors or diseases. PMID:23872988

  3. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to adjust prices for several market dominant products... announcing its intent to adjust prices for several market dominant products within First-Class Mail...

  4. Physical Activity Over the Life Course and its Association with Cognitive Performance and Impairment in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Laura E; Barnes, Deborah E; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine how physical activity at various ages over the life course is associated with cognitive impairment in late life. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Four US sites. Participants We administered a modified Mini-Mental State Examination (mMMSE) to 9344 women ≥65 years (mean 71.6 years) who self-reported teenage, age 30, age 50, and late life physical activity. Measurements We used logistic regressions to determine the association between physical activity status at each age and likelihood of cognitive impairment (mMMSE score >1.5SD below the mean, mMMSE≤22). Models were adjusted for age, education, marital status, diabetes, hypertension, depressive symptoms, smoking, and body mass index. Results Women who reported being physically active had lower prevalence of cognitive impairment in late life compared to women who were inactive at each time (teenage: 8.5% vs. 16.7%; adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.65 (0.53–0.80); age 30: 8.9% vs. 12.0%; 0.80 (0.67–0.96); age 50: 8.5% vs. 13.1%; 0.71 (0.59–0.85); old age: 8.2% vs. 15.9%; 0.74 (0.61–0.91)). When the four times were analyzed together, teenage physical activity was most strongly associated with lower odds of late-life cognitive impairment (OR=0.73 (0.58–0.92)). However, women who were physically inactive at teenage and became active in later life had lower risk than those who remained inactive. Conclusions Women who reported being physically active at any point over the life course, and especially at teenage, have lower likelihood of cognitive impairment in late life. Interventions should promote physical activity early in life and throughout the life course. PMID:20609030

  5. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar

    2012-10-01

    The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years was associated with a higher risk for having a hernia (OR, 2.12; 95% [CI], 2.07 to 2.17), whereas female gender was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.55). Those with incarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Overall, BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 showed an increased chance of incarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years and female gender were also associated with a higher risk of incarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias. PMID:23025954

  6. Association Between Shigella Infection and Diarrhea Varies Based on Location and Age of Children.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Brianna; Saha, Debasish; Sanogo, Doh; Das, Sumon Kumar; Omore, Richard; Farag, Tamer H; Nasrin, Dilruba; Li, Shan; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen; Nataro, James P; Magder, Laurence; Hungerford, Laura; Faruque, A S G; Oundo, Joseph; Hossain, M Anowar; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Stine, Oscar Colin

    2015-11-01

    Molecular identification of the invasion plasmid antigen-H (ipaH) gene has been established as a useful detection mechanism for Shigella spp. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) identified the etiology and burden of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia using a case-control study and traditional culture techniques. Here, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to identify Shigella spp. in 2,611 stool specimens from GEMS and compared these results to those using culture. Demographic and nutritional characteristics were assessed as possible risk factors. The qPCR identified more cases of shigellosis than culture; however, the distribution of demographic characteristics was similar by both methods. In regression models adjusting for Shigella quantity, age, and site, children who were exclusively breast-fed had significantly lower odds of MSD compared with children who were not breast-fed (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-0.81). The association between Shigella quantity and MSD increased with age, with a peak in children of 24-35 months of age (OR = 8.2, 95% CI = 4.3-15.7) and the relationship between Shigella quantity and disease was greatest in Bangladesh (OR = 13.2, 95% CI = 7.3-23.8). This study found that qPCR identified more cases of Shigella and age, site, and breast-feeding status were significant risk factors for MSD. PMID:26324734

  7. Alcohol Consumption at Midlife and Successful Ageing in Women: A Prospective Cohort Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Grodstein, Francine

    2011-01-01

    Background Observational studies have documented inverse associations between moderate alcohol consumption and risk of premature death. It is largely unknown whether moderate alcohol intake is also associated with overall health and well-being among populations who have survived to older age. In this study, we prospectively examined alcohol use assessed at midlife in relation to successful ageing in a cohort of US women. Methods and Findings Alcohol consumption at midlife was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Subsequently, successful ageing was defined in 13,894 Nurses' Health Study participants who survived to age 70 or older, and whose health status was continuously updated. “Successful ageing” was considered as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no major cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Analyses were restricted to the 98.1% of participants who were not heavier drinkers (>45 g/d) at midlife. Of all eligible study participants, 1,491 (10.7%) achieved successful ageing. After multivariable adjustment of potential confounders, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption at midlife was associated with modestly increased odds of successful ageing. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.0 (referent) for nondrinkers, 1.11 (0.96–1.29) for ≤5.0 g/d, 1.19 (1.01–1.40) for 5.1–15.0 g/d, 1.28 (1.03–1.58) for 15.1–30.0 g/d, and 1.24 (0.87–1.76) for 30.1–45.0 g/d. Meanwhile, independent of total alcohol intake, participants who drank alcohol at regular patterns throughout the week, rather than on a single occasion, had somewhat better odds of successful ageing; for example, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.29 (1.01–1.64) and 1.47 (1.14–1.90) for those drinking 3–4 days and 5–7 days per week in comparison with nondrinkers, respectively, whereas the odds ratio was 1.10 (0.94–1.30) for those drinking only 1–2 days per week. Conclusions These data

  8. Envy, Politics, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177

  9. Odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kim Jye Lee; Mansour, Maged P; Dunstan, Graeme A; Blackburn, Susan I; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2011-08-01

    A series of unusual odd-chain fatty acids (OC-FA) were identified in two thraustochytrid strains, TC 01 and TC 04, isolated from waters off the south east coast of Tasmania, Australia. FA compositions were determined by capillary GC and GC-MS, with confirmation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) structure performed by analysis of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. PUFA constituted 68-74% of the total FA, with the essential PUFA; eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3, EPA), arachidonic acid (20:4ω6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3, DHA), accounting for 42-44% of the total FA. High proportions of the saturated OC-FA 15:0 (7.1% in TC 01) and 17:0 (6.2% in TC 04) were detected. The OC-FA 17:1ω8 was present at 2.8% in TC 01. Of particular interest, the C₂₁ PUFA 21:5ω5 and 21:4ω7 were detected at 3.5% and 4.1%, respectively, in TC 04. A proposed biosynthesis pathway for these OC-PUFA is presented. It is possible that the unsaturated OC-PUFA found previously in a number of marine animals were derived from dietary thraustochytrids and they could be useful biomarkers in environmental and food web studies. PMID:21546043

  10. Decay Properties of N = 77 odd-Z Isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelder, J. C.; Tantawy, M. N.; Danchev, M.; Hartley, D. J.; Mazzocchi, C.; Bingham, C. R.; Grzywacz, R.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Gross, C. J.; Shapira, D.; Yu, C.-H.; Krolas, W.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J. H.; Li, K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Ginter, T. N.; Stolz, A.; Hagino, K.; Karny, M.

    2007-11-30

    The systematics of the {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2} and {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}s{sub 1/2} isomeric configurations were studied for the odd-Z N = 77 isotones near the proton dripline. The spin and parity of I{sup {pi}} = 8{sup +} and 5{sup -} were deduced for the isomers in {sup 140}Eu and {sup 142}Tb. No evidence for the expected 1{sup +} ground-state was found in the {sup 144}Ho decay data. The proton emission from {sup 146}Tm was restudied and the spin and parity values of I{sup {pi}} = 10{sup +} and 5{sup -} were established for {sup 146m}Tm and {sup 146gs}Tm, respectively. The interpretation of the observed decay properties and structure of the proton-emitting states was made by accounting for deformation and proton and neutron coupling to the core excitations.

  11. Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Bonezzi, Roberto; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO( N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization à la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becomes nonlinear, but remains first class. This guarantees consistency on such backgrounds. A light cone analysis confirms the presence of the expected propagating degrees of freedom. A covariant analysis is worked out explicitly for the massive case, which is seen to give rise to the Fierz-Pauli equations extended to (A)dS spaces. It is worth noting that in D = 3 the massless limit of our model with N → ∞ has the same field content of the Vasiliev's theory that accommodates each spin exactly once.

  12. Explicit energy expansion for general odd-degree polynomial potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanayakkara, Asiri; Mathanaranjan, Thilagarajah

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we derive an almost explicit analytic formula for asymptotic eigenenergy expansion of arbitrary odd-degree polynomial potentials of the form V (x) = (ix)2N+1 + β1x2N + β2x2N-1 + ··· + β2Nx, where β‧k are real or complex for 1 ⩽ k ⩽ 2N. The formula can be used to find semiclassical analytic expressions for eigenenergies up to any order, very efficiently. Each term of the expansion is given explicitly as a multinomial of the parameters β1,β2… and β2N of the potential. Unlike in the even-degree polynomial case, the highest-order term in the potential is pure imaginary and hence the system is non-Hermitian. Therefore all the integrations have been carried out along a contour enclosing two complex branch points, which lies within a wedge in the complex plane. With the help of some examples we demonstrate the accuracy of the method for both real and complex eigenspectra.

  13. Redistribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the lower arctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Montzka, D. D.; Carroll, M. A.; Tuck, A. F.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gregory, G. L.; Vedder, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    In-situ measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen NO(y), were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in the lower arctic stratosphere during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. Throughout January and February, NO(y) mixing ratios were typically between 0.5 and 3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at altitudes between 10 and 12.5 km. During several flights late in the mission, events of unusually light NO(y) occurred with mixing ratios up to 12 ppbv at these altitudes. Simultaneous measurements of N2O, O3, and H2O during these events suggest that large changes in NO(y) are not expected. The elevated NO(y) values are interpreted as a vertical redistribution of NO(y) in the lower stratosphere resulting from gravitational sedimentation of aerosol particles containing HNO3. No evidence of the redistribution of H2O is noted, consistent with observations of denitrification without dehydration higher in the stratosphere.

  14. Strain-induced time-reversal odd superconductivity in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juricic, Vladimir; Roy, Bitan

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the possibility of realizing a time-reversal-symmetry breaking superconducting state that exhibits an f + is pairing symmetry in strained graphene. Although the underlying attractive interactions need to be sufficiently strong and comparable in pristine graphene to support such pairing state, I will argue that strain can be conducive for its formation even for weak interactions. I will show that quantum-critical behavior near the transition is controlled by a fermionic multicritical point, characterized by various critical exponents computed in the framework of an ɛ-expansion near four spacetime dimensions. I will then discuss the scaling of the superconducting gap with the strain-induced axial pseudo-magnetic field. Furthermore, a vortex in this mixed superconducting state hosts a pair of Majorana fermions supporting a quartet of insulating and superconducting orders, among which quantum spin Hall topological insulator. Finally, I will mention some experimental signatures of this f + is time-reversal odd superconductor. These findings suggest that strained graphene could provide a platform for the realization of exotic superconducting states of Dirac fermions. VJ is supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  15. Succinate esters: odd-even effects in melting points.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sumy; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan

    2014-10-01

    Dialkyl succinates show a pattern of alternating behavior in their melting points, as the number of C atoms in the alkane side chain increases, unlike in the dialkyl oxalates [Joseph et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. B67, 525-534]. Dialkyl succinates with odd numbers of C atoms in the alkyl side chain show higher melting points than the immediately adjacent analogues with even numbers. The crystal structures and their molecular packing have been analyzed for a series of dialkyl succinates with 1-4 C atoms in the alkyl side chain. The energy difference (ΔE) between the optimized and observed molecular conformations, density, Kitaigorodskii packing index (KPI) and C-H...O interactions are considered to rationalize this behavior. In contrast to the dialkyl oxalates where a larger number of moderately strong C-H...O interactions were characteristic of oxalates with elevated melting points, here the molecular packing and the density play a major role in raising the melting point. On moving from oxalate to succinate esters the introduction of the C2 spacer adds two activated H atoms to the asymmetric unit, resulting in the formation of stronger C-H...O hydrogen bonds in all succinates. As a result the crystallinity of long-chain alkyl substituted esters improves enormously in the presence of hydrogen bonds from activated donors. PMID:25274517

  16. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  17. First Evidence for the Existence of Odd Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) from the Simultaneous Observation of Even and Odd TAEs on the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Kramer; S.E. Sharapov; R. Nazikian; N.N. Gorelenkov; R. Budny; JET-EFDA contributors

    2003-01-15

    Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd Torodicity-induced Alfven Eigenmode (TAEs) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high field side to excite the TAEs in the weak magnetic shear region. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs.

  18. Correlates of Physical Activity Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Americans at Risk for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Benjamin; Sadarangani, Tina; Wyatt, Laura C.; Zanowiak, Jennifer M.; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Lee, Linda; Islam, Nadia S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore correlates of meeting recommended physical activity (PA) among middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for diabetes mellitus (DM). Design and Methods PA patterns and their correlates were assessed among 292 middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for DM living in New York City (NYC) using cross-sectional design of baseline information from a diabetes prevention intervention. PA was assessed by self-report of moderate and vigorous activity, results were stratified by age group (45-64 and 65-75), and bivariate analyses compared individuals performing less than sufficient PA and individuals performing sufficient PA. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios predicting sufficient PA. Findings After adjusting for sex, age group, years lived in United States, marital status, health insurance and body mass index (BMI), sufficient PA was associated with male sex, older age, lower BMI, eating vegetables daily, and many PA-specific questions (lack of barriers, confidence, and engagement). When stratified by age group, male sex and eating vegetables daily was no longer significant among Koreans age 65 to 75 years of age, and BMI was not significant for either age group. Conclusions PA interventions targeting this population may be beneficial and should consider the roles of sex, age, physical and social environment, motivation, and self-efficacy. Clinical Relevance Clinical providers should understand the unique motivations for PA among Korean Americans and recognize the importance of culturally driven strategies to enable lifestyle changes and support successful aging for diverse populations. PMID:26641597

  19. The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages and increased adult mortality is explained by early parental loss

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Kohler, Iliana; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages at birth and increased mortality among adult offspring is often attributed to parental reproductive ageing, e.g., declining oocyte or sperm quality. Less attention has been paid to alternative mechanisms, including parental socio-demographic characteristics or the timing of parental death. Moreover, it is not known if the parental age-adult mortality association is mediated by socioeconomic attainment of the children, or if it varies over the lifecourse of the adult children. We used register-based data drawn from the Finnish 1950 census (sample size 89,737; mortality follow-up 1971–2008) and discrete-time survival regression with logit link to analyze these alternative mechanisms in the parental age-offspring mortality association when the children were aged 35–49 and 50–72. Consistent with prior literature, we found that adult children of older parents had increased mortality relative to adults whose parents were aged 25–29 at the time of birth. For example, maternal and paternal ages 40–49 were associated with mortality odds ratios (ORs)of 1.31 (p<.001) and 1.22 (p<.01), respectively, for offspring mortality at ages 35–49. At ages 50–72 advanced parental age also predicted higher mortality, though not as strongly. Adjustment for parental socio-demographic characteristics (education, occupation, family size, household crowding, language) weakened the associations only slightly. Adjustment for parental survival, measured by whether the parents were alive when the child reached age 35, reduced the advanced parental age coefficients substantially and to statistically insignificant levels. These results indicate that the mechanism behind the advanced parental age-adult offspring mortality association is mainly social, reflecting early parental loss and parental characteristics, rather than physiological mechanisms reflecting reproductive ageing. PMID:24997641

  20. The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages and increased adult mortality is explained by early parental loss.

    PubMed

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Elo, Irma T; Kohler, Iliana V; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages at birth and increased mortality among adult offspring is often attributed to parental reproductive aging, e.g., declining oocyte or sperm quality. Less attention has been paid to alternative mechanisms, including parental socio-demographic characteristics or the timing of parental death. Moreover, it is not known if the parental age-adult mortality association is mediated by socioeconomic attainment of the children, or if it varies over the lifecourse of the adult children. We used register-based data drawn from the Finnish 1950 census (sample size 89,737; mortality follow-up 1971-2008) and discrete-time survival regression with logit link to analyze these alternative mechanisms in the parental age-offspring mortality association when the children were aged 35-49 and 50-72. Consistent with prior literature, we found that adult children of older parents had increased mortality relative to adults whose parents were aged 25-29 at the time of birth. For example, maternal and paternal ages 40-49 were associated with mortality odds ratios (ORs) of 1.31 (p<.001) and 1.22 (p<.01), respectively, for offspring mortality at ages 35-49. At ages 50-72 advanced parental age also predicted higher mortality, though not as strongly. Adjustment for parental socio-demographic characteristics (education, occupation, family size, household crowding, language) weakened the associations only slightly. Adjustment for parental survival, measured by whether the parents were alive when the child reached age 35, reduced the advanced parental age coefficients substantially and to statistically insignificant levels. These results indicate that the mechanism behind the advanced parental age-adult offspring mortality association is mainly social, reflecting early parental loss and parental characteristics, rather than physiological mechanisms reflecting reproductive aging. PMID:24997641

  1. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  2. Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmerus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 336 mother--child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment.…

  3. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  4. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  5. Experimental Identification of Intruder Bandheads in Odd-Mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Andreyev; J.F.C. Cocks; O. Dorvaux; K. Eskola; P. Greenlees; P. Jones; R. Julin; S. Juutinen; K. Helariutta; M. Huyse; H. Kettunen; P. Kuusiniemi; M. Leino; M. Muikku; W.H. Trzaska; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; R. Wyss

    1999-12-31

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  6. Experimental identification of intruder bandheads in odd-mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Helariutta, K.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.

    1999-11-16

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  7. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kirsten J; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts. PMID:24955586

  8. Selected Issues on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ruby D.

    Aging is a continuum which begins at birth and ends at death. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to the study of aging as a part of developmental psychology. The individual is a biological organism as well as a member of society. Biological adjustments to life are affected by physical changes which influence motives and emotions. Some of…

  9. Physical Activity at Mid-Life in Relation to Successful Survival in Women at Age 70 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hu, Frank B.; Grodstein, Francine

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases and premature death. Whether physical activity is also associated with improved overall health among those who survive to older ages is unclear. Methods A total of 13,535 Nurses’ Health Study participants who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in 1986 and had survived to age 70 years or older as of 1995–2001 comprised the study population. We defined successful survival as no history of 11 major chronic diseases and no cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results After multivariate adjustment for covariates, higher physical activity levels at mid-life, as measured by metabolic equivalent tasks, were significantly associated with better odds of successful survival. Significant increases in successful survival were observed beginning at the third quintile of activity: Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) in the lowest to highest quintiles were 1.00 (reference), 0.98 (0.80, 1.20), 1.37 (1.13, 1.65), 1.34 (1.11, 1.61), and 1.99 (1.66, 2.38; P for trend < 0.0001). Increasing energy expenditure from walking was associated with a similar elevation in odds of successful survival: The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of successful survival across quintiles of walking were 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (0.80, 1.21), 1.19 (0.97, 1.45), 1.50 (1.24, 1.82), and 1.47 (1.22, 1.79; P for trend < 0.0001). Conclusion These data provide evidence that higher levels of mid-life physical activity are associated with exceptional health status among women who survive to older ages, and corroborate the potential role of physical activity in improving overall health. PMID:20101015

  10. Respiratory hospitalizations of children living near a hazardous industrial site adjusted for prevalent dust: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nirel, Ronit; Maimon, Nimrod; Fireman, Elizabeth; Agami, Sarit; Eyal, Arnona; Peretz, Alon

    2015-03-01

    The Neot Hovav Industrial Park (IP), located in southern Israel, hosts 23 chemical industry facilities and the national site for treatment of hazardous waste. Yet, information about its impact on the health of local population has been mostly ecological, focused on Bedouins and did not control for possible confounding effect of prevalent dust storms. This case-control study examined whether living near the IP could lead to increased risk of pediatric hospitalization for respiratory diseases. Cases (n=3608) were residents of the Be'er Sheva sub-district aged 0-14 years who were admitted for respiratory illnesses between 2004 and 2009. These were compared to children admitted for non-respiratory conditions (n=3058). Home addresses were geocoded and the distances from the IP to the child's residence were calculated. The association between hospitalization and residential distance from the IP was examined for three age groups (0-1, 2-6, 7-14) by logistic regressions adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status, urbanity and temperature. We found that infants in the first year of life who lived within 10 km of the IP had increased risk of respiratory hospitalization when compared with those living >20 km from the IP (adjusted odds ratio, OR=2.07, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.19-3.59). In models with both distance from the IP and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM(10)) the estimated risk was modestly attenuated (OR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.09-3.51). Elevated risk was also observed for children 2-5 years of age but with no statistical significance (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 0.76-1.76). Our findings suggest that residential proximity to a hazardous industrial site may contribute to early life respiratory admissions, beyond that of prevailing PM(10). PMID:25547415

  11. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  12. Adjustable holder for transducer mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deotsch, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Positioning of acoustic sensor, strain gage, or similar transducer is facilitated by adjustable holder. Developed for installation on Space Shuttle, it includes springs for maintaining uniform load on transducer with adjustable threaded cap for precisely controlling position of sensor with respect to surrounding structure.

  13. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  14. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  15. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics

  16. Reproductive aging-associated common genetic variants and the risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A younger age at menarche and an older age at menopause are well established risk factors for breast cancer. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several novel genetic loci associated with these two traits. However, the association between these loci and breast cancer risk is unknown. Methods In this study, we investigated 19 and 17 newly identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the ReproGen Consortium that have been associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively, and assessed their associations with breast cancer risk in 6 population-based studies among up to 3,683 breast cancer cases and 34,174 controls in white women of European ancestry. In addition, we used these SNPs to calculate genetic risk scores (GRSs) based on their associations with each trait. Results After adjusting for age and potential population stratification, two age at menarche associated SNPs (rs1079866 and rs7821178) and one age at natural menopause associated SNP (rs2517388) were associated with breast cancer risk (p values, 0.003, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively). The odds ratios for breast cancer corresponding to per-risk-allele were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.24), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.15) and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20), respectively, and were in the direction predicted by their associations with age at menarche or age at natural menopause. These associations did not appear to be attenuated by further controlling for self-reported age at menarche, age at natural menopause, or known breast cancer susceptibility loci. Although we did not observe a statistically significant association between any GRS for reproductive aging and breast cancer risk, the 4th and 5th highest quintiles of the younger age at menarche GRS had odds ratios of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.28) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.27), respectively, compared to the lowest quintile. Conclusions Our study suggests that three genetic variants, independent of their

  17. Interpretation of Genetic Association Studies: Markers with Replicated Highly Significant Odds Ratios May Be Poor Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Gorin, Michael B.; Conley, Yvette P.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent successful discoveries of potentially causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for complex diseases hold great promise, and commercialization of genomics in personalized medicine has already begun. The hope is that genetic testing will benefit patients and their families, and encourage positive lifestyle changes and guide clinical decisions. However, for many complex diseases, it is arguable whether the era of genomics in personalized medicine is here yet. We focus on the clinical validity of genetic testing with an emphasis on two popular statistical methods for evaluating markers. The two methods, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, are applied to our age-related macular degeneration dataset. By using an additive model of the CFH, LOC387715, and C2 variants, the odds ratios are 2.9, 3.4, and 0.4, with p-values of 10−13, 10−13, and 10−3, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.79, but assuming prevalences of 15%, 5.5%, and 1.5% (which are realistic for age groups 80 y, 65 y, and 40 y and older, respectively), only 30%, 12%, and 3% of the group classified as high risk are cases. Additionally, we present examples for four other diseases for which strongly associated variants have been discovered. In type 2 diabetes, our classification model of 12 SNPs has an AUC of only 0.64, and two SNPs achieve an AUC of only 0.56 for prostate cancer. Nine SNPs were not sufficient to improve the discrimination power over that of nongenetic predictors for risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in Crohn's disease, a model of five SNPs, one with a quite low odds ratio of 0.26, has an AUC of only 0.66. Our analyses and examples show that strong association, although very valuable for establishing etiological hypotheses, does not guarantee effective discrimination between cases and controls. The scientific community should be cautious to avoid overstating the value of association findings in terms of

  18. Analysis of familial aggregation of atopic eczema and other atopic diseases by ODDS RATIO regression models.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Blettner, M

    1996-05-01

    In order to determine the relative importance of genetics and the environment on the occurrence of atopic diseases, we investigated the familial aggregation of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, and allergic asthma in the relatives of 426 patients with atopic eczema and 628 subjects with no history of eczema (5,136 family members in total). Analyses were performed by regression models for odds ratios (OR) allowing us to estimate OR for the familial aggregation and simultaneously to adjust for other covariates. Three models were analyzed assuming that the OR i) is the same among any two members of a family, ii) depends on different familial constellations, i.e., whether the pairs are siblings, parents, or parent/sibling pairs, and iii) is not the same between the father and the children and between the mother and the children. The OR of familial aggregation for atopic eczema was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.58-2.96) if no distinction was made between the degree of relationship. Further analyses within the members of the family showed a high OR among siblings (OR = 3.86; 95%-CI 2.10-7.09), while the OR between parents and siblings was only 1.90 (95%-CI 1.31-2.97). Only for atopic eczema was the familial aggregation between fathers and siblings (ms: OR = 2.66; fs: OR = 1.29). This can be explained by stronger maternal heritability, shared physical environment of mother and child, or environmental events that affect the fetus in utero. Since for all atopic diseases a stronger correlation was found between siblings than between siblings and parents, our study indicates that environmental factors, especially during childhood, seem to explain the recently observed increased frequencies of atopic diseases. PMID:8618061

  19. Effect of Young Maternal Age on Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes: Results from the Tertiary Center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Oya; Yılmaz, Ertuğrul; Tosun, Özgür; Kumru, Pınar; Arınkan, Arzu; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Selçuk, Selçuk; Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Arısoy, Resul; Erdoğdu, Emre; Tarhan, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young maternal age is variously defined in studies of its effect on obstetrics and perinatal outcomes. Also, pregnancy has been reported as the leading cause of death in adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of obstetrics and perinatal adverse outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: This case-control study was derived from a database of the medical records between January 2008 and December 2012. In the present study, 1374 teenage pregnancy and 1294 adult pregnancy cases were included. After restriction of analyses to singleton primiparous women, 1282 teenage pregnancy and 735 adult pregnancy cases were analyzed. Maternal age was separated into three groups: 15 and less, 16–19, and 20–34 years. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were derived through logistic regression models for the potential confounding factors. Results: Adolescents aged 15 years and younger had higher risks of preterm delivery, early preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death compared with women aged 20 to 34 years after adjustment for confounding factors. In addition, both groups of adolescents had higher risks for anemia and episiotomy and lower risk of cesarean delivery. The rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, chronic diseases, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were higher in the adult group. Conclusion: Younger maternal age was correlated with increased risks of preterm delivery, fetal and neonatal death and anemia. PMID:27308080

  20. Summertime distribution and relations of reactive odd nitrogen species and NO(y) in the troposphere over Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Singh, H. B.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Blake, D.; Barrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    We report here large-scale features of the distribution of NO(x), HNO3, PAN, particle NO3, and NO(y) in the troposphere from 0.15 to 6 km altitude over central Canada. These measurements were conducted in July - August 1990 from the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft as part of the joint United States-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B-Northern Wetlands Study. Our findings show that this region is generally NO(x) limited, with NO(x) mixing ratios typically 20-30 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). We found little direct evidence for anthropogenic enhancement of mixing ratios of reactive odd nitrogen species and NO(y) above those in 'background' air. Instead, it appears that enhancements in the mixing ratios of these species were primarily due to emissions from several day old or CO-rich-NO(x)-poor smoldering local biomass-burning fires. NO(x) mixing ratios in biomass-burning impacted air masses were usually less than 50 pptv, but those of HNO3 and PAN were typically 100-300 pptv representing a twofold-threefold enhancement over 'background' air. During our study period, inputs of what appeared to be aged tropical air were a major factor influencing the distribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the midtroposphere over northeastern North America. These air masses were quite depleted in NO(y) (generally less than 150 pptv), and a frequent summertime occurrence of such air masses over this region would imply a significant influence on the reactive odd nitrogen budget. Our findings show that the chemical composition of aged air masses over subarctic Canada and those documented in the Arctic during ABLE 3A have strikingly similar chemistries, suggesting large-scale connection between the air masses influencing these regions.

  1. Psychological adjustment of children with congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria as related to parental psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Jusiene, Roma; Kucinskas, Vaidutis

    2004-01-01

    Phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism are the inherited metabolic diseases that can be diagnosed and successfully treated early from birth. Nevertheless, children with phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism are found to be in the risk for psychological maladjustment. Parental adjustment - as significant condition for child's psychological adjustment--and related factors are explored in this study. Parents of 63 children with congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria (age 2 to 14 years) answered the Child Behavior Checklist, Coping Strategies Questionnaire and the questionnaire on reactions to child's disease, relations with a sick child, with the spouse and other people. Severity of the disease and child's age are considered as well. Results of the study show that parental emotional (maladaptive) coping and indulgence of a sick child account for the higher rates of internalizing problems of children with phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism. In addition, the higher rates of children's psychological problems are related to parental feelings of guilt as a reaction to child's disease. PMID:15252232

  2. Physical Activity as a Preventative Factor for Frailty: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Carol; Morey, Miriam C.; Pieper, Carl F.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Mercer, Vicki; Cohen, Harvey J.; Visser, Marjolein; Brach, Jennifer S.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Rubin, Susan; Satterfield, Suzanne; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2009-01-01

    Background It is unclear if physical activity (PA) can prevent or reverse frailty. We examined different doses and types of PA and their association with the onset and severity of frailty. Methods Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study participants (N = 2,964) were followed for 5 years, with frailty defined as a gait speed of less than 0.60 m/s and/or inability to rise from a chair without using one's arms. Individuals with one impairment were considered moderately frail and those with both severely frail. We examined PA doses of volume and intensity, activity types (eg, lifestyle vs exercise activities), and their associations with incident frailty and transition to severe frailty in those who became frail. Results Adjusted models indicated that sedentary individuals had significantly increased odds of developing frailty compared with the exercise active group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–2.01), whereas the lifestyle active did not. Number of diagnoses was the strongest predictor of incident frailty. In those who became frail during follow-up (n = 410), there was evidence that the sedentary (adjusted OR = 2.80; 95% CI: 0.98–8.02) and lifestyle active (adjusted OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.22–6.43) groups were more likely to have worsening frailty over time. Conclusions Despite the strong relationship seen between comorbid conditions and onset of frailty, this observational study suggests that participation in self-selected exercise activities is independently associated with delaying the onset and the progression of frailty. Regular exercise should be further examined as a potential factor in frailty prevention for older adults. PMID:19164276

  3. Comparative study of Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V and its impact on electron capture rates in astrophysical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad

    2007-11-15

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present {sup 50}V is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a {sup 50}V(d, {sup 2}He){sup 50}Ti experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of {sup 50}V. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of {sup 50}Ti, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.

  4. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987

  5. The Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from a mountain location intercepting the Mexico City emission plume demonstrate a strong correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). The measured oxygenated-organic aerosol correlates with odd-oxygen measurements with an a...

  6. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,…

  7. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  8. Role of T-odd Functions in High Energy Hadronic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Salvo, E.

    2003-07-01

    I propose a simple model for predicting the enegy behavior of T-odd, chiral odd function h1⊥. Furthermore I illustrate a method for extracting h1⊥ and the transversity function from Drell-Yan. The method may be applied also to other reactions.

  9. The Short Supply of Saints: Limits on Replication of Models that "Beat the Odds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Tamara; Jacobsen, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have identified effective practices that allow schools to "beat the odds" and close the reading achievement gap. Although identifying these practices is important, researchers have paid little attention to the work it takes to implement them. Through interviews with teachers who work at schools identified as beating the odds, this…

  10. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  11. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120…

  12. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  13. Focusing on the Basics in Beat-the-Odds Schools. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowits, Laura; Woempner, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Researchers at Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) recently completed a study of "beat-the-odds" schools--high-needs schools that demonstrated atypically high student achievement. This policy brief draws from the report of the study's findings, "High-Needs Schools--What Does It Take to Beat the Odds?"…

  14. Association between Maternal Age and Birth Defects of Unknown Etiology - United States, 1997–2007

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Simerpal K.; Broussard, Cheryl; Devine, Owen; Green, Ridgely Fisk; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Birth defects affect 3% of babies born, and are one of the leading causes of infant mortality. Both younger and older maternal age may pose increased risks for certain birth defects. This study assessed the relationship between maternal age at the estimated delivery date and the risk for birth defects. METHODS Data were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study including mothers across 10 states. Maternal age was stratified into six categories: <20, 20 to 24, 25 to 29, 30 to 34, 35 to 39, and ≥40 years, and also analyzed as a continuous variable. Logistic regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, education, body mass index (BMI), folic acid use, smoking, gravidity, and parental age difference were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS For maternal age <20 years, associations with total anomalous pulmonary venous return (aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3–4.0), amniotic band sequence (aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5–3.8), and gastroschisis (aOR, 6.1; 95% CI, 4.8–8.0) were observed. For the ≥40 year age group, associations with several cardiac defects, esophageal atresia (aOR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7–4.9), hypospadias (aOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4–3.0), and craniosynostosis (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1–2.4) were observed. Results using maternal age as a continuous variable were consistent with those that used categorized maternal age. CONCLUSION Elucidating risk factors specific to women at either extreme of maternal age may offer prevention opportunities. All women should be made aware of prevention opportunities, such as folic acid supplementation, to reduce the occurrence of birth defects. PMID:22821755

  15. Younger pubertal age is associated with allergy and other atopic conditions in girls

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chi-Chen; Pajak, Ashley; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Vangeepuram, Nita; Galvez, Maida; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early menarche is linked to higher incidence of adult asthma, suggesting that earlier puberty may influence type 2 immune response characteristics of allergic diseases. We examined the hypothesis that timing of breast and pubic hair development, which precede menarche, is associated with increased childhood atopic conditions. Methods Girls were enrolled at 6–8 yr of age (2004–2007) in the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program Puberty Study and were followed through 2011. Pubertal stages were assessed and atopic conditions were queried annually. Associations of age at pubertal stage 2 for breast or pubic hair development with atopic conditions were assessed using prevalence ratios (PR) or odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from log-binomial regression and generalized estimating equation models, controlling for body mass index and other covariates. A total of 1055 girls with medical and pubertal stage data were included. Results Asthma (ever vs. never) was associated with younger pubarche (≤10 vs. >10 yr, PR = 1.15, CI: 1.04–1.28 adjusted for race/ethnicity and site; PR = 1.13, CI: 1.01–1.25 further adjusted for BMI), but not thelarche. In longitudinal models, risk of developing allergies increased with younger age at pubarche (adjusted OR = 1.60, CI: 1.10–2.34; ≤10 vs. >10 yr). Risks were highest among black girls with earlier pubarche (n = 248/326); for allergies, their fully adjusted OR was 2.35, CI: 1.06–5.19 for pubarche ≤10 vs. >10 yr. Conclusions Atopic conditions during childhood are associated with younger age at pubarche, independent of obesity, and these relationships may vary by racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25387609

  16. Odd-Mode Surface Plasmon Polaritons Supported by Complementary Plasmonic Metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xi; Zhou, Liang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), either on metal-dielectric interfaces in optical frequencies or on structured metal surfaces in the lower frequencies, are dominantly even modes. Here we discover dominant odd-mode SPPs on a complementary plasmonic metamaterial, which is constructed by complementary symmetric grooves. We show that the fundamental SPP mode on such a plasmonic metamaterial is a tightly confined odd mode, whose dispersion curve can be tuned by the shape of groove. According to the electric field distributions of odd-mode SPPs, we propose a high-efficiency transducer using asymmetric coplanar waveguide and slot line to excite the odd-mode SPPs. Numerical simulations and experimental results validate the high-efficiency excitation and excellent propagation performance of odd-mode SPPs on the complementary plasmonic waveguides in the microwave frequencies. PMID:25783166

  17. Even-odd staggering of the spectroscopic factor as new evidence for α clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Baran, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We evidence a staggering effect of the experimental spectroscopic factors corresponding to even-even and odd-mass (odd-mass and odd-odd) α emitters. The comparison to the theoretical estimate within the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) approach reveals a similar staggering, but with a different behavior. It turns out that the ratio between corresponding experimental and theoretical spectroscopic factors is proportional to the experimental reduced decay width. A similar dependence was found in a previous work between the strength of the quadrupole-quadrupole α -core interaction, describing the α -decay fine structure and the reduced width. Thus, the even-odd staggering effect in the spectroscopic factor is a new evidence of the α -clustering phenomenon in medium and heavy nuclei.

  18. Deformed ODD-ODD nuclei: Matrix elements for the residual n-p interaction and patterns of alternating perturbations in level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Kvasil, J.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL )

    1989-09-01

    The application of a simple semi-empirical model is discussed in terms of interpreting experimental nuclear structure data for twelve of the best characterized odd-odd deformed nuclei. An essential part of this modeling is to calculate values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and Newby shifts, the observables that arise from the n-p residual interaction in odd-odd nuclei. Assumptions regarding the form for this n-p force are traced historically. The predictive power of a favored form of the n-p force, one that includes a central force with short and long-range components, a tensor force, and some effects of core polarization, is examined in light of experimental data obtained since its formulation. A data set of 42 experimentally determined Newby shifts has been reviewed as to the reliability of each entry. Exceptions to a recently proposed rule for the a priori determination of the sign of Newby shift are discussed. Evidence is presented for the existence of an odd-even staggering or signature effect in the rotational spacings of many K{sup {minus}} bands (with K > 0). By use of Coriolis-coupling calculations, it has been possible to reproduce the staggering observed in some of the K{sup {minus}} rotational bands of {sup 156}Tb, {sup 168}Tm, {sup 176}Lu, {sup 182}Ta, and {sup 182}Re. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26502205

  20. Low infant mortality among Palestine refugees despite the odds

    PubMed Central

    Khader, Ali; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present data from a 2008 infant mortality survey conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank and analyse infant mortality trends among Palestine refugees in 1995–2005. Methods Following the preceding birth technique, mothers who were registering a new birth were asked if the preceding child was alive or dead, the day the child was born and the date of birth of the neonate whose birth was being registered. From this information, neonatal, infant and early child mortality rates were estimated. The age at death for early child mortality was determined by the mean interval between successive births and the mean age of neonates at registration. Findings In 2005–2006, infant mortality among Palestine refugees ranged from 28 deaths per 100 000 live births in the Syrian Arab Republic to 19 in Lebanon. Thus, infant mortality in Palestine refugees is among the lowest in the Near East. However, infant mortality has stopped decreasing in recent years, although it remains at a level compatible with the attainment of Millennium Development Goal 4. Conclusion Largely owing to the primary health care provided by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) for Palestine Refugees in the Near East and other entities, infant mortality among Palestine refugees had consistently decreased. However, it is no longer dropping. Measures to address the most likely reasons – early marriage and childbearing, poor socioeconomic conditions and limited access to good perinatal care – are needed. PMID:21479095

  1. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  2. Events in Early Life are Associated with Female Reproductive Ageing: A UK Biobank Study.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Katherine S; Perry, John R B; Henley, William E; Melzer, David; Weedon, Michael N; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The available oocyte pool is determined before birth, with the majority of oocytes lost before puberty. We hypothesised that events occurring before birth, in childhood or in adolescence ('early-life risk factors') could influence the size of the oocyte pool and thus the timing of menopause. We included cross-sectional data from 273,474 women from the UK Biobank, recruited in 2006-2010 from across the UK. We analysed the association of early menopause with events occurring before adulthood in 11,781 cases (menopause aged under 45) and 173,641 controls (menopause/pre-menopausal at ≥45 years), in models controlling for potential confounding variables. Being part of a multiple birth was strongly associated with early menopause (odds ratio = 1.42, confidence interval: 1.11, 1.82, P = 8.0 × 10(-9), fully-adjusted model). Earlier age at menarche (odds ratio = 1.03, confidence interval: 1.01, 1.06, P = 2.5 × 10(-6)) and earlier year of birth were also associated with EM (odds ratio = 1.02, confidence interval: 1.00, 1.04, P = 8.0 × 10(-6)). We also confirmed previously reported associations with smoking, drinking alcohol, educational level and number of births. We identified an association between multiple births and early menopause, which connects events pre-birth, when the oocyte pool is formed, with reproductive ageing in later life. PMID:27094806

  3. Events in Early Life are Associated with Female Reproductive Ageing: A UK Biobank Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Perry, John R. B.; Henley, William E.; Melzer, David; Weedon, Michael N.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The available oocyte pool is determined before birth, with the majority of oocytes lost before puberty. We hypothesised that events occurring before birth, in childhood or in adolescence (‘early-life risk factors’) could influence the size of the oocyte pool and thus the timing of menopause. We included cross-sectional data from 273,474 women from the UK Biobank, recruited in 2006–2010 from across the UK. We analysed the association of early menopause with events occurring before adulthood in 11,781 cases (menopause aged under 45) and 173,641 controls (menopause/pre-menopausal at ≥45 years), in models controlling for potential confounding variables. Being part of a multiple birth was strongly associated with early menopause (odds ratio = 1.42, confidence interval: 1.11, 1.82, P = 8.0 × 10−9, fully-adjusted model). Earlier age at menarche (odds ratio = 1.03, confidence interval: 1.01, 1.06, P = 2.5 × 10−6) and earlier year of birth were also associated with EM (odds ratio = 1.02, confidence interval: 1.00, 1.04, P = 8.0 × 10−6). We also confirmed previously reported associations with smoking, drinking alcohol, educational level and number of births. We identified an association between multiple births and early menopause, which connects events pre-birth, when the oocyte pool is formed, with reproductive ageing in later life. PMID:27094806

  4. Association between vitamin D status and age-related macular degeneration by genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Meyers, Kristin J; Liu, Zhe; Engelman, Corinne D; Wallace, Robert B; LeBlanc, Erin S; Tinker, Lesley F.; Iyengar, Sudha K; Robinson, Jennifer; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    Importance Deficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with increased odds of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Objective We examined 1) whether this association is modified by genetic risk for AMD and 2) if there is an association between AMD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in vitamin D transport, metabolism and genomic function. Design, Setting and Participants Women were postmenopausal and participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS) (54 to <75 years) with available serum 25(OH)D concentrations (assessed from 1994–1998), genetic data, and measures of AMD (n=142) assessed at CAREDS baseline from 2001–2004 (n=913). Main Outcomes and Measures Prevalent early or late AMD was determined from graded, stereoscopic fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AMD by the joint effects of 25(OH)D (<30, ≥30 to <50, ≥50 to <75, and ≥75 nmol/L) and risk genotype (noncarrier, one, or two risk alleles). The referent group was noncarriers with adequate vitamin D status (≥75 nmol/L). Joint effect ORs were adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, self-reported cardiovascular disease, self-reported diabetes status, and hormone use. Additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed using the Synergy Index (SI) and an interaction term, respectively. Results We observed a 6.7-fold increased odds of AMD (95% CI=1.6, 28.2) among women with deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D<30 nmol/L) and two risk alleles for complement factor H (CFH) Y402H (SI for additive interaction=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7; p for multiplicative interaction=0.25,. A significant additive (SI=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7) and multiplicative interaction (p=0.02) was observed for deficient women with two high risk complement factor I (CFI) (rs10033900) alleles (OR=6.3, 95% CI=1.6, 24.2). The odds of AMD did not differ by genotype of candidate

  5. The Association Between Filial Piety and Suicidal Ideation: Findings From a Community-Dwelling Chinese Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruijia; Chang, E-Shien; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Suicidal ideation is a public health issue that has a significant impact at the individual, family, community, and societal levels. This study aimed to examine the association between filial piety and suicidal ideation among U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area were interviewed in person between 2011 and 2013. Independent variables were expectations and receipt of filial piety from the older adult’s perspective. Dependent variables were suicidal ideation in the last 2 weeks and last 12 months. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Of the 3,159 participants interviewed, 58.9% were female and the mean age was 72.8 years. After adjusting for age, sex, education, income, medical comorbidities, and depressive symptoms, lower receipt of filial piety was associated with increased risk for 2-week suicidal ideation (odds ratio: 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.11) and 12-month suicidal ideation (odds ratio: 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.11). The lowest tertiles of filial piety receipt was associated with greater risk for 2-week suicidal ideation (odds ratio: 1.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.12–3.38) and 12-month suicidal ideation (odds ratio: 2.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.35–3.48). However, no statistically significant associations were found between overall filial piety expectations and suicidal ideation in the last 2 weeks or in the last 12 months. Discussion. This study suggests that filial piety receipt is an important risk factor for suicidal ideation among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future longitudinal studies are needed to quantify the temporal association between filial piety and suicidal ideation. PMID:25378454

  6. Effect of age on survival and causes of death after primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

    PubMed

    Fauchier, Laurent; Marijon, Eloi; Defaye, Pascal; Piot, Olivier; Sadoul, Nicolas; Perier, Marie-Cecile; Gras, Daniel; Klug, Didier; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Bordachar, Pierre; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Leclercq, Christophe; Babuty, Dominique; Boveda, Serge

    2015-05-15

    The benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) remains controversial in elderly patients and may be attenuated by a greater risk of nonarrhythmic death. We examined the effect of age on outcomes after prophylactic ICD implantation. All patients with coronary artery disease or dilated cardiomyopathy implanted with an ICD for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in 12 French medical centers were included in a retrospective observational study. The 5,534 ICD recipients were divided according to age: 18 to 59 years (n = 2,139), 60 to 74 years (n = 2,693), and ≥75 years (n = 702). Greater prevalences of coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation at the time of implant were observed with increasing age (both p <0.0001). During a mean follow-up of 3.1 ± 2.0 years, the annual mortality rate increased with age: 3.1% per year for age 18 to 59 years, 5.7% per year for age 60 to 74 years, and 7.5% per year for age ≥75 years (p <0.001). Older age was independently associated with a greater risk of death (adjusted odds ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.80 for age 60 to 74 years; and adjusted odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.22 for age >75 years). Proportions of cardiac deaths (55.2%, 57.6%, and 57.0%, p = 0.84), including ICD-unresponsive sudden death (9.9%, 6.0%, and 10.6%, p = 0.08), and rates of appropriate ICD therapies were similar in the 3 age groups. Older age was independently associated with a higher rate of early complications and a lower rate of inappropriate therapies. In conclusion, older patients exhibited higher global mortality after ICD implantation for primary prevention, whereas rates of sudden deaths and of appropriate device therapies were similar across age groups. PMID:25784518

  7. School mobility and school-age children's social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dupere, Veronique; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Anderson, Sara

    2015-02-01

    This study explored how nonpromotional school changes, a potentially major event for children, were associated with 3 forms of social maladjustment: isolation/withdrawal, affiliation with maladjusted peers, and aggression toward peers. Given that school mobility frequently co-occurs with family transitions, the moderating role of these transitions was investigated. These issues were examined in 2 longitudinal samples of U.S. (N = 1,364) and Canadian (N = 1,447) elementary school children. Propensity weighted analyses controlling for premobility individual, family, and friends' characteristics indicated that children who experienced both school and family transitions were at risk of either social withdrawal (in the Canadian sample) or affiliation with socially maladjusted peers (in the U.S. sample). These findings suggest the importance of considering both the social consequences of school mobility and the context in which such mobility occurs. PMID:25485607

  8. An Investigation of Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Carotid Plaque Presence and Intima Media Thickness in Middle-Aged South Asian and European Men Living in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Nazim; Purves, David; Deans, Kevin A.; Logan, Greig; McConnachie, Alex; Wilson, John; Gill, Jason M. R.; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Ultrasound studies of carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and plaques are limited in South Asians, a group at elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We determined whether South Asians have a difference in these ultrasound markers compared to Europeans living in the United Kingdom and whether measured risk factor(s) could account for any such differences. Methods One hundred South Asian men, aged 40 to 70 years and 100 European men of similar age and BMI, without diagnosed CVD or diabetes, underwent carotid ultrasound for measurement of cIMT and carotid plaque presence. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometry and blood pressure were assessed, fasted blood taken for measurement of cardiometabolic risk factors and demographic and lifestyle factors recorded. Results Age-adjusted mean (SD) cIMT was similar in South Asians and Europeans (0.64 (0.16) mm v 0.65 (0.12) mm, p = 0.64). Plaque was present in 48 South Asians and 37 Europeans and overall, there was no age-adjusted difference between South Asian and Europeans for plaque score(odds ratio 1.49, 95% CI, 0.86-2.80, p = 0.16), however, South Asians appeared to have more plaques at a younger age than Europeans; at age 40-50 years the odds of South Asians having plaques was 2.63 (95% CI, 1.16-5.93) times that for Europeans. Conclusions cIMT is similar between healthy South Asian and European men. Whilst there was no overall difference in plaque presence in South Asians, there is an indication of greater plaque prevalence at younger ages - an observation requiring further investigation. Prospective studies linking plaques to CVD outcomes in South Asians are needed to investigate whether these measures help improve CVD risk prediction. PMID:25884221

  9. Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, Anabella; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Giubega, Georgiana; Visan, Iuliana

    2016-03-01

    The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z) with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A), of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in <ν>(TKE) is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f), the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.

  10. Serum carboxymethyllysine, an advanced glycation end product, and age-related macular degeneration: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Cotch, Mary Frances; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiríksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B; Sun, Kai; Klein, Ronald; Jonasson, Fridbert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schaumberg, Debra A

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Advanced glycation end products have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between serum carboxymethyllysine (CML), a major circulating advanced glycation end product, and AMD in older adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of 4907 older adults (aged ≥66 years) in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study in Iceland. EXPOSURES Serum CML and risk factors for AMD. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Early or late AMD, assessed through fundus images taken through dilated pupils using a 45° digital camera and grading for drusen size, type, area, increased retinal pigment, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation, neovascular lesions, and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. RESULTS Of the 4907 participants, 1025 (20.9%) had early AMD and 276 (5.6%) had late AMD. Mean (SD) serum CML concentrations among adults with no AMD, early AMD, and late AMD (exudative AMD and pure geographic atrophy) were 618.8 (195.5), 634.2 (206.4), and 638.4 (192.0) ng/mL, respectively (to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 0.00489; P = .07). Log serum CML (per 1-SD increase) was not associated with any AMD (early and late AMD) (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.04; P = .44) or with late AMD (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.82-1.08; P = .36) in respective multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and renal function. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Higher serum CML concentration had no significant cross-sectional association with prevalent AMD in this large population-based cohort of older adults in Iceland. PMID:24481410

  11. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  12. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  13. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  14. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  15. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E

    2016-06-24

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present. PMID:27391743

  16. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  17. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M.; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Rossi, E.

    2016-06-01

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s -wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.

  18. Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-07-01

    Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary. PMID:26231012

  19. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  20. Home drowning among preschool age Mexican children.

    PubMed Central

    Celis, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of drowning by different bodies of water in and near the home for children aged 1 to 4 years. SETTING: The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: A population case-control study. Cases (n=33) were children 1 to 4 years old who drowned at their home; controls (n=200) were a random sample of the general population. RESULTS: The risk of drowning for children whose parents reported having a water well at home was almost seven times that of children in homes without a water well (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2 to 20.5). Risk ratio estimates for other bodies of water were: swimming pools (OR=5.8, 95% CI=0.9 to 37.5), water barrel (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0 to 5.6), underground cistern (OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 5.2), and a basin front (courtyard pool to store water) of 35 or more litres (OR=1.8, 95% CI=0.8 to 4.4). CONCLUSION: Drowning at home is frequent in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, but the causes are different from those reported in developed countries. Accordingly, the preventive strategies must also be different. Images PMID:9493619

  1. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition. PMID:12949379

  2. Chronic Anticholinergic Use and the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xueya; Campbell, Noll; Khan, Babar; Callahan, Chris; Boustani, Malaz

    2012-01-01

    Background Older Americans are facing an epidemic of chronic diseases and are thus exposed to anticholinergics (AC) that might negatively affect their risk of developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Objective Investigate the association between impairment in cognitive function and previous AC exposure. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Primary care clinics in Indianapolis, Indiana. Participants 3690 older adults who have undergone cognitive assessment and had a one-year medication dispensing record. Outcome Cognitive function was measured in two sequential steps; a two-step screening process followed by a formal diagnostic process for participants with positive screening results. Exposure Three patterns of AC exposure were defined by the duration of AC exposure, the number of AC medications dispensed at the same time, and the severity of AC effects as determined by the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden List. Results In comparison to older adults with no anticholinergic exposure and after adjusting for age, race, gender, and underlying comorbidity, the odds ratio (OR) for having a diagnosis of MCI was 2.73 (95% confidence interval, CI; 1.27, 5.87) among older adults who were exposed to at least three possible anticholinergic for at least 90 days; and the OR for having dementia was 0.43 (95% CI; 0.10, 1.81). Conclusion Exposure to medications with severe anticholinergic cognitive burden may be a risk factor for developing MCI. PMID:23183138

  3. Historical notes on immaturity. Part 2: surviving against the odds.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Survivors of immaturity of outstanding intelligence include Fortunio Licetus, born in 1577, and Isaac Newton, born in 1643. Reliable descriptions began appearing around 1820, and over a dozen infants were born weighing under 1000 g and before World War II, who developed normally. From 1876 to 2006, the birth weight at which half of the infants survived dropped from 2200 to 600 g. Statistics depended on how abortion, stillbirth and live birth were defined, which differed greatly from country to country. WHO definitions in 1993 required the registration of all infants weighing 500 g (22 complete weeks) or above. This definition was not universally adopted, resulting in considerable underreporting. Many medical societies issued ethical recommendations concerning the obligatory or optional treatment of immature infants. The "window", at which treatment is optional has been set at 22-23 weeks (Japan, Germany), 23-24 weeks (UK, USA, Canada), or 24-26 weeks (France, Netherlands, Switzerland). Instead of assessing an infant's individual prognosis, and ignoring its gender, co-morbidities, and particular cause of premature delivery, these rules frequently relied on gestational age alone to initiate or withhold life support. PMID:21726179

  4. Modification of breast cancer risk according to age and menopausal status: A combined analysis of five population-based case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L.; Hampton, John M.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Nelson, Heidi D.; Titus, Linda J.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Remington, Patrick L.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While several risk factors for breast cancer have been identified, studies have not consistently shown whether these factors operate more strongly at certain ages or for just pre- or postmenopausal women. We evaluated whether risk factors for breast cancer differ according to age or menopausal status. Methods Data from five population-based case-control studies conducted during 1988-2008 were combined and analyzed. Cases (N=23,959) and population controls (N=28,304) completed telephone interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and tests for interaction by age and menopausal status. Results Odds ratios for first-degree family history of breast cancer were strongest for younger women—reaching two-fold elevations—but were still statistically significantly elevated by 58-69% among older women. Obesity was inversely associated with breast cancer among younger women and positively associated with risk for older women (interaction P<0.0001). Recent alcohol intake was more strongly related to breast cancer risk among older women, although consumption of 3 or more drinks/day among younger women also was associated with elevated odd ratios (P<0.0001). Associations with benign breast disease and most reproductive/menstrual factors did not vary by age. Repeating analysis stratifying by menopausal status produced similar results. Conclusions With few exceptions, menstrual and lifestyle factors are associated with breast cancer risk regardless of age or menopausal status. Variation in the association of family history, obesity, and alcohol use with breast cancer risk by age and menopausal status may need to be considered when determining individual risk for breast cancer. PMID:24647890

  5. Sustainable Odds: Towards Quantitative Decision Support when Relevant Probabilities are not Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is, at present, no attractive foundation for quantitative probabilistic decision support in the face of model inadequacy, or given ambiguity (deep uncertainty) regarding the relative likelihood of various outcomes, known or unknown. True model error arguably precludes the extraction of objective probabilities from an ensemble of model runs drawn from an available (inadequate) model class, while the acknowledgement of incomplete understanding precludes the justified use of (if not the very formation of) an individual's subjective probabilities. An alternative approach based on Sustainable Odds is proposed and investigated. Sustainable Odds differ from "fair odds" (and are easily distinguished any claim which implying well defined probabilities) as the probabilities implied by sustainable odds summed over all outcomes is expected to exceed one. Traditionally, a person's fair odds are found by identifying the probability level at which one would happily accept either side of a bet, thus the probabilities implied by fair odds always sum to one. Knowing that one has incomplete information and perhaps even erroneous beliefs, there is no compelling reason a rational agent should accept the constraint implied by "fair odds" in any bet. Rather, a rational agent might insist on longer odds both on the event and against the event in order to account for acknowledged ignorance. Let probabilistic odds imply any set of odds for which the implied probabilities sum to one; once model error is acknowledged can one rationally demand non-probabilistic odds? The danger of using fair odds (or probabilities) in decision making is illustrated by considering the risk of ruin a cooperative insurance scheme using probabilistic odds is exposed to. Cases where knowing merely that the insurer's model is imperfect, and nothing else, is sufficient to place bets which drive the insurer to an unexpectedly early ruin are presented. Methodologies which allow the insurer to avoid this early

  6. The Popularization of Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1979-01-01

    Books, magazines, and newspapers for the general public have discovered middle age and, in spite of an exaggeration of mid-life crisis, provide adults with a broader perspective on mid-life adjustments. (SK)

  7. Moderating Effect of Age on the Association between Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk in MSM: Evidence for Elevated Risk among Younger MSM

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS in the United States. Alcohol use is frequently studied as a predictor of sexual risk in MSM, but findings for this association have been mixed. Developmental differences in this effect may help to explain equivocal findings. 143 MSM (analytic sample 137) ages 16–40 completed weekly diaries of sexual encounters and associated situational factors for 12 weeks. Analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Alcohol use before sex was not associated with sexual risk across all participants. Participant age moderated this effect; alcohol use before sex was associated with increased odds of sexual risk in younger MSM only. These analyses expand on previous findings by utilizing a wider age range than most prior studies and adjusting for the effects of several theoretically-selected covariates. Young MSM are an important group to target for addressing alcohol use in the context of sexual behavior. PMID:23553348

  8. Lipid Adjustment for Chemical Exposures: Accounting for Concomitant Variables

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daniel; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Some environmental chemical exposures are lipophilic and need to be adjusted by serum lipid levels before data analyses. There are currently various strategies that attempt to account for this problem, but all have their drawbacks. To address such concerns, we propose a new method that uses Box-Cox transformations and a simple Bayesian hierarchical model to adjust for lipophilic chemical exposures. Methods We compared our Box-Cox method to existing methods. We ran simulation studies in which increasing levels of lipid-adjusted chemical exposure did and did not increase the odds of having a disease, and we looked at both single-exposure and multiple-exposures cases. We also analyzed an epidemiology dataset that examined the effects of various chemical exposures on the risk of birth defects. Results Compared with existing methods, our Box-Cox method produced unbiased estimates, good coverage, similar power, and lower type-I error rates. This was the case in both single- and multiple-exposure simulation studies. Results from analysis of the birth-defect data differed from results using existing methods. Conclusion Our Box-Cox method is a novel and intuitive way to account for the lipophilic nature of certain chemical exposures. It addresses some of the problems with existing methods, is easily extendable to multiple exposures, and can be used in any analyses that involve concomitant variables. PMID:24051893

  9. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  10. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  11. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rueter, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families. Adolescents in these families were, on average, 16 years of age. The results supported our hypothesis. Adopted adolescents were at significantly greater risk for adjustment problems compared to nonadopted adolescents in families that emphasized conformity orientation without conversation orientation and in families that emphasized neither conformity nor conversation orientation. Adolescents in families emphasizing conversation orientation were at lower risk for adjustment problems, regardless of adoption status. PMID:19649145

  12. The role of positive cognitions in Egyptian elders' relocation adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir K; Fouad, Rasha; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2011-02-01

    Relocation is a major life event for elders and it has been found to adversely affect their adjustment. Resilience theory suggests that adverse effects can be minimized if elders have positive cognitions. In addition, research has shown that positive cognitions are related to independence and healthy, productive lifestyles in older adults. Yet no studies have determined whether the relationship between relocation and adjustment is mediated or moderated by positive cognitions. This study examined these relationships in a sample of 94 cognitively intact elders (aged 60+ years) who had relocated to retirement communities in Alexandria, Egypt. Results showed that relocation controllability had direct effects on positive cognitions and on relocation adjustment. Positive cognitions had a moderating and a partial mediating effect on the relationship between relocation controllability and relocation adjustment. These findings suggest that it is imperative to develop interventions to enhance positive thinking for elders facing the need to relocate. PMID:20935215

  13. Gender identity and adjustment in black, Hispanic, and white preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Corby, Brooke C; Hodges, Ernest V E; Perry, David G

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years). Relations between gender identity and adjustment varied across ethnic/racial groups, indicating that S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's model requires amendment. It is suggested that the implications of gender identity for adjustment depend on the particular meanings that a child attaches to gender (e.g., the specific attributes the child regards as desirable for each sex); these meanings may vary across and within ethnic/racial groups. Cross-ethnic/racial investigation can aid theory building by pointing to constructs that are neglected in research with a single ethnic/racial group but that are crucial components of basic developmental processes. PMID:17201524

  14. Determinants of adjustment for children of divorcing parents.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, K; Prinz, R J; Bella, B S

    1990-01-01

    Family physicians frequently see children and parents when they are adjusting to marital separation. This study examined how well child adjustment at school could be determined from an assessment of interspousal relations, maternal functioning, and child perception variables. Teachers evaluated adaptive functioning, social withdrawal, and aggressive behavior at school for a carefully selected sample of 22 boys and 24 girls (ages 7-12) whose parents had been separated for two to 18 months. Regression analyses indicated that boys' overall school adjustment was associated with better maternal parenting skills, lower child fear of abandonment, less blaming of father for the separation, and positive parental verbal attributions toward the other parent. Girls with better overall school adjustment reported less blaming of their mothers and a higher rate of positive attributions by mother about father. These findings suggest concepts family physicians can use in working with families to minimize the effect of divorce on children. PMID:2323490

  15. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  16. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W A

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  17. Changing the Odds: A North Carolina Family's Search to Help Those with TBI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...

  18. Odd-even dependence of rectifying behavior in carbon chains modified diphenyl-dimethyl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiu-Hua; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, De-Sheng; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    Using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of asymmetric nonequi-length carbon chains on the electron transport properties of diphenyl-dimethyl molecule. The results show significant odd-even dependence: the rectification appears only in the hybrid nanostructure with odd carbon chain on one side and even carbon chain on the other side, while it is negligible in those with odd/even carbon chain on both sides. The mechanism for the odd-even dependence of rectification is analyzed by the bias-dependent transmission spectra, evolution of molecular orbital levels, their spatial distributions, and projected density of states with the applied bias.

  19. Appearance of p-odd nuclear forces in photoproduction of pions on /sup 6/Li

    SciTech Connect

    Rekalo, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies P-odd effects in the photoproduction of pions on Li-6 nuclei, ..gamma.. + Li-6 ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/ + He-6. Collisions of linearly and circularly polarized photons with a polarized nuclear target are studied, and in addition both vectorial and tensorial polarization are taken into account. It is shown that in the general case P-odd effects in ..gamma.. + Li-6..--> pi../sup +/ + He-6 are characterized by 18 real structure functions, which determine different P-odd asymmetries in the angular distribution of the pions. The structure functions in their turn depend on different products of three p-even and three p-odd amplitudes of the process.

  20. Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...

  1. Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2011-10-15

    We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.

  2. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  3. A set of exactly solvable Ising models with half-odd-integer spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Onofre; de Souza, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    We present a set of exactly solvable Ising models, with half-odd-integer spin- S on a square-type lattice including a quartic interaction term in the Hamiltonian. The particular properties of the mixed lattice, associated with mixed half-odd-integer spin- (S,1/2) and only nearest-neighbor interaction, allow us to map this system either onto a purely spin-1/2 lattice or onto a purely spin- S lattice. By imposing the condition that the mixed half-odd-integer spin- (S,1/2) lattice must have an exact solution, we found a set of exact solutions that satisfy the free fermion condition of the eight vertex model. The number of solutions for a general half-odd-integer spin- S is given by S+1/2. Therefore we conclude that this transformation is equivalent to a simple spin transformation which is independent of the coordination number.

  4. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women123

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. Objective: We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. Design: We included 13,818 women from the Nurses’ Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984–1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984–1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Results: Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Conclusion: Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. PMID

  5. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Lee, Seung Bum; Jee, Donghyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45°) were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system. Results Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03–3.36) and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06–3.48), for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women. PMID:26252225

  6. Risk Adjustment and Primary Health Care in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Veronica; Wasem, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    Aim To offer a capitation formula with greater capacity for guiding resource spending on population with poorer health and lower socioeconomic status in the context of financing and equity in primary health care. Methods We collected two years of data on a sample of 10 000 individuals from a region in Chile, Valdivia and Temuco and evaluated three models to estimate utilization and expenditures per capita. The first model included age and sex; the second one included age, sex, and the presence of two key diagnoses; and the third model included age, sex, and the presence of seven key diagnoses. Regression results were evaluated by R2 and predictive ratios to select the best specifications. Results Per-capita expenditures by age and sex confirmed international trends, where children under five, women, and the elderly were the main users of primary health care services. Women sought health advice twice as much as men. Clear differences by socioeconomic status were observed for the indigent population aged ≥65 years who under-utilized primary health care services. From the three models, major improvement in the predictive power occurred from the demographic (adjusted R2, 9%) to the demographic plus two diagnoses model (adjusted R2, 27%). Improvements were modest when five other diagnoses were added (adjusted R2, 28%). Conclusion The current formula that uses municipality’s financial power and geographic location of health centers to adjust capitation payments provides little incentive to appropriate care for the indigent and people with chronic conditions. A capitation payment that adjusts for age, sex, and the presence of diabetes and hypertension will better guide resource allocation to those with poorer health and lower socioeconomic status. PMID:16758525

  7. Adjustable spacer with rotational lock

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, M.L.

    1984-02-28

    A spacing apparatus for tubing conduit in a subterranean well, normally for use with an electric component with a longitudinally extending external electrical cable, permits irrotational adjustment of the length of the tubing conduit. The spacing apparatus comprises telescoping members which are keyed to prevent rotation therebetween. A threaded member, longitudinally fixed relative to one longitudinal member, normally engages threads extending substantially along the entire length of the other telescoping member. Movement of a retaining sleeve permits disengagement of the threaded segments which ratchet along the threads during telescoping movement. The length of the conduit can thus be irrotationally adjusted to remove slack from the electrical cable.

  8. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  9. Osteoporosis, vitamin C intake, and physical activity in Korean adults aged 50 years and over

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate associations between vitamin C intake, physical activity, and osteoporosis among Korean adults aged 50 and over. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on bone mineral density measurement data from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The study sample comprised 3,047 subjects. The normal group was defined as T-score ≥ −1.0, and the osteoporosis group as T-score ≤ −2.5. The odds ratios for osteoporosis were assessed by logistic regression of each vitamin C intake quartile. [Results] Compared to the lowest quartile of vitamin C intake, the other quartiles showed a lower likelihood of osteoporosis after adjusting for age and gender. In the multi-variate model, the odds ratio for the likelihood of developing osteoporosis in the non-physical activity group significantly decreased to 0.66, 0.57, and 0.46 (p for trend = 0.0046). However, there was no significant decrease (0.98, 1.00, and 0.97) in the physical activity group. [Conclusion] Higher vitamin C intake levels were associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged over 50 with low levels of physical activity. However, no association was seen between vitamin C intake and osteoporosis risk in those with high physical activity levels. PMID:27134348

  10. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene rs11642015 polymorphism is significantly associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes subsequent to adjustment for body mass index

    PubMed Central

    HAN, LIYUAN; TANG, LINLIN; WANG, CHANGYI; CHEN, ZHONGWEI; ZHANG, TAO; CHEN, SIHAN; LIU, SHENGYUAN; PENG, XIAOLIN; MAI, YIFENG; DUAN, SHIWEI

    2014-01-01

    The association of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs11642015 polymorphism with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity in certain populations has not been previously reported. A population-based study was conducted that included 490 type 2 diabetic, 471 prediabetic and 575 normal subjects. The main outcomes of the study were prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Binary logistic regression was performed to estimate the association of FTO rs11642015 with the risk of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity following adjustment for the corresponding confounders. A meta-analysis was also conducted to evaluate the association between FTO rs11642015 and obesity. FTO rs11642015 was significantly associated with prediabetes in the whole sample under the additive model [odds ratio (OR), 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17–1.93; P=0.002], particularly in females. The polymorphism remained consistently significant following adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), showing an increased prediabetes risk with an additive effect (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.19–2.01; P=0.001). In addition, a significant association was found for rs11642015 with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes under the dominant model. However, under the stringent Bonferroni’s correction there was no evidence of positive associations for FTO rs11642015 with obesity in the whole sample, females or males. Findings of the meta-analysis showed that FTO rs11642015 was not predisposed to obesity. In conclusion, the T allele of FTO rs11642015 is positively associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, even after adjustment for age and BMI, particularly in females. Subjects carrying the CT + TT genotype are predisposed to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, results of the population-based study and follow-up meta-analysis suggested that FTO rs11642015 is not significantly associated with susceptibility to obesity. PMID:25054011

  11. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  12. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  13. Racial disparities in cord blood vitamin D levels and its association with small-for-gestational-age infants

    PubMed Central

    Seto, T L; Tabangin, M E; Langdon, G; Mangeot, C; Dawodu, A; Steinhoff, M; Narendran, V

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship of race and maternal characteristics and their association with cord blood vitamin D levels and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status. Study Design: Cord blood vitamin D levels were measured in 438 infants (276 black and 162 white). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between maternal characteristics, vitamin D status and SGA. Results: Black race, Medicaid status, mean body mass index at delivery and lack of prenatal vitamin use were associated with vitamin D deficiency. Black infants had 3.6 greater adjusted odds (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4, 5.6) of vitamin D deficiency when compared with white infants. Black infants with vitamin D deficiency had 2.4 greater adjusted odds (95% CI: 1.0, 5.8) of SGA. Vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with SGA in white infants. Conclusion: Identification of risk factors (black race, Medicaid status, obesity and lack of prenatal vitamin use) can lead to opportunities for targeted prenatal vitamin supplementation to reduce the risk of neonatal vitamin D deficiency and SGA status. PMID:27101387

  14. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  15. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-09-15

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  16. Associations of Cannabis and Cigarette Use with Depression and Anxiety at Age 18: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Suzanne H.; Hickman, Matthew; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus R.; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Zammit, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substance use is associated with common mental health disorders, but the causal effect of specific substances is uncertain. We investigate whether adolescent cannabis and cigarette use is associated with incident depression and anxiety, while attempting to account for confounding and reverse causation. Methods We used data from ALSPAC, a UK birth cohort study, to investigate associations between cannabis or cigarettes (measured at age 16) and depression or anxiety (measured at age 18), before and after adjustment for pre-birth, childhood and adolescent confounders. Our imputed sample size was 4561 participants. Results Both cannabis (unadjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.26, 1.80) and cigarette use (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16, 1.61) increased the odds of developing depression. Adjustment for pre-birth and childhood confounders partly attenuated these relationships though strong evidence of association persisted for cannabis use. There was weak evidence of association for cannabis (fully adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.98, 1.72) and insufficient evidence for association for cigarette use (fully adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.75, 1.24) after mutually adjusting for each other, or for alcohol or other substance use. Neither cannabis nor cigarette use were associated with anxiety after adjustment for pre-birth and childhood confounders. Conclusions Whilst evidence of association between cannabis use and depression persisted after adjusting for pre-term and childhood confounders, our results highlight the difficulties in trying to estimate and interpret independent effects of cannabis and tobacco on psychopathology. Complementary methods are required to robustly examine effects of cannabis and tobacco on psychopathology. PMID:25875443

  17. 50 CFR 622.281 - Adjustment of management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.281 Adjustment of management measures. In accordance with the framework procedures of the FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery off the Atlantic States... Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Biomass levels, age-structured analyses,...

  18. 50 CFR 622.281 - Adjustment of management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.281 Adjustment of management measures. In accordance with the framework procedures of the FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery off the Atlantic States... Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Biomass levels, age-structured analyses,...

  19. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  20. Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Parental Reflective Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbassat, Naomi; Priel, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Reflective function (RF) is the capacity to reflect on one's own mental experiences and those of others. This study examined the relationship between parental RF and adolescent adjustment. One hundred and five adolescents, aged 14-18, and their mothers and fathers were interviewed and completed questionnaires during home visits. We measured…

  1. The Structural Adjustment Programme and the Elderly in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpenyong, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of recent economic changes accompanying the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) and ongoing cultural styles on the aged in Nigeria. Compared to younger generations, the relative position of the elderly has not changed significantly, although the latter's position has deteriorated on dimensions such as…

  2. Cultural Orientations, Daily Activities, and Adjustment in Mexican American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The links between youth's daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-age siblings' cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for…

  3. Social and Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Canadian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…

  4. Relationship between Levels of Giftedness and Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Antony D.; Ramsay, Shula G.; Martray, Carl R.; Roberts, Julia L.

    1999-01-01

    A study compared two groups of gifted adolescents, highly (n=74) and moderately (N=163) gifted, on self-concept, emotional autonomy, and anxiety. Results indicated no significant differences on self-concept and adjustment. Age correlated with emotional stability and parent relationships. Girls outscored boys on measures of honesty and…

  5. 50 CFR 622.210 - Adjustment of management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.210 Adjustment of management measures. In accordance with the framework procedures of the FMP for the Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region, the... shrimp. (a) Biomass levels, age-structured analyses, BRD certification criteria, BRD specifications,...

  6. 50 CFR 622.194 - Adjustment of management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.194 Adjustment of management measures. In accordance with the framework procedures of the FMP for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South... section for South Atlantic snapper-grouper and wreckfish. (a) Biomass levels, age-structured...

  7. The School Adjustment of Post-Meningitic Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, John E.

    To study the school adjustment of children known to have had prolonged high fevers, 25 elementary school students who had had acute bacterial meningitis were matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic levels with peers from their same classroom. The nature and extent of school problems and educational handicaps of the post-meningitic children examined…

  8. Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linn, Shai; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II. PMID:23894427

  9. Maternal complement C1q and increased odds for psychosis in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Severance, Emily G.; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Buka, Stephen L.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maternal antibodies to food and infectious antigens may confer an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis in adult offspring. Complement factor C1q is an immune molecule with multiple functions including clearance of antigen-antibody complexes from circulation and mediation of synaptic pruning during fetal brain development. To determine if maternal C1q was associated with offspring schizophrenia and psychosis, we evaluated 55 matched case-control maternal serum pairs from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Sample pairs were composed of mothers whose offspring developed psychoses as adults and those whose offspring were free from psychiatric disease. Matching criteria for offspring included birth date, delivery hospital, race and gender, with further matching based on mother’s age. IgG markers of C1q, bovine milk casein, egg ovalbumin and wheat gluten were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. C1q levels were compared to food antigen IgG and to previously generated data for C-reactive protein, adenovirus, herpes simplex viruses, influenza viruses, measles virus and Toxoplasma gondii. C1q was significantly elevated in case mothers with odds ratios of 2.66–6.31 (conditional logistic regressions, p≤0.008–0.05). In case mothers only, C1q was significantly correlated with antibodies to both food and infectious antigens: gluten (R2=0.26, p≤0.004), herpes simplex virus type 2 (R2=0.21, p≤0.02), adenovirus (R2=0.25, p≤0.006). In conclusion, exposure to maternal C1q activity during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and psychosis in offspring. Prenatal measurement of maternal C1q may be an important and convergent screening tool to identify potentially deleterious immune activation from multiple sources. PMID:25195065

  10. Visual adjustments to temporal blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilson, Aaron C.; Mizokami, Yoko; Webster, Michael A.

    2005-10-01

    After observers have adapted to an edge that is spatially blurred or sharpened, a focused edge appears too sharp or blurred, respectively. These adjustments to blur may play an important role in calibrating spatial sensitivity. We examined whether similar adjustments influence the perception of temporal edges, by measuring the appearance of a step change in the luminance of a uniform field after adapting to blurred or sharpened transitions. Stimuli were square-wave alternations (at 1 to 8 Hz) filtered by changing the slope of the amplitude spectrum. A two-alternative-forced-choice task was used to adjust the slope until it appeared as a step change, or until it matched the perceived transitions in a reference stimulus. Observers could accurately set the waveform to a square wave, but only at the slower alternation rates. However, these settings were strongly biased by prior adaptation to filtered stimuli, or when the stimuli were viewed within temporally filtered surrounds. Control experiments suggest that the latter induction effects result directly from the temporal blur and are not simply a consequence of brightness induction in the fields. These results suggest that adaptation and induction adjust visual coding so that images are focused not only in space but also in time.

  11. Self-Adjusting Fluency Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Presents a rationale and methodology for a self-adjusting "fluency sensitive" approach to working with children who exhibit overt speech-fluency interruptions and a minimal amount of avoidance behavior. The approach emphasizes repeated experiences of volitional increases and decreases in loudness and pauses. Case examples demonstrate how several…

  12. Adjustable Walker for the Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Front legs adjust at touch of lever for use on stairs or ramps. Spring loaded legs extend when lever is depressed by user. Legs lock in position when lever is released. Lever mounted on either side of walker or on both sides, so legs operated independently.

  13. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  14. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  15. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  16. Association of Vision Loss in Glaucoma and Age-Related Macular Degeneration with IADL Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Chad; Maul, Eugenio; Chan, Emilie S.; Van Landingham, Suzanne; Ferrucci, Luigi; Friedman, David S.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if glaucoma and/or age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are associated with disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Methods. Glaucoma subjects (n = 84) with bilateral visual field (VF) loss and AMD subjects (n = 47) with bilateral or severe unilateral visual acuity (VA) loss were compared with 60 subjects with normal vision (controls). Subjects completed a standard IADL disability questionnaire, with disability defined as an inability to perform one or more IADLs unassisted. Results. Disability in one or more IADLs was present in 18.3% of controls as compared with 25.0% of glaucoma subjects (P = 0.34) and 44.7% of AMD subjects (P = 0.003). The specific IADL disabilities occurring more frequently in both AMD and glaucoma subjects were preparing meals, grocery shopping, and out-of-home travelling (P < 0.05 for both). In multivariate logistic regression models run adjusting for age, sex, mental status, comorbidity, and years of education, AMD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, P = 0.02) but not glaucoma (OR = 1.4, P = 0.45) was associated with IADL disability. However, among glaucoma and control patients, the odds of IADL disability increased 1.6-fold with every 5 dB of VF loss in the better-seeing eye (P = 0.001). Additionally, severe glaucoma subjects (better-eye MD worse than −13.5 dB) had higher odds of IADL disability (OR = 4.2, P = 0.02). Among AMD and control subjects, every Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study line of worse acuity was associated with a greater likelihood of IADL disability (OR = 1.3). Conclusions. VA loss in AMD and severe VF loss in glaucoma are associated with self-reported difficulties with IADLs. These limitations become more likely with increasing magnitude of VA or VF loss. PMID:22491415

  17. The association of host age and gender with inflammation around neurocysticercosis cysts.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, E A; Carpio, A; Bagiella, E; Leslie, D; Leon, P; Andrews, H; Hauser, W A

    2009-09-01

    The results of previous investigations indicate that age and gender may influence the strength of the human host's immune response to infection of the central nervous system with the larvae of Taenia solium. Most of the relevant research on such neurocysticercosis (NCC) has, however, been conducted on hospital-based samples in developing countries, where differential access to healthcare may bias the study results. Using data from 171 NCC patients participating in a treatment trial, the associations of patient age and gender with the presence of inflammation around NCC cysts (i.e. cysts in the transitional phase) have recently been explored, after controlling for measures of economic and geographical access to healthcare. Data on cysts were collected from computed-tomography or magnetic-resonance images taken at four time-points, from baseline to 12-months post-treatment. The odds of having transitional cysts were evaluated by logistic regression whereas Poisson regression was used to explore the numbers of transitional cysts, with generalised estimating equations (GEE) used to account for the multiple observations over time. After controlling for healthcare access, the odds of having transitional cysts were found to be 1.5-fold higher for the female patients than for the male, although this association was not statistically significant (P = 0.136). In the Poisson model, however, the number of transitional cysts was found to be 1.8-fold higher in the female patients than in the male, and this gender effect was not only statistically significant (P = 0.002) but also constant over time. The association of host age with transitional cysts was more complicated, with significant interaction between age and time. It therefore appears that there are significant gender and age differences in the local immune response to NCC, even after adjusting for differences in healthcare access. PMID:19695154

  18. Chorioamnionitis and Early Childhood Outcomes among Extremely Low-Gestational-Age Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Athina; Kendrick, Douglas E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Bell, Edward F.; Laptook, Abbott R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Das, Abhik; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    between chorioamnionitis and adverse outcomes. Still, histological+clinical chorioamnionitis was associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment as compared with no chorioamnionitis (Adjusted OR 2.4, [1.3- 4.3] without GA; Adjusted OR 2.0, [1.1-3.6] with GA as a covariate). Histological chorioamnionitis alone was associated with lower odds of death/neurodevelopmental impairment as compared with histological+clinical chorioamnionitis (Adjusted OR 0.68, [0.52-0.89] without GA; 0.66, [0.49-0.89] with GA). Risk of behavioral problems did not differ statistically between groups. Conclusions and Relevance Antenatal exposure to chorioamnionitis is associated with altered odds of cognitive impairment and death/neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely preterm infants. PMID:24378638

  19. Social-psychological adjustment to multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brooks, N A; Matson, R R

    1982-01-01

    This study employs a longitudinal design to analyze the adjustment process of 103 people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and in the middle and later stages of their illness careers. The mean age of the sample at Time 2 is 52 years, and mean duration since diagnosis is 17 years. A highly reliable self concept measure is the indicator of adjustment and changes in adjustment from T1 (1974) to T2 (1981). Four sets of variables are analyzed in their relationship to adjustment: (1) socio-demographic; (2) disease-related; (3) medical; and (4) social-psychological. Females are more likely than males to show positive adjustment (improving self concepts). Hours of employment and living arrangement are also related to the adjustment process. The vast majority of respondents show only slight decline in mobility, but among the disease related variables, number of episodes (exacerbations) in past seven years is the strongest predictor of changes in adjustment. Nearly half the respondents seek medical attention for their M.S. once a year or less, and the choice of health care professional is related to changes in the course of the disease. Subjects with an internal locus of control have more positive adjustment scores. Those who say they cope through acceptance of the disease show improvements in self concept while those reporting religion or family as major coping strategies have decreasing self concepts. Results indicate that the majority make satisfactory adjustment as indicated by maintenance of positive self concepts over the 7 year period, although the disease is chronic and progressive. For patients in the middle and later stages of illness careers, the data suggest comprehensive rehabilitation efforts that enhance autonomy and develop the social-psychological resources of the lifestyle. PMID:7157043

  20. Sex and Age Differences in the Association of Depression With Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease and Adverse Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amit J.; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Zaragoza‐Macias, Elisa; Patel, Riyaz; Eapen, Danny J.; Neeland, Ian J.; Pimple, Pratik M.; Zafari, A. Maziar; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with coronary heart disease have high rates of depression and a higher risk of adverse events than men of similar age. Whether depression has a higher prognostic value in this group than in men and older women is not known. Our objective was to assess whether depression in young women is associated with higher risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and adverse outcomes compared with similarly aged men and older women. Methods and Results We examined 3237 patients undergoing coronary angiography for evaluation of CAD and followed them for 2.9 years (median). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)‐9, and CAD burden was dichotomized based on its presence or absence. After multivariable adjustment for CAD risk factors, depressive symptoms predicted CAD presence in women aged ≤55 years (odds ratio=1.07 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.13 per 1 point increase in PHQ‐9 score), but not in men aged ≤55 years or women aged >55 years. Depressive symptoms also predicted increased risk of death in women aged ≤55 years (adjusted hazard ratio=1.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14, per 1 point increase in PHQ‐9 score), but not in men aged ≤55 years and women aged >55 years, with P=0.02 for the depression‐sex interaction and P=0.02 for depression‐sex‐age interaction. Conclusions Among patients with suspected or established CAD, depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of death, particularly in young women. This group may be especially vulnerable to the adverse cardiovascular effects of depression. PMID:24943475

  1. Association between floating toe and toe grip strength in school age children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tasaka, Seishiro; Matsubara, Keisuke; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Matsushita, Tomofumi; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the association between floating toe and toe grip strength. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 635 Japanese children aged 9–11 years participated in this study. Floating toe was evaluated using footprint images, while toe grip strength was measured using a toe grip dynamometer. All 1,270 feet were classified into a floating toe group and a normal toe group according to visual evaluation of the footprint images. Intergroup differences in toe grip strength were analyzed using the unpaired t-test and logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and Rohrer Index. [Results] There were 512 feet (40.3%) in the floating toe group. Mean toe grip strength of the feet with floating toe was significantly lower than that of normal feet (floating toe group, 12.9 ± 3.7 kg; normal toe group, 13.6 ± 4.1 kg). In addition, lower toe grip strength was associated with floating toe on logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, gender, and Rohrer Index (odds ratio, 0.954; 95% confidence interval, 0.925–0.984). [Conclusion] This study revealed that lower toe grip strength was significantly associated with floating toe. Therefore, increasing toe grip strength may play a role in preventing floating toe in school age children.

  2. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates with Low Grade Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Allison H.; Hintz, Susan R.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Walsh, Michele C.; Vohr, Betty R.; Bann, Carla M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low gestational age infants with low grade (Grade 1 or 2) periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage to infants with either no hemorrhage or severe (Grade 3 or 4) hemorrhage on cranial ultrasound. Design Longitudinal observational study Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Participants 1472 infants born at <27 weeks gestational age between 2006–2008 with ultrasound results within the first 28 days of life and surviving to 18–22 months with complete follow-up assessments were eligible. Main Exposure Low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, Bayley III cognitive and language scores, and composite measures of neurodevelopmental impairment. Regression modeling evaluated the association of hemorrhage severity with adverse outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding variables and center differences. Results Low grade hemorrhage was not associated with significant differences in unadjusted or adjusted risk of any adverse neurodevelopmental outcome compared to infants without hemorrhage. Compared with low grade hemorrhage, severe hemorrhage was associated with decrease in adjusted continuous cognitive (−3.91, [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: −6.41, −1.42]) and language (−3.19 [−6.19, −0.19]) scores as well as increased odds of each adjusted categorical outcome except severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.46 [0.74, 2.88]) and mild language impairment (OR: 1.35 [0.88, 2.06]). Conclusion At 18–22 months, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low gestational age infants with low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage are not significantly different from those without hemorrhage. PMID:23460139

  3. Stimulant Use, Religiosity, and the Odds of Developing or Maintaining an Alcohol Use Disorder Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about whether cocaine or methamphetamine use, particularly among stimulant users residing in rural areas, is associated with increased odds of developing or maintaining an alcohol use disorder (AUD) over time. One factor that may help to protect some users against the development of an AUD is religiosity. This study examined how stimulant use and religiosity are associated longitudinally with the odds of an AUD among a rural population-based cohort of stimulant users. Method: Recent stimulant users (N = 710) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and were interviewed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Concurrent and lagged generalized estimating equations analyses were conducted to estimate how past-30-day crack cocaine, powder cocaine, and methamphetamine use; religiosity; and other covariates were associated with the odds of an AUD. Results: At baseline, 56% of the participants met AUD criteria. The odds of an AUD declined significantly over time in the concurrent, but not the lagged, model. Crack cocaine use was associated with increased odds of an AUD in both models, although the strength of the concurrent association between an AUD and crack cocaine use declined over time. Powder cocaine use and more frequent church attendance also were concurrently associated with decreased odds of an AUD. Conclusions: Rural stimulant users, especially those using cocaine, could potentially benefit from treatment for both alcohol use and stimulant use. In addition, our findings suggest that greater frequency of church attendance may be related to lower odds of the development or maintenance of an AUD. PMID:23490565

  4. [Parental attitude and adjustment to childhood epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ju, S H; Chang, P F; Chen, Y J; Huang, C C; Tsai, J J

    1990-01-01

    Parental attitude and adjustment were examined in 20 epileptic children (ages 6.8-16.6 yrs), using semi-structured interview. The results indicated that parental understandings of epilepsy were generally poor and incorrect. Fifteen (75%) of 20 parents had their own interpretations of causality and 19 (95%) had unrealistic hope for early and complete cure. Parents tended to overprotect and overrestrict their children. Sixteen (80%) concealed the illness for fear of social prejudice, therefore the social support systems were generally poorly utilized. As in other chronic diseases, all parents went through feelings of shock, denial, anger, guilt, fear, anxiety and depression. Family relationships were not affected much, however, poor communications were commonly found between parents and children. Thirteen (65%) parents never talked to their children about epilepsy. We concluded that parents of epileptic children showed negative attitudes toward their children and had difficulties in their psychosocial adjustment probably related to social stigmata and misunderstanding of the illness. Therefore, communication between physician and parents in both medical and psychosocial aspects should be encouraged. PMID:2275364

  5. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  6. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  7. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  8. Cultural Adjustment and the Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    This review of the literature on cultural adjustment is divided into four sections: the nature of cultural adjustment; acculturation as a model of cultural adjustment; psychological responses to acculturation; and a model of cultural adjustment developed by the author as a result of his immigration from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland.…

  9. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  10. Age at last birth in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: pooled analysis in the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Pike, Malcolm C; Karageorgi, Stalo; Deming, Sandra L; Anderson, Kristin; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A; Cai, Hui; Cerhan, James R; Cozen, Wendy; Chen, Chu; Doherty, Jennifer; Freudenheim, Jo L; Goodman, Marc T; Hankinson, Susan E; Lacey, James V; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Lurie, Galina; Mack, Thomas; Matsuno, Rayna K; McCann, Susan; Moysich, Kirsten B; Olson, Sara H; Rastogi, Radhai; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Risch, Harvey; Robien, Kim; Schairer, Catherine; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Spurdle, Amanda B; Strom, Brian L; Thompson, Pamela J; Ursin, Giske; Webb, Penelope M; Weiss, Noel S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Hannah P; Yu, Herbert; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2012-08-15

    Childbearing at an older age has been associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer, but whether the association is independent of the number of births or other factors remains unclear. Individual-level data from 4 cohort and 13 case-control studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 8,671 cases of endometrial cancer and 16,562 controls were included in the analysis. After adjustment for known risk factors, endometrial cancer risk declined with increasing age at last birth (P(trend) < 0.0001). The pooled odds ratio per 5-year increase in age at last birth was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.90). Women who last gave birth at 40 years of age or older had a 44% decreased risk compared with women who had their last birth under the age of 25 years (95% confidence interval: 47, 66). The protective association was similar across the different age-at-diagnosis groups and for the 2 major tumor histologic subtypes (type I and type II). No effect modification was observed by body mass index, parity, or exogenous hormone use. In this large pooled analysis, late age at last birth was independently associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, and the reduced risk persisted for many years. PMID:22831825

  11. Senescence of maternal effects: aging influences egg quality and rearing capacities of a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

    2010-04-01

    Senescence could depress prenatal and postnatal capacities of mothers to invest in offspring. Longitudinal observations on the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) revealed a quadratic effect of female age on fledgling production and cohort differences in rate of reproductive decline. By swapping clutches between females of different ages, we tested whether reproductive senescence is due to decline in egg quality or capacity to care. As laying mothers aged, egg size, ulna length of 5-day-old chicks, and ulna growth of second chicks up to age 30 days declined, and as rearing mothers aged, ulna growth and cellular mediated immune response of second chicks diminished. Oddly, senescent females (>11 years) produced more fledglings when rearing offspring of middle-aged females (8-11 years) than when rearing offspring of senescent or young females. Thus, senescence reduced egg quality and rearing capacities, and reproductive success of senescent mothers depended on prenatal effects associated with the age of the laying mother. Reproductive senescence of boobies may involve constraints on resources allocated to reproduction as well as adaptive adjustment of provision and care according to offspring value, implying that negative effects of senescence on offspring survival can be ameliorated by plasticity in postlaying or postnatal care. PMID:20175680

  12. Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-02-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI 2005 score had higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio=0.86 for each 10 points; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the Mediterranean diet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

  13. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Elaine W; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A; Giles, Graham G; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Guymer, Robyn H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur may be

  14. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Elaine W.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D.; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A.; Giles, Graham G.; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Guymer, Robyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003–2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001–2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00–1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25–12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur

  15. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964

  16. Properties of the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in odd-odd {sup 184}Au

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Fang, Y.D.; Wang, H.L.; Zhou, X.H.; Guo, W.T.; Liu, M.L.; Guo, Y.X.; Lei, X.G.; De Angelis, G.; Marginean, N.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Axiotis, M.; Rusu, C.; Martinez, T.; Oshima, M.; Toh, Y.

    2004-11-01

    High-spin level structure in {sup 184}Au has been reinvestigated using the multidetector array of GASP via the {sup 159}Tb({sup 29}Si,4n{gamma}){sup 184}Au reaction at a beam energy of 140 MeV. The ground-state band and the excited {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} 2-qp band have been extended up to lower and higher spin states. An upbend has been observed in the excited band at ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{approx}0.25 MeV and is interpreted as resulting from a pair of {pi}h{sub 9/2} alignment. This low-frequency ({pi}h{sub 9/2}){sup 2} alignment is supported by the measured B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and alignment properties in neighboring odd-A nuclei. The linking transitions between the two bands and to the ground state have been established leading to a firm spin-and-parity assignment for the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in {sup 184}Au. This result provides strong evidence for the low-spin signature inversion in the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} bands of odd-odd nuclei in the A{approx}180 mass region.

  17. Is the fetoplacental ratio a differential marker of fetal growth restriction in small for gestational age infants?

    PubMed

    Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Ananth, Cande V; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gaillard, Romy; Albert, Paul S; Schomaker, Michael; McElduff, Patrick; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-04-01

    Higher placental weight relative to birthweight has been described as an adaptive mechanism to fetal hypoxia in small for gestational age (SGA) infants. However, placental weight alone may not be a good marker reflecting intrauterine growth restriction. We hypothesized that fetoplacental ratio (FPR)-the ratio between birthweight and placental weight-may serve as a good marker of SGA after adjustment for surrogates of fetal hypoxemia (maternal iron deficiency anemia, smoking and choriodecidual necrosis). We conducted a within-sibling analysis using data from the US National Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1966) of 1,803 women who delivered their first two (or more) consecutive infants at term (n = 3,494). We used variance-component fixed-effect linear regression models to explore the effect of observed time-varying factors on placental weight and conditional logistic regression to estimate the effects of the tertiles of FPRs (1st small, 2nd normal and 3rd large) on the odds of SGA infants. We found placental weights to be 15 g [95 % confidence interval (CI) 8, 23] higher and -7 g (95 % CI -13, -2) lower among women that had anemia and choriodecidual necrosis, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, newborns with a small FPR (1st-tertile ≤7) had twofold higher odds of being SGA (OR 2.0, 95 % CI 1.2, 3.5) than their siblings with a large FPR (3nd-tertile ≥9). A small FPR was associated with higher odds of SGA, suggesting that small FPR may serve as an indicator suggestive of adverse intrauterine environment. This observation may help to distinguish pathological from constitutional SGA. PMID:25630563

  18. Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both China and the West. However, little is known about the impact of age at menarche and metabolic syndrome in South Asian women, including those from low-income country, where age at menarche is also falling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age at menarche is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Bangladeshi women, who are mostly poor and have limited access to and or poor health care facilities. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was performed using 1423 women aged between 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables, including age, education, marital status, tobacco users, use of contraceptives and number of pregnancies. Results Early onset of menarche (<12 years) as compared to late onset (>13 years) was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=1.55; 95 % confidence interval =1.05-2.30). Age at onset of menarche was also inversely associated with prevalence of high triglycerides (P for trend <0.01) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P for trend = 0.01), but positively associated with prevalence of high fasting blood glucose (P for trend =0.02). However, no significant association was found between age at menarche, high blood pressure and elevated waist circumference. Conclusion Early onset of menarche might promote or trigger development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, knowledge of the history of age at onset of menarche may be critical in identifying women at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and those likely to benefit the most from early interventions. PMID:23140264

  19. Mining machine with adjustable jib

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.

    1987-05-26

    A mining machine is described having a pair of crawler tracks, a means for individually driving each of the crawler tracks, a frame mounted on the crawler tracks, an elongated jib carrying a sprocket at each end, an endless cutting chain supported on the sprockets, cutters and loading flights mounted on the endless cutting chain, and means on the frame supporting the elongated jib. The means support the elongated jib consisting of a bridge on the frame, at least one scissors linkage pivotally mounted on the bridge, and arm having a first end attached to the scissors linkage, a front plate mounted on the second end of the arm and means adjustably mounting the elongated jib on the front plate. The means adjustably mount the elongated jib on the front plate including a first means for rotating the elongated jib between a vertical position and a horizontal position.

  20. Evolutionary history of the odd-nosed monkeys and the phylogenetic position of the newly described Myanmar snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri.

    PubMed

    Liedigk, Rasmus; Yang, Mouyu; Jablonski, Nina G; Momberg, Frank; Geissmann, Thomas; Lwin, Ngwe; Hla, Tony Htin; Liu, Zhijin; Wong, Bruce; Ming, Li; Yongcheng, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Nadler, Tilo; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Odd-nosed monkeys represent one of the two major groups of Asian colobines. Our knowledge about this primate group is still limited as it is highlighted by the recent discovery of a new species in Northern Myanmar. Although a common origin of the group is now widely accepted, the phylogenetic relationships among its genera and species, and the biogeographic processes leading to their current distribution are largely unknown. To address these issues, we have analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes and 12 nuclear loci, including one X chromosomal, six Y chromosomal and five autosomal loci, from all ten odd-nosed monkey species. The gene tree topologies and divergence age estimates derived from different markers were highly similar, but differed in placing various species or haplogroups within the genera Rhinopithecus and Pygathrix. Based on our data, Rhinopithecus represent the most basal lineage, and Nasalis and Simias form closely related sister taxa, suggesting a Northern origin of odd-nosed monkeys and a later invasion into Indochina and Sundaland. According to our divergence age estimates, the lineages leading to the genera Rhinopithecus, Pygathrix and Nasalis+Simias originated in the late Miocene, while differentiation events within these genera and also the split between Nasalis and Simias occurred in the Pleistocene. Observed gene tree discordances between mitochondrial and nuclear datasets, and paraphylies in the mitochondrial dataset for some species of the genera Rhinopithecus and Pygathrix suggest secondary gene flow after the taxa initially diverged. Most likely such events were triggered by dramatic changes in geology and climate within the region. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view on odd-nosed monkey evolution and emphasizes that data from differentially inherited markers are crucial to better understand evolutionary relationships and to trace secondary gene flow. PMID:22616004

  1. Evolutionary History of the Odd-Nosed Monkeys and the Phylogenetic Position of the Newly Described Myanmar Snub-Nosed Monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri

    PubMed Central

    Liedigk, Rasmus; Yang, Mouyu; Jablonski, Nina G.; Momberg, Frank; Geissmann, Thomas; Lwin, Ngwe; Hla, Tony Htin; Liu, Zhijin; Wong, Bruce; Ming, Li; Yongcheng, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Nadler, Tilo; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Odd-nosed monkeys represent one of the two major groups of Asian colobines. Our knowledge about this primate group is still limited as it is highlighted by the recent discovery of a new species in Northern Myanmar. Although a common origin of the group is now widely accepted, the phylogenetic relationships among its genera and species, and the biogeographic processes leading to their current distribution are largely unknown. To address these issues, we have analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes and 12 nuclear loci, including one X chromosomal, six Y chromosomal and five autosomal loci, from all ten odd-nosed monkey species. The gene tree topologies and divergence age estimates derived from different markers were highly similar, but differed in placing various species or haplogroups within the genera Rhinopithecus and Pygathrix. Based on our data, Rhinopithecus represent the most basal lineage, and Nasalis and Simias form closely related sister taxa, suggesting a Northern origin of odd-nosed monkeys and a later invasion into Indochina and Sundaland. According to our divergence age estimates, the lineages leading to the genera Rhinopithecus, Pygathrix and Nasalis+Simias originated in the late Miocene, while differentiation events within these genera and also the split between Nasalis and Simias occurred in the Pleistocene. Observed gene tree discordances between mitochondrial and nuclear datasets, and paraphylies in the mitochondrial dataset for some species of the genera Rhinopithecus and Pygathrix suggest secondary gene flow after the taxa initially diverged. Most likely such events were triggered by dramatic changes in geology and climate within the region. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view on odd-nosed monkey evolution and emphasizes that data from differentially inherited markers are crucial to better understand evolutionary relationships and to trace secondary gene flow. PMID:22616004

  2. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. PMID:25938710

  3. Mexican-Origin Parents’ Work Conditions and Adolescents’ Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Mexican-origin parents’ work experiences are a distal extra-familial context for adolescents’ adjustment. This two-wave multi-informant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents’ work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents’ adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents’ psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, two-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers’ occupational self-direction on all three aspects of adolescents’ adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents’ adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents’ gender moderated the associations between fathers’ self-direction and girls’ depressive symptoms, and fathers’ experiences of discrimination and boys’ risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents’ adjustment across the transition to high school. PMID:25938710

  4. A Population-based Study of Age Inequalities in Access to Palliative Care Among Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Frederick I.; Lawson, Beverley J.; Johnston, Grace M.; Grunfeld, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Inequalities in access to palliative care programs (PCP) by age have been shown to exist in Canada and elsewhere. Few studies have been able to provide greater insight by simultaneously adjusting for multiple demographic, health service, and socio-cultural indicators. Objective To re-examine the relationship between age and registration to specialized community-based PCP programs among cancer patients and identify the multiple indicators contributing to these inequalities. Methods This retrospective, population-based study was a secondary data analysis of linked individual level information extracted from 6 administrative health databases and contextual (neighborhood level) data from provincial and census information. Subjects included all adults who died due to cancer between 1998 and 2003 living within 2 District Health Authorities in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The relationship between registration in a PCP and age was examined using hierarchical nonlinear regression modeling techniques. Identification of potential patient and ecologic contributing indicators was guided by Andersen’s conceptual model of health service utilization. Results Overall, 66% of 7511 subjects were registered with a PCP. Older subjects were significantly less likely than those <65 years of age to be registered with a PCP, in particular those aged 85 years and older (adjusted odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.5). Distance to the closest cancer center had a major impact on registration. Conclusions Age continues to be a significant predictor of PCP registration in Nova Scotia even after controlling for the confounding effects of many new demographic, health service, and ecologic indicators. PMID:19300309

  5. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65 254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years. PMID:26862123

  6. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite. PMID:17567838

  7. Flexible parametrization of generalized parton distributions: The chiral-odd sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Gary R.; Hernandez, J. Osvaldo Gonzalez; Liuti, Simonetta

    2015-06-01

    We present a physically motivated parametrization of the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions. The parametrization is an extension of our previous one in the chiral-even sector which was based on the Reggeized diquark model. While for chiral-even generalized distributions a quantitative fit with uncertainty estimation can be performed using deep inelastic scattering data, nucleon electromagnetic, axial and pseudoscalar form factors measurements, and all available deeply virtual Compton scattering data, the chiral-odd sector is far less constrained. While awaiting the analysis of measurements on pseudoscalar mesons exclusive electroproduction which are key for the extraction of chiral-odd GPDs, we worked out a connection between the chiral-even and chiral-odd reduced helicity amplitudes using parity transformations. The connection works for quark-parton models including both scalar and axial vector diquark models, and spectator models in general. This relation allows us to estimate the size of the various chiral-odd contributions and it opens the way for future quantitative fits.

  8. Odd-frequency Cooper pairs in two-band superconductors and their magnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the appearance of odd-frequency Cooper pairs in two-band superconductors by solving the Gor'kov equation analytically. We introduce the equal-time s -wave pair potentials as realized in MgB2 and iron pnictides. Although the order parameter symmetry is conventional, the band degree of freedom enriches the symmetry variety of pairing correlations. The hybridization and the asymmetry between the two conduction bands induce odd-frequency pairs as a subdominant pairing correlation in the uniform ground state. To study the magnetic response of odd-frequency Cooper pairs, we analyze the Meissner kernel represented by the Gor'kov Green function. In contrast to the even-frequency pairs linked to the pair potential, the induced odd-frequency Cooper pairs indicate a paramagnetic property. We also discuss the relation between the amplitude of the odd-frequency pairing correlation and the stability of superconducting states in terms of the self-consistent equation for the pair potential.

  9. Inter-correlation of knowledge, attitude, and osteoporosis preventive behaviors in women around the age of peak bone mass

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As silent and preventable in nature, postmenopausal osteoporosis awareness should be raised among young women prior to an irreversible period of declining bone mass. We therefore decided to assess the inter-correlation of knowledge, attitude and osteoporosis preventive behaviors in women around the age of peak bone mass. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 430 women aged 20–35 years. The participants’ knowledge, attitude and behaviors concerning osteoporosis prevention were assessed along with demographic data using a four-part questionnaire. The items in this questionnaire were established by extensive literature review, including the Guideline for Management of Osteoporosis of the Thai Osteoporosis Foundation (TOPF) 2010. The content was validated by experts in osteoporosis and reliability was obtained with a Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.83. Results The mean age of women in this study was 29.4 ± 4.6 years. Half of the participants (49.5%) had heard about osteoporosis, mostly from television (95.3%, n = 203/213) and the internet (72.8%, n = 155/213). Most women had certain knowledge (85.2%) and positive attitude towards osteoporosis (53.3%). Nevertheless, 80% of the studied population did not have appropriate osteoporosis behaviors. We found significant correlation between the level of attitudes and osteoporosis behaviors (adjusted odd ratio = 3.3 with 95% confidence interval of 1.9-5.7); attitude and educational level (adjusted odd ratio = 2.2 with 95% confidence interval of 1.4-3.4); and attitude and knowledge (adjusted odd ratio = 3.5 with 95% confidence interval of 1.8-6.8). Conclusion Despite having certain knowledge about osteoporosis, the young women did not seem to have appropriate osteoporosis preventive behaviors. Developing a right attitude towards osteoporosis may be a key determinant to improving health practices in order to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:24588970

  10. Lower risk of hypoglycaemia and greater odds for weight loss with initiation of insulin detemir compared with insulin glargine in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: local results of a multinational observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of insulin initiation with once-daily insulin detemir (IDet) or insulin glargine (IGlar) in real-life clinical practice in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods This was a 24-week multinational observational study of insulin initiation in patients with T2DM. Results The Turkish cohort (n = 2886) included 2395 patients treated with IDet and 491 with IGlar. The change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from the pre-insulin levels was -2.21% [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.32, -2.09] in the IDet group and -1.88% [95% CI -2.17, -1.59] in the IGlar group at the final visit. The incidence rate of minor hypoglycaemia increased in both groups from the pre-insulin to the final visit (+0.66 and +2.23 events per patient year in the IDet and IGlar groups, respectively). Weight change in the IDet group was -0.23 kg [95% CI -0.49, 0.02 kg], and +1.55 kg [95% CI 1.11, 2.00 kg] in the IGlar group. Regression analysis with adjustment for previously identified confounders (age, gender, duration of diabetes, body mass index, previous history of hypoglycaemia, microvascular disease, number and change in oral anti-diabetic drug therapy, HbA1c at baseline and insulin dose) identified an independent effect of insulin type (IDet versus IGlar) with a risk of at least one episode of hypoglycaemia (odds ratio (OR): 0.33 [95% CI 0.21, 0.52], p <0.0001), and weight loss ≥1 kg (OR: 1.75 [95% CI 1.18, 2.59], p = 0.005), but not on HbA1c (+0.05% [95% CI -0.15, 0.25%], p = 0.6). Conclusions Initiation of basal insulin analogues, IDet and IGlar, were associated with clinically significant glycaemic improvements. A lower risk of minor hypoglycaemia and greater odds of weight loss ≥1 kg was observed with IDet compared with IGlar. Trial registration NCT00825643 and NCT00740519 PMID:25048824

  11. Heinrich events driven by feedback between ocean forcing and glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassis, J. N.; Petersen, S. V.; Cathles, L. M. M., IV

    2015-12-01

    One of the most puzzling glaciological features of the past ice age is the episodic discharge of large volumes of icebergs from the Laurentide Ice Sheet, known as Heinrich events. It has been suggested that Heinrich events are caused by internal instabilities in the ice sheet (e.g. the binge-purge oscillation). A purely ice dynamic cycle, however, is at odds with the fact that every Heinrich event occurs during the cold phase of a DO cycle, implying some regional climate connection. Recent work has pointed to subsurface water warming as a trigger for Heinrich events through increased basal melting of an ice shelf extending across the Hudson Strait and connecting with the Greenland Ice Sheet. Such a large ice shelf, spanning the deepest part of the Labrador Sea, has no modern analog and limited proxy evidence. Here we use a width averaged "flowline" model of the Hudson Strait ice stream to show that Heinrich events can be triggered by ocean forcing of a grounded terminus without the need for an ice shelf. At maximum ice extent, bed topography is depressed and the terminus is more sensitive to a subsurface thermal forcing. Once triggered, the retreat is rapid, and continues until isostatic rebound of the bed causes local sea level to drop sufficiently to arrest retreat. Topography slowly rebounds, decreasing the sensitivity to ocean forcing and the ice stream re-advances at a rate that is an order of magnitude slower than collapse. This simple feedback cycle between a short-lived ocean trigger and slower isostatic adjustment can reproduce the periodicity and timing of observed Heinrich events under a range of glaciological and solid earth parameters. Our results suggest that not only does the solid Earth play an important role in regulating ice sheet stability, but that grounded marine terminating portions of ice sheets may be more sensitive to ocean forcing than previously thought.

  12. School-age outcomes of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Meghan; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Young, Gregory S; Hill, Monique; Phelps Hanzel, Elise; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Ozonoff, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proliferated, but few of these samples have been followed longer-term. We conducted a follow-up study, at age 5.5-9 years, of younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk group, n = 79) or typical development (low-risk group, n = 60), originally recruited as infants. Children with ASD were excluded because of the focus on understanding the range of non-ASD outcomes among high-risk siblings. Using examiner ratings, parent ratings, and standardized assessments, we evaluated differences in clinical outcomes, psychopathology symptoms, autism symptoms, language skills, and nonverbal cognitive abilities. After adjusting for covariates, the high-risk group had increased odds of any clinically elevated/impaired score across measures relative to the low-risk group (43% vs. 12%, respectively). The high-risk group also had increased odds of examiner-rated Clinical Concerns (CC) outcomes (e.g., ADHD concerns, broader autism phenotype, speech-language difficulties, anxiety/mood problems, learning problems) relative to the low-risk group (38% vs. 13%, respectively). The high-risk group with CC outcomes had higher parent-reported psychopathology and autism symptoms, and lower directly-assessed language skills, than the Low-Risk Typically Developing (TD) and High-Risk TD groups, which did not differ. There were no differences in nonverbal cognitive skills. For some in the high-risk group, clinical concerns persisted from early childhood, whereas for others clinical concerns were first evident at school-age. Results suggest continued vulnerability in at least a subgroup of school-age children with a family history of ASD and suggest that this population may benefit from continued screening and monitoring into the school-age years. Autism Res 2016, 9: 632-642. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26451968

  13. Childhood cigarette and alcohol use: Negative links with adjustment.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Maggs, Jennifer L; Cundiff, Kelsey; Evans-Polce, Rebecca J

    2016-11-01

    Children who initiate cigarette or alcohol use early-during childhood or early adolescence-experience a heightened risk of nicotine and alcohol dependence in later life as well as school failure, crime, injury, and mortality. Using prospective intergenerational data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we investigate the association between early substance use initiation (cigarettes or alcohol) and age 11 school engagement, academic achievement, and wellbeing. The ongoing MCS tracks the development of a nationally representative sample of children in the United Kingdom (born 2000-2002) from infancy through adolescence. At age 11, MCS children (n=13,221) indicated whether they had ever used cigarettes or alcohol; at age 7 and 11 they reported on school engagement and wellbeing and completed investigator-assessed tests of academic achievement. Using propensity score methods, children who had initiated cigarette or alcohol use by age 11 were matched to abstaining children with similar risks (or propensities) of early substance use, based on numerous early life risk and protective factors assessed from infancy to age 7. We then examined whether early initiators differed from non-initiators in age 11 adjustment and achievement. Results show that substance use by age 11 was uncommon (3% cigarettes; 13% alcohol). After matching for propensity for early initiation, school engagement and wellbeing were significantly lower among initiators compared to non-initiators. Academic achievement was not consistently related to early initiation. We conclude that initiation of smoking and drinking in childhood is associated with poorer adjustment. PMID:27347653

  14. Enhancement of odd nitrogen modifies mesospheric ozone chemistry during polar winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verronen, P. T.; Lehmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) enhances odd nitrogen (NOx) in the polar upper atmosphere. Model studies have reported a solar cycle response in mesospheric ozone (O3) caused by EPP-related NOx enhancements which are included by applying a vertical NOx flux at around 80 km. However, it is not clear how O3 can be affected when the main chemical catalyst of odd oxygen (Ox = O + O(1D) + O3) loss in the mesosphere is odd hydrogen (HOx). Here we use a 1-D atmospheric model and show how enhanced NOx affects mesospheric chemistry and changes HOx partitioning, which subsequently leads to increase in Ox loss through standard HOx-driven catalytic cycles. Another, smaller increase of Ox loss results from HOx storage in HNO3 during night and its release by daytime photodissociation. Our results suggest that EPP, through NOx enhancements, could have a longer-term effect on mesospheric HOx and Ox in polar winter.

  15. Odd-frequency superconductivity in a nanowire coupled to Majorana zero modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Maciejko, Joseph

    Odd-frequency superconductivity, originally proposed by Berezinskii in 1974, is an exotic phase of matter in which pairing is entirely dynamical in nature. The pair potential is an odd function of frequency, leading to a vanishing static superconducting order parameter and exotic types of pairing seemingly inconsistent with Fermi statistics, such as spin triplet (singlet) pairing in an s-wave (p-wave) superconductor. Motivated by recent experimental progress in the realization of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting nanowires, we show that a spin-polarized nanowire coupled to a one-dimensional array of Majorana zero modes becomes an odd-frequency superconductor. This work was supported by NSERC, CRC, CIFAR, and the University of Alberta.

  16. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  17. Odd Viscosity in the Quantum Critical Region of a Holographic Weyl Semimetal.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Karl; Liu, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wen

    2016-08-19

    We study odd viscosity in a holographic model of a Weyl semimetal. The model is characterized by a quantum phase transition from a topological semimetal to a trivial semimetal state. Since the model is axisymmetric in three spatial dimensions there are two independent odd viscosities. Both odd viscosity coefficients are nonvanishing in the quantum critical region and nonzero only due to the mixed axial gravitational anomaly. It is therefore a novel example in which the mixed axial gravitational anomaly gives rise to a transport coefficient at first order in derivatives at finite temperature. In the quantum critical region, the physics of viscosities as well as conductivities is governed by the quantum critical point. PMID:27588846

  18. Innovative Bimolecular-Based Advanced Logic Operations: A Prime Discriminator and An Odd Parity Checker.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-08-17

    Herein, a novel logic operation of prime discriminator is first performed for the function of identifying the prime numbers from natural numbers less than 10. The prime discriminator logic operation is developed by DNA hybridizations and the conjugation of graphene oxide and single-stranded DNA as a reacting platform. On the basis of the similar reaction principle, an odd parity checker is also developed. The odd parity checker logic operation can identify the even numbers and odd numbers from natural numbers less than 10. Such advanced logic operations with digital recognition ability can provide a new field of vision toward prototypical DNA-based logic operations and promote the development of advanced logic circuits. PMID:27459592

  19. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  20. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.